WorldWideScience

Sample records for blind persons

  1. Use of the Cranmer Abacus by Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Mary Anne

    Described is the use by blind persons of the Cranmer abacus, a computational device adapted from the Japanese abacus. Noted is the lack of carefully controlled research on its use. A comparison of calculation by abacus and by paper and pencil is said to indicate that the use of such mechanical devices does not give the blind competitor an undue…

  2. Social attitudes and beliefs of sighted people towards blindness and blind persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadaki Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness has been interpreted in different, often controversial ways, since ancient times. It has been stereotyped and labeled by sighted people and has thus affected the acceptance of Visually Impaired persons, the tolerance towards them and their integration into societal life. The main purpose of this study is to find out the contemporary beliefs and social attitudes of Greek sighted people towards blindness and blind persons. 115 sighted Greek people, most of them from urban and rural areas of Athens and Crete, were asked to fill in a questionnaire consisting of 25 questions. Our results showed that firstly, visually impaired people are still treated with some prejudice concerning the size of their disability, their education and their integration into society. However, they have ceased to apply antiquated perceptions based on fear or ignorance. Sighted people no longer believe that blind individuals are beggars, evil or blinded because of a punishment. Secondly, sighted people still believe that blind persons possess some extra powers and abilities such as better sense of things, especially of hearing, sixth sense or better judgment abilities. Finally, the common belief about associating blind people with their musical talents and skills is no longer in actual existence.

  3. Mobility and orientation aid for blind persons using artificial vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Gusberti, Adrian; Graffigna, Juan Pablo; Guzzo, MartIn; Nasisi, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    Blind or vision-impaired persons are limited in their normal life activities. Mobility and orientation of blind persons is an ever-present research subject because no total solution has yet been reached for these activities that pose certain risks for the affected persons. The current work presents the design and development of a device conceived on capturing environment information through stereoscopic vision. The images captured by a couple of video cameras are transferred and processed by configurable and sequential FPGA and DSP devices that issue action signals to a tactile feedback system. Optimal processing algorithms are implemented to perform this feedback in real time. The components selected permit portability; that is, to readily get used to wearing the device

  4. Deixis, Personal Reference, and the Use of Pronouns by Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Pereira, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Investigated young blind children's use of pronouns, following blind and sighted children longitudinally and analyzing every spatial deictic term and personal reference term they used (noting reversal errors). Results indicated that blind children began to use personal reference terms as early as sighted children, and use of reversals was not…

  5. The Relationship of Personality Traits to the Employment Status of Persons Who Are Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemoser, S. D.

    1996-01-01

    Two levels of education (high school or less, or training beyond high school) and nine content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 were used to predict employment-related outcomes of 109 blind adults. Education, anger, cynicism, obsessiveness, and family problems were significant predictors of employability. Self-esteem,…

  6. 36 CFR 701.6 - Loans of library materials for blind and other physically handicapped persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Persons whose visual disability, with correction and regardless of optical measurement, is certified by...: (i) In cases of blindness, visual disability, or physical limitations “competent authority” is...) Eligibility criteria. (1) The following persons are eligible for such service: (i) Blind persons whose visual...

  7. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specific Prevalence Rates for Blindness by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence ... Race/Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Blindness by Race Table for 2010 Prevalence Rates of Blindness by ...

  8. Evaluation of the attentional capacities and working memory of early and late blind persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Caroline; Marin-Lamellet, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Although attentional processes and working memory seem to be significantly involved in the daily activities (particularly during navigating) of persons who are blind and who use these abilities to compensate for their lack of vision, few studies have investigated these mechanisms in this population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the selective, sustained and divided attention, attentional inhibition and switching and working memory of blind persons. Early blind, late blind and sighted participants completed neuropsychological tests that were designed or adapted to be achievable in the absence of vision. The results revealed that the early blind participants outperformed the sighted ones in selective, sustained and divided attention and working memory tests, and the late blind participants outperformed the sighted participants in selective, sustained and divided attention. However, no differences were found between the blind groups and the sighted group in the attentional inhibition and switching tests. Furthermore, no differences were found between the early and late blind participants in this set of tests. These results suggest that early and late blind persons can compensate for the lack of vision by an enhancement of the attentional and working memory capacities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Computers, Automation, and the Employment of Persons Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of technology on the formation of skills and the career advancement of persons who are blind or visually impaired. It concludes that dependence on technology (computerization and automation) and the mechanistic aspects of jobs may trap blind and visually impaired workers in occupations with narrow career paths…

  10. Vocational Rehabilitation Services for Blind Persons: The Experience of Sibling Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study reports the very different reactions and choices of legally blind twin sisters who were provided services through the Mississippi Vocational Rehabilitation for the Blind agency. Emphasis is on the importance of individual differences and variables, such as personality, over which the rehabilitation agency has no control. (DB)

  11. A Personal Odyssey on Schools for Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlen, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    This article offers a history of special California schools for children with blindness since the mid-1950s, from the perspective of a special educator. It points out that the two delivery systems of regular schools and special schools should not work in competition but in cooperation to develop the best education for meeting students' needs. (JDD)

  12. The Externalization of Spatial Representation by Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, J. A.; Ochaita, E.

    1992-01-01

    Forty blind children and adolescents had to learn two unknown environments and then externalize the spatial representation via two methods--building a scale model and verbally estimating distances. High correlations were found between the two methods and between those methods and two systems of measuring mobility. (Author/JDD)

  13. Attitudes of Children and Adolescents toward Persons Who Are Deaf, Blind, Paralyzed or Intellectually Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Stijn; Freriksen, Ellen; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students' attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and 144 university students were determined with two…

  14. Attitudes of children and adolescents toward persons who are deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S. de; Freriksen, E.; Vervloed, M.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore Dutch students’ attitudes toward deaf, blind, paralyzed or intellectually disabled persons and to determine whether age, self-esteem, gender, religion and familiarity with a disabled person have a significant effect on these attitudes. The attitudes of 200 high school and

  15. Access to healthcare for disabled persons. How are blind people reached by HIV services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulo, Bryson; Walakira, Eddy; Darj, Elisabeth

    2012-03-01

    Disabled people are overlooked and marginalised globally. There is a lack of information on blind people and HIV-related services and it is unclear how HIV-services target blind people in a sub-Saharan urban setting. To explore how blind people are reached by HIV-services in Kampala, Uganda. A purposeful sample of blind people and seeing healthcare workers were interviewed, and data on their opinions and experiences were collected. The data were analysed by qualitative content analysis, with a focus on manifest content. Three categories emerged from the study, reaching for HIV information and knowledge, lack of services, and experiences of discrimination. General knowledge on HIV prevention/transmission methods was good; however, there was scepticism about condom use. Blind people mainly relied on others for accessing HIV information, and a lack of special services for blind people to be able to test for HIV was expressed. The health service for blind people was considered inadequate, unequal and discriminatory, and harassment by healthcare staff was expressed, but not sexual abuse. Concerns about disclosure of personal medical information were revealed. Access to HIV services and other healthcare related services for blind people is limited and the objectives of the National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS 2007-2012 have not been achieved. There is a need for alternative methods for sensitisation and voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for blind people. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.701 - Purchase of products and services from the blind and other severely handicapped persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services from the blind and other severely handicapped persons. 101-26.701 Section 101-26.701 Public... severely handicapped persons. (a) Purchases by executive agencies of products produced by workshops of the blind or other severely handicapped persons which are carried in GSA supply distribution facilities must...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL... § 404.1585 Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. If you become eligible for disability benefits even though you were doing substantial gainful activity because you are blind and age 55...

  18. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctors may do surgery to remove it. Is Learning Different? A baby who is blind can still ... do amazing things in many different fields, including music, the arts, and even sports. Serious vision problems ...

  19. Some See It, Some Don't: Exploring the Relation between Inattentional Blindness and Personality Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Kreitz

    Full Text Available Human awareness is highly limited, which is vividly demonstrated by the phenomenon that unexpected objects go unnoticed when attention is focused elsewhere (inattentional blindness. Typically, some people fail to notice unexpected objects while others detect them instantaneously. Whether this pattern reflects stable individual differences is unclear to date. In particular, hardly anything is known about the influence of personality on the likelihood of inattentional blindness. To fill this empirical gap, we examined the role of multiple personality factors, namely the Big Five, BIS/BAS, absorption, achievement motivation, and schizotypy, in these failures of awareness. In a large-scale sample (N = 554, susceptibility to inattentional blindness was associated with a low level of openness to experience and marginally with a low level of achievement motivation. However, in a multiple regression analysis, only openness emerged as an independent, negative predictor. This suggests that the general tendency to be open to experience extends to the domain of perception. Our results complement earlier work on the possible link between inattentional blindness and personality by demonstrating, for the first time, that failures to consciously perceive unexpected objects reflect individual differences on a fundamental dimension of personality.

  20. Real-time path and obstacle detection for blind persons

    OpenAIRE

    José, João

    2010-01-01

    Dissertação de mest., Engenharia Informática, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Univ. do Algarve, 2010 In this thesis we present algorithms that can be used to improve the mobility of visually impaired persons. First we propose an algorithm to detect the path where the user can walk. This algorithm is based on an adapted version of the Hough transform, in which we apply a method for gathering the most continuous path borders after an edge detector is applied. After an initial...

  1. Community rehabilitation of disabled with a focus on blind persons: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available India, the largest democratic country in the world, is marching ahead strongly on the growth and developmental front and is poised to be the leader in the market economy. This role creates and increases far greater responsibilities on us in ensuring that the benefit of the developmental cycle reaches each and every citizen of this country, including the able and the disabled ones. It has been enshrined in the Constitution of India to ensure equality, freedom, justice, and dignity of all individuals and implicitly mandates an inclusive society. With increase in consideration of quality parameters in all spheres of life including availability, access, and provision of comprehensive services to the disabled, it is pertinent to have a look on the contribution of government in keeping the aspiration and commitment towards common people. The article attempts to review the concept of rehabilitation for the disabled keeping a focus on the blind person, and list out the activities, programs/schemes, institutional structure and initiatives taken by the Government of India (GOI for the same and the incentives/benefits extended to blind persons. The article concludes by reiterating the importance of individual need assessment and mentioning new initiatives proposed on Low Vision services in the approved 11 th plan under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB. The source of information has been annual reports, notification and the approved 11 th five-year plan of GOI, articles published with key words like rehabilitation, disability, assistive devices, low vision aids, and/or blind person through the mode of Internet. Annexure provides a list of selected institutions in the country offering Low Vision services compiled from various sources through personal communication and an approved list of training institutes under NPCB, GOI offering Low Vision training.

  2. A Comparative Study of Personality Descriptors Attributed to the Deaf, the Blind, and Individuals with No Sensory Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Cristina

    1996-01-01

    University students (N=222) evaluated personality descriptors as applied to people with deafness, blindness, or no sensory disability. Two general stereotypes of the deaf emerged: that of general nonsociability and that of limited intelligence. However, students who already knew a deaf person assigned the deaf more positive personality…

  3. Impact of a guide dog on glycemia regulation in blind/visually impaired persons due to diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korljan-Babić, Betty; Barsić-Ostojić, Sanja; Metelko, Zeljko; Car, Nikica; Prasek, Manja; Skrabić, Veselin; Kokić, Slaven

    2011-06-01

    The aim was to assess glycemia regulation in a blind diabetic patient after getting a guide dog. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) results of a blind patient before and after getting the guide dog were retrospectively collected. The paired t-test results yielded a two-tailed P value of 0.0925, a difference considered not statistically significant; the 95% confidence interval of this difference varied from -0.2494 to 1.889. An improvement of glycemia regulation was observed with the guide dog compared to previous glycemia regulation, however, the difference was not statistically significant. The moderate improvement could probably be attributed to the mobility of the blind person having a guide dog. Standard quality of life tests should be included in the evaluation of diabetic blind persons, especially the impact of a guide dog on glycemic control or other chronic complications of diabetes.

  4. The Acuity of Echolocation: Spatial Resolution in Sighted Persons Compared to the Performance of an Expert Who Is Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Santani; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation is a specialized application of spatial hearing that uses reflected auditory information to localize objects and represent the external environment. Although it has been documented extensively in nonhuman species, such as bats and dolphins, its use by some persons who are blind as a navigation and object-identification aid has…

  5. Orientation and Mobility with Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind: An Initial Examination of Single-Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.

    2009-01-01

    Persons who are deaf-blind represent a heterogeneous, low-incidence population of children and adults who, at some point in life, regardless of the presence of additional disabilities, may benefit from formal orientation and mobility (O&M) instruction. Current national policies, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, which emphasize that…

  6. Proceedings of the Conference on New Approaches to the Evaluation of Blind Persons (April 11-12, 1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    Summarized are the proceedings of the conference (discussions, agenda, invitees), held to examine the present state of the testing and evaluation of blind and visually impaired persons. Not only tests and methods were covered, but also how evaluation procedures fit into educational and rehabilitation procedures, ethical considerations, and…

  7. The Use of Echolocation as a Mobility Aid for Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, R.

    1986-01-01

    The value of echolocation for enhancing mobility of the blind was examined with five blind subjects and 11 sighted, blindfolded subjects. A hand held clicker provided the sounds for navigation through an unfamiliar hallway. Results indicated the blind subjects were better able to identify obstacles correctly using reflected sounds. (Author/DB)

  8. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young DKW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression

  9. Conveying facial expressions to blind and visually impaired persons through a wearable vibrotactile device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buimer, Hendrik P; Bittner, Marian; Kostelijk, Tjerk; van der Geest, Thea M; Nemri, Abdellatif; van Wezel, Richard J A; Zhao, Yan

    2018-01-01

    In face-to-face social interactions, blind and visually impaired persons (VIPs) lack access to nonverbal cues like facial expressions, body posture, and gestures, which may lead to impaired interpersonal communication. In this study, a wearable sensory substitution device (SSD) consisting of a head mounted camera and a haptic belt was evaluated to determine whether vibrotactile cues around the waist could be used to convey facial expressions to users and whether such a device is desired by VIPs for use in daily living situations. Ten VIPs (mean age: 38.8, SD: 14.4) and 10 sighted persons (SPs) (mean age: 44.5, SD: 19.6) participated in the study, in which validated sets of pictures, silent videos, and videos with audio of facial expressions were presented to the participant. A control measurement was first performed to determine how accurately participants could identify facial expressions while relying on their functional senses. After a short training, participants were asked to determine facial expressions while wearing the emotion feedback system. VIPs using the device showed significant improvements in their ability to determine which facial expressions were shown. A significant increase in accuracy of 44.4% was found across all types of stimuli when comparing the scores of the control (mean±SEM: 35.0±2.5%) and supported (mean±SEM: 79.4±2.1%) phases. The greatest improvements achieved with the support of the SSD were found for silent stimuli (68.3% for pictures and 50.8% for silent videos). SPs also showed consistent, though not statistically significant, improvements while supported. Overall, our study shows that vibrotactile cues are well suited to convey facial expressions to VIPs in real-time. Participants became skilled with the device after a short training session. Further testing and development of the SSD is required to improve its accuracy and aesthetics for potential daily use.

  10. Circadian-Rhythm Sleep Disorders in Persons Who Are Totally Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, R. L.; Blood, M. L.; Hughes, R. J.; Lewy, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the diagnosis and management of "non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome," a form of cyclic insomnia to which people who are totally blind are prone. Covered are incidence and clinical features, formal diagnostic criteria, the biological basis of circadian sleep disorders, circadian rhythms in blind people, pharmacological entrainment,…

  11. Mobility of persons who are blind: How the attentional processes and working memory are involved?

    OpenAIRE

    PIGEON, Caroline; MARIN-LAMELLET, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although navigation without vision seems to strongly mobilize the attentional processes and the working memory, few studies seem to be conducted about the link between these processes and the mobility of people who are blind. The main aim of this PhD work is to consider the attentional and working memory capacities of people who are blind and investigate the attentional processes involved during the navigation activity. In the first part of this PhD work, blind participants (early and late) p...

  12. Road following for blindBike: an assistive bike navigation system for low vision persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Lynne; Overell, William

    2017-05-01

    Road Following is a critical component of blindBike, our assistive biking application for the visually impaired. This paper talks about the overall blindBike system and goals prominently featuring Road Following, which is the task of directing the user to follow the right side of the road. This work unlike what is commonly found for self-driving cars does not depend on lane line markings. 2D computer vision techniques are explored to solve the problem of Road Following. Statistical techniques including the use of Gaussian Mixture Models are employed. blindBike is developed as an Android Application and is running on a smartphone device. Other sensors including Gyroscope and GPS are utilized. Both Urban and suburban scenarios are tested and results are given. The success and challenges faced by blindBike's Road Following module are presented along with future avenues of work.

  13. Complementary Travel Aids for Blind Persons: The Sonicguide Used with a Dog Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocobson, William

    1979-01-01

    The article discusses the use of the Sonicguide (a binaural sensory mobility aid) in conjunction with a guide dog, and reports on a study of one blind student who was trained to use both techniques together. (Author/DLS)

  14. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of dialectical behavior therapy plus olanzapine for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Pascual, Juan Carlos; Campins, Josefa; Barrachina, Judith; Puigdemont, Dolors; Alvarez, Enrique; Pérez, Victor

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of dialectical behavior therapy plus olanzapine compared with dialectical behavior therapy plus placebo in patients with borderline personality disorder. Sixty patients with borderline personality disorder were included in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. All patients received dialectical behavior therapy and were randomly assigned to receive either olanzapine or placebo following a 1-month baseline period. Seventy percent of the patients completed the 4-month trial. Combined treatment showed an overall improvement in most symptoms studied in both groups. Olanzapine was associated with a statistically significant improvement over placebo in depression, anxiety, and impulsivity/aggressive behavior. The mean dose of olanzapine was 8.83 mg/day. A combined psychotherapeutic plus pharmacological approach appears to lower dropout rates and constitutes an effective treatment for borderline personality disorder.

  15. Spatial Representation by Persons Who Are Blind: A Study of the Effects of Learning and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochaita, E.; Huertas, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Children and adolescents (n=40) with congenital or adventitious blindness were exposed to two unfamiliar environments. Evaluation of subjects' spatial representations (through construction of models and estimates of distance) found that age appeared to be more important than learning in their development of spatial representation skills. (DB)

  16. Comprehensive Examination of Barriers to Employment among Persons Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudden, Adele; McBroom, Lynn W.; Skinner, Amy L.; Moore, J. Elton

    A survey of 166 employed persons with visual impairments investigated major barriers to employment, how these barriers were overcome, and their perceptions on why they were successful in overcoming barriers when many individuals are not successful. Results of the survey indicate that the primary barriers to employment were employer attitudes,…

  17. PossybliCom, a Commercially Viable Personal Navigator for Blind People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavaro, M.; Citterico, D.; Dionisio, C.; van Eijck, D.

    2007-08-01

    Disaps vof is a Dutch start-up Company which is born as spin-off from the Italian company Intecs S.p.A.. Disaps is working on a project called PossybliCom, which is the acronym of Positioning System for Blind, and it is developing wearable navigation equipment for visually impaired or in general people withself- localization problems. Other secondary markets could be thought of as well, such as peoplesuffering from Alzheimer or having temporary memory or consciousness losses. Even peoplehaving experienced problems like TIA (Transient Ischemic Attacks) or faints would need a highlyaccessible device knowing always the way home. PossybliCom is a contribution to further enhance these users' confidence in independent travelling by providing them with a more precise description of the surroundings they are in. A business feasibility study demonstrated how, under certain key restrictions on the system architecture,the product has a high potential for disabled people as well as for the others when specialenvironmental conditions apply. Main issues could be easily identified as accessibility, portability, ease of use, fast learning curve. The European Space Agency's business incubation facility ESI in Noordwijk is supporting the start-up project with physical incubation, which includes office space and shared facilities as well as access to services and the know-how of ESA staff. Once part of the business incubation programme, for aperiod of 6 months the company shall demonstrate the market feasibility and produce a detailed workplan for prototyping.

  18. Olanzapine plus dialectical behavior therapy for women with high irritability who meet criteria for borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Marsha M; McDavid, Joshua D; Brown, Milton Z; Sayrs, Jennifer H R; Gallop, Robert J

    2008-06-01

    This double-blind study examined whether olanzapine augments the efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) in reducing anger and hostility in borderline personality disorder patients. Twenty-four women with borderline personality disorder (DSM-IV criteria) and high levels of irritability and anger received 6 months of DBT. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either low-dose olanzapine or placebo and were assessed with standardized measures in a double-blind manner. The study was conducted from September 2000 to December 2002. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that both treatment conditions resulted in significant improvement in irritability, aggression, depression, and self-inflicted injury (p borderline personality disorder. Effect sizes were moderate to large, with the small sample size likely limiting the ability to detect significant results. Overall, there were large and consistent reductions in irritability, aggression, depression, and self-injury for both groups of subjects receiving DBT.

  19. A Field Evaluation of Devices for Maintaining Contact with Mobile Deaf and Deaf-Blind Children: Electronic Communication with Deaf and Deaf-Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, William; And Others

    Behavioral and engineering tests were conducted in the field and laboratory to assess effectiveness and usefulness of the Vibralert, an electronic device for maintaining contact with deaf and deaf-blind children and adults. The vibrating portable signal system was used by 24 deaf and hearing parents to maintain contact with their deaf children at…

  20. Newly blind persons using virtual environment system in a traditional orientation and mobility rehabilitation program: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orly; Schloerb, David W; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a virtual reality system (the BlindAid) developed for orientation and mobility training of people who are newly blind. The BlindAid allows users to interact with different virtual structures and objects via auditory and haptic feedback. This case study aims to examine if and how the BlindAid, in conjunction with a traditional rehabilitation programme, can help people who are newly blind develop new orientation and mobility methods. Follow-up research based on this study, with a large experiment and control group, could contribute to the area of orientation and mobility rehabilitation training for the newly blind. The case study research focused on A., a woman who is newly blind, for 17 virtual sessions spanning ten weeks, during the 12 weeks of her traditional orientation and mobility rehabilitation programme. The research was implemented by using virtual environment (VE) exploration and orientation tasks in VE and physical spaces. The research methodology used both qualitative and quantitative methods, including interviews, questionnaire, videotape recording, and user computer logs. The results of this study helped elucidate several issues concerning the contribution of the BlindAid system to the exploration strategies and learning processes experienced by the participant in her encounters with familiar and unfamiliar physical surroundings. [Box: see text].

  1. Mental Visual Imagery and Parallel Image Processing in Symmetry Perception in Persons Who Are Blind and Sighted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. W.; Kingdom, F.

    1996-01-01

    The visual imagery of four individuals with blindness was compared with that of five sighted individuals using the detection of mirror symmetry. The two participants who lost their sight later in life outperformed the two with congenital blindness, indicating the importance of early visual experience in visual imagery. (CR)

  2. Does Bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Annette; Stevens, John

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Bacopa monnieri Linn. for improvement of memory performance in healthy older persons. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The trial took place in Lismore, NSW, Australia between February and July 2005. Ninety-eight (98) healthy participants over 55 years of age were recruited from the general population. Participants were randomized to receive an extract of Bacopa monnieri called BacoMind(TM) (Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd.), 300 mg/day, or an identical placebo. Following screening, neuropsychologic and subjective memory assessments were performed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Audioverbal and visual memory performance were measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and the Reitan Trail Making Test (TMT). Subjective memory performance was measured by the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q). One hundred and thirty-six (136) subjects volunteered; 103 met entry criteria, 98 commenced, and 81 completed the trial. Bacopa significantly improved verbal learning, memory acquisition, and delayed recall as measured by the AVLT: trial a4 (p = 0.000), trial a5 (p = 0.016); trial a6 (p = 0.000); trial a7 (delayed recall) (p = 0.001); total learning (p = 0.011); and retroactive interference (p = 0.048). CFT, MAC-Q, and TMT scores improved but group differences were not significant. Bacopa versus placebo caused gastrointestinal tract (GIT) side-effects. Bacopa significantly improved memory acquisition and retention in healthy older Australians. This concurs with previous findings and traditional use. Bacopa caused GIT side-effects of increased stool frequency, abdominal cramps, and nausea.

  3. Techniques to Collect and Analyze the Cognitive Map Knowledge of Persons with Visual Impairment or Blindness: Issues of Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchin, R. M.; Jacobson, R. D.

    1997-01-01

    Assesses techniques used by researchers to collect and analyze data on how people with visual impairments or blindness learn, understand, and think about geographic space. Recommendations are made for increasing the validity of studies, including the use of multiple, mutually supportive tests; larger samples; and real-world environments.…

  4. The Physical Costs and Psychosocial Benefits of Travel Aids for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired or Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitlin, L. N.; Mount, J.; Lucas, W.; Weirich, L. C.; Gramberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the musculoskeletal consequences of travel aids, particularly white canes and guide dogs, as perceived by 21 individuals (ages 27-68) with visual impairments or blindness. They experienced a variety of negative physical effects that they denied, ignored, or minimized because of benefits derived from being independently…

  5. Can a Blind Person Play Dodge Ball? Enacting Body and Cognition with a Group of Youths with Visual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some results of research carried out with a group of blind and partially sighted youths who are enrolled in a school for people with visual disabilities in Brazil. This research aims to promote different articulations between the body and cognition. Based on actor-network theory, it considers that having a body means learning…

  6. Investigating the Effects of a Personalized, Spectrally Altered Music-Based Sound Therapy on Treating Tinnitus: A Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shelly-Anne; Bao, Lin; Chrostowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This blinded, randomized controlled trial assessed the effectiveness of a personalized, spectrally altered music-based sound therapy over 12 months of use. Two groups of participants (n = 50) were randomized to receive either altered or unaltered classical music. The treatment group received classical music that had been modified based on spectral alterations specific to their tinnitus characteristics. Tinnitus and psychological functioning were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months after initial testing using self-reports. Participants, investigators and research assistants were blinded from group assignment. Data from 34 participants were analyzed. The treatment group reported significantly lower levels of tinnitus distress (primary outcome, assessed using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) than the control group throughout the follow-up period. Among the treatment group, there were statistically significant and clinically meaningful levels of reduction in tinnitus distress, severity, and functional impairment at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, which was sustained at the 12-month follow-up. The personalized music therapy was effective in reducing subjective tinnitus and represents a meaningful advancement in tinnitus intervention. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Issues in Traumatic Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses factors related to individuals with sudden blindness, focusing on the visually impaired client's readiness for rehabilitation, the reactions of family members and friends, and personality variables. Two cases illustrate the adjustment process and eventual rehabilitation. (DB)

  8. Acute effects of exergames on cognitive function of institutionalized older persons: a single-blinded, randomized and controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; da Silva Figueiredo, Luiz Felipe; Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo de Tarso; Abud, Erick Lohan Rodrigues; Braga, Ana Elisa Mendes Montalvão; Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut; Nascimento, Osvaldo José M; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Laks, Jerson

    2017-06-01

    Improvements on balance, gait and cognition are some of the benefits of exergames. Few studies have investigated the cognitive effects of exergames in institutionalized older persons. To assess the acute effect of a single session of exergames on cognition of institutionalized older persons. Nineteen institutionalized older persons were randomly allocated to Wii (WG, n = 10, 86 ± 7 year, two males) or control groups (CG, n = 9, 86 ± 5 year, one male). The WG performed six exercises with virtual reality, whereas CG performed six exercises without virtual reality. Verbal fluency test (VFT), digit span forward and digit span backward were used to evaluate semantic memory/executive function, short-term memory and work memory, respectively, before and after exergames and Δ post- to pre-session (absolute) and Δ % (relative) were calculated. Parametric (t independent test) and nonparametric (Mann-Whitney test) statistics and effect size were applied to tests for efficacy. VFT was statistically significant within WG (-3.07, df = 9, p = 0.013). We found no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05). Effect size between groups of Δ % (median = 21 %) showed moderate effect for WG (0.63). Our data show moderate improvement of semantic memory/executive function due to exergames session. It is possible that cognitive brain areas are activated during exergames, increasing clinical response. A single session of exergames showed no significant improvement in short-term memory, working memory and semantic memory/executive function. The effect size for verbal fluency was promising, and future studies on this issue should be developed. RBR-6rytw2.

  9. Queer blindfolding: a case study on difference "blindness" toward persons who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lance C; Shin, Richard Q

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce and explore the narrative strategy of queer blindfolding. Utilizing psycho-discursive qualitative methodology, the authors will draw from a case study to demonstrate how some beneficent, well-intended persons who identify as heterosexual adopt the narrative strategy of queer blindfolding as they negotiate the discourse of heteronormativity. We will map this narrative strategy, compare and contrast it to racial colorblindness, and unpack the accompanying intra-psychic conflict and defense mechanisms that are utilized by the participant in the case study. We will also demonstrate how this discursive strategy positions participants within systemic heterosexism.

  10. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...

  11. Blind Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The phrase "blind astronomer” is used as an allegorical oxymoron. However, there were and are blind astronomers. What of famous blind astronomers? First, it must be stated that these astronomers were not martyrs to their craft. It is a myth that astronomers blind themselves by observing the Sun. As early as France's William of Saint-Cloud (circa 1290) astronomers knew that staring at the Sun was ill-advised and avoided it. Galileo Galilei did not invent the astronomical telescope and then proceed to blind himself with one. Galileo observed the Sun near sunrise and sunset or through projection. More than two decades later he became blind, as many septuagenarians do, unrelated to their profession. Even Isaac Newton temporarily blinded himself, staring at the reflection of the Sun when he was a twentysomething. But permanent Sun-induced blindness? No, it did not happen. For instance, it was a stroke that left Scotland's James Gregory (1638-1675) blind. (You will remember the Gregorian telescope.) However, he died days later. Thus, blindness little interfered with his occupation. English Abbot Richard of Wallingford (circa 1291 - circa 1335) wrote astronomical works and designed astronomical instruments. He was also blind in one eye. Yet as he further suffered from leprosy, his blindness seems the lesser of Richard's maladies. Perhaps the most famous professionally active, blind astronomer (or almost blind astronomer) is Dominique-Francois Arago (1786-1853), director until his death of the powerful nineteenth-century Paris Observatory. I will share other _ some poignant _ examples such as: William Campbell, whose blindness drove him to suicide; Leonhard Euler, astronomy's Beethoven, who did nearly half of his life's work while almost totally blind; and Edwin Frost, who "observed” a total solar eclipse while completely sightless.

  12. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth): a 12-wk, randomized, parallel-controlled, double-blinded, diet intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Rasmussen, Kia V; Schioldan, Anne Grethe; Amer, Bashar; Larsen, Mette K; Dalsgaard, Trine K; Holst, Jens J; Herrmann, Annkatrin; O'Neill, Sadhbh; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Afman, Lydia; Jensen, Erik; Christensen, Merete M; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2015-04-01

    Abdominal obesity and exaggerated postprandial lipemia are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, and both are affected by dietary behavior. We investigated whether dietary supplementation with whey protein and medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) improved postprandial lipid metabolism in humans with abdominal obesity. We conducted a 12-wk, randomized, double-blinded, diet intervention study. Sixty-three adults were randomly allocated to one of 4 diets in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Participants consumed 60 g milk protein (whey or casein) and 63 g milk fat (with high or low MC-SFA content) daily. Before and after the intervention, a high-fat meal test was performed. We measured changes from baseline in fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B-48 (apoB-48; reflecting chylomicrons of intestinal origin), free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). Furthermore, changes in the expression of adipose tissue genes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated. Two-factor ANOVA was used to examine the difference between protein types and fatty acid compositions, as well as any interaction between the two. Fifty-two participants completed the study. We found that the postprandial apoB-48 response decreased significantly after whey compared with casein (P = 0.025) independently of fatty acid composition. Furthermore, supplementation with casein resulted in a significant increase in the postprandial GLP-1 response compared with whey (P = 0.003). We found no difference in postprandial triacylglycerol, FFA, insulin, glucose, glucagon, or GIP related to protein type or MC-SFA content. We observed no interaction between milk protein and milk fat on postprandial lipemia. We found that a whey protein supplement decreased the postprandial chylomicron response compared with casein in persons with abdominal obesity, thereby indicating a

  13. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Pedagogical terms of correction of motive sphere of persons of ripe years with the purchased blindness by facilities of playing activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemkina V.I.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correction of motive sphere of adults blind facilities of playing activity is considered. The pedagogical terms of correction of motive sphere of adults with the purchased blindness are considered. In experiment took part blind adults at the age 22-35 years. It is set that correction-developing teaching the motive actions of blind adults must be concertedly with the level of their development and the differentiated individual approach is foreseen. It is recommended to be oriented on the level of general development of these people, exposure of their potential and actual motive possibilities. It is well-proven that systematic application of facilities of motive activity is provided by the valuable mastering of vitally important motions, development of motive capabilities and capacity for an orientation in space.

  15. Blindness, cataract surgery and mortality in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin J; Sanders, David S; Oliva, Matthew S; Orrs, Mark S; Glick, Peter; Ruit, Sanduk; Chen, Wei; Luoto, Jill; Tasfaw, Alemu Kerie; Tabin, Geoffrey C

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relationships between blindness, the intervention of cataract surgery and all-cause mortality in a rural Ethiopian population. Population-based, interventional prospective study. Community-based detection methods identified blind Ethiopian persons from two selected kebeles in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Data from 1201 blind patients were collected-628 cataract-blind and 573 blind from other conditions. Free cataract surgery was provided for consenting, cataract-blind patients. Follow-up surveys were conducted after 12 months (±1 month)-the main outcome measure for this report is all-cause mortality at 1 year. During the follow-up period, 110 persons died from the selected population (mortality 9.2%), which consisted of those cataract-blind patients who received cataract surgery (N=461), cataract-blind patients who did not receive surgery (N=167) and all non-cataract-blind patients (N=573). Of the 461 patients who received cataract surgery, 44 patients died (9.5%). Of the 740 patients who did not receive surgery, 66 died (8.9%)-28 patients from the cohort of cataract-blind patients who did not receive surgery (16.8%) and 38 patients from the cohort of non-cataract blind (6.6%). Subgroup analysis revealed significantly increased odds of mortality for cataract-blind patients over 75 years of age who did not receive surgery and for unmarried patients of all age groups. In this population, mortality risk was significantly elevated for older cataract-blind patients when compared with non-cataract-blind patients-an elevation of risk that was not noted in an age-matched cohort of cataract-blind patients who underwent cataract surgery as early as 1-year follow-up. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Navigation Problems in Blind-to-Blind Pedestrians Tele-assistance Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Balata , Jan; Mikovec , Zdenek; Maly , Ivo

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We raise a question whether it is possible to build a large-scale navigation system for blind pedestrians where a blind person navigates another blind person remotely by mobile phone. We have conducted an experiment, in which we observed blind people navigating each other in a city center in 19 sessions. We focused on problems in the navigator’s attempts to direct the traveler to the destination. We observed 96 problems in total, classified them on the basis of the typ...

  17. Aquatic Recreation for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordellos, Harry C.

    The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…

  18. What do colour-blind people really see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Problem: colour perception of dichromats (colour-blind persons) Background: Various models have been proposed (e. g. Walraven & Alferdinck, 1997; Brettel et al. , 1997) to model reduced colour vision of colour-blind people. It is clear that colour-blind people cannot distinguish certain object

  19. Self-Actualization of Elite Blind Athletes: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study used the Personal Orientation Inventory to compare self-actualization of 52 elite blind athletes with sighted athletes. Self-actualization profiles of blind athletes were lower for measures of existentiality and self-acceptance but otherwise identical to those of sighted athletes. Both sighted and blind athletes scored below test-manual…

  20. Effects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, U; Berger, K; Högberg, A; Landin-Olsson, M; Holm, C

    2012-05-01

    In studies performed in mice, rose hip powder has been shown to both prevent and reverse high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance as well as reduce plasma levels of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to investigate whether daily intake of rose hip powder over 6 weeks exerts beneficial metabolic effects in obese individuals. A total of 31 obese individuals with normal or impaired glucose tolerance were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in which metabolic effects of daily intake of a rose hip powder drink over 6 weeks was compared with a control drink. Body weight, glucose tolerance, blood pressure, blood lipids and markers of inflammation were assessed in the subjects. In comparison with the control drink, 6 weeks of daily consumption of the rose hip drink resulted in a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (-3.4%; P=0.021), total plasma cholesterol (-4.9%; P=0.0018), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (-6.0%; P=0.012) and LDL/HDL ratio (-6.5%; P=0.041). The Reynolds risk assessment score for cardiovascular disease was decreased in the rose hip group compared with the control group (-17%; P=0.007). Body weight, diastolic blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, incretins and markers of inflammation did not differ between the two groups. Daily consumption of 40 g of rose hip powder for 6 weeks can significantly reduce cardiovascular risk in obese people through lowering of systolic blood pressure and plasma cholesterol levels.

  1. Enhanced tactile encoding and memory recognition in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Waraich, Paul

    2002-06-01

    Several behavioural studies have shown that early-blind persons possess superior tactile skills. Since neurophysiological data show that early-blind persons recruit visual as well as somatosensory cortex to carry out tactile processing (cross-modal plasticity), blind persons' sharper tactile skills may be related to cortical re-organisation resulting from loss of vision early in their life. To examine the nature of blind individuals' tactile superiority and its implications for cross-modal plasticity, we compared the tactile performance of congenitally totally blind, low-vision and sighted children on raised-line picture identification test and re-test, assessing effects of task familiarity, exploratory strategy and memory recognition. What distinguished the blind from the other children was higher memory recognition and higher tactile encoding associated with efficient exploration. These results suggest that enhanced perceptual encoding and recognition memory may be two cognitive correlates of cross-modal plasticity in congenital blindness.

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF DIALECTICAL BEHAVIOR THERAPY VERSUS COLLABORATIVE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SUICIDALITY TREATMENT FOR REDUCTION OF SELF-HARM IN ADULTS WITH BORDERLINE PERSONALITY TRAITS AND DISORDER-A RANDOMIZED OBSERVER-BLINDED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Wenneberg, Christina; Jessen, Helle K L; Krakauer, Kristine; Gluud, Christian; Thomsen, Rasmus R; Randers, Lasse; Nordentoft, Merete

    2016-06-01

    Many psychological treatments have shown effect on reducing self-harm in adults with borderline personality disorder. There is a need of brief psychotherapeutical treatment alternative for suicide prevention in specialized outpatient clinics. The DiaS trial was designed as a pragmatic single-center, two-armed, parallel-group observer-blinded, randomized clinical superiority trial. The participants had at least two criteria from the borderline personality disorder diagnosis and a recent suicide attempt (within a month). The participants were offered 16 weeks of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) versus up to 16 weeks of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) treatment. The primary composite outcome was the number of participants with a new self-harm (nonsuicidal self-injury [NSSI] or suicide attempt) at week 28 from baseline. Other exploratory outcomes were: severity of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness, suicide ideation, and self-esteem. At 28 weeks, the number of participants with new self-harm in the DBT group was 21 of 57 (36.8%) versus 12 of 51 (23.5%) in the CAMS treatment (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 0.80-4.40; P = .14). When assessing the effect of DBT versus CAMS treatment on the individual components of the primary outcome, we observed no significant differences in the number of NSSI (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 0.70-3.90; P = .31) or number of attempted suicides (OR: 2.24; 95% CI: 0.80-7.50; P = .12). In adults with borderline personality traits and disorder and a recent suicide attempt, DBT does not seem superior compared with CAMS for reduction of number of self-harm or suicide attempts. However, further randomized clinical trials may be needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Blind MuseumTourer: A System for Self-Guided Tours in Museums and Blind Indoor Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolos Meliones; Demetrios Sampson

    2018-01-01

    Notably valuable efforts have focused on helping people with special needs. In this work, we build upon the experience from the BlindHelper smartphone outdoor pedestrian navigation app and present Blind MuseumTourer, a system for indoor interactive autonomous navigation for blind and visually impaired persons and groups (e.g., pupils), which has primarily addressed blind or visually impaired (BVI) accessibility and self-guided tours in museums. A pilot prototype has been developed and is curr...

  4. Calendar systems and communication of deaf-blind children

    OpenAIRE

    Jablan, Branka; Stanimirov, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain the calendar systems and their role in teaching deaf-blind children. Deaf-blind persons belong to a group of multiple disabled persons. This disability should not be observed as a simple composite of visual and hearing impairments, but as a combination of sensory impairments that require special assistance in the development, communication and training for independent living. In our environment, deaf-blind children are being educated in schools for children...

  5. Casefinding Criteria for Use in Identifying Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Catherine E.

    The study was undertaken to develop casefinding criteria for identifying deaf-blind children. Referral sources and investigative potentials were obtained from a demographic survey of 164 cases of deaf-blind persons in Louisiana. Inquiry sheets on the possible sources of casefinding twice were sent to and ranked by a panel of 20 persons, including…

  6. The prevalence and causes of bilateral and unilateral blindness in an elderly urban Danish population. The Copenhagen City Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Vinding, T; La Cour, M

    2001-01-01

    of bilateral blindness, accounting for 60% of all blind persons. Glaucoma, myopic macular degeneration, cataract and retinitis pigmentosa were jointly the second most common cause, each accounting for 10% of all bilaterally blind persons. Diabetic retinopathy was not a cause of bilateral blindness. Amblyopia...

  7. Análise exploratória das escalas de silhuetas bidimensionais e tridimensionais adaptadas para a pessoa com cegueira Exploratory analysis of two dimensional and three dimensional silhouette scales for persons with blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Frota da Rocha Morgado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizar uma análise exploratória da Escala de Silhuetas Bidimensionais (ESB e da Escala de Silhuetas Tridimensionais (EST, verificando qual destas Escalas é a mais apropriada e representativa à pessoa com cegueira congênita. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória. A amostra foi composta por 20 sujeitos adultos com cegueira congênita. Foram entrevistados 10 homens e 10 mulheres, com idades entre 21 e 50 anos, do Instituto Benjamin Constant, no Rio de Janeiro e da Associação dos Cegos de Juiz de Fora, MG. Os Instrumentos para coleta de dados foram: ESB, EST e roteiro de entrevista semiestruturada. A estratégia adotada para tratar os dados foi a Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin. Foram formadas três grandes categorias: 1 Principais vias de informações sobre o corpo, subdividida em: tato; informações sobre peso e altura; informações das pessoas do convívio; informações culturais; tamanho das roupas e atividade física como referência. 2 Escala de Silhuetas Bidimensionais, subdividida em: não reconhecimento da ESB; dificuldades; utilidades. 3 Escala de Silhuetas Tridimensionais, subdividida em: Reconhecimento da Escala; Relação consigo ou com o outro; Facilidades e preferências da EST. Foi constatado que 90% dos participantes não reconheceram a ESB, enquanto que todos os participantes reconheceram a EST. A EST é a Escala mais apropriada e representativa para a pessoa com cegueira congênita. Sugere-se a realização de estudos futuros que visem avaliar as qualidades psicométricas da EST.The aim of the study was to conduct an exploratory analysis of the two dimensional and three dimensional Silhouette Scales (2SS and 3SS so as to determine which one is most suitable and meaningful for persons that are congenitally blind. This is a qualitative and exploratory study. The sample was composed of 20 adult congenitally blind subjects. Ten men and 10 women aged between 21 and 50 years of age from the Benjamin Constant

  8. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Color Blindness Sections What Is Color Blindness? What Are ... Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? ...

  9. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and ultra-high risk criteria for psychosis: a post hoc subgroup analysis of a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amminger, G Paul; Chanen, Andrew M; Ohmann, Susanne; Klier, Claudia M; Mossaheb, Nilufar; Bechdolf, Andreas; Nelson, Barnaby; Thompson, Andrew; McGorry, Patrick D; Yung, Alison R; Schäfer, Miriam R

    2013-07-01

    To investigate whether long-chain omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve functioning and psychiatric symptoms in young people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) who also meet ultra-high risk criteria for psychosis. We conducted a post hoc subgroup analysis of a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Fifteen adolescents with BPD (mean age 16.2 years, [SD 2.1]) were randomized to either 1.2 g/day n-3 PUFAs or placebo. The intervention period was 12 weeks. Study measures included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, and the Global Assessment of Functioning. Side effects were documented with the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser. Fatty acids in erythrocytes were analyzed using capillary gas chromatography. At baseline, erythrocyte n-3 PUFA levels correlated positively with psychosocial functioning and negatively with psychopathology. By the end of the intervention, n-3 PUFAs significantly improved functioning and reduced psychiatric symptoms, compared with placebo. Side effects did not differ between the treatment groups. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs should be further explored as a viable treatment strategy with minimal associated risk in young people with BPD. ( NCT00396643).

  10. Design and pilot results of a single blind randomized controlled trial of systematic demand-led home visits by nurses to frail elderly persons in primary care [ISRCTN05358495

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tybout Willemijn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this article is to describe the design of an evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of systematic home visits by nurses to frail elderly primary care patients. Pilot objectives were: 1. To determine the feasibility of postal multidimensional frailty screening instruments; 2. to identify the need for home visits to elderly. Methods Main study: The main study concerns a randomized controlled in primary care practices (PCP with 18 months follow-up and blinded PCPs. Frail persons aged 75 years or older and living at home but neither terminally ill nor demented from 33 PCPs were eligible. Trained community nurses (1 visit patients at home and assess the care needs with the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care, a multidimensional computerized geriatric assessment instrument, enabling direct identification of problem areas; (2 determine the care priorities together with the patient; (3 design and execute interventions according to protocols; (4 and visit patients at least five times during a year in order to execute and monitor the care-plan. Controls receive usual care. Outcome measures are Quality of life, and Quality Adjusted Life Years; time to nursing home admission; mortality; hospital admissions; health care utilization. Pilot 1: Three brief postal multidimensional screening measures to identify frail health among elderly persons were tested on percentage complete item response (selected after a literature search: 1 Vulnerable Elders Screen, 2 Strawbridge's frailty screen, and 3 COOP-WONCA charts. Pilot 2: Three nurses visited elderly frail patients as identified by PCPs in a health center of 5400 patients and used an assessment protocol to identify psychosocial and medical problems. The needs and experiences of all participants were gathered by semi-structured interviews. Discussion The design holds several unique elements such as early identification of frail persons combined with case-management by

  11. Nem toda pessoa cega lê em Braille nem toda pessoa surda se comunica em língua de sinais Not every blind person reads Braille and not every deaf person knows sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Fátima Torres

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi definido tendo como objetivo discutir e explicitar algumas das diferenças existentes, quanto ao acesso à informação e à comunicação, entre aquelas pessoas que, embora possuam deficiências semelhantes, vivenciam discapacidades diferentes. O recorte metodológico aplicado foca especificamente as pessoas com deficiência visual e as com deficiência auditiva, não simultâneas, com ênfase às pessoas com surdez e às com cegueira. O arcabouço conceitual utilizado é o mesmo que o adotado pela classificação CIF-OMS, sendo o referencial teórico complementado com os aportes de outros autores que desenvolvem estudos relacionados com o tema da discapacidade. Além das pesquisas bibliográficas, integram a metodologia dados coletados em pesquisas de campo, conduzidas em trabalhos anteriores, e os resultantes de observações de pessoas adultas em situações que demandam por acessibilidade à informação e à comunicação. Os resultados encontrados evidenciam a diversidade existente entre as pessoas com um mesmo tipo de deficiência sensorial e assinalam alguns dos equívocos e prejuízos que podem ocorrer quando essa diversidade não é considerada. Ao longo do texto, fica constatado que as diferenças encontradas entre as pessoas com um mesmo tipo de deficiência sensorial são definidas tanto em função de suas preferências individuais, bem como das limitações e capacidades que são peculiares a cada um desses indivíduos.The objective of this work is to discuss and explain some differences that exist regarding the access to information and to communication among those people who, despite having similar handicaps, experience different inabilities. The methodological approach used here focuses specifically on people with non-simultaneous visual or hearing impairments, with an emphasis on blind or deaf people. The conceptual framework used is the same one adopted by the ICF-WHO classification, and the theoretical

  12. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  13. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  14. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003039.htm Vision - night blindness To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Night blindness is poor vision at night or in dim light. Considerations Night ...

  15. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of ... million Americans have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, ...

  16. Color-Blind Racism, Color-Blind Theology, and Church Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Color-blind racism develops when persons ignore color in people and see them simply as individuals. As persons of color in racialized societies such as the United States are unequally treated on account of their color, the issue becomes a matter of faith and religious experience as religious leaders and educators, who disregard color, overlook…

  17. Personality disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... personality disorder Borderline personality disorder Dependent personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorder Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Paranoid ...

  18. Individual and team susceptibility to change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollner-Burngasser, Alison; Riley, Michael A; Nelson, W Todd

    2010-10-01

    Individual operators in command and control environments are susceptible to change blindness. Change blindness by teams of operators, which is typical in military command and control, has not been extensively studied. This experiment investigated change blindness in individuals and teams in a simulated military command and control situation display. Subjects completed a change-detection task individually or in three-person teams. In one team condition team members could actively communicate with each other, but in another condition they could not. The change-detection task involved monitoring flicker sequences of displays containing 6, 12, 24, or 48 icons for changes in icon position. Results revealed a team advantage that was more pronounced when teams communicated. Communicating teams had higher overall correct detection rates (mean = 95%) than both non-communicating triads (mean = 80%) and individuals (mean = 79%). Teams were susceptible to change blindness just as individuals were, but teamwork and communication were beneficial in reducing change blindness susceptibility. Communicating teams also experienced lower global workload (mean = 24.08) than non-communicating triads (mean = 38.44) and individuals (mean = 47.18). This research highlights the importance of teamwork and communication in reducing change blindness and workload in a command and control environment. The findings can be used to facilitate development of methods and tools for reducing individual and team change blindness susceptibility.

  19. A Literature Review of Inattentional and Change Blindness in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to situations in which a person is unaware of a change that is occurring because attention is not currently focused on what is changing. Change blindness occurs when a change takes place during an eye movement or blink ...

  20. Using Self-Directed Search with Blind Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, J. L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The Self-Directed Search, a self-administered, self-scored, and self-interpreted vocational counseling tool, was administered to 43 blind adults. Results indicated that the Social (S) personality type was predominant for both men and women, a finding for blind men discrepant with the normative data. (Author/DB)

  1. Postictal blindness in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeh, M; Goldhammer, Y; Kuritsky, A

    1983-01-01

    Cortical blindness following grand mal seizures occurred in five adult patients. The causes of seizures included idiopathic epilepsy, vascular accident, brain cyst, acute encephalitis and chronic encephalitis. Blindness was permanent in one patients, but the others recovered within several days. Since most of the patients were either unaware of or denied their blindness, it is possible that this event often goes unrecognised. Cerebral hypoxia is considered the most likely mechanism.

  2. RUDO: A Home Ambient Intelligence System for Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, Milan; Smutny, Zdenek

    2017-08-22

    The article introduces an ambient intelligence system for blind people which besides providing assistance in home environment also helps with various situations and roles in which blind people may find themselves involved. RUDO, the designed system, comprises several modules that mainly support or ensure recognition of approaching people, alerting to other household members' movement in the flat, work on a computer, supervision of (sighted) children, cooperation of a sighted and a blind person (e.g., when studying), control of heating and zonal regulation by a blind person. It has a unified user interface that gives the blind person access to individual functions. The interface for blind people offers assistance with work on a computer, including writing in Braille on a regular keyboard and specialized work in informatics and electronics (e.g., programming). RUDO can complement the standard aids used by blind people at home, it increases their independence and creates conditions that allow them to become fully involved. RUDO also supports blind people sharing a home with sighted people, which contributes to their feeling of security and greater inclusion in society. RUDO has been implemented in a household for two years, which allows an evaluation of its use in practice.

  3. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...

  4. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  5. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa McCarthy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease or difficulty of interpreting haptic pictures of solid objects. Top views were easiest for sighted and blind persons when geometrical solids had constant crosssections in the vertical axis. The presence or absence of viewpoint effects depends upon the nature of the solids that are represented. Congenitally blind people do not spontaneously produce perspective drawings, but recent data suggests that depictions including linear perspective can be understood after minimal experience. The results suggest that two-dimensional configurations are not necessarily problematic for touch.

  6. PHYSIOTHERAPY OF BLIND AND LOW VISION INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Tatjana Sterle

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The authors present a preventive physiotherapy programme intended to improve the well-being of persons who have been blind or visually impaired since birth or experience partial or complete loss of vision later in life as a result of injury or disease.Methods. Different methods and techniques of physiotherapy, kinesitherapy and relaxation used in the rehabilitation of visually impaired persons are described.Results. The goals of timely physical treatment are to avoid unnecessary problems, such as improper posture, tension of the entire body, face and eyes, and deterioration of facial expression, that often accompany partial or complete loss of vision. Regular training improves functional skills, restores the skills that have been lost, and prevents the development of defects and consequent disorders of the locomotor apparatus.Conclusions. It is very difficult to change the life style and habits of blind and visually imapired persons. Especially elderly people who experience complete or partial loss of vision later in their lives are often left to their fate. Therefore blind and visually impaired persons of all age groups should be enrolled in a suitable rehabilitation programme that will improve the quality of their life.

  7. Echolocation: A Study of Auditory Functioning in Blind and Sighted Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the peripheral and central auditory functioning (and thus the potential to perceive obstacles through reflected sound) of eight totally blind persons and eight sighted persons. The blind subjects were able to process auditory information faster than the control group. (Author/DB)

  8. Blind Loop Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of tissue that protrude through the intestinal wall (diverticulosis) Certain medical conditions, including Crohn's disease, radiation enteritis, ... History of radiation therapy to the abdomen Diabetes Diverticulosis of the small intestine Complications A blind loop ...

  9. Blindness and vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life. Alternative Names Loss of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness Images ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  10. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...... repellent, yet 'welfare-only' positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the 'Blind Hens' Challenge'. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and theoretical reasons why even those adopting 'welfare-only' views should be concerned...

  11. Calendar systems and communication of deaf-blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain the calendar systems and their role in teaching deaf-blind children. Deaf-blind persons belong to a group of multiple disabled persons. This disability should not be observed as a simple composite of visual and hearing impairments, but as a combination of sensory impairments that require special assistance in the development, communication and training for independent living. In our environment, deaf-blind children are being educated in schools for children with visual impairments or in schools for children with hearing impairments (in accordance with the primary impairment. However, deaf-blind children cannot be trained by means of special programs for children with hearing impairment, visual impairment or other programs for students with developmental disabilities without specific attention required by such a combination of sensory impairments. Deaf-blindness must be observed as a multiple impairment that requires special work methods, especially in the field of communication, whose development is severely compromised. Communication skills in deaf-blind people can be developed by using the calendar systems. They are designed in such a manner that they can be easily attainable to children with various sensory impairments. Calendars can be used to encourage and develop communication between adult persons and a deaf-blind child.

  12. Turning the tide of corneal blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world′s largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  13. A Smart Infrared Microcontroller-Based Blind Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed S. Al-Fahoum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. The partial blindness represents the lack of integration in the growth of the optic nerve or visual centre of the eye, and total blindness is the full absence of the visual light perception. In this work, a simple, cheap, friendly user, smart blind guidance system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility of both blind and visually impaired people in a specific area. The proposed work includes a wearable equipment consists of head hat and mini hand stick to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the infrared sensor which is used to scan a predetermined area around blind by emitting-reflecting waves. The reflected signals received from the barrier objects are used as inputs to PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller is then used to determine the direction and distance of the objects around the blind. It also controls the peripheral components that alert the user about obstacle's shape, material, and direction. The implemented system is cheap, fast, and easy to use and an innovative affordable solution to blind and visually impaired people in third world countries.

  14. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Roodman, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of "experimenter's bias" and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

  15. Colour blindness-A rural prevalence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natu Maya

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour vision is important for aeroplane pilots, motor drivers, seamen and signal men for their professional work Not much of attention has been paid to population studies of colour blindness as there is no interference with daily routine in majority of persons However there is a need to undertake community wide prevalence surveys which could be useful in study of other genetically transmitted diseases

  16. Optimal blind quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantri, Atul; Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2013-12-06

    Blind quantum computation allows a client with limited quantum capabilities to interact with a remote quantum computer to perform an arbitrary quantum computation, while keeping the description of that computation hidden from the remote quantum computer. While a number of protocols have been proposed in recent years, little is currently understood about the resources necessary to accomplish the task. Here, we present general techniques for upper and lower bounding the quantum communication necessary to perform blind quantum computation, and use these techniques to establish concrete bounds for common choices of the client's quantum capabilities. Our results show that the universal blind quantum computation protocol of Broadbent, Fitzsimons, and Kashefi, comes within a factor of 8/3 of optimal when the client is restricted to preparing single qubits. However, we describe a generalization of this protocol which requires exponentially less quantum communication when the client has a more sophisticated device.

  17. Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiansyah Rizqi Andry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many personal service robot is developed to help blind people in daily life, such as room cleaning, for navigating, object finding, reading and other activities. In this context, the present work focuses the development of an image-to-speech application for the blind. The project is called Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People, and the final purpose is the design of an electronic narrator application on personal service robot that helps to narrate a text on a book, magazine, a sheet of paper etc to a blind person. To achieve that, a Raspberry pi board, a light sensor, OpenCV computer vision library, Tesseract OCR (Optical Character Recognition library, eSpeak Text-to-Speech Synthesizer (TTS library are integrated, which is enables the blind person to hear a narration from text on a book, magazine, a sheet etc.

  18. Homer: The Blind Bard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorley, Rachelle; King, Judith

    2005-01-01

    This article describes notable cultural, historical, and artistic elements emanating from sculptures originating in ancient Greece. The "blind bard" and its connection to the legendary Greek poet, Homer; Homer's impact on literary history; trends among Roman sculptures; and Roman replication of Greek art are described. Questions to…

  19. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  20. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF BLIND CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Mira CVETKOVA

    1998-01-01

    A review is made on the research and studies concerning physical and motor development of blind children. An emphasis is also put on development of hand movements as part of the whole motor development process of the blind.

  1. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  2. The prevalence and causes of bilateral and unilateral blindness in an elderly urban Danish population. The Copenhagen City Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Vinding, T; La Cour, M

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the prevalence and causes of bilateral and unilateral blindness in an elderly urban Danish population. METHODS: Data originated from a Danish epidemiologic cross-sectional random sample population eye survey conducted during the years 1986-1988. The population consisted of 1......) of blindness). RESULTS: The prevalence rates of bilateral and unilateral blindness were, respectively, 0.53% and 3.38% according to WHO, but 1.06% and 4.44% using NC. Bilateral blindness rose significantly with age (p=0.02). According to NC, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was the leading cause...... of bilateral blindness, accounting for 60% of all blind persons. Glaucoma, myopic macular degeneration, cataract and retinitis pigmentosa were jointly the second most common cause, each accounting for 10% of all bilaterally blind persons. Diabetic retinopathy was not a cause of bilateral blindness. Amblyopia...

  3. A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Bonnie

    Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…

  4. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enab...

  5. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  6. Blind Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Gleichman, Sivan; Eldar, Yonina C.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle underlying compressed sensing is that a signal, which is sparse under some basis representation, can be recovered from a small number of linear measurements. However, prior knowledge of the sparsity basis is essential for the recovery process. This work introduces the concept of blind compressed sensing, which avoids the need to know the sparsity basis in both the sampling and the recovery process. We suggest three possible constraints on the sparsity basis that can ...

  7. [Blindness and visual rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matonti, F; Roux, S; Denis, D; Picaud, S; Chavane, F

    2015-02-01

    Blindness and visual impairment are a major public health problem all over the world and in all societies. A large amount of basic science and clinical research aims to rehabilitate patients and help them become more independent. Various methods are explored from cell and molecular therapy to prosthetic interfaces. We review the various treatment alternatives, describing their results and their limitations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. INTRODUCTION Childhood blindness is increasingly becoming a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is also equal to the number of blind years due to age related cataract.10 The burden of disability in terms of blind years in these children represents a major. CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AT THE SCHOOL FOR THE. BLIND OWO, NIGERIA.

  9. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  10. Do People Who Became Blind Early in Life Develop a Better Sense of Smell? A Psychophysical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Isabel; Plaza, Paula; Rombaux, Phillippe; Collignon, Olivier; De Volder, Anne G.; Renier, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Using a set of psychophysical tests, we compared the olfactory abilities of 8 persons who became blind early in life and 16 sighted persons in a control group who were matched for age, sex, and handedness. The results indicated that those who became blind early in life developed compensatory perceptual mechanisms in the olfactory domain that…

  11. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acerbi, A; Graffigna, J P; Polimeni, G; Fernandez, H H

    2007-01-01

    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system

  12. Blind MuseumTourer: A System for Self-Guided Tours in Museums and Blind Indoor Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Meliones

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Notably valuable efforts have focused on helping people with special needs. In this work, we build upon the experience from the BlindHelper smartphone outdoor pedestrian navigation app and present Blind MuseumTourer, a system for indoor interactive autonomous navigation for blind and visually impaired persons and groups (e.g., pupils, which has primarily addressed blind or visually impaired (BVI accessibility and self-guided tours in museums. A pilot prototype has been developed and is currently under evaluation at the Tactual Museum with the collaboration of the Lighthouse for the Blind of Greece. This paper describes the functionality of the application and evaluates candidate indoor location determination technologies, such as wireless local area network (WLAN and surface-mounted assistive tactile route indications combined with Bluetooth low energy (BLE beacons and inertial dead-reckoning functionality, to come up with a reliable and highly accurate indoor positioning system adopting the latter solution. The developed concepts, including map matching, a key concept for indoor navigation, apply in a similar way to other indoor guidance use cases involving complex indoor places, such as in hospitals, shopping malls, airports, train stations, public and municipality buildings, office buildings, university buildings, hotel resorts, passenger ships, etc. The presented Android application is effectively a Blind IndoorGuide system for accurate and reliable blind indoor navigation.

  13. Creating opportunities in astronomy: Communication for people who are blind or visually impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, N.

    2008-06-01

    Astronomy is such a visually rich field that you may wonder if access is possible for a person who is blind or visually impaired. The good news is that with creative strategies and available resources, students who are blind need not be excluded. Braille text, tactile illustrations, handson models, and descriptive narration can remove many barriers.

  14. Blindness of Johann Sebastian Bach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Ahti

    2013-03-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested. © 2012 The Author. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  15. Perceptions of Braille Usage by Legally Blind Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, F. K.

    1996-01-01

    In this qualitative research, case study interviews were conducted to provide an in-depth examination of the meaning of braille in the lives of eight legally blind adults. Issues of self-esteem, self-identity, and the "stigma" of being a person with a disability were found to be integrally intertwined with the subjects' expressed feelings about…

  16. 78 FR 62339 - Blind Americans Equality Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... visually impaired persons have always played an important role in American life and culture, and today we... innovation in business and government, or creating powerful music and art, blind and visually impaired... Americans with Disabilities Act and other important avenues. In June of this year, the United States joined...

  17. Prevalence and Causes of Blindness in Ikwerre Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basic eye examination involving visual acuity measurement, pen torch assessment, funduscopy and intra-ocular pressure measurement were done. Data was recorded with WHO / PBL form. Results: A total of 1513 persons were examined consisting of 754 males and 759 females. The prevalence of bilateral blindness was ...

  18. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  19. Education Game to Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Oktorina Kusuma Sakti

    2015-11-01

    Now there are blind people who have their formal and informal education. Even though they cannot see, they can take benefit from another sense, like sense of hearing, palpability, smell, and taste. Their senses can be a modal to study. Developer games have their build game in audio to blind people too. Their game is variation between audio games and online games, so games can be used for blind people as an education tools. In this paper, there will be an explanation about how to facilitate blind people to study with paper

  20. Blind Quantum Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvail, Louis; Arrighi, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situa......We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x....... The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation...... protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The cheat-sensitive security achieved relies only upon quantum theory being true. The security analysis carried out assumes the eavesdropper performs individual attacks....

  1. An Overwhelming Desire to Be Blind: Similarities and Differences between Body Integrity Identity Disorder and the Wish for Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Gutschke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The urge to be permanently blind is an extremely rare mental health disturbance. The underlying cause of this desire has not been determined yet, and it is uncertain whether the wish for blindness is a condition that can be included in the context of body integrity identity disorder, a condition where people feel an overwhelming need to be disabled, in many cases by amputation of a limb or through paralysis. Objective: The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that people with a desire for blindness suffer from a greater degree of visual stress in daily activities than people in a healthy visual control group. Method: We created a Likert scale questionnaire to measure visual stress, covering a wide range of everyday situations. The wish for blindness is extremely rare and worldwide only 5 people with an urge to be blind were found to participate in the study (4 female, 1 male. In addition, a control group of 35 (28 female, 7 male visually healthy people was investigated. Questions addressing issues that may be experienced by participants with a desire to be blind were integrated into the questionnaire. Results: The hypothesis that people with a desire for blindness suffer from a significantly higher visual overload in activities of daily living than visually healthy subjects was confirmed; the significance of visual stress between these groups was p < 0.01. In addition, an interview with the 5 affected participants supported the causal role of visual overload. Conclusions: The desire for blindness seems to originate from visual overload caused by either ophthalmologic or organic brain disturbances. In addition, psychological reasons such as certain personal character traits may play an active role in developing, maintaining, and reinforcing one’s desire to be blind.

  2. An Overwhelming Desire to Be Blind: Similarities and Differences between Body Integrity Identity Disorder and the Wish for Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschke, Katja; Stirn, Aglaja; Kasten, Erich

    2017-01-01

    The urge to be permanently blind is an extremely rare mental health disturbance. The underlying cause of this desire has not been determined yet, and it is uncertain whether the wish for blindness is a condition that can be included in the context of body integrity identity disorder, a condition where people feel an overwhelming need to be disabled, in many cases by amputation of a limb or through paralysis. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that people with a desire for blindness suffer from a greater degree of visual stress in daily activities than people in a healthy visual control group. We created a Likert scale questionnaire to measure visual stress, covering a wide range of everyday situations. The wish for blindness is extremely rare and worldwide only 5 people with an urge to be blind were found to participate in the study (4 female, 1 male). In addition, a control group of 35 (28 female, 7 male) visually healthy people was investigated. Questions addressing issues that may be experienced by participants with a desire to be blind were integrated into the questionnaire. The hypothesis that people with a desire for blindness suffer from a significantly higher visual overload in activities of daily living than visually healthy subjects was confirmed; the significance of visual stress between these groups was p < 0.01. In addition, an interview with the 5 affected participants supported the causal role of visual overload. The desire for blindness seems to originate from visual overload caused by either ophthalmologic or organic brain disturbances. In addition, psychological reasons such as certain personal character traits may play an active role in developing, maintaining, and reinforcing one's desire to be blind.

  3. Blindness incidence in Germany. A population-based study from Württemberg-Hohenzollern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpaszky, H G; Lüdtke, R; Mickler, A; Klauss, V; Selbmann, H K

    1999-01-01

    Few data on the incidence of blindness in Germany are available. We analysed causes of legal blindness for the region Württemberg-Hohenzollern (population 5.5 million) in order to help fill in this gap. Population-based investigation on the incidence of legal blindness (visual acuity <1/50) based on materials from the social services. Age-dependent blindness incidences were modelled via logistic regression models. 647 blind persons were newly registered in 1994 (blindness incidence 11.6/100,000). The blindness incidence is moderate in infants (4.5/100,000) and decreases further during childhood. At the age of 20 years, the incidence again rises to the former level and remains relatively constant. After the age of 60 years, the incidence increases sharply: 5-year odds ratios are 1.76 (CI: 1.68-1. 85) in women and 1.72 (CI: 1.60-1.84) in men. The blindness incidence is higher in women, 15.6/100,000, compared to 12.2/100,000 in men. The major causes of blindness are: macular degeneration, 3. 92/100,000; diabetic retinopathy, 2.01/100,000; glaucoma, 1.6/100, 000; high myopia, 0.77/100,000; optic atrophy, 0.68/100,000; central nervous system-triggered blindness; 0.56/100,000, and tapetoretinal degenerations, 0.52/100,000. Due to monetary incentives for the blind persons, social service files offer accurate and complete data. Besides macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy are major causes of blindness. Thus, this study suggests further blindness prevention activities for diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma.

  4. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  5. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  6. Cognitive sophistication does not attenuate the bias blind spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Richard F; Meserve, Russell J; Stanovich, Keith E

    2012-09-01

    The so-called bias blind spot arises when people report that thinking biases are more prevalent in others than in themselves. Bias turns out to be relatively easy to recognize in the behaviors of others, but often difficult to detect in one's own judgments. Most previous research on the bias blind spot has focused on bias in the social domain. In 2 studies, we found replicable bias blind spots with respect to many of the classic cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature (e.g., Tversky & Kahneman, 1974). Further, we found that none of these bias blind spots were attenuated by measures of cognitive sophistication such as cognitive ability or thinking dispositions related to bias. If anything, a larger bias blind spot was associated with higher cognitive ability. Additional analyses indicated that being free of the bias blind spot does not help a person avoid the actual classic cognitive biases. We discuss these findings in terms of a generic dual-process theory of cognition.

  7. Survey of childhood blindness and visual impairment in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallasamy, Sudha; Anninger, William V; Quinn, Graham E; Kroener, Brian; Zetola, Nicola M; Nkomazana, Oathokwa

    2014-01-01

    Background/aims In terms of blind-person years, the worldwide burden of childhood blindness is second only to cataracts. In many developing countries, 30–72% of childhood blindness is avoidable. The authors conducted this study to determine the causes of childhood blindness and visual impairment (VI) in Botswana, a middle-income country with limited access to ophthalmic care. Methods This study was conducted over 4 weeks in eight cities and villages in Botswana. Children were recruited through a radio advertisement and local outreach programmes. Those ≤15 years of age with visual acuity Blindness Eye Examination Record for Children with Blindness and Low Vision was used to record data. Results The authors enrolled 241 children, 79 with unilateral and 162 with bilateral VI. Of unilateral cases, 89% were avoidable: 23% preventable (83% trauma-related) and 66% treatable (40% refractive error and 31% amblyopia). Of bilateral cases, 63% were avoidable: 5% preventable and 58% treatable (33% refractive error and 31% congenital cataracts). Conclusion Refractive error, which is easily correctable with glasses, is the most common cause of bilateral VI, with cataracts a close second. A nationwide intervention is currently being planned to reduce the burden of avoidable childhood VI in Botswana. PMID:21242581

  8. Reversible blindness in fulminating preeclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tung CF, Peng YC, Chen GH, Chow WK, Yang DY, Hu WH. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. (HELLP) syndrome with acute cortical blindness. Chin. Med J (Taipei) 2001;64:482-5. 5. Cunningham FG, Fernandez CO, Hernandez C. Blindness associated with preeclampsia and eclampsia. Am J.

  9. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    It may seem that deaf-blindness refers to a total inability to see or hear. However, in reality deaf-blindness is a condition in which the combination of hearing and visual losses in children cause "such severe communication and other develop mental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for…

  10. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF BLIND CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira CVETKOVA

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A review is made on the research and studies concerning physical and motor development of blind children. An emphasis is also put on development of hand movements as part of the whole motor development process of the blind.

  11. Incidence of blindness in southern Germany between 1990 and 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, C; Haastert, B; Giani, G; Berger, M

    2001-02-01

    A reduction of diabetes-related blindness by at least one third was declared a primary objective for Europe in 1989 (St. Vincent Declaration). To ascertain a potential change of incidence rates, we collected data on blindness in a German district (population: about 5 million) over 9 years. We obtained complete lists of newly registered blindness-allowance recipients between 1990 and 1998 and population data on Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Germany. We estimated incidence rates of blindness in the general population and the diabetic population. To ascertain any time trend, we applied Poisson regression models. There were 6371 newly registered blindness allowance recipients (1990-1998). Of these 67% were women and 27 % had diabetes. Mean age was 71.7 years. Standardised results in the diabetic population (incidence rates per 100,000 person-years; standard: diabetic population; 95 % CI): 1990: 72 (61;82); 1991: 88 (76;100); 1992: 77 (67;88); 1993: 82 (71;93); 1994: 62 (53;72); 1995: 82 (71;93); 1996: 70 (60;80); 1997: 69 (59;79); 1998: 59 (49;68). The Poisson model estimated a 3 % decrease of incident blindness in the diabetic population for each year (Relative risk per year 0.97; CI: 0.95; 0.99). No significant change could be observed in the non-diabetic population (Relative risk: 0.99; CI: 0.98; 1.00). Relative risks for each year varied between sub-groups according to sex, diabetic status and cause of blindness between 0.94 and 1.01. A slight reduction of incident blindness could be shown but a reduction by one third has not been reached. Several possible sources of bias in the data have to be considered.

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes ... Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a scientist? Click to Watch ...

  13. [The blind as a factor in the labour divisioned world (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K

    1975-08-01

    The problems faced by blind adolescents when leaving special schools to enter employment differ considerably from those encountered by people who lost their sight during adulthood. The realisation of the fact that their blindness leaves little occupational choice often results in job apathy. It is, however, especially work capacity and occupational activity which serve again and again, in discussions on the full integration of the blind, as proof of the visually impaired's equal position within society. In particular W. Thimm has proved that blindness has a decisive impact on the social position of the individual blind person as well as the whole disability group of the blind, because this is essentially determinated by the employment status. The individual job performance of some blind is generalised too rapidly. The fear that jobs carried out by the blind are jeopardised by the increasing automation is certainly not unfounded, especially in large enterprises. At present, however, it is not possible to make a prognosis on whether in the future job opportunities for the blind will be available or not in certain branches of industry or in specific branches of production (this varies from one firm to another and is dependent upon many other factors). Consequently, it seems to be necessary for institutions involved in the vocational training of the blind to adjust in due course to the new situation in the theoretical and practical implementation of rehabilitation.

  14. The spatiotopic 'visual' cortex of the blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora

    2012-03-01

    Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in sensory tasks. Can it be activated in memory tasks? If so, are inherent features of its organization meaningfully employed? Our recent results in short-term blindfolded subjects imply that human primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as a modality-independent 'sketchpad' for working memory (Likova, 2010a). Interestingly, the spread of the V1 activation approximately corresponded to the spatial extent of the images in terms of their angle of projection to the subject. We now raise the questions of whether under long-term visual deprivation V1 is also employed in non-visual memory task, in particular in congenitally blind individuals, who have never had visual stimulation to guide the development of the visual area organization, and whether such spatial organization is still valid for the same paradigm that was used in blindfolded individuals. The outcome has implications for an emerging reconceptualization of the principles of brain architecture and its reorganization under sensory deprivation. Methods: We used a novel fMRI drawing paradigm in congenitally and late-onset blind, compared with sighted and blindfolded subjects in three conditions of 20s duration, separated by 20s rest-intervals, (i) Tactile Exploration: raised-line images explored and memorized; (ii) Tactile Memory Drawing: drawing the explored image from memory; (iii) Scribble: mindless drawing movements with no memory component. Results and Conclusions: V1 was strongly activated for Tactile Memory Drawing and Tactile Exploration in these totally blind subjects. Remarkably, after training, even in the memory task, the mapping of V1 activation largely corresponded to the angular projection of the tactile stimuli relative to the ego-center (i.e., the effective visual angle at the head); beyond this projective boundary, peripheral V1 signals were dramatically reduced or even suppressed. The matching extent of the activation in the congenitally blind

  15. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Electronic Materials Webinars and Online Courses Accessible Technology AccessWorld ® : Technology News for People Who Are Blind ... Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma ...

  16. Simple pendulum for blind students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, A. M. B.; Cena, C. R.; Alves, D. C. B.; Errobidart, N. C. G.; Jardim, M. I. A.; Queiros, W. P.

    2017-09-01

    Faced with the need to teach physics to the visually impaired, in this paper we propose a way to demonstrate the dependence of distance and time in a pendulum experiment to blind students. The periodic oscillation of the pendulum is translated, by an Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor, in a periodic variation of frequency in a speaker. The main advantage of this proposal is the possibility that a blind student understands the movement without necessity of touching it.

  17. Nationwide incidence of blindness in South Korea: a 12-year study from 2002 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Eun Jee; Kim, Sung Soo

    2017-11-01

    Blindness is an important public health issue. The background of the study is to determine the incidence of blindness in South Korea. Nationwide population-based retrospective study. All individuals from South Korea (n = 47 516 098). Patients confirmed with legal blindness based on the worse-seeing and better-seeing eyes between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2013 were included. The Korean National Health Insurance Service (KNHIS) database was used. Using the World Health Organization definition, blindness was defined as best-corrected visual acuity in the worse-seeing and better-seeing eyes of South Korea was estimated using census data in 2005 and 2010. The total number of legal blindness cases in the KNHIS database. We identified 195 004 and 20 492 cases of newly developed legal blindness based on the worse-seeing and better-seeing eyes, respectively, and the mean incidences of blindness were 34.2 and 3.6 cases/100 000 person-years, respectively. The prevalence of blindness based on the worse-seeing and better-seeing eyes was 425.3 and 57.7 cases/100 000 persons, respectively. The incidence of blindness based on the worse-seeing eye was higher in men than in women overall. Additionally, the incidence increased with age and showed a decreasing trend from 2002 to 2013. The prevalence of blindness showed an increasing trend from 2002 to 2013. The findings of our study will help in the assessment of the blindness-related socio-economic burden and in healthcare planning. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  19. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kirsten L; Jovic, Martin; Vo-Phuoc, Jennifer L; Thorpe, Jeremy G; Doolan, Brian L

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ‘backlog’ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods: Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results: The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$). As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world's inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions: This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector. PMID:22944763

  20. Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...

  1. Voice-based assessments of trustworthiness, competence, and warmth in blind and sighted adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Lachowicz-Tabaczek, Kinga; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    The study of voice perception in congenitally blind individuals allows researchers rare insight into how a lifetime of visual deprivation affects the development of voice perception. Previous studies have suggested that blind adults outperform their sighted counterparts in low-level auditory tasks testing spatial localization and pitch discrimination, as well as in verbal speech processing; however, blind persons generally show no advantage in nonverbal voice recognition or discrimination tasks. The present study is the first to examine whether visual experience influences the development of social stereotypes that are formed on the basis of nonverbal vocal characteristics (i.e., voice pitch). Groups of 27 congenitally or early-blind adults and 23 sighted controls assessed the trustworthiness, competence, and warmth of men and women speaking a series of vowels, whose voice pitches had been experimentally raised or lowered. Blind and sighted listeners judged both men's and women's voices with lowered pitch as being more competent and trustworthy than voices with raised pitch. In contrast, raised-pitch voices were judged as being warmer than were lowered-pitch voices, but only for women's voices. Crucially, blind and sighted persons did not differ in their voice-based assessments of competence or warmth, or in their certainty of these assessments, whereas the association between low pitch and trustworthiness in women's voices was weaker among blind than sighted participants. This latter result suggests that blind persons may rely less heavily on nonverbal cues to trustworthiness compared to sighted persons. Ultimately, our findings suggest that robust perceptual associations that systematically link voice pitch to the social and personal dimensions of a speaker can develop without visual input.

  2. Change-readiness of the blind: a hospital based study in a coastal town of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ramya; Kulkarni, Uma D

    2014-01-01

    Blindness is a devastating condition with psychosocial and economic effects. The shortcomings result in a burden to the blind person, the family and society. Rehabilitation of the blind can transform their lives. The aim of this study was to assess the "change-readiness" of the blind to undergo a "change-management". The study was a semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire-based study of 50 blind subjects in a medical college hospital. The blind participants were assessed for depression using the Beck Depression Inventory II, for the perceived effect of blindness on family, social life and occupation. The participants were counseled to undergo psychiatric management, vocational training, use blind aids and learn Braille. The willingness of the participants with reasons was assessed using a verbal analogue scale. Pearson Chi-square test, ANOVA and the t-test were used for statistical analysis. Over two-thirds of the subjects were depressed. Family life, social life and occupation were perceived to be affected by 44%, 66% and 74%, respectively. Change-readiness scores were low for low vision and blind aids, vocational training, psychiatric management, change of job and learning Braille. The low score was due to the associated taboo, dependence, lack of skills, embarrassment, etc., The most valuable feature was the family cohesiveness. The results suggest that there is a need to modify health policy to include blind rehabilitation, to improve visibility of blind rehabilitation centers, to include family members and co-professionals while managing the blind so that we treat the "blind person" and not a "pair of blind eyes".

  3. Blind Babies Play Program: A Model for Affordable, Sustainable Early Childhood Literacy Intervention through Play and Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacko, Virginia A.; Mayros, Roxann; Brady-Simmons, Carol; Chica, Isabel; Moore, J. Elton

    2013-01-01

    The Miami Lighthouse, in its 81 years of service to persons who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), has adapted to meet the ever-changing needs of clients of all ages. To meet the significant needs of visually impaired children--more than 80% of early learning is visual (Blind Babies Foundation, 2012)--the…

  4. Causes of blindness in blind unit of the school for the handicapped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the causes of blindness in pupils and staff in the blind unit of the School for the Handicapped in Kwara State. 2. To identify problems in the blind school and initiate intervention. All the blind or visually challenged people in the blind unit of the school for the handicapped were interviewed and examined using a ...

  5. Future trends in global blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Resnikoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to discuss the available data on the prevalence and causes of global blindness, and some of the associated trends and limitations seen. A literature search was conducted using the terms "global AND blindness" and "global AND vision AND impairment", resulting in seven appropriate articles for this review. Since 1990 the estimate of global prevalence of blindness has gradually decreased when considering the best corrected visual acuity definition: 0.71% in 1990, 0.59% in 2002, and 0.55% in 2010, corresponding to a 0.73% reduction per year over the 2002-2010 period. Significant limitations were found in the comparability between the global estimates in prevalence or causes of blindness or visual impairment. These limitations arise from various factors such as uncertainties about the true cause of the impairment, the use of different definitions and methods, and the absence of data from a number of geographical areas, leading to various extrapolation methods, which in turn seriously limit comparability. Seminal to this discussion on limitations in the comparability of studies and data, is that blindness has historically been defined using best corrected visual acuity.

  6. The epidemiology of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in southern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matende Ibrahim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated vision status associated with trachomatous trichiasis (TT and explored age-sex patterns of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in Mankien district of southern Sudan where trachoma prevention and trichiasis surgery were absent. Methods A population based survey was undertaken and eligible persons underwent eye examination. Visual acuity (VA was tested using Snellen E chart and persons with TT identified. Vision status was defined using the WHO categories of visual impairment based on presenting VA: normal vision (VA ≥ 6/18 in better eye; low vision (VA Results Overall 341/3,567 persons examined had any TT. Analysis was based on 319 persons, 22 persons were excluded: 20 had both TT and cataract; and 2 had missing VA data. Of the 319 persons: 158(49.5% had trichiasis-related corneal opacity (CO; bilateral TT and bilateral CO were found in 251(78.7% and 110 (34.5%, respectively; 146 (45.8% had low vision or blindness; the ratio of low vision to blindness was 3.2:1; and no sex differences were observed. In our model the predicted distribution of vision status was: normal vision, 53.9% (95% CI 50.9–56.9; low vision, 35.3% (95% CI 33.3–37.2; and blindness, 10.9% (95% CI 9.7–12.0. Conclusion We have reported severe trichiasis and high prevalence of vision loss among persons with trichiasis. Our survey showed that almost 1 in 20 of the entire population suffered low vision or blindness associated with trachoma. The need for trichiasis surgery, trachoma prevention services, and rehabilitation of the blind is acute.

  7. Epidemiology of blindness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Teoh, Lucinda; Rahi, Jugnoo

    2017-09-01

    An estimated 14 million of the world's children are blind. A blind child is more likely to live in socioeconomic deprivation, to be more frequently hospitalised during childhood and to die in childhood than a child not living with blindness. This update of a previous review on childhood visual impairment focuses on emerging therapies for children with severe visual disability (severe visual impairment and blindness or SVI/BL).For children in higher income countries, cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve anomalies remain the most common causes of SVI/BL, while retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and cataract are now the most common avoidable causes. The constellation of causes of childhood blindness in lower income settings is shifting from infective and nutritional corneal opacities and congenital anomalies to more resemble the patterns seen in higher income settings. Improvements in maternal and neonatal health and investment in and maintenance of national ophthalmic care infrastructure are the key to reducing the burden of avoidable blindness. New therapeutic targets are emerging for childhood visual disorders, although the safety and efficacy of novel therapies for diseases such as ROP or retinal dystrophies are not yet clear. Population-based epidemiological research, particularly on cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve hypoplasia, is needed in order to improve understanding of risk factors and to inform and support the development of novel therapies for disorders currently considered 'untreatable'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Color-blind Behavioral Specifications for Transformations of Reactive Synchronous Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    outputs are indistinguishable for a given environment in the same way as a color-blind person cannot distinguish some colors. Color-blindness can be used to model surprisingly many aspects of realistic environments (for example causality between firing and timing-out of a stop-watch, boolean memory flags......, or use of a single actuator in place of two). The environments which are formalized as color-blind I/O-alternating transition systems, can also describe dynamic properties such as; an output that is ignored only after a certain set of other outputs....

  9. From Irish Philosophy to Irish Theatre: The Blind (WoMan Made to See

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Adar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the motif of the blind man made to see, also known as the Molyneux problem, from the writings of Irish philosophers of the 17th and 18th centuries to 20th-century Irish plays. The narrative of restoring sight to the blind is taken as a paradigmatic example of overcoming a disability, with a cure that normalises the blind persons and allows them to reintegrate into society. The paper argues that this narrative was problematised by Irish philosophers and playwrights from Molyneux and Berkeley to Yeats, Synge, Beckett and Friel.

  10. PARLOMA – A Novel Human-Robot Interaction System for Deaf-Blind Remote Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Orlando Russo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deaf-blindness forces people to live in isolation. At present, there is no existing technological solution enabling two (or many deaf-blind people to communicate remotely among themselves in tactile Sign Language (t-SL. When resorting to t-SL, deaf-blind people can communicate only with people physically present in the same place, because they are required to reciprocally explore their hands to exchange messages. We present a preliminary version of PARLOMA, a novel system to enable remote communication between deaf-blind persons. It is composed of a low-cost depth sensor as the only input device, paired with a robotic hand as the output device. Essentially, any user can perform hand-shapes in front of the depth sensor. The system is able to recognize a set of hand-shapes that are sent over the web and reproduced by an anthropomorphic robotic hand. PARLOMA can work as a “telephone” for deaf-blind people. Hence, it will dramatically improve the quality of life of deaf-blind persons. PARLOMA has been presented and supported by the main Italian deaf-blind association, Lega del Filo d'Oro. End users are involved in the design phase.

  11. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.

    1970-06-01

    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  12. Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-06-21

    Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.

  13. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  14. Blind Naso-Endotracheal Intubation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difficult endotracheal intubation techniques include, use of fiberoptic bronchoscope, intubating laryngeal mask airway, tracheostomy, blind nasotracheal and retrograde intubation. According to the Difficult Airway Society guidelines, intubating with the aid of a fiberoptic scope has taken its place as the standard adjuvant for.

  15. Piagetian Reasoning and the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatwell, Yvette

    Available for the first time in an English translation, the book reports the results of a series of studies undertaken in the early 1960s on the cognitive development of children with congenital blindness. Chapters one and two review the literaure on such topics as the concept of sensory compensation and the nature of tactual space and provide…

  16. Metro Navigation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…

  17. Finding children who are blind

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, A Muhit

    2007-01-01

    Children who are blind need to be found as early as possible so they can be examined, treated, referred, or rehabilitated. This is crucial if they are to have the best possible chance of proper childhood development, education, and participation in broader social life.

  18. Finding children who are blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Muhit

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Children who are blind need to be found as early as possible so they can be examined, treated, referred, or rehabilitated. This is crucial if they are to have the best possible chance of proper childhood development, education, and participation in broader social life.

  19. Vesicouterine fistula and blind vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Hameed, S.; Asif, S.

    2003-01-01

    A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)

  20. Postural control in blind individuals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Rodolfo Borges; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2017-09-01

    Postural control (PC) requires the interaction of the three sensory systems for a good maintenance of the balance, and in blind people, lack of visual input can harm your PC. Thus the objective is to perform a literature review concerning role of sight in the maintenance of PC and the adaptation of brain structures when vision is absent. Studies were searched from Pubmed, and EMBASE that included individuals with congenital blindness. Articles studying person with acquired blindness or low vision was excluded from this review. 26 out of 322 articles were selected for review, and we found that 1) blind individuals exhibit PC deficits and that is compensated by the intensification of the remaining systems; 2) Neuroplastic adaptation occurs throughout the entire cerebral cortex; and 3) Sensorimotor stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation seem to be a rehabilitation strategy. According to this review, the findings suggest that improved remaining sensations in the presence of adaptations and neuroplasticity, does not translate into better postural control performance. Regarding rehabilitation strategies, more studies are needed to show which therapeutic modality best contributes to postural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ...

  2. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers ... your clothes don't match, someone might have teased you about being color blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean ...

  3. On imitation among young and blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted people. Imitation among blind young is a multi-sensory process that requires a body experience, including both blind and people who see. The paper concludes with an indication of the unique character of imitation and at the same time, with the affirmation of its relevance to the development and inclusion process of both the child and the young blind.

  4. "VisionTouch Phone" for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Robest

    2013-10-01

    Our objective is to enable the blind to use smartphones with touchscreens to make calls and to send text messages (sms) with ease, speed, and accuracy. We believe that with our proposed platform, which enables the blind to locate the position of the keypads, new games and education, and safety applications will be increasingly developed for the blind. This innovative idea can also be implemented on tablets for the blind, allowing them to use information websites such as Wikipedia and newspaper portals.

  5. Personal Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Climent i Martí, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Proyecto Fin de Grado leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2013/2014. Director: Cristina Ayala del Pino Con este Trabajo Fin de Grado he querido aproximar el concepto del Personal Branding y de marca personal como la herramienta para diferenciarse en el entorno profesional. Partiendo con la definición del concepto, su construcción, el panorama actual, compaginar empleo con marca personal y acabando con la visión personal de un gurú de la Marca Person...

  6. Blind Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rita; Piplani, Rashmi

    1990-01-01

    This study examined the perception of parental attitudes of 50 blind adolescents in northern India. Results indicated that blind girls perceived their parents as being more accepting and less rejecting than did blind boys, a result explained by culturally determined differences in social sex roles. (DB)

  7. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  8. Nominal Realism in Congenitally Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. W.; Fisher, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    The study of 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted children (ages 3 through 9) indicated that preoperational thought patterns of nominal realism remain longer for blind than for sighted children indicating a delay in (Piagetian) cognitive development of congenitally blind children and their need for appropriate cognitive and linguistic experiences.…

  9. Personality and personal network type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal

  10. Reversible cortical blindness in a case of hepatic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kanti Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy is a frequent and often fatal manifestation of chronic liver disease. The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is believed to be multifactorial including impaired blood-brain barrier function, imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in cortex, accumulation of various toxic and false neurotransmitters, and lack of nutrients like oxygen and glucose. Signs and symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy varies and commonly ranges from personality changes, disturbed consciousness, sleep pattern alternation, intellectual deterioration, speech disturbances, asterixis to frank coma and even death. Reversible or transient cortical blindness is rare manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy. It may even precede the phase of altered consciousness in such patients. Very few similar cases have been reported worldwide. Hence, we would like to report a case of transient cortical blindness in a patient of hepatic encephalopathy.

  11. Incidence of blindness in southern Germany due to glaucoma and degenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, Christoph; Haastert, Burkhard; Richter, Bernd; Berger, Michael; Giani, Guido

    2003-03-01

    To estimate population-based incidence rates of registered blindness separately, to determine its main causes. The files of all newly registered blindness-allowance recipients in Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Germany (population: approximately 5 million), between 1994 and 1998 were reviewed. From ophthalmological reports on file the fulfillment of the German criteria for blindness (visual acuity of 1/50 or less or equivalent reduction of visual function) was ascertained, and the causes of blindness were obtained. Incidence rates of blindness due to macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataract, optic atrophy, and diabetic retinopathy were estimated. There were 3531 newly registered blindness-allowance recipients (67.1% female; mean age, 72.8 +/- 21.0 years). Standardized incidence rates in the general population (per 100,000 person-years; 95% confidence interval): All causes 12.27 (11.87-12.68), macular degeneration 5.29 (5.02-5.55), cataract 3.32 (3.11-3.52), optic atrophy 2.86 (2.66-3.05), glaucoma 2.43 (2.25-2.61), diabetic retinopathy 2.13 (1.96-2.30), other or unknown causes 5.17 (4.91-5.43). In many cases, blindness was attributable to more than one cause. Assuming that incidence rates are the same in other parts of the country, 9,939 (9,608-10,270) new cases of blindness were estimated to occur in Germany per year. The most common single cause of blindness was macular degeneration. Incidence rates of blindness due to such treatable conditions as glaucoma were also high. This finding suggests that the taking of measures for secondary prevention (e.g., early detection and optimal treatment of patients with glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy) should be intensified.

  12. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  13. Change blindness and eyewitness testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Graham; Hine, Sarah

    2007-07-01

    The authors explored the relevance of research on change blindness to eyewitness identification and testimony under intentional and incidental memory conditions. Participants (N = 80, 40 men and 40 women) viewed a video enactment of a burglary in which the identity of the burglar changed at the halfway point of the film. Half of participants were briefed to remember the content, and the other half were not. All were tested for the recall of the content, awareness of the change, and ability to identify either or both of the burglars. Some 61% of participants did not notice the identity change. Rates of detection were significantly higher in participants in the intentional condition, who also recalled significantly more detail from the film. Awareness of change was also significantly related to content recall scores and accuracy of identification of both burglars. The results illustrate the interrelation between the eyewitness and change blindness literatures.

  14. The blindness of John Milton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, G B

    1995-01-01

    John Milton (1608-1674) often has been regarded as the greatest poet of his time, yet he did not compose his most famous work, Paradise Lost, until after he had become blind in both eyes. On the basis of clues in Milton's writings, several possible diagnoses have been advanced to explain his loss of vision. The evidence for and against each theory is presented.

  15. Multichannel blind iterative image restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Filip; Flusser, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 9 (2003), s. 1094-1106 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : conjugate gradient * half-quadratic regularization * multichannel blind deconvolution Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.642, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20030104.pdf

  16. Blind Deconvolution With Model Discrepancies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotera, Jan; Šmídl, Václav; Šroubek, Filip

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), s. 2533-2544 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind deconvolution * variational Bayes * automatic relevance determination Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer hardware and architecture Impact factor: 4.828, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/ZOI/kotera-0474858.pdf

  17. Personality Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality is the integration of characteristics acquired or brought by birth which separate the individual from others. Personality involves aspects of the individual's mental, emotional, social, and physical features in continuum. Several theories were suggested to explain developmental processes of personality. Each theory concentrates on one feature of human development as the focal point, then integrates with other areas of development in general. Most theories assume that childhood, especially up to 5-6 years, has essential influence on development of personality. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors reveals a unique personality along growth and developmental process. It could be said that individual who does not have any conflict between his/her basic needs and society's, has well-developed and psychologically healthy personality.

  18. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. A Lattice-Based Identity-Based Proxy Blind Signature Scheme in the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A proxy blind signature scheme is a special form of blind signature which allowed a designated person called proxy signer to sign on behalf of original signers without knowing the content of the message. It combines the advantages of proxy signature and blind signature. Up to date, most proxy blind signature schemes rely on hard number theory problems, discrete logarithm, and bilinear pairings. Unfortunately, the above underlying number theory problems will be solvable in the postquantum era. Lattice-based cryptography is enjoying great interest these days, due to implementation simplicity and provable security reductions. Moreover, lattice-based cryptography is believed to be hard even for quantum computers. In this paper, we present a new identity-based proxy blind signature scheme from lattices without random oracles. The new scheme is proven to be strongly unforgeable under the standard hardness assumption of the short integer solution problem (SIS and the inhomogeneous small integer solution problem (ISIS. Furthermore, the secret key size and the signature length of our scheme are invariant and much shorter than those of the previous lattice-based proxy blind signature schemes. To the best of our knowledge, our construction is the first short lattice-based identity-based proxy blind signature scheme in the standard model.

  20. The Impact of Vision Loss on Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Koustriava, Eleni; Charalampidou, Maria; Gerapostolou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences in personality traits amongst adults with blindness, adults with low vision and sighted adults. Moreover, the relationship between the four scales of Eysenck's personality questionnaire and the demographic characteristics of participants with visual impairments was examined. There are no…

  1. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  2. Mystery Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article features a mathematical game called "Mystery Person." The author describes how the Mystery Person game was tried with first-graders [age 6]. The Mystery games involve the generation of key questions, the coordination of information--often very complex information--and the formulation of consequences based on this…

  3. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  4. The Advantage of Encoding Tactile Information for a Woman with Congenital Deaf-Blindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.J.; Nota, S.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Ruijssenaars, A.J.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Parents, caregivers and teachers feel a strong need to learn more about tactile information processing of deaf-blind persons, primarily in order to be able to offer adequate intervention strategies in their daily interactions and activities. The present study investigates perception and memory of

  5. John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    The teacher's guide outlines lessons from a correspondence learning program for parents of preschool deaf blind children. Learning steps and objectives are listed for eight areas covered by the program: communication, gross motor development, fine motor development, eating, sleeping, toilet training, dressing/undressing, and personal hygiene.…

  6. Change blindness, aging, and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Matthew; Sparks, JonDavid; McEvoy, Sean; Viamonte, Sarah; Kellison, Ida; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2011-01-01

    Change blindness (CB), the inability to detect changes in visual scenes, may increase with age and early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To test this hypothesis, participants were asked to localize changes in natural scenes. Dependent measures were response time (RT), hit rate, false positives (FP), and true sensitivity (d′). Increased age correlated with increased sensitivity and RT; AD predicted even slower RT. Accuracy and RT were negatively correlated. Differences in FP were nonsignificant. CB correlated with impaired attention, working memory, and executive function. Advanced age and AD were associated with increased CB, perhaps due to declining memory and attention. CB could affect real-world tasks, like automobile driving. PMID:19051127

  7. Relevance of Spectral Cues for Auditory Spatial Processing in the Occipital Cortex of the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco; Gougoux, Frédéric; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that some blind individuals can localize sounds more accurately than their sighted counterparts when one ear is obstructed, and that this ability is strongly associated with occipital cortex activity. Given that spectral cues are important for monaurally localizing sounds when one ear is obstructed, and that blind individuals are more sensitive to small spectral differences, we hypothesized that enhanced use of spectral cues via occipital cortex mechanisms could explain the better performance of blind individuals in monaural localization. Using positron-emission tomography (PET), we scanned blind and sighted persons as they discriminated between sounds originating from a single spatial position, but with different spectral profiles that simulated different spatial positions based on head-related transfer functions. We show here that a sub-group of early blind individuals showing superior monaural sound localization abilities performed significantly better than any other group on this spectral discrimination task. For all groups, performance was best for stimuli simulating peripheral positions, consistent with the notion that spectral cues are more helpful for discriminating peripheral sources. PET results showed that all blind groups showed cerebral blood flow increases in the occipital cortex; but this was also the case in the sighted group. A voxel-wise covariation analysis showed that more occipital recruitment was associated with better performance across all blind subjects but not the sighted. An inter-regional covariation analysis showed that the occipital activity in the blind covaried with that of several frontal and parietal regions known for their role in auditory spatial processing. Overall, these results support the notion that the superior ability of a sub-group of early-blind individuals to localize sounds is mediated by their superior ability to use spectral cues, and that this ability is subserved by cortical processing in

  8. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MOBILE SENSOR BASED THE BLIND ASSISTANCE WAYFINDING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Barati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The blind and visually impaired people are facing a number of challenges in their daily life. One of the major challenges is finding their way both indoor and outdoor. For this reason, routing and navigation independently, especially in urban areas are important for the blind. Most of the blind undertake route finding and navigation with the help of a guide. In addition, other tools such as a cane, guide dog or electronic aids are used by the blind. However, in some cases these aids are not efficient enough in a wayfinding around obstacles and dangerous areas for the blind. As a result, the need to develop effective methods as decision support using a non-visual media is leading to improve quality of life for the blind through their increased mobility and independence. In this study, we designed and implemented an outdoor mobile sensor-based wayfinding system for the blind. The objectives of this study are to guide the blind for the obstacle recognition and the design and implementation of a wayfinding and navigation mobile sensor system for them. In this study an ultrasonic sensor is used to detect obstacles and GPS is employed for positioning and navigation in the wayfinding. This type of ultrasonic sensor measures the interval between sending waves and receiving the echo signals with respect to the speed of sound in the environment to estimate the distance to the obstacles. In this study the coordinates and characteristics of all the obstacles in the study area are already stored in a GIS database. All of these obstacles were labeled on the map. The ultrasonic sensor designed and constructed in this study has the ability to detect the obstacles in a distance of 2cm to 400cm. The implementation and the results obtained from the interview of a number of blind persons who employed the sensor verified that the designed mobile sensor system for wayfinding was very satisfactory.

  9. Design and Development of a Mobile Sensor Based the Blind Assistance Wayfinding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, F.; Delavar, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The blind and visually impaired people are facing a number of challenges in their daily life. One of the major challenges is finding their way both indoor and outdoor. For this reason, routing and navigation independently, especially in urban areas are important for the blind. Most of the blind undertake route finding and navigation with the help of a guide. In addition, other tools such as a cane, guide dog or electronic aids are used by the blind. However, in some cases these aids are not efficient enough in a wayfinding around obstacles and dangerous areas for the blind. As a result, the need to develop effective methods as decision support using a non-visual media is leading to improve quality of life for the blind through their increased mobility and independence. In this study, we designed and implemented an outdoor mobile sensor-based wayfinding system for the blind. The objectives of this study are to guide the blind for the obstacle recognition and the design and implementation of a wayfinding and navigation mobile sensor system for them. In this study an ultrasonic sensor is used to detect obstacles and GPS is employed for positioning and navigation in the wayfinding. This type of ultrasonic sensor measures the interval between sending waves and receiving the echo signals with respect to the speed of sound in the environment to estimate the distance to the obstacles. In this study the coordinates and characteristics of all the obstacles in the study area are already stored in a GIS database. All of these obstacles were labeled on the map. The ultrasonic sensor designed and constructed in this study has the ability to detect the obstacles in a distance of 2cm to 400cm. The implementation and the results obtained from the interview of a number of blind persons who employed the sensor verified that the designed mobile sensor system for wayfinding was very satisfactory.

  10. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W.; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) featu...

  11. A prospective, randomized, double blind controlled trial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi: A prospective, randomized, double blind controlled trial.

  12. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 290

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  13. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 293

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  14. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...

  15. Integrating personality structure, personality process, and personality development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, Anna; Schmitt, Manfred; Perugini, Marco; Johnson, Wendy; Blum, Gabriela; Borkenau, Peter; Costantini, Giulio; Denissen, J.J.A.; Fleeson, William; Grafton, Ben; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Kurzius, Elena; MacLeod, Colin; Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Robinson, Michael D.; Wood, Dustin; Wrzus, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    In this target article, we argue that personality processes, personality structure, and personality development have to be understood and investigated in integrated ways in order to provide comprehensive responses to the key questions of personality psychology. The psychological processes and

  16. Causes of blindness and career choice among pupils in a blind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The causes of Blindness vary from place to place with about 80% of it been avoidable. Furthermore Blind people face a lot of challenges in career choice thus limiting their economic potential and full integration into the society. This study aims at identifying the causes of blindness and career choice among ...

  17. Definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness: Do we need to revise it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vashist

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB, Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition.

  18. Childhood Fears among Children Who Are Blind: The Perspective of Teachers Who Are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate childhood fears in children who are blind from the perspective of teachers who are blind. The study was conducted in Jordan. Forty-six teachers were interviewed. Results revealed that the main fear content in children who are blind includes fear of the unknown; environment-, transportation- and…

  19. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment and Blindness in Shanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Du, Liping; Du, Lingzhen

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi Province, China. Data were obtained from the Second National Sampling Survey of Disability conducted in 2006. Blindness and visual impairment were defined as best corrected visual acuity Visual acuity (VA) was measured using a Standard Logarithmic Visual Acuity E chart (Snellen) for subjects aged 7 years and older. Participants younger than 7 years were examined using special experiments or the Childhood Graphical Visual Chart. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in Shanxi was estimated to be 0.6% (466/75,016) among persons up to 80 years old. The prevalence in rural areas (0.7%; 351/48,137) was significantly higher than that in urban areas (0.4%; 115/26,879) and was higher in females (0.8%; 298/36,933) than in males (0.4%; 168/38,083). The most common cause of visual impairment and blindness was cataract (44.9%), followed by retinopathy and choroidopathy (12.5%), hereditary and developmental disorders (10.3%), corneal disease (5.2%), and refractive error (4.9%). Prevalences of visual impairment and blindness in women and in rural areas were higher than in men and urban areas, and increased with age. Cataract was the most prevalent cause of visual impairment and blindness. Based on the findings from this study, we suggest that provision of support and welfare services should be organized.

  20. Efficient universal blind quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G

    2013-12-06

    We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.

  1. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  2. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources from...... the recorded mixtures, or at least to segregate a particular source. Furthermore, it may be useful to identify the mixing process itself to reveal information about the physical mixing system. In some simple mixing models each recording consists of a sum of differently weighted source signals. However, in many...... real-world applications, such as in acoustics, the mixing process is more complex. In such systems, the mixtures are weighted and delayed, and each source contributes to the sum with multiple delays corresponding to the multiple paths by which an acoustic signal propagates to a microphone...

  3. 33 CFR 117.861 - Blind Slough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blind Slough. 117.861 Section 117.861 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.861 Blind Slough. The draws of the Portland and...

  4. Does single blind peer review hinder newcomers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeber, Marco; Bacchelli, A.

    2017-01-01

    Several fields of research are characterized by the coexistence of two different peer review modes to select quality contributions for scientific venues, namely double blind (DBR) and single blind (SBR) peer review. In the first, the identities of both authors and reviewers are not known to each

  5. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  6. Acute, persistent quinine-induced blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-04

    May 4, 1991 ... Acute, persistent quinine-induced blindness. A case report. P. RHEEDER, W. L. SIELlNG. Summary auinine-induced blindness arising during empirical treatment for malaria in a young man is reported. The condition was noteworthy because it was total and permanent, which is at varia.nce with other ...

  7. Tackling the high burden of blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... care delivery, and tackling the five major eye conditions that contribute to most blindness could reduce the current burden of blindness. This would open the window for addressing glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macula degeneration which are the new emerging global consequences of non-communicable diseases.

  8. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C

    2010-01-01

    and environmental cues such as temperature and echolocation. We hypothesize that by limiting these cues, blind individuals will lose their advantage compared with controls in spatial navigation tasks. We therefore evaluated the performance of blind and sighted individuals in small-scale, tactile multiple T mazes...

  9. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes do when I’m sleeping? Click to Watch What does it mean to be nearsighted or farsighted? Click to Watch Do fish have eyelids? Click to Watch Why don’t all animal eyes look the same? Click to Watch Why ...

  10. Psychological and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... a pro forma designed by the authors to assess the psychosocial problems and risk factors in some blind people in. Ilorin metropolis. .... visually impaired.[29]. Ideally for any blind patient, the eye doctor should look for maladjustment in social-economic functioning (unemployment, difficulty in unaided mobility ...

  11. A Taxonomy for Mannerisms of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Valerie J.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation involving 24 blind children (2-11 years old) set out to develop and validate a coding procedure which employed a set of 34 descriptors with their corresponding definitions. The use of the taxonomy enabled a detailed, systematic study of manneristic behavior in blind children. (Author/SBH)

  12. Personality disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Sørensen, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study, patients with personality disorders (N = 388) treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark were allocated to two different kinds of treatment: a standardized treatment package with a preset number of treatment...... characteristics associated with clinicians' allocation of patients to the two different personality disorder services. METHODS: Patient characteristics across eight domains were collected in order to study whether there were systematic differences between patients allocated to the two different treatments...... that younger age was the most significant predictor of longer treatment replicates an earlier finding of allocation to treatment for personality disorder. Overall, this study therefore lends further support to the importance of demographic and social contextual factors in clinicians' allocation of patients...

  13. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  14. Unconditionally verifiable blind quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Kashefi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Blind quantum computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output, and computation remain private. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. We previously proposed [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, Atlanta, 2009 (IEEE, Piscataway, 2009), p. 517] a universal and unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. In this paper we extend that protocol with additional functionality allowing blind computational basis measurements, which we use to construct another verifiable BQC protocol based on a different class of resource states. We rigorously prove that the probability of failing to detect an incorrect output is exponentially small in a security parameter, while resource overhead remains polynomial in this parameter. This resource state allows entangling gates to be performed between arbitrary pairs of logical qubits with only constant overhead. This is a significant improvement on the original scheme, which required that all computations to be performed must first be put into a nearest-neighbor form, incurring linear overhead in the number of qubits. Such an improvement has important consequences for efficiency and fault-tolerance thresholds.

  15. New Identity-Based Blind Signature and Blind Decryption Scheme in the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, Le Trieu; Ogata, Wakaha

    We explicitly describe and analyse blind hierachical identity-based encryption (blind HIBE) schemes, which are natural generalizations of blind IBE schemes [20]. We then uses the blind HIBE schemes to construct: (1) An identity-based blind signature scheme secure in the standard model, under the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption, and with much shorter signature size and lesser communication cost, compared to existing proposals. (2) A new mechanism supporting a user to buy digital information over the Internet without revealing what he/she has bought, while protecting the providers from cheating users.

  16. Personal reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foste, Elizabeth; Botero, Isabel C.

    2012-01-01

    perceptions of personal reputation and work competence. Participants, acting in the role of supervisors, read one of four scenarios and evaluated a new employee. Results suggest that delivery style and message content independently influence the supervisor’s willingness to grant a request as well as influence...... perceptions of personal reputation, whereas perceptions of work competence are primarily affected by message content. Implications of results for theory and practice are discussed.......One of the pitfalls of past research in upward influence communication is that messages are often categorized using more than one characteristic. This categorization has made it difficult to understand how different message characteristics affect supervisors’ perceptions about employees. Given...

  17. Continuous-variable blind quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2012-12-07

    Blind quantum computation is a secure delegated quantum computing protocol where Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, delegates her computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output, and algorithm. Protocols of blind quantum computation have been proposed for several qudit measurement-based computation models, such as the graph state model, the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model, and the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal topological model. Here, we consider blind quantum computation for the continuous-variable measurement-based model. We show that blind quantum computation is possible for the infinite squeezing case. We also show that the finite squeezing causes no additional problem in the blind setup apart from the one inherent to the continuous-variable measurement-based quantum computation.

  18. Preserved sleep microstructure in blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, Sébrina; Christensen, Julie A.E.; Jennum, Poul

    2018-01-01

    , as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both...... during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls. During wakefulness, occipital alpha oscillations were lower, or absent in blind individuals. During sleep, differences were observed across...... electrode derivations between the early and late blind samples, which may reflect altered cortical networking in early blindness. Despite these differences in power spectra density, the electroencephalography microstructure of sleep, including sleep spindles, slow wave activity, and sawtooth waves, remained...

  19. User-centered Technologies For Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathematical skills, navigation and orientation, and problem solving of blind children. Findings indicate significant improvements in learning and cognition from using audio-based tools specially tailored for the blind. That is, technologies for blind children, carefully tailored through user-centered design approaches, can make a significant contribution to cognitive development of these children. This paper contributes new insight into the design and implementation of audio-based virtual environments to facilitate learning and cognition in blind children.

  20. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhagaze, Patrick; Njuguna, Kahaki Kimani Margaret; Kandeke, Lévi; Courtright, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2%) were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%), followed by lens pathology (18.3%), uveal lesions (14.7%) and optic nerve lesions (11.9%). In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%). More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  1. A comparative study of simple auditory reaction time in blind (congenitally) and sighted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Pritesh Hariprasad; Gokhale, Pradnya A; Mehta, H B; Shah, C J

    2013-07-01

    Reaction time is the time interval between the application of a stimulus and the appearance of appropriate voluntary response by a subject. It involves stimulus processing, decision making, and response programming. Reaction time study has been popular due to their implication in sports physiology. Reaction time has been widely studied as its practical implications may be of great consequence e.g., a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. To study simple auditory reaction time in congenitally blind subjects and in age sex matched sighted subjects. To compare the simple auditory reaction time between congenitally blind subjects and healthy control subjects. STUDY HAD BEEN CARRIED OUT IN TWO GROUPS: The 1(st) of 50 congenitally blind subjects and 2(nd) group comprises of 50 healthy controls. It was carried out on Multiple Choice Reaction Time Apparatus, Inco Ambala Ltd. (Accuracy±0.001 s) in a sitting position at Government Medical College and Hospital, Bhavnagar and at a Blind School, PNR campus, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Simple auditory reaction time response with four different type of sound (horn, bell, ring, and whistle) was recorded in both groups. According to our study, there is no significant different in reaction time between congenital blind and normal healthy persons. Blind individuals commonly utilize tactual and auditory cues for information and orientation and they reliance on touch and audition, together with more practice in using these modalities to guide behavior, is often reflected in better performance of blind relative to sighted participants in tactile or auditory discrimination tasks, but there is not any difference in reaction time between congenitally blind and sighted people.

  2. The language in blind children and the question about autistic-Iike features

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Pereira, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Hobson et al. (Brown, Hobson. Lee y Stevenson, 1997; Hobson, Brown, Minter y Lee, 1997)ha ve updated the issue of the similarities between autism and congenital blindness. In the pre­ sent paper the empirical evidence in favor of the existence of autistic-lik features in the lan­ guage of blind children is reviewed. and new data from the author's research, are offered. The following topics are examined: (a) The use of personal pronouns, (b) the use of imitations and formulaic speech, (e) the ...

  3. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Jochen and Werner Heisenberg. Personal Reflections Volume 10 Issue 1 January 2005 pp 93-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/01/0093-0096. Resonance – Journal of ...

  4. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is

  5. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services and to s...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task.......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting...

  6. PERSONAL REFLECTIONS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Resonance journal of science education. April 2015 Volume 20 Number 4. GENERALARTICLES ... Development of. Probability Theory. K B Athreya. Classroom. Tutorial on Phyloge- netic Inference –1. Felix Bast. 360. 346. 286. PERSONAL REFLECTIONS. 368 The Road to IISc. M L Munjal (Transcribed by Maneesh Kunte).

  7. Personalized oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Ida Viller; Jønson, Lars; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric

    2014-01-01

    of genes simultaneously, personalized molecular medicine has become an option. New treatments are being investigated in phase 1 trials around the world. Traditionally, the goal of phase 1 studies was to determine the optimal dose and assess dose-limiting toxicity of a potential new experimental drug. Only...

  8. Personalized nanomedicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Rizzo, L.Y.; Storm, Gerrit; Kiessling, F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Personalized medicine aims to individualize chemotherapeutic interventions on the basis of ex vivo and in vivo information on patient- and disease-specific characteristics. By noninvasively visualizing how well image-guided nanomedicines-that is, submicrometer-sized drug delivery systems

  9. Blind extraction of exoplanetary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo; Damiano, Mario; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of chemical species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a powerful blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, thence it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/WFC3, Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS and Hubble/WFC3 in spectroscopy (Damiano, Morello et al., in prep., Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013) with excellent

  10. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the

  11. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  12. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-01

    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors to perform object recognition. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our prototype system.

  13. Personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality in buildings affects occupants' health, comfort and performance. The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform room environment. However, large individual differences exist between occupants in regard...... microenvironment. Furthermore, HVAC systems should be designed to protect occupants from airborne transmission of infectious agents that may be present in exhaled air. Personalized ventilation is a new development in the field of HVAC and has the potential to fulfill the above requirements. This paper reviews...... existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analyzed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  14. Personalized Search

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749939

    2015-01-01

    As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.

  15. Eyewitness Science and the Call for Double-Blind Lineup Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario N. Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, social scientists have investigated variables that can influence the accuracy of eyewitnesses’ identifications. This research has been fruitful and led to many recommendations to improve lineup procedures. Arguably, the most crucial reform social scientists advocate is double-blind lineup administration: lineups should be administered by a person who does not know the identity of the suspect. In this paper, we briefly review the classic research on expectancy effects that underlies this procedural recommendation. Then, we discuss the eyewitness research, illustrating three routes by which lineup administrators’ expectations can bias eyewitness identification evidence: effects on eyewitnesses’ identification decisions, effects on eyewitnesses’ identification confidence, and effects on administrator records of the lineup procedure. Finally, we discuss the extent to which double-blind lineup administration has been adopted among police jurisdictions in the United States and address common concerns about implementing a double-blind standard.

  16. [Prevalence of visual impairment and blindness in older adults in rural Shandong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Hua; Bi, Hong-Sheng; Li, Yun; Yang, Shao-Yuan; Wang, Ting; Liu, Li-Ping; Zhou, Cheng-Chao

    2012-03-01

    To describe the prevalence of visual impairment/blindness among older adults aged > or = 50 years in rural populations in Shandong Province, China. Population-based, cross-sectional study was designed in this survey. Three counties and one suburbs representative of the different levels of socioeconomic development were selected as the study areas within the province from April to July 2008. Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting a cross-section of residents aged > or = 50 years from each county. Eligible persons were invited to local examination sites for visual acuity (VA) testing and eye examination. Those presenting with VA visual impairment in the different groups. Multiple logistic regressions were used to investigate the association of age, gender, education, and county with presenting and best-corrected visual impairment and blindness. Adjusted odds ratio was used to compare the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in the different counties. Of 19 583 enumerated eligible persons, 17 816 (90.98%) were examined and tested for VA. The prevalence of presenting visual impairment (0.05- visual impairment ranged from 4.51% to 8.65%, and presenting blindness from 1.35% to 1.77%. With best-corrected VA, the prevalence of visual impairment was 3.66% (the age-standardized rate was 3.38%), and 1.33% for blindness (the age-standardized rate was 1.24%). The ranges across the 4 counties were 2.63% to 4.38% for visual impairment and 1.06%-1.54% for blindness. The prevalence of visual impairment with presenting VA was higher than that with best-corrected VA (2 = 201.262, P = 0.000). There was no significant difference between the prevalence of blindness with presenting VA and that with best-corrected VA (Chi2 = 0.117, P = 0.732). Based on both presenting and best-corrected VA, visual impairment and blindness were associated with older age, female gender, lack of education, and county (P Visual impairment and blindness are important

  17. Rationale and design of the participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized AGENDA trial on associations between gene-polymorphisms, endophenotypes for depression and antidepressive intervention: the effect of escitalopram versus placebo on the combined dexamethasone-corticotrophine releasing hormone test and other potential endophenotypes in healthy first-degree relatives of persons with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulson Olaf

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophenotypes are heritable markers, which are more prevalent in patients and their healthy relatives than in the general population. Recent studies point at disturbed regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis as a possible endophenotype for depression. We hypothesize that potential endophenotypes for depression may be affected by selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants in healthy first-degree relatives of depressed patients. The primary outcome measure is the change in plasma cortisol in the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone test from baseline to the end of intervention. Methods The AGENDA trial is designed as a participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized trial. Participants are 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression. Participants are randomized to escitalopram 10 mg per day versus placebo for four weeks. Randomization is stratified by gender and age. The primary outcome measure is the change in plasma cortisol in the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone test at entry before intervention to after four weeks of intervention. With the inclusion of 80 participants, a 60% power is obtained to detect a clinically relevant difference in the primary outcome between the intervention and the placebo group. Secondary outcome measures are changes from baseline to four weeks in scores of: 1 cognition and 2 neuroticism. Tertiary outcomes measures are changes from baseline to four weeks in scores of: 1 depression and anxiety symptoms; 2 subjective evaluations of depressive symptoms, perceived stress, quality of life, aggression, sleep, and pain; and 3 salivary cortisol at eight different timepoints during an ordinary day. Assessments are undertaken by assessors blinded to the randomization group. Trial registration Local Ethics Committee: H-KF 307413 Danish Medicines Agency: 2612-3162. EudraCT: 2006-001750-28. Danish Data Agency

  18. Teaching Introductory Statistics to Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Stephen M.; Harrington, Charles F.; Walls, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The challenges of learning statistics, particularly distributions and their characteristics, can be potentially monumental for vision impaired and blind students. The authors provide some practical advice for teaching these students.

  19. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations ...

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, ... and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI Division ...

  1. Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.

  2. Iterated Gate Teleportation and Blind Quantum Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2015-06-05

    Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraint only holds in limited scenarios, and show how to overcome it using a novel method of iterated gate teleportations. This technique enables drastic reductions in the communication required for distributed quantum protocols, extending beyond the blind computation setting. Applied to blind quantum computation, this technique offers significant efficiency improvements, and in some scenarios offers an exponential reduction in communication requirements.

  3. Detecting Blind Spot By Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ajay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety remains a top concern for automobile industries and new-car shoppers. Detection of Blind Spots is a major concern for safety issues. So automobiles have been constantly updating their products with new technologies to detect blind spots so that they can add more safety to the vehicle and also reduce the road accidents. Almost 1.5 million people die in road accidents each year. Blind spot of an automobile is the region of the vehicle which cannot be observed properly while looking either through side or rear mirror view. To meet the above requirements this paper describes detecting blind spot by using ultrasonic sensor and controlling the direction of car by automatic steering. The technology embedded in the system is capable of automatically steer the vehicle away from an obstacle if the system determines that a collision is impending or if the vehicle is in the vicinity of our car.

  4. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  5. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding ... NEI Office of Communications (301)496-5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  6. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  7. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’ ... a scientist? Click to Watch What is an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click ...

  9. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’ ... a scientist? Click to Watch What is an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click ...

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? Why does saltwater sting your ... treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes do when I’m sleeping? Click ...

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media Relations ...

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  14. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News from NEI Grantees Spokesperson bios ... Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog ...

  15. Sad Facial Expressions Increase Choice Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yajie; Zhao, Song; Zhang, Zhijie; Feng, Wenfeng

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness—individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1) and faces with happy and neutral expressi...

  16. Astronomy for the Blind and Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S.

    2016-12-01

    This article presents a number of ways of communicating astronomy topics, ranging from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics, to the blind and visually impaired. A major aim of these projects is to provide access which goes beyond the use of the tactile sense to improve knowledge transfer for blind and visually impaired students. The models presented here are especially suitable for young people of secondary school age.

  17. Shape Perception and Navigation in Blind Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of these compensatory mechanisms are not completely clear. Both enhanced and impaired reliance on auditory cues in blind individuals have been reported. Here, we develop a new paradigm to test both auditory perception and navigation skills in blind and sighted individuals and to investigate the effect that visual experience has on the ability to reproduce simple and complex paths. During the navigation task, early blind, late blind and sighted individuals were required first to listen to an audio shape and then to recognize and reproduce it by walking. After each audio shape was presented, a static sound was played and the participants were asked to reach it. Movements were recorded with a motion tracking system. Our results show three main impairments specific to early blind individuals. The first is the tendency to compress the shapes reproduced during navigation. The second is the difficulty to recognize complex audio stimuli, and finally, the third is the difficulty in reproducing the desired shape: early blind participants occasionally reported perceiving a square but they actually reproduced a circle during the navigation task. We discuss these results in terms of compromised spatial reference frames due to lack of visual input during the early period of development.

  18. Spatial navigation by congenitally blind individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Schinazi, Victor R.; Thrash, Tyler; Chebat, Daniel?Robert

    2015-01-01

    Spatial navigation in the absence of vision has been investigated from a variety of perspectives and disciplines. These different approaches have progressed our understanding of spatial knowledge acquisition by blind individuals, including their abilities, strategies, and corresponding mental representations. In this review, we propose a framework for investigating differences in spatial knowledge acquisition by blind and sighted people consisting of three longitudinal models (i.e., convergen...

  19. Shape Perception and Navigation in Blind Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of t...

  20. Shape Perception and Navigation in Blind Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of these compensatory mechanisms are not completely clear. Both enhanced and impaired reliance on auditory cues in blind individuals have been reported. Here, we develop a new paradigm to test both auditory perception and navigation skills in blind and sighted individuals and to investigate the effect that visual experience has on the ability to reproduce simple and complex paths. During the navigation task, early blind, late blind and sighted individuals were required first to listen to an audio shape and then to recognize and reproduce it by walking. After each audio shape was presented, a static sound was played and the participants were asked to reach it. Movements were recorded with a motion tracking system. Our results show three main impairments specific to early blind individuals. The first is the tendency to compress the shapes reproduced during navigation. The second is the difficulty to recognize complex audio stimuli, and finally, the third is the difficulty in reproducing the desired shape: early blind participants occasionally reported perceiving a square but they actually reproduced a circle during the navigation task. We discuss these results in terms of compromised spatial reference frames due to lack of visual input during the early period of development. PMID:28144226

  1. Blindness and Visual Impairment in an Urban West African Population: The Tema Eye Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenz, Donald L.; Bandi, Jagadeesh R.; Barton, Keith; Nolan, Winifred; Herndon, Leon; Whiteside-de Vos, Julia; Hay-Smith, Graham; Kim, Hanna; Tielsch, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, etiologies, and risk factors of blindness and visual impairment among persons age 40 years and older residing in an urban West African location. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants Five thousand six hundred and three participants residing in Tema, Ghana. Methods Proportionate random cluster sampling was used to select participants age 40 and over living in the city of Tema. Presenting distance visual acuity was measured at 4 and 1 meters using a reduced Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR) tumbling E chart and then with trial frame based on autorefraction. A screening examination was performed in the field on all participants. Complete clinical examination by an ophthalmologist was performed on participants with best corrected visual acuity visual acuity in the better eye of visual impairment (visual acuity in the better eye of visual impairment was 17.1% and blindness was 1.2%. After refraction and spectacle correction, the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness decreased to 6.7% and 0.75% respectively, suggesting that refractive error is the major correctable etiology of visual impairment and blindness in this population. Of 65 subjects having visual acuity visual impairment, and one to normal. The remaining 43 (66%) had underlying pathology (19 cataract, 9 glaucoma, 3 non-glaucomatous optic neuropathy, 3 corneal opacities, 3 retinal disease, 5 undetermined) that prevented refractive correction. Increased age was a significant risk factor for blindness and visual impairment. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among those aged ≥40 years in Tema, Ghana, West Africa. Refractive error is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in this population, followed by cataract, glaucoma, and corneal disease. PMID:22677425

  2. Rehabilitation of cortical blindness secondary to stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Tarek A-Z K

    2010-01-01

    Cortical blindness is a rare complication of posterior circulation stroke. However, its complex presentation with sensory, physical, cognitive and behavioural impairments makes it one of the most challenging. Appropriate approach from a rehabilitation standpoint was never reported. Our study aims to discuss the rehabilitation methods and outcomes of a cohort of patients with cortical blindness. The notes of all patients with cortical blindness referred to a local NHS rehabilitation service in the last 6~years were examined. Patients' demographics, presenting symptoms, scan findings, rehabilitation programmes and outcomes were documented. Seven patients presented to our service, six of them were males. The mean age was 63. Patients 1, 2 and 3 had total blindness with severe cognitive and behavioural impairments, wandering and akathisia. All of them failed to respond to any rehabilitation effort and the focus was on damage limitation. Pharmacological interventions had a modest impact on behaviour and sleep pattern. The 3 patients were discharged to a nursing facility. Patients 4, 5, 6 and 7 had partial blindness with variable severity. All of them suffered from significant memory impairment. However, none suffered from any behavioural, physical or other cognitive impairment. Rehabilitation efforts on 3 patients were carried out collaboratively between brain injury occupational therapists and sensory disability officers. All patients experienced significant improvement in handicap and they all maintained community placements. This small cohort of patients suggests that the rehabilitation philosophy and outcomes of these 2 distinct groups of either total or partial cortical blindness differ significantly.

  3. Spatial navigation by congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinazi, Victor R; Thrash, Tyler; Chebat, Daniel-Robert

    2016-01-01

    Spatial navigation in the absence of vision has been investigated from a variety of perspectives and disciplines. These different approaches have progressed our understanding of spatial knowledge acquisition by blind individuals, including their abilities, strategies, and corresponding mental representations. In this review, we propose a framework for investigating differences in spatial knowledge acquisition by blind and sighted people consisting of three longitudinal models (i.e., convergent, cumulative, and persistent). Recent advances in neuroscience and technological devices have provided novel insights into the different neural mechanisms underlying spatial navigation by blind and sighted people and the potential for functional reorganization. Despite these advances, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which locomotion and wayfinding depend on amodal spatial representations. This challenge largely stems from methodological limitations such as heterogeneity in the blind population and terminological ambiguity related to the concept of cognitive maps. Coupled with an over-reliance on potential technological solutions, the field has diffused into theoretical and applied branches that do not always communicate. Here, we review research on navigation by congenitally blind individuals with an emphasis on behavioral and neuroscientific evidence, as well as the potential of technological assistance. Throughout the article, we emphasize the need to disentangle strategy choice and performance when discussing the navigation abilities of the blind population. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Smart Blinding Stick with Holes,Obstacles and Ponds Detector Based on Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Azher Therib

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a device is designed and implemented that it is doing three jobs in order to help blind people to walk without accidents may occur. The first proposed one is accomplished by putting the ultrasonic sensor in a measured angle about 40o on a suitable blinding stick to detect if there is a hole or stair in front of blind at about 48 cm distance to prevent him from falling and as a result may be causing many injuries. The second one uses a moisture sensor in the first leg of the four legs stick to measure the degree of the land soil moisture in front of the blind and alert him when that degree exceeds a measured level that may immerse the feet of him. While, the third one is made by using another ultrasonic sensor on the stick to turn an alarm ON when there is an obstacle, person, or wall at a small distance about 50 cm near him to prevent a collision accident. The stick is implemented practically using four leg blinding cane, Arduino microcontroller and the three sensors. Also, the three buzzers and one vibrator motor and three LEDs are used on the stick to turn on when a such problems occur. The device gives good results when many visually impaired people in Merjan medical city in Babylon used it.

  5. The Choice of a Profession by Blind Senior Students and their Relevance to the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komova N.S.,

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of the research on the professional orientation and employment of blind graduates of schools in six regions of the Russian Federation specialising in teaching children with visual impairments. Also analysis related to the situation with the employment of people with visual disabilities are given. This analysis are based on information from Russian Association Of The Blind. Reasons of low rates of the employment of young people with disabilities are shown. The dependence of the awareness of the choice of the profession by the blind during the period of school education on specifics of the organisation of vocational guidance work for children with visual impairments, as well as on the level of maturity of the personality and personal qualities of students is presented. The ways of overcoming the reasons negatively affecting the results of career guidance work and the employment of graduates of special schools are indicated. Examples of effective career guidance work and successful employment of young people with visual deprivation are given. The article is Amed at researchers involved in education of children with visual disabilities, organisers of career guidance work, tiflopedagogs and parents who have blind children.

  6. Profile of Blindness and Low Vision at Ebonyi State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profile of Blindness and Low Vision at Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH) Abakaliki. ... Conclusion: Cataract and glaucoma were the commonest causes of blindness in this study population accounting for 85 % of the burden of blindness. The glaucoma blindness of 42% is higher than that obtained from ...

  7. Aetiology of blindness in Benin City, Nigeria | Omoti | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major causes of binocular blindness were cataract (34.4%), glaucoma (25%) and age related macula degeneration (8.59%). The main causes of uniocular blindness were cataract (23.79%), glaucoma (22.58%) and trauma (11.69%). Conclusion: Avoidable causes of blindness remain the leading causes of blindness ...

  8. the common causes of blindness in north western nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World's blind live in developing countries where infections, malnutrition and lack of eye care give rise to a high proportion of blindness, particularly in rural population of blindness, particularly in rural populations in contrast to industrialized countries, where blindness is due mainly to degenerative and metabolic disorders ...

  9. Uniocular blindness in Delta State Teaching Hospital, Oghara, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uniocular blindness causes loss of binocular single vision. People with uniocular blindness are potentially at risk of developing binocular blindness. Aim: To determine the prevalence rate, causes and risk factors for uniocular blindness in a teaching hospital in southern Nigeria over a one-year period. Methods: ...

  10. Prevalence and Causes of Blindness in Ikwerre Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Key words: Blindness; Prevalence; Causes; Ikwere. Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Blindness is a major public ..... Deafness .WHO/PBL/97.61. 1997. 3. Foster A, Johnson GJ. Magnitude and causes of blindness in developing world. Int Ophthalmol 1990;. 14:135-140. 4. World Health Organisation. Available data on blindness ...

  11. Disabled person: construction of concept by this population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to build the concept of disabled person. Methods: study of analysis of concept using the phases field work andstatistical analysis with 120 individuals divided into three groups of 40 people with hearing, visual and motor disability.Results: there was predomination of men (68%, 18-29 years old (55%, with superior education (35% and married/common-law married (75%. The attribute accepted was person with limitation and still able to perform activity, witha difference between groups (p = 0.018; the keyword accepted was limitation (p = 0.001; the expression was disabledperson, with intergroup difference (p = 0.013. Concept of choice by group was deaf (97.51%; blind (45% and person withvisual disability (45% and; person with physical disability (27.5%. Conclusion: attributes, keywords used in the literatureand public policy were not accepted. They prefer to be called deaf; blind or visually impaired; They reject people with motordisability and wheelchair user.

  12. Estimates of Incidence and Prevalence of Visual Impairment, Low Vision, and Blindness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tiffany; Friedman, David S; Bradley, Chris; Massof, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Updated estimates of the prevalence and incidence rates of low vision and blindness are needed to inform policy makers and develop plans to meet the future demands for low vision rehabilitation services. To provide updated estimates of the incidence and prevalence of low vision and blindness in the United States. Visual acuity measurements as a function of age from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with representation of racial and ethnic groups, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of visual impairments. Data from 6016 survey participants, ranging in age from younger than 18 years to older than 45 years, were obtained to estimate prevalence rates for different age groups. Incidence and prevalence rates of low vision (best-corrected visual acuity [BCVA] in the better-seeing eye of United States were estimated, using the 2010 US census data by age, from the rate models applied to the census projections for 2017, 2030, and 2050. Data were collected from November 1, 2007, to October 31, 2008. Data analysis took place from March 31, 2016, to March 19, 2017. Prevalence and incidence rates of low vision and blindness in the United States. Of the 6016 people in the study, 1714 (28.4%) were younger than 18 years of age, 2358 (39.1%) were 18 to 44 years of age, and 1944 (32.3%) were 45 years of age or older. There were 2888 male (48%) and 3128 female (52%) participants. The prevalence of low vision and blindness for older adults (≥45 years) in the United States in 2017 is estimated to be 3 894 406 persons (95% CI, 3 034 442-4 862 549 persons) with a BCVA less than 20/40, 1 483 703 persons (95% CI, 968 656-2 370 513 persons) with a BCVA less than 20/60, and 1 082 790 persons (95% CI, 637 771-1 741 864 persons) with a BCVA of 20/200 or less. The estimated 2017 annual incidence (projected from 2010 census data) of low vision and blindness among older adults (≥45 years) in the United States is 481

  13. The Family in the treatment of their members with depth- blind disability in Holguín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Pupo-Herrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The depth- blind. disabilities persons  are considered as a particular kind of family. In this study its valorated the treatment of the family to the members that present this disability in Holguin. It refers to the familiar group as a sociality context of personal superation, taken in count the educational rol and the influences of that, in negative or positives results   in their members behaviour in society.

  14. Personal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Sources of ionizing radiation have innumerable applications in the workplace. The potential exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Module explains the basic terminology associated with personal monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Module can only be provided by qualified experts

  15. Assembling the elephant: Integrating perspectives in personality psychology. Comment on "Personality from a cognitive-biological perspective" by Y. Neuman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Nick; Holland, Elise

    2014-12-01

    Neuman [1] has made an ambitious attempt to integrate perspectives on the psychology of personality that usually run in parallel. The field calls to mind the fable of the blind men and the elephant: each perspective makes different claims about the person based on the aspect it apprehends. Neuman links cognition, affective neuroscience and psychodynamics in a bold effort to sketch the entire beast. However, his hefty framework has some elephantine elements, and is at times conceptually loose and baggy.

  16. Haptic orientation perception benefits from visual experience: evidence from early blind, late blind and sighted people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08621182X; Zuidhoek, S.; Noordzij, M.L.; Kappers, A.M.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07445370X

    2008-01-01

    Early-blind, late-blind, and blindfolded sighted participants were presented with two haptic allocentric spatial tasks: a parallel-setting task, in an immediate and a 10-sec delay condition, and a task in which the orientation of a single bar was judged verbally. With respect to deviation size, the

  17. Is love blind? Sexual behavior and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kef, S.; Bos, H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined sexual knowledge, sexual behavior, and psychological adjustment of adolescents with blindness. The sample included 36 Dutch adolescents who are blind, 16 males and 20 females. Results of the interviews revealed no problems regarding sexual knowledge or psychological

  18. Causes of blindness and career choice among pupils in a blind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.3 million in Africa, 0.1 million in Latin America and 0.1 million in the rest of the World.[3,4]. Studies from blind school in some parts of Nigeria[5-7] shows that most of theblindness are from avoidable causes like cataract, glaucoma, corneal infection and measles. This study sets to identify the causes of blindness.

  19. SSRI treatment of borderline personality disorder: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial for female patients with borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, Thomas; van den Brink, Wim; Wouters, Luuk; van Dyck, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are recommended for treatment of affect lability, impulsivity, and aggression in patients with borderline personality disorder. This recommendation is based on positive findings in at least 10 open studies and one small double-blind study of

  20. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  1. Sad Facial Expressions Increase Choice Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have discovered a fascinating phenomenon known as choice blindness—individuals fail to detect mismatches between the face they choose and the face replaced by the experimenter. Although previous studies have reported a couple of factors that can modulate the magnitude of choice blindness, the potential effect of facial expression on choice blindness has not yet been explored. Using faces with sad and neutral expressions (Experiment 1 and faces with happy and neutral expressions (Experiment 2 in the classic choice blindness paradigm, the present study investigated the effects of facial expressions on choice blindness. The results showed that the detection rate was significantly lower on sad faces than neutral faces, whereas no significant difference was observed between happy faces and neutral faces. The exploratory analysis of verbal reports found that participants who reported less facial features for sad (as compared to neutral expressions also tended to show a lower detection rate of sad (as compared to neutral faces. These findings indicated that sad facial expressions increased choice blindness, which might have resulted from inhibition of further processing of the detailed facial features by the less attractive sad expressions (as compared to neutral expressions.

  2. Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Blind quantum computation is a novel secure quantum-computing protocol that enables Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, to delegate her quantum computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output and algorithm. A recent proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating blind quantum computation in an optical system has raised new challenges regarding the scalability of blind quantum computation in realistic noisy conditions. Here we show that fault-tolerant blind quantum computation is possible in a topologically protected manner using the Raussendorf-Harrington-Goyal scheme. The error threshold of our scheme is 4.3 × 10(-3), which is comparable to that (7.5 × 10(-3)) of non-blind topological quantum computation. As the error per gate of the order 10(-3) was already achieved in some experimental systems, our result implies that secure cloud quantum computation is within reach.

  3. Childhood blindness at a school for the blind in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Amgad A; Hammouda, Ehab F; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2006-02-01

    To determine the major causes of eye diseases leading to visual loss and blindness among children attending a school for the blind in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 217 school children with visual disabilities attending a school for the blind in Riyadh were included. All children were brought to The Eye Center, Riyadh, and had complete ophthalmologic examinations including visual acuity testing, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, tonometry and laboratory investigations. In addition, some patients were subjected to electroretinography (ERG), electrooculography (EOG), measurement of visual evoked potentials (VEP), and laboratory work-up for congenital disorders. There were 117 male students with an age range of 6-19 years and a mean age of 16 years. In addition, there were 100 females with an age range of 6-18 years and a mean age of 12 years. Of the 217 children, 194 (89%) were blind from genetically determined diseases or congenital disorders and 23 (11%) were blind from acquired diseases. The major causes of bilateral blindness in children were retinal degeneration, congenital glaucoma, and optic atrophy. The most common acquired causes of childhood blindness were infections and trauma. The etiological pattern of childhood blindness in Saudi Arabia has changed from microbial keratitis to genetically determined diseases of the retina and optic nerve. Currently, the most common causes of childhood blindness are genetically determined causes. Consanguineous marriages may account for the autosomal recessive disorders. Public education programs should include information for the prevention of trauma and genetic counseling. Eye examinations for preschool and school children are mandatory for the prevention and cure of blinding disorders.

  4. Antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... A person with antisocial personality disorder may: Be able to act witty and charming Be good at flattery and manipulating other people's emotions Break the law ...

  5. Access to Mathematics by Blind Students: A Global Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur I. Karshmer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of blindness and legally blind is becoming a global issue. Based on the last statistics from American Foundation for the blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States alone. Over 45 million people around the world are completely blind. 180 million more people are legally blind, and approximately 7 million people are diagnosed as blind or legally blind every year. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in the ability of the blind to enter careers in science, technology, engineering or mathematics is the paucity of tools to help them read and write equations. Over the years there have been numerous projects around the world with the goal of building special tools to help the visually impaired student read and write equations. In the current work, we describe some of the most interesting work in this domain and then attempt to make recommendations and/or predictions about the future.

  6. Effects of personalised exposure on self-rated electromagnetic hypersensitivity and sensibility - A double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Moorselaar, Imke; Slottje, Pauline; Heller, Pia; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Vermeulen, Roel; Huss, Anke

    2017-02-01

    Previous provocation experiments with persons reporting electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) have been criticised because EHS persons were obliged to travel to study locations (seen as stressful), and that they were unable to select the type of signal they reported reacting to. In our study we used mobile exposure units that allow double-blind exposure conditions with personalised exposure settings (signal type, strength, duration) at home. Our aim was to evaluate whether subjects were able to identify exposure conditions, and to assess if providing feedback on personal test results altered the level of self-reported EHS. We used double-blind randomised controlled exposure testing with questionnaires at baseline, immediately before and after testing, and at two and four months post testing. Participants were eligible if they reported sensing either radiofrequency or extremely low frequency fields within minutes of exposure. Participants were visited at home or another location where they felt comfortable to undergo testing. Before double-blind testing, we verified together with participants in an unblinded exposure session that the exposure settings were selected were ones that the participant responded to. Double-blind testing consisted of a series of 10 exposure and sham exposures in random sequence, feedback on test results was provided directly after testing. 42 persons participated, mean age was 55years (range 29-78), 76% were women. During double-blind testing, no participant was able to correctly identify when they were being exposed better than chance. There were no statistically significant differences in the self-reported level of EHS at follow-up compared to baseline, but during follow-up participants reported reduced certainty in reacting within minutes to exposure and reported significantly fewer symptoms compared to baseline. Our results suggest that a subgroup of persons exist who profit from participation in a personalised testing procedure

  7. No such thing as a "blind culture".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisleder, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Cochlear implant technology has altered the landscape for the Deaf and for those who provide services to the profoundly hearing impaired. As indicated by Teagle in one of the companion articles, cochlear implants afford the profoundly hearing impaired child the ability to circumvent the effects of deafness. Cochlear implants, as indicated by Lee in the other companion article, are regarded differently by members of the Deaf Community where some see the technology as a threat to Deaf Culture. Members of a different community, which comprises the visually impaired, cite lack of a common language as the main argument against the existence of a "Blind Culture." As indicated by Pierce "We [the blind] often enjoy each other's company, and we certainly spend time together working on the problems that face what we often call the 'blind community,' but I would argue that this community is different from an actual culture."

  8. Blind distributed estimation algorithms for adaptive networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Saeed, Muhammad O.; Zerguine, Azzedine; Zummo, Salam A.

    2014-12-01

    Until recently, a lot of work has been done to develop algorithms that utilize the distributed structure of an ad hoc wireless sensor network to estimate a certain parameter of interest. However, all these algorithms assume that the input regressor data is available to the sensors, but this data is not always available to the sensors. In such cases, blind estimation of the required parameter is needed. This work formulates two newly developed blind block-recursive algorithms based on singular value decomposition (SVD) and Cholesky factorization-based techniques. These adaptive algorithms are then used for blind estimation in a wireless sensor network using diffusion of data among cooperative sensors. Simulation results show that the performance greatly improves over the case where no cooperation among sensors is involved.

  9. Nutritional Amblyopia Combined with Night Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline M. Nguyen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an 18-year-old male who developed both nutritional amblyopia and night blindness. After nearly a lifetime of consuming a bizarre diet limited to French fries, pretzels, crackers, and carbonated sodas, he had a relatively sudden onset of night blindness and bilateral visual loss. The night blindness resolved after taking daily oral vitamin A supplements. Visual acuity gradually improved from light perception, both eyes, to 20/20 right eye and 20/25 left eye after multivitamin supplementation and vitamin B12 injections. The patient had bilateral optic atrophy and bilateral ring scotomas around a small area of fixation. The patient was unable to modify his diet despite professional advice and counseling.

  10. Guidance-assist system for the blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcy, Rene; Damaschini, Roland M.

    2001-01-01

    We propose navigational aid systems for the blind relying on active laser profilometry and infrared proximetry with a real time vibrotactile interface. The Teletact and the Vigitact are small hand held or badge worn devices to improve the spatial perception, the mobility and the security of blind people. The Teletact is a hand held laser telemeter and gives an accurate 3D spatial perception up to ten meters. The Vigitact is an infrared scanner and provides an automatic vigilance from knees to head up to two meters. Both devices are now commercially available. We will report on the basic functional parts of these devices, the results of everyday use by blind people, and future technological improvements.

  11. Visual impairment and blindness in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Dorottya; Sándor, Gábor László; Tóth, Gábor; Pék, Anita; Lukács, Regina; Szalai, Irén; Tóth, Georgina Zsófia; Papp, András; Nagy, Zoltán Zsolt; Limburg, Hans; Németh, János

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness, severe visual impairment (SVI), moderate visual impairment (MVI), and early visual impairment (EVI) and its causes in an established market economy of Europe. A cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample size of 3675 was calculated using the standard Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) software in Hungary. A total of 105 clusters of 35 people aged 50 years or older were randomly selected with probability proportionate to size by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Households within the clusters were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was assessed with a Snellen tumbling E-chart with or without a pinhole in the households. The adjusted prevalences of bilateral blindness, SVI, MVI and EVI were 0.9% (95% CI: 0.6-1.2), 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2-0.7), 5.1% (95% CI: 4.3-5.9) and 6.9% (95% CI: 5.9-7.9), respectively. The major causes of blindness in Hungary were age-related macular degeneration (AMD; 27.3%) and other posterior segment diseases (27.3%), cataract (21.2%) and glaucoma (12.1%). Cataract was the main cause of SVI, MVI and EVI. Cataract surgical coverage (CSC) was 90.7%. Of all bilateral blindness in Hungary, 45.5% was considered avoidable. This study proved that RAAB methodology can be successfully conducted in industrialized countries, which often lack reliable epidemiologic data. The prevalence of blindness was relatively low, with AMD and other posterior segment diseases being the leading causes, and cataract is still a significant cause of visual impairment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Survey of Daily Trips of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired Living in Communities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Michiko

    2009-01-01

    According to the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan (2006), there are 379,000 persons with visual impairments (both those who are blind and those with low vision) in Japan. Of these persons, 30% travel almost daily, 30% travel two to three days per week, 22% travel two to three days per month, and 11% travel several days a year; in…

  13. Personality Factors Associated with the Decision to Accept or Reject Mobility Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Adventitiously blind adults (n=79) who had accepted mobility training were compared to 60 subjects who had rejected training. Personality profiles varied significantly between groups on seven scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: psychasthenia; schizophrenia; psychopathic deviate; depression; hypomania; paranoia; and…

  14. From Personal Environment to Personal Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Charlier, Bernadette; Henry, France; Peraya, Daniel; Gillet, Denis

    2010-01-01

    In the scientific literature, the Personal Environment has been described as a “new” resource to the learning process and named Personal Learning Environment. However, it has not yet been demonstrated in what way and to what extent Personal Environments contribute significantly and efficiently to the learning processes and outcomes framed by Higher Education programs. Our position paper aims firstly at defining Personal Environment. Secondly, it will suggest conditions under which Personal En...

  15. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  16. Blind source separation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies    The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method.  Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers

  17. Comprehensive training of persons with visual impairment to obtain a guide dog

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, Tara

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this seminar paper is on preparing persons with visual impairment for a guide dog. A dog is an animal that is best suited for guidance. A guide dog is not a pet, but serves as an aid in movement. Collaboration between the person with blindness and her or his guide dog is needed in order to conduct a successful guidance. Legal acts define who is entitled to a guide dog, and what the criteria the user has to meet are. A person with blindness is with intensive training preparing to ...

  18. Incidence of blindness in relation to diabetes. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautner, C; Icks, A; Haastert, B; Plum, F; Berger, M

    1997-07-01

    A reduction of diabetes-related blindness was declared a primary objective for Europe (St. Vincent Declaration). We collected data about incidence rates of blindness in the diabetic population compared with the nondiabetic population. Up to now, such data are scarce-even worldwide. A complete list of newly registered blindness allowance recipients was drawn up in the district of Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Germany, between 1990 and 1993. From these data, we estimated age-specific and standardized incidence rates of blindness in the entire, the diabetic, and the nondiabetic population, as well as relative and attributable risks due to diabetes. There were 2,714 people meeting the inclusion criteria; 1,823 (67.2%) were female and 781 (28.8%) had diabetes. In 318 subjects, diabetes was likely to be the only cause of blindness; in 192 subjects, it was one of several contributory causes. Age of women was 73.9 +/- 19.4 years (mean +/- SD) and of men 63.3 +/- 25.5 years. Results standardized to the (West) German population are as follows: incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years): total population: 13.5; diabetic population: 60.6; nondiabetic population: 11.6; relative risk: 5.2; attributable risk among exposed: 0.81; and population attributable risk: 0.14. The relative risks decreased considerably with increasing age. When the study is repeated to monitor the St. Vincent targets, a reduction in the incidence rate of blindness in the diabetic population by 17% will be detected with 95% power. Great relative and attributable risks, especially in younger age-groups, indicate the need for increased attention to preventive measures for microvascular complications.

  19. The sensory construction of dreams and nightmare frequency in congenitally blind and late blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaidi, Amani; Jennum, Poul; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to assess dream content in groups of congenitally blind (CB), late blind (LB), and age- and sex-matched sighted control (SC) participants. We conducted an observational study of 11 CB, 14 LB, and 25 SC participants and collected dream reports over a 4-week period. Every morning participants filled in a questionnaire related to the sensory construction of the dream, its emotional and thematic content, and the possible occurrence of nightmares. We also assessed participants' ability of visual imagery during waking cognition, sleep quality, and depression and anxiety levels. All blind participants had fewer visual dream impressions compared to SC participants. In LB participants, duration of blindness was negatively correlated with duration, clarity, and color content of visual dream impressions. CB participants reported more auditory, tactile, gustatory, and olfactory dream components compared to SC participants. In contrast, LB participants only reported more tactile dream impressions. Blind and SC participants did not differ with respect to emotional and thematic dream content. However, CB participants reported more aggressive interactions and more nightmares compared to the other two groups. Our data show that blindness considerably alters the sensory composition of dreams and that onset and duration of blindness plays an important role. The increased occurrence of nightmares in CB participants may be related to a higher number of threatening experiences in daily life in this group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Blindness and cataract in children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Gogate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Blindness in children is considered a priority area for VISION 2020, as visually impaired children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them. Various studies across the globe show that one-third to half of childhood blindness is either preventable or treatable1 and that cataract is the leading treatable cause of blindness in children.The 8th General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB provided an opportunity to be acquainted with recent research and programme development work in the prevention of childhood blindness.

  1. The Sokoto blind beggars: causes of blindness and barriers to rehabilitation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarabe, Aliyu Hamza; Mahmoud, Abdulraheem O; Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir Ayansiji

    2014-01-01

    To determine the causes of blindness and the barriers to accessing rehabilitation services (RS) among blind street beggars (bsb) in Sokoto, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 202 bsb (VA blindness were diagnosed by clinical ophthalmic examination. There were 107 (53%) males and 95 (47%) females with a mean age of 49 years (SD 12.2). Most bsb 191 (94.6%) had non-formal education. Of 190 (94.1%) irreversibly bsb, 180/190 (94.7%) had no light perception (NPL) bilaterally. The major causes of blindness were non-trachomatous corneal opacity (60.8%) and trachoma corneal opacity (12.8%). There were 166 (82%) blind from avoidable causes and 190 (94.1%) were irreversibly blind with 76.1% due to avoidable causes. The available sub-standard RS were educational, vocational and financial support. The barriers to RS in the past included non-availability 151 (87.8%), inability to afford 2 (1.2%), unfelt need 4 (2.3%), family refusal 1 (0.6), ignorance 6 (3.5%) and being not linked 8 (4.7%). The barriers to RS during the study period included inability of 72 subjects (35.6%) to access RS and 59 (81.9%) were due to lack of linkage to the existing services. Corneal opacification was the major cause of blindness among bsb. The main challenges to RS include the inadequate services available, societal and users factors. Renewed efforts are warranted toward the prevention of avoidable causes of blindness especially corneal opacities. The quality of life of the blind street beggar should be improved through available, accessible and affordable well-maintained and sustained rehabilitation services.

  2. [Visual impairment and blindness in children in a Malawian school for the blind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze Schwering, M; Nyrenda, M; Spitzer, M S; Kalua, K

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anatomic sites of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in an integrated school for the blind in Malawi, and to compare the results with those of previous Malawian blind school studies. Children attending an integrated school for the blind in Malawi were examined in September 2011 using the standard WHO/PBL eye examination record for children with blindness and low vision. Visual acuity [VA] of the better eye was classified using the standardised WHO reporting form. Fifty-five pupils aged 6 to 19 years were examined, 39 (71 %) males, and 16 (29 %) females. Thirty eight (69%) were blind [BL], 8 (15 %) were severely visually impaired [SVI], 8 (15 %) visually impaired [VI], and 1 (1.8 %) was not visually impaired [NVI]. The major anatomic sites of visual loss were optic nerve (16 %) and retina (16 %), followed by lens/cataract (15 %), cornea (11 %) and lesions of the whole globe (11 %), uveal pathologies (6 %) and cortical blindness (2 %). The exact aetiology of VI or BL could not be determined in most children. Albinism accounted for 13 % (7/55) of the visual impairments. 24 % of the cases were considered to be potentially avoidable: refractive amblyopia among pseudophakic patients and corneal scaring. Optic atrophy, retinal diseases (mostly albinism) and cataracts were the major causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in an integrated school for the blind in Malawi. Corneal scarring was now the fourth cause of visual impairment, compared to being the commonest cause 35 years ago. Congenital cataract and its postoperative outcome were the commonest remedial causes of visual impairment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Prevalence and burden of self-reported blindness, low vision, and visual impairment in the French community: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brézin, Antoine Pierre; Lafuma, Antoine; Fagnani, Francis; Mesbah, Mounir; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2005-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of self-reported visual impairment and its association with disabilities, handicaps, and socioeconomic consequences. A national survey was conducted on a random stratified sample of 359 010 French citizens living in the community; 21 760 subjects were selected at random and 16 945 persons (78%) agreed to further questioning. Four thousand ninety-one randomly selected caregivers were interviewed. Four subgroups of subjects were defined (blind or light perception only, low vision or still have form perception, other visual problems, and no visual problems). These were compared after adjustment for age, comorbidity, and household size differences. The prevalence of blindness was 0.10% and of low vision, 1.94%. Subjects with blindness needed assistance with daily activities more often than subjects with no visual problems; they also needed more house modifications. Many subjects with blindness (46.8%) and subjects with low vision (29.0%) were registered for social allowances. Subjects with blindness had fewer paid activities (4.5%) than subjects with no visual problems (20.7%). Social allowances increased considerably (by 277) between those with low vision and those with blindness. Monthly household incomes were lower (Pvisual problems (1851). Collected data included social demography, home description, household income, handicaps, disabilities, social allowances, and daily activities. The results demonstrate associations between self-reported visual impairment and daily living.

  4. BlindSense: An Accessibility-inclusive Universal User Interface for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A large number of blind people use smartphone-based assistive technology to perform their common activities. In order to provide a better user experience the existing user interface paradigm needs to be revisited. A new user interface model has been proposed in this paper. A simplified, semantically consistent, and blind-friendly adaptive user interface is provided. The proposed solution is evaluated through an empirical study on 63 blind people leveraging an improved user experience in performing common activities on a smartphone.

  5. The effects of extrinsic motivation on signature authorship opinions in forensic signature blind trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Tahnee N; Found, Bryan; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Rogers, Doug

    2014-03-01

    Expertise studies in forensic handwriting examination involve comparisons of Forensic Handwriting Examiners' (FHEs) opinions with lay-persons on blind tests. All published studies of this type have reported real and demonstrable skill differences between the specialist and lay groups. However, critics have proposed that any difference shown may be indicative of a lack of motivation on the part of lay participants, rather than a real difference in skill. It has been suggested that qualified FHEs would be inherently more motivated to succeed in blinded validation trials, as their professional reputations could be at risk, should they perform poorly on the task provided. Furthermore, critics suggest that lay-persons would be unlikely to be highly motivated to succeed, as they would have no fear of negative consequences should they perform badly. In an effort to investigate this concern, a blind signature trial was designed and administered to forty lay-persons. Participants were required to compare known (exemplar) signatures of an individual to questioned signatures and asked to express an opinion regarding whether the writer of the known signatures wrote each of the questioned signatures. The questioned signatures comprised a mixture of genuine, disguised and simulated signatures. The forty participants were divided into two separate groupings. Group 'A' were requested to complete the trial as directed and were advised that for each correct answer they would be financially rewarded, for each incorrect answer they would be financially penalized, and for each inconclusive opinion they would receive neither penalty nor reward. Group 'B' was requested to complete the trial as directed, with no mention of financial recompense or penalty. The results of this study do not support the proposition that motivation rather than skill difference is the source of the statistical difference in opinions between individuals' results in blinded signature proficiency trials. Crown

  6. Short communication: Cerebral Malaria Complicated by Blindness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cerebral malaria is a severe manifestation of a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The sequelae of this disease such as blindness, deafness, loss of motor function could be emotionally traumatic and physically disabling. We, therefore, present this case of an 8‑year‑old boy who presented with high‑grade ...

  7. Subspace Based Blind Sparse Channel Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Kazunori; Matsushima, Hiroki; Sakai, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    The paper proposes a subspace based blind sparse channel estimation method using 1–2 optimization by replacing the 2–norm minimization in the conventional subspace based method by the 1–norm minimization problem. Numerical results confirm that the proposed method can significantly improve...

  8. Review: Siende blind | Koen | Tydskrif vir letterkunde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tydskrif vir letterkunde. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 51, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Review: Siende blind. D Koen. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text:.

  9. Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-18

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists ... sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events ... bios Statistics and Data Resources for the media Pressroom Contacts ...

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ... Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  12. Vision after 53 years of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikl, Radovan; Simecček, Michal; Porubanová-Norquist, Michaela; Bezdíček, Ondřej; Kremláček, Jan; Stodůlka, Pavel; Fine, Ione; Ostrovsky, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that visual recovery after blindness that occurs early in life is never complete. The current study investigated whether an extremely long period of blindness might also cause a permanent impairment of visual performance, even in a case of adult-onset blindness. We examined KP, a 71-year-old man who underwent a successful sight-restoring operation after 53 years of blindness. A set of psychophysical tests designed to assess KP's face perception, object recognition, and visual space perception abilities were conducted six months and eight months after the surgery. The results demonstrate that regardless of a lengthy period of normal vision and rich pre-accident perceptual experience, KP did not fully integrate this experience, and his visual performance remained greatly compromised. This was particularly evident when the tasks targeted finer levels of perceptual processing. In addition to the decreased robustness of his memory representations, which was hypothesized as the main factor determining visual impairment, other factors that may have affected KP's performance were considered, including compromised visual functions, problems with perceptual organization, deficits in the simultaneous processing of visual information, and reduced cognitive abilities.

  13. Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ɛ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ɛ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ɛ-blind UBQC for any ɛ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  14. Cerebral Malaria Complicated by Blindness, Deafness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A diagnosis of cerebral malaria was made, and the patient was commenced on intravenous quinine and parenteral paracetamol. He was transfused while on admission in the emergency room. The patient regained consciousness after 12 days of treatment but was found to have blindness and deafness following reviews by.

  15. Postural Determinants in the Blind. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Irwin M.; Murphy, Thomas J.

    The problem of malposture in the blind and its affect on orientation and travel skills was explored. A group of 45 students were enrolled in a standard 3-month mobility training program. Each student suffered a postural problem, some compounded by severe orthopedic and/or neurological deficit. All subjects were given complete orthopedic and…

  16. Vision after 53 Years of Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Šikl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that visual recovery after blindness that occurs early in life is never complete. The current study investigated whether an extremely long period of blindness might also cause a permanent impairment of visual performance, even in a case of adult-onset blindness. We examined KP, a 71-year-old man who underwent a successful sight-restoring operation after 53 years of blindness. A set of psychophysical tests designed to assess KP's face perception, object recognition, and visual space perception abilities were conducted six months and eight months after the surgery. The results demonstrate that regardless of a lengthy period of normal vision and rich pre-accident perceptual experience, KP did not fully integrate this experience, and his visual performance remained greatly compromised. This was particularly evident when the tasks targeted finer levels of perceptual processing. In addition to the decreased robustness of his memory representations, which was hypothesized as the main factor determining visual impairment, other factors that may have affected KP's performance were considered, including compromised visual functions, problems with perceptual organization, deficits in the simultaneous processing of visual information, and reduced cognitive abilities.

  17. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  18. Usage of Blinds Software in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatema El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The research reviews some of blinds software used in libraries, it reviews the following software : JAWS, Zoomtext, Kurzuail. Then deals the services offered by the software in libraries, these services are : pronouncing the written texts, printing in Brail method, educational software for computer, browsing the internet, and enlarging texts on the screen.

  19. Prevalence of Cataract Blindness in Rural Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Background: Over three-quarter of all blindness worldwide are preventable and usually caused by cataract and trachoma. Objective: To assess the ... Ophthalmologists from other areas conduct cataract operations once or twice each ... Some patients may have two eyes disorder causing visual impairment. The accepted ...

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  1. Convex blind image deconvolution with inverse filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Guang; Li, Fang; Zeng, Tieyong

    2018-03-01

    Blind image deconvolution is the process of estimating both the original image and the blur kernel from the degraded image with only partial or no information about degradation and the imaging system. It is a bilinear ill-posed inverse problem corresponding to the direct problem of convolution. Regularization methods are used to handle the ill-posedness of blind deconvolution and get meaningful solutions. In this paper, we investigate a convex regularized inverse filtering method for blind deconvolution of images. We assume that the support region of the blur object is known, as has been done in a few existing works. By studying the inverse filters of signal and image restoration problems, we observe the oscillation structure of the inverse filters. Inspired by the oscillation structure of the inverse filters, we propose to use the star norm to regularize the inverse filter. Meanwhile, we use the total variation to regularize the resulting image obtained by convolving the inverse filter with the degraded image. The proposed minimization model is shown to be convex. We employ the first-order primal-dual method for the solution of the proposed minimization model. Numerical examples for blind image restoration are given to show that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM), visual quality and time consumption.

  2. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and ...

  3. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...

  4. Estimated Prevalence of Monocular Blindness and Monocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overall function, psychology and well‑being of a child is not well‑understood, ... Department of Ophthalmology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria, 1Division of ... Keywords: Child eye care services, monocular blindness, monocular severe visual impairment, Nigeria, ocular trauma.

  5. The Vocabulary of the Young Blind Schoolchild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Michael

    1977-01-01

    The vocabularies of five- to eight-year-old blind children were sampled to help develop a graded series of braille reading books. Lists of words in alphabetic and frequency order are presented. (See TM 504 595 for availability). (Author/CTM)

  6. The Body-Image of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratty, Bryant J.; Sams, Theressa A.

    To develop an assessment device for the evaluation of body image, to evaluate the body image of blind children, to make comparisons between subgroups (sex, age, IQ) and to derive sequences of tasks related to body image training, 91 children (mean age 10.06 years, mean IQ 88.32) were evaluated by a body image survey form. Analysis of the data…

  7. 37 REFRACTIVE ERROR BLINDNESS IN YENAGOA, BAYELSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol. 12 No. 1 December, 2010. Refractive Error Blindness in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. 39. (PVA) was measured using a snellen visual acuity chart and a full ocular examination was carried out including anterior segment examination using a. Haag-Streit slit lamp biomicroscope and a posterior segment examination.

  8. Wavelet coherence analysis of change blindness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, I.; Kalhoro, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Change blindness is the incapability of the brain to detect substantial visual changes in the presence of other visual interruption. The objectives of this study are to examine the EEG (Electroencephalographic) based changes in functional connectivity of the brain due to the change blindness. The functional connectivity was estimated using the wavelet-based MSC (Magnitude Square Coherence) function of ERPs (Event Related Potentials). The ERPs of 30 subjects were used and were recorded using the visual attention experiment in which subjects were instructed to detect changes in visual stimulus presented before them through the computer monitor. The two-way ANOVA statistical test revealed significant increase in both gamma and theta band MSCs, and significant decrease in beta band MSC for change detection trials. These findings imply that change blindness might be associated to the lack of functional connectivity in gamma and theta bands and increase of functional connectivity in beta band. Since gamma, theta, and beta frequency bands reflect different functions of cognitive process such as maintenance, encoding, retrieval, and matching and work load of VSTM (Visual Short Term Memory), the change in functional connectivity might be correlated to these cognitive processes during change blindness. (author)

  9. Vision after 53 years of blindness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal; Porubanová-Norquist, M.; Bezdíček, O.; Kremláček, J.; Stodůlka, P.; Fine, I.; Ostrovsky, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 8 (2013), s. 498-507 ISSN 2041-6695 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2528 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : sight recovery * blindness * visual deprivation * object agnosia * prosopagnosia Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://i-perception.perceptionweb.com/fulltext/i04/i0611.pdf

  10. Constrained blind deconvolution using Wirtinger flow methods

    KAUST Repository

    Walk, Philipp

    2017-09-04

    In this work we consider one-dimensional blind deconvolution with prior knowledge of signal autocorrelations in the classical framework of polynomial factorization. In particular this univariate case highly suffers from several non-trivial ambiguities and therefore blind deconvolution is known to be ill-posed in general. However, if additional autocorrelation information is available and the corresponding polynomials are co-prime, blind deconvolution is uniquely solvable up to global phase. Using lifting, the outer product of the unknown vectors is the solution to a (convex) semi-definite program (SDP) demonstrating that -theoretically- recovery is computationally tractable. However, for practical applications efficient algorithms are required which should operate in the original signal space. To this end we also discuss a gradient descent algorithm (Wirtinger flow) for the original non-convex problem. We demonstrate numerically that such an approach has performance comparable to the semidefinite program in the noisy case. Our work is motivated by applications in blind communication scenarios and we will discuss a specific signaling scheme where information is encoded into polynomial roots.

  11. Indoor sign recognition for the blind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kunene, D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blind people face difficulties when navigating unfamiliar environments. The information displayed on indoor signs and notice boards is of no use to them. In order to assist them with this challenge, we propose a real time system that can recognise a...

  12. The Economic Impact of Blindness in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Usha; Biundo, Eliana; Saka, Rasit Omer; Fasser, Christina; Bourne, Rupert; Little, Julie-Anne

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the annual loss of productivity from blindness and moderate to severe visual impairment (MSVI) in the population aged >50 years in the European Union (EU). We estimated the cost of lost productivity using three simple models reported in the literature based on (1) minimum wage (MW), (2) gross national income (GNI), and (3) purchasing power parity-adjusted gross domestic product (GDP-PPP) losses. In the first two models, assumptions included that all individuals worked until 65 years of age, and that half of all visual impairment cases in the >50-year age group would be in those aged between 50 and 65 years. Loss of productivity was estimated to be 100% for blind individuals and 30% for those with MSVI. None of these models included direct medical costs related to visual impairment. The estimated number of blind people in the EU population aged >50 years is ~1.28 million, with a further 9.99 million living with MSVI. Based on the three models, the estimated cost of blindness is €7.81 billion, €6.29 billion and €17.29 billion and that of MSVI €18.02 billion, €24.80 billion and €39.23 billion, with their combined costs €25.83 billion, €31.09 billion and €56.52 billion, respectively. The estimates from the MW and adjusted GDP-PPP models were generally comparable, whereas the GNI model estimates were higher, probably reflecting the lack of adjustment for unemployment. The cost of blindness and MSVI in the EU is substantial. Wider use of available cost-effective treatment and prevention strategies may reduce the burden significantly.

  13. Warming Endotracheal Tube in Blind Nasotracheal Intubation throughout Maxillofacial Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Hosseinzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, our study showed that using an endotracheal tube softened by warm water could reduce the incidence and severity of epistaxis during blind nasotracheal intubation; however it could not facilitate blind nasotracheal intubation.

  14. Concepts about Print for the Young Blind Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Language Arts, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Provides teachers with an understanding of how sighted children develop concepts about print and how blind children develop concepts about braille. Prereading activities designed to extend young children's concepts about print are adapted for blind children. (HTH)

  15. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Western Rwanda: blindness in a postconflict setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiku Mathenge

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimates that there were 37 million blind people in 2002 and that the prevalence of blindness was 9% among adults in Africa aged 50 years or older. Recent surveys indicate that this figure may be overestimated, while a survey from southern Sudan suggested that postconflict areas are particularly vulnerable to blindness. The aim of this study was to conduct a Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness to estimate the magnitude and causes of visual impairment in people aged > or = 50 y in the postconflict area of the Western Province of Rwanda, which includes one-quarter of the population of Rwanda.Clusters of 50 people aged > or = 50 y were selected through probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA was measured with a tumbling "E" chart, and those with VA below 6/18 in either eye were examined by an ophthalmologist. The teams examined 2,206 people (response rate 98.0%. The unadjusted prevalence of bilateral blindness was 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2%-2.4%, 1.3% (0.8%-1.7% for severe visual impairment, and 5.3% (4.2%-6.4% for visual impairment. Most bilateral blindness (65% was due to cataract. Overall, the vast majority of cases of blindness (80.0%, severe visual impairment (67.9%, and visual impairment (87.2% were avoidable (i.e.. due to cataract, refractive error, aphakia, trachoma, or corneal scar. The cataract surgical coverage was moderate; 47% of people with bilateral cataract blindness (VA < 3/60 had undergone surgery. Of the 29 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery, nine (31% had a best-corrected poor outcome (i.e., VA < 6/60. Extrapolating these estimates to Rwanda's Western Province, among the people aged 50 years or above 2,565 are expected to be blind, 1,824 to have severe visual impairment, and 8,055 to have visual impairment.The prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in this postconflict

  16. The sensory construction of dreams and nightmare frequency in congenitally blind and late blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Jennum, Poul; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    and anxiety levels. RESULTS: All blind participants had fewer visual dream impressions compared to SC participants. In LB participants, duration of blindness was negatively correlated with duration, clarity, and color content of visual dream impressions. CB participants reported more auditory, tactile....... Every morning participants filled in a questionnaire related to the sensory construction of the dream, its emotional and thematic content, and the possible occurrence of nightmares. We also assessed participants' ability of visual imagery during waking cognition, sleep quality, and depression...

  17. Comparison of Static Balance among Blind, Deaf and Normal Children in Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Vali-Zadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sensory systems including proprioceptive, vestibular and visual network play an important role in motor control. Loss of information from each sensory channel can cause body sway on static positions. Materials & Methods: Seventeen blind children (9 girls, 8 boys and 30 deaf children (14 girls, 16 boys participated as the sample groups in Ardabil city. Sixteen normal children (30 girls and 30 boys also selected as the control group. One leg standing and tandem stance tests (reliability=0.87-0.99 in two condition (eyes open and closed was used for static balance evaluation. One-Way ANOVA and LSD post hoc test was used to compare groups, and independent t-test was used for comparing sexes in each group by using SPSS (16 version software. Results: results showed there is no significant difference between blind, deaf and normal girls in any of the balance tasks (p>0.05. While the balance function of deaf and normal boys was better than blind boys in all balance tasks except for tandem stance with eyes closed (p=0.507. Blind girls were better than blind boys in all balance tasks (p=0.05, p=0.02, p=0.02. Deaf boys were better than girls with deafness in one leg stance and tandem stance (eyes open tasks (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.04 but there was no significant different between deaf boys and girls in any other tasks (p=0.63, p=0.29, p=0.89. Normal boys have better performance than girls and only in tandem stance (eyes closed (p=0.21 and one leg stance (left foot eyes open (p=0.99 there was no significant difference between normal boys and girls. Conclusion: findings showed that static balance in deaf and normal children were better than the blinds. Since persons with blindness are not able to compensate the visual loss for postural stability, they show decreased postural stability in static conditions. Inclusive identifying effective factors on balance and its weakness and problems in appropriate time, attention to this factors in training

  18. Intellectual Abilites of Blind and Partially Sighted Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrialavičiūtė, Ingrida

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive abilities of blind and partially sighted children develop in the context of altered perceptual organization. The aim of the study – analyze the peculiarities and factors of intellectual performance of blind and partially sighted children. ITVIC (Intelligence Test for Visually Impaired Children) adaptation for the assessment of intelligence of Lithuanian blind children was performed as part of the study. Possibilities of using WISC-III for the assessment of intelligence of blind and ...

  19. A comparison of the causes of blindness certifications in England and Wales in working age adults (16-64 years), 1999-2000 with 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Gerald; Michaelides, Michel; Bunce, Catey

    2014-02-12

    To report on the causes of blindness certifications in England and Wales in working age adults (16-64 years) in 2009-2010; and to compare these with figures from 1999 to 2000. Analysis of the national database of blindness certificates of vision impairment (CVIs) received by the Certifications Office. Working age (16-64 years) population of England and Wales. Number and cause of blindness certifications. The Certifications Office received 1756 CVIs for blindness from persons aged between 16 and 64 inclusive between 1 April 2009 and 31 March 2010. The main causes of blindness certifications were hereditary retinal disorders (354 certifications comprising 20.2% of the total), diabetic retinopathy/maculopathy (253 persons, 14.4%) and optic atrophy (248 persons, 14.1%). Together, these three leading causes accounted for almost 50% of all blindness certifications. Between 1 April 1999 and 31 March 2000, the leading causes of blindness certification were diabetic retinopathy/maculopathy (17.7%), hereditary retinal disorders (15.8%) and optic atrophy (10.1%). For the first time in at least five decades, diabetic retinopathy/maculopathy is no longer the leading cause of certifiable blindness among working age adults in England and Wales, having been overtaken by inherited retinal disorders. This change may be related to factors including the introduction of nationwide diabetic retinopathy screening programmes in England and Wales and improved glycaemic control. Inherited retinal disease, now representing the commonest cause of certification in the working age population, has clinical and research implications, including with respect to the provision of care/resources in the NHS and the allocation of research funding.

  20. Poverty and Blindness in Nigeria: Results from the National Survey of Blindness and Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafida, A; Kyari, F; Abdull, M M; Sivasubramaniam, S; Murthy, G V S; Kana, I; Gilbert, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Poverty can be a cause and consequence of blindness. Some causes only affect the poorest communities (e.g. trachoma), and poor individuals are less likely to access services. In low income countries, cataract blind adults have been shown to be less economically active, indicating that blindness can exacerbate poverty. This study aims to explore associations between poverty and blindness using national survey data from Nigeria. Participants ≥40 years were examined in 305 clusters (2005-2007). Sociodemographic information, including literacy and occupation, was obtained by interview. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed using a reduced tumbling E LogMAR chart. Full ocular examination was undertaken by experienced ophthalmologists on all with PVA Health Organization guidelines. Households were categorized into three levels of poverty based on literacy and occupation at household level. A total of 569/13,591 participants were blind (PVA poor households (25.3%). Spectacle coverage was 3 times lower in poor than affluent households (2.4% vs. 7.5%). In Nigeria, blindness is associated with poverty, in part reflecting lower access to services. Reducing avoidable causes will not be achieved unless access to services improves, particularly for the poor and women.

  1. PERSONALITY TRAITS AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIROVIC, Senija; BAJRIC, Adela

    2016-01-01

    The people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) show pathological personality traits in three of the five domains (APA 2013). In addition to diagnostic criteria for BPD, described by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the dimensional model of personality disorder, based on five-factor model of personality, seems to gain interest as it promisses to eliminate problems associated with poor-fit, co-morbidity and unclear diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to ...

  2. 77 FR 20553 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... the requirement for National Deaf Blind Equipment Distribution Program (NDBEDP) certified programs to... to better enable selected participants to fully meet the needs of eligible low- income, deaf-blind...

  3. 77 FR 42187 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010, Section 105, Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals, Order... Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals, CG Docket No. 10-210. Form Number: N/A. Type of Review: Revision of a...

  4. 76 FR 31261 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... to establish the National Deaf-Blind Equipment Distribution Program (NDBEDP) pilot program in... environments shall be considered when determining whether the individual is deaf-blind under clauses (c)(2)(i...

  5. Characteristics of Individuals with Congenital and Acquired Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Dawn M.; Hirdes, John P.; Stolee, Paul; Strong, J. Graham; Poss, Jeff; Tjam, Erin Y.; Bowman, Lindsay; Ashworth, Melody

    2009-01-01

    Using a standardized assessment instrument, the authors compared 182 adults with congenital deaf-blindness and those with acquired deaf-blindness. They found that those with congenital deaf-blindness were more likely to have impairments in cognition, activities of daily living, and social interactions and were less likely to use speech for…

  6. Restrictive partially blind signature for resource-constrained information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Weidong; Gong, Zheng; Liu, Bozhong; Long, Yu; Chen, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    Restrictive partially blind signature, which is designed for privacy oriented information systems, allows a user to obtain a blind signature from a signer whilst the blind message must obey some certain rules. In order to reduce storage and communication costs, several public-key cryptosystems are

  7. Ya "See" What We Mean: Teaching the Blind to Ski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Doug; Winthers, Jim

    The illustrated manual contains instructions for teaching blind and partially sighted students to ski. It is noted that blind students should be coached, instructed, and encouraged in the same manner as sighted students although additional safety precautions should be employed. Psychological implications for the blind student learning to ski are…

  8. The Assessment of Cognitive Development in Blind Infants and Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambring, M.; Troster, H.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the Bielefeld Developmental Test for Blind Infants and Preschoolers by comparing cognitive performance of blind and sighted children (ages three and four). Results indicated that even this test (with "blind-neutral" items) did not permit a fair comparative assessment, though it did prove suitable for within-group…

  9. Odontogenic orbital cellulitis causing blindness: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odontogenic orbital cellulitis causing blindness: A case report. ... Abstract. Blindness secondary to odontogenic orbital cellulitis is a rarity. We report a case of a 38-year-old man who presented ... the right eye was not recovered. Dental infections may lead to blindness; therefore, dental infections should be promptly treated.

  10. Mediation for Young Blind Children: An Introduction to the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Joyce Nesker; Davidson, Iain F. W. K.

    1984-01-01

    A review of research on the ways blind children develop and mediate the environment focuses on questions of comparative studies of blind and normal children's development and on issues in blind children's unique development. Three stages of mediation are noted (access, exploration, and interpretation). (CL)

  11. Causes of blindness in a special education school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, O H; Adegbehingbe, B O; Omotoye, O J; Adeoye, A O

    2011-01-01

    Blind children and young adults have to overcome a lifetime of emotional, social and economic difficulties. They employ non-vision dependent methods for education. To assess the causes of blindness in a special school in southwestern Nigeria to aid the development of efficient blindness prevention programmes. A cross-sectional survey of the Ekiti State Special Education School, Nigeria was conducted in May-June 2008 after approval from the Ministry of Education. All students in the blind section were examined for visual acuity, pen-torch eye examination and dilated fundoscopy in addition to taking biodata and history. Thirty blind students with mean age of 18±7.3 years and male: female ratio of 1.7:1 were examined. Blindness resulted commonly from cataract eight (26.7%), glaucoma six (20%) retinitis pigmentosa four (16.7%) and posttraumatic phthysis bulbi two (6.7%). Blindness was avoidable in 18 (61%) of cases. Glaucoma blindness was associated with redness, pain, lacrimation and photophobia in 15 (50%) and hyphaema in 16.7% of students; none of these students were on any medication at the time of study. The causes of blindness in rehabilitation school for the blind are largely avoidable and glaucoma-blind pupils face additional painful eye related morbidity during rehabilitation. While preventive measures and early intervention are needful against childhood cataract and glaucoma, regular ophthalmic consultations and medications are needed especially for glaucoma blind pupils.

  12. Causes of Blindness in a Special Education School | Onakpoya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All students in the blind section were examined for visual acuity, pen-torch eye examination and dilated fundoscopy in addition to taking biodata and history. RESULTS: Thirty blind students with mean age of 18±7.3 years and male: female ratio of 1.7:1 were examined. Blindness resulted commonly from cataract eight ...

  13. OUR BLIND CHILDREN, GROWING AND LEARNING WITH THEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOWENFELD, BERTHOLD

    WRITTEN AS AN AID TO PARENTS, THIS BOOK PRESENTS FACTS ON BLINDNESS AND PRACTICAL INFORMATION ON THE REARING OF BLIND CHILDREN FROM INFANCY THROUGH ADOLESCENCE. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ABOUT TEACHING BLIND CHILDREN SKILLS AND HABITS RELATED TO EATING, TOILET TRAINING, SLEEPING, DRESSING, WALKING, TALKING, AND PLAYING. SCHOOLING AND RELATED QUESTIONS…

  14. Comparison of Quality of Life and Social Skills between Students with Visual Problems (Blind and Partially Blind) and Normal Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Kordestani; Azam Daneshfar; Davood Roustaee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the quality of life and social skills between students who are visually impaired (blind and partially blind) and normal students. The population consisted of all students with visual problems (blind and partially blind) and normal students in secondary schools in Tehran in the academic year 2013-2014. Using a multi-stage random sampling method, 40 students were selected from each group. The SF-36s quality of life questionnaire and Foster and Inderbitzen social skil...

  15. Histrionic personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - histrionic; Attention seeking - histrionic personality disorder ... Causes of histrionic personality disorder are unknown. Genes and early childhood events may be responsible. It is diagnosed more often in women than in ...

  16. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... borderline personality disorder (BPD). Therapy may be given one-on-one and through support groups, enabling people with BPD ... reassign extreme positive or negative images associated with one person to another person, such as the therapist. ...

  17. Schizoid Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with schizoid personality disorder: Are in touch with reality, so they're unlikely to experience paranoia or ... People with schizoid personality disorder are at an increased risk of: Developing schizotypal personality disorder, schizophrenia or ...

  18. 75 FR 47304 - Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION [CG Docket No. 10-145; DA 10-1324] Accessible Mobile Phone... captioned ``Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People who are Blind, Deaf-blind, or Have Low Vision,'' and... phone features and functions in the current marketplace that are not accessible for people who are blind...

  19. Design challenges in a double-blinded RCT study of music therapy for people suffering from szhizophrenia with negative symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    . The study includes 120 participants. Participants in the experimental group become 25 hours of individual music therapy by specific trained music therapists working from a manual, wheras the control Group become 25 hours of being together with a care persone (trained by a music therapist) for music......The aim of this study is to examine if postiive results of International Cochrane Reviews on Music Therapy and Schizophrenia can be confirmed by a randomized controlled double blinded study on music therapy for people suffering from schizophrenia with extensive negative symptoms in Denmark...... listening from a selected playlist. Ethical refelctions around the design will be presented, and the possibilities of keeping the examination process blinded or not blinded to the participants with be shared. As this examination is currently running, the focus will be on the Development of abd application...

  20. [Challenges in Traffic for Blind and Visually Impaired People and Strategies for their Safe Participation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högner, N

    2015-08-01

    Blind and visually impaired people experience special risks and hazards in road traffic. This refers to participation as a driver, bicycle rider and pedestrian. These risks are shown by a review of international research studies and a study by the author, where 45 people with Usher syndrome were asked about their accident rates and causes as driver, bicycle rider and pedestrian. In addition, basic legal information has been worked out to demonstrate the visual conditions of people with visual impairment for participation in road traffic. The research studies show that blind and visually impaired persons are particularly exposed to experience high risks in traffic. These risks can be reduced through acquisition of skills and coping strategies such as training in orientation and mobility. People with visual impairment need special programmes which help to reduce traffic hazards. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Creative thought as blind-variation and selective-retention: Combinatorial models of exceptional creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2010-06-01

    Campbell (1960) proposed that creative thought should be conceived as a blind-variation and selective-retention process (BVSR). This article reviews the developments that have taken place in the half century that has elapsed since his proposal, with special focus on the use of combinatorial models as formal representations of the general theory. After defining the key concepts of blind variants, creative thought, and disciplinary context, the combinatorial models are specified in terms of individual domain samples, variable field size, ideational combination, and disciplinary communication. Empirical implications are then derived with respect to individual, domain, and field systems. These abstract combinatorial models are next provided substantive reinforcement with respect to findings concerning the cognitive processes, personality traits, developmental factors, and social contexts that contribute to creativity. The review concludes with some suggestions regarding future efforts to explicate creativity according to BVSR theory.

  2. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  3. Communication skills in blind children: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D M; Stojanovik, V

    2007-01-01

    There are anecdotal reports that blind children sometimes use language inappropriately, but there has been no recent systematic investigation of the communication skills of children with congenital blindness. The aim of the present study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of the communication skills of a group of children with congenital blindness. The parents of eight congenitally blind children completed the Children's Communication Checklist-2. The checklist ratings showed that the communication profiles of a large proportion of the group warranted clinical investigation or were indicative of a communication disorder. The results from this preliminary investigation support the need for a larger study on the communication skills of children with congenital blindness.

  4. Left-handedness in blind and sighted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Erkan; Dane, Senol

    2009-03-01

    Rates of left-handedness were compared in 1387 blind and 831 sighted children. The rate in male blind children was higher than in female blind children. The incidence of left-handedness was significantly higher in blind than in sighted children in both boys and girls. The percentages of left-handedness were 18.23% and 17.02% in male and female blind children, and 11.02% and 7.52% in male and female sighted children, respectively. It can be stated that sighting is important in the development of normal typical cerebral lateralisation or hand preference.

  5. Drawings from Gaia, a blind girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M

    2003-01-01

    Gaia, a totally blind girl, was asked to make raised-line drawings. Gaia's vision at best was peripheral. She draws out of interest, and has drawn since preschool with encouragement from her mother. She was asked to draw objects and scenes involving depth from a vantage point, eg a table from below, two cars (one behind the other), and two parallel rows of apples (receding from her, on a table top). Gaia represented space in her drawings using T-junctions for overlap, height in the picture plane, parallel projection, and inverse projection. That is, Gaia uses features of systems common in sighted children's drawings. The development of drawing in blind and sighted children may be similar in good measure because haptics provides access to many of the same spatial principles as vision.

  6. Autobiographic narratives of congenital blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, intended at investigating, together with men and women who suffer from congenital visual impairment, how they felt about diversity, body image, self-esteem and vanity. The investigation of autobiographical accounts was the option for this study. Initially, 20 (twenty interviews were analyzed and 6 (six autobiographical accounts, selected from the peculiarities of each single interviewee – each one containing his/her single life lessons - followed suit. The conclusion reached is that the subjects had undergone an exhausting process of acceptance of their own impairment. If, on the one hand, the blindness comes with angst, uncertainties, and many difficulties, on the other hand, these circumstances lead the blind to face the ups and downs of life with courage, determination and will to live. Surprisingly, in the study the body was not approached at a source of concern or are which should be emphasized.

  7. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  8. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  9. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael

    2017-01-20

    This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  10. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Dunai Dunai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  11. Navigation of blind and visually impaired people

    OpenAIRE

    Axer, Steffen; Belz, Jörg; Leske, Kathrin; Friedrich, Bernhard; Hesse, Tobias; Vollrath, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The mobility of the blind and visually impaired is associated with many barriers and risks. To secure crossings, signalized intersections are partially equipped with acoustic or tactile indicators. However, environmental conditions might interfere with the acoustic identification of the green time. Furthermore, information such as intersection topology, bicycle traffic or the curb structure is not accessible to visually impaired road users. Therefore, most trips are limited to trained routes....

  12. Joint Matrices Decompositions and Blind Source Separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chabriel, G.; Kleinsteuber, M.; Moreau, E.; Shen, H.; Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2014), s. 34-43 ISSN 1053-5888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : joint matrices decomposition * tensor decomposition * blind source separation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 5.852, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/SI/tichavsky-0427607.pdf

  13. User-centered Technologies For Blind Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathe...

  14. Global Estimates on the Number of People Blind or Visually Impaired by Diabetic Retinopathy: A Meta-analysis From 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leasher, Janet L; Bourne, Rupert R A; Flaxman, Seth R; Jonas, Jost B; Keeffe, Jill; Naidoo, Kovin; Pesudovs, Konrad; Price, Holly; White, Richard A; Wong, Tien Y; Resnikoff, Serge; Taylor, Hugh R

    2016-09-01

    To estimate global and regional trends from 1990 to 2010 of the prevalence and number of persons visually impaired specifically by diabetic retinopathy (DR), as a complication of the precipitous trends in global diabetes, is fundamental for health planning purposes. The meta-analysis of published population studies from 1990 to 2012 for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD) yielded estimated global regional trends in DR among other causes of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity visual acuity visually impaired people, 0.8 million were blind and 3.7 million were visually impaired because of DR, with an alarming increase of 27% and 64%, respectively, spanning the two decades from 1990 to 2010. DR accounted for 2.6% of all blindness in 2010 and 1.9% of all MSVI worldwide, increasing from 2.1% and 1.3%, respectively, in 1990. These figures were lower in regions with younger populations (4%). The number of persons with visual impairment due to DR worldwide is rising and represents an increasing proportion of all blindness/MSVI causes. Age-standardized prevalence of DR-related blindness/MSVI was higher in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. One out of 39 blind people had blindness due to DR, and 1 out of 52 visually impaired people had visual impairment due to DR. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Blind adolescents' birth order as a determinant of their perception of family functioning dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimirović Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While other theoreticians of personality stressed only the influence of parents in early childhood, Adler paid particular attention to a psychological position of a child among brothers/sisters. There is some empirical evidence that birth order may influence vocational choice, characteristic style of interacting with others, affiliation, anxiety, perception of parents' authority, and even intellectual capabilities. Visual impairment of a family member affects a family system and a sibling subsystem in a specific way. The goal of the research was to determine whether birth order influences perception of dimensions of family functioning in families with a blind adolescent and in families with an adolescent of typical development. The sample included 32 blind (experimental group and 32 subjects of typical development (control group aged 14 to 26, who lived in complete families with two or three children and without serious personal, marrital or family problems. The groups were paired by sex, age, professional status and birth order of adolescents, number of children in the family, type of family (nuclear; extended and environment (rural; urban. A Questionnaire of socio-demographic information and a Questionnaire of situation and family relationships RADIR by Knežević were applied for data collection. First-borns made lower appraisals of each dimension of family functioning than second-born respondents. There were no statistically significant differences in the control group. Differences in the experimental group were statistically significant in the following dimensions: Activity, Democracy and Structuring time and activity. Thus, the results show that first-born child's 'dethronement' has more effect if it is associated with blindness. This can be explained by fact that it is more difficult for a blind first-born child to catch up with a second-born 'rival'.

  16. Occupational Blindness from Chronic Methanol Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanicha Chuenkongkaew, M.D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe three patients with occupational blindness from chronic methanol intoxication. Case presentation: Three patients who worked in the same industry of methylated spirit manufacture for more than 1 year developed bilateral visual loss from inhaled methanol intoxication. Ophthalmological, neurological examinations and blood methanol levels were undertaken. Two male and one female patients developed a sudden onset of bilateral blindness. Blood and urine methanol levels obtained from the male patients at 48 and 72 hours after their cessation to methanol exposure were negative. Those from the female patient at 9 hours after their cessation to methanol exposure were 73.78 mg/dl. Their final visual acuity was not improved after the treatment. Conclusion: Chronic methanol intoxication from inhalation is likely to produce ocular problems with mild systemic toxicity with severe ocular problems which eventually result in permanent blindness. The risk assessment of occupational health and safety should be seriously taken into account to avoid harmful effect of hazards in the workplace.

  17. Toward a History of the Blind in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Sutherland-Meier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses archival documents, literature, and art to sketch the history of the blind in Spain. Traditionally, certain occupations, such as singing and playing musical instruments, saying prayers and selling chapbooks were reserved for the blind. Spanish artists and writers have portrayed the blind engaged in these occupations. Starting in the Middle Ages, the blind established powerful brotherhoods through which they controlled these professions. The changing roles that the blind played in the creation, production, performance and sale of popular literature known as literatura de cordel show their successful adaptation to an emerging print culture. The situation of the blind today and the success of the National Organization of the Spanish Blind (ONCE are also discussed.

  18. Retrieval and phenomenology of autobiographical memories in blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekcan, Ali Í; Yılmaz, Engin; Kızılöz, Burcu Kaya; Karadöller, Dilay Z; Mutafoğlu, Merve; Erciyes, Aslı Aktan

    2015-01-01

    Although visual imagery is argued to be an essential component of autobiographical memory, there have been surprisingly few studies on autobiographical memory processes in blind individuals, who have had no or limited visual input. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how blindness affects retrieval and phenomenology of autobiographical memories. We asked 48 congenital/early blind and 48 sighted participants to recall autobiographical memories in response to six cue words, and to fill out the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire measuring a number of variables including imagery, belief and recollective experience associated with each memory. Blind participants retrieved fewer memories and reported higher auditory imagery at retrieval than sighted participants. Moreover, within the blind group, participants with total blindness reported higher auditory imagery than those with some light perception. Blind participants also assigned higher importance, belief and recollection ratings to their memories than sighted participants. Importantly, these group differences remained the same for recent as well as childhood memories.

  19. Managing Your Personal Brand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Everyone has a personal brand. To ensure success at work you need to manage your personal brand which is made up of your tangible and intangible attributes. This paper reviews the literature around personal branding, looks at some of the attributes and discusses ways you can reflect and begin to build your personal brand in a higher education…

  20. Using personality neuroscience to study personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Samantha V; DeYoung, Colin G

    2017-01-01

    Personality neuroscience integrates techniques from personality psychology and neuroscience to elucidate the neural basis of individual differences in cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior. This endeavor is pertinent not only to our understanding of healthy personality variation, but also to the aberrant trait manifestations present in personality disorders and severe psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on the advances and limitations of neuroimaging methods with respect to personality neuroscience. We discuss the value of personality theory as a means to link specific neural mechanisms with various traits (e.g., the neural basis of the "Big Five"). Given the overlap between dimensional models of normal personality and psychopathology, we also describe how researchers can reconceptualize psychopathological disorders along key dimensions, and, in turn, formulate specific neural hypotheses, extended from personality theory. Examples from the borderline personality disorder literature are used to illustrate this approach. We provide recommendations for utilizing neuroimaging methods to capture the neural mechanisms that underlie continuous traits across the spectrum from healthy to maladaptive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Causes of childhood blindness in Malaysia: results from a national study of blind school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S C; Tan, B C

    2001-01-01

    A national study was conducted in children attending six schools for the blind in Malaysia to identify the anatomical site and underlying causes of blindness (BL) and severe visual impairment (SVI), with a view to determine the potentially preventable and treatable causes so that appropriate control measures can be implemented in the future. The standardized clinical examination of eyes was performed and the findings were recorded on the WHO Prevention of Blindness Programme eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision. A total of 358 children aged between 7 and 17 years were examined, of whom 332 (92.7%) were blind or severely visually impaired. The results relate to these 332 children. Lens was the major anatomical site (22.3%) of visual loss followed by retina (20.8%), whole globe (17.2%), cornea (15.1%), optic nerve (8.7%) and uvea (5.1%). Glaucoma was responsible for BL/SVI in 7.2% and others in 3.6% of cases. Hereditary diseases were responsible for visual loss in 29.5%, intrauterine factors in 4.5%, perinatal factors in 9% and childhood factors in 7.8% of cases. However, the aetiology was unknown in 49.1% of cases which included congenital anomalies of the globe. Childhood cataract and corneal scarring are major treatable causes of BL/SVI that can benefit from future intervention strategies. Perinatal screening for intrauterine factors and hereditary eye diseases, and appropriate interventional therapy will help in reducing the prevalence of childhood blindness.

  2. Causes of blindness and visual impairment among students in integrated schools for the blind in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Jyoti Baba; Gnyawali, Subodh; Upadhyay, Madan Prasad

    2012-12-01

    To identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment among students in integrated schools for the blind in Nepal. A total of 778 students from all 67 integrated schools for the blind in Nepal were examined using the World Health Organization/Prevention of Blindness Eye Examination Record for Children with Blindness and Low Vision during the study period of 3 years. Among 831 students enrolled in the schools, 778 (93.6%) participated in the study. Mean age of students examined was 13.7 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Among the students examined, 85.9% were blind, 10% had severe visual impairment and 4.1% were visually impaired. The cornea (22.8%) was the most common anatomical site of visual impairment, its most frequent cause being vitamin A deficiency, followed by the retina (18.4%) and lens (17.6%). Hereditary and childhood factors were responsible for visual loss in 27.9% and 22.0% of students, respectively. Etiology could not be determined in 46% of cases. Overall, 40.9% of students had avoidable causes of visual loss. Vision could be improved to a level better than 6/60 in 3.6% of students refracted. More than one third of students were visually impaired for potentially avoidable reasons, indicating lack of eye health awareness and eye care services in the community. The cause of visual impairment remained unknown in a large number of students, which indicates the need for introduction of modern diagnostic tools.

  3. Personality disorder diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    WIDIGER, THOMAS A

    2003-01-01

    Every person has a characteristic manner of thinking, feeling, and relating to others. Some of these personality traits can be so dysfunctional as to warrant a diagnosis of personality disorder. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD- 10) includes ten personality disorder diagnoses. Three issues of particular importance for the diagnosis of personality disorders are their differentiation from other mental disorders, from general persona...

  4. [New blindness incidents in Württemberg-Hohenzollern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpaszky, H G; Haas, A; Klauss, V; Selbmann, H K

    1997-03-01

    Blindness causes human suffering and high social costs. Preventive measures are necessary. Virtually all blind people are registered with the social services. Data from these institutions may help in (long-term) planning for blindness prevention. The present investigation analysed data from the social services of the region Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The files contained information on ocular status, year of birth, district, and sex of newly blind subjects of the year 1994. Two thirds (66.8%) of newly blind subjects are women. About half (47.8%) of all subjects are over 80 years of age. The most frequent causes of blindness are: macular degeneration, 33.7%; diabetic retinopathy, 17.3%; glaucoma, 13.8%; and high myopia, 6.6%. Blindness is increasingly a problem of high age. Diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are still major causes of blindness. For these diseases blindness prevention is conceivable. Thus co-ordinated blindness prevention activities should focus on diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma.

  5. Gender context of personalism in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzat, Jimoh; Grandi, Giovanni

    2011-12-01

    Personalism is one of the philosophical perspectives which hold that the reality in person and the human person has the highest intrinsic value. This paper makes reference to Louis Janssens' eight criteria in adequate consideration of the human person but further argues that there is need to consider people as situated agents especially within gender relational perspectives. The paper identifies gender as an important social construction that shapes the consideration of the human persons within socio-spatial spheres. The main crux of the paper is that there is a gender context of personalism and this has profound implications for bioethical agendas. Gender is part of the human condition, especially when we philosophically or sociologically engage the notion of equity and equality within the social system, because social realities in the relational perspective are not impartial, impersonal and equal. Gender does not determine morality but it plays a role in morality and expectations from moral agents. Women have been categorised as a sociological group because their integrity, freedom/autonomy and dignity (which are basic concerns of bioethics) are capable of being threatened. A gender perspective provides important incentives for moral theory which searches for possible conceptual imbalances or blind spots in ethical reflections. The paper refers to Sen's faces of gender inequality and expands on the notion that natality inequality is one of the fundamental levels of gender inequality, which in turn is the primary starting agenda in bioethics. The paper avers that the recognition of the fundamental importance of gender to the organization of social reality and the development of personal identities have important practical implications for bioethics. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Live Attenuated Versus Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Hutterite Children: A Cluster Randomized Blinded Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Mark; Russell, Margaret L; Manning, Vanessa; Fonseca, Kevin; Earn, David J D; Horsman, Gregory; Chokani, Khami; Vooght, Mark; Babiuk, Lorne; Schwartz, Lisa; Neupane, Binod; Singh, Pardeep; Walter, Stephen D; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

    2016-11-01

    Whether vaccinating children with intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is more effective than inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in providing both direct protection in vaccinated persons and herd protection in unvaccinated persons is uncertain. Hutterite colonies, where members live in close-knit, small rural communities in which influenza virus infection regularly occurs, offer an opportunity to address this question. To determine whether vaccinating children and adolescents with LAIV provides better community protection than IIV. A cluster randomized blinded trial conducted between October 2012 and May 2015 over 3 influenza seasons. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01653015). 52 Hutterite colonies in Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. 1186 Canadian children and adolescents aged 36 months to 15 years who received the study vaccine and 3425 community members who did not. Children were randomly assigned according to community in a blinded manner to receive standard dosing of either trivalent LAIV or trivalent IIV. The primary outcome was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza A or B virus in all participants (vaccinated children and persons who did not receive the study vaccine). Mean vaccine coverage among children in the LAIV group was 76.9% versus 72.3% in the IIV group. Influenza virus infection occurred at a rate of 5.3% (295 of 5560 person-years) in the LAIV group versus 5.2% (304 of 5810 person-years) in the IIV group. The hazard ratio comparing LAIV with IIV for influenza A or B virus was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.24). The study was conducted in Hutterite communities, which may limit generalizability. Immunizing children with LAIV does not provide better community protection against influenza than IIV. The Canadian Institutes for Health Research.

  7. No training blind image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ying; Mou, Xuanqin; Ji, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    State of the art blind image quality assessment (IQA) methods generally extract perceptual features from the training images, and send them into support vector machine (SVM) to learn the regression model, which could be used to further predict the quality scores of the testing images. However, these methods need complicated training and learning, and the evaluation results are sensitive to image contents and learning strategies. In this paper, two novel blind IQA metrics without training and learning are firstly proposed. The new methods extract perceptual features, i.e., the shape consistency of conditional histograms, from the joint histograms of neighboring divisive normalization transform coefficients of distorted images, and then compare the length attribute of the extracted features with that of the reference images and degraded images in the LIVE database. For the first method, a cluster center is found in the feature attribute space of the natural reference images, and the distance between the feature attribute of the distorted image and the cluster center is adopted as the quality label. The second method utilizes the feature attributes and subjective scores of all the images in the LIVE database to construct a dictionary, and the final quality score is calculated by interpolating the subjective scores of nearby words in the dictionary. Unlike the traditional SVM based blind IQA methods, the proposed metrics have explicit expressions, which reflect the relationships of the perceptual features and the image quality well. Experiment results in the publicly available databases such as LIVE, CSIQ and TID2008 had shown the effectiveness of the proposed methods, and the performances are fairly acceptable.

  8. PERSONALITY TRAITS AND BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija TAHIROVIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD show pathological personality traits in three of the five domains (APA 2013. In addition to diagnostic criteria for BPD, described by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, the dimensional model of personality disorder, based on five-factor model of personality, seems to gain interest as it promisses to eliminate problems associated with poor-fit, co-morbidity and unclear diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to identify the personality traits by people who are already diagnosed with BPD using the DSM-5 categorical criteria. Based on the theoretical concepts and existing research findings as well as increased interest in the dimensional personality theory, we assume that people diagnosed with BPD will show high levels of pathology on three trait domains: negative affectivity, disinhibition and antagonism. This study was conducted in Germany in psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5 was used. The findings supported the assumptions that people with BPD show some degree of anxiousness, emotional lability, hostility, impulsivity, risk taking and separation anxiety. The study also found that traits such as distractibility, withdrawal and submissiveness were also present in this participant group. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants it has provided contribution to the already existing knowledge and understanding in regards to common personality treats for people diagnosed with BPD.

  9. Blind Source Separation of Multispectral Astronomical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijaoui, Albert; Nuzillard, Danielle

    Multispectral images lead to classify pixels, but often with the drawback that each pixel value is the result of a combination of different sources. We examined the ability of Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods to restore the independent sources. We tested different tools on HST images of the Seyfert galaxy 3C120: the Karhunen-Loéve expansion based on the diagonalization of the cross correlation matrix, algorithms which maximize contrast functions and programs which take into account the cross correlation between shift sources. With the last tools we obtained similar decompositions corresponding mainly to real phenomena. BSS can be considered as an interesting exploratory tool for astronomical data mining.

  10. Hypersensitivity to pain in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Vision is important for avoiding encounters with objects in the environment that may imperil physical integrity. We tested whether, in the absence of vision, a lower pain threshold would arise from an adaptive shift to other sensory channels. We therefore measured heat and cold pain thresholds...... that blind subjects are more attentive to signals of external threats. These findings indicate that the absence of vision from birth induces a hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, lending new support to a model of sensory integration of vision and pain processing....

  11. Using noise inconsistencies for blind image forensics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saic, Stanislav; Mahdian, Babak

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2009), s. 1497-1503 ISSN 0262-8856 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * Digital forgery * Image tampering * Image segmentation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/saic-using%20noise%20inconsistencies%20for%20blind%20image%20forensics.pdf

  12. Constrained variable projection method for blind deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelio, A; Piccolomini, E Loli; Nagy, J G

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the solution of the blind deconvolution problem, here modeled as a separable nonlinear least squares problem. The well known ill-posedness, both on recovering the blurring operator and the true image, makes the problem really difficult to handle. We show that, by imposing appropriate constraints on the variables and with well chosen regularization parameters, it is possible to obtain an objective function that is fairly well behaved. Hence, the resulting nonlinear minimization problem can be effectively solved by classical methods, such as the Gauss-Newton algorithm.

  13. Computer Game Lugram - Version for Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Delić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer games have undoubtedly become an integral part of educational activities of children. However, since computer games typically abound with audio and visual effects, most of them are completely useless for children with disabilities. Specifically, computer games dealing with the basics of geometry can contribute to mathematics education, but they require significant modifications in order to be suitable for the visually impaired children. The paper presents the results of research and adaptation of the educational computer game Lugram to the needs of completely blind children, as well as the testing of the prototype, whose results are encouraging to further research and development in the same direction.

  14. PARENT Quick Blind Round-Robin Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braatz, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heasler, Patrick G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) whose goal is to investigate the effectiveness of current and novel nondestructive examination procedures and techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. This is to be done by conducting a series of open and blind international round-robin tests on a set of piping components that include large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds. The blind testing is being conducted in two segments, one is called Quick-Blind and the other is called Blind. The Quick-Blind testing and destructive analysis of the test blocks has been completed. This report describes the four Quick-Blind test blocks used, summarizes their destructive analysis, gives an overview of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques applied, provides an analysis inspection data, and presents the conclusions drawn.

  15. Childhood blindness in India: a population based perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, R; Dandona, L

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness in children in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: These data were obtained as part of two population based studies in which 6935 children ≤15 years of age participated. Blindness was defined as presenting distance visual acuity <6/60 in the better eye. Results: The prevalence of childhood blindness was 0.17% (95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.30). Treatable refractive error caused 33.3% of the blindness, followed by 16.6% due to preventable causes (8.3% each due to vitamin A deficiency and amblyopia after cataract surgery). The major causes of the remaining blindness included congenital eye anomalies (16.7%) and retinal degeneration (16.7%). Conclusion: In the context of Vision 2020, the priorities for action to reduce childhood blindness in India are refractive error, cataract related amblyopia, and corneal diseases. PMID:12598433

  16. Advice from Blind Teachers on How to Teach Statistics to Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A. Jonathan R.; Loots, M. Theodor

    2015-01-01

    Blind students are bound to make up a very small part of the population most university lecturers will encounter during their careers. Research to date shows that good communication between staff and student improves the chances of a successful outcome for both parties. The research does show, however, that the exercise seems to be one of…

  17. PROBLEMS WRITING FROM DICTATION FOR BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ševala Tulumović; Branka Eškirović; Izeta Husić-Đuzić

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this research was to get insight into mistakes that occur while blind and visually impaired students, and students with no visual disabilities, when writing by dictation. Respondents sample was consisted of three groups of students: blind (N = 51), visually impaired (N = 42) and students with no visual disabilities (N = 123). Respondents sample included students from first to fourth grade of elementary schools in Tuzla Canton as well as blind and visually impaired students ...

  18. Information on blinding in registered records of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viergever Roderik F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information on blinding is part of the data that should be provided upon registration of a trial at a clinical trials registry. Reporting of blinding is often absent or of low quality in published articles of clinical trials. This study researched the presence and quality of information on blinding in registered records of clinical trials and highlights the important role of data-recording formats at clinical trial registries in ensuring high-quality registration.

  19. Change Blindness in Information Visualization: a Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowell, Lucy T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Ted E.

    2001-08-20

    Change blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. In using an information visualization system to compare document collection subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blindness makes it impossible for users to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions developed for two visual analysis tools, the SPIRE Galaxies visualization and the SPIRE ThemeView?.

  20. Fundamental Limits of Blind Deconvolution Part I: Ambiguity Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Sunav; Mitra, Urbashi

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is an ubiquitous non-linear inverse problem in applications like wireless communications and image processing. This problem is generally ill-posed, and there have been efforts to use sparse models for regularizing blind deconvolution to promote signal identifiability. Part I of this two-part paper characterizes the ambiguity space of blind deconvolution and shows unidentifiability of this inverse problem for almost every pair of unconstrained input signals. The approach in...

  1. A Secured Application for Generating Acoustic Signal for Blind People

    OpenAIRE

    PrachiPhursutkar; Apurva Bajaj; Priyanka Veer; Tai Chormale; Prof.G.M.Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Visionless people face many difficulties in their daily activities. This paper is basically designed to facilitate blind people for autonomous navigation. It is based on ‘image to sound’ conversion. The mobile camera is used to captures the image in front of the blind user. This image is then equated with the database and the processed information is fetched by blind user through a set of earphones. Color information of the object is also measured and it is informed...

  2. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  3. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid Scoring Record #833

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Burch, William; McDonnell, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. This Scoring Record was coordinated by Dennis Teefy and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  4. Standardized UXO Demonstration Site Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 690

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Archiable, Robert; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Scoring Committee...

  5. Enhanced Chemosensory Detection of Negative Emotions in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine D. Iversen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally acknowledged that congenitally blind individuals develop superior sensory abilities in order to compensate for their lack of vision. Substantial research has been done on somatosensory and auditory sensory information processing of the blind. However, relatively little information is available about compensatory plasticity in the olfactory domain. Although previous studies indicate that blind individuals have superior olfactory abilities, no studies so far have investigated their sense of smell in relation to social and affective communication. The current study compares congenitally blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants’ abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from donors who had been watching excerpts from emotional movies showing amusement, fear, disgust, or sexual arousal. Our results show that congenitally blind subjects outperformed sighted controls in identifying fear from male donors. In addition, there was a strong tendency that blind individuals were also better in detecting disgust. Our findings reveal that congenitally blind individuals are better at identifying ecologically important emotions and provide new insights into the mechanisms of social and affective communication in blindness.

  6. Change Blindness in Information Visualization: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowell, Lucille T.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Tanasse, Theodore E.

    2001-08-20

    AbstractChange blindness occurs when people do not notice changes in visible elements of a scene. If people use an infor-mation visualization system to compare document collec-tion subsets partitioned by their time-stamps, change blind-ness makes it impossible for them to recognize even very major changes, let alone minor ones. We describe theories from cognitive science that account for the change blindness phenomenon, as well as solutions de-veloped for two visual analysis tools, a dot plot (SPIRE Galaxies) and landscape (ThemeView?) visualizations.

  7. A weak blind signature scheme based on quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaojun; Niu, Xiamu; Ji, Liping; Tian, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present a weak blind signature scheme based on the correlation of EPR (Einstein-Padolsky-Rosen) pairs. Different from classical blind signature schemes and current quantum signature schemes, our quantum blind signature scheme could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. To achieve that, quantum key distribution and one-time pad are adopted in our scheme. Experimental analysis proved that our scheme have the characteristics of non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. It has a wide application to E-payment system, E-government, E-business, and etc.

  8. Why blind diabetics with renal failure should be offered treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, C T

    1983-01-01

    During May 1978 to April 1983 this renal dialysis unit treated 65 patients by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Of these, 24 had type I (insulin dependent) diabetes, of whom 20 were blind; eight had type II (non-insulin dependent) diabetes, of whom three were blind; and 33 did not have diabetes and were not blind. The cumulative actuarial survival rates of these patients at five years were 60% for blind diabetics, 40% for sighted diabetics, and 46% for the non-diabetics. Of the 23 bl...

  9. Blind RRT: A probabilistically complete distributed RRT

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Cesar

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) have been successful at finding feasible solutions for many types of problems. With motion planning becoming more computationally demanding, we turn to parallel motion planning for efficient solutions. Existing work on distributed RRTs has been limited by the overhead that global communication requires. A recent approach, Radial RRT, demonstrated a scalable algorithm that subdivides the space into regions to increase the computation locality. However, if an obstacle completely blocks RRT growth in a region, the planning space is not covered and is thus not probabilistically complete. We present a new algorithm, Blind RRT, which ignores obstacles during initial growth to efficiently explore the entire space. Because obstacles are ignored, free components of the tree become disconnected and fragmented. Blind RRT merges parts of the tree that have become disconnected from the root. We show how this algorithm can be applied to the Radial RRT framework allowing both scalability and effectiveness in motion planning. This method is a probabilistically complete approach to parallel RRTs. We show that our method not only scales but also overcomes the motion planning limitations that Radial RRT has in a series of difficult motion planning tasks. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Asymmetric iterative blind deconvolution of multiframe images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, David S. C.; Andrews, Mark

    1998-10-01

    Imaging through a stochastically varying distorting medium, such as a turbulent atmosphere, requires multiple short-exposure frames to ensure maximum resolution of object features. Restoration methods are used to extract the common underlying object from the speckle images, and blind deconvolution techniques are required as typically there is little prior information available about either the image or individual PSFs. A method is presented for multiframe restoration based on iterative blind deconvolution, which alternates between restoring the image and PSF estimates. A maximum-likelihood approach is employed via the Richardson-Lucy (RL) method which automatically ensures positively and conservation of the total number of photons. The restoration is accelerated by applying a vector sequence is treated as a 3D volume of data and processed to produce a 3D stack of PSFs and a single 2D image of the object. The problem of convergence to an undesirable solution, such as a delta function, is addressed by weighting the number of image or PSF iterations according to how quickly each is converging, this leads to the asymmetrical nature of the algorithm. Noise artifacts are suppressed by using a dampened RL algorithm to prevent over fitting of the corrupted data. Results are presented for real single frame and simulated multiframe speckle imaging.

  11. Blind Linguistic Steganalysis against Translation Based Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhili; Huang, Liusheng; Meng, Peng; Yang, Wei; Miao, Haibo

    Translation based steganography (TBS) is a kind of relatively new and secure linguistic steganography. It takes advantage of the "noise" created by automatic translation of natural language text to encode the secret information. Up to date, there is little research on the steganalysis against this kind of linguistic steganography. In this paper, a blind steganalytic method, which is named natural frequency zoned word distribution analysis (NFZ-WDA), is presented. This method has improved on a previously proposed linguistic steganalysis method based on word distribution which is targeted for the detection of linguistic steganography like nicetext and texto. The new method aims to detect the application of TBS and uses none of the related information about TBS, its only used resource is a word frequency dictionary obtained from a large corpus, or a so called natural frequency dictionary, so it is totally blind. To verify the effectiveness of NFZ-WDA, two experiments with two-class and multi-class SVM classifiers respectively are carried out. The experimental results show that the steganalytic method is pretty promising.

  12. Obstacle perception by congenitally blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmead, D H; Hill, E W; Talor, C R

    1989-11-01

    The ability to perceive objects from a distance and navigate without vision depends principally on auditory information. Two experiments were conducted in order to assess this ability in congenitally blind children aged 4 to 12 years who had negligible amounts of visual experience or formal mobility training. In Experiment 1, children walked along a sidewalk toward a target location to get some candy. A box was placed along the path on some trials, and the children were instructed to avoid the box if it was present. The children spent more time in the region just in front of the box than in the region just behind it, indicating that they perceived the box and acted so as to navigate around it. In Experiment 2, children attempted to discriminate whether a nearby disk was on their left or on their right. The children performed at above-chance levels, again indicating distal perception of objects. The results of both experiments suggest that blind children with little or no visual experience or formal training utilize nonvisual information, presumably auditory, to perceive objects. The specific nature of this auditory information requires further investigation, but these findings imply that the underlying perceptual ability does not require experience in spatial vision or deliberate training and intervention.

  13. The first colour blind American president?

    OpenAIRE

    Goutier, Ettienne

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the link between a mindset of respect for differences and the benefits thereof for global organisations and persons. The profound influence of a person's mindset or worldview towards differences has on the performance of teams and people in multicultural and diverse settings is demonstrated with relatable anecdotes. The influence of the (subconscious) mindsets in these anecdotes is used to explain a model that plots the mental stages of development of intercultural sensiti...

  14. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Questions to ...

  15. Paranoid personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorder - paranoid; PPD ... American Psychiatric Association. Paranoid personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013:649-652. Blais MA, Smallwood ...

  16. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and ...

  17. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment ...

  18. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy Questions to ...

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychotherapy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Search About Us Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Diagnosis and Treatment Resources For Professionals Contact Us NYP.org Borderline Personality Disorder Resource Center Diagnosis and Treatment Psychotherapy ...

  20. Paraphilia and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlers, Christoph Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Paraphilia and Personality - An Exploration of the Relation between Sexuel Preference and the Big Five Personality Factors in an Sample of 466 Men between 40 and 70 Years from the General Population of Berlin, Germany EU.

  1. Personality Psychology and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Mathilde Almlund; Angela Lee Duckworth; James J. Heckman; Tim D. Kautz

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the power of personality traits both as predictors and as causes of academic and economic success, health, and criminal activity. Measured personality is interpreted as a construct derived from an economic model of preferences, constraints, and information. Evidence is reviewed about the "situational specificity" of personality traits and preferences. An extreme version of the situationist view claims that there are no stable personality traits or preference parameters tha...

  2. Multimethod, contextualized personality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hopwood, CJ; Bleidorn, W

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology. Lievens asserted that personality researchers should (a) use multiple methods, in contrast to traditional over-reliance on self-report and (b) move past highly general and context-free assessments to more careful consideration of the situations within which personality predictions are made. These points are with reference to personnel selection settings using the broader framework of Trait Activation Theory. Like most personality research...

  3. Can Acupuncture Treatment Be Double-Blinded? An Evaluation of Double-Blind Acupuncture Treatment of Postoperative Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Takayama, Miho; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Kawase, Akiko; Schuster, Lars; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Blinding protects against bias but the success of blinding is seldom assessed and reported in clinical trials including studies of acupuncture where blinding represents a major challenge. Recently, needles with the potential for double-blinding were developed, so we tested if acupuncture can be double-blinded in a randomized study of sixty-seven patients with acute pain ≥ 3 (0-10 scale following third molar removal) who received active acupuncture with a penetrating needle or placebo acupuncture with a non-penetrating needle. To test if acupuncture was administered double-blind, patients and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed “de qi” in East Asian medicine), and patients’ pain levels were assessed. Perceived treatment allocation depended on actual group allocation (p pain levels did not influence the perceived treatment. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment was not fully double-blinded which is similar to observations in pharmacological studies. Still, the non-penetrating needle is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in the assessment of acupuncture treatment. PMID:25747157

  4. Personality and Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psycholog...

  5. Personality and Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Katrina; Littlejohn, Geoffrey O

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to review how personality characteristics contribute to the onset, maintenance or modulation of fibromyalgia. Method: The databases Medline and PsychINFO were examined from 1967 to 2012 to identify studies that investigated associations between fibromyalgia and personality. Search terms included fibromyalgia and personality, trait psychology, characteristics and individual differences. Results: Numerous studies indicate that patients with fibromyalgia experience psychological distress. Various instruments have been used to evaluate distress and related psychological domains, such as anxiety or depression, in fibromyalgia. In many cases, these same instruments have been used to study personality characteristics in fibromyalgia with a subsequent blurring of cause and effect between personality and psychological distress. In addition, the symptoms of fibromyalgia may change pre-illness personality characteristics themselves. These issues make it difficult to identify specific personality characteristics that might influence the fibromyalgia process. Despite this inherent problem with the methodologies used in the studies that make up this literature review, or perhaps because of it, we found no defined personality profile specific to fibromyalgia. However, many patients with fibromyalgia do show personality characteristics that facilitate psychological responses to stressful situations, such as catastrophising or poor coping techniques, and these in turn associate with mechanisms contributing to fibromyalgia. Conclusion: No specific fibromyalgia personality is defined but it is proposed that personality is an important filter that modulates a person’s response to psychological stressors. Certain personalities may facilitate translation of these stressors to physiological responses driving the fibromyalgia mechanism. PMID:23002409

  6. Personality and Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles M.

    2004-01-01

    Bases for individual acceptance and cultural integration of gays and lesbians were investigated by assessing qualities of personality among four participant groups: Heterosexual females, heterosexual males, homosexual females, and homosexual males. Personality was operationally defined as personal qualities and characteristics associated with…

  7. A movement-based approach to language development in children who are deaf-blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, L; Griffin, H C

    1997-12-01

    A movement-based approach to the development of language in children with deaf-blindness includes utilization of the four coactive movement phases: resonance, coactive movement, nonrepresentation reference, and deferred imitation. Such an approach stresses the use of structure in the environment as well as the use of a hierarchy of media cues. These cues range from concrete to symbolic in their characteristics and assist children in learning more complex concepts. A movement based approach uses the salient features of individuals or objects to develop an understanding of the person or object. Such features initially are used to stimulate use of language concerning objects or individuals in the immediate environment, and later to refer to persons or concepts in a more abstract fashion.

  8. Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Boutron

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blinding is a cornerstone of treatment evaluation. Blinding is more difficult to obtain in trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment and frequently relies on "creative" (nonstandard methods. The purpose of this study was to systematically describe the strategies used to obtain blinding in a sample of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched in Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing nonpharmacological treatment with blinding, published during 2004 in high-impact-factor journals. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction form. We identified 145 articles, with the method of blinding described in 123 of the reports. Methods of blinding of participants and/or health care providers and/or other caregivers concerned mainly use of sham procedures such as simulation of surgical procedures, similar attention-control interventions, or a placebo with a different mode of administration for rehabilitation or psychotherapy. Trials assessing devices reported various placebo interventions such as use of sham prosthesis, identical apparatus (e.g., identical but inactivated machine or use of activated machine with a barrier to block the treatment, or simulation of using a device. Blinding participants to the study hypothesis was also an important method of blinding. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors relied mainly on centralized assessment of paraclinical examinations, clinical examinations (i.e., use of video, audiotape, photography, or adjudications of clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: This study classifies blinding methods and provides a detailed description of methods that could overcome some barriers of blinding in clinical trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment, and provides information for readers assessing the quality of results of such trials.

  9. Person Recognition in Personal Photo Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Seong Joon; Benenson, Rodrigo; Fritz, Mario; Schiele, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Recognising persons in everyday photos presents major challenges (occluded faces, different clothing, locations, etc.) for machine vision. We propose a convnet based person recognition system on which we provide an in-depth analysis of informativeness of different body cues, impact of training data, and the common failure modes of the system. In addition, we discuss the limitations of existing benchmarks and propose more challenging ones. Our method is simple and is built on open source and o...

  10. 34 CFR 395.14 - The State Committee of Blind Vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The State Committee of Blind Vendors. 395.14 Section... BLIND ON FEDERAL AND OTHER PROPERTY The State Licensing Agency § 395.14 The State Committee of Blind... Blind Vendors which, to the extent possible, shall be fully representative of all blind vendors in the...

  11. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper......, an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...

  12. 75 FR 28331 - Meaningful Access to United States Currency for Blind and Visually Impaired Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... individual may receive a replacement reader from the CRPC upon request if the circumstances, such as a lost, damaged, or obsolete reader, are reasonable and warrant replacement. The CRPC will also establish a... words, what colors should BEP use, what is the optimal size of the numerals, and where should the...

  13. Blood Glucose Meters That Are Accessible to Blind and Visually Impaired Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Uslan, Mark M.; Burton, Darren M.; Clements, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Blood glucose meters (BGMs) that can be used nonvisually or with a visual limitation were introduced in the mid-1990s, but it was not until 2006 and 2007 that a new set of meters with accessibility features were introduced: Prodigy, Prodigy Autocode, and Prodigy Voice (Diagnostic Devices, Charlotte, NC), and Advocate and Advocate Redi-Code (TaiDoc, Taiwan). Accessibility attributes of the newly introduced BGMs were tabulated, and product design features were examined and documented. The Prodi...

  14. Drinking Rainwater: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Study of Water Treatment Filters and Gastroenteritis Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Shelly; Sinclair, Martha; Forbes, Andrew; Cunliffe, David

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether drinking untreated rainwater, a practice that is on the rise in developed countries because of water shortages, contributes to community gastroenteritis incidence. Methods. We conducted a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial in Adelaide, Australia. Sham or active water treatment units were installed, and participants recorded incidences of illness in a health diary for 12 months. The primary outcome was highly credible gastroenteritis (HCG; characterized by a specified number of loose stools or vomiting alone or in combination with abdominal pain or nausea in a 24-hour period), and we used generalized estimating equations to account for correlations between numbers of HCG events for individuals in the same family. Results. Participants reported 769 episodes during the study (0.77 episodes/person/year), with an HCG incidence rate ratio (active vs sham) of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82, 1.33). Blinding of the participants was effective (index = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.58, 0.72). Conclusions. Our results suggest that consumption of untreated rainwater does not contribute appreciably to community gastroenteritis. However, our findings may not be generalizable to susceptible and immunocompromised persons because these groups were specifically excluded from the study. PMID:20724681

  15. Blindness resulting from orbital cellulitis following rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Mook; Han, Sang Chul; Ho, Samuel Y M; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Youn Hwan

    2013-05-01

    Ophthalmic complications occurring after non-ophthalmic surgery are rare. We present a case of orbital cellulitis in a 24-year-old woman, who had undergone augmentation rhinoplasty in combination with breast augmentation. Symptoms included pain, swelling, erythema and eventual loss of vision in the left eye. Intravenous administration of antibiotics did not halt the rapid progression of this infection. On the sixth postoperative day, the patient underwent left-orbital evisceration to prevent the spread of infection to other organ systems. Despite aggressive therapy, the sequela was permanent, unilateral blindness. Orbital cellulitis in aesthetic surgery is extremely rare. In patients undergoing rhinoplasties that may be prolonged due to other concomitant cosmetic procedures, aseptic preoperative preparation and careful monitoring for signs of orbital infection are recommended. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Indoor inertial waypoint navigation for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Whalen, William E; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction and evaluation of an inertial dead reckoning navigation system that provides real-time auditory guidance along mapped routes. Inertial dead reckoning is a navigation technique coupling step counting together with heading estimation to compute changes in position at each step. The research described here outlines the development and evaluation of a novel navigation system that utilizes information from the mapped route to limit the problematic error accumulation inherent in traditional dead reckoning approaches. The prototype system consists of a wireless inertial sensor unit, placed at the users' hip, which streams readings to a smartphone processing a navigation algorithm. Pilot human trials were conducted assessing system efficacy by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system with real-time guidance, versus offline verbal directions.

  17. Testing a solar-blind pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrín, J.; Marzo, A.; Cañadas, I.; Rodríguez, J.

    2010-12-01

    Surface temperatures are key parameters in many concentrated solar radiation applications. Pyrometric temperature measurement of solar irradiated material surfaces is the alternative to contact measurement techniques, which are inadequate for measuring the temperatures of such surfaces. However, reflected solar radiation is an important uncertainty variable in this non-contact methodology. A promising method for eliminating this solar perturbation is by using centred passband filters on the atmospheric solar absorption bands, creating solar-blind pyrometric systems. A commercial pyrometer has been tested in the wavelength band at around 1.4 µm in the solar furnace at Plataforma Solar de Almería, showing its advantages and limitations. An estimation of temperature measurement uncertainty for a real case is presented with theory and experiment in agreement: the higher the temperature, the lower the uncertainty. Another experiment has shown that the pyrometer measures temperature properly even through quartz windows in this spectral range.

  18. Blind surveys for radio pulsars and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorimer, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    The main reasons for searching for pulsars are to: (i) get an accurate census of the neutron star population and its origin and evolution; (ii) connect neutron stars to other stellar populations in the Galaxy and globular clusters; (iii) study Galactic astronomy (the interstellar medium and magnetic field); (iv) find and study new interesting individual objects; (v) study pulsar phenomenology; (vi) find pulsars to add to the sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays. This review focuses on blind (i.e. large area) searches for radio pulsars. I'll summarize the methods we use, some of the challenges they present, look at some of the recent and current efforts going on. I will also look at outreach of this area to groups outside the traditional area of pulsar research, highlight the discoveries of radio transients and look ahead to the future. Pulsars found at other wavelengths will be reviewed elsewhere in this volume.

  19. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to develop an experimental setup for human exposure to mold spores, and to study the clinical effect of this exposure in sensitive subjects who had previously experienced potentially building-related symptoms (BRS) at work. From three water-damaged schools eight employees....... In conclusion this is, to our knowledge, the first study to successfully conduct a human exposure to a highly controlled dose of fungal material aerosolized directly from wet building materials. This short-term exposure to high concentrations of two different molds induced no more reactions than exposure...... to placebo in eight sensitive school employees. However, a statistical type II error cannot be excluded because of the small sample size. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In this double blind, placebo controlled study of mold exposure changes in symptoms, objective measurements and blood samples were small and mostly...

  20. Blind Signatures in Electronic Voting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczyk, Marcin

    Electronic voting systems are created to facilitate the election, accelerate voting and counting votes and increase turnout for the election. The main problems of the electronic systems are related with the assurance of system security (cryptographic security and protection against frauds) and a guarantee that the voters are anonymous. The authorization of voters and the anonymity of them seem to be contradictory, but it is possible to create such a system where the both requirements are met. Some solutions, the most common e-voting systems, are presented in the paper. These models are adjusted to the demands and implemented in the polls system for quality of teaching evaluation where anonymity is very important. The blind signature protocol, model directed to user's anonymity, is a very good solution of the authorization and anonymity problem in the polls system with remote access only, as it was described in the paper.

  1. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to develop an experimental setup for human exposure to mold spores, and to study the clinical effect of this exposure in sensitive subjects who had previously experienced potentially building-related symptoms (BRS) at work. From three water-damaged schools eight employees...... with a positive histamine release test to Penicillium chrysogenum were exposed double- blinded to either placebo, approximately 600,000 spores/m3 air of P. chrysogenum or approximately 350,000 spores/m3 of Trichoderma harzianum for 6 min on three separate days. A statistically significant rise in symptoms from...... mucous membranes appeared from the 9-graded symptom scale after exposure to T. harzianum or placebo. Dichotomizing the data, whether the participants experienced at least a two-step rise on the symptom scale or not, gave borderline increase in mucous membrane symptoms after exposure to P. chrysogenum...

  2. What Nigerian ophthalmologists do for their irreversibly blind patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis of irreversible blindness (IB) is a traumatic one for both the ophthalmologist and the patient, because of the finality of the patient's loss of sight. There are supportive measures that an ophthalmologist could provide to ensure a dignified and productive life for the blind patient. This communication examines the ...

  3. Prevalence and causes of blindness and Low Vision in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ethiopia lacked accurate recent national estimates of blindness and low vision. Therefore, prevention and control programs face serious problem of lack of recognition of the problem and challenges in tracking achievements towards program goals. Objective: To determine the prevalence of blindness and low ...

  4. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the prevalence of blindness and low vision was conducted in the Ingwavuma district of KwaZulu to assess the effectiveness of existing eye care facilities in the prevention and treatInent of impaired vision and blindness. One hundred subjects from each of 60 randomly selected clusters (N =6 090) were screened.

  5. Blind Rage: An Open Letter to Helen Keller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleege, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    In a letter addressed to Helen Keller, the author discusses the frustrations of being blind in the modern-day world. She reflects on the seeming pettiness of her complaints next to the difficulties Keller would have faced, especially given all of the new technologies and accommodations available to the blind. She wonders how Keller dealt with her…

  6. Selected Sewing Machines Evaluated for Use by Blind Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Nora M.; Huffman, Vera J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a study using blind high school students and a repeated subject design to evaluate six selected sewing machines. The major purposes were to compare and analyze specific sewing machine features and to determine the machines' overall ease of performance when operated by blind students. (CT)

  7. Object Permanence, Reaching, and Locomotion in Infants Who Are Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.; Tobin, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The literature on the effects of congenital blindness on infants' development of motor functions and concepts of object permanence is reviewed. The article questions the idea that infants must first develop an object concept before sound clues alone will elicit reaching. Possible interventions to redress the effects of congenital blindness on…

  8. Encoding audio motion: spatial impairment in early blind individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eFinocchietti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequence of blindness on auditory spatial localization has been an interesting issue of research in the last decade providing mixed results. Enhanced auditory spatial skills in individuals with visual impairment have been reported by multiple studies, while some aspects of spatial hearing seem to be impaired in the absence of vision. In this study, the ability to encode the trajectory of a 2 dimensional sound motion, reproducing the complete movement, and reaching the correct end-point sound position, is evaluated in 12 early blind individuals, 8 late blind individuals, and 20 age-matched sighted blindfolded controls. Early blind individuals correctly determine the direction of the sound motion on the horizontal axis, but show a clear deficit in encoding the sound motion in the lower side of the plane. On the contrary, late blind individuals and blindfolded controls perform much better with no deficit in the lower side of the plane. In fact the mean localization error resulted 271 ± 10 mm for early blind individuals, 65 ± 4 mm for late blind individuals, and 68 ± 2 mm for sighted blindfolded controls.These results support the hypothesis that i it exists a trade-off between the development of enhanced perceptual abilities and role of vision in the sound localization abilities of early blind individuals, and ii the visual information is fundamental in calibrating some aspects of the representation of auditory space in the brain.

  9. Haptic object matching by blind and sighted adults and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, A.J.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Vervloed, M.P.J.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    he present study describes a tactual object matching task based on the study of Lederman and Klatzky (1987) for the dimensions Exact shape, Weight. Volume and Texture. Participants were congenitally blind children and their sighted classmates, congenitally blind adults and sighted adults. To study a

  10. Haptic object matching by blind and sighted adults and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Ans; Kappers, Astrid M L; Vervloed, Mathijs P J; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    The present study describes a tactual object matching task based on the study of Lederman and Klatzky (1987) for the dimensions Exact shape, Weight, Volume and Texture. Participants were congenitally blind children and their sighted classmates, congenitally blind adults and sighted adults. To study

  11. Haptic object matching by blind and sighted adults and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, A.; Kappers, A.M.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07445370X; Vervloed, M.P.J.; Knoors, H.; Verhoeven, L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes a tactual object matching task based on the study of Lederman and Klatzky (1987) for the dimensions Exact shape, Weight, Volume and Texture. Participants were congenitally blind children and their sighted classmates, congenitally blind adults and sighted adults. To study

  12. Causes of Adult Blindness at Ecwa Eye Hospital, Kano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    accounting for 94 (42.3%), 28 (12.6%) and 19 (8.7%) of the unilaterally blind cases. Conclusion: Avoidable causes of blindness were predominant at. ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano. Concerted efforts at increasing cataract surgical volume, awareness and early treatment of glaucoma as well as education on prevention and early.

  13. Blindness from bilateral bullous retinal detachment: tragedy of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a scourge of blindness possibly due to an inherited condition causing retinal detachment in 3 siblings. Methods: In February 2004, three siblings from a monogamous family from Ipetu-Ijesha in Osun state, Nigerian presented to the author consecutively with history of visual impairment/ blindness.

  14. Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, R; Beaulieu-Lefebvre, M; Schneider, F C

    2011-01-01

    is highly plastic and that blind individuals rely more on their sense of smell than the sighted do. The olfactory system in the blind is therefore likely to be susceptible to cross-modal changes similar to those observed for the tactile and auditory modalities. To test this hypothesis, we used functional...

  15. Prevalence and causes of blindness in a tropical African population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cataract alone accounted for 47.4% of the blind, uncorrected aphakia 18.4%, glaucoma 15.8%, phthisis bulbi 5.3%, uveitis, optic atrophy, macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa and refractive error all accounted for 2.6% each. Conclusion:- More than half of the burden of blindness is potentially curable. About a third is ...

  16. Learning Resources for the Blind | Abosi | Nigerian School Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian School Library Journal ... Basically, teaching aids for the blind fall into two distinct groups, those providing the basic tools of learning such as writing machines, arithmetic boards and allied instruments and those ... In this write-up, an attempt is made to examine some of the basic learning resources for the blind.

  17. Visual Impairment and Blindness in 5 Communities in IMO State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent estimates in Sub-Saharan Africa showed that 21.4 million people are visually impaired with 4.8 million of these blind. Approximately 80% of these are preventable or curable through the delivery of cost-effective eye care services. Aim: This study aims to determine the burden of visual impairment and blindness in Imo ...

  18. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  19. Amygdala activation for eye contact despite complete cortical blindness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burra, N.; Hervais-Adelman, A.; Kerzel, D.; Tamietto, M.; de Gelder, B.; Pegna, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical blindness refers to the loss of vision that occurs after destruction of the primary visual cortex. Although there is no sensory cortex and hence no conscious vision, some cortically blind patients show amygdala activation in response to facial or bodily expressions of emotion. Here we

  20. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public information systems, epidemiological data and funding for blindness programmes are often lacking and have hampered comprehensive blindness control programmes in the rural communities, a fact that underscores the importance of this study. Aim: To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and ...

  1. Enhanced chemosensory detection of negative emotions in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Katrine D.; Ptito, Maurice; Møller, Per

    2015-01-01

    blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants' abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from...

  2. Eye diseases and blindness in Adjumani refugee settlement camps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of the blindness and ocular morbidity amongst Sudanese refugees; to prioritise and provide eye care services to the refugees and; to device administrative strategies and logistics of prevention and control of blinding diseases among the refugees. Design: A mobile ...

  3. Uniocular blindness among children in the Gambia | Duke | Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others included congenital cataract, glaucoma and retinoblastoma. Conclusion: The commonest cause of uniocular blindness was ocular trauma. Focus should be directed towards the prevention, early referral and appropriate treatment of ocular trauma in children. Strategies for the prevention of childhood blindness would ...

  4. Acting upon dynamic speed limits: Is change blindness involved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Ilse; Brookhuis, Karel; Mrowinski, Vicky

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic speed limits are the latest traffic management pilot in the Netherlands. Being dynamic they can vary during the day. Previous studies showed difficulties with noticing small changes, also called change blindness. These change blindness studies have mainly been conducted using static scenes

  5. Causse of Adult Blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano | Olatunji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To identify the cause of adult blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano. Materials and methods: It was a hospital-based prospective study. Blindness was defined as vision of <3/60 in the better eye. The history of each patient was taken and a routine ocular examination was conducted using a Snellen or E-chart, a pen ...

  6. Causes of Adult Blindness at Ecwa Eye Hospital, Kano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Aim: To identify the cause of adult blindness at ECWA Eye. Hospital, Kano. Materials and methods: It was a hospital-based prospective study. Blindness was defined as vision of <3/60 in the better eye. The history of each patient was taken and a routine ocular examination was conducted using a Snellen or E-chart, a pen.

  7. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  8. Identity and Development: Lessons Learned from a Blind Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junefelt, Karin

    2004-01-01

    This article uses an analysis of speech to qualitatively examine the relationship between a blind child and his environment, his use of semiotic signs, and his identity development. A brief overview of development in blind children is followed by a case study. The theoretical construct of this article, which is interactionism, is infused into the…

  9. Causes of blindness among hospital outpatients in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Helene; Landers, John; Benitez, Paul

    2006-03-01

    There is a lack of published information on the causes of blindness in Ecuador and the Latin American region in general. This study is designed to enumerate the proportions of ocular conditions contributing to blindness in an outpatient population of an ophthalmology hospital in the coastal region of Ecuador. All cases presenting to an ophthalmology outpatient clinic over a 3-week period during September 2004 were reviewed (n = 802). Visual acuity was measured using a Snellen acuity chart and those who met the criteria for blindness were included in the study (n = 118). Blindness was defined under the World Health Organization protocol as visual acuity of glaucoma (15%). Among those considered to have bilateral blindness (n = 30), refraction was the most common cause (37%), followed by cataract (23%) and glaucoma (17%). The major causes of blindness found in this study reflected those in estimated data for the region. More studies are needed to improve the quality and quantity of epidemiological data on blindness in Ecuador and Latin America. Many obstacles to successful implementation of prevention of blindness programmes in South America still need to be overcome.

  10. Blindness in southern Nigeria: a review of available data | Pedro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To bring up to date, existing knowledge on the prevalence and common causes of blindness in SouthernNigeria. Available publications on blindness in national and international journals, some dissertations of theNational PostgraduateMedicalCollege and the internet using MEDLINE. Data relating to the prevalence and ...

  11. Personality and Euroscepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes towards EU integration are widely studied, yet we know only little about the role of personality for EU attitudes. Utilizing a framing experiment encompassing positive and negative frames of EU integration, this article reports on how personality influences attitudes towards EU...... integration, and how personal predispositions moderate framing effects, impacting EU attitude formation. The study relies on Danish and Swedish data (N = 1808). I test both the direct impact of personality on EU attitudes and personality's moderating impact on framing effects. I find that extraversion...... and openness positively correlate with positive EU attitudes, while people scoring high on neuroticism tend to support the EU less. Furthermore, I find that personality moderates different EU frames. Individuals with certain personality traits are more influenced by framing effects than others, while positive...

  12. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  13. Regularization mechanism in blind tip reconstruction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jóźwiak, G.; Henrykowski, A.; Masalska, A.; Gotszalk, T.

    2012-01-01

    In quantitative investigations of mechanical and chemical surface parameters using atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques the determination of the probe radius and shape is required. To the most favorable methods of the microprobe characterization belongs the blind tip reconstruction method (BTR). The BTR similar to many other inverse problems is sensitive to noise and needs the so-called regularization mechanism. In this article we describe and investigate two the most popular regularization schemes, which were proposed in Villarubia et al. (1997) and Tian et al. (2008) . We have shown that the procedure described in Tian et al. (2008) enables very effective probe shape reconstruction if we know the statistics of noise present in the AFM system. The increase of effectiveness with relation to the procedure described in Villarubia (1997) is so significant that makes it possible to reconstruct probes with much larger resolution. We have also noticed the fact, that probes reconstructed by means of the procedure presented in Tian et al. (2008) have flat apexes for AFM images with low signal to noise ratio (SNR). We propose procedure, which can improve the probe apex reconstruction. It uses the AFM image to estimate the initial shape of the reconstructed probe. This shape may be further improved by the BTR algorithm. We have shown that it is possible only for the procedure described in Tian et al. (2008) . -- Highlights: ► We study regularization mechanism of blind tip reconstruction. ► We propose combination of direct probe imaging with BTR to improve the reconstruction of a probe apex. ► The possibility of improving efficiency of the BTR procedure is presented. ► The possibility of improving resolution of a reconstructed probe is presented.

  14. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  15. A Weak Quantum Blind Signature with Entanglement Permutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhigang; Guo, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Motivated by the permutation encryption algorithm, a weak quantum blind signature (QBS) scheme is proposed. It involves three participants, including the sender Alice, the signatory Bob and the trusted entity Charlie, in four phases, i.e., initializing phase, blinding phase, signing phase and verifying phase. In a small-scale quantum computation network, Alice blinds the message based on a quantum entanglement permutation encryption algorithm that embraces the chaotic position string. Bob signs the blinded message with private parameters shared beforehand while Charlie verifies the signature's validity and recovers the original message. Analysis shows that the proposed scheme achieves the secure blindness for the signer and traceability for the message owner with the aid of the authentic arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. In addition, the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attackers. It has a wide application to E-voting and E-payment system, etc.

  16. Superior Orthonasal but Not Retronasal Olfactory Skills in Congenital Blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Ismaili, Abd Rahman Alaoui; Ptito, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    olfactory but reduced taste perception. In this study we tested the hypothesis that congenitally blind subjects have enhanced orthonasal but not retronasal olfactory skills. Twelve congenitally blind and 14 sighted control subjects, matched in age, gender and body mass index, were asked to identify odours...... using grocery-available food powders. Results showed that blind subjects were significantly faster and tended to be better at identifying odours presented orthonasally. This was not the case when odorants were presented retronasally. We also found a significant group x route interaction, showing...... that although both groups performed better for retronasally compared to orthonasally presented odours, this gain was less pronounced for blind subjects. Finally, our data revealed that blind subjects were more familiar with the orthonasal odorants and used the retronasal odorants less often for cooking than...

  17. Consequences of Choice Blindness on Memory: Altered Self-Reports Cause Memory-Blindness Distortion

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on the misinformation effect has demonstrated that memory for events can be distorted by suggestive information presented after the fact. A separate line of research on choice blindness has shown that after making a choice between multiple alternatives, if people are told they chose something different from what they actually chose, they often fail to notice the discrepancy. In a methodological marriage of these two paradigms, participants first witnessed an event, and wer...

  18. Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons : A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, Paul; Graafmans, Wilco C.; Ooms, Marcel E.; Bezemer, P. Dick; Bouter, Lex M.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether vitamin D supplementation decreases the incidence of hip fractures and other peripheral bone fractures. Design: Prospective, double-blind trial. Setting: Community setting (Amsterdam and surrounding area). Patients: 2578 persons (1916 women, 662 men) 70 years of age

  19. 20 CFR 416.1168 - How we deem income to you from your essential person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we deem income to you from your essential person. 416.1168 Section 416.1168 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Deeming of Income § 416.1168 How we deem income to...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1169 - When we stop deeming income from an essential person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When we stop deeming income from an essential person. 416.1169 Section 416.1169 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Deeming of Income § 416.1169 When we stop deeming...

  1. A Functional Classification for Independent Living for Persons with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, D. J.; Dunlap, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    A meaningful classification for living, work, and education was achieved by grouping 159 persons who were blind or visually impaired into 5 groups ranging from low to high functioning, according to 7 independent living skills: family responsibility; health and hygiene; legal awareness; community awareness; money management; social/interpersonal…

  2. A Note on Some Problems in the Testing of Personality Characteristics in Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Michael; Hill, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    An examination is made of the value of using published personality tests with young blind and partially sighted children. Based on data gathered during a longitudinal investigation into the educational and psychological development of a group of 120 visually impaired learners, the authors conclude that their own selection of a test instrument…

  3. 20 CFR 416.1132 - What we mean by “living in another person's household”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... householdâ. 416.1132 Section 416.1132 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1132 What we... consider a household to be a personal place of residence. A commercial establishment such as a hotel or...

  4. Concepts and Criteria for Blind Quantum Source Separation and Blind Quantum Process Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Deville

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blind Source Separation (BSS is an active domain of Classical Information Processing, with well-identified methods and applications. The development of Quantum Information Processing has made possible the appearance of Blind Quantum Source Separation (BQSS, with a recent extension towards Blind Quantum Process Tomography (BQPT. This article investigates the use of several fundamental quantum concepts in the BQSS context and establishes properties already used without justification in that context. It mainly considers a pair of electron spins initially separately prepared in a pure state and then submitted to an undesired exchange coupling between these spins. Some consequences of the existence of the entanglement phenomenon, and of the probabilistic aspect of quantum measurements, upon BQSS solutions, are discussed. An unentanglement criterion is established for the state of an arbitrary qubit pair, expressed first with probability amplitudes and secondly with probabilities. The interest of using the concept of a random quantum state in the BQSS context is presented. It is stressed that the concept of statistical independence of the sources, widely used in classical BSS, should be used with care in BQSS, and possibly replaced by some disentanglement principle. It is shown that the coefficients of the development of any qubit pair pure state over the states of an orthonormal basis can be expressed with the probabilities of results in the measurements of well-chosen spin components.

  5. A survey of visual impairment and blindness in children attending seven schools for the blind in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muecke, James; Hammerton, Michael; Aung, Yee Yee; Warrier, Sunil; Kong, Aimee; Morse, Anna; Holmes, Martin; Yapp, Michael; Hamilton, Carolyn; Selva, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    To determine the causes of visual impairment and blindness amongst children in schools for the blind in Myanmar; to identify the avoidable causes of visual impairment and blindness; and to provide spectacles, low vision aids, orientation and mobility training and ophthalmic treatment where indicated. Two hundred and eight children under 16 years of age from all 7 schools for the blind in Myanmar were examined and the data entered into the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Examination Record for Childhood Blindness (WHO/PBL ERCB). One hundred and ninety nine children (95.7%) were blind (BL = Visual Acuity [VA] blind in Myanmar had potentially avoidable causes of SVI/BL. With measles being both the commonest identifiable and commonest avoidable cause, the data supports the need for a measles immunization campaign. There is also a need for a dedicated pediatric eye care center with regular ophthalmology visits to the schools, and improved optometric, low vision and orientation and mobility services in Myanmar.

  6. Personality Disorders, Impulsiveness, and Novelty Seeking in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William H; Crowe, Raymond R; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the presence of personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking in probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG), controls, and their respective first-degree relatives using a blind family study methodology. Ninety-three probands with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and their 395 first-degree relatives were evaluated for the presence of personality disorder with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Impulsiveness was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Novelty seeking was evaluated using questions from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations to account for within family correlations. PG probands had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorders than controls (41 vs. 7 %, OR = 9.0, P personality disorder had more severe gambling symptoms; earlier age at PG onset; more suicide attempts; greater psychiatric comorbidity; and a greater family history of psychiatric illness than PG probands without a personality disorder. PG relatives had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorder than relatives of controls (24 vs. 9%, OR = 3.2, P personality disorder and increases along with rising BIS Non-Planning and Total scale scores. Personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking are common in people with PG and their first-degree relatives. The presence of a personality disorder appears to be a marker of PG severity and earlier age of onset. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and trait impulsiveness. These findings suggest that personality disorder and impulsiveness may contribute to a familial diathesis for PG.

  7. Personalized Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Arjmand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine as a novel field of medicine refers to the prescription of specific therapeutics procedure for an individual. This approach has established based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information and data. The terms precision and personalized medicines are sometimes applied interchangeably. However, there has been a shift from “personalized medicine” towards “precision medicine”. Although personalized medicine emerged from pharmacogenetics, nowadays it covers many fields of healthcare. Accordingly, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy as the new fields of medicine use cell-based products in order to develop personalized treatments. Different sources of stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have been considered in targeted therapies which could give many advantages. iPSCs as the novel and individual pluripotent stem cells have been introduced as the appropriate candidates for personalized cell therapies. Cellular therapies can provide a personalized approach. Because of person-to-person and population differences in the result of stem cell therapy, individualized cellular therapy must be adjusted according to the patient specific profile, in order to achieve best therapeutic results and outcomes. Several factors should be considered to achieve personalized stem cells therapy such as, recipient factors, donor factors, and the overall body environment in which the stem cells could be active and functional. In addition to these factors, the source of stem cells must be carefully chosen based on functional and physical criteria that lead to optimal outcomes.

  8. Back to the Future: Personality and Assessment and Personality Development

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Brent W.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay I consider the future of personality development in light of the past effects of Personality and Assessment on the field of personality in general and personality development in particular. The essay is organized around 1) the effect of Mischel's book on the foundational theories informing personality development; 2) definitions of personality traits; 3) an alternative model of personality traits, described as the sociogenomic model of personality traits, that can bridge the div...

  9. Blindness in tuberous sclerosis: A case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an inherited neuro- ... No personality change or excessive weight changes was noticed. She had an episode of generalized tonic convulsion that lasted about 20 minutes with no loss of sphincter control .... taneous disorder that is associated with tumours in vari-.

  10. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in the blind population supported by the Yazd Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini - Ardakani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO estimated that there were 37.1 million blind people worldwide. It has subsequently been reported that 110 million people have severely impaired vision, hence are at great risk of becoming blind. Watkins predicted an annual increase of about two million blind worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the causes of blindness and low vision in the blind population supported by the welfare organization of Yazd, Iran. Methods: This clinical descriptive cross-sectional study was done from January to September, 2003. In total, 109 blind patients supported by the welfare organization were included in this study. All data was collected by standard methods using questionnaire, interview and specific examination. The data included; demographic characteristics, clinical states, ophthalmic examination, family history and the available prenatal information. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and chi square test. Results: Of total patients, 73 cases were male (67% and 36 were female (33%. The median age was 24.6 years (range one month to 60 years. More than half of the cases (53.2% could be diagnosed in children less than one year of age. In total, 79 patients (88.1% were legally blind of which 23 cases (29.1% had no light perception (NLP. The most common causes of blindness were retinitis pigmentosa (32.1% followed by ocular dysgenesis (16.5%. Conclusion: Our data showed that more than half of the blindness cases occur during the first year of life. The most common cause of blindness was retinitis pigmentosa followed by ocular dysgenesis, cataract and glaucoma, respectively.

  11. Personer med handicap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian; Jonassen, Anders Bruun; Høgelund, Jan

    væsentligt i perioden frem til 2006. Det især personer med nedsat hørelse, som er kommet i beskæftigelse. Undersøgelsen er finansieret af Arbejdsmarkedskommissionen. Den bygger på oplysninger om personer med handicap, som havde en målt funktionsnedsættelse i 1995, og personer uden et handicap i 1995. Disse...

  12. Schizotypal Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other personality disorders Problems with alcohol or drugs Suicide attempts Temporary psychotic episodes, usually in response to stress Schizophrenia By Mayo Clinic Staff . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal ...

  13. Schizotypal personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... schizotypal References American Psychiatric Association. Schizotypal personality disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5 . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013; ...

  14. Protection of personality rights

    OpenAIRE

    Strejcová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    The thesis deals with the legal regulation of protection of personality rights. According to the certain changes in personality protection legal regulation caused by recent adoption of new Civil Code, Law no. 89/2012 Coll., the topic appears to be up to date. The aim of this thesis is to bring current legal regulation of this issue in its general terms. The thesis is divided into eight chapters. The first chapter explains basic terms such as personality and general right of personality. Secon...

  15. Personal Identity in Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Podroužková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of human enhancement, its methods and its relation to personal identity. Also several approaches to personal identity will be described. Transhumanism is a special think tank supporting human enhancement through modern technologies and some of its representatives claim, that even great changes to human organisms will not affect their personal identity. I will briefly describe the most important means of human enhancment and consider the problem of personal identity for each of them separately.

  16. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  17. Electrophysiological correlates of mental navigation in blind and sighted people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Wood, Guilherme; Kampl, Christiane; Neuper, Christa; Ischebeck, Anja

    2014-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate functional reorganization of the occipital cortex for a mental navigation task in blind people. Eight completely blind adults and eight sighted matched controls performed a mental navigation task, in which they mentally imagined to walk along familiar routes of their hometown during a multi-channel EEG measurement. A motor imagery task was used as control condition. Furthermore, electrophysiological activation patterns during a resting measurement with open and closed eyes were compared between blind and sighted participants. During the resting measurement with open eyes, no differences in EEG power were observed between groups, whereas sighted participants showed higher alpha (8-12Hz) activity at occipital sites compared to blind participants during an eyes-closed resting condition. During the mental navigation task, blind participants showed a stronger event-related desynchronization in the alpha band over the visual cortex compared to sighted controls indicating a stronger activation in this brain region in the blind. Furthermore, groups showed differences in functional brain connectivity between fronto-central and parietal-occipital brain networks during mental navigation indicating stronger visuo-spatial processing in sighted than in blind people during mental navigation. Differences in electrophysiological parameters between groups were specific for mental navigation since no group differences were observed during motor imagery. These results indicate that in the absence of vision the visual cortex takes over other functions such as spatial navigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Personality Profiles of Cultures: Aggregate Personality Traits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McCrae, R.R.; Terracciano, A.; Leibovich, N.B.; Schmidt, V.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Neubauer, A.; De Fruyt, F.; Munyae, M.; Flores-Mendoza, C.; Dahourou, D.; Ayearst, L. E.; Trobst, K.K.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Bratko, D.; Marušic´, I.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Mortensen, L.K.; Jensen, H.H.; Allik, J.; Realo, A.; Sineshaw, T.; Rolland, J-P.; Petot, J.M.; Camart, N.; Angleitner, A.; Ostendorf, F.; Yik, M.; Jónsson, F. H.; Pramila, V.S.; Halim, M. S.; Jaya, A.; Shahriar Shahidi, S.; Barbaranelli, C.; Shimonaka, Y.; Gakuin, B.; Nakazato, K.; Abdel Khalek, A. M.; Alansari, B. M.; Khoury, B.; Mastor, K.A.; Falzon, R.; Lauri, M.A.; Borg Cunen, M.A.; Scicluna Calleja, S.; Diaz-Loving, R.; Ghayur, M. A.; Fischer, R.; Oluyinka Ojedokun, A.; Prentice, G.; McRorie, M.; Wang, L.; Reátegui, N.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; del Pilar, G.E.H.; Sekowski, A.; Klinkosz, W.; Pedroso de Lima, M.; Porrata, J.; Martin, T.A.; Ficková, E.; Adamovová, L.; Rus, V.R.; Podobnik, N.; Zupancic, A.; Ahn, H.; Ahn, Ch.; Avia, M. D.; Sánchez-Bernardos, M.L.; Ruch, W.; Rossier, J.; Chittcharat, N.; Gülgöz, S.; Nansubuga, F.; Smith, P.B.; Matsumoto, D.; Diener, E.; Beer, A.; Humrichouse, J.; Budzinski, L.; Oishi, S.; Knežević, G.; Djuric Jocic, D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 3 (2005), s. 407-425 ISSN 0022-3514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/01/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : personality * five-factor model * cross - cultural * culture-level analyses * culture profiles Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 4.211, year: 2005

  19. Personal Visualization and Personal Visual Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dandan; Tory, Melanie; Aseniero, Bon Adriel; Bartram, Lyn; Bateman, Scott; Carpendale, Sheelagh; Tang, Anthony; Woodbury, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Data surrounds each and every one of us in our daily lives, ranging from exercise logs, to archives of our interactions with others on social media, to online resources pertaining to our hobbies. There is enormous potential for us to use these data to understand ourselves better and make positive changes in our lives. Visualization (Vis) and visual analytics (VA) offer substantial opportunities to help individuals gain insights about themselves, their communities and their interests; however, designing tools to support data analysis in non-professional life brings a unique set of research and design challenges. We investigate the requirements and research directions required to take full advantage of Vis and VA in a personal context. We develop a taxonomy of design dimensions to provide a coherent vocabulary for discussing personal visualization and personal visual analytics. By identifying and exploring clusters in the design space, we discuss challenges and share perspectives on future research. This work brings together research that was previously scattered across disciplines. Our goal is to call research attention to this space and engage researchers to explore the enabling techniques and technology that will support people to better understand data relevant to their personal lives, interests, and needs.

  20. Visual impairment and blindness in spanish adults: geographic inequalities are not explained by age or education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Anna; Artazcoz, Lucía; Guisasola, Laura; Benach, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine for the first time the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness among adults in Spain, to explore regional differences, and to assess whether they may vary as a function of sex or be explained by age and individual or regional socioeconomic position. Data were obtained from the 2008 Spanish Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy, and Dependency Situations, a cross-sectional survey based on a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Spain. The sample was composed of 213 626 participants aged ≥15 years (103 093 men and 110 533 women); 360 were blind (160 men and 200 women), 4048 had near visual impairment (1397 men and 2651 women), and 4034 had distance visual impairment (1445 men and 2589 women). The prevalence of near and distance visual impairment was calculated for each region. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. All analyses were stratified by sex. Visual impairment was based on 3 questions aimed at identifying blindness and near and distance visual impairment. The prevalence (percentage) of blindness was 0.17 (men, 0.16; women, 0.18): 1.89 for near visual impairment (men, 1.36; women, 2.40), 1.89 for distance visual impairment (men, 1.40; women, 2.34), and 2.43 for any visual impairment (men, 1.81; women, 3.02). Regional inequalities in the prevalence of visual impairment were observed, correlated with regional income, and the prevalence was consistently higher among women than men. The magnitude of the inequalities remained after adjusting for age and educational level, and a north-to-south pattern of increasing prevalence was observed. Regional and sex inequalities in the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness were observed in Spain, with a north-to-south gradient of increasing prevalence that was not explained by age or individual educational level but was correlated with regional level of economic