WorldWideScience

Sample records for blind persons

  1. Blavigator: a navigation aid for blind persons

    OpenAIRE

    José, João; MORENO, M; Pinilla-Dutoit, J.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Blavigator (blind navigator) is a vision aid for blind and visuaIIy impaired persons. It supports local navigation by detecting waIkable paths in the immediate vicinity of the user. It guides the user for centering on the path.

  2. Use of the Cranmer Abacus by Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Mary Anne

    Described is the use by blind persons of the Cranmer abacus, a computational device adapted from the Japanese abacus. Noted is the lack of carefully controlled research on its use. A comparison of calculation by abacus and by paper and pencil is said to indicate that the use of such mechanical devices does not give the blind competitor an undue…

  3. Literacy for Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Each person who is deaf-blind--whatever her sensory, mental, and physical abilities--deserves the opportunity to become literate in all the ways of which she is capable. Reading and writing are especially crucial for one whose world is narrowed because of vision and hearing losses. Literacy can enable such a person to exchange information and…

  4. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Blindness KidsHealth > For Kids > Blindness Print A A A ... help, are sometimes called "legally blind." What Causes Blindness? Vision problems can develop before a baby is ...

  5. Can blind persons accurately assess body size from the voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study. On the basis of vowel sounds alone, participants assessed the relative body sizes of male pairs of varying heights. Accuracy of voice-based body size assessments significantly exceeded chance and did not differ among participants who were sighted, or congenitally blind or who had lost their sight later in life. Accuracy increased significantly with relative differences in physical height between men, suggesting that both blind and sighted participants used reliable vocal cues to size (i.e. vocal tract resonances). Our findings demonstrate that prior visual experience is not necessary for accurate body size estimation. This capacity, integral to both nonverbal communication and speech perception, may be present at birth or may generalize from broader cross-modal correspondences. PMID:27095264

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.701 - Purchase of products and services from the blind and other severely handicapped persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services from the blind and other severely handicapped persons. 101-26.701 Section 101-26.701 Public... severely handicapped persons. (a) Purchases by executive agencies of products produced by workshops of the blind or other severely handicapped persons which are carried in GSA supply distribution facilities...

  7. 36 CFR 701.6 - Loans of library materials for blind and other physically handicapped persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loans of library materials... Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS PROCEDURES AND SERVICES § 701.6 Loans of library materials for blind and other physically handicapped persons. (a) Program. In connection with the Library's program of service under...

  8. Guiding a Person with Blindness and Intellectual Disability in Indoor Travel with Fewer Auditory Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Oliva, Doretta; Bracalente, Sandro

    1998-01-01

    This study assessed the possibility of guiding a person with blindness and intellectual disability during indoor travel with fewer auditory cues. Results indicated that infrequent presentation of the cues and the provision of extra cues in case of errors maintained high levels of independent moves, albeit of increased duration. (Author/CR)

  9. Some See It, Some Don't: Exploring the Relation between Inattentional Blindness and Personality Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Kreitz

    Full Text Available Human awareness is highly limited, which is vividly demonstrated by the phenomenon that unexpected objects go unnoticed when attention is focused elsewhere (inattentional blindness. Typically, some people fail to notice unexpected objects while others detect them instantaneously. Whether this pattern reflects stable individual differences is unclear to date. In particular, hardly anything is known about the influence of personality on the likelihood of inattentional blindness. To fill this empirical gap, we examined the role of multiple personality factors, namely the Big Five, BIS/BAS, absorption, achievement motivation, and schizotypy, in these failures of awareness. In a large-scale sample (N = 554, susceptibility to inattentional blindness was associated with a low level of openness to experience and marginally with a low level of achievement motivation. However, in a multiple regression analysis, only openness emerged as an independent, negative predictor. This suggests that the general tendency to be open to experience extends to the domain of perception. Our results complement earlier work on the possible link between inattentional blindness and personality by demonstrating, for the first time, that failures to consciously perceive unexpected objects reflect individual differences on a fundamental dimension of personality.

  10. Help for the Blind or Visually Impaired Person: The Blind Person’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Mekonnen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, help is essential in the human experience. It is expressed through giving and receiving. These expressions are exercised within the framework of either a real or a perceived attitude of mind. Such attitudes are not necessarily created both by the social, cultural, religious, economic, and political environments in which individuals are raised or the particular inclinations that develop through the different stages of human growth and development. There are, however, some common factors shared by most of those who receive help, and a more realistic perspective is observed from the personal experiences of such individuals, especially in the absence of any documented study that surveys the outlook of most, if not all, those who benefit on the issue of help.

  11. Community rehabilitation of disabled with a focus on blind persons: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available India, the largest democratic country in the world, is marching ahead strongly on the growth and developmental front and is poised to be the leader in the market economy. This role creates and increases far greater responsibilities on us in ensuring that the benefit of the developmental cycle reaches each and every citizen of this country, including the able and the disabled ones. It has been enshrined in the Constitution of India to ensure equality, freedom, justice, and dignity of all individuals and implicitly mandates an inclusive society. With increase in consideration of quality parameters in all spheres of life including availability, access, and provision of comprehensive services to the disabled, it is pertinent to have a look on the contribution of government in keeping the aspiration and commitment towards common people. The article attempts to review the concept of rehabilitation for the disabled keeping a focus on the blind person, and list out the activities, programs/schemes, institutional structure and initiatives taken by the Government of India (GOI for the same and the incentives/benefits extended to blind persons. The article concludes by reiterating the importance of individual need assessment and mentioning new initiatives proposed on Low Vision services in the approved 11 th plan under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB. The source of information has been annual reports, notification and the approved 11 th five-year plan of GOI, articles published with key words like rehabilitation, disability, assistive devices, low vision aids, and/or blind person through the mode of Internet. Annexure provides a list of selected institutions in the country offering Low Vision services compiled from various sources through personal communication and an approved list of training institutes under NPCB, GOI offering Low Vision training.

  12. Indoor Navigation to Support the Blind Person Using True Pathway within the Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Map creation remains a very active field in the robotics and AI community, however it contains some challenge points like data association and the high degree of accuracy of localization which are seems to be difficult in some cases, more than that, most of these study focus on the robot navigation, without any consideration for the semantic of the environment, to serve human like blind persons. Approach: This study introduced a monocular SLAM method, which uses the Scale Invariant Features Transform (SIFT representation for the scene. The scene represented as clouds of sift features within the map; this hierarchical representation of space, serving to estimate the current direction in the environment within the current session. The system exploited the tracking of the same features of successive frames to calculate scalar weights for these features, to build a map of the environment indicating the camera movement, then by comparing the camera movement of the current moving with the true pathway within the same session the system can help and advice the blind person to navigate more confidently, through auditory information for the path way in the surroundings. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF used to estimate the camera movement within the successive frames. Results: The experimental work tested using the proposed method with a hand-held camera walking in indoor environment. The results show a good estimation on the spatial locations of the camera within few milliseconds. Tracking of the true pathway in addition to semantic environment within the session can give a good support to the blind person for navigation. Conclusion: The study presented new semantic features model helping the blind person for navigation environment using these clouds of features, for long-term appearance-based localization of a cane with web camera vision as the external sensor.

  13. Color blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness is achromatopsia. This is a rare condition in which a person cannot see any color, only shades of gray. Most color blindness is due to ...

  14. The Acuity of Echolocation: Spatial Resolution in Sighted Persons Compared to the Performance of an Expert Who Is Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Santani; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation is a specialized application of spatial hearing that uses reflected auditory information to localize objects and represent the external environment. Although it has been documented extensively in nonhuman species, such as bats and dolphins, its use by some persons who are blind as a navigation and object-identification aid has…

  15. 75 FR 28331 - Meaningful Access to United States Currency for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    .... currency to people who are blind and visually impaired pursuant to section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of... provides people who are blind and visually impaired meaningful access to U.S. currency, while also giving... accommodate people who are blind and visually impaired in denominating U.S. currency, and to solicit...

  16. Circadian-Rhythm Sleep Disorders in Persons Who Are Totally Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, R. L.; Blood, M. L.; Hughes, R. J.; Lewy, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the diagnosis and management of "non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome," a form of cyclic insomnia to which people who are totally blind are prone. Covered are incidence and clinical features, formal diagnostic criteria, the biological basis of circadian sleep disorders, circadian rhythms in blind people, pharmacological entrainment, and the…

  17. Benign Visual Hallucinations, or "Phantom Vision" in Visually Impaired and Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, W. E.; Taylor, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Benign visual hallucinations ("phantom vision") were examined in 2 studies, involving a total of 443 adventitiously blinded and sight-impaired veterans. In one study, unusual visual events were reported by 38.7 percent, with 30.6 percent reporting complex hallucinations. Causes of the hallucinations and their treatment are discussed. (Author/JDD)

  18. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness... disability benefits even though you were doing substantial gainful activity because you are blind and age...

  19. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Young DKW; Kwok TCY; Ng PYN

    2014-01-01

    Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: P...

  20. 盲人视皮层重塑的探讨%Plasticity of visual cortex of blind person

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹叶青; 邹怀宇; 甘瑞华; 柳丰萍; 邹彤

    2013-01-01

    大脑可塑性是大脑的主要属性之一,研究大脑可塑性对于揭示大脑活动的规律具有十分重要的意义.很早以前,人们就发现盲人虽然视觉缺失,但是他们的其他功能,如触觉、听觉等都好于正常人,为什么盲人这些方面的功能会好于正常人?研究盲人视皮层重塑对于了解大脑可塑性有着十分重要的作用.20世纪末,学者们开始利用正电子发射断层扫描(PET)、透颅磁刺激(transcranial magnetic stimulation,TMS)、功能磁共振成像(functional magnetic resonance imaging,FMRI)等技术研究盲人视皮层重塑,发现盲人在阅读盲文时,视皮层会被激活,由此得出盲人视皮层重塑的理论依据.但是,目前关于盲人视皮层重塑的机制尚不清楚,如在盲人视皮层重塑的过程中大脑的结构和功能到底发生了哪些变化?诱导大脑结构和功能发生变化的内在机制是什么?本文将结合神经解剖学、神经组织学、神经生理学、认知神经科学等学科的理论探讨盲人视皮层重塑的机制.%Plasticity was one of the most important traits of brain and quite vital for exploring the law of brain activity. Previous studies showed that it was worth considering that blind person with better touching and listening ability than healthy person. Therefore, the plasticity of blind person' s brain was valuabe for study. At the end of 20th centurary, the study results showed that plasticity occurred in blind person' s brain with the technology of positron emission tomography, transcranial magnetic stimulation, functional magnetic resonance imaging. Their visual cortex was activated while reading, however, it was ambiguous. What happened in the brain' s structure during the plasticity process? What was the mechanics? So the changes of neuron-anatomy structure, neuron-histology, neuron-physiology and cognitive neuroscience would be discussed in this article.

  1. Blindness - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness... that you are eligible for disability insurance benefits even though you are still engaging in... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we determine disability for blind...

  3. Newly blind persons using virtual environment system in a traditional orientation and mobility rehabilitation program: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orly; Schloerb, David W; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a virtual reality system (the BlindAid) developed for orientation and mobility training of people who are newly blind. The BlindAid allows users to interact with different virtual structures and objects via auditory and haptic feedback. This case study aims to examine if and how the BlindAid, in conjunction with a traditional rehabilitation programme, can help people who are newly blind develop new orientation and mobility methods. Follow-up research based on this study, with a large experiment and control group, could contribute to the area of orientation and mobility rehabilitation training for the newly blind. The case study research focused on A., a woman who is newly blind, for 17 virtual sessions spanning ten weeks, during the 12 weeks of her traditional orientation and mobility rehabilitation programme. The research was implemented by using virtual environment (VE) exploration and orientation tasks in VE and physical spaces. The research methodology used both qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews, questionnaire, videotape recording, and user computer logs. The results of this study helped elucidate several issues concerning the contribution of the BlindAid system to the exploration strategies and learning processes experienced by the participant in her encounters with familiar and unfamiliar physical surroundings. [Box: see text]. PMID:22112148

  4. Blindness and Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Anthony David

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the claims that, among many blind persons, physical inactivity leads to poor physical fitness; that a state of anxiety is often a concomitant of unguided blind mobility; and that Yogic practices offer a solution to both difficulties. (GW)

  5. An Analysis of Blind Persons'Identity Anxiety in Bi Feiyu's Novel "Massage"%毕飞宇《推拿》中盲人的身份焦虑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林双

    2016-01-01

    毕飞宇在长篇小说《推拿》 中塑造了一批盲人形象,描绘出他们在上海边缘一角的生存状态,其中展示了盲人群体在个人 、 群体内部和社会三方面存在着身份焦虑.这样的身份焦虑言说着他们无处不在的错位和对身份认同的渴望,体现了他们对温暖与爱的回归 、 对尊严与自我的坚守.%Bi Feiyu portraits the images of a group of blind persons in the novel "Massage" and presents their survival state in a remote part of Shanghai - "ShaZongQi Massage Center" ,among which shows the identity anxiety of the blind group in individual ,groups inside and society three aspects .Such identity anxi-ety presents their ubiquity of dislocation and the longing for identity ,embodies their return of warmth and love ,as well as their persistence of dignity and self.

  6. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material......When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...

  7. Willed blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. A willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enables us...... willed blindness focusing on the development of either a new moral vision of our obligations or new visions of what a good life is....

  8. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  9. Models for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material objects are rarely used as historical testimonies for the simple reason that they, unlike archival material, do not present historians with written documents that can be held as evidence of the past. However, as I point out, certain historical questions of which archives remain silent could be approached by other means such as the use of material objects. Rather than delivering concrete methodological suggestions, this second part reflects upon the historical use of material objects - both their possibilities and their limits - within the context of blindness.

  10. Alfabetizacion de las personas que son sordas e invidentes. Hoja informativa de DB-LINK (Literacy for Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind. DB-LINK Fact Sheet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    This fact sheet discusses the importance of literacy for individuals who are deaf-blind, the social functions of reading and writing, and conditions necessary for the development of literacy. Strategies for promoting literacy among this population are described and include: (1) invite children and adults who are deaf-blind to observe as you use…

  11. Models for the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in n...

  12. Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, D C

    2001-01-01

    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  13. Color defect and color theory; studies of normal and colorblind persons, including a subject color-blind in one eye but not in the other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRAHAM, C H; HSIA, Y

    1958-03-28

    It is important to find answers to two questions concerning the visual discriminations of dichromatic persons, especially deuteranopes: (i) Do such persons show a loss of sensitivity to various wavelengths of the spectrum as compared with normal subjects? (ii) What colors do they see? A number of experiments were performed on the first question. First, luminosity curves were determined on three groups of subjects, consisting respectively of five protanopes, six deuteranopes, and seven normal individuals. As compared with normal subjects, protanopes show a loss of luminosity in the red, whereas deuteranopes show a loss in the blue-to-green region of the spectrum (See 10). Second, we examined the luminosity curves of a subject whose right eye is classifiable (on the basis of color-mixture determinations) as normal and whose left eye is classifiable as dichromatic. (The hue discrimination curve for her dichromatic eye seemed comparable to the curve of the usual deuteranope except in the violet, where it manifested relatively good discrimination.) The luminosity function for this subject's dichromatic eye, determined by data on threshold and flicker, exhibits the same type of luminosity loss in the blue and green regions of the spectrum as was shown by our group of six deuteranopes. Only unilaterally dichromatic subjects can tell us how colors seen by a dichromatic eye appear to a normal eye. In the color-blind eye, our unilaterally dichromatic subject sees wavelengths below and above her neutral ("grey") point (which occurs at 502 mmicro) as, respectively, a blue equivalent to about 470 mmicro and a yellow equivalent to about 570 mmicro in her normal eye. The results on (i) luminosity loss and (ii) the seeing of wavelengths above 502 mmicro as yellow are considered theoretically. The seeing of yellow by deuteranopes and protanopes may be accounted for by an idea based on Leber-Fick transmation theory. It is proposed that the characteristic sensitivities of the red and

  14. Mentoring Transition-Age Youth with Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…

  15. Pedagogical terms of correction of motive sphere of persons of ripe years with the purchased blindness by facilities of playing activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemkina V.I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correction of motive sphere of adults blind facilities of playing activity is considered. The pedagogical terms of correction of motive sphere of adults with the purchased blindness are considered. In experiment took part blind adults at the age 22-35 years. It is set that correction-developing teaching the motive actions of blind adults must be concertedly with the level of their development and the differentiated individual approach is foreseen. It is recommended to be oriented on the level of general development of these people, exposure of their potential and actual motive possibilities. It is well-proven that systematic application of facilities of motive activity is provided by the valuable mastering of vitally important motions, development of motive capabilities and capacity for an orientation in space.

  16. Effects of Emtricitabine/Tenofovir on Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Negative Persons in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Glidden, David V.; Anderson, Peter L.; Liu, Albert; McMahan, Vanessa; Gonzales, Pedro; Ramirez-Cardich, Maria Esther; Namwongprom, Sirianong; Chodacki, Piotr; de Mendonca, Laura Maria Carvalo; Wang, Furong; Lama, Javier R.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Guanira, Juan Vicente; Buchbinder, Susan; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Schechter, Mauro; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Grant, Robert M.; Vargas, Lorena; Sanchez, Jorge; Mai, Chiang; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Murphy, Kerry; Gilmore, Hailey; Holland, Sally; Faber, Elizabeth; Duda, John; Bewerunge, Linda; Batist, Elizabeth; Hoskin, Christine; Brown, Ben; de Janeiro, Rio; Beppu-Yoshida, Carina; da Costa, Marcellus Dias; Assis de Jesus, Sergio Carlos; Grangeiro da Silva, Jose Roberto; Millan, Roberta; de Siqueira Hoagland, Brenda Regina; Martinez Fernandes, Nilo; da Silva Freitas, Lucilene; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Pilotto, Jose; Bushman, Lane; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Anthony Guida, Louis; Kline, Brandon; Goicochea, Pedro; Manzo, Jonathan; Hance, Robert; McConnell, Jeff; Defechereux, Patricia; Levy, Vivian; Robles, Malu; Postle, Brian; Burns, David; Rooney, James

    2015-01-01

    Background. Daily preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) decreases the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Initiation of TDF decreases bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected people. We report the effect of FTC/TDF on BMD in HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men and in transgender women. Methods. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at baseline and 24-week intervals in a substudy of iPrEx, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of FTC/TDF PrEP. Plasma and intracellular tenofovir concentrations were measured in participants randomized to FTC/TDF. Results. In 498 participants (247 FTC/TDF, 251 placebo), BMD in those randomized to FTC/TDF decreased modestly but statistically significantly by 24 weeks in the spine (net difference, −0.91% [95% confidence interval {CI}, −1.44% to −.38%]; P = .001) and hip (−0.61% [95% CI, −.96% to −.27%], P = .001). Changes within each subsequent 24-week interval were not statistically significant. Changes in BMD by week 24 correlated inversely with intracellular tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP), which was detected in 53% of those randomized to FTC/TDF. Net BMD loss by week 24 in participants with TFV-DP levels indicative of consistent dosing averaged −1.42% ± 29% and −0.85% ± 19% in the spine and hip, respectively (P < .001 vs placebo). Spine BMD tended to rebound following discontinuation of FTC/TDF. There were no differences in fractures (P = .62) or incidence of low BMD. Conclusions. In HIV-uninfected persons, FTC/TDF PrEP was associated with small but statistically significant decreases in BMD by week 24 that inversely correlated with TFV-DP, with more stable BMD thereafter. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00458393. PMID:25908682

  17. Blindness. [prosthetic devices and sensory aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudenz, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities are considered that modern electronics and engineering have to offer the individual with a damaged or disordered nervous system, especially the blind person. Discussed are the incidence and principal causes of blindness, past research activities, and a capsule review of some of the more interesting programs designed to provide the blind with the ability to be mobile in their environment and to read printed matter.

  18. FLIPPS for the Blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothe, Hans-Heinrich; Al-Hamdani, Sermed

    2010-01-01

    The idea of FLIPPS is to design, implement, and evaluate a vibro-tactile device that is composed of a photo diode, vibro-tactile stimulator, microcontroller and power supply. The stimulator is attached to the finger tip and activated when light illumination exceeds a defined threshold. The subject...... (blind person) receives the reflected light from the objects and, based on brain plasticity principles, can interactively learn to construct a mental image of the objects and of the scenery. The FLIPPS idea is based on sensory substitution theory; here, substituting visual inputs by haptic vibrations....

  19. What do colour-blind people really see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Problem: colour perception of dichromats (colour-blind persons) Background: Various models have been proposed (e. g. Walraven & Alferdinck, 1997; Brettel et al. , 1997) to model reduced colour vision of colour-blind people. It is clear that colour-blind people cannot distinguish certain object colou

  20. Change-readiness of the blind: A hospital based study in a coastal town of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that there is a need to modify health policy to include blind rehabilitation, to improve visibility of blind rehabilitation centers, to include family members and co-professionals while managing the blind so that we treat the "blind person" and not a "pair of blind eyes."

  1. 20 CFR 404.1582 - A period of disability based on blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1582 A... entitled to receive disability insurance cash benefits even though you are blind. If you are a blind person... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A period of disability based on...

  2. First-Person Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribs, H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Personal accounts describe the lives of 2 individuals with deaf-blindness, one an 87-year-old woman who was deaf from birth and became totally blind over a 50-year period and the other of a woman who became deaf-blind as a result of a fever at the age of 7. Managing activities of daily life and experiencing sensory hallucinations are among topics…

  3. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  4. Análise exploratória das escalas de silhuetas bidimensionais e tridimensionais adaptadas para a pessoa com cegueira Exploratory analysis of two dimensional and three dimensional silhouette scales for persons with blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Frota da Rocha Morgado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizar uma análise exploratória da Escala de Silhuetas Bidimensionais (ESB e da Escala de Silhuetas Tridimensionais (EST, verificando qual destas Escalas é a mais apropriada e representativa à pessoa com cegueira congênita. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória. A amostra foi composta por 20 sujeitos adultos com cegueira congênita. Foram entrevistados 10 homens e 10 mulheres, com idades entre 21 e 50 anos, do Instituto Benjamin Constant, no Rio de Janeiro e da Associação dos Cegos de Juiz de Fora, MG. Os Instrumentos para coleta de dados foram: ESB, EST e roteiro de entrevista semiestruturada. A estratégia adotada para tratar os dados foi a Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin. Foram formadas três grandes categorias: 1 Principais vias de informações sobre o corpo, subdividida em: tato; informações sobre peso e altura; informações das pessoas do convívio; informações culturais; tamanho das roupas e atividade física como referência. 2 Escala de Silhuetas Bidimensionais, subdividida em: não reconhecimento da ESB; dificuldades; utilidades. 3 Escala de Silhuetas Tridimensionais, subdividida em: Reconhecimento da Escala; Relação consigo ou com o outro; Facilidades e preferências da EST. Foi constatado que 90% dos participantes não reconheceram a ESB, enquanto que todos os participantes reconheceram a EST. A EST é a Escala mais apropriada e representativa para a pessoa com cegueira congênita. Sugere-se a realização de estudos futuros que visem avaliar as qualidades psicométricas da EST.The aim of the study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the two dimensional and three dimensional Silhouette Scales (2SS and 3SS so as to determine which one is most suitable and meaningful for persons that are congenitally blind. This is a qualitative and exploratory study. The sample was composed of 20 adult congenitally blind subjects. Ten men and 10 women aged between 21 and 50 years of age from the Benjamin Constant

  5. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003039.htm Vision - night blindness To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Night blindness is poor vision at night or in dim light. Considerations Night ...

  6. Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Parasites - Onchocerciasis (also known as River Blindness) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... infected Simulium blackfly. It is also called River Blindness because the fly that transmits infection breeds in ...

  7. Color-Blind Racism, Color-Blind Theology, and Church Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Color-blind racism develops when persons ignore color in people and see them simply as individuals. As persons of color in racialized societies such as the United States are unequally treated on account of their color, the issue becomes a matter of faith and religious experience as religious leaders and educators, who disregard color, overlook…

  8. Nem toda pessoa cega lê em Braille nem toda pessoa surda se comunica em língua de sinais Not every blind person reads Braille and not every deaf person knows sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Fátima Torres

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi definido tendo como objetivo discutir e explicitar algumas das diferenças existentes, quanto ao acesso à informação e à comunicação, entre aquelas pessoas que, embora possuam deficiências semelhantes, vivenciam discapacidades diferentes. O recorte metodológico aplicado foca especificamente as pessoas com deficiência visual e as com deficiência auditiva, não simultâneas, com ênfase às pessoas com surdez e às com cegueira. O arcabouço conceitual utilizado é o mesmo que o adotado pela classificação CIF-OMS, sendo o referencial teórico complementado com os aportes de outros autores que desenvolvem estudos relacionados com o tema da discapacidade. Além das pesquisas bibliográficas, integram a metodologia dados coletados em pesquisas de campo, conduzidas em trabalhos anteriores, e os resultantes de observações de pessoas adultas em situações que demandam por acessibilidade à informação e à comunicação. Os resultados encontrados evidenciam a diversidade existente entre as pessoas com um mesmo tipo de deficiência sensorial e assinalam alguns dos equívocos e prejuízos que podem ocorrer quando essa diversidade não é considerada. Ao longo do texto, fica constatado que as diferenças encontradas entre as pessoas com um mesmo tipo de deficiência sensorial são definidas tanto em função de suas preferências individuais, bem como das limitações e capacidades que são peculiares a cada um desses indivíduos.The objective of this work is to discuss and explain some differences that exist regarding the access to information and to communication among those people who, despite having similar handicaps, experience different inabilities. The methodological approach used here focuses specifically on people with non-simultaneous visual or hearing impairments, with an emphasis on blind or deaf people. The conceptual framework used is the same one adopted by the ICF-WHO classification, and the theoretical

  9. A New Proxy Blind Signature Scheme based on ECDLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyal M Alghazzawi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A proxy blind signature scheme is a special form of blind signature which allows a designated person called proxy signer to sign on behalf of two or more original signers without knowing the content of the message or document. It combines the advantages of proxy signature, blind signature and multi-signature scheme and satisfies the security properties of both proxy and blind signature scheme. Most of the exiting proxy blind signature schemes were developed based on the mathematical hard problems integer factorization (IFP and simple discrete logarithm (DLP which take sub-exponential time to solve. This paper describes an secure simple proxy blind signature scheme based on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP takes fully-exponential time. This can be implemented in low power and small processor mobile devices such as smart card, PDA etc. Here also we describes implementation issues of various scalar multiplication for ECDLP.

  10. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly diagnose specific types of color blindness. The Ishihara Color Test is the most common test for red-green ... red-green color blindness. The newer Cambridge Color Test uses a visual array similar to the Ishihara plates, except displayed on a computer monitor. The ...

  11. Blindness%失明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2009-01-01

    @@ There was a blind girl who hated herself because she was blind. She hated everyone,except her loving boyfriend who was always there for her. She told her boyfriend, "If I could only see the World, I will marry you."

  12. Change blindness images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Qian; Xu, Kun; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Jiang, Bi-Ye; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-11-01

    Change blindness refers to human inability to recognize large visual changes between images. In this paper, we present the first computational model of change blindness to quantify the degree of blindness between an image pair. It comprises a novel context-dependent saliency model and a measure of change, the former dependent on the site of the change, and the latter describing the amount of change. This saliency model in particular addresses the influence of background complexity, which plays an important role in the phenomenon of change blindness. Using the proposed computational model, we are able to synthesize changed images with desired degrees of blindness. User studies and comparisons to state-of-the-art saliency models demonstrate the effectiveness of our model. PMID:24029902

  13. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  14. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn;

    2014-01-01

    about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...

  15. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  16. Blind Collective Signature Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Moldovyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the digital signature (DS scheme specified by Belarusian DS standard there are designed the collective and blind collective DS protocols. Signature formation is performed simultaneously by all of the assigned signers, therefore the proposed protocols can be used also as protocols for simultaneous signing a contract. The proposed blind collective DS protocol represents a particular implementation of the blind multisignature schemes that is a novel type of the signature schemes. The proposed protocols are the first implementations of the multisignature schemes based on Belarusian signature standard.

  17. A Smart Infrared Microcontroller-Based Blind Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed S. Al-Fahoum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. The partial blindness represents the lack of integration in the growth of the optic nerve or visual centre of the eye, and total blindness is the full absence of the visual light perception. In this work, a simple, cheap, friendly user, smart blind guidance system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility of both blind and visually impaired people in a specific area. The proposed work includes a wearable equipment consists of head hat and mini hand stick to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the infrared sensor which is used to scan a predetermined area around blind by emitting-reflecting waves. The reflected signals received from the barrier objects are used as inputs to PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller is then used to determine the direction and distance of the objects around the blind. It also controls the peripheral components that alert the user about obstacle's shape, material, and direction. The implemented system is cheap, fast, and easy to use and an innovative affordable solution to blind and visually impaired people in third world countries.

  18. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... operations for extreme obesity As a complication of inflammatory bowel disease Diseases such as diabetes or scleroderma may slow down movement in a segment of the intestine, leading to blind loop syndrome.

  19. Turning the tide of corneal blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world′s largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  20. Turning the tide of corneal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Matthew S; Schottman, Tim; Gulati, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world's largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  1. Economic Aspects of Blindness and Low Vision: A New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, C.

    1995-01-01

    This discussion of theoretical perspectives on disability's economic aspects urges development of better measures of productive activity by persons with blindness in paid and unpaid work; considers other personal characteristics that may account for dependence, such as old age or illness; and suggests that some costs are created by social…

  2. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  3. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Roodman, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of "experimenter's bias" and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

  4. An Approach for Object and Scene Detection for Blind Peoples Using Vocal Vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha A. Kamble

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This system help the blind peoples for the navigation without the help of third person so blind person can perform its work independently. This system implemented on android device in which object detection and scene detection implemented, so after detection there will be text to speech conversion so user or blind person can get message from that android device with the help of headphone connected to that device. Our project will help blind people to understand the images which will be converted to sound with the help of webcam. We shall capture images in front of blind peoples .The captured image will be processed through our algorithms which will enhances the image data. The hardware component will have its own database. The processed image is compare with the database in the hardware component .The result after processing and comparing will be converted into speech signals. The headphones guide the blind peoples.

  5. Making Visual Maps Accessible to the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Martusciello, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    Visual maps deliver content in a simple and effective way. They can be useful for various purposes in areas such as street guidance, surrounding information, and education. However, sightless persons are unable to explore visual maps and risk being cut off from several multimedia Web applications. In this paper, starting from accessibility issues of map-based applications, we discuss possible interaction modalities and devices to use for truly achieving usage perspectives desired by blind peo...

  6. Direct costs of blindness in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S E; Keeffe, J E; Thies, L S

    2000-06-01

    This study calculated the direct financial costs of blindness to the Australian government and community. Three case studies, representative of Australians with severely impaired vision, were used to calculate the annual costs associated with blindness. The costs include pensions, subsidies, concessions, equipment and services. Case I was a retired person with age-related macular degeneration, case 2 a working aged person with diabetic retinopathy, and case 3 a school student with congenital vision impairment. Sensitivity analysis was used to show the possible range of costs for each case. For case I, direct cost was $ 14686 with a range from $9749 to $22507. The cost for case 2 was $17701 ranging from $9669 to $26720. Costs associated with care and education of case 3 were $15948 ranging from $5106 to $23798. In addition to the social costs to a person who is blind, there are significant financial costs to the government and the community that will increase substantially with the ageing of the Australian population. PMID:10981781

  7. Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiansyah Rizqi Andry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many personal service robot is developed to help blind people in daily life, such as room cleaning, for navigating, object finding, reading and other activities. In this context, the present work focuses the development of an image-to-speech application for the blind. The project is called Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People, and the final purpose is the design of an electronic narrator application on personal service robot that helps to narrate a text on a book, magazine, a sheet of paper etc to a blind person. To achieve that, a Raspberry pi board, a light sensor, OpenCV computer vision library, Tesseract OCR (Optical Character Recognition library, eSpeak Text-to-Speech Synthesizer (TTS library are integrated, which is enables the blind person to hear a narration from text on a book, magazine, a sheet etc.

  8. Blind Friendly Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Červenka, Petr; Břinda, Karel; Seifert, Radek; Hofman, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Space concept of the surrounding area is one of the most important preconditions of the independent mobility and orientation of the blind people. Tactile maps are considered to be the most appropriate source of spatial information. One of the main problems of the tactile maps usage is their problematic accessibility for the blind users since they are not available in time and with up-to-date content. The map production is a matter of tedious manual work and a result of expensive and time-cons...

  9. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New ... shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  10. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  11. Oplysnigens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  12. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future.

  13. Do People Who Became Blind Early in Life Develop a Better Sense of Smell? A Psychophysical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Isabel; Plaza, Paula; Rombaux, Phillippe; Collignon, Olivier; De Volder, Anne G.; Renier, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Using a set of psychophysical tests, we compared the olfactory abilities of 8 persons who became blind early in life and 16 sighted persons in a control group who were matched for age, sex, and handedness. The results indicated that those who became blind early in life developed compensatory perceptual mechanisms in the olfactory domain that…

  14. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  15. Somewhere in between Touch and Vision: In Search of a Meaningful Art Education for Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Karin; Loots, Gerrit

    2004-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical framework of a meaningful art education for blind people. Existing literature focuses on the interaction between the artwork and the blind person. This text describes this aesthetic encounter which is complex due to tactile sensations, individual differences of the non-sighted viewer and specific features of the…

  16. Horses: An Introduction to Horses: Racing, Ranching, and Riding for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography of materials focuses on horses, racing, ranching, and riding. Two articles are presented in full. They are: "Diary of a Blind Horseman: Confidence Springs from a Horse Named Sun" (Richard Vice and Steve Stone) and "Young Rider: Her Horses Show the Way" (Helen Mason). Each article tells the true story of a blind person's…

  17. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system

  18. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, A.; Graffigna, J. P.; Polimeni, G.; Fernández, H. H.

    2007-11-01

    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system.

  19. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acerbi, A; Graffigna, J P; Polimeni, G; Fernandez, H H [Gabinete de Tecnologia Medica, Fac. de Ingenieria, Universidad Nac. de San Juan Av Libertador San Martin 1109(O), J5400ARL, San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system.

  20. A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Bonnie

    Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…

  1. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  2. Psychosocial characteristics of totally blind people in a Nigerian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola-Popoola Dupe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To characterize the demographic and psychosocial problems of a group of blind people as a way of attracting more attention to and providing data that can improve the psychosocial care of the visually impaired. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of a population of totally blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria using a self-report questionnaire (SRQ. The questionnaire was verbally administered by the study personnel in the local language. Simple frequency tables were obtained and the Chi-square test was performed to determine significant differences between variables. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Sixty one blind patients consented to participate. Most participants were engaged in street begging for their livelihood. Most subjects desired a job change, signifying dissatisfaction with the present occupation. Up to 80% of the cohort was married and had spouses who were also blind in at least one eye. Approximately two-thirds had five or more children and majority lived with family members who were responsible for taking care of their personal hygiene, cooking and mobility. The majority developed blindness in childhood and 16% had a family history of blindness and 77% had never used conventional eye care, with corneal disease being the most frequent cause of blindness. Many feared that their children may also become blind. Thirty-one (51% scored ≥5 on SRQ and were classified as probable cases of psychological disorder. Conclusion: Blindness in a majority of cases that started in childhood was probably preventable. Inaccessibility to or failure of the formal rehabilitation and social welfare systems may have caused this psychosocial dilemma. The high level of social and family interaction provides opportunity for organized preventive ophthalmology, community health care services and psychosocial care.

  3. Noise blind test

    OpenAIRE

    H. Cadet

    2006-01-01

    In the aim of characterizing site condition for seismic risk, the microtremor or ambient noise studies have been developed. The main objective of this blind test is to check of the reliability of results, to observe the user subjectivity (array choice, parameters that are user depend) in the noise recordings analyze. Noise records were analysed on single-station with H/V method and with several sensors for array method to determine the dispersion characteristics of the surface-wave part of th...

  4. Person, personality, responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    GHEORGHE MIHAI; EMILIA MIHAI

    2005-01-01

    Modern times consider as a person the individual man being endowed with reason and conscience; this man cannot be but person because he shows so many persons. According to the positive law the human individual is considered a person: natural person in civil relations; criminal in criminal relations; public officer in administrative relations, etc. “Natural person”, “criminal”, “public officer” are terms from legal terminology of different branches of law that define the individual in the law,...

  5. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  6. The whole story behind blind adaptive equalizers/blind deconvolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pinchas, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This e-book covers a variety of blind deconvolution/equalization methods based on both cost functions and Bayes rules where simulation results are supplied to support the theory - including Maximum Entropy density approximation technique and the Edgeworth Expansion approach used in various blind equalizers.

  7. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  8. Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People

    OpenAIRE

    Ardiansyah Rizqi Andry

    2016-01-01

    Many personal service robot is developed to help blind people in daily life, such as room cleaning, for navigating, object finding, reading and other activities. In this context, the present work focuses the development of an image-to-speech application for the blind. The project is called Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People, and the final purpose is the design of an electronic narrator application on personal service robot that helps to narrate a text on a bo...

  9. Virtual environment interaction through 3D audio by blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J; Lumbreras, M

    1999-01-01

    Interactive software is actively used for learning, cognition, and entertainment purposes. Educational entertainment software is not very popular among blind children because most computer games and electronic toys have interfaces that are only accessible through visual cues. This work applies the concept of interactive hyperstories to blind children. Hyperstories are implemented in a 3D acoustic virtual world. In past studies we have conceptualized a model to design hyperstories. This study illustrates the feasibility of the model. It also provides an introduction to researchers to the field of entertainment software for blind children. As a result, we have designed and field tested AudioDoom, a virtual environment interacted through 3D Audio by blind children. AudioDoom is also a software that enables testing nontrivial interfaces and cognitive tasks with blind children. We explored the construction of cognitive spatial structures in the minds of blind children through audio-based entertainment and spatial sound navigable experiences. Children playing AudioDoom were exposed to first person experiences by exploring highly interactive virtual worlds through the use of 3D aural representations of the space. This experience was structured in several cognitive tasks where they had to build concrete models of their spatial representations constructed through the interaction with AudioDoom by using Legotrade mark blocks. We analyze our preliminary results after testing AudioDoom with Chilean children from a school for blind children. We discuss issues such as interactivity in software without visual cues, the representation of spatial sound navigable experiences, and entertainment software such as computer games for blind children. We also evaluate the feasibility to construct virtual environments through the design of dynamic learning materials with audio cues.

  10. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    It may seem that deaf-blindness refers to a total inability to see or hear. However, in reality deaf-blindness is a condition in which the combination of hearing and visual losses in children cause "such severe communication and other develop mental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for…

  11. Cortical Plasticity and Olfactory Function in Early Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, Rodrigo; Renier, Laurent A.; Rombaux, Philippe; Cuevas, Isabel; De Volder, Anne G.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, functional brain imaging has provided insight to the maturation processes and has helped elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in brain plasticity in the absence of vision. In case of congenital blindness, drastic changes occur within the deafferented “visual” cortex that starts receiving and processing non visual inputs, including olfactory stimuli. This functional reorganization of the occipital cortex gives rise to compensatory perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that help blind persons achieve perceptual tasks, leading to superior olfactory abilities in these subjects. This view receives support from psychophysical testing, volumetric measurements and functional brain imaging studies in humans, which are presented here. PMID:27625596

  12. National Center On Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Logout Menu NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help ... Collaborate Project Staff Service Provider Family Member State Deaf-Blind Projects Click on a state on the ...

  13. Blind Known Interference Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates interference-cancellation schemes at the receiver, in which the original data of the interference is known a priori. Such a priori knowledge is common in wireless relay networks. For example, a transmitting relay could be relaying data that was previously transmitted by a node, in which case the interference received by the node now is actually self information. Besides the case of self information, the node could also have overheard or received the interference data in a prior transmission by another node. Directly removing the known interference requires accurate estimate of the interference channel, which may be difficult in many situations. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme, Blind Known Interference Cancellation (BKIC), to cancel known interference without interference channel information. BKIC consists of two steps. The first step combines adjacent symbols to cancel the interference, exploiting the fact that the channel coefficients are almost the same between successive sy...

  14. Causes of blindness in Australia: analysis of pensions granted by the Department of Social Security on the ground of blindness for the year ending 30 June 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, C N; Kratochvil, R

    1986-08-01

    The principal and contributing causes of blindness for all pensions granted by the Department of Social Security on account of blindness in Australia during the year ending 30 June 1984 have been coded according to the International Classification of Diseases, 1975 (ICD9). The results are presented in tables which show the major diagnosis for symmetrical and asymmetrical cases according to frequency and age, and the combination of major and contributing diagnosis according to age, sex and prevalence per 100 persons. PMID:3768182

  15. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness...... enables us to see ourselves as moral beings although our lack of reaction to the effects of our actions tells another story. The consequences, especially to animal welfare are outlined and it is briefly discussed whether a solution lies in a new moral vision of our obligations or a new vision of what...

  16. Leading causes of blindness and visual impairment in the region of Eastern Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćeklić Lala

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Visual impairment and blindness are serious social and health problems in the world. 1992 classification of visual disorders by World Health Organization has recently been implemented. The goal of this study was to determine common causes of visual impairment and blindness in the region of Eastern Herzegovina. Material and methods. In this population based study we have analyzed medical records stored in the regional Association of Visually Impaired and Blind Persons of the Republic of Srpska (Trebinje, Bileća, Foča, Eastern Sarajevo. The analysis included sex and age distribution of registered population, classification and leading causes of visual disability and blindness. Results. There are 298 registered persons with visual disability and blindness in the region of Eastern Herzegovina and Eastern Sarajevo. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in the aforementioned region is 0.1%. Among the studied population, there are more males than females with visual disability or blindness (56% versus 44%. Most (78% of registered persons are blind, and only 22% are visually impaired. 43% of registered population are in the IV category and only 8.38% are registered in the II category. Only 2% of registered population are children. Common causes of visual disability and blindness in the region of Eastern Herzegovina are: glaucoma (22%, cataract (17%, myopia alta (13%, diabetic retinopathy (12% and ocular trauma (11%. Common causes of children's visual impairment include: optic nerve anomalies, congenital cataract and premature retinopathy. Discussion and conclusion Compared with literature data, common causes of blindness and visual impairment in the region of Eastern Herzegovina do not differ significantly from those in other regions. Registration is based on the WHO model, but it is possible only by performing active epidemiological studies. .

  17. LOVE IS COLOR BLIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦扬

    2013-01-01

    <正>看完这部电影,突然想起小时候看完《辛德勒的名单》后,问过母亲一个问题:"为什么有些人要嘲笑和歧视那些与众不同的人?"母亲告诉我:"我们都是一样的,没有人应当受到责备,每个人都应当为自己而活,要始终坚信‘Love is color blind(爱无定界)’。"爱究竟有无定界?有太多故事让我们相信这句话并非纸上谈兵。《汤姆叔叔的小屋》、《美国往事》、《为黛西小姐开车》……是的,"Love"是"Listen(倾听)",是无条件无偏见地倾听对方的需求,并予以协助;是"Obligate(感恩)",需要不断地感恩,付出爱来灌

  18. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  19. Student Art for Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Kay

    1982-01-01

    Describes a project in which high school student volunteers designed art activities for blind children. Students incorporated the sensation of motion and texture into their designs for toys, puzzles, games, and story illustrations. (AM)

  20. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... celebrate and support a workforce that is fully inclusive of people who are blind or visually impaired. 5 great ways to celebrate National Disability Employment Awareness Month College Bound? Transitioning to college and ...

  1. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T;

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  2. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  3. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  4. Multiframe Blind Super Resolution Imaging Based on Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元伟; 张立毅

    2016-01-01

    As an ill-posed problem, multiframe blind super resolution imaging recovers a high resolution image from a group of low resolution images with some degradations when the information of blur kernel is limited. Note that the quality of the recovered image is influenced more by the accuracy of blur estimation than an advanced regularization. We study the traditional model of the multiframe super resolution and modify it for blind deblurring. Based on the analysis, we proposed two algorithms. The first one is based on the total variation blind deconvolution algorithm and formulated as a functional for optimization with the regularization of blur. Based on the alternating minimization and the gradient descent algorithm, the high resolution image and the unknown blur kernel are esti-mated iteratively. By using the median shift and add operator, the second algorithm is more robust to the outlier influence. The MSAA initialization simplifies the interpolation process to reconstruct the blurred high resolution image for blind deblurring and improves the accuracy of blind super resolution imaging. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority and accuracy of our novel algorithms.

  5. PARLOMA – A Novel Human-Robot Interaction System for Deaf-Blind Remote Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Orlando Russo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deaf-blindness forces people to live in isolation. At present, there is no existing technological solution enabling two (or many deaf-blind people to communicate remotely among themselves in tactile Sign Language (t-SL. When resorting to t-SL, deaf-blind people can communicate only with people physically present in the same place, because they are required to reciprocally explore their hands to exchange messages. We present a preliminary version of PARLOMA, a novel system to enable remote communication between deaf-blind persons. It is composed of a low-cost depth sensor as the only input device, paired with a robotic hand as the output device. Essentially, any user can perform hand-shapes in front of the depth sensor. The system is able to recognize a set of hand-shapes that are sent over the web and reproduced by an anthropomorphic robotic hand. PARLOMA can work as a "telephone" for deaf-blind people. Hence, it will dramatically improve the quality of life of deaf-blind persons. PARLOMA has been presented and supported by the main Italian deaf blind association, Lega del Filo d'Oro. End users are involved in the design phase.

  6. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  7. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  8. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  9. Access to Mathematics by Blind Students: A Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur I. Karshmer; Daryoush D. Farsi

    2007-01-01

    The issue of blindness and legally blind is becoming a global issue. Based on the last statistics from American Foundation for the blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States alone. Over 45 million people around the world are completely blind. 180 million more people are legally blind, and approximately 7 million people are diagnosed as blind or legally blind every year. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in the ability of the blind to e...

  10. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  11. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a...... structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  12. PROXY BLIND SIGNATURE BASED ON ECDLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATARUPA PRADHAN,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Proxy blind signature combines the properties of both proxy signature and blind signature. In a proxy signature scheme, a signer delegates his signing power to a proxy, who signs a message on behalf of the original signer. In a blind signature scheme, the signer cannot link the relationship between the blind message and the signature of the chosen message. Therefore, it is very suitable for electronic commerceapplication. In this paper, a proxy blind signature scheme based on ECDLP (Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem has been proposed, which satisfy the security properties of both the blind signature and the proxy signature. Analysis shows that our scheme is secure and efficient.

  13. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  14. [The punishment of blinding and the life of the blind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Jan Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with a group of people who were deprived of their eyesight by private acts of force or by executions of lawful sentences. In early medieval texts blinding is frequently mentioned in connection with popes, kings, princes or bishops. However, since the High Middle Ages these dignitaries were increasingly spared the loss of their eyes. It may be said that on the whole, from the eighth to the twelfth century, blinding was overwhelmingly used to dispose of political adversaries, but did then rapidly turn into a criminal punishment. In the earliest 'Landfriedensordnungen' of the late eleventh century, the loss of the perpetrator's eyes crops up as punishment for breach of the peace, while later it was applied to a variety of more or less serious offences. The destiny of the blinded in the early Middle Ages is only highlighted by sketches of a few individual cases; for the High and late Middle Ages--apart from a few notable exceptions--it is only possible to reflect on the general situation of blind people in society, since the sources usually do not differentiate between those having lost their sight through human violence or due to other causes. PMID:20506724

  15. Sensation of resistor-induced warmth in blind persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandierendonck, A; van der Goten, K

    1994-06-01

    It is commonly believed that the human sense of warmth is inferior in spatiotemporal acuity to the tactile senses. However, little or no evidence is available about the active feeling of warmth. We investigated the ability of people to detect in an active way small changes of warmth on very small areas (2-mm x 2-mm resistors). To that end, a new procedure was developed to measure perception of warmth. The results indicate that people who are able to detect the warmth stimuli perceive small incremental changes and that detection performance improves as stimulus intensity increases. Male subjects seem to be less sensitive than female subjects at lower level of stimulation, but this relationship is reversed at higher levels of stimulation.

  16. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  17. The Concept and Operations of Blind Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yan-jun; LIU Kai-di; ZHANG Bo-wen

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the definition and operations of blind number, and discusses its operationproperties. Blind number is a mathematical tool to express and deal with complex information with severalkinds of uncertainty.

  18. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  19. Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160254.html Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans Losing vision would ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blindness is what many Americans fear most, a new ...

  20. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations and...

  1. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik;

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources fro...

  2. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reading lip-reading speech Along with nonverbal and verbal conversations, a child who is deaf-blind needs a reliable routine of meaningful activities, and some way or ways that this routine can be communicated to her or him. Touch cues, gestures, and use of object symbols are some ...

  3. Vesicouterine fistula and blind vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)

  4. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C;

    2010-01-01

    Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals and envi......Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals...

  5. Resources for Visually Impaired or Blind Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Suggests resources for school librarians who need materials for visually impaired or blind students. Highlights include the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired; Braille books; large print books, audio books; assistive technology; and…

  6. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  7. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blindness. 233.70 Section 233.70 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of...

  8. BLIND ADAPTIVE XPIC BASED ON HOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Haiyang; Yang Longxiang; Peng Jianglong

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new blind XPIC and a new adaptive blind deconvolutional algorithm based on HOS processing, which separates and equalizes the signals in real time. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed adaptive blind algorithm,compared with the conventional algorithms, is outstanding with the feature of feasibility, stability and fast convergence rate.

  9. From" Televised Blind Date” to" Televised Half-blind Wedding”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates” , arranged by a television station. It is interesting to see how a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding” to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that 1 think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out.

  10. From "Televised Blind Date" to "Televised Half-blind Wedding"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates", arranged by a television station, It is interesting to see bow a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding" to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that I think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out. In the beginning, the directors of FOX put ads in newspapers, openly asking the public: "Who wants to marry a multi-millionaire?" It did not cost much time or

  11. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Ruhagaze; Kahaki Kimani Margaret Njuguna; Lévi Kandeke; Paul Courtright

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. Materials and Methods: All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired be...

  12. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in Western Rwanda: Blindness in a Postconflict Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjiku Mathenge; John Nkurikiye; Hans Limburg; Hannah Kuper

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. VISION 2020, a global initiative that aims to eliminate avoidable blindness, has estimated that 75% of blindness worldwide is treatable or preventable. The WHO estimates that in Africa, around 9% of adults aged over 50 are blind. Some data suggest that people living in regions affected by violent conflict are more likely to be blind than those living in unaffected regions. Currently no data exist on the likely prevalence of blindness in Rwanda, a central African c...

  13. A semiotic approach to blind wayfinding: some primary conceptual standpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers from a wide variety of disciplines, such as philosophy, art, education or psychology, have over the years sustained the idea that blind persons are incapable or nearly incapable of formulating complex mental diagrammatic representations, which are schema based on the similarities found within internal logical relations between sign and object.Contrary to this widely accepted opinion, we will present an alternative approach in this paper: Our main idea is that blind and visually impaired people relying upon tact as a main knowledge source are capable of diagrammatic reasoning very well, but use a different method for this purpose, namely the method of inductive reasoning. Such method can effectively provide the mind with the data necessary to the elaboration of mental maps. Therefore, wayfinding as a semiotic process in which a route is planned and executed from marks or navigation indexes, is also enabled by tact.

  14. A Lattice-Based Identity-Based Proxy Blind Signature Scheme in the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A proxy blind signature scheme is a special form of blind signature which allowed a designated person called proxy signer to sign on behalf of original signers without knowing the content of the message. It combines the advantages of proxy signature and blind signature. Up to date, most proxy blind signature schemes rely on hard number theory problems, discrete logarithm, and bilinear pairings. Unfortunately, the above underlying number theory problems will be solvable in the postquantum era. Lattice-based cryptography is enjoying great interest these days, due to implementation simplicity and provable security reductions. Moreover, lattice-based cryptography is believed to be hard even for quantum computers. In this paper, we present a new identity-based proxy blind signature scheme from lattices without random oracles. The new scheme is proven to be strongly unforgeable under the standard hardness assumption of the short integer solution problem (SIS and the inhomogeneous small integer solution problem (ISIS. Furthermore, the secret key size and the signature length of our scheme are invariant and much shorter than those of the previous lattice-based proxy blind signature schemes. To the best of our knowledge, our construction is the first short lattice-based identity-based proxy blind signature scheme in the standard model.

  15. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  16. Self-Determination for Children and Young Adults Who Are Deaf-Blind. NTAC Briefing Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Susanne; Bixler, Elizabeth; McNamara, Jamie

    This paper explores how principles of self-determination apply to individuals who are deaf-blind and how it affects families, educational programming, and service delivery. Five underlying principles are identified including: all persons desire self-determination and are capable of achieving it; self-determination is a continuum; and…

  17. Touching Textures in Different Tasks by a Woman with Congenital Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Marleen J.; Huisman, Mark; Van Dijk, Jan P. M.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how persons with congenital deaf-blindness use hand movements efficiently for exploring different objects with different textures in different tasks. More knowledge in this area would contribute to the adaptations of educational strategies for encouraging touch and tactile exploration. The study presented in this article…

  18. Addressing Challenges in Web Accessibility for the Blind and Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercio, Angela; Stirbens, Kathleen A.; Williams, Joseph; Haiber, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Searching for relevant information on the web is an important aspect of distance learning. This activity is a challenge for visually impaired distance learners. While sighted people have the ability to filter information in a fast and non sequential way, blind persons rely on tools that process the information in a sequential way. Learning is…

  19. Provably secure robust threshold partial blind signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhenfu; ZHU Haojin; LU Rongxing

    2006-01-01

    Threshold digital signature and blind signature are playing important roles in cryptography as well as in practical applications such as e-cash and e-voting systems.Over the past few years, many cryptographic researchers have made considerable headway in this field. However, to our knowledge, most of existing threshold blind signature schemes are based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this paper, we propose a new robust threshold partial blind signature scheme based on improved RSA cryptosystem.This scheme is the first threshold partial blind signature scheme based on factoring, and the robustness of threshold partial blind signature is also introduced. Moreover, in practical application, the proposed scheme will be especially suitable for blind signature-based voting systems with multiple administrators and secure electronic cash systems to prevent their abuse.

  20. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  1. CERTIFICATELESS SIGNATURE AND BLIND SIGNATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lei; Zhang Futai

    2008-01-01

    Certificateless public key cryptography is a new paradigm introduced by AI-Riyami and Paterson. It eliminates the need of the certificates in traditional public key cryptosystems and the key escrow problem in IDentity-based Public Key Cryptography (ID-PKC). Due to the advantages of the certificateless public key cryptography,a new efficient certificateless pairing-based signature scheme is presented,which has some advantages over previous constructions in computational cost. Based on this new signature scheme,a certificateless blind signature scheme is proposed. The security of our schemes is proven based on the hardness of computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

  2. A Virtual Blind Cane Using a Line Laser-Based Vision System and an Inertial Measurement Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Quoc Khanh; Chee, Youngjoon; Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    A virtual blind cane system for indoor application, including a camera, a line laser and an inertial measurement unit (IMU), is proposed in this paper. Working as a blind cane, the proposed system helps a blind person find the type of obstacle and the distance to it. The distance from the user to the obstacle is estimated by extracting the laser coordinate points on the obstacle, as well as tracking the system pointing angle. The paper provides a simple method to classify the obstacle's type by analyzing the laser intersection histogram. Real experimental results are presented to show the validity and accuracy of the proposed system. PMID:26771618

  3. Application of Behavior Modification to Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Charles S.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Research and application of principles of behavior modification with visually impaired and blind children are reviewed with particular attention to lower functioning multiply impaired children. (Author)

  4. Enhanced heat discrimination in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    of the stimulated skin surface or magnitude of the temperature shift. Increasing the size of the stimulated skin area increased the response criterion in the blind (p=0.022) but not in the sighted. Together, these findings show that congenitally blind individuals have enhanced temperature discrimination accuracy...... trials (ΔT = 0°C) were also included to test for false positive responses. We used signal detection theory model to analyze the data. Our data revealed that blind participants have a higher accuracy than the sighted (d': Blind=2.4 ± 1.0, Sighted=1.8 ± 0.7, p=0.025), regardless of the size...

  5. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  6. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  7. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Building a Healthy Self-Image and Improving Self-Esteem 8 Things You Should Know About Body Dysmorphic ... personality disorder. Personality disorders are usually recognizable by adolescence or earlier, continue throughout adulthood, and become less ...

  8. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and...

  9. 75 FR 47304 - Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... COMMISSION Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf- Blind, or Have Low Vision AGENCY... accessible for people who are blind, have vision loss, or are deaf-blind and the extent to which gaps in...--that are accessible to people who are blind or have vision loss; technical obstacles, if any, to...

  10. A comparative study of simple auditory reaction time in blind (congenitally and sighted subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritesh Hariprasad Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reaction time is the time interval between the application of a stimulus and the appearance of appropriate voluntary response by a subject. It involves stimulus processing, decision making, and response programming. Reaction time study has been popular due to their implication in sports physiology. Reaction time has been widely studied as its practical implications may be of great consequence e.g., a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. Objective: To study simple auditory reaction time in congenitally blind subjects and in age sex matched sighted subjects. To compare the simple auditory reaction time between congenitally blind subjects and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: Study had been carried out in two groups: The 1 st of 50 congenitally blind subjects and 2 nd group comprises of 50 healthy controls. It was carried out on Multiple Choice Reaction Time Apparatus, Inco Ambala Ltd. (Accuracy΁0.001 s in a sitting position at Government Medical College and Hospital, Bhavnagar and at a Blind School, PNR campus, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Observations / Results: Simple auditory reaction time response with four different type of sound (horn, bell, ring, and whistle was recorded in both groups. According to our study, there is no significant different in reaction time between congenital blind and normal healthy persons. Conclusion: Blind individuals commonly utilize tactual and auditory cues for information and orientation and they reliance on touch and audition, together with more practice in using these modalities to guide behavior, is often reflected in better performance of blind relative to sighted participants in tactile or auditory discrimination tasks, but there is not any difference in reaction time between congenitally blind and sighted people.

  11. Front blind spot crashes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuk Ki; Wong, Koon Hung; Tao, Chi Hang; Tam, Cheok Ning; Tam, Yiu Yan; Tsang, Cheuk Nam

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014, our laboratory had investigated a total of 9 suspected front blind spot crashes, in which the medium and heavy goods vehicles pulled away from rest and rolled over the pedestrians, who were crossing immediately in front of the vehicles. The drivers alleged that they did not see any pedestrians through the windscreens or the front blind spot mirrors. Forensic assessment of the goods vehicles revealed the existence of front blind spot zones in 3 out of these 9 accident vehicles, which were attributed to the poor mirror adjustments or even the absence of a front blind spot mirror altogether. In view of this, a small survey was devised involving 20 randomly selected volunteers and their goods vehicles and 5 out of these vehicles had blind spots at the front. Additionally, a short questionnaire was conducted on these 20 professional lorry drivers and it was shown that most of them were not aware of the hazards of blind spots immediately in front of their vehicles, and many did not use the front blind spot mirrors properly. A simple procedure for quick measurements of the coverage of front blind spot mirrors using a coloured plastic mat with dimensional grids was also introduced and described in this paper.

  12. Economic burden of blindness in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamanna B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis is one way to determine the allocation of scarce resources for health-care programs. The initial step in this process is to estimate in economic terms the burden of diseases and the benefit from interventions for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this paper, the direct and indirect economic loss due to blindness in India is calculated on the basis of certain assumptions. The cost of treating cataract blindness in India is estimated at current prices. The economic burden of blindness in India for the year 1997 based on our assumptions is Rs. 159 billion (US$ 4.4 billion, and the cumulative loss over lifetime of the blind is Rs. 2,787 billion (US$ 77.4 billion. Childhood blindness accounts for 28.7% of this lifetime loss. The cost of treating all cases of cataract blindness in India is Rs. 5.3 billion (US$ 0.15 billion. Similar estimates for causes of blindness other than cataract have to be made in order to develop a comprehensive approach to deal with blindness in India.

  13. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  14. Blind Equalization Based on Evolution Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongYu; ZhangXianda; 等

    1997-01-01

    Conventional blind equalization algorithms suffer from ill convergence to local minima and slow convergence speed.This paper proposes a novel blind equalization algorithm.using random search methods-evolution strategies and existing cost functions,Simulation results verify the fast and global convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stationary night blindness X-linked congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  17. User-centered Technologies For Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathematical skills, navigation and orientation, and problem solving of blind children. Findings indicate significant improvements in learning and cognition from using audio-based tools specially tailored for the blind. That is, technologies for blind children, carefully tailored through user-centered design approaches, can make a significant contribution to cognitive development of these children. This paper contributes new insight into the design and implementation of audio-based virtual environments to facilitate learning and cognition in blind children.

  18. An ECC-Based Blind Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Gwo Jeng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is increasingly applied to the E-commerce world, especially to the untraceable payment system and the electronic voting system. Protocols for these systems strongly require the anonymous digital signature property, and thus a blind signature strategy is the answer to it. Chaum stated that every blind signature protocol should hold two fundamental properties, blindness and intractableness. All blind signature schemes proposed previously almost are based on the integer factorization problems, discrete logarithm problems, or the quadratic residues, which are shown by Lee et al. that none of the schemes is able to meet the two fundamental properties above. Therefore, an ECC-based blind signature scheme that possesses both the above properties is proposed in this paper.

  19. Blind reconstruction of linear scrambler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xie; Fenghua Wang; Zhitao Huang

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm based on eigenanalysis technique and Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) is proposed. The algorithm contains two steps. Firstly, the received sequence is divided into temporal windows, and a covariance matrix is computed. The li-near feedback shift register (LFSR) sequence is reconstructed from the first eigenvector of this matrix. Secondly, equations ac-cording to the recovered LFSR sequence are constructed, and the Walsh spectrum corresponding to the equations is computed. The feedback polynomial of LFSR is estimated from the Walsh spec-trum. The validity of the algorithm is verified by the simulation result. Final y, case studies are presented to il ustrate the perfor-mance of the blind reconstruction method.

  20. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  1. BLIND DIFFERENTIAL ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new blind equalization cost function, termed differential mean output energy (DMOE), was presented, and a new multiuser detection algorithm with variable step size was designed. It is shown through simulation results for a co-channel system involving severe MAI that the DMOE algorithm gives significantly enhanced signal to interference ratio (SIR) performance and converges rapidly to the optimum MMSE detector, together with a low computational complexity requirement relative to the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. Thus, it is not necessary to switch to the decision-directed mode. Moreover, it also exhibits global convergence, and can be used in different interference environment without the requirement of estimating and restricting the surplus energy.

  2. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  3. Personality traits and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G

    1998-11-01

    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  4. Methods of Reading Information on Labels of Prescription Medications by Persons Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, John M.; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of visual impairment (that is, blindness and low vision) is increasing in the United States, especially in persons aged 65 and older, with more than half of all people who are blind in this age demographic. It has been estimated that about 6.5 million Americans aged 55 and older report vision loss, and this number is expected to…

  5. Personality Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality is the integration of characteristics acquired or brought by birth which separate the individual from others. Personality involves aspects of the individual's mental, emotional, social, and physical features in continuum. Several theories were suggested to explain developmental processes of personality. Each theory concentrates on one feature of human development as the focal point, then integrates with other areas of development in general. Most theories assume that childhood, especially up to 5-6 years, has essential influence on development of personality. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors reveals a unique personality along growth and developmental process. It could be said that individual who does not have any conflict between his/her basic needs and society's, has well-developed and psychologically healthy personality.

  6. Color-blind Behavioral Specifications for Transformations of Reactive Synchronous Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    by restricting input and output abilities of the general model. I/O alternating transition systems are used to model semantics of both systems and environments. Our environments are novel in that they not only restrict possible input traces, but also exhibit inabilities in distinguishing output traces. Some...... outputs are indistinguishable for a given environment in the same way as a color-blind person cannot distinguish some colors. Color-blindness can be used to model surprisingly many aspects of realistic environments (for example causality between firing and timing-out of a stop-watch, boolean memory flags......, or use of a single actuator in place of two). The environments which are formalized as color-blind I/O-alternating transition systems, can also describe dynamic properties such as; an output that is ignored only after a certain set of other outputs....

  7. Mystery Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this coordination.…

  8. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the

  9. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  10. Blind extraction of exoplanetary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of atomic, ionic and molecular species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic both in measuring the spectra and in their interpretation, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, and for this reason, it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS in spectroscopy (Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013

  11. Compressed Blind De-convolution

    CERN Document Server

    Saligrama, V

    2009-01-01

    Suppose the signal x is realized by driving a k-sparse signal u through an arbitrary unknown stable discrete-linear time invariant system H. These types of processes arise naturally in Reflection Seismology. In this paper we are interested in several problems: (a) Blind-Deconvolution: Can we recover both the filter $H$ and the sparse signal $u$ from noisy measurements? (b) Compressive Sensing: Is x compressible in the conventional sense of compressed sensing? Namely, can x, u and H be reconstructed from a sparse set of measurements. We develop novel L1 minimization methods to solve both cases and establish sufficient conditions for exact recovery for the case when the unknown system H is auto-regressive (i.e. all pole) of a known order. In the compressed sensing/sampling setting it turns out that both H and x can be reconstructed from O(k log(n)) measurements under certain technical conditions on the support structure of u. Our main idea is to pass x through a linear time invariant system G and collect O(k lo...

  12. Iterated Gate Teleportation and Blind Quantum Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2015-06-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraint only holds in limited scenarios, and show how to overcome it using a novel method of iterated gate teleportations. This technique enables drastic reductions in the communication required for distributed quantum protocols, extending beyond the blind computation setting. Applied to blind quantum computation, this technique offers significant efficiency improvements, and in some scenarios offers an exponential reduction in communication requirements. PMID:26196609

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  14. Assertive Skills Training for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Gary; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The article describes how a rehabilitation center for the blind, aware that many clients were inept in dealing with society at large, instituted an assertive skills training program to improve client skills in this area. (Author/SBH)

  15. From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Arshamian, Artin; Nilsson, Mats E.; Larsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity. PMID:27729884

  16. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswara Rao Valluri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  17. Haptic graphs for blind computer users

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, W; Ramloll, R.; Brewster, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design of computer-based haptic graphs for blind and visually impaired people with the support of our preliminary experimental results. Since visual impairment makes data visualisation techniques inappropriate for blind people, we are developing a system that can make graphs accessible through haptic and audio media. The disparity between human haptic perception and the sensation simulated by force feedback devices is discussed. Our strategies to tackle technical ...

  18. New Certificateless Blind Ring Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Sun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new certificateless blind ring signature scheme was proposed in this paper. The scheme could not only avoid the problem of certificate management of public key certificate cryptography, but also overcome the inherent key-escrow problem of identity-based public key cryptography. In the last, by using bilinear pairing technique, it was proved that this scheme satisfied the security of existential unforgeability, blindness and unconditional anonymity.

  19. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  20. Can acupuncture treatment be double-blinded?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari;

    2015-01-01

    and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed "de qi" in East Asian medicine), and patients' pain levels were assessed...... is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in the assessment of acupuncture treatment....

  1. Blind Alley Aware ACO Routing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Otani, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    The routing problem is applied to various engineering fields. Many researchers study this problem. In this paper, we propose a new routing algorithm which is based on Ant Colony Optimization. The proposed algorithm introduces the tabu search mechanism to escape the blind alley. Thus, the proposed algorithm enables to find the shortest route, even if the map data contains the blind alley. Experiments using map data prove the effectiveness in comparison with Dijkstra algorithm which is the most popular conventional routing algorithm.

  2. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data......-related obstacles when shopping for food, cooking and eating out, all of which contribute to underexpose the gustatory system to a larger variety of taste stimuli....

  3. 42 CFR 435.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 435.530 Section 435.530... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the same definition of blindness as used under SSI,...

  4. 42 CFR 436.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 436.530 Section 436.530... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the definition of blindness that is used in the State plan for AB or AABD. (b) State...

  5. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied.On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up,and the calculation boundary conditions were analyzed.According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics software.The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained.The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimization.The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were obtained.The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed,which provided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer,the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency,provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  6. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up, and the calculation boundary condi-tions were analyzed. According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics soft-ware. The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained. The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimiza-tion. The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were ob-tained. The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed, which pro-vided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer, the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency, provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  7. Personalized ophthalmology

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, LF; Black, GCM

    2014-01-01

    Porter L.F., Black G.C.M. Personalized ophthalmology. Clin Genet 2014: 86: 1–11. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2014 Ophthalmology has been an early adopter of personalized medicine. Drawing on genomic advances to improve molecular diagnosis, such as next-generation sequencing, and basic and translational research to develop novel therapies, application of genetic technologies in ophthalmology now heralds developm...

  8. The Blinds Shop Company Limited Brand Identity Project

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Blinds Shop offers made to measure window blinds catering to all markets across Ireland. The Blinds Shop required a clean, bold and modern logo using fresh colours and imagery. Peter Dee - Strategic Design and Marketing Consultant, was responsible for the design and development of the brand identity for the The Blinds Shop Company Limited which was used on business cards, letterhead, promotional information, uniforms, advertising and e-Commerce website. The Blinds Shop is a retailer...

  9. The Prevention of Blindness-Past, Present and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira; Nakajima

    1992-01-01

    Prevention of blindness is the most important aim of ophthalmology. Prevention of blindness is related to many factors. It is related to many factors, such as science and technology, economy and social behavior. There are worldwide activities by WHO, NGOs and other functions to promote the prevention of blindness in the world. More than 90% of blind population lives in developing world. Cataract is the top causes of blindness which is curable. Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in west Africa and cent...

  10. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ruhagaze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. Materials and Methods: All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Results: Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2% were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%, followed by lens pathology (18.3%, uveal lesions (14.7% and optic nerve lesions (11.9%. In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%. More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. Conclusion: The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  11. Protection of mobile location privacy by using blind signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Jian; QI Ying-hao; HUANG Pei-wei; RONG Meng-tian; LI Sheng-hong

    2006-01-01

    Location privacy means a user keeps his/her geographical location secret. If location information falls into the wrong hands, an adversary can physically locate a person. To address this privacy issue, Qi et al.(2004a; 2004b) proposed a special and feasible architecture, using blind signature to generate an authorized anonymous ID replacing the real ID of a legitimate mobile user. The original purpose of his architecture was to eliminate the relationship of authorized anonymous ID and real ID. We present an algorithm to break out Qi's registration and re-confusion protocol, and then propose a new mechanism based on bilinear pairings to protect location privacy. Moreover we show that the administrator or third parity cannot obtain information on the legitimate user's authorized anonymous ID and real ID in our proposed protocols.

  12. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  13. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  14. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike;

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  15. Disabled person: construction of concept by this population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to build the concept of disabled person. Methods: study of analysis of concept using the phases field work andstatistical analysis with 120 individuals divided into three groups of 40 people with hearing, visual and motor disability.Results: there was predomination of men (68%, 18-29 years old (55%, with superior education (35% and married/common-law married (75%. The attribute accepted was person with limitation and still able to perform activity, witha difference between groups (p = 0.018; the keyword accepted was limitation (p = 0.001; the expression was disabledperson, with intergroup difference (p = 0.013. Concept of choice by group was deaf (97.51%; blind (45% and person withvisual disability (45% and; person with physical disability (27.5%. Conclusion: attributes, keywords used in the literatureand public policy were not accepted. They prefer to be called deaf; blind or visually impaired; They reject people with motordisability and wheelchair user.

  16. Brief mindfulness induction reduces inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Creswell, J David; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Prior research has linked mindfulness to improvements in attention, and suggested that the effects of mindfulness are particularly pronounced when individuals are cognitively depleted or stressed. Yet, no studies have tested whether mindfulness improves declarative awareness of unexpected stimuli in goal-directed tasks. Participants (N=794) were either depleted (or not) and subsequently underwent a brief mindfulness induction (or not). They then completed an inattentional blindness task during which an unexpected distractor appeared on the computer monitor. This task was used to assess declarative conscious awareness of the unexpected distractor's presence and the extent to which its perceptual properties were encoded. Mindfulness increased awareness of the unexpected distractor (i.e., reduced rates of inattentional blindness). Contrary to predictions, no mindfulness×depletion interaction emerged. Depletion however, increased perceptual encoding of the distractor. These results suggest that mindfulness may foster awareness of unexpected stimuli (i.e., reduce inattentional blindness).

  17. Non-blind watermarking of network flows

    CERN Document Server

    Houmansadr, Amir; Borisov, Nikita

    2012-01-01

    Linking network flows is an important problem in intrusion detection as well as anonymity. Passive traffic analysis can link flows but requires long periods of observation to reduce errors. Active traffic analysis, also known as flow watermarking, allows for better precision and is more scalable. Previous flow watermarks introduce significant delays to the traffic flow as a side effect of using a blind detection scheme; this enables attacks that detect and remove the watermark, while at the same time slowing down legitimate traffic. We propose the first non-blind approach for flow watermarking, called RAINBOW, that improves watermark invisibility by inserting delays hundreds of times smaller than previous blind watermarks, hence reduces the watermark interference on network flows. We derive and analyze the optimum detectors for RAINBOW as well as the passive traffic analysis under different traffic models by using hypothesis testing. Comparing the detection performance of RAINBOW and the passive approach we o...

  18. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.C. van den Bosch; R. Verheul

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is s

  19. Personalized nanomedicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, T.G.G.M.; Rizzo, L.Y.; Storm, G.; Kiessling, F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Personalized medicine aims to individualize chemotherapeutic interventions on the basis of ex vivo and in vivo information on patient- and disease-specific characteristics. By noninvasively visualizing how well image-guided nanomedicines-that is, submicrometer-sized drug delivery systems c

  20. Personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analyzed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  1. Blindness and cataract in children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Gogate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Blindness in children is considered a priority area for VISION 2020, as visually impaired children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them. Various studies across the globe show that one-third to half of childhood blindness is either preventable or treatable1 and that cataract is the leading treatable cause of blindness in children.The 8th General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB provided an opportunity to be acquainted with recent research and programme development work in the prevention of childhood blindness.

  2. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  3. Blind source separation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies    The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method.  Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers

  4. Assembling the elephant: Integrating perspectives in personality psychology. Comment on "Personality from a cognitive-biological perspective" by Y. Neuman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Holland, Elise

    2014-12-01

    Neuman [1] has made an ambitious attempt to integrate perspectives on the psychology of personality that usually run in parallel. The field calls to mind the fable of the blind men and the elephant: each perspective makes different claims about the person based on the aspect it apprehends. Neuman links cognition, affective neuroscience and psychodynamics in a bold effort to sketch the entire beast. However, his hefty framework has some elephantine elements, and is at times conceptually loose and baggy.

  5. Personalized Search

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749939

    2015-01-01

    As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.

  6. Personal Beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

  7. "The man who made Peekskill famous": Dr. C.R. Johnston--first blind chiropractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, W S

    1998-12-01

    Can a blind person be taught the art and science of chiropractic? If so, can a blind chiropractor be successful in practice? In 1918, Charles Robinson "C.R." Johnston, at the age of thirty-nine, was graduated from the Palmer School of Chiropractic--becoming not only the first blind D.C., but also one of the best known and most successful of his era. He practiced for twenty-five years in the small Hudson Valley community of Peekskill, New York, where his reputation as a "miracle healer" attracted hundreds of patients each week. The local press dubbed him "The Man Who Made Peekskill Famous." C.R. Johnston had come a long way from the Nevada mining camp where he was born. Accidentally blinded at age twenty-seven, he achieved notable success as a merchant before seeming to defy logic in choosing to begin again in a controversial new profession. But his attainments in chiropractic became equally inspirational... and the stuff of legend. PMID:11623685

  8. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An ... group of conditions that can result in irreversible blindness. This vision loss can be reduced if glaucoma ...

  9. Warming Endotracheal Tube in Blind Nasotracheal Intubation throughout Maxillofacial Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Hosseinzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, our study showed that using an endotracheal tube softened by warm water could reduce the incidence and severity of epistaxis during blind nasotracheal intubation; however it could not facilitate blind nasotracheal intubation.

  10. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Category All Advocacy Assessment/Evaluation Audio, Braille or ... Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Browse All Search Categories About the Directory Request ...

  11. If I am Blind or Deaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新颖

    2005-01-01

    For some time,l wished to be blind or deaf so that I could avoid the sight or the sound from having driven me mad.The majority of people must object the idea that the dark life maybe more beautiful than the life full of limitations and unhappiness.

  12. Vision after 53 Years of Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Šikl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that visual recovery after blindness that occurs early in life is never complete. The current study investigated whether an extremely long period of blindness might also cause a permanent impairment of visual performance, even in a case of adult-onset blindness. We examined KP, a 71-year-old man who underwent a successful sight-restoring operation after 53 years of blindness. A set of psychophysical tests designed to assess KP's face perception, object recognition, and visual space perception abilities were conducted six months and eight months after the surgery. The results demonstrate that regardless of a lengthy period of normal vision and rich pre-accident perceptual experience, KP did not fully integrate this experience, and his visual performance remained greatly compromised. This was particularly evident when the tasks targeted finer levels of perceptual processing. In addition to the decreased robustness of his memory representations, which was hypothesized as the main factor determining visual impairment, other factors that may have affected KP's performance were considered, including compromised visual functions, problems with perceptual organization, deficits in the simultaneous processing of visual information, and reduced cognitive abilities.

  13. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  14. Usage of Blinds Software in Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Fatema El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2006-01-01

    The research reviews some of blinds software used in libraries, it reviews the following software : JAWS, Zoomtext, Kurzuail. Then deals the services offered by the software in libraries, these services are : pronouncing the written texts, printing in Brail method, educational software for computer, browsing the internet, and enlarging texts on the screen.

  15. Cognitive Development in Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Robert K.

    The paper reviews the literature and proposes a study on how nonlanguage deaf/blind children (ages 2 to 14) match and classify, the age at which the skills are reached, and the role of language in the process. The theories of J. Piaget and J. Bruner on the importance of language in stage development are explored. The Ss would be matched for age…

  16. CI-TAB: View for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Ken

    1979-01-01

    The article describes the development and content of a comprehensive career education program for blind elementary and secondary students. Eight areas are explored in the program: job search skills, job behavior, hygiene and grooming, purchase habits, budgeting, banking, home management, and health care. (CL)

  17. Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-18

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  18. Wavelet coherence analysis of change blindness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change blindness is the incapability of the brain to detect substantial visual changes in the presence of other visual interruption. The objectives of this study are to examine the EEG (Electroencephalographic) based changes in functional connectivity of the brain due to the change blindness. The functional connectivity was estimated using the wavelet-based MSC (Magnitude Square Coherence) function of ERPs (Event Related Potentials). The ERPs of 30 subjects were used and were recorded using the visual attention experiment in which subjects were instructed to detect changes in visual stimulus presented before them through the computer monitor. The two-way ANOVA statistical test revealed significant increase in both gamma and theta band MSCs, and significant decrease in beta band MSC for change detection trials. These findings imply that change blindness might be associated to the lack of functional connectivity in gamma and theta bands and increase of functional connectivity in beta band. Since gamma, theta, and beta frequency bands reflect different functions of cognitive process such as maintenance, encoding, retrieval, and matching and work load of VSTM (Visual Short Term Memory), the change in functional connectivity might be correlated to these cognitive processes during change blindness. (author)

  19. A Survey of Daily Trips of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired Living in Communities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Michiko

    2009-01-01

    According to the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan (2006), there are 379,000 persons with visual impairments (both those who are blind and those with low vision) in Japan. Of these persons, 30% travel almost daily, 30% travel two to three days per week, 22% travel two to three days per month, and 11% travel several days a year; in…

  20. The sensory construction of dreams and nightmare frequency in congenitally blind and late blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Jennum, Poul; Ptito, Maurice;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess dream content in groups of congenitally blind (CB), late blind (LB), and age- and sex-matched sighted control (SC) participants. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of 11 CB, 14 LB, and 25 SC participants and collected dream reports over a 4-week period....... Every morning participants filled in a questionnaire related to the sensory construction of the dream, its emotional and thematic content, and the possible occurrence of nightmares. We also assessed participants' ability of visual imagery during waking cognition, sleep quality, and depression...... and anxiety levels. RESULTS: All blind participants had fewer visual dream impressions compared to SC participants. In LB participants, duration of blindness was negatively correlated with duration, clarity, and color content of visual dream impressions. CB participants reported more auditory, tactile...

  1. Perbandingan Efektivitas Ishihara Colour Blind Test dan Farnsworth Munsell Colour Blind Test di Fakuktas di Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Sumatera Utara Tahun 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Indriati, Dwi Meutia

    2015-01-01

    Colour blindness is a disease caused by the inability of cone cells to capture a certain colour spectrum. Colour blindness is generally more contained on the male than the females with a 20:1 ratio. Colour blindness can be diagnosed with several test which Ishihar Colour Blind Test and Farnworth Munsell Colour Blind Test. The purpose of this research was to see a comparison the effectiveness between Ishihara Colour Blind Test with Farmsworth Munsell Colour Blind Test at the Faculty Dentist...

  2. Ya "See" What We Mean: Teaching the Blind to Ski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Doug; Winthers, Jim

    The illustrated manual contains instructions for teaching blind and partially sighted students to ski. It is noted that blind students should be coached, instructed, and encouraged in the same manner as sighted students although additional safety precautions should be employed. Psychological implications for the blind student learning to ski are…

  3. Restrictive partially blind signature for resource-constrained information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Weidong; Gong, Zheng; Liu, Bozhong; Long, Yu; Chen, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    Restrictive partially blind signature, which is designed for privacy oriented information systems, allows a user to obtain a blind signature from a signer whilst the blind message must obey some certain rules. In order to reduce storage and communication costs, several public-key cryptosystems are c

  4. Characteristics of Individuals with Congenital and Acquired Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Dawn M.; Hirdes, John P.; Stolee, Paul; Strong, J. Graham; Poss, Jeff; Tjam, Erin Y.; Bowman, Lindsay; Ashworth, Melody

    2009-01-01

    Using a standardized assessment instrument, the authors compared 182 adults with congenital deaf-blindness and those with acquired deaf-blindness. They found that those with congenital deaf-blindness were more likely to have impairments in cognition, activities of daily living, and social interactions and were less likely to use speech for…

  5. 42 CFR 435.531 - Determinations of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determinations of blindness. 435.531 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.531 Determinations of blindness. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, in determining blindness— (1)...

  6. OUR BLIND CHILDREN, GROWING AND LEARNING WITH THEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOWENFELD, BERTHOLD

    WRITTEN AS AN AID TO PARENTS, THIS BOOK PRESENTS FACTS ON BLINDNESS AND PRACTICAL INFORMATION ON THE REARING OF BLIND CHILDREN FROM INFANCY THROUGH ADOLESCENCE. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ABOUT TEACHING BLIND CHILDREN SKILLS AND HABITS RELATED TO EATING, TOILET TRAINING, SLEEPING, DRESSING, WALKING, TALKING, AND PLAYING. SCHOOLING AND RELATED QUESTIONS…

  7. Comparison of Quality of Life and Social Skills between Students with Visual Problems (Blind and Partially Blind) and Normal Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Kordestani; Azam Daneshfar; Davood Roustaee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the quality of life and social skills between students who are visually impaired (blind and partially blind) and normal students. The population consisted of all students with visual problems (blind and partially blind) and normal students in secondary schools in Tehran in the academic year 2013-2014. Using a multi-stage random sampling method, 40 students were selected from each group. The SF-36s quality of life questionnaire and Foster and Inderbitzen social skil...

  8. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  9. Creative thought as blind-variation and selective-retention: Combinatorial models of exceptional creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2010-06-01

    Campbell (1960) proposed that creative thought should be conceived as a blind-variation and selective-retention process (BVSR). This article reviews the developments that have taken place in the half century that has elapsed since his proposal, with special focus on the use of combinatorial models as formal representations of the general theory. After defining the key concepts of blind variants, creative thought, and disciplinary context, the combinatorial models are specified in terms of individual domain samples, variable field size, ideational combination, and disciplinary communication. Empirical implications are then derived with respect to individual, domain, and field systems. These abstract combinatorial models are next provided substantive reinforcement with respect to findings concerning the cognitive processes, personality traits, developmental factors, and social contexts that contribute to creativity. The review concludes with some suggestions regarding future efforts to explicate creativity according to BVSR theory.

  10. A New ID-Based Proxy Blind Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Wei-min; YANG Zong-kai; CHENG Wen-qing; TAN Yun-meng

    2005-01-01

    An identity-based proxy blind signature scheme from bilinear pairings is introduced, which combines the advantages of proxy signature and blind signature. Furthermore, our scheme can prevent the original signer from generating the proxy blind signature, thus the profits of the proxy signer are guaranteed. We introduce bilinear pairings to minimize computational overhead and to improve the related performance of our scheme. In addition, the proxy blind signature presented is non-repudiable and it fulfills perfectly the security requirements of a proxy blind signature.

  11. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  12. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  13. Blind Stereoscopy of the Coronal Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus J; Malanushenko, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We test the feasibility of 3D coronal-loop tracing in stereoscopic EUV image pairs, with the ultimate goal of enabling efficient 3D reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field that drives flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We developed an automated code designed to perform triangulation of coronal loops in pairs (or triplets) of EUV images recorded from different perspectives. The automated (or blind) stereoscopy code includes three major tasks: (i) automated pattern recognition of coronal loops in EUV images, (ii) automated pairing of corresponding loop patterns from two different aspect angles, and (iii) stereoscopic triangulation of 3D loop coordinates. We perform tests with simulated stereoscopic EUV images and quantify the accuracy of all three procedures. In addition we test the performance of the blind stereoscopy code as a function of the spacecraft-separation angle and as a function of the spatial resolution. We also test the sensitivity to magnetic non-potentiality. The automated code develo...

  14. Autobiographic narratives of congenital blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, intended at investigating, together with men and women who suffer from congenital visual impairment, how they felt about diversity, body image, self-esteem and vanity. The investigation of autobiographical accounts was the option for this study. Initially, 20 (twenty interviews were analyzed and 6 (six autobiographical accounts, selected from the peculiarities of each single interviewee – each one containing his/her single life lessons - followed suit. The conclusion reached is that the subjects had undergone an exhausting process of acceptance of their own impairment. If, on the one hand, the blindness comes with angst, uncertainties, and many difficulties, on the other hand, these circumstances lead the blind to face the ups and downs of life with courage, determination and will to live. Surprisingly, in the study the body was not approached at a source of concern or are which should be emphasized.

  15. Blind Estimation of Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yuanning; Poor, H Vincent; Koivunen, Visa

    2007-01-01

    Multiple carrier-frequency offsets (CFO) arise in a distributed antenna system, where data are transmitted simultaneously from multiple antennas. In such systems the received signal contains multiple CFOs due to mismatch between the local oscillators of transmitters and receiver. This results in a time-varying rotation of the data constellation, which needs to be compensated for at the receiver before symbol recovery. This paper proposes a new approach for blind CFO estimation and symbol recovery. The received base-band signal is over-sampled, and its polyphase components are used to formulate a virtual Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) problem. By applying blind MIMO system estimation techniques, the system response is estimated and used to subsequently transform the multiple CFOs estimation problem into many independent single CFO estimation problems. Furthermore, an initial estimate of the CFO is obtained from the phase of the MIMO system response. The Cramer-Rao Lower bound is also derived, and the la...

  16. Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Barz, Stefanie; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. We demonstrate various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover algorithms. Remarkably, the client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for future unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  17. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  18. The blind loop syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B A; Karrer, F M; Hall, R J; Lilly, J R

    1990-08-01

    Anatomical abnormalities of the small bowel that cause intestinal stagnation result in bacterial overgrowth and a blind loop syndrome (BLS). Bacterial breakdown of bile salts and deamination of protein lead to malabsorption, steatorrhea, and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies. Four children developed BLS as a complication of necrotizing enterocolitis, jejunal atresia, gastroschisis, and biliary atresia. BLS was suggested by abdominal pain, feculent vomiting, steatorrhea, and hypoalbuminemia. Dilated, stagnant bowel loops were demonstrated in each instance by upper gastrointestinal contrast study. Positive intestinal bacterial aspirates were confirmatory. Antibiotic treatment in two patients improved symptomatology but all children ultimately required surgery. Surgical procedures consisted of blind loop resection, intestinal plication, and catheterization of the bilioenteric conduit. All patients are now asymptomatic but one child suffers from parenteral nutrition-related cirrhosis and another requires chronic antibiotic therapy.

  19. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent

  20. BLIND NASAL INTUBATION IN CRANIOROFACIAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R.DavidThakaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restricted mouth opening presents one of the greatest challenges to the anesthetist for endotracheal intubation and ventilation. Awake blind nasal intubation has been one of the finest and favored techniques for intubation in previous decades for restricted mouth opening patients. A coordinated team approach, monitoring and adequate counseling of the patient is mandatory for the airway management to carry out a safe surgical procedure

  1. Blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Peizhong; LI Shen; ZOU Yan; LUO Xiangyang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes which is an important problem in adaptive modulation and coding. For a given finite sequence of convolutional code, the parity check matrix of the convolutional code is first computed by solving a linear system with adequate error tolerance. Then a minimal basic encoding matrix of the original convolutional code and its puncturing pattern are determined according to the known parity check matrix of the punctured convolutional code.

  2. Social Sciences for the Prevention of Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Organizations working for the elimination of Chlamydia-triggered blindness (trachoma) follow the WHO SAFE strategy (surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, face washing and environmental changes) with the aim to achieve a minimum of 80% of children with clean faces in endemic communities, mass treatment covering the whole district with trachoma rates of 10% or more and surveillance plans. Trachoma recurrence that is common after implementing the SAFE strategy 3, 5 or even 7 times evidence that t...

  3. Blind surveys for radio pulsars and transients

    OpenAIRE

    Lorimer, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The main reasons for searching for pulsars are to: (i) get an accurate census of the neutron star population and its origin and evolution; (ii) connect neutron stars to other stellar populations in the Galaxy and globular clusters; (iii) study Galactic astronomy (the interstellar medium and magnetic field); (iv) find and study new interesting individual objects; (v) study pulsar phenomenology; (vi) find pulsars to add to the sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays. This review focuses on blind (i...

  4. Broadband Venetian Blind polarizer with dual vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Imbriale, William A.

    1993-05-01

    During development of a Venetian Blind polarizer, high reflections and substantial pattern deformation were noted. Analysis showed that when the polarizer was illuminated slightly off axis, a degenerate mode was excited. This mode is resonant at the design center frequency, and was the cause of the problems. A design developed using dual vanes has been shown to be free of the problem. It also has greater bandwidth.

  5. Blind Source Separation: the Sparsity Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bobin, J.; Starck, Jean-Luc; Moudden, Y.; Fadili, Jalal M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, the development of multi-channel sensors motivated interest in methods for the coherent processing of multivariate data. Some specific issues have already been addressed as testified by the wide literature on the so-called blind source separation (BSS) problem. In this context, as clearly emphasized by previous work, it is fundamental that the sources to be retrieved present some quantitatively measurable diversity. Recently, sparsity and morphological diversity have ...

  6. Application of Array Measurement in Blind Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 孙连明; 刘文江

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with blind identification and deconvolution algorithm for an arbitrary, possibly white or colored, stationary or nonstationary signal, which is observed through array sensors. By using multiple sensors with their individual outputs sampled at a rate 1/T, one can obtain cyclostationary signals. They can be considered as a single-input multiple-output model with an identical but unknown input signal. With the array measurement, an algorithm for estimating the system transfer function model and its parameters is presented.

  7. Change blindness: eradication of gestalt strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Steve; Goddard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Arrays of eight, texture-defined rectangles were used as stimuli in a one-shot change blindness (CB) task where there was a 50% chance that one rectangle would change orientation between two successive presentations separated by an interval. CB was eliminated by cueing the target rectangle in the first stimulus, reduced by cueing in the interval and unaffected by cueing in the second presentation. This supports the idea that a representation was formed that persisted through the interval befo...

  8. A Completely Blind Video Integrity Oracle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Anish; Saad, Michele A; Bovik, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made toward developing still picture perceptual quality analyzers that do not require any reference picture and that are not trained on human opinion scores of distorted images. However, there do not yet exist any such completely blind video quality assessment (VQA) models. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by developing a new VQA model called the video intrinsic integrity and distortion evaluation oracle (VIIDEO). The new model does not require the use of any additional information other than the video being quality evaluated. VIIDEO embodies models of intrinsic statistical regularities that are observed in natural vidoes, which are used to quantify disturbances introduced due to distortions. An algorithm derived from the VIIDEO model is thereby able to predict the quality of distorted videos without any external knowledge about the pristine source, anticipated distortions, or human judgments of video quality. Even with such a paucity of information, we are able to show that the VIIDEO algorithm performs much better than the legacy full reference quality measure MSE on the LIVE VQA database and delivers performance comparable with a leading human judgment trained blind VQA model. We believe that the VIIDEO algorithm is a significant step toward making real-time monitoring of completely blind video quality possible. PMID:26599970

  9. Corona solar blind ultraviolet image detecting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li-min; Tang, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu

    2009-07-01

    Corona is one of important reasons of electrical energy loss in the electric power. According to incomplete statistics, corona loss electrical energy has achieved two thousands and fifty millions kW.h in our nation every year. Sometimes corona also can have some disturbance to radio and communication. Therefore to discover and examine corona promptly has the extremely vital significance for conserving energy and realizing high quality communication. Ultraviolet image detecting technology is a preferred corona detection method in electric power. It may realize all-weather reliable survey to corona. The solar blind ultraviolet signal discharged by corona is quite weak. Moreover the ultraviolet image quality has been affected seriously by the detection system noise. A corona solar blind ultraviolet image processing method is proposed in this paper. Ultraviolet image has so small target, low contrast image, district characteristic and real-time demand that it is processed by multi-scale ultraviolet morphology filter technology based on mathematics morphology in this paper. Results show that the method can stretch image contrast, enhance target and weaken noise. The algorithm is easy to deal in parallel and it can be realized easily by hardware. It will be accurately demarcated when the condition of device need to be absolutely measured. The paper proposes a kind of mathematics morphology algorithm. Solar blind ultraviolet image will be further processed according to temperature and humidity in order to remove the infection of corona discharge demarcation and solve correct demarcation question when equipment condition need to be absolutely measured.

  10. Hypersensitivity to pain in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Hocine; Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2013-10-01

    Vision is important for avoiding encounters with objects in the environment that may imperil physical integrity. We tested whether, in the absence of vision, a lower pain threshold would arise from an adaptive shift to other sensory channels. We therefore measured heat and cold pain thresholds and responses to suprathreshold heat stimuli in 2 groups of congenitally blind and matched normal-sighted participants. We also assessed detection thresholds for innocuous warmth and cold, and participants' attitude toward painful encounters in daily life. Our results show that, compared to sighted subjects, congenitally blind subjects have lower heat pain thresholds, rate suprathreshold heat pain stimuli as more painful, and have increased sensitivity for cold pain stimuli. Thresholds for nonpainful thermal stimulation did not differ between groups. The results of the pain questionnaires further indicated that blind subjects are more attentive to signals of external threats. These findings indicate that the absence of vision from birth induces a hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, lending new support to a model of sensory integration of vision and pain processing. PMID:24040972

  11. IMPROVED COVARIANCE DRIVEN BLIND SUBSPACE IDENTIFICATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiyi; FAN Jiangling; HUA Hongxing

    2006-01-01

    An improved covariance driven subspace identification method is presented to identify the weakly excited modes. In this method, the traditional Hankel matrix is replaced by a reformed one to enhance the identifiability of weak characteristics. The robustness of eigenparameter estimation to noise contamination is reinforced by the improved Hankel matrix. In combination with component energy index (CEI) which indicates the vibration intensity of signal components, an alternative stabilization diagram is adopted to effectively separate spurious and physical modes. Simulation of a vibration system of multiple-degree-of-freedom and experiment of a frame structure subject to wind excitation are presented to demonstrate the improvement of the proposed blind method. The performance of this blind method is assessed in terms of its capability in extracting the weak modes as well as the accuracy of estimated parameters. The results have shown that the proposed blind method gives a better estimation of the weak modes from response signals of small signal to noise ratio (SNR)and gives a reliable separation of spurious and physical estimates.

  12. Blindness and the age of enlightenment: Diderot's letter on the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E; Smith, Don B

    2013-01-01

    Several months after anonymously publishing an essay in 1749 with the title "Letter on the Blind for the Use of Those Who Can See," the chief editor of the French Encyclopédie was arrested and taken to the prison fortress of Vincennes just east of Paris, France. The correctly assumed author, Denis Diderot, was 35 years old and had not yet left his imprint on the Age of Enlightenment. His letter, which recounted the life of Nicolas Saunderson, a blind mathematician, was intended to advance secular empiricism and disparage the religiously tinged rationalism put forward by Rene Descartes. The letter's discussion of sensory perception in men born blind dismissed the supposed primacy of visual imagery in abstract thinking. The essay did little to resolve any philosophical controversy, but it marked a turning point in Western attitudes toward visual disability.

  13. Blindness and the age of enlightenment: Diderot's letter on the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E; Smith, Don B

    2013-01-01

    Several months after anonymously publishing an essay in 1749 with the title "Letter on the Blind for the Use of Those Who Can See," the chief editor of the French Encyclopédie was arrested and taken to the prison fortress of Vincennes just east of Paris, France. The correctly assumed author, Denis Diderot, was 35 years old and had not yet left his imprint on the Age of Enlightenment. His letter, which recounted the life of Nicolas Saunderson, a blind mathematician, was intended to advance secular empiricism and disparage the religiously tinged rationalism put forward by Rene Descartes. The letter's discussion of sensory perception in men born blind dismissed the supposed primacy of visual imagery in abstract thinking. The essay did little to resolve any philosophical controversy, but it marked a turning point in Western attitudes toward visual disability. PMID:23307219

  14. From Personal Environment to Personal Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, Bernadette; Henry, France; Peraya, Daniel; Gillet, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In the scientific literature, the Personal Environment has been described as a “new” resource to the learning process and named Personal Learning Environment. However, it has not yet been demonstrated in what way and to what extent Personal Environments contribute significantly and efficiently to the learning processes and outcomes framed by Higher Education programs. Our position paper aims firstly at defining Personal Environment. Secondly, it will suggest conditions under which Personal En...

  15. PARENT Quick Blind Round-Robin Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braatz, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heasler, Patrick G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) whose goal is to investigate the effectiveness of current and novel nondestructive examination procedures and techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. This is to be done by conducting a series of open and blind international round-robin tests on a set of piping components that include large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds. The blind testing is being conducted in two segments, one is called Quick-Blind and the other is called Blind. The Quick-Blind testing and destructive analysis of the test blocks has been completed. This report describes the four Quick-Blind test blocks used, summarizes their destructive analysis, gives an overview of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques applied, provides an analysis inspection data, and presents the conclusions drawn.

  16. Untraceable partially blind signature based on DLOG problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Ke-fei; Kou, Wei-dong

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new untraceable Partially Blind Signature scheme which is a cross between the traditional signature scheme and the blind signature scheme. In this proposed scheme, the message M that the signer signed can be divided into two parts. The first part can be known to the signer (like that in the traditional signature scheme) while the other part cannot be known to the signer (like that in the blind signature scheme). After having signed M, the signer cannot determine if he has made the signature of M except through the part that he knows. We draw ideas from Brands' "Restricted Blind Signature" to solve the Untraceable Partially Blind Signature problem. Our scheme is a probabilistic signature scheme and the security of our Untraceable Partially Blind Signature scheme relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithm. PMID:14663850

  17. A NEW EFFICIENT ID-BASED PROXY BLIND SIGNATURE SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yang; Wang Yumin

    2008-01-01

    In a proxy blind signature scheme, the proxy signer is allowed to generate a blind signature on behalf of the original signer. The proxy blind signature scheme is useful in several applications such as e-voting, e-payment, etc. Recently, Zheng, et al. presented an IDentity (ID)-based proxy blind signature. In this paper, a new efficient ID-based proxy blind signature scheme from bilinear pairings is proposed, which can satisfy the security properties of both the proxy signatures and the blind signature schemes. Analysis of the scheme efficiency shows that the new scheme is more efficient than Zheng, et al.'s scheme. The proposed scheme is more practical in the real world.

  18. Untraceable partially blind signature based on DLOG problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zheng(黄征); CHEN Ke-fei(陈克非); KOU Wei-dong(寇卫东)

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new untraceable Partially Blind Signature scheme which is a cross between the traditional signature scheme and the blind signature scheme. In this proposed scheme, the message M that the signer signed can be divided into two parts. The first part can be known to the signer (like that in the traditional signature scheme) while the other part cannot be known to the signer (like that in the blind signature scheme). After having signed M, the signer cannot determine if he has made the signature of M except through the part that he knows. We draw ideas from Brands' "Restricted Blind Signature" to solve the Untraceable Partially Blind Signature problem. Our scheme is a probabilistic signature scheme and the security of our Untraceable Partially Blind Signature scheme relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithm.

  19. Enhanced chemosensory detection of negative emotions in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Katrine D.; Ptito, Maurice; Møller, Per;

    2015-01-01

    blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants' abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from...... donors who had been watching excerpts from emotional movies showing amusement, fear, disgust, or sexual arousal. Our results show that congenitally blind subjects outperformed sighted controls in identifying fear from male donors. In addition, there was a strong tendency that blind individuals were also...... better in detecting disgust. Our findings reveal that congenitally blind individuals are better at identifying ecologically important emotions and provide new insights into the mechanisms of social and affective communication in blindness....

  20. Causes of childhood blindness in the northeastern states of India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee Harsha; Das Kalyan; Borah Rishi; Guha Kamalesh; Gogate Parikshit; Purukayastha S; Gilbert Clare

    2008-01-01

    Background: The northeastern region (NER) of India is geographically isolated and ethno-culturally different from the rest of the country. There is lacuna regarding the data on causes of blindness and severe visual impairment in children from this region. Aim: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness amongst children from schools for the blind in the four states of NER of India. Design and Setting: Survey of children attending special education schools for the b...

  1. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hornby Stella; Adolph Shajan; Gothwal Vijaya; Gilbert Clare; Dandona Lalit; Foster Allen

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs) Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for ...

  2. ITERATIVE MULTICHANNEL BLIND DECONVOLUTION METHOD FOR TEMPORALLY COLORED SOURCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Mingjian; Wei Gang

    2004-01-01

    An iterative separation approach, i.e. source signals are extracted and removed one by one, is proposed for multichannel blind deconvolution of colored signals. Each source signal is extracted in two stages: a filtered version of the source signal is first obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem, which is then followed by a single channel blind deconvolution based on ensemble learning. Simulation demonstrates the capability of the approach to perform efficient mutichannel blind deconvolution.

  3. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital (“visual”) brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4–17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). ...

  4. Nonlinear Blind Equalization for Volume Holographic Data Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商未雄; 何庆声; 金国藩

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear blind equalization for volume holographic data storage channel. Base on the recurrent neural network channel model, we describe a novel blind equalizer for the volume holographic data storage system to improve the bit error rate and hence to make the storage densities achievable. The experimental results also indicate that a significant improvement in the bit error rate to 2.55 × 10-3 is possible with the nonlinear blind equalization.

  5. Physics Education for Blind Students: The Teachers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Amauri; Dickman, Adriana

    2008-03-01

    We discuss the challenge high school teachers face when teaching physics to the blind. Using the oral history method, we interview physics teachers who have dealt with the inclusion of blind students in regular classrooms. Based on our study, we find that the performance of these students varies, depending on the studied subject. The narrative makes clear the teachers' lack of preparation to deal with inclusion, and their search for alternative methods to improve blind students' learning.

  6. Hypersensitivity to pain in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano;

    2013-01-01

    Vision is important for avoiding encounters with objects in the environment that may imperil physical integrity. We tested whether, in the absence of vision, a lower pain threshold would arise from an adaptive shift to other sensory channels. We therefore measured heat and cold pain thresholds...... and responses to suprathreshold heat stimuli in 2 groups of congenitally blind and matched normal-sighted participants. We also assessed detection thresholds for innocuous warmth and cold, and participants' attitude toward painful encounters in daily life. Our results show that, compared to sighted subjects...

  7. Multistage decomposition algorithm for blind source separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for blind source separation is proposed, which only extracts the single independent component at each stage. The single independent component is acquired by an iterative algorithm for searching for the optimal solution of the defined cost function. Moreover, all the independent components are obtained by systematic multistage decomposition and multistage reconstruction. When there is spatially colored noise, the performance of this algorithm is advantageous over jointly approximated diagonalization of eigen-matrices (JADE). Simulated results show that if the number of source signals is more than 25, its computational complexity is lower than that of JADE.

  8. Blind SNR estimation for limited time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekbas, Onder Haluk [Department of Technical Sciences, Turkish Military Academy, 06654 Bakanliklar, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: ohtekbas@kho.edu.tr

    2007-08-15

    A blind SNR estimation method for discrete data is presented. The original noise-free data is assumed to follow a known signal model with an unknown attenuation. The SNR in noisy data is estimated using a polynomial fit obtained from the correlative characteristics between SNR and variance fractal dimension values. The bias and the 'standard error' (root mean square error) of the estimator are used as performance measures. The simulated performance of the estimator for a specific signal model with real additive white Gaussian noise assumption is compared to that of a published decision-aided (nonblind) SNR estimator.

  9. Blind Search for Variability in Planck Data

    CERN Document Server

    Rachen, Jörg P; Reinecke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The sky is full of variable and transient sources on all time scales, from milliseconds to decades. Planck's regular scanning strategy makes it an ideal instrument to search for variable sky signals in the millimetre and submillimetre regime, on time scales from hours to several years. A precondition is that instrumental noise and systematic effects, caused in particular by non-symmetric beam shapes, are properly removed. We present a method to perform a full sky blind search for variable and transient objects at all Planck frequencies.

  10. Grading learning for blind source separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤达; 朱孝龙; 保铮

    2003-01-01

    By generalizing the learning rate parameter to a learning rate matrix, this paper proposes agrading learning algorithm for blind source separation. The whole learning process is divided into threestages: initial stage, capturing stage and tracking stage. In different stages, different learning rates areused for each output component, which is determined by its dependency on other output components. Itis shown that the grading learning algorithm is equivariant and can keep the separating matrix from be-coming singular. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm can achieve faster convergence, bettersteady-state performance and higher numerical robustness, as compared with the existing algorithmsusing fixed, time-descending and adaptive learning rates.

  11. Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Li-Bao; Huang Liu-Sheng; Yang Wei; Xu Rui

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the fair quantum blind signature scheme proposed by Wang and Wen [Wang T Y and Wen Q Y 2010 Chin.Phys.B 19 060307],which uses the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics and the availability of a trusted arbitrator.However,in this paper,we find that the protocol cannot satisfy the property of non-forgeability even under the condition that the trusted arbitrator is totally credible.Moreover,a simple feasible suggestion for improving the protocol is proposed.

  12. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  13. Study of a bland dentifrice for persons with radiation-induced mucositis and vesiculo-erosive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persons with lesions of the mucous membrane induced by radiation or vesiculo-erosive disease often find commercial dentifrices irritating to the tissues, yet maintenance of their oral hygiene practices is important. A bland monofluorophosphate dentifrice was formulated for use by these persons and tested in a double-blind cross-over study

  14. IDENTIFYING AUTISM IN CHILDREN WITH BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana VELJANOVSKA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Often in working with children with blindness or visual impairments we are enchanting children with some specific stereotype behaviors, identified as "blindizms”. Parents and professionals noted that many of these behaviors are the same as or similar to those behaviors seen in students with autism. These similarities led professionals to pursue more information about autism and its relationship to blindness. To assist in this process the professionals from Oregon School for the blind developed some guidelines to compare the characteristics observed in children with blindness and autism alone, across four domains: language and communication, relating to people, discrepancies in developmental rates and responses to sensory stimuli.

  15. Semi-blind Channel Estimator for OFDM-STC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yun; LUO Han-wen; SONG Wen-tao; HUANG Jian-guo

    2007-01-01

    Channel state information of OFDM-STC system is required for maximum likelihood decoding. A subspace-based semi-blind method was proposed for estimating the channels of OFDM-STC systems. The channels are first estimated blindly up to an ambiguity parameter utilizing the nature structure of STC, irrespective of the underlying signal constellations. Furthermore, a method was proposed to resolve the ambiguity by using a few pilot symbols. The simulation results show the proposed semi-blind estimator can achieve higher spectral efficiency and provide improved estimation performance compared to the non-blind estimator.

  16. 20 CFR 416.933 - How we make a finding of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disability or presumptive blindness. 416.933 Section 416.933 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Blindness Presumptive Disability and Blindness § 416.933 How we make a finding of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness. We may make a finding of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness if...

  17. 20 CFR 416.931 - The meaning of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... presumptive blindness. 416.931 Section 416.931 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Presumptive Disability and Blindness § 416.931 The meaning of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness. If you...

  18. Blind image quality assessment via deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weilong; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates how to blindly evaluate the visual quality of an image by learning rules from linguistic descriptions. Extensive psychological evidence shows that humans prefer to conduct evaluations qualitatively rather than numerically. The qualitative evaluations are then converted into the numerical scores to fairly benchmark objective image quality assessment (IQA) metrics. Recently, lots of learning-based IQA models are proposed by analyzing the mapping from the images to numerical ratings. However, the learnt mapping can hardly be accurate enough because some information has been lost in such an irreversible conversion from the linguistic descriptions to numerical scores. In this paper, we propose a blind IQA model, which learns qualitative evaluations directly and outputs numerical scores for general utilization and fair comparison. Images are represented by natural scene statistics features. A discriminative deep model is trained to classify the features into five grades, corresponding to five explicit mental concepts, i.e., excellent, good, fair, poor, and bad. A newly designed quality pooling is then applied to convert the qualitative labels into scores. The classification framework is not only much more natural than the regression-based models, but also robust to the small sample size problem. Thorough experiments are conducted on popular databases to verify the model's effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness.

  19. SECURING VIRTUAL IMAGES USING BLIND AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAVIKIRAN PEELUKHANA,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The cloud virtualization technology improves the economy of scale for data centers through server consolidation, application consolidation and resources consolidation. Virtualization allows the provider to move Virtual Images from more congested host to less-congested hosts, as required. Enterprises also get improved server reliability, which in turn increases application performance. Despite these benefits, it includes major security challenges with the portability of Virtual Images between different cloud providers.The security and integrity of Virtual images is the foundation for the overall security of the cloud. Many of the Virtual images are intended to be shared by diverse and unrelated users. Unfortunately, existing approaches to cloud security built by cloud practitioners fall short when dealing with Virtual images. Secure transmission of virtual Images can bepossible by providing authentication using Blind Authentication protocol (BAP. The proposed approach authenticates the allocation of virtual images using Blind authentication protocol. It provides provable protection against replay and client side attacks even if the keys of the user are compromised. The encryption also provides template protection, revocability and alleviates the concerns on privacy in widespread use of biometrics. Carrying out the authentication in the encrypted domain is a secure process, while the encryption key acts as an additional layer of security.

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF COLOR-BLIND AID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruki Harwahyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Color-blind is a physical defect causing patient loses the ability to recognize colors either particular or the whole of them. This disability is problematic in daily life, moreover in some specific areas that require carefulness eyesight. We propose a vision aid kit with improved user experience, such as finger pointer and voice command-and-response. Our work proofs the design and implementation of color-blind aid system for embedded and mobile device. This study used Windows Embedded Standard 2009, Windows Phone 7, Speech API library, Open CV library and EmguCV wrapper. The performance of each functionality is evaluated. From various testing that are conducted, the system can best detect color samples with precision level of 90.67% on embedded device implementation and 95.33% on mobile device implementation. The best fingertip detection rate attained is 89.6% with normal lighting condition. The voice command works with detection rate of 75.87%, meanwhile for the synthesized speech response, 88, 33% respondents can understood the words well.

  1. An investigation of the Venetian blind effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, E T; Khutoryansky, Natalie; Dobias, J J; Stine, Wm Wren

    2011-01-01

    When a rectangular wave grating is binocularly viewed with a neutral density filter over one eye, an illusory rotation resembling that of a partially opened Venetian blind is perceived (Cibis and Haber, 1951). Using a binary classification task, in the first experiment, the probability of perceiving a rotation in a given direction was measured as a function of a factorial combination of inter-ocular contrast (see Note 1) and luminance ratios. The probability of a rotation in a given direction decreased monotonically with the luminance of the brighter bars when the grating contains a less than unity contrast. This result is inconsistent with (i) the model of the Venetian blind effect proposed by Cibis and Haber (1951), (ii) a mechanism based on irradiation with a compressive non-linearity (von Helmholtz, 1911/1924, pp. 186-193) and (iii) contemporary stereo-energy/cross-correlation models of stereopsis. In the second and third experiments, we tested the prediction that irradiation combined with an early compressive non-linearity in response implies a positive relationship between both the threshold contrast or average luminance disparity to perceive rotation and the magnitude of perceived rotation, and the blur width at the bar's edge. No support was found for the prediction. We propose an intensity difference model of the probability of perceiving a rotation in a given direction as a function of the interocular difference in luminance or contrast. PMID:21864465

  2. Blind RRT: A probabilistically complete distributed RRT

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Cesar

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) have been successful at finding feasible solutions for many types of problems. With motion planning becoming more computationally demanding, we turn to parallel motion planning for efficient solutions. Existing work on distributed RRTs has been limited by the overhead that global communication requires. A recent approach, Radial RRT, demonstrated a scalable algorithm that subdivides the space into regions to increase the computation locality. However, if an obstacle completely blocks RRT growth in a region, the planning space is not covered and is thus not probabilistically complete. We present a new algorithm, Blind RRT, which ignores obstacles during initial growth to efficiently explore the entire space. Because obstacles are ignored, free components of the tree become disconnected and fragmented. Blind RRT merges parts of the tree that have become disconnected from the root. We show how this algorithm can be applied to the Radial RRT framework allowing both scalability and effectiveness in motion planning. This method is a probabilistically complete approach to parallel RRTs. We show that our method not only scales but also overcomes the motion planning limitations that Radial RRT has in a series of difficult motion planning tasks. © 2013 IEEE.

  3. Do "mudsplashes" induce tactile change blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Spence, Charles

    2007-05-01

    The phenomenon of change blindness (the surprising inability of people to correctly perceive changes between consecutively presented displays), primarily reported in vision, has recently been shown to occur for positional changes presented in tactile displays as well. Here, we studied people's ability to detect changes in the number of tactile stimuli in successively presented displays composed of one to three stimuli distributed over the body surface. In Experiment 1, a tactile mask consisting of the simultaneous activation of all seven possible tactile stimulators was sometimes presented between the two to-be-discriminated tactile displays. In Experiment 2, a "mudsplash" paradigm was used, with a brief irrelevant tactile distractor presented at the moment of change of the tactile display. Change blindness was demonstrated in both experiments, thus showing that the failure to detect tactile change is not necessarily related to (1) the physical disruption between consecutive events, (2) the effect of masking covering the location of the change, or (3) the erasure or resetting of the information contained within an internal representation of the tactile display. These results are interpreted in terms of a limitation in the number of spatial locations/events that can be consciously accessed at any one time. This limitation appears to constrain change-detection performance, no matter the sensory modality in which the stimuli are presented. PMID:17727101

  4. Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Boutron

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blinding is a cornerstone of treatment evaluation. Blinding is more difficult to obtain in trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment and frequently relies on "creative" (nonstandard methods. The purpose of this study was to systematically describe the strategies used to obtain blinding in a sample of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched in Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing nonpharmacological treatment with blinding, published during 2004 in high-impact-factor journals. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction form. We identified 145 articles, with the method of blinding described in 123 of the reports. Methods of blinding of participants and/or health care providers and/or other caregivers concerned mainly use of sham procedures such as simulation of surgical procedures, similar attention-control interventions, or a placebo with a different mode of administration for rehabilitation or psychotherapy. Trials assessing devices reported various placebo interventions such as use of sham prosthesis, identical apparatus (e.g., identical but inactivated machine or use of activated machine with a barrier to block the treatment, or simulation of using a device. Blinding participants to the study hypothesis was also an important method of blinding. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors relied mainly on centralized assessment of paraclinical examinations, clinical examinations (i.e., use of video, audiotape, photography, or adjudications of clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: This study classifies blinding methods and provides a detailed description of methods that could overcome some barriers of blinding in clinical trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment, and provides information for readers assessing the quality of results of such trials.

  5. Narcissistic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - borderline; Narcissism ... A person with narcissistic personality disorder may: React to criticism with rage, shame, or humiliation Take advantage of other people to achieve his or her own ...

  6. Antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to the development of ...

  7. Borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment ...

  8. Paranoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - paranoid ... Causes of paranoid personality disorder are unknown. The disorder appears to be more common in families with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional ...

  9. Alterations in right posterior hippocampus in early blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Chen, Jan-Kai; Schneider, Fabien;

    2007-01-01

    This study compares hippocampal volumes of early blind and sex/age-matched sighted controls through volumetric and localization analyses. Early blind individuals showed a significantly smaller right posterior hippocampus compared with controls. No differences in total hippocampal volumes were fou...

  10. The Institute for Deaf-Blind Studies: Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Joye A.; And Others

    The document contains 16 papers from the Institute for Deaf Blind Studies, a program to bring together many disciplines and to place emphasis on every aspect of the learning and teaching activity involved in the development of deaf-blind children. The following titles and authors are included: "Current Status of the Rubella Problem" (P. Ziring);…

  11. Navigation with a sensory substitution device in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Schneider, Fabien C; Kupers, Ron;

    2011-01-01

    Vision allows for obstacle detection and avoidance. The compensatory mechanisms involved in maintaining these functions in blind people using their remaining intact senses are poorly understood. We investigated the ability of congenitally blind participants to detect and avoid obstacles using the...

  12. Affective Reactions in Some Parents of Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrie, Carolyn

    Emotional problems and behavioral patterns of parents who have deaf blind children are described clinically and in short case studies. Deaf blind young children are said to be isolated from their families due to lack of sensory cues; to display behaviors such as back arching and fear of walking; and to experience frequent health crises such as…

  13. About a case of blindness following scorpion envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Delma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author reports a case of blindness occurred after three scorpion stings in a young woman from the region Ouargla, Algeria. The absence of signs of neurological and cardiovascular envenomation and the functional examinations of eyes is likely to be the consequence of a toxic neuropathy. Two months later, blindness persists and functional prognosis remains reserved.

  14. Recognition of Rapid Speech by Blind and Sighted Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Friedman, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether older blind participants recognize time-compressed speech better than older sighted participants. Method: Three groups of adults with normal hearing participated (n = 10/group): (a) older sighted, (b) older blind, and (c) younger sighted listeners. Low-predictability sentences that were uncompressed (0% time…

  15. Attenuation of Change Blindness in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Connolly, Brenda; Collis, Jess M.; Findlay, John M.; McConachie, Helen; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Change blindness refers to the difficulty most people find in detecting a difference between two pictures when these are presented successively, with a brief interruption between. Attention at the site of the change is required for detection. A number of studies have investigated change blindness in adults and children with autism spectrum…

  16. Blindness as A Challenging Medical and Social Problem in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixing Hu

    2002-01-01

    China, a country with about one fifth of the world' s population, has been gaining a rapideconomic growth since 1980s. This country has around 5 million blind people, accountingfor 18% of the blind in the world. The major causes of blindness include cataract,corneal diseases, trachoma, glaucoma, vitreoretinopathy and a number of factorscontributing to blindness in children. The principal cause of blindness in China was nolonger trachoma but cataracts. Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem inthe under-developed areas.Age-related conditions in China, such as vision loss due tocataract and retinal disorders, will increase accordingly if no preventive meaunes aretaken. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy appear to be predominant induction of thedevastating blind. In this fast developing country blindness is not only a medical orhealth, but also a social problem. Developed strategies have been adopted simultaneouslyby national efforts under the leadership of the government, international agencies,nongovernmental organizations, as well as private sectors in their every-day work toprevent and treat blindness.

  17. Encoding audio motion: spatial impairment in early blind individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eFinocchietti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequence of blindness on auditory spatial localization has been an interesting issue of research in the last decade providing mixed results. Enhanced auditory spatial skills in individuals with visual impairment have been reported by multiple studies, while some aspects of spatial hearing seem to be impaired in the absence of vision. In this study, the ability to encode the trajectory of a 2 dimensional sound motion, reproducing the complete movement, and reaching the correct end-point sound position, is evaluated in 12 early blind individuals, 8 late blind individuals, and 20 age-matched sighted blindfolded controls. Early blind individuals correctly determine the direction of the sound motion on the horizontal axis, but show a clear deficit in encoding the sound motion in the lower side of the plane. On the contrary, late blind individuals and blindfolded controls perform much better with no deficit in the lower side of the plane. In fact the mean localization error resulted 271 ± 10 mm for early blind individuals, 65 ± 4 mm for late blind individuals, and 68 ± 2 mm for sighted blindfolded controls.These results support the hypothesis that i it exists a trade-off between the development of enhanced perceptual abilities and role of vision in the sound localization abilities of early blind individuals, and ii the visual information is fundamental in calibrating some aspects of the representation of auditory space in the brain.

  18. AODA Training Experiences of Blindness and Visual Impairment Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Koch, D. Shane; McKee, Marissa F.; Nelipovich, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Co-existing alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) and blindness or visually impairment may complicate the delivery of rehabilitation services. Professionals working with individuals who are blind or visually impaired need to be aware of unique issues facing those with co-existing disabilities. This study sought to examine the AODA training needs,…

  19. Crossmodal recruitment of the ventral visual stream in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Zhi Wang, Arthur;

    2012-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform...

  20. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  1. Double-blind ureteral duplication: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind ending of ureteral duplication is one of the most rare anomalies of the upper urinary tract. We report two cases of ureteral duplication with a blind ending both superiorly and inferiorly, and with no definite communication with the urinary tract. (orig.)

  2. Special samples for investigation into kinetics of blind fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples designed for investigation into kinetics of elliptic and semi-elliptic fatigue cracks in construction large-size elements and for evaluation of structural material resistance to fracture are developed. Data on form changing of blind fatigue cracks in vessel steel 15KH2MFA are obtained; it is shown, that material anisotropy and load kind affect essentially blind fatigue crack forms

  3. Multi-proxy Strong Blind Quantum Signature Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Li, Yan-Ping; An, Wan

    2016-08-01

    A multi-proxy strong blind quantum signature scheme is proposed in this paper. An original signatory Alice delegates her signing authority to a group of proxy signatories by using a classical warrant. A blind factor is introduced by a sender U to blind a message, and the proxy signatories sign the message blindly via applying appropriate unitary operators. A receiver Bob verifies the generated signature with the help of an arbitrator Trent. The security of this scheme is based on a quantum key distribution protocol, a quantum one-time pad and other quantum properties. It is proved that our scheme has the properties of non-disavowal, non-counterfeit, multi-proxy, blindness, untraceability and can resist some common attacks.

  4. The countermeasures against the blinding attack in quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jindong; Wang, Hong; Qin, Xiaojuan; Wei, Zhengjun; Zhang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that the single photon detectors (SPDs) based on the avalanche photodiode (APD) can be blinded and controlled by the bright light and short trigger pulses. Eavesdropper can get the full information without causing additional quantum bit error rate. Hence, in order to guarantee the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, some countermeasures, by changing the characteristic of the SPD or monitoring the parameters of the detector, are presented by some research groups. In this paper, we provide a new and effective countermeasure against the blinding attack based on improving the optical scheme of the decoding unit in the QKD system rather than only considering the characteristic of the SPD. In our proposal we use a coupler with asymmetric splitting ratio to distinguish the detection characteristic of the SPD with blinding attack from that without blinding attack. The detailed analysis shows that the proposed scheme is feasible to defense the blinding attack.

  5. Indoor inertial waypoint navigation for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Whalen, William E; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction and evaluation of an inertial dead reckoning navigation system that provides real-time auditory guidance along mapped routes. Inertial dead reckoning is a navigation technique coupling step counting together with heading estimation to compute changes in position at each step. The research described here outlines the development and evaluation of a novel navigation system that utilizes information from the mapped route to limit the problematic error accumulation inherent in traditional dead reckoning approaches. The prototype system consists of a wireless inertial sensor unit, placed at the users' hip, which streams readings to a smartphone processing a navigation algorithm. Pilot human trials were conducted assessing system efficacy by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system with real-time guidance, versus offline verbal directions. PMID:24110904

  6. Blind estimation of shallow water acoustic channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a method for blind estimation of underwater channels in shallow water environment by using received data at a single hydrophone or from single beam.First, the received signal is used for source signal reconstruction by means of signal-dependent TF (Time-Frequency) distribution, in association with instantaneous frequency estimation and TF inversion. Then the shallow-water channel estimation is achieved via WRELAX technique by use of the received signal and the estimated source signal. Finally, the results of numerical simulation and experimental test from real data taken in South China Sea trial have proved satisfactory. It is shown that the proposed method is useful for underwater channel estimation.

  7. Blind identification of cellular phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliktutan, Oya; Avcibas, Ismail; Sankur, Bülent

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we focus on blind source cell-phone identification problem. It is known various artifacts in the image processing pipeline, such as pixel defects or unevenness of the responses in the CCD sensor, black current noise, proprietary interpolation algorithms involved in color filter array [CFA] leave telltale footprints. These artifacts, although often imperceptible, are statistically stable and can be considered as a signature of the camera type or even of the individual device. For this purpose, we explore a set of forensic features, such as binary similarity measures, image quality measures and higher order wavelet statistics in conjunction SVM classifier to identify the originating cell-phone type. We provide identification results among 9 different brand cell-phone cameras. In addition to our initial results, we applied a set of geometrical operations to original images in order to investigate how much our proposed method is robust under these manipulations.

  8. GA based robust blind digital watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Víctor; Frau, María-Dolores; Gudiel, Félix; Güemes, María-Belén; Martín, Elena; Osuna, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    A genetic algorithm based robust blind digital watermarking scheme is presented. Starting from a binary image (the original watermark), a genetic algorithm is performed searching for a permutation of this image which is as uncorrelated as possible to the original watermark. The output of the GA is used as our final watermark, so that both security and robustness in the watermarking process is improved. Now, the original cover image is partitioned into non-overlapped square blocks (depending on the size of the watermark image). Then a (possibly extended) Hadamard transform is applied to these blocks, so that one bit information from the watermark image is embedded in each block by modifying the relationship of two coefficients in the transformed matrices. The watermarked image is finally obtained by simply performing the inverse (extended) Hadamard transform on the modified matrices. The experimental results show that our scheme keeps invisibility, security and robustness more likely than other proposals in th...

  9. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F;

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to develop an experimental setup for human exposure to mold spores, and to study the clinical effect of this exposure in sensitive subjects who had previously experienced potentially building-related symptoms (BRS) at work. From three water-damaged schools eight employees....... In conclusion this is, to our knowledge, the first study to successfully conduct a human exposure to a highly controlled dose of fungal material aerosolized directly from wet building materials. This short-term exposure to high concentrations of two different molds induced no more reactions than exposure...... to placebo in eight sensitive school employees. However, a statistical type II error cannot be excluded because of the small sample size. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In this double blind, placebo controlled study of mold exposure changes in symptoms, objective measurements and blood samples were small and mostly...

  10. Regularization mechanism in blind tip reconstruction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In quantitative investigations of mechanical and chemical surface parameters using atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques the determination of the probe radius and shape is required. To the most favorable methods of the microprobe characterization belongs the blind tip reconstruction method (BTR). The BTR similar to many other inverse problems is sensitive to noise and needs the so-called regularization mechanism. In this article we describe and investigate two the most popular regularization schemes, which were proposed in Villarubia et al. (1997) and Tian et al. (2008) . We have shown that the procedure described in Tian et al. (2008) enables very effective probe shape reconstruction if we know the statistics of noise present in the AFM system. The increase of effectiveness with relation to the procedure described in Villarubia (1997) is so significant that makes it possible to reconstruct probes with much larger resolution. We have also noticed the fact, that probes reconstructed by means of the procedure presented in Tian et al. (2008) have flat apexes for AFM images with low signal to noise ratio (SNR). We propose procedure, which can improve the probe apex reconstruction. It uses the AFM image to estimate the initial shape of the reconstructed probe. This shape may be further improved by the BTR algorithm. We have shown that it is possible only for the procedure described in Tian et al. (2008) . -- Highlights: ► We study regularization mechanism of blind tip reconstruction. ► We propose combination of direct probe imaging with BTR to improve the reconstruction of a probe apex. ► The possibility of improving efficiency of the BTR procedure is presented. ► The possibility of improving resolution of a reconstructed probe is presented.

  11. Blind Image Blur Estimation via Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruomei Yan; Ling Shao

    2016-04-01

    Image blur kernel estimation is critical to blind image deblurring. Most existing approaches exploit handcrafted blur features that are optimized for a certain uniform blur across the image, which is unrealistic in a real blind deconvolution setting, where the blur type is often unknown. To deal with this issue, we aim at identifying the blur type for each input image patch, and then estimating the kernel parameter in this paper. A learning-based method using a pre-trained deep neural network (DNN) and a general regression neural network (GRNN) is proposed to first classify the blur type and then estimate its parameters, taking advantages of both the classification ability of DNN and the regression ability of GRNN. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that pre-trained DNN and GRNN have been applied to the problem of blur analysis. First, our method identifies the blur type from a mixed input of image patches corrupted by various blurs with different parameters. To this aim, a supervised DNN is trained to project the input samples into a discriminative feature space, in which the blur type can be easily classified. Then, for each blur type, the proposed GRNN estimates the blur parameters with very high accuracy. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in several tasks with better or competitive results compared with the state of the art on two standard image data sets, i.e., the Berkeley segmentation data set and the Pascal VOC 2007 data set. In addition, blur region segmentation and deblurring on a number of real photographs show that our method outperforms the previous techniques even for non-uniformly blurred images. PMID:26930680

  12. Children Who Are Deaf-Blind. Practice Perspectives--Highlighting Information on Deaf-Blindness. Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Peggy; Killoran, John

    2007-01-01

    Although the term deaf-blind implies a complete absence of hearing and sight, in reality, it refers to children with varying degrees of vision and hearing losses. The type and severity differ from child to child. The key feature of deaf-blindness is that the combination of losses limits access to auditory and visual information. Children with…

  13. College Students Who Are Deaf-Blind. Practice Perspectives--Highlighting Information on Deaf-Blindness. Number 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    Imagine being in college and being deaf-blind. What opportunities might you have? What types of challenges would you face? This publication describes a study that begins to answer these questions. During the study, 11 college students with deaf-blindness were interviewed about their college experiences. They were like most college students in many…

  14. PERSONAL VERSUS MASS COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Girboveanu Sorina

    2007-01-01

    From the comparison of the various aspects of advertising and personal selling, it can be seen that personal selling is a more effective and powerful communication tool than advertising, but advertising is more time and cost efficient than personal selling. Thus advertising and personal selling are tools at the disposal of a marketer and subjects to a firm’s overall objectives.

  15. Managing Your Personal Brand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Everyone has a personal brand. To ensure success at work you need to manage your personal brand which is made up of your tangible and intangible attributes. This paper reviews the literature around personal branding, looks at some of the attributes and discusses ways you can reflect and begin to build your personal brand in a higher education…

  16. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in the blind population supported by the Yazd Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini - Ardakani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO estimated that there were 37.1 million blind people worldwide. It has subsequently been reported that 110 million people have severely impaired vision, hence are at great risk of becoming blind. Watkins predicted an annual increase of about two million blind worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the causes of blindness and low vision in the blind population supported by the welfare organization of Yazd, Iran. Methods: This clinical descriptive cross-sectional study was done from January to September, 2003. In total, 109 blind patients supported by the welfare organization were included in this study. All data was collected by standard methods using questionnaire, interview and specific examination. The data included; demographic characteristics, clinical states, ophthalmic examination, family history and the available prenatal information. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and chi square test. Results: Of total patients, 73 cases were male (67% and 36 were female (33%. The median age was 24.6 years (range one month to 60 years. More than half of the cases (53.2% could be diagnosed in children less than one year of age. In total, 79 patients (88.1% were legally blind of which 23 cases (29.1% had no light perception (NLP. The most common causes of blindness were retinitis pigmentosa (32.1% followed by ocular dysgenesis (16.5%. Conclusion: Our data showed that more than half of the blindness cases occur during the first year of life. The most common cause of blindness was retinitis pigmentosa followed by ocular dysgenesis, cataract and glaucoma, respectively.

  17. Can Acupuncture Treatment Be Double-Blinded? An Evaluation of Double-Blind Acupuncture Treatment of Postoperative Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Takayama, Miho; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Kawase, Akiko; Schuster, Lars; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Blinding protects against bias but the success of blinding is seldom assessed and reported in clinical trials including studies of acupuncture where blinding represents a major challenge. Recently, needles with the potential for double-blinding were developed, so we tested if acupuncture can be double-blinded in a randomized study of sixty-seven patients with acute pain ≥ 3 (0-10 scale following third molar removal) who received active acupuncture with a penetrating needle or placebo acupuncture with a non-penetrating needle. To test if acupuncture was administered double-blind, patients and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed “de qi” in East Asian medicine), and patients’ pain levels were assessed. Perceived treatment allocation depended on actual group allocation (p < 0.015) for both patients and acupuncturists, indicating that the needles were not successful in double-blinding. Up to 68% of patients and 83% of acupuncturists correctly identified the treatment, but for patients the distribution was not far from 50/50. Also, there was a significant interaction between actual or perceived treatment and the experience of de qi (p = 0.027), suggesting that the experience of de qi and possible non-verbal clues contributed to correct identification of the treatment. Yet, of the patients who perceived the treatment as active or placebo, 50% and 23%, respectively, reported de qi. Patients’ acute pain levels did not influence the perceived treatment. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment was not fully double-blinded which is similar to observations in pharmacological studies. Still, the non-penetrating needle is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in

  18. Can acupuncture treatment be double-blinded? An evaluation of double-blind acupuncture treatment of postoperative pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Vase

    Full Text Available Blinding protects against bias but the success of blinding is seldom assessed and reported in clinical trials including studies of acupuncture where blinding represents a major challenge. Recently, needles with the potential for double-blinding were developed, so we tested if acupuncture can be double-blinded in a randomized study of sixty-seven patients with acute pain ≥ 3 (0-10 scale following third molar removal who received active acupuncture with a penetrating needle or placebo acupuncture with a non-penetrating needle. To test if acupuncture was administered double-blind, patients and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed "de qi" in East Asian medicine, and patients' pain levels were assessed. Perceived treatment allocation depended on actual group allocation (p < 0.015 for both patients and acupuncturists, indicating that the needles were not successful in double-blinding. Up to 68% of patients and 83% of acupuncturists correctly identified the treatment, but for patients the distribution was not far from 50/50. Also, there was a significant interaction between actual or perceived treatment and the experience of de qi (p = 0.027, suggesting that the experience of de qi and possible non-verbal clues contributed to correct identification of the treatment. Yet, of the patients who perceived the treatment as active or placebo, 50% and 23%, respectively, reported de qi. Patients' acute pain levels did not influence the perceived treatment. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment was not fully double-blinded which is similar to observations in pharmacological studies. Still, the non-penetrating needle is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical

  19. Personality disorder diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Widiger, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general persona...

  20. First person thought

    OpenAIRE

    Recanati, François

    2014-01-01

    International audience First person thoughts are the sort of thought one may express by using the first person ; they are also thoughts that are about the thinker of the thought. Neither characterization is ultimately satisfactory. A thought can be about the thinker of the thought by accident, without being a first person thought. The alternative characterization of first person thought in terms of first person sentences also fails, because it is circular : we need the notion of a first pe...

  1. Towards personalized compression in mammography: a comparison study between pressure- and force-standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.E. de; Branderhorst, W.; Grimbergen, C.A.; Heeten, GJ. den; Broeders, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a conventional 14 decanewton (daN) force-standardized compression protocol with a personalized 10kilopascal (kPa) pressure-standardized protocol. METHODS: A new add-on contact area detector, which enables pressure-standardized compression, is validated in a double-blinded intra

  2. Persons with Multiple Disabilities Use Orientation Technology to Find Room Entrances during Indoor Traveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Alberti, Gloria; Scigliuzzo, Francesca; Signorino, Mario; Oliva, Doretta; Smaldone, Angela; La Martire, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    These two studies assessed adapted orientation technology for promoting correct direction and room identification during indoor traveling by persons with multiple (e.g., sensory, motor and intellectual/adaptive) disabilities. In Study I, two adults were included who had severe visual impairment or total blindness and deafness and used a wheelchair…

  3. On the "Art and Science" of Personal Transformation: Some Critical Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Raya A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the applicability of the Jungian view on individuation and imagination. While Jungian ideas can bring something fresh and necessary into educational practice, personal enthusiasm might blind us to a dissonance between educational goals and the therapeutic goal of analytical psychology. The case is made with…

  4. A Note on Some Problems in the Testing of Personality Characteristics in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Michael; Hill, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    An examination is made of the value of using published personality tests with young blind and partially sighted children. Based on data gathered during a longitudinal investigation into the educational and psychological development of a group of 120 visually impaired learners, the authors conclude that their own selection of a test instrument…

  5. Blind spot detection using vision for automotive applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel (A)ngel SOTELO; José BARRIGA

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a vision-based system for blind spot detection (BSD) in intelligent vehicle applications. A camera is mounted in the lateral mirror of a car with the intention of visually detecting cars that are located in the so-called blind spot and cannot be perceived by the vehicle driver. The detection of cars in the blind spot is carried out using computer vision techniques,based on optical flow and a double-stage data clustering technique for robust vehicle detection.

  6. Demonstration of measurement-only blind quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greganti, Chiara; Roehsner, Marie-Christine; Barz, Stefanie; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Walther, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Blind quantum computing allows for secure cloud networks of quasi-classical clients and a fully fledged quantum server. Recently, a new protocol has been proposed, which requires a client to perform only measurements. We demonstrate a proof-of-principle implementation of this measurement-only blind quantum computing, exploiting a photonic setup to generate four-qubit cluster states for computation and verification. Feasible technological requirements for the client and the device-independent blindness make this scheme very applicable for future secure quantum networks.

  7. A Proxy Blind Signature Scheme Based on ECDLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHaiyan; WANGRuchuan

    2005-01-01

    While proxy signature scheme enables an original signer to fully authorize a proxy to sign a message on his or her behalf legally and undeniably, blind signature scheme keeps the message blind from the signer so that the signer cannot make a linkage between the signature and the identity of requester (receiver). Both schemes have been widely applied in the electronic business. A new ECDLP (Elliptic curve discrete problem)-based proxy blind signature scheme is to be proposed in this paper by integrating the security properties of both schemes.

  8. Scan blindness in infinite phased arrays of printed dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozar, D. M.; Schaubert, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive study of infinite phased arrays of printed dipole antennas is presented, with emphasis on the scan blindness phenomenon. A rigorous and efficient moment method procedure is used to calculate the array impedance versus scan angle. Data are presented for the input reflection coefficient for various element spacings and substrate parameters. A simple theory, based on coupling from Floquet modes to surface wave modes on the substrate, is shown to predict the occurrence of scan blindness. Measurements from a waveguide simulator of a blindness condition confirm the theory.

  9. Neįgalaus kūno asmens tapatybės kaita XX amžiaus pirmoje pusėje: Prano Daunio Vargo keliais. Atsiminimai iš kovų dėl nepriklausomybės ir aklųjų gyvenimo | Identity change of the disable body during 1st half of the 20th century: On the Roads of Misery. Memories from the Battles for Independence and the Life of the Blind by Pranas Daunys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Birgerytė

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the first autobiography of the disabled in the 20th century Lithuanian literature – the memoirs of Pranas Daunys – On the Roads of Misery / Memories from the Battles for Independence and the Life of the Blind. In the context of the disability body studies, the article discusses different levels in the formation of the corporal identity of the blind person. The study emphasizes the importance of cultural space to the identity of the blind, which is related to the Braille. The article explains the integrity dimension of the blind person’s identity, which mergers different experiences of personal life (the experience of eye trauma during the war and the memories of patriotic feelings, which are equally important to the personal identity. The research deals with the corporal and sensual self-perception of the blind, which is closely related to the social and public emancipation, changing the lines of national identity.

  10. Trade-off in the sound localization abilities of early blind individuals between the horizontal and vertical planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Patrice; Tabry, Vanessa; Zatorre, Robert J

    2015-04-15

    There is substantial evidence that sensory deprivation leads to important cross-modal brain reorganization that is paralleled by enhanced perceptual abilities. However, it remains unclear how widespread these enhancements are, and whether they are intercorrelated or arise at the expense of other perceptual abilities. One specific area where such a trade-off might arise is that of spatial hearing, where blind individuals have been shown to possess superior monaural localization abilities in the horizontal plane, but inferior localization abilities in the vertical plane. While both of these tasks likely involve the use of monaural cues due to the absence of any relevant binaural signal, there is currently no proper explanation for this discrepancy, nor has any study investigated both sets of abilities in the same sample of blind individuals. Here, we assess whether the enhancements observed in the horizontal plane are related to the deficits observed in the vertical plane by testing sound localization in both planes in groups of blind and sighted persons. Our results show that the blind individuals who displayed the highest accuracy at localizing sounds monaurally in the horizontal plane are also the ones who exhibited the greater deficit when localizing in the vertical plane. These findings appear to argue against the idea of generalized perceptual enhancements in the early blind, and instead suggest the possibility of a trade-off in the localization proficiency between the two auditory spatial planes, such that learning to use monaural cues for the horizontal plane comes at the expense of using those cues to localize in the vertical plane.

  11. A Blind Test of Hapke's Photometric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, P.; Shepard, M. K.

    2003-01-01

    Hapke's bidirectional reflectance equation is a versatile analytical tool for predicting (i.e. forward modeling) the photometric behavior of a particulate surface from the observed optical and structural properties of its constituents. Remote sensing applications of Hapke s model, however, generally seek to predict the optical and structural properties of particulate soil constituents from the observed photometric behavior of a planetary surface (i.e. inverse-modeling). Our confidence in the latter approach can be established only if we ruthlessly test and optimize it. Here, we summarize preliminary results from a blind-test of the Hapke model using laboratory measurements obtained with the Bloomsburg University Goniometer (B.U.G.). The first author selected eleven well-characterized powder samples and measured the spectrophotometric behavior of each. A subset of twenty undisclosed examples of the photometric measurement sets were sent to the second author who fit the data using the Hapke model and attempted to interpret their optical and mechanical properties from photometry alone.

  12. Consumers' choice-blindness to ingredient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, T T L; Junghans, A F; Dijksterhuis, G B; Kroese, F; Johansson, P; Hall, L; De Ridder, D T D

    2016-11-01

    Food manufacturers and policy makers have been tailoring food product ingredient information to consumers' self-reported preference for natural products and concerns over food additives. Yet, the influence of this ingredient information on consumers remains inconclusive. The current study aimed at examining the first step in such influence, which is consumers' attention to ingredient information on food product packaging. Employing the choice-blindness paradigm, the current study assessed whether participants would detect a covertly made change to the naturalness of ingredient list throughout a product evaluation procedure. Results revealed that only few consumers detected the change on the ingredient lists. Detection was improved when consumers were instructed to judge the naturalness of the product as compared to evaluating the product in general. These findings challenge consumers' self-reported use of ingredient lists as a source of information throughout product evaluations. While most consumers do not attend to ingredient information, this tendency can be slightly improved by prompting their consideration of naturalness. Future research should investigate the reasons for consumers' inattention to ingredient information and develop more effective strategies for conveying information to consumers.

  13. Phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis a potentially blinding disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juberias, J R; Calonge, M; Montero, J; Herreras, J M; Saornil, M A

    1996-01-01

    Phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis, a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to foreign proteins (i.e., bacterial products), occurs more often in children and young adults sensitized to Staphylococcus aureus inhabiting the lid margins. Clinical manifestations occur on the conjunctiva and/or the cornea. Management strategies used to treat a 14-year-old girl with a long history of keratoconjunctivitis with severe corneal involvement and secondary lacrimal gland enlargement included a complete ocular examination, blood workups, cultures, vigorous lid hygiene, topical antibiotics and steroids, and systemic doxycycline. Phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis was diagnosed, and Streptoccocus viridans was found colonizing the lid margins and fornices. Subsequent treatment quieted the active inflammation and the secondary lacrimal gland enlargement. However, the residual corneal scarring permanently compromised visual acuity. This patient demonstrates the potentially blinding consequences of untreated phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis. Moreover, Streptoccocus viridans is not frequently associated with this disorder. To our knowledge hypertrophy of the lacrimal gland, as a secondary complication of this disorder, has not been reported previously. PMID:22827417

  14. Blind Source Separation For Ion Mobility Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaturization is a powerful trend for smart chemical instrumentation in a diversity of applications. It is know that miniaturization in IMS leads to a degradation of the system characteristics. For the present work, we are interested in signal processing solutions to mitigate limitations introduced by limited drift tube length that basically involve a loss of chemical selectivity. While blind source separation techniques (BSS) are popular in other domains, their application for smart chemical instrumentation is limited. However, in some conditions, basically linearity, BSS may fully recover the concentration time evolution and the pure spectra with few underlying hypothesis. This is extremely helpful in conditions where non-expected chemical interferents may appear, or unwanted perturbations may pollute the spectra. SIMPLISMA has been advocated by Harrington et al. in several papers. However, more modern methods of BSS for bilinear decomposition with the restriction of positiveness have appeared in the last decade. In order to explore and compare the performances of those methods a series of experiments were performed.

  15. Temporal dynamics of the Venetian blind effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobias, Joshua Jay; Stine, Wm Wren

    2012-05-01

    When square wave gratings are viewed binocularly with lower luminance or contrast in one eye, the individual bars of the grating appear to rotate around a vertical axis (Venetian blind effect). The effect has typically been thought to occur due to retinal disparities that result from irradiation and, therefore, are entirely entoptic. If so, the visual system should process disparities from a luminance or contrast disparity and a geometric disparity at the same rate. Studies of motion-in-depth using geometric disparities have shown that the visual system is unable to process depth cues when those cues are oscillated at frequencies greater than 5 Hz. By changing contrast (experiments one and two) and geometric (experiment three) disparity cues over time, the present study measured the frequency at which both the perception of motion-in-depth and the perception of depth diminish. The perception of motion-in-depth from contrast disparities decreased near 1.1 Hz (experiments one and four) and the perception of depth from contrast disparities decreased near 1.3 Hz (experiments one, two and four); both of which are lower than the frequency where depth from a geometric disparity diminished (near 4.8 Hz in experiment three). The differences between the dynamics of depth from contrast and geometric disparities suggest that the perception arises from separate neural mechanisms. PMID:22406308

  16. Outage analysis of blind cooperative diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-06-06

    Mobile users with single antennas can still take advantage of spatial diversity through cooperative space-time-encoded transmission. In this paper, we considered a scheme in which a relay chooses to cooperate only if its source-relay channel is of an acceptable quality, and we evaluate the usefulness of relaying when the source acts blindly and ignores the decision of the relays whether they may cooperate or not. In our study, we consider the regenerative relays in which the decisions to cooperate are based on a targeted end-to-end data rate R. We derived the end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R and a code rate ρ and look at a power allocation strategy between the source and the relays in order to minimize the end-to-end outage probability at the destination for high signal-to-noise ratio, by using the golden section search method. Performance results show that the computer simulations-based results coincide with our analytical results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Causes of blindness in rural Myanmar (Burma: Mount Popa Taung-Kalat Blindness Prevention Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Y Nemet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Arie Y Nemet1, Pinhas Nemet2, Geoff Cohn3, Gina Sutton, Gerald Sutton4, Richard Rawson41Department of Ophthalmology, Sydney Hospital and Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, Australia; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel; 3Departments of Ophthalmology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, AustraliaPurpose: This study is a review of the major causes of visual impairment (VI and severe visual impairment/blindness (SVI/BL in Mount Popa Taung-Kalat, a rural region in Myanmar (Burma.Methods: A review of our clinical records of consecutive patients attending clinics was conducted. Participants of all ages (n = 650 of the population of Mount Popa Taung-Kalat and villages in its vicinity underwent ophthalmic interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained Australian ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses. This evaluation included anterior segment examination with a slit lamp, intraocular pressure recording, and direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. VI and SVI/BL were defined by the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Results: Six hundred fifty subjects were screened, with a mean age of 49.0 ± 20.6 years (range, 1–99. One hundred five patients (16.2% were children (ages 1–18. Five hundred thirty-one eyes of the total 1,300 eyes (39.5% had VI/SVI/BL, and 40 eyes of the children (38.1% (average age 15.3 ± 13.3 had VI/SVI/BL. The leading causes of VI/SVI/BL were cataract with 288 cases (54.2%, glaucoma with 84 cases (15.8%, and corneal pathology with 78 cases (14.7%. Of all the VI/SVI/BL cases, 8.4% were preventable, 81.9% were treatable, and total of 90.5% were avoidable.Conclusions: In the current study, cataracts were the major cause of blindness and visual impairment, and most of the ophthalmic pathology causing blindness is avoidable. These results highlight the lack of basic ophthalmologist eye care and optician resources in rural regions in Myanmar

  18. [Enlightenment and thinking of blinding trachoma elimination in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningli; Hu, Ailian

    2015-07-01

    Trachoma had been the leading infectious cause of blindness. After years of hard work and unremitting efforts, blinding trachoma would never been a public health problem in China by 2015. Discovery and research of Chlamydia trachoma provide a scientific way for the prevention and control of trachoma. The achievement of eliminating blinding trachoma in China pertained to the highly concerned about government and succeed spreading of SAFE strategies. It is still required to strengthen the diagnostic criteria and knowledge training of public health disease. Epidemiological investigation should follow the international criteria. Though blinding trachoma would never been a public health problem in China, comprehensive prevention and control of trachoma should be emphasized in case of being epidemic again. PMID:26310249

  19. Semi-blind Sparse Image Reconstruction with Application to MRFM

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Se Un; Hero, Alfred O

    2012-01-01

    We propose a solution to the image deconvolution problem where the convolution kernel or point spread function (PSF) is assumed to be only partially known. Small perturbations generated from the model are exploited to produce a few principal components explaining the PSF uncertainty in a high dimensional space. Unlike recent developments on blind deconvolution of natural images, we assume the image is sparse in the pixel basis, a natural sparsity arising in magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). Our approach adopts a Bayesian Metropolis-within-Gibbs sampling framework. The performance of our Bayesian semi-blind algorithm for sparse images is superior to previously proposed semi-blind algorithms such as the alternating minimization (AM) algorithm and blind algorithms developed for natural images. We illustrate our myopic algorithm on real MRFM tobacco virus data.

  20. Computer Simulation to Detect the Blind Spots in Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem (moh'd Said Hatamleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During driving Changing lanes can be very hazardous on a busy highway. There is region called "blind spot" which is a problem for every car driver since its not covered by the drivers mirrors. Relying solely on the mirrors while changing lane can lead to a collision with another vehicle. This paper focuses on this situation by ensuring that the blind spots of the vehicle are clear prior to the driver attempt to change lanes. This computer simulation incorporates the need for detection and warning of objects present within the blind spot on either side of the vehicle to the driver along with distance measurement of the object relative to the vehicle, incase the driver decides to change lanes. This simulation is constructed using the theory of embedded systems and will alert the driver if there is another car on the blind area.

  1. The Preschool Blind Child Can Be a Cane User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrund, R. L.; Rosen, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    This article proposes the teaching of long cane mobility skills to blind preschool-age children. Traditional arguments against early cane use are refuted and possible advantages of early use identified. Strategies and techniques for cane introduction are specified. (DB)

  2. Inattentional blindness is influenced by exposure time not motion speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Inattentional blindness is a striking phenomenon in which a salient object within the visual field goes unnoticed because it is unexpected, and attention is focused elsewhere. Several attributes of the unexpected object, such as size and animacy, have been shown to influence the probability of inattentional blindness. At present it is unclear whether or how the speed of a moving unexpected object influences inattentional blindness. We demonstrated that inattentional blindness rates are considerably lower if the unexpected object moves more slowly, suggesting that it is the mere exposure time of the object rather than a higher saliency potentially induced by higher speed that determines the likelihood of its detection. Alternative explanations could be ruled out: The effect is not based on a pop-out effect arising from different motion speeds in relation to the primary-task stimuli (Experiment 2), nor is it based on a higher saliency of slow-moving unexpected objects (Experiment 3). PMID:26031845

  3. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn GE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resources, ROP blindness is largely restricted to premature infants with very low birth weight and low gestational age while in middle- and low-income countries with regional variation in technology and capacity, limited health resources may well limit the care of the premature newborn. Keywords: ROP, international, blindness

  4. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis;

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no...... overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12......% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus...

  5. Natural ventilation in the double skin facade with venetian blind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao-li [Thermal Energy Research Institute, Tianjin University, Weijin Road No. 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); China Electronics Engineering Design Institute, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Zhao [Thermal Energy Research Institute, Tianjin University, Weijin Road No. 92, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-07-01

    As a new-style building, the thermal performance of double skin facade with the venetian blind cannot be predicted for the absence of suitable tool. In the paper, a detailed analysis of the thermal process in glass double facade with venetian blind was made. The governing equations were solved by comprising CFD, optical and heat balance model for multi-layer transparent system. It is shown that the more complex natural ventilation exists in the two air gaps divided by venetian blind, which cannot be reflected with the simplified model. Comparing the simulation results with the experiment data in the literature, a good agreement was achieved. Hence, it can be used as a reliable tool to analyze the ventilation in the double skin facade with a venetian blind. (author)

  6. Parenting Styles and the Depressive Syndrome in Congenitally Blind Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Robert; West, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses the effect on congenitally blind children of three types of parents: those who are overprotective, those who push the child toward independence too soon, and those who are "good enough." (Author)

  7. Superior Orthonasal but Not Retronasal Olfactory Skills in Congenital Blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Ismaili, Abd Rahman Alaoui; Ptito, Maurice;

    2015-01-01

    using grocery-available food powders. Results showed that blind subjects were significantly faster and tended to be better at identifying odours presented orthonasally. This was not the case when odorants were presented retronasally. We also found a significant group x route interaction, showing......Sight is undoubtedly important for finding and appreciating food, and cooking. Blind individuals are strongly impaired in finding food, limiting the variety of flavours they are exposed to. We have shown before that compared to sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals have enhanced...... their sighted counterparts. These results confirm that orthonasal but not retronasal olfactory perception is enhanced in congenital blindness, a result that is concordant with the reduced food variety exposure in this group....

  8. Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim

    2010-12-20

    It has previously been shown that the gated detectors of two commercially available quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are blindable and controllable by an eavesdropper using continuous-wave illumination and short bright trigger pulses, manipulating voltages in the circuit [Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010)]. This allows for an attack eavesdropping the full raw and secret key without increasing the quantum bit error rate (QBER). Here we show how thermal effects in detectors under bright illumination can lead to the same outcome. We demonstrate that the detectors in a commercial QKD system Clavis2 can be blinded by heating the avalanche photo diodes (APDs) using bright illumination, so-called thermal blinding. Further, the detectors can be triggered using short bright pulses once they are blind. For systems with pauses between packet transmission such as the plug-and-play systems, thermal inertia enables Eve to apply the bright blinding illumination before eavesdropping, making her more difficult to catch.

  9. Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, R; Beaulieu-Lefebvre, M; Schneider, F C;

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive neuroplastic changes have been well documented in congenitally blind individuals for the processing of tactile and auditory information. By contrast, very few studies have investigated olfactory processing in the absence of vision. There is ample evidence that the olfactory system...... is highly plastic and that blind individuals rely more on their sense of smell than the sighted do. The olfactory system in the blind is therefore likely to be susceptible to cross-modal changes similar to those observed for the tactile and auditory modalities. To test this hypothesis, we used functional...... subjects more strongly activated primary (right amygdala) and secondary (right orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampus) olfactory areas. In addition, widespread task-related activations were found throughout the whole extent of the occipital cortex in blind but not in sighted participants...

  10. What will happen if we do nothing to control trachoma: health expectancies for blinding trachoma in southern Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah M Ngondi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled trachoma is a leading cause of blindness. Current global trachoma burden summary measures are presented as disability adjusted life years but have limitations due to inconsistent methods and inadequate population-based data on trachomatous low vision and blindness. We aimed to describe more completely the burden of blinding trachoma in Southern Sudan using health expectancies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Age and gender specific trachomatous trichiasis (TT prevalence was estimated from 11 districts in Southern Sudan. The distribution of visual acuity (VA in persons with TT was recorded in one district. Sudan life tables, TT prevalence, and VA were used to calculate Trichiasis Free Life Expectancy (TTFLE and Trichiasis Life Expectancy (TTLE using the Sullivan method. TTLE was broken down by VA to derive TTLE with normal vision, TTLE with low vision, and TTLE with blindness. Total life expectancy at birth in 2001 was 54.2 years for males and 58.1 for females. From our Sullivan models, trichiasis life expectancy at the age of 5 years was estimated to be 7.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.2-7.8 years (12% [95% CI = 11-14] of remaining life for males and 10.9 (95% CI = 9.9-11.9 years (18% [95% CI = 16-20] of remaining life for females. Trichiasis life expectancy with low vision or blindness was 5.1 (95% CI = 3.9-6.4 years (9% [95% CI = 7-11] of remaining life and 7.6 (95% CI = 6.0-9.1 years (12% [95% CI = 10-15] of remaining life for males and females, respectively. Women were predicted to live longer and spend a greater proportion of their lives with disabling trichiasis, low vision, and blindness compared to men. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the future burden associated with doing nothing to control trachoma in Southern Sudan, that is, a substantial proportion of remaining life expectancy spent with trichiasis and low vision or blindness for both men and women, with a disproportionate burden falling on women.

  11. Altered myoelectric activity in the experimental blind loop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, P G; Fernandez, A; Martin, J L; King, C E; Toskes, P P; Mathias, J R

    1983-09-01

    Nutrient malabsorption and diarrhea are characteristic of the blind loop syndrome. Alterations in motility have been implicated as a cause of bacterial overgrowth, but the possibility that altered motility may result from alterations in the flora has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to characterize the myoelectric activity of the small intestine in the blind loop rat model. Eight groups of rats were studied: rats with self-filling blind loops, which develop bacterial overgrowth; rats with self-emptying blind loops, which are surgical controls that do not develop overgrowth; unoperated litter mates; rats with self-filling blind loops and unoperated controls treated with chloramphenicol, 200 mg/d i.p.; rats with surgically removed self-filling blind loops; operated control rats; and gnotobiotic rats with self-filling blind loops. In the untreated rats with self-filling blind loops, there was altered myoelectric activity characterized by an increased percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and by organized activity similar to the migrating action potential complex. Migrating action potential complex activity and percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials were significantly decreased with chloramphenicol therapy; that decrease correlated with a decrease in aerobes and anaerobes. Migrating action potential complex activity was abolished in rats with surgically removed self-filling blind loops; they also showed a significant decrease in percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials. Gnotobiotic rats with self-filling blind loops showed no alteration in myoelectric activity. These data indicate: (a) bacterial overgrowth is associated with a significant increase in percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and migrating action potential complex activity; (b) chloramphenicol significantly reduced both percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and migrating action potential complex activity; and (c

  12. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION OF BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED PUPILS IN SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cankar, Franc; Deutsch, Tomi; GLOBACNIK Bojana; PINTERIC Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the last years, the demand to include children with special needs in the mainstream kindergartens and schools in Slovenia has grown. This brought with it the need for changing the role of the special schools and institutes for children with special needs and for their transformation into resource centres. Methodology: We pilot tested a resource centre for support of blind and visually impaired children. We included 15 educational institutes and one blind or visually impair...

  13. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Melisa Vance; Telmo Llanga; Will Bennett; Kenton Woodard; Giridhar Murlidharan; Neil Chungfat; Aravind Asokan; Brian Gilger; Joanne Kurtzberg; Jude Samulski, R.; Hirsch, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse...

  14. Simplified solar optical calculations for windows with venetian blinds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotey, N.A.; Wright, J.L. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Solar gain through a window represents the largest and most variable heat gain imposed on an indoor space. The potential for shading devices to optimize the energy efficiency of buildings was discussed with reference to the value of modeling complex fenestration system in annual energy simulation programs. Shading devices such as venetian blinds, roller blinds and drapes are commonly used to control solar gain through windows. In this paper, three sets of calculations were presented for a window with light and dark coloured venetian blinds using simplified models and computational procedures. Hourly transmitted, reflected and absorbed fluxes were calculated for both summer and winter conditions with a venetian blind placed on the indoor-side of the window; a venetian blind placed between the glazings; and, a venetian blind placed on the outdoor-side of the window. As the first step in energy analysis of the complex fenestration systems, short-wave radiation models determine the fraction of incident solar radiation directly transmitted through the complex fenestration system and the fraction that is absorbed in each layer. The absorbed solar energy in each layer serves as a source term for the heat transfer analysis. In this study, simplified models were used to calculate the transmitted, reflected and absorbed fluxes of solar radiation for windows with venetian blinds. The study showed that a particular configuration of a window with a venetian blind can significantly influence the amount of energy transmitted to the indoor space at different times of the year. In addition, the slat angle could reduce the building energy requirements during the summer and winter seasons. The simplified calculation procedures produced results that can serve as useful input to building load and annual energy calculation tools. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  15. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resou...

  16. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn GE

    2016-01-01

    Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resources...

  17. Comparison of Knee Proprioception Between Blind and Healthy Sportsmen

    OpenAIRE

    Şilil, Mehtap Kaçmaz; Sargın, Serdar; Atik, Aziz; Meriç, Gökhan; Özer, Muhammet; Akseki, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Visual sense and proprioception have a big role in motion control. Visual communication ensures the data in proprioceptive period. The other senses of blind people are improved because of the lack of the visual ability but there are not enough data for the proprioceptive quality. The purpose of this study is to compare the knee joint proprioception of the blind and normal sportsmen and figure out the prorioceptive quality. Methods: 16 visually-challenged sportsmen (12 males and 4 ...

  18. Blind loop syndrome: an unusual cause of panniculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, F; Halimi, C; Kevorkian, J P; Pinquier, L; Dubertret, L; Segrestaa, J M

    1997-11-01

    We describe a 52-year-old woman with panniculitis and blind loop syndrome. She had undergone a gastrectomy for peptic ulcer 4 years before. Tender erythematous nodules on her palms and soles were associated with diarrhea and weight loss. A biopsy specimen revealed septal and lobular panniculitis. A glucose hydrogen breath test was consistent with bacterial overgrowth. These results were consistent with panniculitis associated with a blind loop syndrome. Only four cases of this association have been reported previously.

  19. Semi-Blind Cancellation of IQ-Imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, Matthias; Mailand, Marko; Jentschel, Hans-Joachim; Deneire, Luc; Lebrun, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    The technical realization of modern wireless receivers yields significant interfering IQ-imbalances, which have to be compensated digitally. To cancel these IQ-imbalances, we propose an algorithm using iterative blind source separation (IBSS) as well as information about the modulation scheme used (hence the term semi-blind). The novelty of our approach lies in the fact that we match the nonlinearity involved in the IBSS algorithm to the probability density function of the source signals. Mor...

  20. Implicit binding of facial features during change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Pessi Lyyra; Hanna Mäkelä; Hietanen, Jari K.; Piia Astikainen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Change blindness refers to the inability to detect visual changes if introduced together with an eye-movement, blink, flash of light, or with distracting stimuli. Evidence of implicit detection of changed visual features during change blindness has been reported in a number of studies using both behavioral and neurophysiological measurements. However, it is not known whether implicit detection occurs only at the level of single features or whether complex organizations of f...

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Blind Children: Very High Prevalence, Potentially Better Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jure, Rubin; Pogonza, Ramón; Rapin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders affected 19 of 38 unselected children at a school for the blind in Cordoba, Argentina. Autism was linked to total congenital blindness, not blindness' etiology, acquired or incomplete blindness, sex, overt brain damage, or socioeconomic status. Autism "recovery," had occurred in 4 verbal children. Congenital…

  2. 20 CFR 416.903 - Who makes disability and blindness determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who makes disability and blindness... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Determinations § 416.903 Who makes disability and blindness determinations. (a) State agencies. State agencies make...

  3. Future of Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. The Future of Personalized Medicine, From NIH Director Dr. Francis S. Collins Past Issues / ... five priorities for NIH is to advance personalized medicine. What does this mean for the average American? ...

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Clinical Trials News Multimedia About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Treatment Psychotherapy Taking ...

  5. Personality Disorders, Impulsiveness, and Novelty Seeking in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William H; Crowe, Raymond R; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the presence of personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking in probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG), controls, and their respective first-degree relatives using a blind family study methodology. Ninety-three probands with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and their 395 first-degree relatives were evaluated for the presence of personality disorder with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Impulsiveness was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Novelty seeking was evaluated using questions from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations to account for within family correlations. PG probands had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorders than controls (41 vs. 7 %, OR = 9.0, P personality disorder had more severe gambling symptoms; earlier age at PG onset; more suicide attempts; greater psychiatric comorbidity; and a greater family history of psychiatric illness than PG probands without a personality disorder. PG relatives had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorder than relatives of controls (24 vs. 9%, OR = 3.2, P personality disorder and increases along with rising BIS Non-Planning and Total scale scores. Personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking are common in people with PG and their first-degree relatives. The presence of a personality disorder appears to be a marker of PG severity and earlier age of onset. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and trait impulsiveness. These findings suggest that personality disorder and impulsiveness may contribute to a familial diathesis for PG.

  6. Space and time in the sighted and blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Roberto; Crepaldi, Davide; Casasanto, Daniel; Crollen, Virgine; Collignon, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    Across many cultures people conceptualize time as extending along a horizontal Mental Time Line (MTL). This spatial mapping of time has been shown to depend on experience with written text, and may also depend on other graphic conventions such as graphs and calendars. All of this information is typically acquired visually, suggesting that visual experience may play an important role in the development of the MTL. Do blind people develop a MTL? If so, how does it compare with the MTL in sighted? In this study we tested early blind, late blind and sighted participants in a space-time congruity task. Participants had to classify temporal words by pressing a right and a left key, either with crossed or uncrossed hands. We found that the MTL develops in the absence of vision, and that it is based on the same external frame of reference in sighted and blind people. Reading braille may provide the same experiential link between space and time in the manual modality as reading printed text provides in the visual modality. These results showing a similar MTL in sighted and blind participants contrast with previous results showing that the Mental Number Line (MNL) depends on different spatial coordinates in the sighted and the blind, and suggest that spatial representations of time and number may have different experiential bases.

  7. Implicit binding of facial features during change blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessi Lyyra

    Full Text Available Change blindness refers to the inability to detect visual changes if introduced together with an eye-movement, blink, flash of light, or with distracting stimuli. Evidence of implicit detection of changed visual features during change blindness has been reported in a number of studies using both behavioral and neurophysiological measurements. However, it is not known whether implicit detection occurs only at the level of single features or whether complex organizations of features can be implicitly detected as well. We tested this in adult humans using intact and scrambled versions of schematic faces as stimuli in a change blindness paradigm while recording event-related potentials (ERPs. An enlargement of the face-sensitive N170 ERP component was observed at the right temporal electrode site to changes from scrambled to intact faces, even if the participants were not consciously able to report such changes (change blindness. Similarly, the disintegration of an intact face to scrambled features resulted in attenuated N170 responses during change blindness. Other ERP deflections were modulated by changes, but unlike the N170 component, they were indifferent to the direction of the change. The bidirectional modulation of the N170 component during change blindness suggests that implicit change detection can also occur at the level of complex features in the case of facial stimuli.

  8. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, L; Kupers, R; Ptito, M

    2015-04-01

    Sight is undoubtedly important for the perception and the assessment of the palatability of tastants. Although many studies have addressed the consequences of visual impairment on food selection, feeding behavior, eating habits and taste perception, nothing is known about the neural correlates of gustation in blindness. In the current study we examined brain responses during gustation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We scanned nine congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched blindfolded sighted control subjects, matched in age, gender and body mass index (BMI), while they made judgments of either the intensity or the (un)pleasantness of different tastes (sweet, bitter) or artificial saliva that were delivered intra-orally. The fMRI data indicated that during gustation, congenitally blind individuals activate less strongly the primary taste cortex (right posterior insula and overlying Rolandic operculum) and the hypothalamus. In sharp contrast with results of multiple other sensory processing studies in congenitally blind subjects, including touch, audition and smell, the occipital cortex was not recruited during taste processing, suggesting the absence of taste-related compensatory crossmodal responses in the occipital cortex. These results underscore our earlier behavioral demonstration that congenitally blind subjects have a lower gustatory sensitivity compared to normal sighted individuals. We hypothesize that due to an underexposure to a variety of tastants, training-induced crossmodal sensory plasticity to gustatory stimulation does not occur in blind subjects.

  9. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  10. Protein digestion and absorption in the blind loop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, K J; Prizont, R; Kim, Y S

    1979-12-01

    Protein digestion and absorption was studied in rats with 6-week-old surgically constructed self-filling intestinal blind loops and steatorrhea, ie, blind-loop animals and controls were fed a 14C-labeled protein meal containing a nonabsorbable marker, 51CrCl3, and sacrificed 1 or 2 hr later. Intestinal contents were analyzed for 14C, 51Cr, protein, trypsin, and the products of digestion. At 1 hr, 14C absorption was greater in controls, but at 2 hr there was no difference in absorption between the two groups. Marker studies showed that blind-loop filling resulted in a delay of the progression of intestinal contents distally. Intraluminal trypsin and porteolysis were similar in the two groups. Endogenous protein was greater in the blind-loop animals. The early stages of the blind-loop syndrome may be characterized by delayed protein absorption secondary to blind-loop filling, which is compensated for by the distal gut resulting in an absence of overall protein malabsorption.

  11. Implicit binding of facial features during change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Pessi; Mäkelä, Hanna; Hietanen, Jari K; Astikainen, Piia

    2014-01-01

    Change blindness refers to the inability to detect visual changes if introduced together with an eye-movement, blink, flash of light, or with distracting stimuli. Evidence of implicit detection of changed visual features during change blindness has been reported in a number of studies using both behavioral and neurophysiological measurements. However, it is not known whether implicit detection occurs only at the level of single features or whether complex organizations of features can be implicitly detected as well. We tested this in adult humans using intact and scrambled versions of schematic faces as stimuli in a change blindness paradigm while recording event-related potentials (ERPs). An enlargement of the face-sensitive N170 ERP component was observed at the right temporal electrode site to changes from scrambled to intact faces, even if the participants were not consciously able to report such changes (change blindness). Similarly, the disintegration of an intact face to scrambled features resulted in attenuated N170 responses during change blindness. Other ERP deflections were modulated by changes, but unlike the N170 component, they were indifferent to the direction of the change. The bidirectional modulation of the N170 component during change blindness suggests that implicit change detection can also occur at the level of complex features in the case of facial stimuli. PMID:24498165

  12. Borderline Personality and Criminality

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is characteristically associated with a broad variety of psychiatric symptoms and aberrant behaviors. In this edition of The Interface, we discuss the infrequently examined association between borderline personality disorder and criminality. According to our review of the literature, in comparison with the rates of borderline personality disorder encountered in the general population, borderline personality disorder is over-represented in most studies of inmate...

  13. Personality Psychology and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Almlund, Mathilde; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the power of personality traits both as predictors and as causes of academic and economic success, health, and criminal activity. Measured personality is interpreted as a construct derived from an economic model of preferences, constraints, and information. Evidence is reviewed about the "situational specificity" of personality traits and preferences. An extreme version of the situationist view claims that there are no stable personality traits or preference parameters tha...

  14. Personality and burnout

    OpenAIRE

    Idar Wallin, Malin

    2010-01-01

    Many studies highlights the correlation between personality and burnout but a limitation in previous studies is the lack of longitudinell data, wich is preferable to show strong causal relationships. The purpose of this study is to explore if personality-traits can predict changes in levels of burnout across time. Longitudinal data from nurse students in Sweden participating in the LANE study are used. The personality constructs chosen are personality traits from The Five Factor theory, adjus...

  15. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  16. Personality and Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psycholog...

  17. Personality and Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles M.

    2004-01-01

    Bases for individual acceptance and cultural integration of gays and lesbians were investigated by assessing qualities of personality among four participant groups: Heterosexual females, heterosexual males, homosexual females, and homosexual males. Personality was operationally defined as personal qualities and characteristics associated with…

  18. Attentional modulation of motion-induced blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG HaiYan; SONG QianLan; LI YunFeng; XU Shan; ZHU Ying

    2007-01-01

    When a global moving pattern is superimposed on high-contrast stationary or slowly moving stimuli,the stimuli can be perceived as disappearing and reappearing alternately for periods of several seconds. This visual illusory phenomenon was named "motion-induced blindness" (MIB) in recent literature. So far there is no consensus on the mechanism of MIB, especially on the role of attention in this phenomenon. To examine the effect of spatial attention on MIB, the present study manipulated the participants' spatial attention by asking them to respond to two targets simultaneously presented in bilateral visual fields (the divided-attention condition) or only respond to one of them (the focused-attention condition). A central arrow was presented as an endogenous cue to index the target visual field in the focused-attention condition, while a point was presented instead in the divided-attention condition. The results show that the percentage of accumulated invisibility period was larger for the targets in the focused-attention condition than for those in the divided-attention condition.This effect of attentionis significant in upper visual field (UVF) and left lower visual field (left LVF); that is, this effect shows a hemispheric asymmetry in LVF but not in UVF. Furthermore, the percentage of accumulated invisibility period was larger for targets in left LVF than for those in right LVF in the focused-attention condition, but no hemispheric asymmetry was found in the divided-attention condition.In addition, the increased percentage of accumulated invisibility period in the focused-attention condition originated merely in the enhancement of the mean phase duration of disappearance in LVF, while the disappearance occurred more frequently and lasted longer for each occurrence, which led to an increase in the total invisibility period, in the focused- than divided-attention condition in UVF. These results suggest that the modulation of spatial attention on MIB has different

  19. Lexical references to sensory modalities in verbal descriptions of people and objects by congenitally blind, late blind and sighted adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Chauvey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have revealed that while congenitally blind people have a tendency to refer to visual attributes ('verbalism', references to auditory and tactile attributes are scarcer. However, this statement may be challenged by current theories claiming that cognition is linked to the perceptions and actions from which it derives. Verbal productions by the blind could therefore differ from those of the sighted because of their specific perceptual experience. The relative weight of each sense in oral descriptions was compared in three groups with different visual experience Congenitally blind (CB, late blind (LB and blindfolded sighted (BS adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were asked to give an oral description of their mother and their father, and of four familiar manually-explored objects. The number of visual references obtained when describing people was relatively high, and was the same in the CB and BS groups ("verbalism" in the CB. While references to touch were scarce in all groups, the CB referred to audition more frequently than the LB and the BS groups. There were, by contrast, no differences between groups in descriptions of objects, and references to touch dominated the other modalities. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The relative weight of each modality varies according to the cognitive processes involved in each task. Long term memory, internal representations and information acquired through social communication, are at work in the People task, seem to favour visual references in both the blind and the sighted, whereas the congenitally blind also refer often to audition. By contrast, the perceptual encoding and working memory at work in the Objects task enhance sensory references to touch in a similar way in all groups. These results attenuate the impact of verbalism in blindness, and support (albeit moderately the idea that the perceptual experience of the congenitally blind is to some extent

  20. Three Blind Men and the Elephant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J S

    2007-02-13

    Just like the blind men in the popular story of perceiving the elephant, the three major constituencies participating in the energy debate have greatly different perceptions of the problem. The constituency that is worried about climate change believes the energy problem is caused by profligate use of fossil fuel that has dramatically changed our atmosphere. The energy security group sees dangerous reliance on foreign sources of oil increasingly held by countries hostile to the US. The economic vitality group sees high energy prices and their effect on the economy and our life-style. Just like the blind men, each of the three constituencies perceives a different problem. And just as with the blind men, while each perspective is right as a piece of the elephant, it takes all the perspectives together to actually solve the problem. Environmentalists focus on solutions responding to the scientific consensus that greenhouse gases are creating rapid climate change. The tipping point has come: it is now a consensus position among scientists the global warming is being affected by anthropogenic activity to 90% certainty according to the last IPCC report. Although they still struggle with the prediction of how much global temperatures will rise if we do nothing--is it 5 deg or 10 under BAU? This group believes that we cannot afford to take a chance because we get only one chance. We can not afford to do this kind of experiment with the Earth. Any choice which decreases our CO{sub 2} footprint is favored, even if it means a decrease in standard of living. The energy security constituency sees the geo-politics of oil becoming increasingly dire. They look at oil money being used to fund anti-American activities of groups such as the Wahabis in Saudi Arabia, Hezbollah in Lebanon and the infamous Al Qaeda. They quip that the Iraq war is the first war where we are paying for both sides. They note Iran and the Shia throughout the Middle East seeing the possibility of controlling

  1. Brain mapping in a patient with congenital blindness – a case for multimodal approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod L Roland

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in basic neuroscience research across a wide range of methodologies have contributed significantly to our understanding of human cortical electrophysiology and functional brain imaging. Translation of this research into clinical neurosurgery has opened doors for advanced mapping of functionality that previously was prohibitively difficult, if not impossible. Here we present the case of a unique individual with congenital blindness and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent neurosurgical treatment of her seizures. Pre-operative evaluation presented the challenge of accurately and robustly mapping the cerebral cortex for an individual with a high probability of significant cortical re-organization. Additionally, a blind individual has unique priorities in one’s ability to read Braille by touch and sense the environment primarily by sound than the non-vision impaired person. For these reasons we employed additional measures to map sensory, motor, speech, language, and auditory perception by employing a number of cortical electrophysiologic mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. Our data show promising results in the application of these adjunctive methods in the pre-operative mapping of otherwise difficult to localize, and highly variable, functional cortical areas.

  2. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand;

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper......, an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...

  3. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  4. Aspartame use by persons with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrling, J K; Kobe, P; McLane, M P; Olson, R E; Kamath, S; Horwitz, D L

    1985-01-01

    Sixty-two subjects having either insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes completed a randomized, double-blind study comparing effects of aspartame or a placebo on blood glucose control. Twenty-nine subjects consumed 2.7 g aspartame per day for 18 wk, given as aspartame-containing capsules with meals, while 33 subjects took identical appearing placebo capsules. After 18 wk, no changes were seen in fasting or 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels or glycohemoglobin levels in either the aspartame- or placebo-treated groups. Adverse reactions were no more common in the group taking aspartame. We conclude that use of aspartame as a low-calorie sweetener does not adversely affect glycemic control of persons with diabetes. PMID:3902420

  5. Aspects of personality in patients with anxiety disorders undergoing capsulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindus, P; Nyman, H; Rosenquist, A; Rydin, E; Meyerson, B A

    1988-01-01

    Capsulotomy is an established psychosurgical intervention for anxiety disorders. While the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing target symptoms is undisputed, the issue of negative personality changes following capsulotomy is of great concern. We studied prospectively personality traits in nine consecutive patients undergoing capsulotomy for anxiety disorder, using the Rorschach test and a personality inventory, the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), administered before and one year after operation. The protocols were evaluated under blind conditions by an independent assessor who had access to no data other than the age and sex of the patients. The Rorschach findings were used in two main comparison procedures: between the patients pre- and postoperative scores, and between that group and three reference groups. The KSP data were compared both with an age-stratified non-patient control group and with data obtained from groups of neurotic patients. In summary, the capsulotomy patients' personalities, as expressed in their Rorschach interpretations, remained intact, and significant reductions were noted in scales reflecting anxiety and hospitality. Statistically significant changes were also noted after operation in 10 of the 17 scales included in the KSP. While pathological scores were observed preoperatively in many scales, all the postoperative scores but one (Socialization) were within the normal range. Scores on the Socialization scale remained low, which is often the case in chronic patients. It is concluded that the patients displayed more normal personality features after operation than before and that adverse personality changes are not likely to occur after capsulotomy. PMID:3223360

  6. Personality and Euroscepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2016-01-01

    integration, and how personal predispositions moderate framing effects, impacting EU attitude formation. The study relies on Danish and Swedish data (N = 1808). I test both the direct impact of personality on EU attitudes and personality's moderating impact on framing effects. I find that extraversion......Attitudes towards EU integration are widely studied, yet we know only little about the role of personality for EU attitudes. Utilizing a framing experiment encompassing positive and negative frames of EU integration, this article reports on how personality influences attitudes towards EU...... and openness positively correlate with positive EU attitudes, while people scoring high on neuroticism tend to support the EU less. Furthermore, I find that personality moderates different EU frames. Individuals with certain personality traits are more influenced by framing effects than others, while positive...

  7. Sociogenomic personality psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J

    2008-12-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology.

  8. Educational Applications for Blind and Partially Sighted Pupils Based on Speech Technologies for Serbian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lučić, Branko; Ostrogonac, Stevan; Vujnović Sedlar, Nataša; Sečujski, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of persons with disabilities has always represented an important issue. Advancements within the field of computer science have enabled the development of different types of aids, which have significantly improved the quality of life of the disabled. However, for some disabilities, such as visual impairment, the purpose of these aids is to establish an alternative communication channel and thus overcome the user's disability. Speech technologies play the crucial role in this process. This paper presents the ongoing efforts to create a set of educational applications based on speech technologies for Serbian for the early stages of education of blind and partially sighted children. Two educational applications dealing with memory exercises and comprehension of geometrical shapes are presented, along with the initial tests results obtained from research including visually impaired pupils.

  9. Rubber hands feel touch, but not in blind individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria I Petkova

    Full Text Available Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005. We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10, all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12. The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.

  10. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O . Oduntan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and  the  socio-economic  and  psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.

  11. Causes of childhood blindness in the northeastern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Harsha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The northeastern region (NER of India is geographically isolated and ethno-culturally different from the rest of the country. There is lacuna regarding the data on causes of blindness and severe visual impairment in children from this region. Aim: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness amongst children from schools for the blind in the four states of NER of India. Design and Setting: Survey of children attending special education schools for the blind in the NER. Materials and Methods: Blind and severely visually impaired children (best corrected visual acuity < 20/200 in the better eye, aged up to 16 years underwent visual acuity estimation, external ocular examination, retinoscopy and fundoscopy. Refraction and low vision workup was done where indicated. World Health Organization′s reporting form was used to code anatomical and etiological causes of visual loss. Statistical Analysis: Microsoft Excel Windows software with SPSS. Results: A total of 376 students were examined of whom 258 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The major anatomical causes of visual loss amongst the 258 were congenital anomalies (anophthalmos, microphthalmos 93 (36.1%; corneal conditions (scarring, vitamin A deficiency 94 (36.7%; cataract or aphakia 28 (10.9%, retinal disorders 15 (5.8% and optic atrophy 14 (5.3%. Nearly half of the children were blind from conditions which were either preventable or treatable (48.5%. Conclusion: Nearly half the childhood blindness in the NER states of India is avoidable and Vitamin A deficiency forms an important component unlike other Indian states. More research and multisectorial effort is needed to tackle congenital anomalies.

  12. Crossmodal Processing of Haptic Inputs in Sighted and Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Patrice; Alary, Flamine; Lazzouni, Latifa; Chapman, C. E.; Goldstein, Rachel; Bourgoin, Pierre; Lepore, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In a previous behavioral study, it was shown that early blind individuals were superior to sighted ones in discriminating two-dimensional (2D) tactile angle stimuli. The present study was designed to assess the neural substrate associated with a haptic 2D angle discrimination task in both sighted and blind individuals. Subjects performed tactile angle size discriminations in order to investigate whether the pattern of crossmodal occipital recruitment was lateralized as a function of the stimulated hand. Task-elicited activations were also compared across different difficulty levels to ascertain the potential modulatory role of task difficulty on crossmodal processing within occipital areas. We show that blind subjects had more widespread activation within the right lateral and superior occipital gyri when performing the haptic discrimination task. In contrast, the sighted activated the left cuneus and lingual gyrus more so than the blind when performing the task. Furthermore, activity within visual areas was shown to be predictive of tactile discrimination thresholds in the blind, but not in the sighted. Activity within parietal and occipital areas was modulated by task difficulty, where the easier angle comparison elicited more focal occipital activity along with bilateral posterior parietal activity, whereas the more difficult comparison produced more widespread occipital activity combined with reduced parietal activation. Finally, we show that crossmodal reorganization within the occipital cortex of blind individuals was primarily right lateralized, regardless of the stimulated hand, supporting previous evidence for a right-sided hemispheric specialization of the occipital cortex of blind individuals for the processing of tactile and haptic inputs. PMID:27531974

  13. Rubber hands feel touch, but not in blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valeria I; Zetterberg, Hedvig; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005). We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10), all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12). The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception) revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.

  14. Building Personalized and Non Personalized Recommendation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SNEHA KHATWANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The contents of e-Commerce such as music, movies, books and electronics goods are necessary for a modern life style. But, it becomes difficult to find content according to users likes and users preference. An approach which produces desirable results to solve such the problem is to develop "Recommender System." The Recommender System of an e-Commerce site selects and suggests the contents to meet user's preference automatically using data sets of previous users stored in database. There can be two types of recommendations viz. Personalized and Non- Personalized recommendations. Personalized recommendation takes into consideration users’ previous history for rating and predicting items. On the other hand nonpersonalized recommendation systems recommend what is popular and relevant to all the users which can be a list of top-10 items for every new user. One of the most important techniques in the Recommender System is information filtering. The filtering techniques can be mainly classified into two categories viz. Collaborative Filtering and Content Based Filtering. Recommender system is a type of web intelligence technique that can make daily information filtering for users. This paper covers different techniques which can be used for creating personalized and non-personalized recommendations. This paper also explores the different packages of R i.e. Shiny which is used to create web applications and rmarkdown which is used to create dynamic documents.

  15. The scene and the unseen: manipulating photographs for experiments on change blindness and scene memory: image manipulation for change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Felix; Elzemann, Anne; Busch, Niko A

    2014-09-01

    The change blindness paradigm, in which participants often fail to notice substantial changes in a scene, is a popular tool for studying scene perception, visual memory, and the link between awareness and attention. Some of the most striking and popular examples of change blindness have been demonstrated with digital photographs of natural scenes; in most studies, however, much simpler displays, such as abstract stimuli or "free-floating" objects, are typically used. Although simple displays have undeniable advantages, natural scenes remain a very useful and attractive stimulus for change blindness research. To assist researchers interested in using natural-scene stimuli in change blindness experiments, we provide here a step-by-step tutorial on how to produce changes in natural-scene images with a freely available image-processing tool (GIMP). We explain how changes in a scene can be made by deleting objects or relocating them within the scene or by changing the color of an object, in just a few simple steps. We also explain how the physical properties of such changes can be analyzed using GIMP and MATLAB (a high-level scientific programming tool). Finally, we present an experiment confirming that scenes manipulated according to our guidelines are effective in inducing change blindness and demonstrating the relationship between change blindness and the physical properties of the change and inter-individual differences in performance measures. We expect that this tutorial will be useful for researchers interested in studying the mechanisms of change blindness, attention, or visual memory using natural scenes. PMID:24311058

  16. Blinding trachoma among refugees:complicating social disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeshigeta; Gelaw; Aemero; Abateneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of blinding trachoma among refugees in South Western Ethiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional outreach clinic based descriptive study was conducted on 1054 refugees in Southwest Ethiopia.A basic eyelid and cornea examination for signs of trachoma was done by using 2.5× binocular magnifying loupe.The findings were classified by using the World Health Digitization simplified trachoma grading system and data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0.Results:A total of 1054 refugee patients were examined for trachoma.179(16.98%) of them had clinical signs of trachoma.About 6(3.35%) patients had active trachoma with trachomatous trichiasis(TT),47(26.26%) patients had TT only and the rest 126(70.39%)patients had TT with trachomatous corneal opacity.All of the trachoma patients had blinding trachoma(TT with or without trachomatous corneal opacity),and about 60.89% of them had visual impairment.Blinding trachoma was significantly more common among females.patients in age group of 16-59 years,married patients,illiterates and Fugnido camp settlers(P<0.05).Conclusions:There is a very high burden of blinding trachoma among refugees.Urgent surgical intervention is needed to prevent blindness and low vision in the study subjects,and targeted regular outreach-based eye care service should be commenced.

  17. The global problem of blindness and visual dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2012-10-01

    According to World Health Organization statistics there are approximately 285 million people who are blind, have severe low vision, or are near-blind. Of these, 39 million are blind, and 246 million have low vision problems. About 90% of these live in developing countries. The major causes are uncorrected refractive errors (42%), and cataracts (38%). In the US, there are about 6 million people over the age of 65 who have age-related macular degeneration which is the leading cause of blindness. For each decade after age 40, it is found that there is a three-fold increase in the prevalence of blindness and low vision. This paper will address the question of what can we, as optical physicists and engineers, do? There is a need for efficient methods to detect problems, investigate function, provide solutions, and develop rehabilitation devices for the visually impaired. Here I will sketch out the magnitude and variety of the problem, examples and future research directions.

  18. 盲者亦美丽%Blind Is Beautiful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟厚全(译注)

    2012-01-01

    Do you know anyone who is Blind or Visually Impaired1? I do! ME! Hi, my name is Ashley. I am 15 years oldand I am visually impaired. I have a disorder called "Optic Nerve Hypoplasia". I attend a School for the Blind, so most of my friends are blind or visually impaired. People think a lot of different things about us Blind people. There are so many misconceptions3. I would like to clear a few of these up and hopefully help you to see that blind people are the same as the sighted.%虽然我们看不见,但是我们一样心思敏捷,一样自食其力。因此,请平等对待我们吧!你认识失明或视力有障碍的人吗?我认识!我就是?你好,我的名字叫阿什莉,我现年15岁,有视力障碍,我患上了一种名为“视神经发育不全”的眼疾,

  19. Representation of haptic objects during mental rotation in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Burak; Celik, Serkan; Ilci, Civan

    2014-04-01

    The representation of haptic objects by three groups of participants (sighted, blindfolded, and congenitally blind) was studied in a mental-rotation task. Three models were tested. The participants explored a standard object continuously with the left hand and tried to find the mirror object among two alternatives explored sequentially with the right hand. Sighted participants were tested in the visual version of the task. The accuracy of judgments was very high (> 95%) for all groups, and the blind group had the highest identification times. Correlation analyses were performed between (both single-trial and average) identification times and angular differences. The identification times of the sighted and blindfolded groups increased as linear functions of the angular difference between the mirror and the standard stimuli, supporting the classical model. The identification times of the blind group changed non-monotonically and were consistent with an antiparallel image (180 degrees rotation superimposed) in the mental representation. The dual code model did not fit the data well for any participant group. The performance differences between the blindfolded and blind groups may be attributed to a modified mapping function from the object-properties-processing sub-system to the visual buffer, which was conjectured to be available also to the blind group while processing haptic objects. PMID:24897889

  20. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples ...

  1. Suicide and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Ak, Mehmet; Gülsün, Murat; Özmenler, K. Nahit

    2009-01-01

    Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personalit...

  2. Personality and psychotic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Boyette, L.L.N.J.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the current thesis is the contribution of normal personality traits as conceptualized by the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) to the manifestation of illness in patients with psychotic disorders. These studies were part of the Dutch national Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study. The main objective of this thesis was to examine whether normal personality traits as conceptualized by the FFM contribute to the vast heterogeneity found in expression of psychotic...

  3. Schizoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - schizoid References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  4. Avoidant personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Personality disorder - avoidant References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  5. Histrionic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of histrionic personality disorder. References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  6. Personal Identity in Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Podroužková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of human enhancement, its methods and its relation to personal identity. Also several approaches to personal identity will be described. Transhumanism is a special think tank supporting human enhancement through modern technologies and some of its representatives claim, that even great changes to human organisms will not affect their personal identity. I will briefly describe the most important means of human enhancment and consider the problem of personal identity for each of them separately.

  7. Designing for an inclusive school of informatics for blind students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas Brenes, Ronald

    converge, each defined by the variety of student practices. As a strategy universities should incorporate inclusion topics in the curricula to teach their students about their responsibility to establish inclusion in their future work. This strategy is discussed as an efficient tool for improving...... on Braille to read and write, and partially sighted people who can read printed material with the use of magnifiers or other supportive tools. The social construction of blindness, drawing on four different models: the charity model, the medical model, the rights-based model and the economic model. A...... the understanding of blindness and for easing the negotiability of practices between different populations. Therefore, this strategy contributes to the inclusion of blind students in these educational environments. Specialised offices in each university will benefit the incorporation of policies, knowledge...

  8. An ID-based Blind Signature Scheme from Bilinear Pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Umaprasada Rao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Blind signatures, introduced by Chaum, allow a user to obtain a signature on a message without revealing any thing about the message to the signer. Blind signatures play on important role in plenty of applications such as e-voting, e-cash system where anonymity is of great concern. Identity based(ID-based public key cryptography can be a good alternative for certified based public key setting, especially when efficient key management and moderate security are required. In this paper, we propose an ID-based blind signature scheme from bilinear pairings. The proposed scheme is based on the Hess ID- based digital signature scheme. Also we analyze security and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  9. Blind Deconvolution for Ultrasound Sequences Using a Noninverse Greedy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Teodor Chira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The blind deconvolution of ultrasound sequences in medical ultrasound technique is still a major problem despite the efforts made. This paper presents a blind noninverse deconvolution algorithm to eliminate the blurring effect, using the envelope of the acquired radio-frequency sequences and a priori Laplacian distribution for deconvolved signal. The algorithm is executed in two steps. Firstly, the point spread function is automatically estimated from the measured data. Secondly, the data are reconstructed in a nonblind way using proposed algorithm. The algorithm is a nonlinear blind deconvolution which works as a greedy algorithm. The results on simulated signals and real images are compared with different state of the art methods deconvolution. Our method shows good results for scatters detection, speckle noise suppression, and execution time.

  10. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Raffaele Dalla; Zinicola, Roberto; Iaria, Maurizio

    2014-08-27

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its incidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perforation. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  11. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raffaele; Dalla; Valle; Roberto; Zinicola; Maurizio; Iaria

    2014-01-01

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anas-tomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its in-cidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perfora-tion. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  12. Countermeasures Against Blinding Attack on Superconducting Nanowire Detectors for QKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs are used in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD instead of single-photon avalanche photodiodes. Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing technique. We developed the autoreset system which returns the SSPD to superconducting state when it is latched. We investigate latched state of the SSPD and define limit conditions for effective blinding attack. Peculiarity of the blinding attack is a long nonsingle photon response of the SSPD. It is much longer than usual single photon response. Besides, we need follow up response duration of the SSPD. These countermeasures allow us to prevent blind attack on SSPDs for Quantum Key Distribution.

  13. Color blindness among multiple sclerosis patients in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shaygannejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a disease of young and middle aged individuals with a demyelinative axonal damage nature in central nervous system that causes various signs and symptoms. As color vision needs normal function of optic nerve and macula, it is proposed that MS can alter it via influencing optic nerve. In this survey, we evaluated color vision abnormalities and its relationship with history of optic neuritis and abnormal visual evoked potentials (VEPs among MS patients. Materials and Methods: The case group was included of clinically definitive MS patients and the same number of normal population was enrolled as the control group. Color vision of all the participants was evaluated by Ishihara test and then visual evoked potential (VEPs and history of optic neuritis (ON was assessed among them. Then, frequency of color blindness was compared between the case and the control group. Finally, color blinded patients were compared to those with the history of ON and abnormal VEPs. Results: 63 MS patients and the same number of normal populations were enrolled in this study. 12 patients had color blindness based on the Ishihara test; only 3 of them were among the control group, which showed a significant different between the two groups (P = 0.013. There was a significant relationship between the color blindness and abnormal VEP (R = 0.53, P = 0.023 but not for the color blindness and ON (P = 0.67. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a significant correlation between color blindness and multiple sclerosis including ones with abnormal prolonged VEP latencies. Therefore, in individuals with acquired color vision impairment, an evaluation for potentially serious underlying diseases like MS is essential.

  14. Designing Motion Gesture Interfaces in Mobile Phones for Blind People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任向实

    2014-01-01

    Despite the existence of advanced functions in smartphones, most blind people are still using old-fashioned phones with familiar layouts and dependence on tactile buttons. Smartphones support accessibility features including vibration, speech and sound feedback, and screen readers. However, these features are only intended to provide feedback to user commands or input. It is still a challenge for blind people to discover functions on the screen and to input the commands. Although voice commands are supported in smartphones, these commands are difficult for a system to recognize in noisy environments. At the same time, smartphones are integrated with sophisticated motion sensors, and motion gestures with device tilt have been gaining attention for eyes-free input. We believe that these motion gesture interactions offer more efficient access to smartphone functions for blind people. However, most blind people are not smartphone users and they are aware of neither the affordances available in smartphones nor the potential for interaction through motion gestures. To investigate the most usable gestures for blind people, we conducted a user-defined study with 13 blind participants. Using the gesture set and design heuristics from the user study, we implemented motion gesture based interfaces with speech and vibration feedback for browsing phone books and making a call. We then conducted a second study to investigate the usability of the motion gesture interface and user experiences using the system. The findings indicated that motion gesture interfaces are more efficient than traditional button interfaces. Through the study results, we provided implications for designing smartphone interfaces.

  15. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornby Stella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  16. A New Approach for Hardware Control Procedure Used in Braille Glove Vibration System for Disabled Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Shivakumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To help the deaf and blind people benefit from the latest computer technology, by means of a vibrating hand glove, this is connected to a computer using hardware control procedures and a screen input program for communication purposes. The vibrations in six different positions in the hand glove match the Braille code. So the blind person can understand the characters of English language. In this study it explains the software design of English text to Braille code conversion, Hardware design of Braille Hand glove, Braille equivalent vibrations in six different positions in the Braille glove using hardware control procedure numbers and how it is tested using Chi-square test. Braille is an important language used by the visually impaired to read and write. It is vital for communication and educational purposes. This study puts forward the new idea for the benefit of deaf and blind people, who prefer to work in computer environment.

  17. Air flow phenomena in the model of the blind drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaszczur Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV has been used to investigate flow pattern and turbulent structure in the model of blind drift. The presented model exist in mining, and has been analyzed to resolve ventilation issues. Blind region is particularly susceptible to unsafe methane accumulation. The measurement system allows us to evaluate all components of the velocity vector in channel cross-section simultaneously. First order and second order statistic of the velocity fields from different channel cross-section are computed and analyzed.

  18. Blind Recognition Algorithm of Turbo Codes for Communication Intelligence Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Naseri; Omid Azmoon; Samad Fazeli

    2011-01-01

    Turbo codes are widely used in land and space radio communication systems, and because of complexity of structure, are custom in military communication systems. In electronic warfare, COMINT systems make attempt to recognize codes by blind ways. In this Paper, the algorithm is proposed for blind recognition of turbo code parameters like code kind, code-word length, code rate, length of interleaver and delay blocks number of convolution code. The algorithm calculations volume is0.5L3+1.25L, th...

  19. A Robust Algorithm for Blind Total Variation Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Qian-shun Chang

    2008-01-01

    Image restoration is a fundamental problem in image processing. Blind image restoration has a great value in its practical application. However, it is not an easy problem to solve due to its complexity and difficulty. In this paper, we combine our robust algorithm for known blur operator with an alternating minimization implicit iterative scheme to deal with blind deconvolution problem, recover the image and identify the point spread function(PSF). The only assumption needed is satisfy the practical physical sense. Numerical experiments demonstrate that this minimization algorithm is efficient and robust over a wide range of PSF and have almost the same results compared with known PSF algorithm.

  20. Preventing diabetic blindness: a priority for South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Karen Joanne; Cook, Colin; Levitt, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in South Africa is increasing rapidly, and diabetes is a significant cause of blindness. Diabetic complications can induce a cycle of poverty for affected families. Early detection of retinopathy and appropriate management can prevent blindness. Screening for retinopathy using a mobile retinal camera is highly cost-effective, with costs of screening and follow-up treatment being less than the expense of one year of a disability grant. Such a programme is a prime example of a 'best buy' that should be part of the national diabetes care package. PMID:25363046

  1. Blind Recognition Algorithm of Turbo Codes for Communication Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naseri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Turbo codes are widely used in land and space radio communication systems, and because of complexity of structure, are custom in military communication systems. In electronic warfare, COMINT systems make attempt to recognize codes by blind ways. In this Paper, the algorithm is proposed for blind recognition of turbo code parameters like code kind, code-word length, code rate, length of interleaver and delay blocks number of convolution code. The algorithm calculations volume is0.5L3+1.25L, therefore it is suitable for real time systems.

  2. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  3. Neural correlates of virtual route recognition in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Chebat, Daniel R; Madsen, Kristoffer H;

    2010-01-01

    translates a visual image into electrotactile stimulation applied to the tongue. After training, participants repeated the navigation task during fMRI. Although both groups successfully learned to use the TDU in the virtual navigation task, the brain activation patterns showed substantial differences. Blind...... participants, the activation pattern strongly resembled the one obtained in the blind when using the TDU. This suggests that in the absence of vision, cross-modal plasticity permits the recruitment of the same cortical network used for spatial navigation tasks in sighted subjects....

  4. Novel blind source separation algorithm using Gaussian mixture density function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔薇; 杨杰; 周越

    2004-01-01

    The blind source separation (BSS) is an important task for numerous applications in signal processing, communications and array processing. But for many complex sources blind separation algorithms are not efficient because the probability distribution of the sources cannot be estimated accurately. So in this paper, to justify the ME(maximum enteropy) approach, the relation between the ME and the MMI(minimum mutual information) is elucidated first. Then a novel algorithm that uses Gaussian mixture density to approximate the probability distribution of the sources is presented based on the ME approach. The experiment of the BSS of ship-radiated noise demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is valid and efficient.

  5. An ID-based Blind Signature Scheme from Bilinear Pairings

    OpenAIRE

    B. Umaprasada Rao; K.A.Ajmath

    2010-01-01

    Blind signatures, introduced by Chaum, allow a user to obtain a signature on a message without revealing any thing about the message to the signer. Blind signatures play on important role in plenty of applications such as e-voting, e-cash system where anonymity is of great concern. Identity based(ID-based) public key cryptography can be a good alternative for certified based public key setting, especially when efficient key management and moderate security are required. In this paper, we prop...

  6. A Blind Pilot: Who is a Super-Luminal Observer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the nature of a hypothetical super-luminal observer who, as well as a real (sub-light speed observer, perceives the world by light waves. This consideration is due to that fact that the theory of relativity permits different frames of reference, including light-like and super-luminal reference frames. In analogy with a blind pilot on board a supersonic jet aeroplane (or missile, perceived by blind people, it is concluded that the light barrier is observed in the framework of only the light signal exchange experiment.

  7. Engaging blind and partially sighted stakeholders in transformational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    For non-profit organizations in the disability sector, engaging stakeholders with disabilities on matters of strategic planning is both a responsibility and an expectation. As part of our current strategic plan, which calls for organizational and systemic transformation, the Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB) has engaged blind and partially sighted stakeholders alongside other interest groups to build and advocate for a more holistic model of vision healthcare and rehabilitation. This article describes the CNIB's multi-year process, including early-stage consultations, collaborative strategy development, and political advocacy and shares our organization's key success factors and learnings in creating meaningful, mutually beneficial engagement. PMID:27576855

  8. The Blind Leading the Blind: Social Influence, Fads, and Informational Cascades

    OpenAIRE

    Hirshleifer, David

    1993-01-01

    An informational cascade occurs when it is optimal for an individual, having observed the actions of those ahead of him, to hollow the behavior of the preceding person without regard to his own information. Among the phenomena that can be explained by informational cascades are conformism at specific times and places, error-prone behavior, and fragility of behaviors.

  9. Personality and Prosocial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Glöckner, Andreas; Zettler, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Concerning the dispositional determinants of prosocial behavior and cooperation, work based on the classic 5 personality factors, and especially Agreeableness, has turned out somewhat inconsistent. A clearer picture has emerged from consideration of the HEXACO model of personality-though supporte...

  10. Personal Inquiry Manager

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The Personal Inquiry Manager (PIM) is an integration approach based on a mobile application, based on Android, to support the IBL process and gives users mobile access to their inquiries. Moreover it facilitates a more self-directed approach as it enables to set up their own personal inquiries. The

  11. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M;

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  12. Personality Predicts Musical Sophistication

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, David M.; M?llensiefen, Daniel; Lamb, Michael E.; Peter J Rentfrow

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript of a paper published in the Journal of Research in Personality (Greenberg DM, M?llensiefen D, Lamb ME, Rentfrow PJ, Journal of Research in Personality, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2015.06.002). The final version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2015.06.002

  13. Personal Food System Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  14. Instincts and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.; Doddema-Winsemius, M

    1999-01-01

    In this study we investigate the usefulness of the instinct-conception for personality trait-research. Of particular interest is the effectiveness-connotation of instincts for personality conceptualizations. In its kind, the study forms an indirect test of the so-called psycholexical approach and it

  15. Personality in Late Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude;

    2014-01-01

    To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic factors....

  16. On Person Deixis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段翠霞

    2005-01-01

    Deixis is one of the important topics in pragmatics.Deixis can be classified into different types, but this paper only focuses on person deixis.Through the detail analysis of the usage of it we come to the conclusion that in order to understand utterances better we need to make clear the complexity of person deixis.

  17. Personality Theory and TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shalabi, M. Fadi; Salmani Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued, based on evidence from psychological literature, that there are three major approaches to the study of personality, namely (1) situationism, (2) interactionism, and (3) constructivism. It is also noticed that these approaches have resulted in the emergence of three major types of personality theories: (i) type…

  18. Suicide and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nahit Ozmenler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personality is quite important for developing strategies in order to prevent suicide attempt. In this field, the data show variability based on scales used for the evaluation of personality, its definition and classification in the research. For example, while some authors used DSM criteria or ICD criteria, others preferred to focus on the temperament and character dimensions of personality. In studies based on diagnostic criteria; B group personality disorders, such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders were found to be most common comorbid personality disorder diagnosis. In studies aiming to investigate the relationship among suicide attempt, temperament and character features, the suicide attempters were found to have lower levels of self directedness, cooperativeness, and higher scores for self transcendence. Suicidal patients were inclined to have higher scores in several temperament groups like harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence. Tendency to impulsive behavior is reported as a common denominator for suicidal patients. Individuals, who have familial or acquired tendency of impulsivity, could react more dramatically and present with depressive and pessimistic mood when they have difficulties and encounter stress factors in their daily routine and could easily develop depressive disorders. These factors as a whole could lead to self destructive actions like suicide. Individual or familial history of suicide attempts or completed

  19. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.;

    2015-01-01

    diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...... that Laboratory Medicine should play a key role to support the implementation of Personalized Medicine in the clinical settings, the participants of this survey think that the current organization of the Laboratory Medicine needs additional/relevant implementations such as: 1. New technological Facilities...

  20. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  1. Personal Identity Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers concerned with the question of personal identity have typically been asking the so-called re-identification question: what are the conditions under which a person at one point in time is properly re-identified at another point in time? This is a rather technical question. In our...... everyday interactions, however, we do raise a number of personal identity questions that are quite distinct from it. In order to explore the variety of ways in which the Internet may affect personal identity, I propose in this study to broaden the typical philosophical horizon to other more mundane senses...... of the question. In Section 2, I describe a number of possible meanings of personal identity observed in everyday contexts and more philosophical ones. With some caveats, I argue that it is the specific context in which the question arises that disambiguates the meaning of the question. Online contexts are novel...

  2. Personality in Bonobos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Staes, Nicky; Pereboom, Jeffrey J M; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Eens, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    To better understand human and chimpanzee personality evolution, we obtained trait ratings of personality for 154 captive bonobos (~80% of the U.S. and European population). We found factors that we labeled Assertiveness, Conscientiousness, Openness, Agreeableness, Attentiveness, and Extraversion. The interrater reliabilities and test-retest reliabilities for these factors were comparable to those found in humans and other species. Using orthogonal targeted Procrustes rotations, we compared the bonobo dimensions with those of three samples of captive chimpanzees. Overall congruence coefficients indicated a fair degree of similarity; at the factor level, there was good evidence for Assertiveness, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Agreeableness in the chimpanzee samples; evidence for Attentiveness and Extraversion was poor. These findings suggest that, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship, bonobo personality structure resembles chimpanzee personality structure in some respects. However, divergent evolution, perhaps as a result of socioecological differences between bonobos and chimpanzees, also appears to have shaped personality structure in these species. PMID:26209530

  3. Personal Information Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Fedaghi, Sabah S

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of security organization is to establish a framework to identify security significant points where policies and procedures are declared. The (information) security infrastructure comprises entities, processes, and technology. All are participants in handling information, which is the item that needs to be protected. Privacy and security information technology is a critical and unmet need in the management of personal information. This paper proposes concepts and technologies for management of personal information. Two different types of information can be distinguished: personal information and nonpersonal information. Personal information can be either personal identifiable information (PII), or nonidentifiable information (NII). Security, policy, and technical requirements can be based on this distinction. At the conceptual level, PII is defined and formalized by propositions over infons (discrete pieces of information) that specify transformations in PII and NII. PII is ca...

  4. The 2007 National Federation of the Blind Youth Slam: Making Astronomy Accessible to Students Who are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2008-05-01

    In the summer of 2007, nearly two hundred blind and visually impaired high school students participated in a weeklong enrichment program at Johns Hopkins University called the National Federation of the Blind Youth Slam. They spent four days participating in hands-on science and engineering classes and exploring careers previously thought inaccessible to those without sight. The students were separated into "tracks” with each group focusing on a different field. Want to know what happened in the astronomy track? Come by this paper and see examples of accessible astronomy activities, including accessible star parties, from the Youth Slam!

  5. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1584.... However, you will be given a period of disability as described in subpart D of this part. (c) Age 55...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1581 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1581... disability and for payment of disability insurance benefits if we determine that you are statutorily...

  7. Supporting the Social Lives of Adolescents Who Are Blind: Research to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Katrina; Lieberman, Lauren; James, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Seven adolescents who are blind and seven of their parents were interviewed about the adolescents' social lives. Adolescent and parent perspectives are reviewed, followed by implications for teachers to support the social connections of students who are blind.

  8. Causes of childhood blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, F O; Kirupananthan, S; Ayanniyi, A A; Abuh, S

    2009-03-01

    The study aimed at identifying the causes of childhood blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano. The causes of visual loss in 31 consecutive patients aged flashlight a loupe, and an ophthalmoscope. The intraocular pressure was taken with either a Schiotz or an applanation tonometer. There were 14 males (45.0%), the mean age was 6 years; range: 1 to 15 years. Corneal causes were responsible for blindness in 54.8%. Measles was responsible for 10 cases; neonatal infection was responsible in 2 cases. Four cases were due to lens lesions. By aetiologic category, childhood factors accounted for (32.3%). The causes in 51.7% were not known. Hereditary factors and perinatal factor accounted for 6.4% cases each. Intrauterine factors were responsible for 1 case. Eighteen (58.6%) of the cases were due to avoidable causes; 12(38.4%) being preventable and 6(19.2%) treatable. The causes of childhood blindness in this study are consistent with those of low economic region with high prevalence of avoidable blindness. PMID:19722425

  9. Blind fluorescence structured illumination microscopy: A new reconstruction strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Labouesse, S; Idier, J; Bourguignon, S; Liu, P; Sentenac, A

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, a fast reconstruction algorithm is proposed for fluorescence \\textit{blind} structured illumination microscopy (SIM) under the sample positivity constraint. This new algorithm is by far simpler and faster than existing solutions, paving the way to 3D and/or real-time 2D reconstruction.

  10. Giving Eyesight to the Blind: Towards Attention-Aware AIED

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2016-01-01

    There is an inextricable link between attention and learning, yet AIED systems in 2015 are largely blind to learners' attentional states. We argue that next-generation AIED systems should have the ability to monitor and dynamically (re)direct attention in order to optimize allocation of sparse attentional resources. We present some initial ideas…

  11. Effectiveness of Blind & Ultrasound Guided Corticosteroid Injection in Impingement Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Shila; Taheri, Parisa; Banimehdi, Mohsen; Taghavi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Local steroid injections are common for treatment of impingement syndrome. Corticosteroid injections methods are basically in two formats, blind or with image guidance. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of ultrasound-guided in comparison with blind corticosteroid injections in patients with impingement syndrome. This study is a randomized clinical trial study undertaken in patients with diagnosis of impingement syndrome done in Isfahan University of Medical Science clinics from February 2014 to February 2015. The number of all patients registered in the study is 48; and then 40 patients were allocated to either control group randomly which received blind steroid injection or case group that underwent ultrasound-guided steroid injection. The clinical symptoms were assessed using Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) questionnaire, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and shoulder range of motion (ROM) using goniometer at baseline and six weeks after the injection. Data analysis revealed a significant difference in the mean of the VAS, SPADI and shoulder ROM in both groups 6 weeks after intervention (P guided corticosteroid injection had statistically significant improvements in function and shoulder ROM (abduction, flexion) compared to blind injection group after 6 weeks (P0.05). Our findings suggest that US image guided can improve the shoulder function of patients with impingement syndrome, and thus can be considered in comprehensive care programs of these patients for fast speed of rehabilitation.

  12. Videotaped Presentations by Blind Speakers as Attitudinal Change Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1986-01-01

    Determined whether a videotaped presentation by a speaker who is blind would more positively influence attitude change and information retention than would a presentation by a sighted speaker. Findings suggested that there were no significant main effects for either presenter or pretest conditions on the measures. (Author/BL)

  13. On the blind recovery of cardiac and respiratory sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ghafoor; Koch, Peter; Papadias, Constantinos B.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for smart auscultation by proposing a novel blind recovery of the original cardiac and respiratory sounds from a single observation mixture, in the framework of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). The method learns the basis spectra of the mixing sources in unsupervised...

  14. Audiotactile temporal order judgments in sighted and blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the potential modulatory effect of relative spatial position on audiotactile temporal order judgments (TOJs) in sighted, early, and late blind adults. Pairs of auditory and tactile stimuli were presented from the left and/or right of participants at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. The participants had to make unspeeded TOJs regarding which sensory modality had been presented first on each trial. Systematic differences between the participants emerged: While the performance of the sighted participants was unaffected by whether the two stimuli were presented from the same or different positions (replicating the results of several recent studies), the blind participants (regardless of the age of onset of blindness) were significantly more accurate when the auditory and tactile stimuli were presented from different positions rather than from the same position. These results provide the first empirical evidence to suggest a spatial modulation of audiotactile interactions in a temporal task performed by visually impaired humans. The fact that the performance of the blind participants was modulated by the relative spatial position of the stimuli is consistent with data showing that visual deprivation results in an improved ability to process spatial cues within the residual tactile and auditory modalities. These results support the hypothesis that the absence of visual cues results in the emergence of more pronounced audiotactile spatial interactions. PMID:18603271

  15. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  16. BUDHIES: a Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffé, Y. L.; Verheijen, M. A.; Poggianti, B. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Deshev, B. Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES), that has detected over 150 galaxies at z˜ 0.2 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Our multi-wavelength study is the first where optical properties and HI content are combined at a redshift where

  17. Application of automated blind for daylighting in tropical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiwiwatworakul, Pipat; Chirarattananon, Surapong [Energy Division, Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-utit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Rakkwamsuk, Pattana [School of Energy, Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-utit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports an experimental and simulation study on application of automated Venetian blind for daylighting in tropical climate. A horizontal blind system operating automatically under programmed control was constructed and integrated onto the glazed windows to form a window system with an automated blind in a room of a laboratory building. A dimming controller was also integrated to the lighting system of the room. Different operation schemes of the window system were devised and tested in the attempt to maximize energy savings while maintaining the quality of the visual environment in the room. Intensive measurement of illuminance of the interior space was undertaken during the experiments. A methodology for calculation of interior daylight illuminance and associated glare corresponding to the configurations of the experiments was adopted. The method was coded into a computer program. Results of calculation from the program agree well with those from experiments for all the schemes of operation conducted. The program was used to simulate the situation when each scheme of operation was implemented for a whole year. It was found that such window system with automated blind enabled energy savings of 80%, but a more sophisticated scheme also helped maintain the interior visual quality at high level. (author)

  18. 76 FR 31261 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... final rule that appeared in the Federal Register of May 9, 2011, 76 FR 26641. The document adopts rules... INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011-10228 published in the Federal Register on Monday, May 9, 2011, 76 FR 26641, the... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  19. 77 FR 20553 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals, Report and Order, document FCC 11-56, published at 76 FR... requirement in 47 CFR 64.610(f)(2), published at 76 FR 26641, May 9, 2011, has not been approved by the Office..., Notice, published at 77 FR 18813, March 28, 2012. In addition, the Commission notes that pursuant to...

  20. 77 FR 42187 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...: 47 CFR 64.610(f)(2), published at 76 FR 26641, May 9, 2011, and modified at 77 FR 20553, April 5..., published at 77 FR 20553, April 5, 2012. The OMB Control Number is 3060-1146. The Commission publishes this...-Blind Equipment Distribution Program,'' in the Federal Register on January 19, 2012 (77 FR 2721)...

  1. 76 FR 58412 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... FR 26641, May 9, 2011, are effective September 21, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rosaline...- Blind Individuals, CG Docket No. 10-210; FCC 11-56, published at 76 FR 26641, May 9, 2011. If you have... Federal Register on December 15, 2009 (74 FR 66356) which became effective on January 25, 2010. Also,...

  2. Probabilistic blind deconvolution of non-stationary sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We solve a class of blind signal separation problems using a constrained linear Gaussian model. The observed signal is modelled by a convolutive mixture of colored noise signals with additive white noise. We derive a time-domain EM algorithm `KaBSS' which estimates the source signals...

  3. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R. Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  4. Subspace- Based Blind Channel Estimation Method for MIMO- OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yong-min; RONG Meng-tian

    2005-01-01

    A subspace-based blind channel estimation algorithm for MIMO-OFDM systems is proposed. This algorithm exploits the cyclostationarity introduced by cyclic prefix of OFDM to estimate the channel parameters. The proposed new algorithm is found to be outperforming the other algorithm with respect to convergence rate and achievable mean square error and robustness to channel order over determination.

  5. Concept mapping for virtual rehabilitation and training of the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Flores, Hector

    2010-04-01

    Concept mapping is a technique that allows for the strengthening of the learning process, based on graphic representations of the learner's mental schemes. However, due to its graphic nature, it cannot be utilized by learners with visual disabilities. In response to this limitation we implemented a study that involves the design of AudiodMC, an audio-based, virtual environment for concept mapping designed for use by blind users and aimed at virtual training and rehabilitation. We analyzed the stages involved in the design of AudiodMC from a user-centered design perspective, considering user involvement and usability testing. These include an observation stage to learn how blind learners construct conceptual maps using concrete materials, a design stage to design of a software tool that aids blind users in creating concept maps, and a cognitive evaluation stage using AudiodMC. We also present the results of a study implemented in order to determine the impact of the use of this software on the development of essential skills for concept mapping (association, classification, categorization, sorting and summarizing). The results point to a high level of user acceptance, having identified key sound characteristics that help blind learners to learn concept codification and selection skills. The use of AudiodMC also allowed for the effective development of the skills under review in our research, thus facilitating meaningful learning.

  6. Blind prediction of interfacial water positions in CAPRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Marc F.; Moal, Iain H.; Bates, Paul A.; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Melquiond, Adrien S. J.; Karaca, Ezgi; Schmitz, Christophe; van Dijk, Marc; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Eisenstein, Miriam; Jimenez-Garcia, Brian; Grosdidier, Solene; Solernou, Albert; Perez-Cano, Laura; Pallara, Chiara; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Xu, Jianqing; Muthu, Pravin; Kilambi, Krishna Praneeth; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Grudinin, Sergei; Derevyanko, Georgy; Mitchell, Julie C.; Wieting, John; Kanamori, Eiji; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Murakami, Yoichi; Sarmiento, Joy; Standley, Daron M.; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki; Chavent, Matthieu; Ritchie, David W.; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Shen, Yang; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Vakser, Ilya A.; Pierce, Brian G.; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Weng, Zhiping; Buch, Idit; Farkash, Efrat; Wolfson, Haim J.; Zacharias, Martin; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Huang, Shen-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Kleanthous, Colin; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first assessment of blind predictions of water positions at protein-protein interfaces, performed as part of the critical assessment of predicted interactions (CAPRI) community-wide experiment. Groups submitting docking predictions for the complex of the DNase domain of colicin E2 and

  7. Central Inhibition Ability Modulates Attention-Induced Motion Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milders, Maarten; Hay, Julia; Sahraie, Arash; Niedeggen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Impaired motion perception can be induced in normal observers in a rapid serial visual presentation task. Essential for this effect is the presence of motion distractors prior to the motion target, and we proposed that this attention-induced motion blindness results from high-level inhibition produced by the distractors. To investigate this, we…

  8. Security considerations in blinded exposure experiments using electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Whether exposure to electromagnetic fields well below accepted exposure limits has a cytogenetic effect on human cells has long been debated. It is widely published and generally accepted that the exposure unit invariably used in these experiments is capable of providing blinded exposure conditions. The following short report illustrates, however, that exposure conditions might not always be as effectively masked as is generally assumed.

  9. Single-Channel Blind Estimation of Reverberation Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doire, C.S.J.; Brookes, M. D.; Naylor, P. A.;

    2015-01-01

    The reverberation of an acoustic channel can be characterised by two frequency-dependent parameters: the reverberation time and the direct-to-reverberant energy ratio. This paper presents an algorithm for blindly determining these parameters from a single-channel speech signal. The algorithm uses...

  10. Change detection and change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T; Trinh, Yvan T; Xi, Patricia M; Arand, Mark P; Barker, Michael S K; Pratt, Theodore H

    2014-05-01

    Change blindness is a phenomenon in which even obvious details in a visual scene change without being noticed. Although change blindness has been studied extensively in humans, we do not yet know if it is a phenomenon that also occurs in other animals. Thus, investigation of change blindness in a nonhuman species may prove to be valuable by beginning to provide some insight into its ultimate causes. Pigeons learned a change detection task in which pecks to the location of a change in a sequence of stimulus displays were reinforced. They were worse at detecting changes if the stimulus displays were separated by a brief interstimulus interval, during which the display was blank, and this primary result matches the general pattern seen in previous studies of change blindness in humans. A second experiment attempted to identify specific stimulus characteristics that most reliably produced a failure to detect changes. Change detection was more difficult when interstimulus intervals were longer and when the change was iterated fewer times.

  11. Fluorescence blind structured illumination microscopy: a new reconstruction strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Labouesse, S.; Allain, Marc; Idier, J.; Bourguignon, S.; Negash, A.; Liu, P.; Sentenac, A.

    2016-01-01

    International audience In this communication, a fast reconstruction algorithm is proposed for fluorescence blind structured illumination mi-croscopy (SIM) under the sample positivity constraint. This new algorithm is by far simpler and faster than existing solutions , paving the way to 3D and real-time 2D reconstruction.

  12. 'Blind' transfusion of blood products in exsanguinating trauma patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geeraedts, L.M.G.; Demiral, H.; Schaap, N.P.M.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Pompe, J.C.; Frolke, J.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In trauma, as interventions are carried out to stop bleeding, ongoing resuscitation with blood products is of vital importance. As transfusion policy in exsanguinating patients cannot be based on laboratory tests, transfusion of blood products is performed empirically or 'blindly'. The a

  13. The opportunity for international ophthalmology in treating blindness.

    OpenAIRE

    Spivey, B

    2001-01-01

    As our worldview has become more pervasive, there has been a maturation of various international ophthalmological organizations. They have created several new initiatives that have the potential to dramatically affect preventable and treatable blindness, worldwide. The first international ophthalmological organization (the International Council of Ophthalmology, established in 1927) evolved from the longest continuously held medical meeting in the world (the International Congress of Ophthalm...

  14. Exploring Gender Norms through the "Colour Blind" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niblett, Blair; Potvin, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the authors have been collecting data for a research project that explores secondary school boys' perceptions of masculinity. They spent a week in Leigh's grade 11 philosophy class discussing gender while observing and video recording students' perception for analysis. In their research, they used Colour Blind as a vehicle for unearthing…

  15. Homemade Wooden Vernier Scales for Use by Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Mike; Bidleman, Cricket; Brown, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Because she had been blind since birth, we knew that our new student, Cricket, would be unable to make the necessary measurements needed to get any meaningful lab data while all of the other students would be able to use highly accurate commercial Vernier calipers. All we had on loan for Cricket was a Brailled plastic tactile meter stick with low…

  16. Early Interactions with Children Who Are Deaf-Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The senses of vision and hearing help the child organize information from the environment. The young child who is deaf-blind, however, ... to provide opportunities that not only encourage your child to interact with the environment and the people and objects in it, but ...

  17. A Handbook for Parents of Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esche, Jeanne; Griffin, Carol

    The handbook for parents of deaf blind children describes practical techniques of child care for such activities as sitting, standing, walking, sleeping, washing, eating, dressing, toilet training, disciplining, and playing. For instance, it is explained that some visually handicapped children acquire mannerisms in their early years because they…

  18. Missouri Annual Blind/Visually Impaired Literacy Study, December 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, per Section 162.1136 RSMo, conducts an annual study of the educational status of eligible blind/visually impaired students and reports the findings to the Missouri Legislature on December 1st each year. The information contained in this report pertains to the twelve data elements…

  19. Missouri Annual Blind/Visually Impaired Literacy Study, December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, per Section 162.1136 RSMo, conducts an annual study of the educational status of eligible blind/visually impaired students and reports the findings to the Missouri Legislature on December 1st each year. The information contained in this report pertains to the twelve data elements…

  20. Applied Computational Chemistry for the Blind and Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, Henry B.; Cohen, Sarah R.; Davis, Rebecca L.; Harrison, Jason G.; Siebert, Matthew R.; Willenbring, Dan; Hamann, Christian S.; Shaw, Jared T.; Tantillo, Dean J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe accommodations that we have made to our applied computational-theoretical chemistry laboratory to provide access for blind and visually impaired students interested in independent investigation of structure-function relationships. Our approach utilizes tactile drawings, molecular model kits, existing software, Bash and Perl scripts…

  1. BLIND ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTION BASED ON A CONSTRAINED MMSE CRITERION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Libin; Chen Fangjiong; Wei Gang

    2004-01-01

    The proposed blind adaptive multiuser detector utilizes the signature waveform and time information of the desired user. With each received sample vector, the proposed algorithm updates the detector and gives the symbol estimate in the current time slot. Such property facilitates it to track time-varying channels.

  2. 78 FR 62339 - Blind Americans Equality Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... opportunity to achieve their dreams. ] NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of... day, we celebrate the accomplishments of our blind and visually impaired citizens, and we recommit to... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc....

  3. Causes and 3-year-incidence of blindness in Jing-An District, Shanghai, China 2001-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Xingtao; Sun Xinghuai; Wu Liangcheng; Weng Chenghai

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Registered data can provide valuable information regarding blindness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the main causes and 3-year incidence of registered blindness in Jing-An district in Shanghai, China. Methods Data from the blindness registry (age, gender and cause of visual disability) were collected and analyzed. The prevalence of blindness for 2003, 2007, 2009 and the 3-year incidence of blindness were calculated. Results The reported blindness increased sign...

  4. Personality and oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses examined their association with oral health. Those reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts had higher Negative Emotionality scores (and lower Constraint and Positive Emotionality MPQ superfactor scores) than those who did not. After controlling for gender, clinical status, and the other two MPQ superfactors, those scoring higher on Negative Emotionality had a greater risk of reporting 1+ OHIP-14 impacts, as well as 3+ OHIP-14 impacts and worse-than-average oral health. They also had a greater risk of having lost at least one tooth from caries and of having 3+ decayed surfaces. Personality characteristics appear to shape self-reports of oral health. Personality is also a risk factor for clinical disease status, at least with respect to dental caries and its sequelae. Because the attitudes and values tapped into by personality tests can be altered by brief cognitive interventions, those might be useful in preventive dentistry. PMID:21896053

  5. [Personality disorders in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, J F

    1990-04-01

    Psychiatric patients with personality disorders are among the most difficult because of the counter-transferential strain they put on clinicians and the paucity of specific treatment. The author develops the point that personality disorders are not diseases as implied in Axis I disorders, but social illness syndromes which depict systemic problems in which clinicians can be engulfed and entrapped. The difficult patient does not exist in isolation, a victim of his own drives and psyche, but rather is a specific socio-cultural actor living and emerging from a particular environmental context. Personality disorders are considered to be interpersonal patterns in which a person's debilitating behaviour elicits complementary behaviour that reinforces the original behaviour. Within a systems perspective, there is not a disordered personality so much as a disordering system of relationships. As with families and society, healers too become involved in the vicious cycle of personality disorders if they fail to see the manipulative interpersonal devices used by these patients. If clinicians accept too naively the lay person's simplistic belief that personality disorders are diseases to be treated by psychiatrists, they run the risk of fostering inappropriate passivity in patients in the face of life demands. Overindulgence and angry rejection are the two major pitfalls often seen in clinical practice. The approach proposed here may seem conterintuitive in laying stress on the need to actively resist the temptation to take over responsibility for a patient's life. There is a difference between a behaviour that a patient's illness (Axis I disorder) prevents him from controlling and an impulsive deliberate behaviour stemming from character pathology. It is a logical error to deal with personality disorders in the same manner and with the same conceptual terminology as for depressive and psychotic disorders. Principles of management are detailed and can be summarized as a kind

  6. A New Partially Blind Signature Based on Factoring and Discrete Logarithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M.F. Tahat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially blind signatures played an important role in many electronic commerce applications. Many existing partially blind signature scheme based on a single hard problem but not secure. In this study, we propose a secure partially blind signature scheme based on factoring and discrete logarithms and show that the proposed scheme satisfies the partial blindness, randomization, unlinkability and unforgeability properties. We also analyse the computation cost of the proposed scheme.

  7. Performance of Daylight Redirecting Venetian Blinds for Sidelighted Spaces at High Latitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Kolås, Tore

    2013-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis is daylight in buildings. More specifically, the thesis presents studies on the performance characteristics of venetian blinds used on the interior side of vertical windows. A particular emphasis is put on the daylighting properties of different blind types, and the performance of daylight redirecting blinds is compared to the performance of traditional white blinds.Three factors are highly important for daylight in buildings: the daylight source, the optical pro...

  8. Gastrointestinal bleeding and iron absorption in the experimental blind loop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannella, R A; Toskes, P P

    1976-07-01

    Rats with surgically created self-filling jejunal blind loops and the blind loop syndrome manifested gastrointestinal bleeding and hyperabsorption of iron. Although the mean hematocrit and serum iron levels of rats with self-filling blind loops became overtly anemic and manifested low-serum iron levels. It is suggested that the documented gastrointestinal bleeding in these rats with the experimental blind loop syndrome is another manifestation of damage to the intestinal epithelium in conditions of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

  9. Change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia): the effects of change salience and timing

    OpenAIRE

    Herbranson, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with ...

  10. Change Blindness in Pigeons (Columba livia): the Effects of Change Salience and Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Troy Herbranson

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, wi...

  11. First Person Victim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Khalil, Faysal Fuad;

    2010-01-01

    in the “First Person Victim” experience to create awareness about the consequences of war for civilians. The paper will also explain how our “Interactive Dramatic Experience Model” organizes the various events of the experience and mediates an emergent narrative by the use of the first person shooter form......Scientific and psychological studies claim a variety of triggers in video games with violent content may promote aggression. To oppose the violent behavior of players in these games, this paper will describe how the sources of aggression and first person shooter conventions have been exploited...

  12. 45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... blindness. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... impairment including blindness. (a) A child is classified as visually impaired when visual impairment, with.... A child is visually impaired if: (1) The vision loss meets the definition of legal blindness in...

  13. Failure to Detect Deaf-Blindness in a Population of People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellinger, J.; Holzinger, D.; Dirmhirn, A.; van Dijk, J.; Goldberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Early identification of deaf-blindness is essential to ensure appropriate management. Previous studies indicate that deaf-blindness is often missed. We aim to discover the extent to which deaf-blindness in people with intellectual disability (ID) is undiagnosed. Method: A survey was made of the 253 residents of an institute offering…

  14. 20 CFR 416.1331 - Termination of your disability or blindness payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of your disability or blindness... your disability or blindness payments. (a) General. The last month for which we can pay you benefits based on disability or blindness is the second month after the month in which your disability...

  15. Age of Onset of Blindness and the Development of the Semantics of Color Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Gloria Strauss

    The relationship between age of onset of blindness and development of knowledge of color relations was examined with 16 college students who had been born totally blind, 16 who had been blinded totally at approximately 15 years of age, and 16 who had normal vision. Ss were asked to judge the similarities between color names, and judgments were…

  16. Blind and semi-blind ML detection for space-time block-coded OFDM wireless systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaib, Alam

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the joint maximum likelihood (ML) data detection and channel estimation problem for Alamouti space-time block-coded (STBC) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless systems. The joint ML estimation and data detection is generally considered a hard combinatorial optimization problem. We propose an efficient low-complexity algorithm based on branch-estimate-bound strategy that renders exact joint ML solution. However, the computational complexity of blind algorithm becomes critical at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the number of OFDM carriers and constellation size are increased especially in multiple-antenna systems. To overcome this problem, a semi-blind algorithm based on a new framework for reducing the complexity is proposed by relying on subcarrier reordering and decoding the carriers with different levels of confidence using a suitable reliability criterion. In addition, it is shown that by utilizing the inherent structure of Alamouti coding, the estimation performance improvement or the complexity reduction can be achieved. The proposed algorithms can reliably track the wireless Rayleigh fading channel without requiring any channel statistics. Simulation results presented against the perfect coherent detection demonstrate the effectiveness of blind and semi-blind algorithms over frequency-selective channels with different fading characteristics.

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The therapist helps the patient unconsciously reassign extreme positive or negative images associated with one person to ... and others. Patients are encouraged to express and think about their emotions and experiences with other people ...

  18. The architecture of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervone, David

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework for analyzing psychological systems that contribute to the variability, consistency, and cross-situational coherence of personality functioning. In the proposed knowledge-and-appraisal personality architecture (KAPA), personality structures and processes are delineated by combining 2 principles: distinctions (a) between knowledge structures and appraisal processes and (b) among intentional cognitions with varying directions of fit, with the latter distinction differentiating among beliefs, evaluative standards, and aims. Basic principles of knowledge activation and use illuminate relations between knowledge and appraisal, yielding a synthetic account of personality structures and processes. Novel empirical data illustrate the heuristic value of the knowledge/appraisal distinction by showing how self-referent and situational knowledge combine to foster cross-situational coherence in appraisals of self-efficacy. PMID:14756593

  19. Personal Finance Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  20. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R;

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served as cont...... dysfunction in the epilepsy group, the mere presence of a chronic disorder with potential social stigmatization influences personality.......Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3...