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Sample records for blind cross-over placebo-controlled

  1. Homeopathy for mental fatigue: lessons from a randomized, triple blind, placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Michael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Difficulty in controlling attention can lead to mental fatigue in the healthy population. We identified one trial reporting a benefit in patients’ attention using a homeopathic formula preparation. One component of the preparation was potassium phosphate, widely available off the shelf as Kali phos 6x for cognitive problems. The aim of this exploratory trial was to assess the effectiveness of Kali phos 6x for attention problems associated with mental fatigue. Methods We recruited student and staff volunteers (University of York with self-reported mental fatigue, excluding any using homeopathy or prescribed stimulants, or with a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome. In a triple blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 86 volunteers were randomized to receive Kali phos 6x or identical placebo 10 minutes before taking a psychological test of attention (Stroop Colour-Word Test. One week later they were crossed over and took the other preparation before repeating the test. Results We found no evidence of a treatment effect in a comparison of Kali phos 6x with placebo (Kali phos minus placebo = −1.1 (95% CI −3.0 to 0.9, P = 0.3 Stroop score units, Cohen effect size = −0.17 even when allowing for a weak period effect with accuracy scores in the second period being higher than those in the first (P = 0.05. We observed a ceiling effect in the Stroop test which undermined our ability to interpret this result. Conclusions Kali phos 6x was not found to be effective in reducing mental fatigue. A ceiling effect in our primary outcome measure meant that we could not rule out a type II error. Thorough piloting of an adequate outcome measure could have led to an unequivocal result. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16521161

  2. Caffeine improves endurance in 75-year old citizens. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchard Nørager, Charlotte; Jensen, Martin Bach; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical performance in healthy citizens aged ≥70 yr. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted in 15 men and 15 women recruited by their general practitioner. Participants abstained from caffeine for 48 h and...... consumption. Further studies are required to investigate whether caffeine can be utilized to improve the physical performance of elderly citizens.......This study investigated the effect of caffeine on physical performance in healthy citizens aged ≥70 yr. The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted in 15 men and 15 women recruited by their general practitioner. Participants abstained from caffeine for 48 h...... and were randomized to receive one capsule of placebo and then caffeine (6 mg/kg) or caffeine and then placebo with 1 wk in between. One hour after intervention, we measured reaction and movement times, postural stability, walking speed, cycling at 65% of expected maximal heart rate, perceived effort...

  3. Gabapentin in traumatic nerve injury pain: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, multi-center study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordh, Torsten E; Stubhaug, Audun; Jensen, Troels S;

    2008-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over multi-center study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gabapentin in the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by traumatic or postsurgical peripheral nerve injury, using doses up to 2400mg/day. The study comprised a run......), interference of sleep by pain, Clinician and Patient Global Impression of Change, and adverse effects. Nine centers randomized a total of 120 patients, 22 of whom withdrew. There was no statistically significant difference between the treatments for the primary outcome efficacy variable. However, gabapentin...... provided significantly better pain relief (p=0.015) compared with placebo. More patients had at least a 30% pain reduction with gabapentin compared with placebo (p=0.040) and pain interfered significantly less with sleep during gabapentin treatment compared with placebo (p=0.0016). Both the Patient (p=0...

  4. Quercetin lowers plasma uric acid in pre-hyperuricaemic males: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2016-03-14

    Elevated plasma uric acid concentration is a risk factor for gout, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Quercetin, a flavonoid found in high levels in onions, tea and apples, inhibits xanthine oxidoreductase in vitro, the final step in intracellular uric acid production, indicating that quercetin might be able to lower blood uric acid in humans. We determined the effects of 4 weeks of oral supplementation of quercetin on plasma uric acid, blood pressure and fasting glucose. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial recruited twenty-two healthy males (19-60 years) with baseline plasma uric acid concentration in the higher, but still considered healthy, range (339 (SD 51) µmol/l). The intervention included one tablet containing 500 mg quercetin daily for 4 weeks, compared with placebo, with a 4-week washout period between treatments. The primary outcome was change in concentrations of plasma uric acid after 2 and 4 weeks; secondary outcome measures were changes in fasting plasma glucose, 24-h urinary excretion of uric acid and resting blood pressure. After quercetin treatment, plasma uric acid concentrations were significantly lowered by -26·5 µmol/l (95% CI, -7·6, -45·5; P=0·008), without affecting fasting glucose, urinary excretion of uric acid or blood pressure. Daily supplementation of 500 mg quercetin, containing the bioavailable amount of quercetin as present in approximately 100 g red onions, for 4 weeks, significantly reduces elevated plasma uric acid concentrations in healthy males.

  5. Effect of oral administration of freshly pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea on the number of various subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes in healthy volunteers: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Evelyn; Parlesak, Alexandr; Henneicke-von-Zeppelin, H. H.;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a recent double-blind placebo-controlled crossover-study the "immune stimulatory" effects (activation of macrophages leading to enhanced phagocytosis and production of several cytokines) of Echinacea purpurea preparations (EPP) which were observed in vitro experiments and following......-40 years) participated in the study. They received either a commercially available pressed juice of E. purpurea herbs or placebo juice using a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design with two treatment periods of 14 days. The total number of lymphocytes and 12 subgroups of lymphocytes were...

  6. Effects of oral L-carnitine administration in narcolepsy patients: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Miyagawa

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, and rapid eye movement (REM sleep abnormalities. A genome-wide association study (GWAS identified a novel narcolepsy-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, which is located adjacent to the carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (CPT1B gene encoding an enzyme involved in β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. The mRNA expression levels of CPT1B were associated with this SNP. In addition, we recently reported that acylcarnitine levels were abnormally low in narcolepsy patients. To assess the efficacy of oral L-carnitine for the treatment of narcolepsy, we performed a clinical trial administering L-carnitine (510 mg/day to patients with the disease. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial. Thirty narcolepsy patients were enrolled in our study. Two patients were withdrawn and 28 patients were included in the statistical analysis (15 males and 13 females, all with HLA-DQB1*06:02. L-carnitine treatment significantly improved the total time for dozing off during the daytime, calculated from the sleep logs, compared with that of placebo-treated periods. L-carnitine efficiently increased serum acylcarnitine levels, and reduced serum triglycerides concentration. Differences in the Japanese version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 vitality and mental health subscales did not reach statistical significance between L-carnitine and placebo. This study suggests that oral L-carnitine can be effective in reducing excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN UMIN000003760.

  7. Effects of smartphone use with and without blue light at night in healthy adults: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Dong Jun; Chang, Kyung-Ah Judy; Oh, Yunhye; Yu, Bum-Hee; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2017-04-01

    Smartphones deliver light to users through Light Emitting Diode (LED) displays. Blue light is the most potent wavelength for sleep and mood. This study investigated the immediate effects of smartphone blue light LED on humans at night. We investigated changes in serum melatonin levels, cortisol levels, body temperature, and psychiatric measures with a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled design of two 3-day admissions. Each subject played smartphone games with either conventional LED or suppressed blue light from 7:30 to 10:00PM (150 min). Then, they were readmitted and conducted the same procedure with the other type of smartphone. Serum melatonin levels were measured in 60-min intervals before, during and after use of the smartphones. Serum cortisol levels and body temperature were monitored every 120 min. The Profile of Mood States (POMS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and auditory and visual Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs) were administered. Among the 22 participants who were each admitted twice, use of blue light smartphones was associated with significantly decreased sleepiness (Cohen's d = 0.49, Z = 43.50, p = 0.04) and confusion-bewilderment (Cohen's d = 0.53, Z = 39.00, p = 0.02), and increased commission error (Cohen's d = -0.59, t = -2.64, p = 0.02). Also, users of blue light smartphones experienced a longer time to reach dim light melatonin onset 50% (2.94 vs. 2.70 h) and had increases in body temperature, serum melatonin levels, and cortisol levels, although these changes were not statistically significant. Use of blue light LED smartphones at night may negatively influence sleep and commission errors, while it may not be enough to lead to significant changes in serum melatonin and cortisol levels.

  8. Oral nitric-oxide donor glyceryl-trinitrate induces sensitization in spinal cord pain processing in migraineurs: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Armando; Serrao, Mariano; Tassorelli, Cristina; Arce-Leal, Natalia; Guaschino, Elena; Sances, Grazia; Rossi, Paolo; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Pierelli, Francesco; Sandrini, Giorgio; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    Nitric-oxide donor glyceryl-trinitrate (GTN) modulates cerebral and spinal regions that are involved in migraine and pain processing. We hypothesized that in migraineurs, the susceptibility to develop a migraine attack after GTN administration should parallel with an high sensitivity to GTN-induced change in the pain processing at spinal level. We used the temporal summation threshold (TST) of the lower limb nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and the related pain sensation to study in parallel the time-course of the effect of the GTN administration on the pain processing at spinal level in migraine and healthy subjects. Twenty-eight (21 F; 7M; mean age 34.2 ± 8.2) migraine and 15 (11 F; 4M; mean age 35.9 ± 8.9) healthy subjects were recruited in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Neurophysiological examinations were carried out before (baseline) and 30', 60', 120', 180' and 240' after GTN (0.9 mg sublingual) or placebo administration during two different sessions. In migraineurs, GTN administration was associated to a significant facilitation in temporal summation of pain (reduced TST and increased painful sensation) 60', 120' and 180' after drug intake when compared to baseline, to placebo condition and to controls after GTN intake. Furthermore, in migraineurs who developed migraine after GTN, a significant facilitation in temporal summation of pain was detected 60', 120' and 180' after drug intake when compared to patients without clinical response. In migraineurs the susceptibility to develop migraine attack after GTN administration seems to be a specific trait of a subgroup of patients linked to a supersensitivity of the pain system to GTN.

  9. Effect of oral administration of freshly pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea on the number of various subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes in healthy volunteers: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Evelyn; Parlesak, Alexandr; Henneicke-von-Zeppelin, H. H.

    2005-01-01

    -40 years) participated in the study. They received either a commercially available pressed juice of E. purpurea herbs or placebo juice using a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design with two treatment periods of 14 days. The total number of lymphocytes and 12 subgroups of lymphocytes were......-Mann-Whitney-U-test, which is claimed to be optimal for the evaluation of the results of studies with a cross-over design, a significant difference was found for the number of CD8 + -T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells corresponding to either a decrease during treatment with verum or an increase in the number......BACKGROUND: In a recent double-blind placebo-controlled crossover-study the "immune stimulatory" effects (activation of macrophages leading to enhanced phagocytosis and production of several cytokines) of Echinacea purpurea preparations (EPP) which were observed in vitro experiments and following...

  10. A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study to determine the gastrointestinal effects of consumption of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides enriched bread in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walton Gemma E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prebiotics are food ingredients, usually non-digestible oligosaccharides, that are selectively fermented by populations of beneficial gut bacteria. Endoxylanases, altering the naturally present cereal arabinoxylans, are commonly used in the bread industry to improve dough and bread characteristics. Recently, an in situ method has been developed to produce arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS at high levels in breads through the use of a thermophilic endoxylanase. AXOS have demonstrated potentially prebiotic properties in that they have been observed to lead to beneficial shifts in the microbiota in vitro and in murine, poultry and human studies. Methods A double-blind, placebo controlled human intervention study was undertaken with 40 healthy adult volunteers to assess the impact of consumption of breads with in situ produced AXOS (containing 2.2 g AXOS compared to non-endoxylanase treated breads. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in faeces were assessed and fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to assess changes in gut microbial groups. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA levels in saliva were also measured. Results Consumption of AXOS-enriched breads led to increased faecal butyrate and a trend for reduced iso-valerate and fatty acids associated with protein fermentation. Faecal levels of bifidobacteria increased following initial control breads and remained elevated throughout the study. Lactobacilli levels were elevated following both placebo and AXOS-breads. No changes in salivary secretory IgA levels were observed during the study. Furthermore, no adverse effects on gastrointestinal symptoms were reported during AXOS-bread intake. Conclusions AXOS-breads led to a potentially beneficial shift in fermentation end products and are well tolerated.

  11. Orodispersible sublingual piribedil to abort OFF episodes: a single dose placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascol, Olivier; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Blin, Olivier; Bonnet, Anne-Marie; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Césaro, Pierre; Damier, Philippe; Debilly, Bérengère; Durif, Frank; Galitzky, Monique; Grouin, Jean-Marie; Pennaforte, Sylvie; Villafane, Gabriel; Yaici, Sadek; Agid, Yves

    2010-02-15

    S90049, a novel sublingual formulation of the non-ergoline D(2)-D(3) agonist piribedil, has a pharmacokinetic profile promising to provide rapid relief on motor signs in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assessed the efficacy and safety of S90049 in aborting OFF episodes responding to subcutaneous apomorphine in PD patients with motor fluctuations. This was a single-dose double-blind double-placebo 3 x 3 cross-over study. Optimal tested doses were determined during a previous open-label titration phase (S90049 median dose: 60 mg, apomorphine: 5 mg). Primary endpoint was the maximal change versus baseline in UPDRS motor score (Delta UPDRS III) assessed after drug administration following an overnight withdrawal of antiparkinsonian medications. Thirty patients (age: 60 +/- 8 years, PD duration: 12 +/- 6 years, UPDRS III OFF: 37 +/- 15) participated. S90049 was superior to placebo on Delta UPDRS III (-13 +/- 12 versus -7 +/- 9 respectively; estimated difference -5.2, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)[-10.4;0.05], P = 0.05). This was also true for secondary outcomes: number of patients switching from OFF to ON (17 on S90049 vs. 8 on placebo, P = 0.03), time to turn ON (P = 0.013) and duration of the ON phase (P = 0.03). In the 17 patients who switched ON on S90049, Delta UPDRS III was similar on S90049 (-21.2 +/- 10.1) and apomorphine (-23.6 +/- 14.1) (estimated difference: 4.0 95% CI [-2.9;10.9]). S90049 was well tolerated: no serious or unexpected adverse event occurred. A single dose of up to 60 mg of S90049 given sublingually was superior to placebo in improving UPDRS III and aborting a practical OFF in patients with advanced PD. Testing greater doses might improve response rate.

  12. Double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of intravenous S-adenosyl-L-methionine in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkmann, H; Nørregaard, J; Jacobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of intravenously administered S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Thirty-four out-patients with fibromyalgia symptoms received SAMe 600 mg i.v. or placebo daily for 10 days in a cross-over trial. There was no sign......The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of intravenously administered S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Thirty-four out-patients with fibromyalgia symptoms received SAMe 600 mg i.v. or placebo daily for 10 days in a cross-over trial.......17) and slight improvement only on fatigue, quality of sleep, morning stiffness, and on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire for pain. No effect could be observed on isokinetic muscle strength, Zerrsen self-assessment questionnaire, and the face scale. No effect of SAMe in patients with FM was found...

  13. Effects of a wheat bran extract containing arabinoxylan oligosaccharides on gastrointestinal health parameters in healthy adult human volunteers : a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, Isabelle E. J. A.; Lescroart, Olivier; Veraverbeke, Wim S.; Marzorati, Massimo; Possemiers, Sam; Evenepoel, Pieter; Hamer, Henrike; Houben, Els; Windey, Karen; Welling, Gjalt W.; Delcour, Jan A.; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verbeke, Kristin; Broekaert, Willem F.

    2012-01-01

    Wheat bran extract (WBE) is a food-grade soluble fibre preparation that is highly enriched in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides. In this placebo-controlled cross-over human intervention trial, tolerance and effects on colonic protein and carbohydrate fermentation were studied. After a 1-week run-in peri

  14. Escitalopram in painful polyneuropathy: A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Marit; Bach, Flemming W; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in pain modulation via descending pathways in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to test if escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), would relieve pain in polyneuropathy. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo......-controlled cross-over trial. The daily dose of escitalopram was 20mg once daily. During the two treatment periods of 5 weeks duration, patients rated pain relief (primary outcome variable) on a 6-point ordered nominal scale. Secondary outcome measures comprised total pain and different pain symptoms (touch...

  15. Effect of a fermented dietary supplement containing chromium and zinc on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mi Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the increasing development of type 2 diabetes dietary habits play an important role. In this regard, dietary supplements are of growing interest to influence the progression of this disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cascade-fermented dietary supplement based on fruits, nuts, and vegetables fortified with chromium and zinc on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, intervention study under free-living conditions using a cross-over design. Thirty-six patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled and randomized either to receive a cascade-fermented dietary supplement enriched with chromium (100 µg/d and zinc (15 mg/d or a placebo similar in taste but without supplements, over a period of 12 weeks. After a wash-out period of 12 weeks, the patients received the other test product. The main outcome variable was the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Other outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, and lipid parameters. Results: Thirty-one patients completed the study. HbA1c showed no relevant changes during both treatment periods, nor was there a relevant difference between the two treatments (HbA1c: p=0.48. The same results were found for fructosamine and fasting glucose (fructosamine: p=0.9; fasting glucose: p=0.31. In addition, there was no effect on lipid metabolism. Conclusion: This intervention study does not provide evidence that a cascade-fermented plant-based dietary supplement enriched with a combination of chromium and zinc improves glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under free-living conditions.

  16. Evaluation of the antihistamine effects of olopatadine and levocetirizine during a 24-h period: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison in skin responses induced by histamine iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Tomohiro; Kasugai, Chikatoshi; Tanaka, Rui; Ando, Takashi; Ogawa, Akina; Akita, Yoichi; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    The antihistamine effects of olopatadine and levocetirizine, in standard-dose application described in their information (5 mg twice a day for olopatadine; 5 mg once daily for levocetirizine), were examined from 11.5 to 24 h after application. The test was designed in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study of 12 healthy volunteers on histamine-induced flare and wheal response using an iontophoresis technique. The suppressive effect of olopatadine on the wheals induced by a 0.1-mA histamine iontophoresis lasted for 24 h after dosing. Both drugs inhibited flare induced by histamine iontophoresis almost completely until 24 h after the first administration. Suppression of the 0.2-mA-induced wheal response by levocetirizine, taken once daily, decreased with time, although 0.1-mA-induced flare was almost completely suppressed by the drug. Olopatadine completely suppressed even the wheal response induced by a 0.2-mA histamine iontophoresis. Compared with the placebo, the two drugs significantly suppressed the subjective itching assessed by visual analog scale at all intervals. There were no significant differences in subjective drowsiness and objective cognitive function between drug- and placebo-treated subjects. These results demonstrate that olopatadine seems to be more potent than levocetirizine when administrated in a standard dose. In conclusion, mild to moderate urticaria could be controlled by standard application as described in their information. On the other hand, severe urticaria could be managed by a standard application of olopatadine, but levocetirizine may need an additional dose to control severe urticaria.

  17. Effects of carbohydrates-BCAAs-caffeine ingestion on performance and neuromuscular function during a 2-h treadmill run: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Sébastien L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates (CHOs, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and caffeine are known to improve running performance. However, no information is available on the effects of a combination of these ingredients on performance and neuromuscular function during running. Methods The present study was designed as a randomized double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled trial. Thirteen trained adult males completed two protocols, each including two conditions: placebo (PLA and Sports Drink (SPD: CHOs 68.6 g.L-1, BCAAs 4 g.L-1, caffeine 75 mg.L-1. Protocol 1 consisted of an all-out 2 h treadmill run. Total distance run and glycemia were measured. In protocol 2, subjects exercised for 2 h at 95% of their lowest average speeds recorded during protocol 1 (whatever the condition. Glycemia, blood lactate concentration and neuromuscular function were determined immediately before and after exercise. Oxygen consumption (V˙O2, heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded during the exercise. Total fluids ingested were 2 L whatever the protocols and conditions. Results Compared to PLA, ingestion of SPD increased running performance (p = 0.01, maintained glycemia and attenuated central fatigue (p = 0.04, an index of peripheral fatigue (p = 0.04 and RPE (p = 0.006. Maximal voluntary contraction, V˙O2, and HR did not differ between the two conditions. Conclusions This study showed that ingestion of a combination of CHOs, BCAAs and caffeine increased performance by about 2% during a 2-h treadmill run. The results of neuromuscular function were contrasted: no clear cut effects of SPD were observed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00799630

  18. Rose Hip Powder That Contains the Natural Amount of Shells and Seeds Alleviates Pain in Osteoarthritis of the Dominant Hand—A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kaj; Campbell-Tofte, Joan I A; Hansen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Aim: A standardized preparation of seeds and shells of selected sub-species of Rosa canina L, trade name Hyben Vital, reduces discomfort from osteoarthritis of the knee and hip. This study aims to investigate the impact of the same rose-hip powder (RHP) on discomfort and the consumption of rescue...... medication, in patients with osteoarthritis of the hand. Methods: The double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial included 30 patients with osteoarthritis of the dominant hand. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with either five gram encapsulated RHP or placebo, for three months (Phase 1...

  19. An evaluation of the cognitive and mood effects of an energy shot over a 6h period in volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Keith A; Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2013-08-01

    Energy drinks are widely available mostly containing glucose, and several have been demonstrated to improve alertness and cognitive function; these effects generally being identified 30-60min after administration. The present study assessed whether an energy shot without carbohydrates would affect major aspects of cognitive function and also mood in volunteers over a 6h time period. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,crossover study compared the acute effects of the energy shot with a matching placebo in 94 healthy volunteers. Cognitive function was assessed with a widely used set of automated tests of attention and memory. Mood was assessed with the Bond-Lader, Beck Anxiety Index, Beck Depression Index, Chalder Fatigue Scales (CFS), and the POMS. The volunteers were requested to limit their sleep to between 3 and 6h the night before each testing day. Compared to the placebo, the energy shot significantly improved 6 validated composite cognitive function measures from the CDR System as well as self-rated alertness; the benefits on 4 of the cognitive measures still remaining at 6h. The overall effect sizes of the performance improvements were in the small to medium range and thus notable in this field. In conclusion, an energy shot can significantly improve important aspects of cognitive function for up to 6h compared to placebo in partially sleep-deprived healthy volunteers.

  20. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F

    2005-01-01

    non-significant, and at the same level as after placebo exposure. The developed exposure system based on the Particle-Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (P-FLEC) makes it possible to deliver a precise and highly controlled dose of mold spores from water-damaged building materials, imitating realistic....... In conclusion this is, to our knowledge, the first study to successfully conduct a human exposure to a highly controlled dose of fungal material aerosolized directly from wet building materials. This short-term exposure to high concentrations of two different molds induced no more reactions than exposure...... to placebo in eight sensitive school employees. However, a statistical type II error cannot be excluded because of the small sample size. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In this double blind, placebo controlled study of mold exposure changes in symptoms, objective measurements and blood samples were small and mostly...

  1. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Adele; Kolida, Sofia; Klinder, Annett; Gietl, Eva; Bäuerlein, Michael; Frohberg, Claus; Landschütze, Volker; Gibson, Glenn R

    2010-10-01

    There is growing interest in the use of inulins as substrates for the selective growth of beneficial gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli because recent studies have established that their prebiotic effect is linked to several health benefits. In the present study, the impact of a very-long-chain inulin (VLCI), derived from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus), on the human intestinal microbiota compared with maltodextrin was determined. A double-blind, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-two healthy adults who were randomised into two groups and consumed 10 g/d of either VLCI or maltodextrin, for two 3-week study periods, separated by a 3-week washout period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher upon VLCI ingestion compared with the placebo. Additionally, levels of Atopobium group significantly increased, while Bacteroides-Prevotella numbers were significantly reduced. No significant changes in faecal SCFA concentrations were observed. There were no adverse gastrointestinal symptoms apart from a significant increase in mild and moderate bloating upon VLCI ingestion. These observations were also confirmed by in vitro gas production measurements. In conclusion, daily consumption of VLCI extracted from globe artichoke exerted a pronounced prebiotic effect on the human faecal microbiota composition and was well tolerated by all volunteers.

  2. Dialysis-associated hypertension treated with Telmisartan--DiaTel: a pilot, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Huber

    Full Text Available Treatment of hypertension in hemodialysis (HD patients is characterised by lack of evidence for both the blood pressure (BP target goal and the recommended drug class to use. Telmisartan, an Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB that is metabolised in the liver and not excreted via HD extracorporeal circuit might be particularly suitable for HD patients. We designed and conducted a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind and cross-over trial for treatment of dialysis-associated hypertension with telmisartan 80 mg once daily or placebo on top of standard antihypertensive treatment excluding other Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS blockers. In 29 patients after randomization we analysed BP after a treatment period of 8 weeks, while 13 started with telmisartan and 16 with placebo; after 8 weeks 11 continued with telmisartan and 12 with placebo after cross-over, respectively. Patients exhibited a significant reduction of systolic pre-HD BP from 141.9±21.8 before to 131.3±17.3 mmHg after the first treatment period with telmisartan or placebo. However, no average significant influence of telmisartan was observed compared to placebo. The latter may be due to a large inter-individual variability of BP responses reaching from a 40 mmHg decrease under placebo to 40 mmHg increase under telmisartan. Antihypertensive co-medication was changed for clinical reasons in 7 out of 21 patients with no significant difference between telmisartan and placebo groups. Our starting hypothesis, that telmisartan on top of standard therapy lowers systolic office BP in HD patients could not be confirmed. In conclusion, this small trial indicates that testing antihypertensive drug efficacy in HD patients is challenging due to complicated standardization of concomitant medication and other confounding factors, e.g. volume status, salt load and neurohormonal activation, that influence BP control in HD patients.Clinicaltrialsregister.eu 2005-005021-60.

  3. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...

  4. A randomised, double- blind, cross-over study investigating the prebiotic effect of agave fructans in healthy human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ramnani, Priya; Costabile, Adele; Bustillo, A. G. R.; Gibson, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    This placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over human feeding study aimed to determine the prebiotic effect of agave fructans. A total of thirty-eight volunteers completed this trial. The treatment consisted of 3 weeks' supplementation with 5 g/d of prebiotic agave fructan (Predilife) or equivalent placebo (maltodextrin), followed by a 2-week washout period following which subjects were crossed over to alternate the treatment arm for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week washout. Faecal ...

  5. OROS-methylphenidate efficacy on specific executive functioning deficits in adults with ADHD: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Tannetje I; Bijlenga, Denise; Boonstra, A Marije; Breuk, Minda; Pardoen, Willem F H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra

    2014-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to impaired executive functioning (EF). This is the first study to objectively investigate the effects of a long-acting methylphenidate on neurocognitive test performance of adults with ADHD. Twenty-two adults with ADHD participated in a 6-weeks study examining the effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-mph) on continuous performance tests (CPTs; objective measures), and on the self-reported ADHD rating scale (subjective measure) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. OROS-mph significantly improved reaction time variability (RTV), commission errors (CE) and d-prime (DP) as compared to baseline (Cohen's d>.50), but did not affect hit reaction time (HRT) or omission errors (OE). Compared to placebo, OROS-mph only significantly influenced RTV on one of two CPTs (padults with ADHD. These findings suggest RTV as an endophenotypic parameter for ADHD symptomatology, and propose CPTs as an objective method for monitoring methylphenidate titration.

  6. A Randomised, Cross-Over, Placebo-Controlled Study of Aloe vera in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Effects on Patient Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, H A; Wareham, K; Baxter, J N; Atherton, P; Kingham, J G C; Duane, P; Thomas, L; Thomas, M; Ch'ng, C L; Williams, J G

    2011-01-01

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, difficult to treat condition. The efficacy of Aloe vera in treating IBS symptoms is not yet proven. The purpose of this study was to determine if Aloe vera is effective in improving quality of life. Methods. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, cross-over placebo controlled study design. Patients were randomised to Aloe vera, wash-out, placebo or placebo, washout, Aloe vera. Each preparation (60 mL) was taken orally twice a day. Patient quality of life was measured using the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Score, Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life, EuroQol and the Short-Form-12 at baseline and treatment periods 1 and 2. Results. A total of 110 patients were randomised, but only 47 completed all questionnaires and both study arms. Statistical analysis showed no difference between the placebo and Aloe vera treatment in quality of life. Discussion. This study was unable to show that Aloe vera was superior to placebo in improving quality of life. Drop outs and other confounding factors may have impacted on the power of the study to detect a clinically important difference. Conclusion. This study failed to find Aloe vera superior to placebo in improving quality of life proven Irritable Bowel Syndrome patients.

  7. Intravesical capsaicin in patients with detrusor hyper-reflexia--a placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T; Nielsen, J B; Schrøder, H D

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether intravesical treatment with capsaicin could block detrusor hyper-reflexia (DH) and alter the substance P content, nerve fibres and mucosa of the bladder. Twelve patients with spinal cord disease with DH and urinary incontinence resistant to anticholi......The aim of this study was to determine whether intravesical treatment with capsaicin could block detrusor hyper-reflexia (DH) and alter the substance P content, nerve fibres and mucosa of the bladder. Twelve patients with spinal cord disease with DH and urinary incontinence resistant...... to anticholinergic treatment underwent intravesical administration of 50 ml 2% lignocaine. followed by either 100 ml 1 mmol/l capsaicin or 100 ml physiological saline for 30 min. Cross-over to the alternative treatment took place after 4 weeks. Varying degrees of burning sensation were experienced by all but one...... patient during the capsaicin treatment and precluded the possibility of conducting studies of this type in a blind manner. No preference for capsaicin treatment was found, and micturition and VAS scores were unchanged after treatment with capsaicin. The mean volume of the contents of the bladder at which...

  8. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Emami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (≥8 weeks and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 mg twice daily omeprazole-placebo (OP or matching placebo (placebo-omeprazole [PO] for 4 months, followed by a 1-month washout period and the alternative treatment for 4 months. Assessments included GERD and cough, quality of life, and pulmonary function using spirometry. Leicester Cough Questionnaire and SF-36 were used for measuring quality of life. Results: Patients in the OP group experienced a more decrease than those in the PO group in severity of Leicester cough scores during the first 4-month of trial. After crossing the groups, the OP group experienced an increase (P = 0.036 and the PO group experienced a nonsignificant decrease (P = 0.104 in the severity of scores. The OP group also experienced improvement in GERD symptoms and quality of life at the end of the trial, but changes in the PO group was not significant. There was no significant change in respiratory function indices in any groups. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with high-dose omeprazole improved GERD as well as cough, and quality of life, but not changed respiratory function indices in sulfur mustard injured cases with respiratory symptoms.

  9. Clinical effects of buspirone in social phobia : A double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denBoer, JA; Westenberg, HGM; Pian, KLH

    1997-01-01

    Background: The results of open pilot studies suggest that the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonist buspirone might be effective in social phobia. Method: In the present study, the efficacy of buspirone was investigated in patients with social phobia using a 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled

  10. No matrix effect in double-blind, placebo-controlled egg challenges in egg allergic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Libbers, L.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van der Heide, S.; van der Meulen, G. N.; Kukler, J.; Kerkhof, M.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Diagnostic and accidental food allergic reactions may be modified by the matrix containing the allergenic food. Previous studies of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with peanut found an effect of the fat content of the challenge matrix on the severity of the chal

  11. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of sertraline with naltrexone for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farren, Conor K

    2009-01-01

    Significant preclinical evidence exists for a synergistic interaction between the opioid and the serotonin systems in determining alcohol consumption. Naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, is approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence. This double-blind placebo-controlled study examined whether the efficacy of naltrexone would be augmented by concurrent treatment with sertraline, a selective serotonin receptor uptake inhibitor (SSRI).

  12. An alternative approach to treating lateral epicondylitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Fearon, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of noxious level electrical stimulation on pain, grip strength and functional abilities in subjects with chronic lateral epicondylitis. Design: Randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study. Setting: Physical Therapy Department, North Georgia College and Stat

  13. Placebo reactions in double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; van der Heide, S.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.; Kukler, J.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A cardinal feature of the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is that placebo administration is included as a control. To date, the occurrence and diagnostic significance of placebo events have not extensively been documented. Objective: To analyse the occurrence and

  14. A European multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled monotherapy clinical trial of milnacipran in treatment of fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branco, Jaime C; Zachrisson, Olof; Perrot, Serge

    2010-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study investigated the efficacy and safety of milnacipran in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) in a European population.......This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study investigated the efficacy and safety of milnacipran in the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM) in a European population....

  15. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  16. New validated recipes for double-blind placebo-controlled low-dose food challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg, Anna; Nordström, Lisbeth; Strinnholm, Åsa; Nylander, Annica; Jonsäll, Anette; Rönmark, Eva; West, Christina E

    2013-05-01

    Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges are considered the most reliable method to diagnose or rule out food allergy. Despite this, there are few validated challenge recipes available. The present study aimed to validate new recipes for low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in school children, by investigating whether there were any sensory differences between the active materials containing cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat or cod, and the placebo materials. The challenge materials contained the same hypoallergenic amino acid-based product, with or without added food allergens. The test panels consisted of 275 school children, aged 8-10 and 14-15 yr, respectively, from five Swedish schools. Each participant tested at least one recipe. Standardized blinded triangle tests were performed to investigate whether any sensory differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials. In our final recipes, no significant differences could be detected between the active and placebo materials for any challenge food (p > 0.05). These results remained after stratification for age and gender. The taste of challenge materials was acceptable, and no unfavourable side effects related to test materials were observed. In summary, these new validated recipes for low-dose double-blinded food challenges contain common allergenic foods in childhood; cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat and cod. All test materials contain the same liquid vehicle, which facilitates preparation and dosing. Our validated recipes increase the range of available recipes, and as they are easily prepared and dosed, they may facilitate the use of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges in daily clinical practice.

  17. [Probiotic prophylaxis in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, M.G.; Santvoort, H.C. van; Buskens, E.; Boermeester, M.A.; Goor, H. van; Timmerman, H.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, V.B.; Bollen, T.L.; Ramshorst, B. van; Witteman, B.J.M.; Rosman, C.; Ploeg, R.J.; Brink, M.; Schaapherder, A.F.; Dejong, C.H.; Wahab, P.J.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van; Harst, E. van der; Eijck, C.H. van; Cuesta, M.A.; Akkermans, L.M.; Gooszen, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether enteral prophylaxis with probiotics in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis prevents infectious complications. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHOD: A total of 296 patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis

  18. Randomized double blind placebo control studies, the "Gold Standard" in intervention based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Misra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies follow a hierarchy in terms of the quality of evidence that they can provide. Randomized double blind placebo control (RDBPC studies are considered the "gold standard" of epidemiologic studies. And the same is discussed at length in this paper taking example of a real journal article employing this study design to answer the research question; "Does once daily dose of Valacyclovir reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes in a susceptible partner?" RDBPC studies remain the most convincing research design in which randomly assigning the intervention can eliminate the influence of unknown or immeasurable confounding variables that may otherwise lead to biased and incorrect estimate of treatment effect. Also, randomization eliminates confounding by baseline variables and blinding eliminates confounding by co-interventions, thus eliminating the possibility that the observed effects of intervention are due to differential use of other treatments. The best comparison is placebo control that allows participants, investigators and study staff to be blinded. The advantage of trial over an observational study is the ability to demonstrate causality. Hope, this will be useful to neophyte researchers to understand causal hierarchy when critically evaluating epidemiologic literature.

  19. Randomized double blind placebo control studies, the "Gold Standard" in intervention based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shobha

    2012-07-01

    Studies follow a hierarchy in terms of the quality of evidence that they can provide. Randomized double blind placebo control (RDBPC) studies are considered the "gold standard" of epidemiologic studies. And the same is discussed at length in this paper taking example of a real journal article employing this study design to answer the research question; "Does once daily dose of Valacyclovir reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes in a susceptible partner?" RDBPC studies remain the most convincing research design in which randomly assigning the intervention can eliminate the influence of unknown or immeasurable confounding variables that may otherwise lead to biased and incorrect estimate of treatment effect. Also, randomization eliminates confounding by baseline variables and blinding eliminates confounding by co-interventions, thus eliminating the possibility that the observed effects of intervention are due to differential use of other treatments. The best comparison is placebo control that allows participants, investigators and study staff to be blinded. The advantage of trial over an observational study is the ability to demonstrate causality. Hope, this will be useful to neophyte researchers to understand causal hierarchy when critically evaluating epidemiologic literature.

  20. Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of pivagabine in neurasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, G; Cagnin, A; Mancia, D; Caffarra, P; Avanzi, S; Copelli, S; Ciappina, C; Lo Presti, F; Spilimbergo, P G; D'Antonio, E; Di Costanzo, E; Matrango, M; Pastres, P; Urbani, P P; Signorino, M; Simoncelli, M; Provinciali, L; Regnicolo, L; Albano, C; Roccatagliata, G; Rubino, V; Cultrera, S; Fracassi, M

    1997-11-01

    One hundred and eighteen patients with neurasthenia, as defined by ICD 10 (International Classification of Diseases), participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pivagabine (4-[(2,2-dimethyl-1-oxopropyl)amino]butanoic acid, CAS 69542-93-4, Tonerg). Pivagabine 1800 mg/d was administered orally for four weeks. At the end of the trial, active medication was significantly superior to placebo on the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) improvement of illness scale. In addition, pivagabine treatment reduced the physical and mental fatigability of patients, and increased their sense of well-being.

  1. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. De...

  2. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of spironolactone for hypokalemia in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsiri, Somchai; Thammakumpee, Jiranuch; Prongnamchai, Suriya; Tengpraettanakorn, Pechngam; Chueansuwan, Rachaneeporn; Tangjaturonrasme, Siriporn; Dinchuthai, Pakaphan

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of hypokalemia in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is about 15-60%, leading to significant complications. There is no standard treatment other than potassium supplement in this setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of spironolactone 25 mg/day in CAPD patients who have a history of hypokalemia. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in CAPD patients who had a history of hypokalemia. Study intervention is 4 weeks of oral spironolactone 25 mg/day or placebo, cross-over after a 2-week wash-out period. The primary outcome was the difference of serum potassium before and after 4 weeks of spironolactone treatment. Serum potassium was measured every 2 weeks, serum magnesium, urine and peritoneal fluid potassium measured before and after each treatment period. We enrolled 24 patients, and 20 completed the cross-over study. Ten patients were anuric. The total doses of potassium supplement were the same during the study period. Serum potassium levels before and after study intervention were not significantly different in both groups (4.23 ± 0.64 vs. 3.90 ± 0.59 mEq/L for spironolactone P = 0.077 and 3.84 ± 0.62 vs. 3.91 ± 0.52 for placebo P = 0.551). Total 24-h potassium, magnesium, sodium excretion, urine volume and ultrafiltration volume were not affected by spironolactone or placebo. There was one episode of hyperkalemia (5.6 mEq/L) during the spironolactone treatment period. Spironolactone 25 mg/day does not have a significant effect on serum potassium or urine and peritoneal excretion rate in CAPD patients who have a history of hypokalemia.

  3. Oral contraceptives induce lamotrigine metabolism: evidence from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Petrenaite, Vaiva; Attermann, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    and taking combination-type oral contraceptives, were randomized to treatment with placebo or a standard combination-type contraceptive pill. The dose-corrected trough plasma concentration of LTG and the ratio of N-2-glucuronide/unchanged LTG on urine after 21 days of concomitant placebo treatment...... was analyzed versus those after 21 days of concomitant treatment with the oral contraceptive pill. RESULTS: The mean dose-corrected LTG concentration after placebo treatment was 84%[95% confidence interval (CI), 45-134%] higher than after oral contraceptives, signifying an almost doubling of the concentration......PURPOSE: This study evaluates the effect of oral contraceptives on lamotrigine (LTG) plasma concentrations and urine excretion of LTG metabolites in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Women with epilepsy, treated with LTG in monotherapy...

  4. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate with seven pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Sandhu, S; Losztyn, S; Cernovsky, Z

    1992-12-01

    Seven of ten pedophiles in hospital completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled two-dose comparison of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate. Sequential measures during the 28 week study were: patient self-reports, nurses' observations, phallometry, hormone levels and side-effects. The drugs, which performed equivalently, reduced sexual thoughts and fantasies, the frequency of early morning erections on awakening, the frequency and pleasure of masturbation, and level of sexual frustration. Penile responses were also reduced but to a lesser degree and were more variable. Serum testosterone FSH and LH all declined during drug administration, but by the end of the final placebo phase had essentially returned to (or exceeded) pre-drug values. Our experience suggests that only a minority of pedophiles are likely to accept libido-reducing drugs.

  5. Homoeopathy for delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, A J; Fisher, P; Smith, C; Wyllie, S E; Lewith, G T

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To pilot a model for determining whether a homoeopathic medicine is superior to placebo for delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). DESIGN: Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Physiotherapy department of a homoeopathic hospital. SUBJECTS: Sixty eight healthy volunteers (average age 30; 41% men) undertook a 10 minute period of bench stepping carrying a small weight and were randomised to a homoeopathic medicine or placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean muscle soreness in the five day period after the exercise test, symptom free days, maximum soreness score, days to no soreness, days on medication. RESULTS: The difference between group means was 0.17 in favour of placebo with 95% confidence intervals +/- 0.50. Similar results were found for other outcome measures. CONCLUSION: The study did not find benefit of the homoeopathic remedy in DOMS. Bench stepping may not be an appropriate model to evaluate the effects of a treatment on DOMS because of wide variation between subject soreness scores. PMID:9429007

  6. Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galpin Andrew J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of EPA/DHA supplementation on resting and exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in exercise-trained men. Fourteen men supplemented with 2224 mg EPA+2208 mg DHA and a placebo for 6 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with an 8 week washout prior to performing a 60 minute treadmill climb using a weighted pack. Blood was collected pre and post exercise and analyzed for a variety of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. Blood lactate, muscle soreness, and creatine kinase activity were also measured. Results Treatment with EPA/DHA resulted in a significant increase in blood levels of both EPA (18 ± 2 μmol·L-1 vs. 143 ± 23 μmol·L-1; p -1 vs. 157 ± 13 μmol·L-1; p 0.05. There was a mild increase in oxidative stress in response to exercise (XO and H2O2 (p Conclusion EPA/DHA supplementation increases blood levels of these fatty acids and results in decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers in exercise-trained men, but does not appear necessary for exercise-induced attenuation in either inflammation or oxidative stress. This may be due to the finding that trained men exhibit a minimal increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress in response to moderate duration (60 minute aerobic exercise.

  7. Mavoglurant in fragile X syndrome: Results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Des Portes, Vincent; Hagerman, Randi; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Charles, Perrine; Visootsak, Jeannie; Brinkman, Marc; Rerat, Karin; Koumaras, Barbara; Zhu, Liansheng; Barth, Gottfried Maria; Jaecklin, Thomas; Apostol, George; von Raison, Florian

    2016-01-13

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autistic spectrum disorder, is typically caused by transcriptional silencing of the X-linked FMR1 gene. Work in animal models has described altered synaptic plasticity, a result of the up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling, as a putative downstream effect. Post hoc analysis of a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover phase 2 trial suggested that the selective mGluR5 antagonist mavoglurant improved behavioral symptoms in FXS patients with completely methylated FMR1 genes. We present the results of two phase 2b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies of mavoglurant in FXS, designed to confirm this result in adults (n = 175, aged 18 to 45 years) and adolescents (n = 139, aged 12 to 17 years). In both trials, participants were stratified by methylation status and randomized to receive mavoglurant (25, 50, or 100 mg twice daily) or placebo over 12 weeks. Neither of the studies achieved the primary efficacy end point of improvement on behavioral symptoms measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition using the FXS-specific algorithm (ABC-C(FX)) after 12 weeks of treatment with mavoglurant. The safety and tolerability profile of mavoglurant was as previously described, with few adverse events. Therefore, under the conditions of our study, we could not confirm the mGluR theory of FXS nor the ability of the methylation state of the FMR1 promoter to predict mavoglurant efficacy. Preclinical results suggest that future clinical trials might profitably explore initiating treatment in a younger population with longer treatment duration and longer placebo run-ins and identifying new markers to better assess behavioral and cognitive benefits.

  8. Sensory testing of recipes masking peanut or hazelnut for double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Schaik, van J.; Wensing, M.; Rynja, F.J.; Knulst, A.C.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC), it is necessary that recipes comprising the allergen cannot be distinguished from placebo. Aims of the study: We investigated whether the method of paired comparisons, a sensory difference test, could be used to test the suita

  9. Identification of hazelnut major allergens in sensitive patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorello, Elide A; Vieths, Stefan; Pravettoni, Valerio

    2002-01-01

    The hazelnut major allergens identified to date are an 18-kd protein homologous to Bet v 1 and a 14-kd allergen homologous to Bet v 2. No studies have reported hazelnut allergens recognized in patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) results or in patients...... allergic to hazelnut but not to birch....

  10. Preoperative dexamethasone improves surgical outcome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thue; Klarskov, Birthe; Kehlet, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of preoperative dexamethasone on surgical outcome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Pain and fatigue are dominating symptoms after LC and may prolong convalescence. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 88 patient...

  11. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with pulsed electromagnetic fields: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, G; Florescu, A; Oturai, P

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The investigation aimed at determining the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee by conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. DESIGN: The trial consisted of 2h daily treatment 5 days per...

  12. Effect of dry needling of gluteal muscles on straight leg raise: a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind trial

    OpenAIRE

    Huguenin, L; Brukner, P; McCrory, P; P. Smith; Wajswelner, H; Bennell, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To use a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial to establish the effect on straight leg raise, hip internal rotation, and muscle pain of dry needling treatment to the gluteal muscles in athletes with posterior thigh pain referred from gluteal trigger points.

  13. Implant decontamination during surgical peri-implantitis treatment : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Yvonne C. M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Huddleston Slater, James J. R.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Winkel, Edwin G.; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan

    2013-01-01

    Aim The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to study the effect of implant surface decontamination with chlorhexidine (CHX)/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) on microbiological and clinical parameters. Material & Methods Thirty patients (79 implants) with peri-impla

  14. Implant decontamination during surgical peri-implantitis treatment : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Yvonne C.M.; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Huddleston Slater, James J R; Meijer, Hendrikus; Winkel, Edwin G; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to study the effect of implant surface decontamination with chlorhexidine (CHX)/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) on microbiological and clinical parameters. MATERIAL & METHODS: Thirty patients (79 implants) with peri-imp

  15. Topical glyceryl trinitrate treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy : a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steunebrink, Mirjam; Zwerver, Johannes; Brandsema, Ruben; Groenenboom, Petra; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Weir, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess if continuous topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) treatment improves outcome in patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy when compared with eccentric training alone. Methods Randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing a 12-week programme of using a GTN

  16. Sulfasalazine in the treatment of juvenile chronic arthritis - A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiselier, TJW; Franssen, MJAM; Zwinderman, AH; ten Cate, R; van Suijlekom-Smit, LWA; van Luijk, WHJ; van Soesbergen, RM; Wulffraat, NM; Oostveen, JCM; Kuis, W; Dijkstra, PF; van Ede, CFP; Dijkmans, BAC

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of sulfasalazine (SSZ) in the treatment of juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Methods. we conducted a 24-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter study of patients with active JCA of both oligoarticular and polyarticula

  17. Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, W.Y.; Merkus, J.M.W.M.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Menkveld, R.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate treatment on semen variables in fertile and subfertile men. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled interventional study. SETTING: Two outpatient fertility clinics and nine midwifery practices in The Netherlands. PARTICIPANT(S): One hun

  18. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  19. Risperidone Improves Behavioral Symptoms in Children with Autism in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandina, Gahan J.; Bossie, Cynthia A.; Youssef, Eriene; Zhu, Young; Dunbar, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Subgroup analysis of children (5-12 years) with autism enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for pervasive developmental disorders. The primary efficacy measure was the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability (ABC-I) subscale. Data were available for 55 children given risperidone (n = 27) or placebo (n =…

  20. Protection of salivary function by concomitant pilocarpine during radiotherapy : A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burlage, Fred R.; Roesink, Judith M.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Rob P.; Terhaard, Chris; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van Luijk, Peter; Stokman, Monique A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiotherapy for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) on postradiotherapy xerostomia. Methods and Materials: A prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial including 170 patients with HN

  1. Threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in ambulant children with CP: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dali, Christine í; Hansen, Flemming Juul; Pedersen, Søren Anker;

    2002-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out to determine whether a group of stable children with cerebral palsy (36 males, 21 females; mean age 10 years 11 months, range 5 to 18 years) would improve their motor skills after 12 months of threshold electrical stimula...

  2. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Human Immunoglobulin for Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Melmed, Raun D.; Hansen, Robin L.; Aman, Michael G.; Burnham, David L.; Bruss, Jon B.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding the extent and possible causal relationship between gastrointestinal symptoms and autism. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, dose-ranging study of oral, human immunoglobulin (IGOH 140, 420, or 840 mg/day) was utilized with 125 children (ages 2-17 years) with autism and persistent GI…

  3. Development and validation of challenge materials for double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg-Boerstra, BJ; Bijleveld, CMA; van der Heide, S; Beusekamp, BJ; Wolt-Plompen, SAA; Kukler, J; Brinkman, J; Duiverman, EJ; Dubois, AEJ

    2004-01-01

    Background: The use of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of food allergy. Despite this, materials and methods used in DBPCFCs have not been standardized. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate recipe

  4. Raloxifene and body composition and muscle strength in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, D.E.; Samson, M.M.; Emmelot-Vonk, M.H.; Verhaar, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of raloxifene and placebo on body composition and muscle strength. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 198 healthy women aged 70 years or older conducted between July 2003 and January 2008 at the University Medical Centre, Utrecht, T

  5. Femicomfort in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndromes: A Double-Blind, Randomized and Placebo Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective:Premenstrual syndromes (PMS affecting 20-40% of women of reproductive age. The aim of this double blind and placebo controlled trial was to investigate whether femicofort a supplement contains Vitamin B6, Vitamin E and evening primrose oil could relieve symptoms of PMS. "nMethod: This was a randomized and double blind clinical trial. The trial was conducted between November 2009 and April March 2010. Women aged 20 to 45 years with regular menstrual cycles and experience of PMS symptoms (According to the current diagnostic criteria proposed by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology for at least 6 months were eligible for the study. Patients were randomized to receive femicomfort or placebo in a 1: ratio using a computer-generated code. The assignments were kept in sealed, opaque envelopes until the point of analysis of data. In this double-blind, patients were randomly assigned to receive capsule of femicomfort (Group A or capsule placebo for two menstrual cycles (cycles 3 and 4. The primary outcome measure was the Daily Symptom Report, a checklist of 17 premenstrual symptoms rated from 0 to 4 according to their severity throughout the menstrual cycle. Secondary outcome measure was Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17-item. "nResults:Femicomfort at this dose was found to be effective in relieving symptoms of PMS. The difference between the femicomfort and placebo in the frequency of side effects was not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the efficacy of femicomfort in the treatment of PMS.

  6. Cantharidin for the Treatment of Molluscum Contagiosum: A Prospective, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosal, Jacquelyn Coloe; Stewart, Paul W.; Lin, Ja-An; Williams, Christianna S.; Morrell, Dean S

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objective To study the effects and safety of cantharidin in the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Methods We conducted a prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical cantharidin for treatment of pediatric molluscum contagiosum in an academic ambulatory care center. Twenty-nine children aged 5–10 with the diagnosis of molluscum contagiosum were enrolled to receive treatment with cantharidin or placebo. The main outcome measure was complete clearance of molluscum lesions. Results In contrast to previous retrospective observational studies, the performance of cantharidin treatment over 2 months was not substantially better than the performance of placebo. Limitations The scope of follow-up was limited to 5 visits over 2 months of treatment. In hindsight, we can hypothesize that a longer follow up period may have captured a greater effect of cantharidin. Conclusion We conclude that during a 2 month period, the magnitude of the cantharidin treatment effects in the target population are, at best, not large. This study provided objective unbiased estimates of the magnitude of cantharidin treatment effects and provided important prospective safety data. Our subjects experienced minimal side effects when treated with cantharidin. PMID:22897595

  7. Pterostilbene on metabolic parameters: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riche, Daniel M; Riche, Krista D; Blackshear, Chad T; McEwen, Corey L; Sherman, Justin J; Wofford, Marion R; Griswold, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of pterostilbene on metabolic parameters. Methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study that enrolled 80 patients with a total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily; (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily; (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily; (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6-8 weeks. Endpoints included lipids, blood pressure, and weight. Linear mixed models were used to examine and compare changes in parameters over time. Models were adjusted for age, gender, and race. Results. LDL increased with pterostilbene monotherapy (17.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001) which was not seen with GE combination (P = 0.47). Presence of a baseline cholesterol medication appeared to attenuate LDL effects. Both systolic (-7.8 mmHg; P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (-7.3 mmHg; P < 0.001) were reduced with high dose pterostilbene. Patients not on cholesterol medication (n = 51) exhibited minor weight loss with pterostilbene (-0.62 kg/m(2); P = 0.012). Conclusion. Pterostilbene increases LDL and reduces blood pressure in adults. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01267227.

  8. Pterostilbene on Metabolic Parameters: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Riche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of pterostilbene on metabolic parameters. Methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study that enrolled 80 patients with a total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or LDL≥100 mg/dL. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1 pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily; (2 pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily; (3 pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE 100 mg twice daily; (4 matching placebo twice daily for 6–8 weeks. Endpoints included lipids, blood pressure, and weight. Linear mixed models were used to examine and compare changes in parameters over time. Models were adjusted for age, gender, and race. Results. LDL increased with pterostilbene monotherapy (17.1 mg/dL; P=0.001 which was not seen with GE combination (P=0.47. Presence of a baseline cholesterol medication appeared to attenuate LDL effects. Both systolic (−7.8 mmHg; P<0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (−7.3 mmHg; P<0.001 were reduced with high dose pterostilbene. Patients not on cholesterol medication (n=51 exhibited minor weight loss with pterostilbene (−0.62 kg/m2; P=0.012. Conclusion. Pterostilbene increases LDL and reduces blood pressure in adults. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01267227.

  9. Mirtazapine in essential tremor: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E

    2003-05-01

    We sought to determine whether mirtazapine is safe and well-tolerated as a treatment for essential tremor (ET). We studied mirtazapine in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 17 ET patients. Patients were started with 15 mg per day of either mirtazapine or placebo for 1 week and the dose was escalated weekly until the targeted dose of 45 mg per day was achieved. This dose was maintained for 2 weeks. Tremor was assessed at baseline and after 14 days of 45 mg of mirtazapine or placebo. There was a minimum washout period of 14 days between the two arms of the study. Tremor assessments included global improvement, Fahn Tolosa Marin Tremor Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39. Patient global improvement ratings indicated that in the placebo condition 12 patients were unchanged and 1 patient was mildly improved. In the mirtazapine condition, 10 patients were unchanged, 2 were moderately improved and 1 was markedly improved. There was no significant improvement with mirtazapine or placebo compared to baseline as measured by the Tremor Rating Scale. Adverse effects were more common in the mirtazapine group and included drowsiness, confusion, dry mouth, weight gain, polyuria, itching, nausea, gait and balance problems, blurred vision, and bad taste. We conclude that the majority of the ET patients do not benefit from mirtazapine. Mirtazapine has significant adverse effects and should be used cautiously in ET patients.

  10. Safety and effectiveness of autoinoculation therapy in cutaneous warts: A double - blind, randomized, placebo - controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika Ranjan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of the availability of multiple treatment options, viral warts are known for their persistence and recurrence, causing frustration to patients and treating physicians. Aims: To study the effectiveness and safety of autoinoculation as a treatment modality in cutaneous warts. Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out. In the treatment group, full-thickness warty tissue was excised, minced and implanted in a small dermal pocket. In the control group, warty tissue was only excised and not implanted, though a dermal pocket was made. Patients were evaluated every four weeks with lesion counts. The procedure was repeated at 4 and 8 weeks. Response was assessed at each visit and at 12 weeks. Results: Forty-eight patients with cutaneous warts (male: female = 32:16 were randomized into autoinoculation and control groups. The number of warts at baseline was comparable in both groups (P = 0.293. Reduction in the number of warts was significantly more in the autoinoculation group (8.50 ± 13.88 than in the control group (10.04 ± 5.80 from 8 weeks onwards (P = 0.010. Complete resolution occurred only in the autoinoculation group, in 62.5% of cases. Adverse effects were seen in 11 patients, including infection of the donor site (5 cases, keloid formation (3 and hypopigmentation (3. Conclusion: Autoinoculation may be an effective therapeutic modality for cutaneous warts and two sessions may be required for optimum results.

  11. Randomised, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Echinacea Supplementation in Air Travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tiralongo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify whether a standardised Echinacea formulation is effective in the prevention of respiratory and other symptoms associated with long-haul flights. Methods. 175 adults participated in a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial travelling back from Australia to America, Europe, or Africa for a period of 1–5 weeks on commercial flights via economy class. Participants took Echinacea (root extract, standardised to 4.4 mg alkylamides or placebo tablets. Participants were surveyed before, immediately after travel, and at 4 weeks after travel regarding upper respiratory symptoms and travel-related quality of life. Results. Respiratory symptoms for both groups increased significantly during travel (P<0.0005. However, the Echinacea group had borderline significantly lower respiratory symptom scores compared to placebo (P=0.05 during travel. Conclusions. Supplementation with standardised Echinacea tablets, if taken before and during travel, may have preventive effects against the development of respiratory symptoms during travel involving long-haul flights.

  12. Smectite in acute diarrhea in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, A A; Madina, E M; el-Azzouni, O E; Amer, M A; el-Walili, T M; Abbass, T

    1993-08-01

    Dioctahedral smectite (DS) a natural adsorbent clay capable of adsorbing viruses, bacteria, and other intestinal irritants in vitro, is claimed to possess beneficial "antidiarrheal" properties. This study tested the effect of DS on the duration of diarrhea and the frequency and amount of liquid stools. Ninety well-nourished boys, aged 3-24 months, with acute watery diarrhea and mild, moderate, or severe dehydration were included in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After initial rehydration, they received DS or placebo (1.5 g freshly dissolved in 50 ml of water, four times daily for 3 days) along with oral rehydration solution (ORS) and adequate feeding. The clinical characteristics of both groups were comparable on admission. Patients in the smectite group had a significantly shorter duration of diarrhea (mean +/- SD, 54 +/- 16 vs. 73 +/- 13 h) and significantly fewer stools (2.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 3 +/- 0.7 on second day; 1.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.7 on third day; and 11.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 13.8 +/- 3 overall). The amount of liquid stools was not significantly reduced. Weight gain at 24, 48, and 72 h and on recovery was significantly higher in the smectite group despite the comparable fluid and food intake in both groups. These results suggest a beneficial effect of DS in shortening the duration of diarrhea and reducing the frequency of liquid stools in children rehydrated with ORS.

  13. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of nifedipine on early renal allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, M E; Beer, J C; Evans, S J; Raftery, M J; Lord, R H; Moore, R; Marsh, F P

    1994-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of nifedipine on early renal allograft function when added to a triple therapy immunosuppression regime comprising low-dose cyclosporin (CsA), prednisolone and azathioprine. Fifty adult cadaveric renal allograft recipients were randomized to placebo (group P n = 17), nifedipine 10 mg preoperatively and 20 mg b.d. postoperatively for 48 h, followed by matching placebo for 3 months (group NS n = 16) or nifedipine 10 mg preoperatively and 20 mg b.d. postoperatively for 3 months (group NL n = 17). Donor and recipient exclusion criteria included recent calcium antagonist treatment. At 3 months after transplantation mean GFR adjusted for graft loss was significantly higher in group NL than in NS (mean +/- SD 61 +/- 28 versus 34 +/- 25 ml/min/1.73 m2; P nifedipine commenced preoperatively and continued for 3 months following transplantation has beneficial effects on early renal allograft function when incorporated as part of an immunotherapy regimen based on cyclosporin.

  14. Valacyclovir for prevention of recurrent herpes labialis: 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Eisen, Drore

    2003-03-01

    The oral antiviral valacyclovir, which is 3 to 5 times more bioavailable than its parent compound acyclovir, is a good candidate for effective therapy to suppress recurrent herpes labialis lesions. The efficacy of oral valacyclovir in the suppression of herpes labialis has not previously been reported. Two identical, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of oral valacyclovir 500 mg (n=49) versus placebo (n=49) once daily for 16 weeks in the suppression of herpes labialis among patients with a history of 4 or more recurrent lesions in the previous year. Data from the studies were pooled for analysis. Twenty-eight patients (60%) in the valacyclovir group compared with only 18 patients (38%) in the placebo group were recurrence-free throughout the 4-month treatment period (P=.041). The mean time to first recurrence was significantly longer with valacyclovir (13.1 weeks) compared with placebo (9.6 weeks) (P=.016). The total number of recurrences in patients using valacyclovir was 24 compared with 41 in patients using placebo. The incidence of adverse events during the 4-month treatment period was slightly lower in the valacyclovir group (22 events, 33% of patients) compared with the placebo group (29 events, 39% of patients). The results of these small double-blind, placebo-controlled studies suggest that oral valacyclovir 500 mg once daily for 4 months is effective and well tolerated for the prevention of recurrent herpes labialis. More research with larger patient numbers is warranted to corroborate and extend these findings.

  15. Efficacy and safety of drotaverine hydrochloride in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh R Rai; Manisha Dwivedi; Nirmal Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of drotaverine hydrochloride (HCl) 80 mg tablet given thrice a day in the symptomatic relief of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients and Methods: The study was a multicentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study performed at three centers. The patients who fulfilled Rome II Criteria of IBS were included in the study. A total of 180 patients with IBS were randomized to drotaverine and placebo tre...

  16. A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Squalamine Ointment for tinea capitis Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background Novel treatments against for tinea capitis are needed, and the natural aminosterol squal-amine is a potential topical antidermatophyte drug candidate. Objectives This phase II randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial aimed at testing the efficacy and safety of a three-week squalamine ointment regimen for the treatment of tinea capitis. Patients Males aged 6–15 years presenting with tinea capitis were treated with either topical squal-amine o...

  17. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Swedish snus for smoking reduction and cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Robert

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest that smokeless tobacco in the form of Swedish snus has been used by many smokers in Scandinavia to quit smoking, but the efficacy of snus has so far not been evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial aimed at assessing the efficacy of snus to help adult cigarette smokers in Serbia to substantially reduce, and, eventually, completely stop smoking. The study enrolled 319 healthy smokers aged 20-65 years at two occupational health centers in Belgrade, Serbia. Most of them (81% expressed an interest to quit rather than just reduce their smoking. Study products were used ad libitum throughout the 48-week study period. The main study objective during the first 24 weeks was smoking reduction. The primary end-point was defined as a biologically verified reduction of ≥ 50% in the average number of smoked cigarettes per day during week 21-24 compared to baseline. During week 25-48 participants were actively instructed to stop smoking completely. Outcome measures of biologically verified, complete smoking cessation included 1-week point prevalence rates at clinical visits after 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks, as well as 4-, 12- and 24-week continued cessation rates at the week 36 and 48 visits. Results At the week 24 visit, the proportion of participants who achieved the protocol definition of a ≥ 50% smoking reduction was similar in the two treatment groups. However, the proportion that reported more extreme reductions (≥ 75% was statistically significantly higher in the snus group than in the placebo group (p Conclusions Swedish snus could promote smoking cessation among smokers in Serbia, that is, in a cultural setting without traditional use of oral, smokeless tobacco. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT00601042

  18. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokaberinejad Roshanak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks, the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.

  19. Double blind, placebo-controlled trial of Tranexamic acid on recent internal hemorrhoid bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul A. Rani

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Double blind randomized placebo controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Tranexamic acid in 54 patients with recent hemorrhoid bleeding. Age, gender, body weight, height, grade of hemorrhoid, time of onset of recent bleeding were comparable between two groups. Analysis of haemostatic effect or stop bleeding as an immediate outcome of this study revealed that in the grade 2 patients, 23/23 (100% of tranexamic group and 18/23(78.26% of placebo group the bleeding stop. After 3 days of observation, there was statistically significant different for the rate of stop bleeding as well as at the end of observation. Bleeding stop earlier in the Tranexamic group with median 4 days (3-5 days, compare to placebo, median 11(9.55-12.45. Analysis of recurrent bleeding as an outcome of this study revealed that in the placebo group 9/18(50% of grade 2 patients and all grade 3 (100%patients suffered from recurrent bleeding. Since the days 4, both group have significant different time for recurrent bleeding and at the end of observation, cumulative probability of free of bleeding between two groups significantly different. Median still stop bleeding in the placebo group was 36 days, and the tranexamic group never reaches the median until the end of observation. Conclusion: tranexamic acid was an effective drug to stop recent hemorrhoid bleeding and prevent further recurrent bleeding, significantly better than placebo. (Med J Indones 2002;11: 215-21Keywords: Tranexamic acid, hemorrhoid bleeding, haemostatic effect, recurrent bleeding.

  20. Dexamethasone therapy for bacterial meningitis. Results of two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, M H; Freij, B J; Syrogiannopoulos, G A; Chrane, D F; Hoyt, M J; Stewart, S M; Kennard, B D; Olsen, K D; McCracken, G H

    1988-10-13

    We enrolled 200 infants and older children with bacterial meningitis in two prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of dexamethasone therapy in addition to either cefuroxime (Study 1) or ceftriaxone (Study 2). Altogether, 98 patients received placebo and 102 received dexamethasone (0.15 mg per kilogram of body weight every six hours for four days). At the beginning of therapy, the clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients in the treatment groups were comparable. The mean increase in the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of glucose and the decreases in lactate and protein levels after 24 hours of therapy were significantly greater in those who received dexamethasone than in those who received placebo (glucose, 2.0 vs. 0.4 mmol per liter [36.0 vs. 6.9 mg per deciliter], P less than 0.001; lactate, 4.0 vs. 2.1 mmol per liter [38.3 vs. 19.8 mg per deciliter], P less than 0.001; and protein, 0.64 vs. 0.25 g per liter [64.0 vs. 25.3 mg per deciliter], P less than 0.05). One patient in the placebo group in Study 1 died. As compared with those who received placebo, the patients who received dexamethasone became afebrile earlier (1.6 vs. 5.0 days; P less than 0.001) and were less likely to acquire moderate or more severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (15.5 vs. 3.3 percent; P less than 0.01). Twelve patients in the two placebo groups (14 percent) had severe or profound bilateral hearing loss requiring the use of a hearing aid, as compared with 1 (1 percent) in the two dexamethasone groups (P less than 0.001). We conclude that dexamethasone is beneficial in the treatment of infants and children with bacterial meningitis, particularly in preventing deafness.

  1. Does EEG-Neurofeedback Improve Neurocognitive Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? A Systematic Review and a Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollebregt, Madelon A.; van Dongen-Boomsma, Martine; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine

    2014-01-01

    Background: The number of placebo-controlled randomized studies relating to EEG-neurofeedback and its effect on neurocognition in attention-deficient/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is limited. For this reason, a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed to assess the effects of EEG-neurofeedback on neurocognitive functioning…

  2. Better than sham? A double-blind placebo-controlled neurofeedback study in primary insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessenberger, Hermann; Gnjezda, Maria-Teresa; Heib, Dominik P. J.; Wislowska, Malgorzata; Hoedlmoser, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract See Thibault et al. (doi:10.1093/awx033) for a scientific commentary on this article. Neurofeedback training builds upon the simple concept of instrumental conditioning, i.e. behaviour that is rewarded is more likely to reoccur, an effect Thorndike referred to as the ‘law of effect’. In the case of neurofeedback, information about specific electroencephalographic activity is fed back to the participant who is rewarded whenever the desired electroencephalography pattern is generated. If some kind of hyperarousal needs to be addressed, the neurofeedback community considers sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback as the gold standard. Earlier treatment approaches using sensorimotor-rhythm neurofeedback indicated that training to increase 12–15 Hz sensorimotor rhythm over the sensorimotor cortex during wakefulness could reduce attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy symptoms and even improve sleep quality by enhancing sleep spindle activity (lying in the same frequency range). In the present study we sought to critically test whether earlier findings on the positive effect of sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback on sleep quality and memory could also be replicated in a double-blind placebo-controlled study on 25 patients with insomnia. Patients spent nine polysomnography nights and 12 sessions of neurofeedback and 12 sessions of placebo-feedback training (sham) in our laboratory. Crucially, we found both neurofeedback and placebo feedback to be equally effective as reflected in subjective measures of sleep complaints suggesting that the observed improvements were due to unspecific factors such as experiencing trust and receiving care and empathy from experimenters. In addition, these improvements were not reflected in objective electroencephalographic-derived measures of sleep quality. Furthermore, objective electroencephalographic measures that potentially reflected mechanisms underlying the efficacy of neurofeedback such as spectral

  3. A placebo-controlled, double-blind comparison of clobazam and diazepam in the treatment of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A F; Goldstein, B J; Dominguez, R A; Steinbook, R M

    1983-08-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, the efficacy and safety of clobazam and diazepam were compared in 114 anxious outpatients. During the 4-week double-blind phase of the study, the mean daily dose was 59 mg for clobazam and 25 mg for diazepam. Results indicate statistically significant efficacy, measured by both patient and physician rating scales, for both active drugs compared to placebo. The incidence of sedation was similar for the two active treatment groups; dizziness was more frequent in the diazepam group.

  4. Threshold electrical stimulation (TES) in ambulant children with CP: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dali, Christine í; Hansen, Flemming Juul; Pedersen, Søren Anker;

    2002-01-01

    A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out to determine whether a group of stable children with cerebral palsy (36 males, 21 females; mean age 10 years 11 months, range 5 to 18 years) would improve their motor skills after 12 months of threshold electrical...... stimulation (TES). Two thirds received active and one third received inactive stimulators. For the primary outcome we constructed a set of plausible motor function tests and studied the change in summary indices of the performance measurements. Tests were videotaped and assessed blindly to record qualitative...

  5. Acute Dietary Nitrate Supplementation and Exercise Performance in COPD: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomised Controlled Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina J Curtis

    Full Text Available Dietary nitrate supplementation can enhance exercise performance in healthy people, but it is not clear if it is beneficial in COPD. We investigated the hypotheses that acute nitrate dosing would improve exercise performance and reduce the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise in people with COPD.We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over single dose study. Subjects were randomised to consume either nitrate-rich beetroot juice (containing 12.9 mmoles nitrate or placebo (nitrate-depleted beetroot juice 3 hours prior to endurance cycle ergometry, performed at 70% of maximal workload assessed by a prior incremental exercise test. After a minimum washout period of 7 days the protocol was repeated with the crossover beverage.21 subjects successfully completed the study (age 68 ± 7 years; BMI 25.2 ± 5.5 kg/m2; FEV1 percentage predicted 50.1 ± 21.6%; peak VO2 18.0 ± 5.9 ml/min/kg. Resting diastolic blood pressure fell significantly with nitrate supplementation compared to placebo (-7 ± 8 mmHg nitrate vs. -1 ± 8 mmHg placebo; p = 0.008. Median endurance time did not differ significantly; nitrate 5.65 (3.90-10.40 minutes vs. placebo 6.40 (4.01-9.67 minutes (p = 0.50. However, isotime oxygen consumption (VO2 was lower following nitrate supplementation (16.6 ± 6.0 ml/min/kg nitrate vs. 17.2 ± 6.0 ml/min/kg placebo; p = 0.043, and consequently nitrate supplementation caused a significant lowering of the amplitude of the VO2-percentage isotime curve.Acute administration of oral nitrate did not enhance endurance exercise performance; however the observation that beetroot juice caused reduced oxygen consumption at isotime suggests that further investigation of this treatment approach is warranted, perhaps targeting a more hypoxic phenotype.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN66099139.

  6. Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.; Staveren, van W.A.; Olderikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Groot, de L.C.P.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Independently living individuals from the general older Dutch population. PARTICIPANTS:

  7. Effect of Fish Oil Supplementation on Quality of Life in a General Population of Older Dutch Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Staveren, van W.A.; OldeRikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Independently living individuals from the general older Dutch population. PARTICIPANTS:

  8. Effect of fish oil supplementation on quality of life in a general population of older Dutch subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, O. van de; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Staveren, W.A. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Groot, L.C. de

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on quality of life (QOL). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Independently living individuals from the general older Dutch population. PARTICIPANTS:

  9. Mentha Longifolia Syrup in Secondary Amenorrhea: a Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Mokaberinejad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks, the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study.Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001. The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001. No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup.ConclusionIn conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.

  10. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day) for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks), the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no) of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001). The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001). No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. PMID

  11. Antidepressant action of sulpiride. Results of a placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüther, E; Degner, D; Munzel, U; Brunner, E; Lenhard, G; Biehl, J; Vögtle-Junkert, U

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group comparative study was to prove the efficacy and tolerance of sulpiride (150-300 mg) against placebo in mild to moderate depressive syndrome. The primary criterion of efficacy was the course of the HAMD total score from day 1 to day 42, compared between the two treatment groups. The duration of the treatment was six weeks, preceded by a one-week placebo run-in phase. The HAMD, CGI and KUSTA scores were determined, the tolerance assessed, and the laboratory parameters and serum prolactin levels determined before, during and at the end of the trial. 177 outpatients aged from 18 to 70 years with mild to moderate depressive syndrome (ICD-10: F32.0, F32.1, F33.0, F33.1) and a score of 18-27 points on the 21-item HAMD scale were randomized, 171 of whom (sulpiride: n=83; placebo: n=88) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. All the baseline data recorded for the two groups displayed comparable values. The decrease of the HAMD score between day 1 and day 42 yielded a difference of 2.5 points in favour of the sulpiride group. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.0007). The evaluations of the cases treated for at least 14 days or for 42 days (per protocol) showed consistent values. The analysis of the CGI values showed similarly distinct and clinically relevant differences for sulpiride in comparison with placebo. The evaluation of the KUSTA scores yielded mostly comparable values for the two groups. Adverse events occurred with about the same type and frequency in both groups, with severe adverse events occurring only in two placebo patients. The laboratory parameters revealed no significant differences between the treatment groups, with the exception of prolactin which moderately exceeded the range of normal in 50% of the patients treated with sulpiride. This trial proved that sulpiride is effective and well-tolerated when given in a mean dose of 181 mg per

  12. A randomised, double- blind, cross-over study investigating the prebiotic effect of agave fructans in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnani, P; Costabile, A; Bustillo, A G R; Gibson, G R

    2015-01-01

    This placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over human feeding study aimed to determine the prebiotic effect of agave fructans. A total of thirty-eight volunteers completed this trial. The treatment consisted of 3 weeks' supplementation with 5 g/d of prebiotic agave fructan (Predilife) or equivalent placebo (maltodextrin), followed by a 2-week washout period following which subjects were crossed over to alternate the treatment arm for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week washout. Faecal samples were collected at baseline, on the last day of treatment (days 22 and 58) and washout (days 36 and 72), respectively. Changes in faecal bacterial populations, SCFA and secretory IgA were assessed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, GC and ELISA, respectively. Bowel movements, stool consistencies, abdominal comfort and mood changes were evaluated by a recorded daily questionnaire. In parallel, the effect of agave fructans on different regions of the colon using a three-stage continuous culture simulator was studied. Predilife significantly increased faecal bifidobacteria (log10 9·6 (sd 0·4)) and lactobacilli (log10 7·7 (sd 0·8)) compared with placebo (log10 9·2 (sd 0·4); P = 0·00) (log10 7·4 (sd 0·7); P = 0·000), respectively. No change was observed for other bacterial groups tested, SCFA, secretory IgA, and PGE2 concentrations between the treatment and placebo. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that bacterial communities were randomly dispersed and no significant differences were observed between Predilife and placebo treatments. The in vitro models showed similar increases in bifidobacterial and lactobacilli populations to that observed with the in vivo trial. To conclude, agave fructans are well tolerated in healthy human subjects and increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli numbers in vitro and in vivo but did not influence other products of fermentation.

  13. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study on sibutramine in over-weighted and obese subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To assess weight loss efficacy ,safety and tolerability of sibutramine in simple obese subjects.Methods Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Four hospital outpatient clinics in Shanghai, Chongqing, Shandong and Tianjin, respectively. Participants: 233 men and women, 18-65 years old, with body mass index (BMI) ranging from 27 to 40*!kg/m2 were randomly divided into an intervened group and a placebo control group. Sibutramine 10 mg or placebo once a day. Main outcome measures: Body weight, routine laboratory and clinical safety monitoring.Results Of 233 eligible patients, 120 received sibutramine and 113 received placebo. Weight reduction was significantly greater in the intervened group (6.8±3.1) kg than the placebo control group (0.48±2.6) kg from week 4 onwards to week 24 (P<0.001). Some minor side effects were noticed in the subjects who took sibutramine. But the symptoms were light and short term. Sibutramine was will tolerated.Conclusions Sibutramine 10*!mg once a day is an effective an safe therapy for weight reduction in simple over-weighted and obese subjects.

  14. Erratum to: Effects of oxcarbazepine versus carbamazepine on tinnitus: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Gerami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Erratum:Affiliation of authors of the article "Effects of oxcarbazepine versus carbamazepine on tinnitus: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ir J neurol 2012; 11(3: 106-110' was changed as:Hooshang Gerami 1, Alia Saberi2, Shadman Nemati1, Ehsan Kazemnejad1, Mohammad Aghajanpour1.1.Department of Otolaryngology , Nose and Sinus Diseases Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.2. Department of Neurology, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran

  15. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate in the treatment of adult ADHD patients with comorbid cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubiner, Howard; Saules, Karen K; Arfken, Cynthia L; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Schuster, Charles R; Lockhart, Nancy; Edwards, Ann; Donlin, Judy; Pihlgren, Eric

    2002-08-01

    In this 12-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of methylphenidate (MTP) versus placebo in 48 cocaine-dependent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adults, the authors sought to determine whether MTP would be safe, control ADHD symptoms, and affect cocaine use. Efficacy indexes revealed significantly greater ADHD symptom relief in the MTP group. There were no group differences in self-reported cocaine use, urinalysis results, or cocaine craving. Because of the relatively small sample size, the results are preliminary. However, we found that MTP improved subjective reports of ADHD symptoms and did not worsen cocaine use while participants were in treatment.

  16. Effect of grape seed extract on postprandial oxidative status and metabolic responses in men and women with the metabolic syndrome - randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Edirisinghe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether a grape seed extract (GSE that is rich in mono-, oligo- and poly- meric polyphenols would modify postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS.Background: MetS is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and poor glycemic control. Consumption of a meal high in readily available carbohydrates and fat causes postprandial increases in glycemia and lipidemia and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Materials/methods: After an overnight fast, twelve subjects with MetS (5 men and 7 women consumed a breakfast meal high in fat and carbohydrate in a cross-over design. A GSE (300 mg or placebo capsule was administrated 1 hr before the meal (-1 hr. Changes in plasma insulin, glucose, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were measured hourly for 6 hr. Results: Plasma hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC measured as the positive incremental area under the curve (-1 to 5 hr was significantly increased when the meal was preceded by GSE compared with placebo (P0.05. No changes in inflammatory markers were evident. Conclusion: These data suggest that GSE enhances postprandial plasma antioxidant status and reduces the glycemic response to a meal, high in fat and carbohydrate in subjects with the MetS.

  17. Efficacy of a Nasal Spray from Citrus limon and Cydonia oblonga for the Treatment of Hay Fever Symptoms-A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, A; Klein, S D; Gründemann, C; Garcia-Käufer, M; Wolf, U; Huber, R

    2016-09-01

    Nasal spray from lemon and quince (LQNS) is used to treat hay fever symptoms and has been shown to inhibit histamine release from mast cells in vitro. Forty-three patients with grass pollen allergy (GPA) were randomized to be treated either with placebo or LQNS for one week, respectively, in a cross-over study. At baseline and after the respective treatments patients were provoked with grass pollen allergen. Outcome parameters were nasal flow measured with rhinomanometry (primary), a nasal symptom score, histamine in the nasal mucus and tolerability. In the per protocol population absolute inspiratory nasal flow 10 and 20 min after provocation was higher with LQNS compared to placebo (-37 ± 87 mL/s; p = 0.027 and -44 ± 85 mL/s; p = 0.022). The nasal symptom score showed a trend (3.3 ± 1.8 in the placebo and 2.8 ± 1.5 in the LQNS group; p = 0.070) in favor of LQNS; the histamine concentration was not significantly different between the groups. Tolerability of both, LQNS and placebo, was rated as very good. LQNS seems to have an anti-allergic effect in patients with GPA. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, Caroline; Digney, Alison L; McEwan, Sally R; Bates, Timothy C.

    2003-01-01

    Creatine supplementation is in widespread use to enhance sports-fitness performance, and has been trialled successfully in the treatment of neurological, neuromuscular and atherosclerotic disease. Creatine plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis, being a temporal and spatial buffer for cytosolic and mitochondrial pools of the cellular energy currency, adenosine triphosphate and its regulator, adenosine diphosphate. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that oral creatine supplementa...

  19. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP supplements are not orally bioavailable: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arts Ilja CW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutritional supplements designed to increase adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP concentrations are commonly used by athletes as ergogenic aids. ATP is the primary source of energy for the cells, and supplementation may enhance the ability to maintain high ATP turnover during high-intensity exercise. Oral ATP supplements have beneficial effects in some but not all studies examining physical performance. One of the remaining questions is whether orally administered ATP is bioavailable. We investigated whether acute supplementation with oral ATP administered as enteric-coated pellets led to increased concentrations of ATP or its metabolites in the circulation. Methods Eight healthy volunteers participated in a cross-over study. Participants were given in random order single doses of 5000 mg ATP or placebo. To prevent degradation of ATP in the acidic environment of the stomach, the supplement was administered via two types of pH-sensitive, enteric-coated pellets (targeted at release in the proximal or distal small intestine, or via a naso-duodenal tube. Blood ATP and metabolite concentrations were monitored by HPLC for 4.5 h (naso-duodenal tube or 7 h (pellets post-administration. Areas under the concentration vs. time curve were calculated and compared by paired-samples t-tests. Results ATP concentrations in blood did not increase after ATP supplementation via enteric-coated pellets or naso-duodenal tube. In contrast, concentrations of the final catabolic product of ATP, uric acid, were significantly increased compared to placebo by ~50% after administration via proximal-release pellets (P = 0.003 and naso-duodenal tube (P = 0.001, but not after administration via distal-release pellets. Conclusions A single dose of orally administered ATP is not bioavailable, and this may explain why several studies did not find ergogenic effects of oral ATP supplementation. On the other hand, increases in uric acid after release of

  20. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to evaluate an antipruritic shampoo for dogs with allergic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, J; Mueller, R S

    2012-07-28

    Shampoo therapy is frequently used on pruritic dogs. However, there are few double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies of this form of therapy. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial medicated shampoo (DermaTopic; Almapharm) containing chlorhexidine, lactoferrin, piroctone olamine, chitosan and essential fatty acids in 27 dogs with mild to moderate allergic pruritus without secondary skin infections. All dogs received shampoo therapy with either DermaTopic or a shampoo vehicle as placebo twice weekly for four weeks. The extent of pruritus was evaluated before the study and then on a daily basis by the owners using a visual analogue scale. Before beginning the treatment and after four weeks, the skin lesions were evaluated by an experienced clinician with a validated lesion score (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index - CADESI). The pruritus was reduced significantly by both DermaTopic and placebo. However, there was no significant difference between both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the CADESI scores pre- and post-treatment in either group or between the two types of treatment. This study provides further evidence of the benefit of shampoo therapy for pruritic dogs.

  1. Oxytocin to modulate emotional processing in schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Michela; Cotelli, Maria; Manenti, Rosa; Dagani, Jessica; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco; Balestrieri, Matteo; Pini, Stefano; Raimondi, Sara; Saviotti, Francesco Maria; Scocco, Paolo; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Deficits in social cognition, including emotional processing, are hallmarks of schizophrenia and antipsychotic agents seem to be ineffectual to improve these symptoms. However, oxytocin does seem to have beneficial effects on social cognition. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four months of treatment with intranasal oxytocin, in 31 patients with schizophrenia, on distinct aspects of social cognition. This was assessed using standardized and experimental tests in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. All patients underwent clinical and experimental assessment before treatment, four months after treatment and at the end of treatment. Social cognition abilities were assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET). Furthermore, an Emotional Priming Paradigm (EPP) was developed to examine the effects of oxytocin on implicit perceptual sensitivity to affective information and explicit facial affect recognition. We found that oxytocin improved performance on MSCEIT compared to placebo in Branch 3-Understanding Emotion (p-value=0.004; Cohen׳s d=1.12). In the EPP task, we observed a significant reduction of reaction times for facial affect recognition (p-value=0.021; Cohen׳s d=0.88). No effects were found for implicit priming or for theory of mind abilities. Further study is required in order to highlight the potential for possible integration of oxytocin with antipsychotic agents as well as to evaluate psycho-social treatment as a multi-dimensional approach to increase explicit emotional processing abilities and compensate social cognition deficits related to schizophrenia.

  2. Chronic Effects of a Wild Green Oat Extract Supplementation on Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narelle M. Berry

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Preliminary evaluation of a wild green oat extract (WGOE (Neuravena® ELFA®955, Frutarom, Switzerland revealed an acute cognitive benefit of supplementation. This study investigated whether regular daily WGOE supplementation would result in sustained cognitive improvements. Method: A 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial of WGOE supplementation (1500 mg/day versus placebo was undertaken in 37 healthy adults aged 67 ± 0.8 years (mean ± SEM. Cognitive assessments included the Stroop colour-word test, letter cancellation, the rule-shift task, a computerised multi-tasking test battery and the trail-making task. All assessments were conducted in Week 12 and repeated in Week 24 whilst subjects were fasted and at least 18 h after taking the last dose of supplement. Result: Chronic WGOE supplementation did not affect any measures of cognition. Conclusion: It appears that the cognitive benefit of acute WGOE supplementation does not persist with chronic treatment in older adults with normal cognition. It remains to be seen whether sustained effects of WGOE supplementation may be more evident in those with mild cognitive impairment.

  3. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of garlic as a mosquito repellant: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, T V; Hein, M; Porte, P; Wikel, S

    2005-03-01

    The hypothesis that the ingestion of garlic provides protection against bloodsucking pests such as mosquitoes was investigated using a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. Subjects were asked to consume either garlic (one visit) or a placebo (the other visit). They were then exposed to laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae). The numbers of mosquitoes that did not feed on the subjects, the number of mosquito bites, the weights of the mosquitoes after feeding and the amounts of blood ingested were determined. The data did not provide evidence of significant systemic mosquito repellence. A limitation of the study is that more prolonged ingestion of garlic may be needed to accomplish repellence.

  4. Trachyspermum ammi 10 % topical cream versus placebo on neuropathic pain, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petramfar, Peyman; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Samani, Soliman Mohammadi; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamidreza; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2016-09-01

    A four-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to assay the effectiveness of Ajwain 10 % (Trachyspermum ammi Sprague) topical cream on neuropathic pain. Intervention encompassed Ajwain 10 % and placebo creams. Ninety-two patients who specifically mentioned daily and nocturnal burning feet were randomly assigned to receive one of those interventions. Presence and decline in patients' numbness, tingling and allodynia were also evaluated. Major outcome measure was alteration in feet burning intensity (final week versus baseline week) regarding to a visual analog scale on a 0-10 cm scale (0 being "no pain", 10 being "worst pain"). Significant reduction in feet burning scores as well as numbness, tingling and allodynia were found in Ajwain group compared to placebo. This trial examining a cream of Ajwain essential oil versus placebo revealed the significance difference between two groups. This medicament can be a good candidate for the alleviation of feet burning, a neuropathic complication.

  5. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of omeprazole on urinary pH in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Rasmussen, L; Pedersen, S A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary pH is related to urinary calculus formation as well as urinary infection. Omeprazole is an effective inhibitor of gastric acid secretion through inhibition of the parietal cell H+K+ATPase. In this study we have evaluated a possible effect of omeprazole on urine acidification. Ten healthy...... male subjects took placebo and omeprazole, 40 mg o.m., for 10 days in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Morning fasting urinary pH was measured on day 10 of each treatment course using a pH meter. No effect of omeprazole on urinary pH could be demonstrated. It is thus unlikely...... that it is necessary to take omeprazole treatment into consideration in stone screening. As omeprazole did not affect urinary pH, no urological side effects related to changes in urinary pH can be expected....

  6. Effects of sertindole on cognition in clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients - a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R E; Levander, S; Nielsen, Jimmi

    Nielsen RE, Levander S, Thode D, Nielsen J. Effects of sertindole on cognition in clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients. Objective:  To assess the cognitive effects of sertindole augmentation in clozapine-treated patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Cognition is secondary outcome of the trial....... Method:  A 12-week, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, augmentation study of patients treated with clozapine. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 16 mg of sertindole or placebo as adjunctive treatment to clozapine. Results:  Participants displayed substantial cognitive deficits...... changes in cognitive test performance, and found no significant correlations. Conclusion:  The clozapine-treated patients displayed marked cognitive deficits at baseline. Adding sertindole did not improve or worsen cognitive functioning, which is in line with previous negative studies of the effect...

  7. Effects of tonabersat on migraine with aura: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Anne Werner; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Schytz, Henrik W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Migraine with aura is thought likely to be caused by cortical spreading depression (CSD). Tonabersat inhibits CSD, and we therefore investigated whether tonabersat has a preventive effect in migraine with aura. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover...... trial, 40 mg tonabersat once daily was compared with matched placebo in patients who had at least one aura attack per month during the past 3 months. Randomisation was by computer-generated list. Patients kept a detailed diary to enable objective diagnosis of each attack as migraine with aura, migraine...... without aura, or other type of headache. Primary endpoints were a reduction in aura attacks with or without headache and a reduction in migraine headache days with or without an aura. Analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered, number NCT00332007. FINDINGS: 39 patients were included in the study...

  8. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of spirulina supplementation on indices of mental and physical fatigue in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Morgan; Hassinger, Lauren; Davis, Joshua; Devor, Steven T; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Spirulina may increase people's ability to resist mental and physical fatigue. This study tested that hypothesis in a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled study in men. After 1 week, a 3 g/day dose of spirulina produced a small, but statistically significant increase in exercise output (Kcals consumed in 30 min exercise on a cross trainer machine). A mathematical based mental fatigue test showed improved performance 4 h after the first time of supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. Similarly, a subjective survey for a sense of physical and mental fatigue showed improvement within 4 h of the first supplementation as well as 8 weeks later. These results show that spirulina intake can affect fatigue in men.

  9. Cerebrolysin enhances cognitive recovery of mild traumatic brain injury patients: double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chung; Wei, Sung-Tai; Tsaia, Shiu-Chiu; Chen, Xian-Xiu; Cho, Der-Yang

    2013-12-01

    In adults, mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) frequently results in impairments of cognitive functions which would lead to psychological consequences in the future. Cerebrolysin is a nootropic drug, and can significantly improve cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Cerebrolysin therapy enhances cognitive recovery for mild traumatic brain injury patients using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized phase II pilot study. Patients having head injury within 24 h sent to our hospital were screened and recruited if patients were alert and conscious, and had intracranial contusion haemorrhage. From July 2009 to June 2010, totally, thirty-two patients were recruited in the double-blinded, placebo-controlled, and randomized study. Patients were randomized to receive Cerebrolysin (Group A, once daily intravenous infusion of 30 mL Cerebrolysin over a 60-min period for 5 days) or placebo (Group B, same dosage and administration of normal saline as Group A). The primary outcome measures were differences of cognitive function including Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), and Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) scores between baseline and week 1, between baseline and week 4, and between baseline and week 12. Thirty-two patients completed the trial. For Group A, the CASI score difference between baseline and week 12 was 21.0 ± 20.4, a significantly greater change than that of Group B (7.6 ± 12.1) (p = 0.0461). Besides, drawing function (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0066) on week 4 and both drawing function (p = 0.0472) and long-term memory (one of the domains of CASI; p = 0.0256) on week 12 were also found to be significantly improved in the patients receiving Cerebrolysin treatment. Our results suggest that Cerebrolysin improves the cognitive function of the MTBI in patients at 3rd month after injury, especially for long-term memory and drawing function.

  10. Development of a standardized low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled challenge vehicle for the EuroPrevall project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cochrane, S. A.; Salt, L. J.; Wantling, E.; Rogers, A.; Coutts, J.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.; Fritsche, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Reig, I.; Knulst, A.; Le, T. -M.; Asero, R.; Beyer, K.; Golding, M.; Crevel, R.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Mackie, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. Standardized materials and protocols are essential for comparing DBPCFC results for multicentre studies such as EuroPrevall. This required the development and piloting of a standardi

  11. Development of a standardized low-dose double-blind placebo-controlled challenge vehicle for the EuroPrevall project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cochrane, S.A.; Salt, L.J.; Wantling, E.; Rogers, A.; Coutts, J.; Ballmer-Weber, B.K.; Fritsche, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Reig, I.; Knulst, A.; Le, T.M.; Asero, R.; Beyer, K.; Golding, M.; Crevel, R. van; Mills, E.N.; Mackie, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. Standardized materials and protocols are essential for comparing DBPCFC results for multicentre studies such as EuroPrevall. This required the development and piloting of a standardi

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess QTc interval prolongation of standard dose aflibercept in cancer patients treated with docetaxel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maison-Blanche, Pierre; Vermorken, Jan B; Goksel, Tuncay;

    2013-01-01

    : The effect of repeated doses of aflibercept on ventricular repolarization in cancer patients was evaluated in an intensive electrocardiogram trial. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in 87 treated solid tumor patients. Treatment was with 6 mg/kg aflibercept, 1...

  13. ALFUZOSIN IN THE TREATMENT OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA - EFFECTS ON SYMPTOM SCORES, URINARY FLOW-RATES AND RESIDUAL VOLUME - A MULTICENTER, DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HANSEN, BJ; NORDLING, J; MENSINK, HJA; WALTER, S; MEYHOFF, HH; LEENARTS, JAF; OOSTEN, JK; VANSOEST, FF; DIJKMAN, GA; HOEKSTRA, JW; VANBAASBANK, NJW; BIJLEVELD, RT; BRAAM, PFCM; SCHLATMANN, TJM; FELDERHOF, J; KHOE, GSS; DIK, P; MENSINK, HJA; SKOV, J; CHRISTOFFERSEN, J; GEERDSEN, JP; HVIDT, [No Value; DAHL, C; LUKE, M; LENDORPH, A; JACOBSEN, B; BILDE, T; MORTENSEN, S; LARSEN, EH

    1994-01-01

    In order to assess the efficacy and safety of alfuzosin, a selective alpha-1 receptor antagonist, 205 patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) were randomly assigned in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner, to receive either alfuzosin 2,5 mg TID or placebo TID during 12 weeks. After 12

  14. EMLA for pain relief during arterial cannulation. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a lidocaine-prilocaine cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Danielson, K; Engberg, G

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a lidocaine-prilocaine cream (EMLA cream, Astra) in relieving pain during arterial cannulation. The study had a random, double-blind, placebo-controlled design and included altogether 90 patients. All the patients were premedicated with an opioid...

  15. Lack of effect of doxycycline on disease activity and joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A double blind, placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, W. van der; Molenaar, E.; Ronday, K.; Verheijen, J.; Breedveld, F.; Greenwald, R.; Dijkmans, B.; Tekoppele, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of doxycycline on disease activity and joint destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods. A 36 week double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial was conducted. Patients (n = 66) received 50 mg doxycycline or placebo twice a day during 12,

  16. The effect of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition on gastric volume, satiation and enteroendocrine secretion in Type 2 diabetes: a double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vella, Adrian; Bock, Gerlies; Giesler, Paula D

    2008-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In a double blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 14 subjects with type 2 diabetes received vildagliptin (50mg bid) or placebo for 10-days in random order separated by a 2-week washout. On day 7, fasting and post-meal gastric volumes were measured by a (99m...

  17. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in College Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Rossi, Joseph S.; Vilardo, Brigid A.; O'Dell, Sean M.; Carson, Kristen M.; Verdi, Genevieve; Swentosky, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate stimulant medication on symptoms and functioning for college students with ADHD using double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Method: Participants included 24 college students with ADHD and 26 college students without psychopathology. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) was examined for ADHD participants over five…

  18. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial on sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine alone or combined with artesunate or amodiaquine in uncomplicated malaria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, F.P.; Ehrhardt, S.; Dzisi, S.Y.; Bousema, T.; Wassilew, N.; Schreiber, J.; Anemana, S.D.; Cramer, J.P.; Otchwemah, R.N.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Eggelte, T.A.; Bienzle, U.

    2005-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alone, SP plus amodiaquine (AQ), and SP plus artesunate (AS) was assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind trial among 438 children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern Ghana. Clinical and parasit

  19. The impact of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) on the socioeconomic cost of food allergy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerecedo, I.; Zamora, J.; Fox, M.; Voordouw, J.; Plana, N.; Rokicka, E.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Vazquez Cortes, S.; Reche, M.; Fiandor, A.; Kowalski, M.; Antonides, G.; Mugford, M.; Frewer, L.J.; Hoz, De la B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Double-blind placebo controlled food (DBPCFC) is the gold standard diagnostic test in food allergy because it minimizes diagnostic bias. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential effect of diagnosis on the socioeconomic costs of food allergy. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal cost analys

  20. Effects of influenza plus pneumococcal conjugate vaccination versus influenza vaccination alone in preventing respiratory tract infections in children : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Angelique G S C; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Hoes, Arno W; van Loon, Anton M; Hak, Eelko

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of influenza vaccination with or without heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comprising 579 children age 18 to 72 months with

  1. Adalimumab combined with ciprofloxacin is superior to adalimumab monotherapy in perianal fistula closure in Crohn's disease : a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial (ADAFI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewint, Pieter; Hansen, Bettina E.; Verhey, Elke; Oldenburg, Bas; Hommes, Daniel W.; Pierik, Marieke; Ponsioen, Cyriel I. J.; van Dullemen, Hendrik M.; Russel, Maurice; van Bodegraven, Ad A.; van der Woude, C. Janneke

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether a combination of adalimumab and ciprofloxacin is superior to adalimumab alone in the treatment of perianal fistulising Crohn's disease (CD). Design Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial in eight Dutch hospitals. In total, 76 CD patients with active perianal f

  2. Laxation of critically ill patients with lactulose or polyethylene glycol : a two-center randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spoel, Johan I; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Kuiper, Michael A; van Roon, Eric N; Zandstra, Durk F; van der Voort, Peter H J

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether lactulose or polyethylene glycol is effective to promote defecation in critically ill patients, whether either of the two is superior, and whether the use of enteral laxatives is related to clinical outcome. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. SETT

  3. High-Dose Pyridoxine and Magnesium Administration in Children with Autistic Disorder: An Absence of Salutary Effects in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L.; Maxwell, Kathleen; Scotese-Wojtila, Lynette; Huang, Jie; Yamashita, Toyoko; Wiznitzer, Max

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of high doses of pyridoxine and magnesium in a 10-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial with 10 patients (mean age 6 years) having autism concluded that the high doses used were ineffective in ameliorating autistic behaviors. (DB)

  4. The effect of barusiban, a selective oxytocin antagonist, in threatened preterm labor at late gestational age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Steven; Goodwin, Thomas M; Greisen, Gorm;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare barusiban with placebo in threatened preterm labor. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. One hundred sixty-three women at 34-35 weeks plus 6 days, and with 6 or more contractions of 30 second...

  5. Omega 3/6 Fatty Acids for Reading in Children: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial in 9-Year-Old Mainstream Schoolchildren in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mats; Fransson, Gunnar; Östlund, Sven; Areskoug, Björn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown positive effects of Omega 3/6 fatty acids in children with inattention and reading difficulties. We aimed to investigate if Omega 3/6 improved reading ability in mainstream schoolchildren. Methods: We performed a 3-month parallel, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by 3-month active…

  6. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Risperidone for the Treatment of Adolescents and Young Adults with Anorexia Nervosa: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Jennifer; Gralla, Jane; Sigel, Eric; Ellert, Swan; Dodge, Mindy; Gardner, Rick; O'Lonergan, Teri; Frank, Guido; Wamboldt, Marianne Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Method: Forty female subjects 12 to 21 years of age (mean, 16 years) with primary anorexia nervosa in an eating disorders program were randomized to receive…

  7. Extensively hydrolysed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG maintains hypoallergenic status : randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, Antonella; Hoekstra, Maarten O.; Meijer, Yolanda; Lifschitz, Carlos; Wampler, Jennifer L.; Harris, Cheryl; Scalabrin, Deolinda M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoallergenicity of an extensively hydrolysed (EH) casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). Design: A prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Setting: Two study sites in Italy and The Netherlands. Study particip

  8. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension : results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Koester, Juergen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized stu

  9. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Koester, Juergen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized stu

  10. NILVAD protocol: a European multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled trial of nilvadipine in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawlor, B.; Kennelly, S.; O'Dwyer, S.; Cregg, F.; Walsh, C.; Coen, R.; Kenny, R.A.; Howard, R.; Murphy, C.; Adams, J.; Daly, L.; Segurado, R.; Gaynor, S.; Crawford, F.; Mullan, M.; Lucca, U.; Banzi, R.; Pasquier, F.; Breuilh, L.; Riepe, M.; Kalman, J.; Wallin, A.; Borjesson, A.; Molloy, W.; Tsolaki, M.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study is a European multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the efficacy and safety of nilvadipine as a disease course modifying treatment for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a phase III study that will run for a period of 82 week

  11. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North America....

  12. N-Acetylcysteine in the Treatment of Pediatric Trichotillomania: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Add-On Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Grant, Jon E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for the treatment of pediatric trichotillomania (TTM) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, add-on study. Method: A total of 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years with pediatric trichotillomania were randomly assigned to receive NAC or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Our primary…

  13. Pregabalin for the treatment of abdominal adhesion pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Ann; Samuels, Qiana; Gikas, Helen; Nawras, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Chronic pain related to postoperative abdominal adhesions is a common problem with no standard analgesic regimen currently established. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we examined the effects of pregabalin on pain modulation in patients with prior abdominal surgery and documented adhesion. The primary outcome measure was pain relief documented by a 2-point change on the Likert pain scale with a secondary pain measure of sleep interruption. A total of 18 women were randomized to receive either the drug (n = 11) or placebo (n = 7). Thirteen patients (eight pregabalin, five placebo) completed the blinded phase and 10 patients (seven pregabalin, three placebo) completed the open-label phase. Statistical analysis was performed in two settings: 1) Week 0 (as the baseline) through the end of Week 7 of the blinded fixed-dose phase; and 2) Week 7 (as the baseline) along With weeks 8 through 11 of the open-label phase. The pain score result from the blinded phase setting indicated that the amount of decrease was significantly greater in the drug group (P = 0.024), whereas the pain score result from the open-label setting indicated that the amount of decrease was significantly greater in the placebo group (P = 0.043). Only the sleep score result in the open-label setting was significantly greater in the placebo group (P = 0.024). We conclude that pregabalin significantly reduced patient-documented pain scores compared with placebo in our small cohort of patients with abdominal adhesion pain.

  14. Exploring the Effect of Lactium™ and Zizyphus Complex on Sleep Quality: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Scholey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute, non-clinical insomnia is not uncommon. Sufferers commonly turn to short-term use of herbal supplements to alleviate the symptoms. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the efficacy of LZComplex3 (lactium™, Zizyphus, Humulus lupulus, magnesium and vitamin B6, in otherwise healthy adults with mild insomnia. After a 7-day single-blind placebo run-in, eligible volunteers (n = 171 were randomized (1:1 to receive daily treatment for 2 weeks with LZComplex3 or placebo. Results revealed that sleep quality measured by change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI score improved in both the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. There were no significant between group differences between baseline and endpoint on the primary outcome. The majority of secondary outcomes, which included daytime functioning and physical fatigue, mood and anxiety, cognitive performance, and stress reactivity, showed similar improvements in the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. A similar proportion of participants reported adverse events (AEs in both groups, with two of four treatment-related AEs in the LZComplex3 group resulting in permanent discontinuation. It currently cannot be concluded that administration of LZComplex3 for 2 weeks improves sleep quality, however, a marked placebo response (despite placebo run-in and/or short duration of treatment may have masked a potential beneficial effect on sleep quality.

  15. Exploring the Effect of Lactium™ and Zizyphus Complex on Sleep Quality: A Double-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, Andrew; Benson, Sarah; Gibbs, Amy; Perry, Naomi; Sarris, Jerome; Murray, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Acute, non-clinical insomnia is not uncommon. Sufferers commonly turn to short-term use of herbal supplements to alleviate the symptoms. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the efficacy of LZComplex3 (lactium™, Zizyphus, Humulus lupulus, magnesium and vitamin B6), in otherwise healthy adults with mild insomnia. After a 7-day single-blind placebo run-in, eligible volunteers (n = 171) were randomized (1:1) to receive daily treatment for 2 weeks with LZComplex3 or placebo. Results revealed that sleep quality measured by change in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score improved in both the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. There were no significant between group differences between baseline and endpoint on the primary outcome. The majority of secondary outcomes, which included daytime functioning and physical fatigue, mood and anxiety, cognitive performance, and stress reactivity, showed similar improvements in the LZComplex3 and placebo groups. A similar proportion of participants reported adverse events (AEs) in both groups, with two of four treatment-related AEs in the LZComplex3 group resulting in permanent discontinuation. It currently cannot be concluded that administration of LZComplex3 for 2 weeks improves sleep quality, however, a marked placebo response (despite placebo run-in) and/or short duration of treatment may have masked a potential beneficial effect on sleep quality. PMID:28218661

  16. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poeze Martijn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%, non-union (5-21% and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32% which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning. Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation

  17. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidnia, K; Dastgheib, L; Mohammadi Samani, S; Nasiri, A

    2003-01-01

    Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. In this study we evaluated the clinical response of idiopathic hirsutism to topical Fennel extract. Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a plant, which has been used as an estrogenic agent. The ethanolic extract of Fennel was obtained by using a soxhlete apparatus. In a double blind study, 38 patients were treated with creams containing 1%, 2% of Fennel extract and placebo. Hair diameter was measured and rate of growth was considered. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% Fennel is better than the cream containing 1% Fennel and these two were more potent than placebo. The mean values of hair diameter reduction was 7.8%, 18.3% and -0.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%, 2% and 0% (placebo) respectively.

  18. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study of α4β2 agonist ABT-894 in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Earle E; Robieson, Weining; Pritchett, Yili; Garimella, Tushar; Abi-Saab, Walid; Apostol, George; McGough, James J; Saltarelli, Mario D

    2013-02-01

    Dysregulation of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (NNR) system has been implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and nicotinic agonists improve attention across preclinical species and humans. Hence, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was designed to determine the safety and efficacy of a novel α4β2 NNR agonist (ABT-894 (3-(5,6-dichloro-pyridin-3-yl)-1(S),5 (S)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane)) in adults with ADHD. Participants (N=243) were randomized to one of four dose regimens of ABT-894 (1, 2, and 4 mg once daily (QD)) or 4 mg twice daily (BID) or the active comparator atomoxetine (40 mg BID) vs placebo for 28 days. Following a 2-week washout period, participants crossed over to the alternative treatment condition (active or placebo) for an additional 28 days. Primary efficacy was based on an investigator-rated Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS:Inv) Total score at the end of each 4-week treatment period. Additional secondary outcome measures were assessed. A total of 238 patients were assessed for safety end points, 236 patients were included in the intent-to-treat data set, and 196 were included in the completers data set, which was the prespecified, primary data set for efficacy. Both the 4 mg BID ABT-894 and atomoxetine groups demonstrated significant improvement on the primary outcome compared with placebo. Several secondary outcome measures were also significantly improved with 4 mg BID ABT-894. Overall, ABT-894 was well tolerated at all dose levels. These results provide initial proof of concept for the use of α4β2 agonists in the treatment of adults with ADHD. Further investigation of ABT-894, including higher doses, is therefore warranted.

  19. Effects of a Gentle, Self-Administered Stimulation of Perineal Skin for Nocturia in Elderly Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Crossover Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Iimura

    Full Text Available Somatic afferent nerve stimuli are used for treating an overactive bladder (OAB, a major cause of nocturia in the elderly. Clinical evidence for this treatment is insufficient because of the lack of appropriate control stimuli. Recent studies on anesthetized animals show that gentle stimuli applied to perineal skin with a roller could inhibit micturition contractions depending on the roller's surface material. We examined the efficacy of gentle skin stimuli for treating nocturia.The study was a cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical study using two rollers with different effects on micturition contractions. Participants were elderly women (79-89 years with nocturia. Active (soft elastomer roller or placebo (hard polystyrene roller stimuli were applied to perineal skin by participants for 1 min at bedtime. A 3-day baseline assessment period was followed by 3-day stimulation and 4-day resting periods, after which the participants were subjected to other stimuli for another 3 days. The primary outcome was change in the frequency of nighttime urination, for which charts were maintained during each 3-day period.Twenty-four participants were randomized, of which 22 completed all study protocols. One participant discontinued treatment because of an adverse event (abdominal discomfort. In participants with OAB (n = 9, change from baseline in the mean frequency of urination per night during the active stimuli period (mean ± standard deviation, -0.74 ± 0.7 times was significantly greater than that during placebo stimuli periods (-0.15 ± 0.8 times [p < 0.05]. In contrast, this difference was not observed in participants without OAB (n = 13.These results suggest that gentle perineal stimulation with an elastomer roller is effective for treating OAB-associated nocturia in elderly women. Here the limitation was a study period too short to assess changes in the quality of sleep and life.UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (CTR UMIN

  20. Prolonged release melatonin for improving sleep in totally blind subjects: a pilot placebo-controlled multicenter trial

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    Roth T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Roth,1 Tali Nir,2 Nava Zisapel2,3 1Henry Ford Sleep Disorders Center, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Department of Neurobiology Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Introduction: Melatonin, secreted by the pineal gland during the night phase, is a regulator of the biological clock and sleep tendency. Totally blind subjects frequently report severe, periodic sleep problems, with 50%–75% of cases displaying non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (N24HSWD due to inability to synchronize with the environmental day–night cycle. Melatonin immediate-release preparations are reportedly effective in N24HSWD. Here, we studied the efficacy and safety of prolonged-release melatonin (PRM, a registered drug for insomnia, for sleep disorders in totally blind subjects living in normal social environments. The primary endpoint was demonstration of clinically meaningful effects on sleep duration (upper confidence interval [CI] limit >20 minutes whether significant or not to allow early decision-making on further drug development in this indication. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registry – NCT00972075. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-principle study, 13 totally blind subjects had 2 weeks' placebo run-in, 6 weeks' randomized (1:1 PRM (Circadin® or placebo nightly, and 2 weeks' placebo run-out. Outcome measures included daily voice recorded sleep diary, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC, WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5, and safety. Results: Mean nightly sleep duration improved by 43 minutes in the PRM and 16 minutes in the placebo group (mean difference: 27 minutes, 95% CI: -14.4 to 69 minutes; P=0.18; effect size: 0.82 meeting the primary endpoint. Mean sleep latency decreased by 29 minutes with PRM over placebo (P=0.13; effect size: 0.92 and nap duration decreased in the PRM but not placebo group. The variability in sleep onset/offset and

  1. 5-HT3 antagonist for cognition improvement in schizophrenia: a double blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Neyousha Mohammadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract   Introduction: Patients with schizophrenia characteristically exhibit cognitive deficits. The level of cognitive impairment is found to predict the functional outcome of the illness more strongly than the severity of positive or negative symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia in particular for cognitive impairments.   Methods: This investigation was a 12-week, double blind study of parallel groups of patients with stable chronic schizophrenia. Thirty patients were recruited from inpatient and outpatient departments. All participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia. To be eligible, patients were required to have been treated with a stable dose of risperidone as their primary antipsychotic treatment for a minimum period of 8 weeks. The subjects were randomized to receive ondansetron (8 mg/day or the placebo in addition to risperidone. Cognition was measured by a cognitive battery. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 8, and 12 weeks after the medication started.   Results: Administration of ondansetron significantly improved visual memory based on improvement on visual reproduction, visual paired associate and figural memory sub tests of Wechsler Memory Scale Revised.  Discussion: The present study indicates ondansetron as potential adjunctive treatment strategy for chronic schizophrenia particularly for cognitive impairments.

  2. Oxiracetam in dementia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, G; Vallar, G; Cappa, S; Monza, G C; Scarpini, E; Baron, P; Cheldi, A; Scarlato, G

    1992-09-01

    A multicentre, double-blind, between-patient study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of oxiracetam (800 mg tablet), in comparison with placebo, each given twice daily for 12 weeks to patients suffering from primary degenerative, multi-infarct or mixed dementia. Efficacy was assessed by a neuropsychological battery (simple reaction time, controlled associations, short story, Raven's Progressive Matrices, token test, digit span, word list learning), administered at the beginning and at the end of the study, and by a quality of life scale, administered at entry and after 6 and 12 weeks treatment. Sixty-five patients (28 men, 37 women, mean age 71 yrs) were enrolled; 58 completed the study: 2 on oxiracetam were withdrawn because of poor tolerability, 2 (one in each group) were withdrawn for poor compliance, one (on oxiracetam) for the occurrence of a transient ischaemic attack (defined as not related to the treatment) and 2 for administrative reasons. A significantly (p < 0.01) different effect in favour of oxiracetam was observed on the quality of life scale, and confirmed by significant (defined according to the Bonferroni technique) differences in some neuropsychological tests (e.g. controlled associations, short story). Four patients in the oxiracetam group complained of a total of 5 unwanted effects, and 1 on placebo complained of 3 unwanted effects, but none of them was withdrawn from the study.

  3. Luteal Phase Support in the Intrauterine Insemination (IUI Cycles: A Randomized Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Study.

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    Batool Hossein Rashidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone on pregnancy rates in the intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles, stimulated with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG, in sub fertile couples.This prospective, randomized, double blind study was performed in a tertiary infertility center from March 2011 to January 2012. It consisted of 253 sub fertile couples undergoing ovarian stimulation for IUI cycles. They underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate (100 mg and hMG (75 IU in preparation for the IUI cycle. Study group (n = 127 received luteal phase support in the form of vaginal progesterone (400 mg twice a day, and control group (n = 126 received placebo. Clinical pregnancy and abortion rates were assessed and compared between the two groups.The clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly higher for supported cycles than that for the unsupported ones (15.75% vs. 12.69%, p = 0.3. The abortion rate in the patients with progesterone luteal support compared to placebo group was not statistically different (10% vs. 18.75%, p = 0.45.It seems that luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone was not enhanced the success of IUI cycles outcomes, when clomiphene citrate and hMG were used for ovulation stimulation.

  4. Effect of GutGard in the Management of Helicobacter pylori: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study

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    Sreenivasulu Puram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double blind placebo controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard (root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra in the management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori gastric load. Participants diagnosed with H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to two groups to orally receive 150 mg of GutGard (n=55 or placebo (n=52 once daily for 60 days. H. pylori infection was assessed using 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT at days 0, 30, and 60. Stool Antigen test (HpSA was also performed on days 0, 30, and 60. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RMANOVA, chi-square, and Fisher's exact probability tests were used to compare the treatment outcomes. A significant interaction effect between group and time (P=0.00 and significant difference in mean Delta Over Baseline (DOB values between GutGard (n=50 and placebo (n=50 treated groups after intervention period were observed. On day 60, the results of HpSA test were negative in 28 subjects (56% in GutGard treated group whereas in placebo treated group only 2 subjects (4% showed negative response; the difference between the groups was statistically significant. On day 60, the results of 13C-UBT were negative in 24 (48% in GutGard treated group and the difference between the groups was statistically significant. The findings suggest GutGard is effective in the management of H. pylori.

  5. Symptomatic treatment of neurolathyrism with tolperisone HCL (Mydocalm): a randomized double blind and placebo controlled drug trial.

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    Melka, A; Tekle-Haimanot, R; Lambien, F

    1997-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of oral Tolperisone HCL was evaluated in double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial in 72 patients with neurolathyrism in stages I, II, and III of the disease at Kolla Duba Health Centre of Dembia District of North Gondar between January and April 1995. Taken orally daily for 12 weeks, tolperisone HCL (Mydocalm) in a dose of 150 milligrams (mgs) twice daily significantly improved subjective complaints such as muscle cramps, heaviness of the legs, startle attacks, flexor spasms and repeated falls. An overall subjective improvement was observed in 75% of the patients on tolperisone HCL and 39% of the placebo group (P = 0.002). When objectively assessed spastic muscle tone in the abductors, stiffness of Achilles and spontaneous ankle clonus were significantly reduced in tolperisone HCL group (P values = 0.001, 0.04, and 0.0001, respectively). Walking ability and speed of walking was also significantly improved. The drug is most effective in relieving symptoms of stage I and stage II disease. Some adverse effects like muscle pain, generalized body weakness and dizziness were recorded in patients taking the drug but all were minor and self limited, none requiring discontinuation of treatment. It is concluded that tolperisone is a well tolerated and efficacious drug for symptomatic treatment of neurolathyrism.

  6. Probiotics and respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections in Finnish military conscripts - a randomised placebo-controlled double-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalima, K; Lehtoranta, L; He, L; Pitkäniemi, J; Lundell, R; Julkunen, I; Roivainen, M; Närkiö, M; Mäkelä, M J; Siitonen, S; Korpela, R; Pitkäranta, A

    2016-09-01

    Military conscripts are susceptible to respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. In previous studies probiotics have shown potency to reduce upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. The aim was to study whether probiotic intervention has an impact on seasonal occurrence of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in two different conscript groups. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled study (https://clinicaltrials.gov NCT01651195), a total of 983 healthy adults were enrolled from two intakes of conscripts. Conscripts were randomised to receive either a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB12 (BB12) or a control chewing tablet twice daily for 150 days (recruits) or for 90 days (reserve officer candidates). Clinical examinations were carried out and daily symptom diaries were collected. Outcome measures were the number of days with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and symptom incidence, number and duration of infection episodes, number of antibiotic treatments received and number of days out of service because of the infection. Statistically no significant differences were found between the intervention groups either in the risk of symptom incidence or duration. However, probiotic intervention was associated with reduction of specific respiratory infection symptoms in military recruits, but not in reserve officer candidates. Probiotics did not significantly reduce overall respiratory and gastrointestinal infection morbidity.

  7. Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Miao Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily, Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels between placebo and active treatment (−9% was significantly (P<0.05 better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by −3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (−1.1% (P=0.098. There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects.

  8. Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weiwei; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (−9%) was significantly (P < 0.05) better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by −3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (−1.1%) (P = 0.098). There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. PMID:24834096

  9. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

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    Jae-Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n=28 or the sham laser acupuncture group (n=28. Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.

  10. Efficacy of the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with chronic urticaria. A placebo-controlled double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaig, P; García-Ortega, P; Enrique, E; Papo, M; Quer, J C; Richard, C

    2002-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been involved in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) in patients suffering both CIU and H. pylori infection. We selected 49 patients with 13C urea breath test positive, long-lasting CIU and H. pylori infection; 20 remained symptomatic, had positive urease test or H. pylori histologic identification in gastric biopsy material and accepted to participate in a pacebo-controlled treatment trial. They were randomized for a 7-day, double-blind, placebo-controlled H. pylori eradication treatment with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazol or placebo. H. pylori eradication was assessed by a second 13C urea breath test six weeks after the end of treatment. We observed a significant improvement of more than 70 % of CIU; baseline clinical score was seen in 4 of the 9 (44 %) patients who eradicated H. pylori after active treatment and in 1 of the 7 (12,3 %) of those who did not (p = 0.19). No clinical differences in CIU characteristics were found between patients with and without improvement. No serious adverse effects were observed in either treatment group. We conclude that the eradication of H. pylori may be useful for patients suffering long-lasting CIU and H. pylori infection, although theses results did not reach statistical significance probably owing to the strict conditions of the recruitment.

  11. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Young; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jaeuk U; Lee, Yu Jung; Kang, Jae Hui; Heo, Hyun; Choi, Hyo-Joon; Lee, Jun-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n = 28) or the sham laser acupuncture group (n = 28). Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version) were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.

  12. Effect of a mangosteen dietary supplement on human immune function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu-Ping; Li, Peng-Gao; Kondo, Miwako; Ji, Hong-Ping; Kou, Yan; Ou, Boxin

    2009-08-01

    The effect of a mangosteen product containing multivitamins and essential minerals was tested on immune function and well-being in healthy adults. A randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 59 healthy human subjects (40-60 years old). Changes from baseline immune function were measured after a 30-day consumption of the mangosteen product and the placebo. The subjects' self-appraisal of their health status was also surveyed. A xanthone-rich mangosteen product intake increased mean values for peripheral T-helper cell frequency (P = .020) and reduced the serum C-reactive protein concentration (P = .014). Increases in peripheral CD4/CD8 double-positive (DP) T-cell frequency and serum complement C3, C4, and interleukin (IL)-1alpha concentrations were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the placebo group (DP, P = .038; C3, P = .017; C4, P = .031; IL-1alpha, P = .006). At the end of study, serum IL-1alpha and IL-1beta concentrations in the study group were significantly higher than that in the placebo group (IL-1alpha, P = .033; IL-1beta, P = .04). Furthermore, more participants in the experimental group reported greatly improved overall health status compared with participants receiving placebo (P = .001). The results indicated that the intake of an antioxidant-rich product significantly enhanced immune responses and improved the subject's self-appraisal on his or her overall health status.

  13. Antidepressants and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study with paroxetine, sertraline, and nefazodone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, M D; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    2001-06-01

    Antidepressant medication is often associated with sexual side effects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with lifelong rapid ejaculation was performed to assess the effects of two selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors--paroxetine and sertraline--and the 5-HT2 antagonist and 5-HT/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor nefazodone on the latency to ejaculate. Forty-eight men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of a maximum of 1 minute were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (20 mg/day), sertraline (50 mg/day), nefazodone (400 mg/day), or placebo for 6 weeks. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment period, IELTs were measured at home with a stopwatch. The trial was completed by 40 men. During the 6-week treatment period, the geometric mean IELT in the placebo group was stable at approximately 20 seconds. Analysis of variance revealed a between-group difference in the evolution of IELT delay over time (p = 0.002); the IELT after paroxetine and sertraline gradually increased to approximately 146 and 58 seconds, respectively, compared with 28 seconds in the nefazodone group. The paroxetine and sertraline groups differed significantly (p < 0.001 and p = 0.024, respectively) from placebo, but the nefazodone group did not (p = 0.85). Compared with baseline, paroxetine exerted the strongest delay in ejaculation, whereas sertraline delayed it only moderately. There was no clinically relevant delay in ejaculation with nefazodone.

  14. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine and imipramine in out-patients with primary depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Shrivastava, R K; Mukherjee, S; Coleman, B S; Michael, S T

    1983-01-01

    1 A double-blind placebo-controlled study of fluvoxamine and imipramine was performed in a group of depressed patients. Twenty-two patients received fluvoxamine (mean dose 101 mg/day), 25 received imipramine (mean dose 127 mg/day) and 22 received placebo. 2 Apart from an increase in the SGOT and SGPT values of four imipramine patients, no statistically significant changes in haematology or urinalysis were judged to be medically relevant. Fluvoxamine exhibited fewer anticholinergic side effects than imipramine. 3 Both fluvoxamine treated patients and imipramine-treated patients exhibited a statistically significant improvement at the end of the 28-day treatment period with respect to the placebo patients, as measured using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Evaluations of the results of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Profile of Mood States revealed a statistically significant improvement for imipramine patients with respect to placebo at week 4, but not for fluvoxamine patients. It is postulated on the basis of quantitative pharmaco-EEG findings, that the slight superiority of imipramine over fluvoxamine was due to underdosing of the latter.

  15. Cerebrolysin in vascular dementia: improvement of clinical outcome in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guekht, Alla B; Moessler, Herbert; Novak, Philipp H; Gusev, Evgenyi I

    2011-01-01

    No drug to treat vascular dementia (VaD) has yet been approved by the American or European authorities, leaving a large population of patients without effective therapy. Cerebrolysin has a long record of safety and might be efficacious in this condition. We conducted a large, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 242 patients meeting the criteria for VaD. The primary endpoint was the combined outcome of cognition (based on Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive Subpart, Extended Version [ADAS-cog+] score) and overall clinical functioning (based on Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change plus Caregiver Input [CIBIC+] score) assessed after 24 weeks of treatment. Intravenous Cerebrolysin 20 mL was administered once daily over the course of 2 treatment cycles as add-on therapy to basic treatment with acetylsalicylic acid. The addition of Cerebrolysin was associated with significant improvement in both primary parameters. At week 24, ADAS-cog+ score improved by 10.6 points in the Cerebrolysin group, compared with 4.4 points in the placebo group (least squares mean difference, -6.17; P Cerebrolysin group (ADAS-cog+ improvement of ≥4 points from baseline, 82.1% vs 52.2%; CIBIC+ score of Cerebrolysin, the odds ratio for achieving a favorable CIBIC+ response was 5.08 (P Cerebrolysin significantly improved clinical outcome, and that the benefits persisted for at least 24 weeks. Cerebrolysin was safe and well tolerated.

  16. Efficacy of Dragon's blood cream on wound healing: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Kiashi, Fatemeh; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Saffari, Fatemeh; Makhmalzadeh, Behzad Sharif

    2016-01-01

    The blood-red sap of Dragon's blood has been used in folk medicine for fractures, wounds, inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatism, blood circulation dysfunctions, and cancer. Existing in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of this herb on different mechanisms of healing shows strong potential of this sap in wound healing. This clinical trial study was designated to evaluate the wound healing effect of Dragon's blood on human wounds. Sixty patients, between the ages of 14-65 years, who were referred to remove their skin tag, were assigned to this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial and received either Dragon's blood or a placebo cream. They were visited on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 20th day of the trial to check the process of healing and to measure the wound's surface. At the end of trial, there was a significant difference in the mean duration of wound healing between the two groups (p = 0.0001). The phenolic compounds and the alkaloid taspine, which exist in Dragon's-blood resin, are probably the main reasons for the wound healing property of this plant. Being natural accessible, safe, and affordable makes Dragon's blood cream, a good choice for addition to the wound healing armamentarium. Further studies on wounds with different causes and among larger populations are suggested to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Dragon's blood.

  17. Orange Pomace Improves Postprandial Glycemic Responses: An Acute, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial in Overweight Men

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    C.-Y. Oliver Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange pomace (OP, a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial with 34 overweight men who consumed either a 255 g placebo (PLA, a low (35% OP (LOP, or a high (77% (HOP dose OP beverage with breakfast. Blood was collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, and 8 h. Lunch was consumed after the 5.5-h blood draw. OP delayed the time (Tmax1 to the maximum concentration (Cmax1 of serum glucose during the 2-h period post breakfast by ≥36% from 33 (PLA to 45 (HOP and 47 (LOP min (p = 0.055 and 0.013, respectively. OP decreased post-breakfast insulin Cmax1 by ≥10% and LOP delayed the Tmax1 by 14 min, compared to PLA at 46 min (p ≤ 0.05. HOP reduced the first 2-h insulin area under concentration time curve (AUC by 23% compared to PLA. Thus, OP diminishes postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and the second meal in overweight men.

  18. Safety and Efficacy of MLC601 in Iranian Patients after Stroke: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    A. A. Harandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the safety and efficacy of MLC601 (NeuroAid as a traditional Chinese medicine on motor recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial on 150 patients with a recent (less than 1 month ischemic stroke. All patients were given either MLC601 (100 patients or placebo (50 patients, 4 capsules 3 times a day, as an add-on to standard stroke treatment for 3 months. Results. Sex, age, elapsed time from stroke onset, and risk factors in the treatment group were not significantly different from placebo group at baseline (P>.05. Repeated measures analysis showed that Fugl-Meyer assessment was significantly higher in the treatment group during 12 weeks after stroke (P<.001. Good tolerability to treatment was shown, and adverse events were mild and transient. Conclusion. MLC601 showed better motor recovery than placebo and was safe on top of standard ischemic stroke medications especially in the severe and moderate cases.

  19. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone in combination with riluzole in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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    Luc Dupuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pioglitazone, an oral anti-diabetic that stimulates the PPAR-gamma transcription factor, increased survival of mice with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a phase II, double blind, multicentre, placebo controlled trial of pioglitazone in ALS patients under riluzole. 219 patients were randomly assigned to receive 45 mg/day of pioglitazone or placebo (one: one allocation ratio. The primary endpoint was survival. Secondary endpoints included incidence of non-invasive ventilation and tracheotomy, and slopes of ALS-FRS, slow vital capacity, and quality of life as assessed using EUROQoL EQ-5D. The study was conducted under a two-stage group sequential test, allowing to stop for futility or superiority after interim analysis. Shortly after interim analysis, 30 patients under pioglitazone and 24 patients under placebo had died. The trial was stopped for futility; the hazard ratio for primary endpoint was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.71-2.07, p = 0.48. Secondary endpoints were not modified by pioglitazone treatment. Pioglitazone was well tolerated. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Pioglitazone has no beneficial effects on the survival of ALS patients as add-on therapy to riluzole. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00690118.

  20. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of piracetam on breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawires, Happy; Botrous, Osama

    2012-07-01

    Breath-holding spells (BHS) are apparently frightening events occurring in otherwise healthy children.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of piracetam in the treatment of breath-holding spells. Forty patients with BHS (who were classified into two groups)were involved in a double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective study. Piracetam was given to group A while group B received placebo. Patients were followed monthly for a total period of 4 months. The numbers of attacks/month before and monthly after treatment were documented, and the overall number of attacks/month after treatment was calculated in both groups. The median number of attacks/month before treatment in the two groups was 5.5 and 5,respectively, while after the first month of treatment, it was 2 and 5, respectively. The median overall number of attacks/month after treatment in both groups was 1 and 5, respectively.There was a significant decline of number of attacks after piracetam treatment compared to placebo (p valuepiracetam throughout the study period. In conclusion, piracetam is a safe and effective drug for the treatment of breath-holding spells in children.

  1. Galantamine efficacy and tolerability as an augmentative therapy in autistic children: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Ghyasvand, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Yadegari, Noorollah; Tabrizi, Mina; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Yekehtaz, Habibeh; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2014-07-01

    The role of cholinergic abnormalities in autism was recently evidenced and there is a growing interest in cholinergic modulation, emerging for targeting autistic symptoms. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and an allosteric potentiator of nicotinic receptors. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of galantamine as an augmentative therapy to risperidone, in autistic children. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 40 outpatients aged 4-12 years whom had a diagnosis of autism (DSM IV-TR) and a score of 12 or higher on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) Irritability subscale were equally randomized to receive either galantamine (up to 24 mg/day) or placebo, in addition to risperidone (up to 2 mg/day), for 10 weeks. We rated participants by ABC-C and a side effects checklist, at baseline and at weeks 5 and 10. By the study endpoint, the galantamine-treated patients showed significantly greater improvement in the Irritability (P = 0.017) and Lethargy/Social Withdrawal (P = 0.005) subscales than the placebo group. The difference between the two groups in the frequency of side effects was not significant. In conclusion, galantamine augmentation was shown to be a relatively effective and safe augmentative strategy for alleviating some of the autism-related symptoms.

  2. Aspirin desensitization for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Nabavi, Mohammad; Aryan, Zahra; Arshi, Saba; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Fallahpour, Morteza; Mortazavi, Negar

    2015-10-01

    The effect of aspirin desensitization (AD) on immunologic profile of patients with AERD has been poorly understood. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of AD on clinical and immunological markers of patients with AERD. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial comprised 34 adult patients (67.6% female) with chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and aspirin-intolerant asthma. The active group underwent AD over a 2-day period with increasing doses of aspirin (60, 125, 325, and 625 mg), followed by receiving aspirin 625 mg twice daily for 6 months. Symptom scores and medication needs of patients with AERD who have undergone AD were significantly lower compared to the placebo group after 6 months (7.5 ± 3.5 vs. 10.6 ± 3.8 and 9.3 ± 2.0 vs. 11.0 ± 3.1, respectively, all p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in serum concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, and TGF-β between two groups neither at baseline nor at the end of study.

  3. Once-daily rupatadine improves the symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubertret, Louis; Zalupca, Lavinia; Cristodoulo, Tania; Benea, Vasile; Medina, Iris; Fantin, Sara; Lahfa, Morad; Pérez, Iñaki; Izquierdo, Iñaki; Arnaiz, Eva

    2007-01-01

    This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, international, dose-ranging study investigated the effect of treatment with rupatadine 5, 10 and 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks on symptoms and interference with daily activities and sleep in 12-65 years-old patients with moderate-to-severe chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Rupatadine 10 and 20 mg significantly reduced pruritus severity by 62.05% and 71.87% respectively, from baseline, over a period of 4 weeks compared to reduction with placebo by 46.59% (p < 0.05). Linear trends were noted for reductions in mean number of wheals and interference with daily activities and sleep with rupatadine 10 and 20 mg over the 4-week treatment period. The two most frequently reported AEs were somnolence (2.90% for placebo, 4.29% for 5 mg-, 5.41% for 10 mg- and 21.43% for 20 mg-rupatadine-treated group) and headache (4.35% for placebo, 2.86% for 5 mg-, 4.05% for 10 mg- and 4.29% for 20 mg-rupatadine-treated group). These findings suggest that rupatadine 10 and 20 mg is a fast-acting, efficacious and safe treatment for the management of patients with moderate-to-severe CIU. Rupatadine decreased pruritus severity, in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  4. Intravenous lidocaine for postmastectomy pain treatment: randomized, blind, placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Cursino de Menezes Couceiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Postoperative pain treatment in mastectomy remains a major challenge despite the multimodal approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients undergoing mastectomy, as well as the postoperative consumption of opioids. METHODS: After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira in Recife, Pernambuco, a randomized, blind, controlled trial was conducted with intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg infused over 1 h in 45 women undergoing mastectomy under general anesthesia. One patient from placebo group was. RESULTS: Groups were similar in age, body mass index, type of surgery, and postoperative need for opioids. Two of 22 patients in lidocaine group and three of 22 patients in placebo group requested opioid (p = 0.50. Pain on awakening was identified in 4/22 of lidocaine group and 5/22 of placebo group (p = 0.50; in the post-anesthetic recovery room in 14/22 and 12/22 (p = 0.37 of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively. Pain evaluation 24 h after surgery showed that 2/22 and 3/22 patients (p = 0.50 of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively, complained of pain. CONCLUSION: Intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg administered over a period of an hour during mastectomy did not promote additional analgesia compared to placebo in the first 24 h, and has not decreased opioid consumption. However, a beneficial effect of intravenous lidocaine in selected and/or other therapeutic regimens patients cannot be ruled out.

  5. Efficacy of minocycline in acute ischemic stroke: A single-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Padma Srivastava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minocycline is a semisynthetic derivative of the tetracycline group of antibiotics, which have neuroprotective effects. In animal stroke models, minocycline had shown promising evidence to improve clinical and functional outcomes. Objective: To analyze the effect of oral minocycline in acute ischemic stroke patients. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized single-blinded open-label study. The study group received oral minocycline 200 mg/day for 5 days and the control group received oral vitamin B capsules. Baseline assessment included the following: National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score, modified Barthel Index (mBI, modified Rankin Scale (mRS score, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of brain including Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI, chest X-ray, and routine laboratory investigations. The clinical scales were repeated at days 1, 7, and 30. The end point was outcomes at 3 months (90 days. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 11.5 (P<0.05. Paired t-test and multiple-measures Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Fifty patients with acute ischemic stroke were included in the study. Of these, 23 patients received minocycline and 27 patients received placebo i.e., vitamin B capsules. NIHSS score in patients receiving minocycline had shown statistically significant improvement at day 30 and 90 as compared with the controls. Similarly, mRS scores and BI showed significant improvement in patients receiving minocycline at three months as compared to the control group. No mortality, myocardial infarctions, recurrent strokes, and hemorrhagic transformations were noted in both groups. Conclusions: Patients with acute ischemic stroke had significantly better outcome with minocycline treatment as compared with those administered placebo. The above findings suggest that minocycline can be helpful in reducing the clinical deficits after acute ischemic stroke.

  6. A six-month double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of duloxetine for the treatment of fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Chappell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy S Chappell1, Laurence A Bradley2, Curtis Wiltse1, Michael J Detke1,3,4, Deborah N D’Souza1, Michael Spaeth51Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; 3Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Practice for Internal Medicine/Rheumatology, Graefelfing, GermanyObjective: Assess the efficacy of duloxetine 60/120 mg (N = 162 once daily compared with placebo (N = 168 in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia, during six months of treatment.Methods: This was a phase-III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study assessing the efficacy and safety of duloxetine.Results: There were no significant differences between treatment groups on the co-primary efficacy outcome measures, change in the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI average pain severity from baseline to endpoint (P = 0.053 and the Patient’s Global Impressions of Improvement (PGI-I at endpoint (P = 0.073. Duloxetine-treated patients improved significantly more than placebo-treated patients on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire pain score, BPI least pain score and average interference score, Clinical Global Impressions of Severity scale, area under the curve of pain relief, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory mental fatigue dimension, Beck Depression Inventory-II total score, and 36-item Short Form Health Survey mental component summary and mental health score. Nausea was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event in the duloxetine group. Overall discontinuation rates were similar between groups.Conclusions: Although duloxetine 60/120 mg/day failed to demonstrate significant improvement over placebo on the co-primary outcome measures, in this supportive study, duloxetine demonstrated significant improvement compared with placebo on numerous secondary measures.Keywords: fibromyalgia, duloxetine, placebo, double-blind, trial

  7. Effect of Auricular Acupress Therapy on Insomnia of Cancer Patients : Randomized, Single Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Jung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auricular acupressure is one of the traditional health care treatments in oriental medicine. Approximately, 30~40% of the cancer patients have said to be suffering from insomnia and half of them having chronic and severe insomnia at the same time. Insomnia caused cancer patients feel more pain, fatigue, depression and anxiety and it sometimes let the power to have the best of cancer pull down. Objective: To investigate how effective the auricular acupressure treatment to cancer patients suffering from insomnia. Methods: We recruited participants from East-West Cancer Center of Daejeon University. Finally, of the people whose age range from 20 to 75, 12 patients who got less than 40 points from the score of Oh's sleeping score (OSS were recruited. Single-blind, randomized pilot study was performed. The treatment group received auricular acupressure treatment (AAT on active points and the control group had received sham acupressure treatment (SAT for five times. Sleep parameters were checked by using OSS and numeric rating scale (NRS. We checked the scale everytime, both before and after treatment. We analyzed the data statistically by using independent T-test, paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA test. (p<0.05 Results: Twelve cancer patients participated in this pilot study and there was no significant difference between control and treatment group. Only 7 of them had completed the whole treatment process, 4 patients of AAT group and 3 participants of SAT. The OSS of AAT group had increased from 34.0± 4.3 to 39.5±3.1 and that of SAT group had increased from 38.3±3.5 to 40.0±0.0. There was no significant difference between them. The NRS of AAT group had increased from 6.3±2.9 to 4.8±2.1 and that of SAT group had increased from 7.0±1.0 to 5.0±2.6. No significant difference was observed between them. Conclusion: Although both groups did not show significant differences, most of the experimental participants showed

  8. Safety of a New Compact Male Intermittent Catheter: Randomized, Cross-Over, Single-Blind Study in Healthy Male Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, Per; Hannibalsen, Jane; Permild, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A new compact male intermittent catheter was compared with a regular intermittent male catheter in terms of safety and acceptability. Methods: In this randomized, single-blind, cross-over study, healthy male volunteers were catheterized twice with a compact catheter and twice with a...

  9. Fusidic acid cream in the treatment of impetigo in general practice: double blind randomised placebo controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Koning (Sander); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); J.L. Nouwen (Jan); C.M. Verduin (Cees); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); A.P. Oranje (Arnold); S. Thomas (Siep); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fusidic acid would not increase the treatment effect of disinfecting with povidone-iodine alone in children with impetigo. DESIGN: Randomised placebo controlled trial. SETTING: General practices in Greater Rotterdam. PARTICIPANTS:

  10. Olanzapine versus Placebo in Adolescents with Schizophrenia; a 6-Week, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzhanovskaya, Ludmila; Schulz, Charles; McDougle, Christopher; Frazier, Jean; Dittman, Ralf; Robertson-Plouch, Carol; Bauer, Theresa; Xu, Wen; Wang, Wei; Carlson, Janice; Tohen, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of olanzapine in treating schizophrenia was tested through a placebo-controlled trial involving one hundred seven inpatient and outpatients adolescents. Patients who took olanzapine experienced significant symptom improvement.

  11. The efficacy of Femal in women with premenstrual syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhardsen, G.; Hansen, A.V.; Killi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, parallel-group, multicentre study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a pollen-based herbal medicinal product, Femal (R) (Sea-Band Ltd, Leicestershire, UK), on premenstrual sleep disturbances (PSD) in women with premenstrual syndrome...... as the main symptom cluster makes this herbal medicinal product a promising addition to the therapeutic arsenal for women with PMS Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...

  12. Articles Safety and efficacy of pitolisant on cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Szakacs, Zoltan; Dauvilliers, Yves; Mikhaylov, Vladimir; Poverennova, Irina; Krylov, Sergei; Jankovic, Slavko; Sonka, Karel; Lehert, Philippe; Lecomte, Isabelle; Lecomte, Jeanne-Marie; Schwartz, Jean-Charles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND:Histaminergic neurons are crucial to maintain wakefulness, but their role in cataplexy is unknown. We assessed the safety and efficacy of pitolisant, a histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist, for treatment of cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy.METHODS:For this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we recruited patients with narcolepsy from 16 sleep centres in nine countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Russia, Serbia,...

  13. Effects of a commercial product containing guaraná on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood: a single-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestrini, Gianluca Ivan; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background Guaranà (Paulinia cupana) seed extracts are increasingly popular worldwide for their stimulant, cognitive and behavioral effects. To assess the effects on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood of a commercially available guaranà preparation taken regularly over several days according to the labelled dosages and instructions, 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Results Guaranà 350 mg × 3 daily just...

  14. Efficacy of prednisone 1–4 mg/day in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled withdrawal clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A randomised double-blind placebo controlled withdrawal clinical trial of prednisone versus placebo in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), treated in usual clinical care with 1–4 mg/day prednisone, withdrawn to the same dose of 1 mg prednisone or identical placebo tablets. Methods: All patients were from one academic setting and all trial visits were conducted in usual clinical care. Patients were taking stable doses of 1–4 mg prednisone with stable clinical status, documented...

  15. Efficacy and safety of bilastine in Japanese patients with perennial allergic rhinitis: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase III study

    OpenAIRE

    Kimihiro Okubo; Minoru Gotoh; Mikiya Asako; Yasuyuki Nomura; Michinori Togawa; Akihiro Saito; Takayuki Honda; Yoshihiro Ohashi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bilastine, a novel non-sedating second-generation H1 antihistamine, has been approved in most European countries since 2010. This study aimed to evaluate the superiority of bilastine over placebo in Japanese patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase III study (trial registration number JapicCTI-142600) evaluated the effect of a 2-week treatment period with bilastine (20 mg once daily), fexo...

  16. Effect of clonazepam and clonidine on primary sleep bruxism: a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takuro; Kato, Takafumi; Yoshizawa, Shuichiro; Suganuma, Takeshi; Takaba, Masayuki; Ono, Yasuhiro; Yoshizawa, Ayako; Yoshida, Yuya; Kurihara, Tatsuya; Ishii, Masakazu; Kawana, Fusae; Kiuchi, Yuji; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of clonazepam and clonidine on rhythmic masticatory muscle activity in young adults with primary sleep bruxism, as well as accompanying effects on sleep architecture and cardiac activity. This study used a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Polysomnography was performed on 19 subjects [nine men and 10 women; mean age (±SE): 25.4 ± 2.7 years] for 5 nights. The first 2 nights were used for the habituation and diagnosis of sleep bruxism. The other 3 nights were randomly assigned for clonazepam (1.0 mg), clonidine (0.15 mg) or placebo (all administered 30 min before bedtime). Sleep, oromotor activity and cardiac activity variables were assessed and compared among the three drug conditions. Clonidine significantly reduced the median percentage of time spent in the rapid eye movement sleep stage compared with placebo and clonazepam. The number of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes was reduced with clonidine by >30% compared with placebo and clonazepam. The reduction of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity index by clonidine was associated with an increase of mean RR intervals (slower heart rate) during quiet sleep periods and during a 70-s period before the onset of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes. However, no changes in cardiac activity variables were observed for clonazepam. In young adults with primary sleep bruxism, clonidine was significantly more effective in suppressing sleep bruxism than clonazepam. The acute effects of clonidine on rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes may be mediated by suppression of autonomic nervous system activity and non-rapid eye movement-rapid eye movement sleep processes.

  17. Efficacy and safety of drotaverine hydrochloride in irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh R Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds/Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of drotaverine hydrochloride (HCl 80 mg tablet given thrice a day in the symptomatic relief of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Patients and Methods: The study was a multicentric, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study performed at three centers. The patients who fulfilled Rome II Criteria of IBS were included in the study. A total of 180 patients with IBS were randomized to drotaverine and placebo treatment groups. Abdominal pain and stool frequency were measured every week in both the groups for all the 4 weeks of treatment duration. Subject Global Assessment of Relief (SGA of IBS symptoms was assessed at the end of the study. Appropriate statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney U-test (two-tailed, Wilcoxon signed ranks test, and McNemar tests. Results: Pain frequency decreased significantly (P < 0.01 in 22 (25.9%, 51 (60%, and 66 (77.7% patients in the drotaverine group, at the end of 2 nd , 3 rd , and 4 th weeks, respectively, as compared with 8 (9.4%, 18 (21.2%, and 26 (30.6% in the placebo group. Pain severity scores also decreased significantly in the drotaverine group 66 (77.7% as compared with placebo 26 (30.6% after 4 weeks. Drotaverine HCl was shown to provide significant improvement (P < 0.01 in global relief in abdominal pain as perceived by the patient (85.9% vs 39.5% and the clinician (82.4% vs 36.5% in the drotaverine group as compared with placebo. There is significant (P < 0.01 improvement in stool frequency in drotaverine HCl treatment group as compared with placebo. The drug is well tolerated without any major side effects. Conclusions: A 4-week treatment with drotaverine significantly improves abdominal symptoms in patients with IBS.

  18. [A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of tolperisone in spasticity following cerebral stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenova, P; Koytchev, R; Kuhn, K; Hanasen, C; Horvath, F; Ramm, S; Pongratz, D

    2006-01-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of tolperisone--a centrally acting muscle relaxant with membrane stabilizing activity--in the treatment of stroke-related spasticity. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study with parallel groups. Treatment lasted 12 weeks and was started with a titration period of variable length (dose range 300-900 mg tolperisone daily). The degree of spasticity determined on the Ashworth Scale in the most severely affected joint area was denned as primary target parameter. Hundred and twenty patients (43 females, 77 males) in a mean age of 63,3 +/- 10,6 years were recruited and received treatment. In the majority of patients both limbs of each side were affected by the spasticity which on average had been present for 3,3 +/- 4,4 years. A 62% of the patients were treated with a daily dose >600 mg tolperisone. Tolperisone reduced the mean Ashworth Score by a mean of 1,03 +/- 0,71 compared with a mean reduction of 0,47 +/- 0,54 in the placebo group (ptolperisone versus 45% of the placebo patients experienced a reduction by at least 1 point on the Ashworth Scale (ptolperisone. Adverse events occurred less often on active treatment (n=19) than on placebo (n=26) and were mostly of mild-to-moderate intensity. No withdrawals caused by adverse events were reported in the tolperisone group. The findings of the present study demonstrate the efficacy and excellent tolerance of tolperisone in the treatment of spastic hypertonia following cerebral stroke. Study data further suggest that an individual dose titration which may exceed the recommended maximum dose of 450 mg daily results in optimized therapeutic benefit.

  19. Role of Synbiotics in the Treatment of Childhood Constipation: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Sabbaghian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Constipation is a common problem in children. There is some clinical evidence for the role of probiotics and prebiotics in the treatment of constipated children. This is the first study on the therapeutic effect of synbiotics (combination of probiotics and prebiotic in treatment of childhood constipation. Methods:In a double-blind randomized placebo controlled study 102 children aged 4-12 years with functional constipation were assessed according to Rome III criteria for 4 weeks. They were divided into 3 groups: Group A, received 1.5 ml/kg/day oral liquid paraffin plus placebo, group B, 1 sachet synbiotic per day plus placebo and group C, 1.5 ml/kg/day oral liquid paraffin plus 1 sachet synbiotic per day. Frequency of bowel movements (BMs, stool consistency, number of fecal incontinence episodes, abdominal pain, painful defecation per week, success of treatment and side effects were determined in each group before and after treatment. Findings:The frequency of BMs per week increased in all groups (P<0.001, but it differed between groups and was higher in group C (P=0.03. Stool consistency increased and number of fecal incontinence episodes, abdominal pain and painful defecation per week decreased in all groups similarly and there was statistically no difference between them. No side effects were reported in group B; the main side effect in group A and C was seepage of oil (P<0.001. Treatment success was similar in all groups without any significant difference between them (P=0.6.   Conclusion:This study showed that synbiotics have positive effects on symptoms of childhood constipation without any side effects.

  20. Atomoxetine treatment for nicotine withdrawal: a pilot double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study in adult smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverstone Peter H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many effective treatments for nicotine addiction inhibit noradrenaline reuptake. Three recent studies have suggested that another noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, may reduce smoking behaviors. Methods The present double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study was carried out over 21 days during which administration of 40 mg atomoxetine was compared to placebo in 17 individuals. Of these, nine were randomized to atomoxetine and eight to placebo. Baseline and weekly measurements were made using the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS, Cigarette Withdrawal Scale (CWS, Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU, reported number of cigarettes smoked, and salivary cotinine levels. Results The study results showed that all those on placebo completed the study. In marked contrast, of the nine individuals who started on atomoxetine, five dropped out due to side effects. In a completer analysis there were statistically significant differences at 14 and 21 days in several measures between the atomoxetine and placebo groups, including CDS, CWS, QSU, number of cigarettes smoked (decreasing to less than two per day in the treatment group who completed the study, and a trend towards lower mean salivary cotinine levels. However, these differences were not seen in a last observation carried forward (LOCF analysis. Conclusions In summary, this is the first study to examine the use of atomoxetine in non-psychiatric adult smokers for a period of more than 7 days, and the findings suggest that atomoxetine might be a useful treatment for nicotine addiction. However, the dose used in the current study was too high to be tolerated by many adults, and a dose-finding study is required to determine the most appropriate dose for future studies of this potential treatment for smoking cessation.

  1. Effects of oral phentolamine, taken before sleep, on nocturnal erectile activity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzichristou, D G; Apostolidis, A; Tzortzis, V; Hatzimouratidis, K; Kouvelas, D

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oral phentolamine, administered before sleep, on nocturnal penile erectile activity of men with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED). We studied five patients with mild to moderate ED (mean age 34.8 +/- 8.13 and mean duration of ED 31.8 +/- 23.5 months), in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All patients received oral phentolamine (Vasomax) at a dose of 40 mg and placebo for three consecutive nights respectively and were submitted to nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity monitoring (NPTR) with the Rigiscan device. NPTR parameters of the two 3-night recordings were evaluated and compared. Administration of oral phentolamine before sleep was associated with a statistically significant increase in the number of erectile events with rigidity > or = 60% lasting > or = 10 min (P = 0.02), as well as the rigidity activity units (RAU) value per hour sleep, both at the base (P = 0.023) and the tip of the penis (P = 0.019). The number of events as measured by Rigiscan software (20% change in circumference), as well as tumescence activity units (TAU)/h values did not show any statistical difference. No adverse effects were recorded. It is concluded that oral phentolamine administered before sleep enhanced NPTR parameters associated with the quality of the erectile events. Such results provide a pathway for the development of a prevention strategy for ED. Future studies will elucidate whether vasoactive agents taken on a regular basis before sleep, can prevent ED in men at risk, protecting also minimally and moderately impotent patients to become moderately and severely impotent respectively.

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY WITH ALANYL-GLUTAMINE IN HIV PATIENTS: a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberio Dias LEITE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Glutamine is the main source of energy of the enterocyte and diarrhea and weight loss are frequent in HIV infected patients. Objective To determine the effect of alanyl-glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and absorption in these patients. Methods Randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled study using isonitrogenous doses of alanyl-glutamine (24 g/day and placebo (glycine, 25 g/day during 10 days. Before and after this nutritional supplementation lactulose and mannitol urinary excretion were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results Forty six patients with HIV/AIDS, 36 of whom were male, with 37.28 ± 3 (mean ± standard error years were enrolled. Twenty two and 24 subjects were treated with alanyl-glutamine and with glycine respectively. In nine patients among all in the study protocol that reported diarrhea in the 14 days preceding the beginning of the study, mannitol urinary excretion was significantly lower than patients who did not report this symptom [median (range: 10.51 (3.01–19.75 vs. 15.37 (3.93–46.73; P = 0.0281] and lactulose/mannitol ratio was significantly higher [median (range: 0.04 (0.00–2.89 vs. 0.02 (0.00–0.19; P = 0.0317]. There was also a significant increase in mannitol urinary excretion in the group treated with alanyl-glutamine [median (range: 14.38 (8.25–23.98 before vs 21.24 (6.27–32.99 after treatment; n = 14, P = 0.0382]. Conclusion Our results suggest that the integrity and intestinal absorption are more intensely affected in patients with HIV/AIDS who recently have had diarrhea. Additionally, nutritional supplementation with alanyl-glutamine was associated with an improvement in intestinal absorption.

  3. Effect of hookworm infection on wheat challenge in celiac disease--a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A James Daveson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between hygiene and prevalence of autoimmune disease has been attributed in part to enteric helminth infection. A pilot study of experimental infection with the hookworm Necator americanus was undertaken among a group of otherwise healthy people with celiac disease to test the potential of the helminth to suppress the immunopathology induced by gluten. METHODS: In a 21-week, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we explored the effects of N. americanus infection in 20 healthy, helminth-naïve adults with celiac disease well controlled by diet. Staged cutaneous inoculations with 10 and 5 infective 3(rd stage hookworm larvae or placebo were performed at week-0 and -12 respectively. At week-20, a five day oral wheat challenge equivalent to 16 grams of gluten per day was undertaken. Primary outcomes included duodenal Marsh score and quantification of the immunodominant α-gliadin peptide (QE65-specific systemic interferon-γ-producing cells by ELISpot pre- and post-wheat challenge. RESULTS: Enteric colonisation with hookworm established in all 10 cases, resulting in transiently painful enteritis in 5. Chronic infection was asymptomatic, with no effect on hemoglobin levels. Although some duodenal eosinophilia was apparent, hookworm-infected mucosa retained a healthy appearance. In both groups, wheat challenge caused deterioration in both primary and several secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Experimental N. americanus infection proved to be safe and enabled testing its effect on a range of measures of the human autoimmune response. Infection imposed no obvious benefit on pathology. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00671138.

  4. A preliminary randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial of intravenous immunoglobulin for Japanese encephalitis in Nepal.

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    Ajit Rayamajhi

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE virus (JEV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus found across Asia that is closely related to West Nile virus. There is no known antiviral treatment for any flavivirus. Results from in vitro studies and animal models suggest intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG containing virus-specific neutralizing antibody may be effective in improving outcome in viral encephalitis. IVIG's anti-inflammatory properties may also be beneficial.We performed a pilot feasibility randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of IVIG containing anti-JEV neutralizing antibody (ImmunoRel, 400mg/kg/day for 5 days in children with suspected JE at two sites in Nepal; we also examined the effect on serum neutralizing antibody titre and cytokine profiles. 22 children were recruited, 13 of whom had confirmed JE; 11 received IVIG and 11 placebo, with no protocol violations. One child (IVIG group died during treatment and two (placebo subsequently following hospital discharge. Overall, there was no difference in outcome between treatment groups at discharge or follow up. Passive transfer of anti-JEV antibody was seen in JEV negative children. JEV positive children treated with IVIG had JEV-specific neutralizing antibody titres approximately 16 times higher than those treated with placebo (p=0.2, which was more than could be explained by passive transfer alone. IL-4 and IL-6 were higher in the IVIG group.A trial of IVIG for JE in Nepal is feasible. IVIG may augment the development of neutralizing antibodies in JEV positive patients. IVIG appears an appealing option for JE treatment that warrants further study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01856205.

  5. Creatine supplementation and resistance training in vulnerable older women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualano, Bruno; Macedo, André Regis; Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Takayama, Liliam; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation, associated or not with resistance training, in vulnerable older women. A 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Sixty subjects were assigned to compose the following groups: placebo (PL), creatine supplementation (CR), placebo with resistance training (PL+RT), and creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR+RT). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after 24weeks. The primary outcome was muscle strength, as assessed by one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests. Secondary outcomes included appendicular lean mass, bone mass, biochemical bone markers, and physical function tests. The changes in 1-RM leg press were significantly greater in the CR+RT group (+19.9%) than in the PL (+2.4%) and the CR groups (+3.7%), but not than in the PL+RT group (+15%) (p=0.002, p=0.002, and p=0.357, respectively). The CR+RT group showed superior gains in 1-RM bench press (+10%) when compared with all the other groups (p≤0.05). The CR+RT group (+1.31%) showed greater appendicular lean mass accrual than the PL (-1.2%), the CR (+0.3%), and the PL+RT groups (-0.2%) (p≤0.05). The CR and the PL+RT groups experienced comparable gains in appendicular lean mass (p=0.62), but superior to those seen in the PL group. Changes in fat mass, bone mass and serum bone markers did not significantly differ between the groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, creatine supplementation combined with resistance training improved appendicular lean mass and muscle function, but not bone mass, in older vulnerable women. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01472393.

  6. The Deferasirox–AmBisome Therapy for Mucormycosis (DEFEAT Mucor) study: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellberg, Brad; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Chin-Hong, Peter V.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Morris, Michele I.; Perfect, John R.; Fredricks, David; Brass, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Host iron availability is fundamental to mucormycosis pathogenesis. The combination of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) and deferasirox iron chelation therapy synergistically improved survival in diabetic mice with mucormycosis. To determine the safety of combination deferasirox plus LAmB therapy for mucormycosis, a multicentred, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial was conducted. Methods Twenty patients with proven or probable mucormycosis were randomized to receive treatment with LAmB plus deferasirox (20 mg/kg/day for 14 days) or LAmB plus placebo (NCT00419770, clinicaltrials.gov). The primary analyses were for safety and exploratory efficacy. Results Patients in the deferasirox arm (n = 11) were more likely than those in the placebo arm (n = 9) to have active malignancy, neutropenia and corticosteroid therapy, and were less likely to receive concurrent non-study antifungal therapy. Reported adverse events and serious adverse events were similar between the groups. However, death was more frequent in the deferasirox than in the placebo arm at 30 days (45% versus 11%, P = 0.1) and 90 days (82% versus 22%, P = 0.01). Global success (alive, clinically stable, radiographically improved) for the deferasirox arm versus the placebo arm at 30 and 90 days, respectively, was 18% (2/11) versus 67% (6/9) (P = 0.06) and 18% (2/11) versus 56% (5/9) (P = 0.2). Conclusions Patients with mucormycosis treated with deferasirox had a higher mortality rate at 90 days. Population imbalances in this small Phase II study make generalizable conclusions difficult. Nevertheless, these data do not support a role for initial, adjunctive deferasirox therapy for mucormycosis. PMID:21937481

  7. Efficacy of mouth rinses on dental plaque and gingivitis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

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    Arun Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the years chlorhexidine (CHX, triclosan and sodium fluoride (NaF mouth rinses are used alone or combined in the prevention of dental diseases. However, at present little is known about the combined effects of NaF + triclosan and CHX + NaF + triclosan mouth rinses on reducing dental plaque and gingivitis. Aim: The aim was to determine the efficacy of mouth rinses used as adjuncts to regular oral hygiene measures on reducing dental plaque and gingivitis. Materials and Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted for 6-month, among 12-15 years old school children in Nellore, India. Eligible subjects (n = 210 with consent were randomly allocated to four groups and were provided with a mouth rinse (Group A = 0.2% CHX; Group B = 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan; Group C = 0.2% CHX + 0.05% sodium fluoride + 0.03% triclosan; Group D = Placebo. All subjects used 10 ml of mouth rinse, once daily for 60 s. The clinical parameters evaluated were plaque index (PlI and gingival Index (GI. Statistical significance within and between four groups was tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc and paired t-test. Results: At the end of clinical trial, the three test groups showed statistically significant (P < 0.001 reduction in PlI and GI scores compared with placebo group. Conclusion: The active agents demonstrated highly potent antiplaque and antigingivitis properties when compared to placebo.

  8. Dietary Soy Supplement on Fibromyalgia Symptoms: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Early Phase Trial

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    Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most patients with fibromyalgia use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Properly designed controlled trials are necessary to assess the effectiveness of these practices. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, early phase trial. Fifty patients seen at a fibromyalgia outpatient treatment program were randomly assigned to a daily soy or placebo (casein shake. Outcome measures were scores of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention. Analysis was with standard statistics based on the null hypothesis, and separation test for early phase CAM comparative trials. Twenty-eight patients completed the study. Use of standard statistics with intent-to-treat analysis showed that total FIQ scores decreased by 14% in the soy group (P = .02 and by 18% in the placebo group (P < .001. The difference in change in scores between the groups was not significant (P = .16. With the same analysis, CES-D scores decreased in the soy group by 16% (P = .004 and in the placebo group by 15% (P = .05. The change in scores was similar in the groups (P = .83. Results of statistical analysis using the separation test and intent-to-treat analysis revealed no benefit of soy compared with placebo. Shakes that contain soy and shakes that contain casein, when combined with a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia treatment program, provide a decrease in fibromyalgia symptoms. Separation between the effects of soy and casein (control shakes did not favor the intervention. Therefore, large-sample studies using soy for patients with fibromyalgia are probably not indicated.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of "URSA Complex" in Subjects with Physical Fatigue: A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-blind,Placebo-controlled Trial

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    Kwang-Min Kim; Moon-Jong Kim; Sang-Wook Song; Doo-Yeoun Cho; Kyung-Chae Park; Sung-Won Yang; Young-Sang Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background:Fatigue is a common symptom both in diseases status and in healthy subjects.Various supplements and nutraceuticals for relieving of fatigue have been used.However,there are a few studies to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of the drug for fatigue alleviation,we conducted using URSA Complex to evaluate the efficacy on physical fatigue via score changes in the checklist individual strength (CIS).Methods:The study was designed as a multicenter,randomized,double-blind,placebo-controlled trial,with subjects randomized to one of the two arms,receiving either placebo or URSA Complex administered as identical capsules.The primary efficacy endpoints of this clinical trials are the ratio of improving CIS scores < 76 points in patients at the end (4 weeks).Secondary efficacy variables are as follows one is an improvement of fatigue and the other is an improvement of the liver enzyme.Results:The fatigue recovery rate in who had improved CIS scores of< 76 points were 70.0%,50.9% in the therapy group and placebo group,respectively (P =0.019).The fatigue recovery rate in CIS score was higher in URSA Complex therapy group than placebo group.The difference between therapy group and placebo group was statistically significant at 4 weeks later,but not 2 weeks.Conclusions:Our results provided that the URSA Complex was effective in alleviating physical fatigue.The adverse event frequency in the therapy groups was similar to that in the placebo group.

  10. The analgesic efficacy of intravenous lidocaine infusion after laparoscopic fundoplication: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Dale GJ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gregory J Dale,1 Stephanie Phillips,2 Gregory L Falk3 1Westmead Hospital Clinical School, The University of Sydney, 2Sydney Adventist Hospital Clinical School, The University of Sydney, 3Concord Clinical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia Abstract: This study aimed to determine if intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces postoperative pain intensity following laparoscopic fundoplication surgery and to also validate the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. This was an equally randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, single center trial. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication were recruited. The intervention group received 1 mg/kg intravenous lidocaine bolus prior to induction of anesthesia, then an intravenous infusion at 2 mg/kg/h for 24 hours. The primary outcome was pain, measured using a numeric rating scale for 30 hours postoperatively. Secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting, opioid requirements, adverse events, serum lidocaine concentration, and length of hospital stay. The study was terminated after an interim analysis of 24 patients showed evidence of futility. There was no difference in postoperative pain scores (lidocaine versus control, mean ± standard deviation at rest (2.0 ± 2.7 vs 2.1 ± 2.4, P=0.286 or with movement (2.0 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.7, P=0.487. Three adverse events occurred in the lidocaine group (25% of patients. Intravenous lidocaine did not provide clinically significant analgesia to patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication. The serum lidocaine concentration of patients who experienced adverse events were within the therapeutic range. This trial cannot confirm the safety of intravenous lidocaine at the dose tested. Keywords: analgesia, local anesthetics, intravenous infusions, pharmacokinetics

  11. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of dextromethorphan combined with clonidine in the treatment of heroin withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Ku; Pan, Chun-Hung; Chen, Chia-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Dextromethorphan has been reported to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms in both animal and human subjects. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of dextromethorphan as an add-on medication in heroin detoxification treatment in a double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Sixty-five heroin-dependent patients (male, 63; female, 2) participated in this inpatient detoxification trial after giving informed consent. Clonidine 0.075 mg 4 times a day was given as an antiwithdrawal medication at baseline. Each patient was then randomly assigned to treatment with either dextromethorphan 60 mg or placebo 4 times a day as additional medication. Flurazepam 30 mg was given before bedtime for insomnia. Other medications that were allowed included loperamide for diarrhea and lorazepam for agitation. Participants were monitored using the Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale 3 times a day as the primary outcome to compare drug efficacy between groups. Generalized estimating equation model analysis revealed that the Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale had no group difference between dextromethorphan and placebo group overall (P = 0.29), whereas a significant difference between groups was found during day 3 to day 6 (P = 0.04) by post hoc analysis. There was no difference in the Clinical Global Impression Scale, patient's impression of treatment, and use of ancillary medications between groups. No severe adverse effects were noticed. We suggest that dextromethorphan has some beneficial effect in attenuating the severity of opioid withdrawal symptoms and can be used as an adjunction medication in the treatment of opioid withdrawal, whereas the exact efficacy needs further investigation.

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of latrepirdine in patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Latrepirdine is an orally administered experimental small molecule that was initially developed as an antihistamine and subsequently was shown to stabilize mitochondrial membranes and function, which might be impaired in Huntington disease. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of latrepirdine on cognition and global function in patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING Sixty-four research centers in Australia, Europe, and North America. PATIENTS Four hundred three patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease and baseline cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score, 10-26). INTERVENTION Latrepirdine (20 mg) vs matching placebo administered orally 3 times daily for 26 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The co-primary outcome measures were cognition as measured by the change in Mini-Mental State Examination score from baseline to week 26 and global function at week 26 as measured by the Clinician Interview-Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview, which ranges from 1 (marked improvement) to 7 (marked worsening). Secondary efficacy outcome measures included behavior, daily function, motor function, and safety. RESULTS The mean change in Mini-Mental State Examination score among participants randomized to latrepirdine (1.5-point improvement) did not differ significantly from that among participants randomized to placebo (1.3-point improvement) (P=.39). Similarly, the distribution of the Clinician Interview-Based Impression of Change, plus carer interview did not differ significantly among those randomized to latrepirdine compared with placebo (P=.84). No significant treatment effects were detected on the secondary efficacy outcome measures. The incidence of adverse events was similar between those randomized to latrepirdine (68.5%) and placebo (68.0%). CONCLUSION In patients with mild to moderate Huntington disease and cognitive impairment, treatment with

  13. Clinical Evidence of Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 on Skin Aging: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Ra, Jehyeon; Choi, Il-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Ryu, Ja Hyun; Seo, Young Kyoung; Koh, Jae Sook; Lee, Jung-Hee; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2015-12-28

    The beneficial effects of probiotics are now widely reported, although there are only a few studies on their anti-aging effects. We have found that Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 (HY7714) improves skin hydration and has anti-photoaging effects, and in the present study, we have further evaluated the anti-aging effect of HY7714 via a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The trial included 110 volunteers aged 41 and 59 years who have dry skin and wrinkles. Participants took 1 × 10(10) CFU/day of HY7714 (probiotic group) or a placebo (placebo group) for 12 weeks. Skin hydration, wrinkles, skin gloss, and skin elasticity were measured every 4 weeks during the study period. There were significant increases in the skin water content in the face (p < 0.01) and hands (p < 0.05) at week 12 in the probiotic group. Transepidermal water loss decreased significantly in both groups at weeks 4, 8, and 12 (p < 0.001 compared with baseline), and was suppressed to a greater extent in the face and forearm in the probiotic group at week 12. Volunteers in the probiotic group had a significant reduction in wrinkle depth at week 12, and skin gloss was also significantly improved by week 12. Finally, skin elasticity in the probiotic group improved by 13.17% (p < 0.05 vs. controls) after 4 weeks and by 21.73% (p < 0.01 vs. controls) after 12 weeks. These findings are preliminary confirmation of the anti-aging benefit to the skin of L. plantarum HY7714 as a nutricosmetic agent.

  14. Clonidine as an adjunct to intravenous regional anesthesia: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose ranging study

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    Clarence S Ivie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The addition of clonidine to lidocaine intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA has been previously reported to improve postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing upper extremity surgery. Our objective was to perform a dose ranging study in order to determine the optimal dose of clonidine used with lidocaine in IVRA. Design & Setting : We performed a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled study with 60 patients scheduled for elective endoscopic carpal tunnel release under IVRA with 50 ml lidocaine 0.5%. University-affiliated outpatient surgery center. Data collected in operating rooms, recovery room, and by telephone after discharge from surgery center. Materials & Methods : Sixty adult ASA I or II patients undergoing outpatient endoscopic carpal tunnel release under intravenous regional anesthesia.Patients were randomized into five study groups receiving different doses of clonidine in addition to 50 ml 0.5% lidocaine in their IVRA. Group A received 0 mcg/kg, group B 0.25 mcg/kg, group C 0.5 mcg/kg, group D 1.0 mcg/kg and group E 1.5 mcg/kg of clonidine.Intraoperative fentanyl, recovery room pain scores, time to first postsurgical analgesic, total number of acetaminophen/codeine tablets consumed postsurgery, incidence of sedation, hypotension and bradycardia. Results & Conclusions : There was no benefit from any dose of clonidine compared to placebo. There were no clonidine-related side effects seen within the dose range studied. In short duration minor hand surgery, the addition of clonidine to lidocaine-based intravenous regional anesthesia provides no measurable benefit.

  15. The effects of Kinesio taping on muscle tone in healthy subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Aparicio-García, Carlos; Ruiz-Lázaro, Pilar; Simón-Martínez, Cristina; Bravo-Esteban, Elisabeth; Fernández-Rodríguez, José Manuel

    2014-04-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) has been proposed to modulate muscle tone. However no studies have systematically studied the efficacy of KTon this primary outcome measure. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Kinesio taping (KT) applied over the gastrocnemius muscles on muscle tone, extensibility, electromyography (EMG) and strength. Nineteen healthy subjects were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. KT and sham-tape were applied onto the gastrocnemius muscles of all subjects in two randomized sessions. Measurements before, at 10 min and 24 h after the intervention were taken. Outcome measurements included passive resistive torque to ankle dorsiflexion, dorsiflexion passive range of motion (PROM), surface Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) EMG and maximal isometric voluntary force (MIVF). No significant differences were found between the sham-tape and KT groups for passive resistive torque, PROM nor maximal plantarflexion isometric voluntary force. A short-term increase of GM EMG activity was found in the KT group during the PROM mobilization, which was not maintained at 24 h following treatment. A short-term decrease in dorsiflexion force was produced 10 min after KT with respect to sham-tape application. These results demonstrate that the application of KT in the gastrocnemius muscles has no effect on healthy muscle tone, extensibility nor strength. However a short-term increase of GM EMG activity after KT treatment suggests the activation of central nervous system mechanisms, although without a therapeutic implication. Further studies with more appropriate designs are needed to clarify the physiological and therapeutic effects of this taping technique.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Yokukansan in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

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    Tsuyoshi Miyaoka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed at evaluating both the efficacy and safety of TJ-54 (Yokukansan in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. This randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Methods. One hundred and twenty antipsychotic-treated inpatients were included. Patients were randomized to adjuvant treatment with TJ-54 or placebo. During a 4-week follow-up, psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results. TJ-54 showed a tendency of being superior to placebo in reduction total, positive, and general PANSS scores in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but the difference was not statistically significant in both per-protocol set (PPS and intention-to-treat (ITT. However, in PPS analysis, compared to the placebo group, the TJ-54 group showed statistically significant improvements in the individual PANSS subscale scores for lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation (TJ-54: −0.23±0.08; placebo: −0.03±0.08, P<0.018, tension (TJ-54: −0.42±0.09; placebo: −0.18±0.09, P<0.045, and poor impulse control (TJ-54: −0.39±0.10; placebo: −0.07±0.10, P<0.037. Conclusions. The results of the present study indicate that TJ-54 showed a tendency of being superior to placebo in reduction PANSS scores in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, compared to the placebo group, TJ-54 group showed statistically significant improvements in the individual PANSS subscale scores.

  17. Consumption of Sutherlandia frutescens by HIV-Seropositive South African Adults: An Adaptive Double-Blind Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial.

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    Douglas Wilson

    Full Text Available Sutherlandia frutescens (L. R. Br. is widely used as an over the counter complementary medicine and in traditional medications by HIV seropositive adults living in South Africa; however the plant's safety has not been objectively studied. An adaptive two-stage randomized double-blind placebo controlled study was used to evaluate the safety of consuming dried S. frutescens by HIV seropositive adults with CD4 T-lymphocyte count of >350 cells/μL.In Stage 1 56 participants were randomized to S. frutescens 400, 800 or 1,200 mg twice daily or matching placebo for 24 weeks. In Stage 2 77 additional participants were randomized to either 1,200 mg S. frutescens or placebo. In the final analysis data from Stage 1 and Stage 2 were combined such that 107 participants were analysed (54 in the S. frutescens 1,200 mg arm and 53 in the placebo arm.S. frutescens did not change HIV viral load, and CD4 T-lymphocyte count was similar in the two arms at 24 weeks; however, mean and total burden of infection (BOI; defined as days of infection-related events in each participant was greater in the S. frutescens arm: mean (SD 5.0 (5.5 vs. 9.0 (12.7 days (p = 0.045, attributed to two tuberculosis cases in subjects taking isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT.A possible interaction between S. frutescens and IPT needs further evaluation, and may presage antagonistic interactions with other herbs having similar biochemical (antioxidant properties. No other safety issues relating to consumption of S. frutescens in this cohort were identified.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00549523.

  18. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Aloysius L; Muthu, Nirmala; Rogers, Thomas R; Want, Susan; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi; Bulpitt, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus for the prevention of any diarrhoea associated with antibiotic use and that caused by Clostridium difficile. Design Randomised double blind placebo controlled study. Participants 135 hospital patients (mean age 74) taking antibiotics. Exclusions included diarrhoea on admission, bowel pathology that could result in diarrhoea, antibiotic use in the previous four weeks, severe illness, immunosuppression, bowel surgery, artificial heart valves, and history of rheumatic heart disease or infective endocarditis. Intervention Consumption of a 100 g (97 ml) drink containing Lactobacillus casei, L bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus twice a day during a course of antibiotics and for one week after the course finished. The placebo group received a longlife sterile milkshake. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: occurrence of antibiotic associated diarrhoea. Secondary outcome: presence of C difficile toxin and diarrhoea. Results 7/57 (12%) of the probiotic group developed diarrhoea associated with antibiotic use compared with 19/56 (34%) in the placebo group (P=0.007). Logistic regression to control for other factors gave an odds ratio 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.85) for use of the probiotic, with low albumin and sodium also increasing the risk of diarrhoea. The absolute risk reduction was 21.6% (6.6% to 36.6%), and the number needed to treat was 5 (3 to 15). No one in the probiotic group and 9/53 (17%) in the placebo group had diarrhoea caused by C difficile (P=0.001). The absolute risk reduction was 17% (7% to 27%), and the number needed to treat was 6 (4 to 14). Conclusion Consumption of a probiotic drink containing L casei, L bulgaricus, and S thermophilus can reduce the incidence of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and C difficile associated diarrhoea. This has the potential to decrease morbidity, healthcare costs, and mortality if used routinely in patients aged over 50

  19. Memantine add on to citalopram in elderly patients with depression: A double-blind placebo-controlled study

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    Victoria Omranifard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proper management of depression in elderly population would improve the outcome of the disease and reduce its related disability and mortality. Use of memantine with minimal side effects and drug interaction seems reasonable in the elderly but its antidepressant activity is controversial. The aim of the current research is to investigate the effects of add-on memantine during citalopram therapy in elderly patients with depression, in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind, placebo controlled trial study; elderly patients aged more than 60 years who were recently diagnosed with depression, were enrolled. The selected patients were randomlysplit into two groups, viz. intervention and placebo groups. The intervention was memantine (20 mg daily or identical placebo plus citalopram for 8 weeks. The severity of depression and quality of life was evaluated using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Hamilton Rating Scale for depression (HRSD and World Health Organization Quality of Life WHOQOL-BREF respectively. The mentioned scores were evaluated at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, after initiating the trial in two studied groups and compared with each other. Results: 28 and 29 patients were studied in the intervention and placebo groups, respectively. Score of GDS-15, HRSD and WHO-QOL-BREF scales at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, after initiating trial did not change significantly after use of memantine (P > 0.05. There was no significant difference in mean +/- SD of GDS-15, HRSD and WHO-QOL-BREF scales among intervention and placebo groups (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The outcome of this clinical trial did not support the antidepressant effect of add-on memantine in elderly patients with depression receiving citalopram. It is recommended to design further studies considering the limitations of the current study mentioned herein and the effect of memantine with other anti-depressant agents.

  20. Treatment of age-related memory complaints with Ginkgo biloba extract: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautigam, M R; Blommaert, F A; Verleye, G; Castermans, J; Jansen Steur, E N; Kleijnen, J

    1998-12-01

    A growing number of people is subject to age-related cognitive impairment due to the proportional increase of the ageing population. Therefore, there is a growing interest in cognition-enhancing substances. The efficacy of an alcohol/water extract of Ginkgo biloba in elderly individuals with memory- and/or concentration complaints was tested in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study by using both subjective and objective parameters. After a wash-out period of 4 weeks 241 non-institutionalised patients in the age range 55-86 years were randomly allocated to receive either Ginkgo biloba alcohol/water extract in a high dose (HD), a low dose (LD) or a placebo (PL) for 24 weeks. Patients were assessed using a psychometric testbattery in the following order: Expended Mental Control Test (EMCT) measuring attention and concentration, Benton Test of Visual Retention-Revised (measures short term visual memory), Rey Test part 1 (measures short term memory and learning curve), Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) measuring the presence and severeness of a depression in order to exclude depressive patients and Rey Test part 2 (measures long term memory: recognition). Furthermore, subjective perception of memory and concentration was measured. 197 patients completed the study (mean MMSE score: 26.29). In the subjective test, the EMCT, the Rey 1 and Rey 2 no significant differences in improvement in time between the groups were observed. In the Benton test increases of 18%, 26% and 11% (expressed as percentage of baseline scores) were observed in the HD, LD and PL respectively (MANOVA; p = 0.0076). No substantial correlation was observed between subjective perception of the severeness of memory complaints and the objective test results. No differences in the number of (gastrointestinal) side effects were observed between placebo and verum groups. These results indicate that the use of Ginkgo extracts in elderly individuals with cognitive impairment might be promising

  1. Phellodendron and Citrus extracts benefit joint health in osteoarthritis patients: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

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    Chambliss Walter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this clinical study was to assess the potential benefit of a dietary supplement, NP 06-1, on joint health in overweight and normal weight adults diagnosed with osteoarthritis. Methods An 8-week placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study was conducted with four groups comparing the effects of NP 06-1 to placebo on overweight and normal weight subjects diagnosed with primary osteoarthritis of the knee. NP 06-1 (a combination of two botanical extracts; Phellodendron amurense bark and Citrus sinensis peel or matching placebo were given in a dose of two capsules (370 mg each twice daily. The outcome measures were the Lequesne Algofunctional Index (LAI for joint pain and movement as well as biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP] and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]. Results Eighty (80 subjects were enrolled and 45 subjects completed the study. No serious adverse events were reported. The mean total LAI scores at baseline for the four groups ranged from 11.4 to 12.4 (SD 1.2 to 2.4. Treatment for 8 weeks resulted in a statistical improvement in the LAI score in the overweight treatment group compared to placebo (6.3 ± 2.3 vs 11.8 ± 1.5; p Conclusion In this pilot study, NP 06-1 had beneficial effects on symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee as measured using LAI scores and had anti-inflammatory effects as measured using CRP. Administration of NP 06-1 was also associated with weight loss, which may have been a contributing factor to the other benefits.

  2. Adjunctive treatment for cognitive impairment in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

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    Zhu W

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Weiwei Zhu,1,2,* Zhanchou Zhang,1,* Jingfeng Qi,1 Fang Liu,3 Jindong Chen,1,4,5 Jingping Zhao,1,4,5 Xiaofeng Guo1,4,5 1Institute of Mental Health, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 2Brain Hospital of Hunan Province, Changsha, 3First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 4National Technology Institute of Psychiatry, 5Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Changsha, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cognitive impairment is closely related to real-life functioning in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of adjunctive treatment with donepezil on cognition in patients with chronic schizophrenia. This was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of donepezil as an adjunct to antipsychotic drug therapy in patients with chronic stable schizophrenia. Sixty-one subjects were randomized to receive donepezil 5 mg/day (n=31 and/or placebo (n=30. A nine-test neuropsychological assessment battery was administered at baseline and at the end of the study. At the 12-week end point, the donepezil group showed significant improvements in the Wechsler Memory Scale Third Edition Spatial Span, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test total recall and delayed recall, Trail-Making Test Part A, and Category Fluency Test-animal naming (all P≤0.018. Compared with placebo, donepezil was associated with significant improvement in several cognitive domains, including working memory, speed of information processing, and visual learning and memory (P≤0.008. The results of the present study suggest that adjunctive use of donepezil is beneficial for improving cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Keywords: schizophrenia, cognitive function, donepezil

  3. Acupuncture for post-operative pain after inguinal hernia repair: a placebo controlled, double-blinded clinical trial

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    Raji B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture is one of the most effective methods of alleviating pain in different situations including chronic and acute pain management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in the reduction of post-operative pain after hernia repair.Methods: In this placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial, we enrolled 60 male patients aged 30 to 60 years old with an ASA physical status of I or II undergoing elective inguinal hernia repair under general anesthesia in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All patients experienced standard anesthetic and surgical procedures. After completion of the operation and while the patients were still under general anesthesia, they were randomly assigned to two groups: acupuncture (with stimulation of GV2, GV4 and SP6 points with sterile acupuncture needles, and control (with sham acupuncture stimulation. After termination of anesthesia, during the first six hours, the pain intensity was evaluated hourly. Pethidine (25 mg was administered for the patients when necessary. Pain intensity and pethidine use were recorded and compared between the two groups.Results: The mean age of two groups did not differ. Pain intensity was significantly lower in the acupuncture group between the second and fifth postoperative hours. Moreover, pethidine use was significantly lower in the acupuncture group versus the control group during the first six hours after surgery (12.07±7.5 mg vs. 12.91±6.5 mg, respectively; p=0.0001.Conclusion: The application of acupuncture in patients is associated with a marked decrease in pain after inguinal hernia repair and does not have any serious complications. Acupuncture is strongly recommended for all post-operative patients."n 

  4. Origanum vulgar inhaler in the treatment of chronic rhinosinositis, a double blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trial

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    K. Rabie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose: Symptoms of chronic rhinisinositis (CRS are cumbersome and refractory to most systemic medications and even after surgical intervention, the recurrence of symptoms are frequent. In order to study the beneficial effects of Origanum vulgar inhaler in relaxing the symptoms, this study was conducted in Boo Ali Sina Hospital, Sari, Iran.Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial carried out from April to December 2005. The diagnosis of CRS was made by an ENT specialist upon clinical and CT scan findings and or signs during functional endoscopy sinuses surgery (FESS. Patients younger than 15 years old, with a history of allergic eye disease and symptoms of infections were excluded. Patients were randomized in case and control groups (32 in each according to age, sex and disease chronicity. After verbal explanation of the trial, an informed consent form was signed by each patient. The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Origanum vulgar was gathered from local mountains (Kojor area, Nour, Mazandaran, Iran, and identified by an experienced botanist. The airial organs of the herb were dried, macerated followed by 75% hydroalcoholic extraction and standardized by Emerson method. The active ingredient and placebo in the same bottles were administered to the patients and they were asked to add 5 ml of the liquid to boiling water and inhale it for 15 minutes, three times a day for two weeks. A telephone contact was made to the patients, to increase the compliance to treatment. A questionnaire was filled in for each patient before and after the intervention by a doctor blind to groups. Chi square test was used for comparing the differences in symptoms and P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Sixty four patients were recruited and allocated equally in case and control groups matched for

  5. Etodolac versus diclofenac: double-blind cross-over study in rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Ciompi, M L; Puccetti, L; Bazzichi, L; Remorini, E; Marotta, G

    1989-01-01

    A 14-day double-blind clinical study was conducted on 16 patients with clinically active rheumatoid arthritis to compare the effects of etodolac (600 mg daily) and diclofenac (150 mg daily). Admission criteria were: functional impairment between Steinbrocker's classes I to III, Ritchie's index greater than 10 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate greater than 25 mm/h, and finally active involvement of the small joints of the hands. Following a wash-out period of at least two days from their previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, trial patients received etodolac or diclofenac for five consecutive days by random allocation; after that, and after another two day wash-out period, all patients were crossed-over to the alternate drug for another five consecutive days. One day before intake and on the last day of each treatment lap, each patient was examined in regard to the circadian grip strength (of the more severely affected hand), Ritchie's index and acute phase reactants; at the end of the second treatment period, subjective drug preference was explored. Grip strength was assessed by the patients themselves with a dynamometer at 08h00 and every two hours thereafter until 20h00. The overall daily value was calculated by measuring the area under curve (AUC) depicting the grip strength profile. Both groups of patients showed significant improvement of the Ritchie's index (p less than 0.01) and grip strength AUC (p less than 0.05), while taking medication, whereas no significant variations were noted in regard to the values of the acute phase parameters both between the two treatment groups, and within each treatment group. At termination, four patients expressed preference for etodolac, eight were in favour of diclofenac, and four gave an indifferent judgement. No statistically significant differences were detected between the two treatment groups; also no adverse events were seen in this short-term study. The results confirm the effectiveness and tolerability of

  6. Effect of muscle relaxants on experimental jaw-muscle pain and jaw-stretch reflexes: a double-blind and placebo-controlled trial.

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    Svensson, Peter; Wang, Kelun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2003-01-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled three-way cross-over study was performed to investigate the effect of two muscle relaxants (tolperisone hydrochloride and pridinol mesilate) on experimental jaw-muscle pain and jaw-stretch reflexes. Fifteen healthy men participated in three randomised sessions separated by at least 1 week. In each session 300 mg tolperisone, 8 mg pridinol mesilate or placebo was administered orally as a single dose. One hour after drug administration 0.3 ml hypertonic saline (5.8%) was injected into the right masseter to produce muscle pain. Subjects continuously rated their perceived pain intensity on an electronic 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS). The pressure pain threshold (PPT) was measured and short-latency reflex responses were evoked in the pre-contracted (15% maximal voluntary contraction) masseter and temporalis muscles by a standardised stretch device (1 mm displacement, 10 ms ramp time) before (baseline), 1 h after medication (post-drug), during ongoing experimental muscle pain (pain-post-drug), and 15 min after pain had vanished (post-pain). Analysis of variance demonstrated significantly lower VAS peak pain scores (5.9 +/- 0.4 cm) after administration of tolperisone hydrochloride compared with pridinol mesilate (6.8 +/- 0.4 cm) and placebo (6.6 +/- 0.4 cm) (P=0.020). Administration of pridinol mesilate was associated with a significant decrease in PPTs compared with tolperisone hydrochloride and placebo (P=0.002) after medication, but not after experimental jaw-muscle pain. The normalised peak-to-peak amplitude of the stretch reflexes were not significantly influenced by the test medication (P=0.762), but were in all sessions significantly facilitated during ongoing experimental jaw-muscle pain (P=0.034). In conclusion, tolperisone hydrochloride provides a small, albeit significant reduction in the perceived intensity of experimental jaw-muscle pain whereas the present dose had no effect on the short-latency jaw

  7. An integral topical gel for cellulite reduction: results from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled evaluation of efficacy

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    Dupont E

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Eric Dupont,1 Michel Journet,2 Marie-Laure Oula,3 Juan Gomez,1 Claude Léveillé,4 Estelle Loing,5 Diane Bilodeau6 1Immanence IDC Inc, Québec, QC, Canada; 2Clinique de Dermatologie St-Joseph, Montréal, QC, Canada; 3Evalulab Inc, Mont-Royal, QC, Canada; 4Clinique de Chirurgie Esthétique du Québec Métropolitain, Lévis, QC, Canada; 5Lucas Meyer Cosmetics, Québec, QC, Canada; 6CosmeConsult, Québec, QC, Canada Background: Cellulite is a serious cosmetic concern for most of the 90% of women affected by it. Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy of a complex integral anti-cellulite gel. Methods: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study involved 44 healthy women, aged 25–55 years. Subjects had a normal to slightly overweight body mass index and presented slight to moderate cellulite on their thighs, buttocks, and/or hips at baseline. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the treated or placebo group and accordingly applied the active product or placebo on their hips, stomach, buttocks, and thighs, twice daily for 3 months. Skin tonicity, orange-peel aspect, and stubborn cellulite were assessed at day 0, 28, 56, and 84. A self-evaluation questionnaire was completed by all volunteers. Results: At the end of the study, an average of 81% of the subjects applying the active product presented improvement in their cellulite condition versus 32% for the placebo group (all descriptors and sites combined. At day 84, skin tonicity, orange-peel appearance, and stubborn cellulite were improved in a significant manner (P<0.05 over placebo, on all studied areas. Skin tonicity improved on average by +41% for buttocks, +35% for hips, and +31% for thighs. Orange peel appearance was reduced on average by -25% for buttocks, -22% for hips, and -22% for thighs. Stubborn cellulite was reduced on average by -19% for buttocks, -24% for hips, and -22% for thighs. Circumference measurements decreased in a significant manner (P<0.05 over placebo

  8. The effect of azithromycin in adults with stable neutrophilic COPD: a double blind randomised, placebo controlled trial.

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    Jodie L Simpson

    Full Text Available Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is a progressive airway disease characterised by neutrophilic airway inflammation or bronchitis. Neutrophilic bronchitis is associated with both bacterial colonisation and lung function decline and is common in exacerbations of COPD. Despite current available therapies to control inflammation, neutrophilic bronchitis remains common. This study tested the hypothesis that azithromycin treatment, as an add-on to standard medication, would significantly reduce airway neutrophil and neutrophils chemokine (CXCL8 levels, as well as bacterial load. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in COPD participants with stable neutrophilic bronchitis.Eligible participants (n = 30 were randomised to azithromycin 250 mg daily or placebo for 12 weeks in addition to their standard respiratory medications. Sputum was induced at screening, randomisation and monthly for a 12 week treatment period and processed for differential cell counts, CXCL8 and neutrophil elastase assessment. Quantitative bacteriology was assessed in sputum samples at randomisation and the end of treatment visit. Severe exacerbations where symptoms increased requiring unscheduled treatment were recorded during the 12 week treatment period and for 14 weeks following treatment. A sub-group of participants underwent chest computed tomography scans (n = 15.Nine participants with neutrophilic bronchitis had a potentially pathogenic bacteria isolated and the median total bacterial load of all participants was 5.22×107 cfu/mL. Azithromycin treatment resulted in a non-significant reduction in sputum neutrophil proportion, CXCL8 levels and bacterial load. The mean severe exacerbation rate was 0.33 per person per 26 weeks in the azithromycin group compared to 0.93 exacerbations per person in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio (95%CI: 0.37 (0.11,1.21, p = 0.062. For participants who underwent chest CT scans, no

  9. Ghrelin treatment of cachectic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

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    Keisuke Miki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary cachexia is common in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, culminating in exercise intolerance and a poor prognosis. Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone (GH-releasing peptide with GH-independent effects. The efficacy and safety of adding ghrelin to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR in cachectic COPD patients were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 33 cachectic COPD patients were randomly assigned PR with intravenous ghrelin (2 µg/kg or placebo twice daily for 3 weeks in hospital. The primary outcomes were changes in 6-min walk distance (6-MWD and the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ score. Secondary outcomes included changes in the Medical Research Council (MRC scale, and respiratory muscle strength. At pre-treatment, serum GH levels were increased from baseline levels by a single dose of ghrelin (mean change, +46.5 ng/ml; between-group p<0.0001, the effect of which continued during the 3-week treatment. In the ghrelin group, the mean change from pre-treatment in 6-MWD was improved at Week 3 (+40 m, within-group p = 0.033 and was maintained at Week 7 (+47 m, within-group p = 0.017, although the difference between ghrelin and placebo was not significant. At Week 7, the mean changes in SGRQ symptoms (between-group p = 0.026, in MRC (between-group p = 0.030, and in maximal expiratory pressure (MEP; between-group p = 0.015 were better in the ghrelin group than in the placebo group. Additionally, repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated significant time course effects of ghrelin versus placebo in SGRQ symptoms (p = 0.049 and MEP (p = 0.021. Ghrelin treatment was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In cachectic COPD patients, with the safety profile, ghrelin administration provided improvements in symptoms and respiratory strength, despite the lack of a significant between

  10. Homeopathy for Depression - DEP-HOM: study protocol for a randomized, partially double-blind, placebo controlled, four armed study

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    Willich Stefan N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeopathy is often sought by patients with depression. In classical homeopathy, the treatment consists of two main elements: the case history and the prescription of an individually selected homeopathic remedy. Previous data suggest that individualized homeopathic Q-potencies were not inferior to the antidepressant fluoxetine in a sample of patients with moderate to severe depression. However, the question remains whether individualized homeopathic Q-potencies and/or the type of the homeopathic case history have a specific therapeutical effect in acute depression as this has not yet been investigated. The study aims to assess the two components of individualized homeopathic treatment for acute depression, i.e., to investigate the specific effect of individualized Q-potencies versus placebo and to investigate the effect of different approaches to the homeopathic case history. Methods/Design A randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-armed trial using a 2 × 2 factorial design with a six-week study duration per patient will be performed. 228 patients diagnosed with major depression (moderate episode by a psychiatrist will be included. The primary endpoint is the total score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale after six weeks. Secondary end points are: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score after two and four weeks; response and remission rates, Beck Depression inventory total score, quality of life and safety at two, four and six weeks. Statistical analyses will be by intention-to-treat. The main endpoint will be analysed by a two-factorial analysis of covariance. Within this model generalized estimation equations will be used to estimate differences between verum and placebo, and between both types of case history. Discussion For the first time this study evaluates both the specific effect of homeopathic medicines and of a homeopathic case taking in patients with depression. It is an

  11. A randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial in dementia patients continuing or stopping neuroleptics (the DART-AD trial.

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    Clive Ballard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been increasing concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of neuroleptics in people with dementia, but there are very few long-term trials to inform clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term treatment with neuroleptic agents upon global cognitive decline and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: DESIGN: Randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled parallel two-group treatment discontinuation trial. SETTING: Oxfordshire, Newcastle and Gateshead, London and Edinburgh, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Patients currently prescribed the neuroleptics thioridazine, chlorpromazine, haloperidol trifluoperazine or risperidone for behavioural or psychiatric disturbance in dementia for at least 3 mo. INTERVENTIONS: Continue neuroleptic treatment for 12 mo or switch to an identical placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was total Severe Impairment Battery (SIB score. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. RESULTS: 165 patients were randomised (83 to continue treatment and 82 to placebo, i.e., discontinue treatment, of whom 128 (78% commenced treatment (64 continue/64 placebo. Of those, 26 were lost to follow-up (13 per arm, resulting in 51 patients per arm analysed for the primary outcome. There was no significant difference between the continue treatment and placebo groups in the estimated mean change in SIB scores between baseline and 6 mo; estimated mean difference in deterioration (favouring placebo -0.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] -6.4 to 5.5, adjusted for baseline value (p = 0.9. For neuropsychiatric symptoms, there was no significant difference between the continue treatment and placebo groups (n = 56 and 53, respectively in the estimated mean change in NPI scores between baseline and 6 mo; estimated mean difference in deterioration (favouring continue treatment -2.4 (95% CI -8.2 to 3.5, adjusted for

  12. Valsartan improves adipose tissue function in humans with impaired glucose metabolism: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial.

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    Gijs H Goossens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In rodents, it has been demonstrated that RAS blockade improved adipose tissue (AT function and glucose homeostasis. However, the effects of long-term RAS blockade on AT function have not been investigated in humans. Therefore, we examined whether 26-wks treatment with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker valsartan affects AT function in humans with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study, in which 38 subjects with IGM were treated with valsartan (VAL, 320 mg/d or placebo (PLB for 26 weeks. Before and after treatment, an abdominal subcutaneous AT biopsy was collected for measurement of adipocyte size and AT gene/protein expression of angiogenesis/capillarization, adipogenesis, lipolytic and inflammatory cell markers. Furthermore, we evaluated fasting and postprandial AT blood flow (ATBF ((133Xe wash-out, systemic inflammation and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. VAL treatment markedly reduced adipocyte size (P<0.001, with a shift toward a higher proportion of small adipocytes. In addition, fasting (P = 0.043 and postprandial ATBF (P = 0.049 were increased, whereas gene expression of angiogenesis/capillarization, adipogenesis and macrophage infiltration markers in AT was significantly decreased after VAL compared with PLB treatment. Interestingly, the change in adipocyte size was associated with alterations in insulin sensitivity and reduced AT gene expression of macrophage infiltration markers. VAL did not alter plasma monocyte-chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, TNF-α, adiponectin and leptin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 26-wks VAL treatment markedly reduced abdominal subcutaneous adipocyte size and AT macrophage infiltration markers, and increased ATBF in IGM subjects. The VAL

  13. Effect of melatonin on duration of delirium in organophosphorus compound poisoning patients: A double-blind randomised placebo controlled trial

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    H N Vijayakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Organophosphate compound poisoning (OPCP is associated with high incidence of delirium. Melatonin has been tried in the treatment of delirium and has shown a beneficial effect in OPCP. This study was conducted to know the effect of melatonin on duration of delirium and recovery profile in OPCP patients. Methods: Double-blind randomised placebo control trial in which 56 patients of OPCP confirmed by history and syndrome of OPCP with low plasma pseudocholinesterase, aged >18 years and weighing between 50 and 100 kg, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of <20 were studied. Group M (n = 26 received tablet melatonin 3 mg and Group C (n = 30 received placebo tablet at 9 PM, every night throughout the Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay. Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU, thrice a day. Sedation was provided with injection midazolam, fentanyl and lorazepam. Duration of mechanical ventilation, vital parameters, ICU stay, sedative and atropine requirement, were recorded. Results: The time taken to be delirium free was significantly lower in Group M (6 ± 2.92 days compared to Group C (9.05 ± 2.75 days (P = 0.001 and prevalence of delirium was significantly decreased in Group M compared to Group C from day 3 onwards. The requirement of midazolam (Group M - 2.98 ± 4.99 mg/day, Group C - 9.68 ± 9.17 mg/day, P < 0.001 and fentanyl (Group M - 94.09 ± 170.05 μg/day, Group C - 189.33 ± 156.38 μg/day, P = 0.03 decreased significantly in Group M. There was no significant difference in the average atropine consumption (P = 0.27, duration of mechanical ventilation (P = 0.26, ICU stay (P = 0.21 and the number of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (P = 0.50. Conclusion: Orally given melatonin in organophosphate compound poisoning patients reduces the duration of delirium and the requirement of sedation and analgesia.

  14. A double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover study of the acute metabolic effects of olanzapine in healthy volunteers.

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    Vance L Albaugh

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics exhibit metabolic side effects including diabetes mellitus and obesity. The adverse events are preceded by acute worsening of oral glucose tolerance (oGTT along with reduced plasma free fatty acids (FFA and leptin in animal models. It is unclear whether the same acute effects occur in humans.A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted to examine the potential metabolic effects of olanzapine in healthy volunteers. Participants included male (8 and female (7 subjects [18-30 years old, BMI 18.5-25]. Subjects received placebo or olanzapine (10 mg/day for three days prior to oGTT testing. Primary endpoints included measurement of plasma leptin, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma free fatty acids (FFA. Secondary metabolic endpoints included: triglycerides, total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, heart rate, blood pressure, body weight and BMI. Olanzapine increased glucose Area Under the Curve (AUC by 42% (2808±474 vs. 3984±444 mg/dl·min; P = 0.0105 during an oGTT. Fasting plasma leptin and triglycerides were elevated 24% (Leptin: 6.8±1.3 vs. 8.4±1.7 ng/ml; P = 0.0203 and 22% (Triglycerides: 88.9±10.1 vs. 108.2±11.6 mg/dl; P = 0.0170, whereas FFA and HDL declined by 32% (FFA: 0.38±0.06 vs. 0.26±0.04 mM; P = 0.0166 and 11% (54.2±4.7 vs. 48.9±4.3 mg/dl; P = 0.0184, respectively after olanzapine. Other measures were unchanged.Olanzapine exerts some but not all of the early endocrine/metabolic changes observed in rodent models of the metabolic side effects, and this suggest that antipsychotic effects are not limited to perturbations in glucose metabolism alone. Future prospective clinical studies should focus on identifying which reliable metabolic alterations might be useful as potential screening tools in assessing patient susceptibility to weight gain and diabetes caused by atypical antipsychotics.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00741026.

  15. Adjuvant interferon gamma in patients with pulmonary atypical Mycobacteriosis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

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    Sánchez-de la Osa Reinaldo B

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High antibiotic resistance is described in atypical Mycobacteriosis, mainly by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in two hospitals to evaluate the effect of interferon (IFN gamma as immunoadjuvant to chemotherapy on patients with atypical mycobacteria lung disease. Patients received placebo or 1 × 106 IU recombinant human IFN gamma intramuscularly, daily for one month and then three times per week up to 6 months as adjuvant to daily oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ethambutol and rifampin. Sputum samples collection for direct smear observation and culture as well as clinical and thorax radiography assessments were done during treatment and one year after. Cytokines and oxidative stress determinations were carried out in peripheral blood before and after treatment. Results Eighteen patients were included in the IFN group and 14 received placebo. Groups were homogeneous at entry; average age was 60 years, 75% men, 84% white; MAC infection prevailed (94%. At the end of treatment, 72% of patients treated with IFN gamma were evaluated as complete responders, but only 36% in the placebo group. The difference was maintained during follow-up. A more rapid complete response was obtained in the IFN group (5 months before, with a significantly earlier improvement in respiratory symptoms and pulmonary lesions reduction. Disease-related deaths were 35.7% of the patients in the placebo group and only 11.1% in the IFN group. Three patients in the IFN group normalized their globular sedimentation rate values. Although differences in bacteriology were not significant during the treatment period, some patients in the placebo group converted again to positive during follow-up. Significant increments in serum TGF-beta and advanced oxidation protein products were observed in the placebo group but not among IFN receiving patients. Treatments were well tolerated

  16. Phellodendron and Citrus extracts benefit cardiovascular health in osteoarthritis patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

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    Chambliss Walter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this clinical study was to assess the potential benefit of a dietary supplement, NP 06-1, on cardiovascular protective properties in overweight and normal weight adults diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods An 8-week, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study was conducted with four groups, comparing the effects of NP 06-1 to placebo in overweight and normal weight subjects diagnosed with primary osteoarthritis of the knee. NP 06-1 (a combination of two botanical extracts; Phellodendron amurense bark and Citrus sinensis peel or matching placebo was given in a dose of two capsules (370 mg each twice daily. The outcome measures reported are lipid levels, weight, BMI, blood pressure and fasting glucose. Analyses of variance were used to compare changes of physiological measures over the trial period and between groups. Results Eighty (80 subjects were enrolled and 45 subjects completed the study. No serious adverse events were reported. NP 06-1 administration was associated with a general improvement in lipid levels. Both the overweight and normal weight treatment groups had significant reductions in triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol, as well as a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol compared to their respective control groups. Overall there were decreases in blood pressure in both overweight and normal weight treatment groups compared to respective placebo groups. There was also a significant decrease in fasting glucose levels in the overweight treatment group compared to the start of the study and to the overweight placebo group. There was no change in fasting blood sugar for the normal weight groups. Both overweight and normal weight treatment groups lost a significant amount of weight compared to their respective placebo groups. The overweight treatment group lost an average of 5% body weight after 8 weeks, which was associated with a significant loss in BMI over time. Conclusion In

  17. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study of oseltamivir phosphate for treatment of influenza infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙芸; 蔡伯蔷; 王孟昭; 朱元珏

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oseltamivir phosphate as treatment for naturally acquired influenza infection. Methods This study was conducted as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial during the influenza epidemic season from January to April 2001 at 7 centers in China. A total of 478 adults without other medical history, aged 18 to 65 years, were enrolled into the study. All subjects demonstrated febrile respiratory illness of no more than 36 hours' duration with a temperature of 37.8℃ or more plus at least two of the following symptoms: coryza/nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, myalgia/muscles aches and pain, fatigue, headache or chills/sweats. Individuals were randomized into either the oseltamivir phosphate or placebo group with identical-looking capsules. Either oral oseltamivir phosphate, 75 mg twice daily, or placebo was administered to the subjects for 5 days.Results A total of 451 individuals were analyzed for efficacy as the intent-to-treat population (ITT) (216 oseltamivir and 235 placebo) and 273 individuals were identified as influenza-infected through laboratory test, who were then defined as the intent-to-treat infected population (ITTI) (134 oseltamivir and 139 placebo). Four hundred and fifty nine individuals were included in the safety analysis. In the ITTI population, the cumulative alleviation proportion of oseltamivir group was significantly higher than that of the placebo group (P=0.0466)). The median duration of illness was 91.6 h [95% confidence interval (CI)=80.2-101.3 h] in the oseltamivir group and 95 h (95% CI=84.5-105.3 h) in the placebo group. The median area under the curve of decreased total score was significantly higher in the oseltamivir group than in the placebo group, 1382.9 and 1236.7 score-hours, respectively (P=0.0196). For the ITT population, similar results were observed. Adverse events (AE) were similarly reported in both the oseltamivir group and the placebo group. The

  18. Infliximab monotherapy for Chinese patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis: a randomized, double-blind,placebo-controlled multicenter trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hai-zhen; LIU Xiao-ming; TU Cai-xia; JI Su-zhen; SHEN Yang; ZHU Xue-jun; WANG Ke; JIN Hong-zhong; GAO Tian-wen; XIAO Sheng-xiang; XU Jin-hua; WANG Bao-xi; ZHANG Fu-ren; LI Chun-yang

    2012-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor-α is a key mediator in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.Infliximab is a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to tumor necrosis factor-a.The purpose of this study was to validate the efficacy and safety of 5 mg/kg infiiximab therapy in Chinese patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.Methods In this multicenter,double-blind,placebo-controlled trial,129 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis were randomized to the induction therapy (weeks 0,2 and 6) with infliximab 5 mg/kg (n=84) or placebo (n=45),followed with infliximab 5 mg/kg scheduled at week 14 and week 22 in the infliximab group,and infliximab 5 mg/kg scheduled at weeks 10,12 and 16 in the placebo group,The primary end point was the proportion of patients who achieved at least 75%improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI 75 response rate) from baseline at week 10.Results At week 10,B1.0% of patients treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg) achieved a 75% or greater improvement compared with 2.2% of patients treated with placebo (P <0.001).A significant improvement in PASI,Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI),was seen from week 6 through week 14 in the infliximab group compared with the placebo group.Through week 22,PASI,PGA,DLQI were well maintained.The incidence of adverse events for the infliximab treatment group was slightly higher in comparison to the placebo treatment group during the first 10 weeks without statistical significance.However,there were 3 cases of tuberculosis that developed during the 26 weeks treatment with infliximal.Conclusions Infliximab treatment was effective as induction and maintenance treatments for Chinese patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.Most drug-induced adverse events were mild to moderate,and well tolerated.Screening for tuberculosis is essential and prophylactic treatment should be given if necessary.

  19. Gabapentin monotherapy for the symptomatic treatment of painful neuropathy: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, M M

    1999-01-01

    Pain is the most disturbing symptom of diabetic neuropathy. Traditionally this type of pain was treated with tricyclic antidepressants which frequently have many side effects. In the study reported here, gabapentin was administered in escalating doses up to 3600 mg per day to eligible patients with moderate to severe diabetic neuropathy pain in a double blind placebo controlled fashion. Gabapentin provided superior and significant pain relief over placebo. In addition, patients taking gabapentin had improvement of sleep scores and a number of items on mood and quality of life questionnaires. Gabapentin was tolerated well with mild and tolerable side effects.

  20. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month trial of bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets as an aid to smoking cessation in hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgareth, Oli Jacob; Hansen, Niels-Christian Gerner; Søes-Petersen, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Despite changes in smoking behavior, one-third of the Danish population continues to smoke. Many of these smokers are hospital employees. This 6-month, multicenter, parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated treatment with bupropion hydrochloride sustained release...... (Zyban) compared with placebo as an aid to smoking cessation in health care workers. A total of 336 hospital employees who smoked at least 10 cigarettes daily were randomized (2:1) to 7 weeks of treatment with bupropion (n=222) or placebo (n=114). All participants were motivated to quit smoking......% in the bupropion group and 18% in the placebo group, pinsomnia, and pruritus appeared...

  1. The dose-dependent efficiency of radial shock wave therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Ming-Jen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Li, Tsung-Ying; Chu, Heng-Yi; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to be a novel therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, previous studies did not examine the diverse effects of different-session ESWT for different-grades CTS. Thus, we conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixty-nine patients (90 wrists) with mild to moderate CTS were randomized into 3 groups. Group A and C patients received one session of radial ESWT (rESWT) and sham eESWT per week for 3 co...

  2. Effect of tesofensine on bodyweight loss, body composition, and quality of life in obese patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Madsbad, Sten; Breum, Leif;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight-loss drugs produce an additional mean weight loss of only 3-5 kg above that of diet and placebo over 6 months, and more effective pharmacotherapy of obesity is needed. We assessed the efficacy and safety of tesofensine-an inhibitor of the presynaptic uptake of noradrenaline......, dopamine, and serotonin-in patients with obesity. METHODS: We undertook a phase II, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in five Danish obesity management centres. After a 2 week run-in phase, 203 obese patients (body-mass index 30-...

  3. Sono-electro-magnetic therapy for treating chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of sono-electro-magnetic therapy compared to placebo in men with refractory CPPS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind single center trial, we assessed the effect of sono-electro-magnetic therapy in men with treatment refractory CPPS. Sixty male patients were randomly assigned to treatment with either sono-electro-magnetic (n = 30) or placebo therapy (n = 30) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was a change in the N...

  4. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study of the cortical spreading depression inhibiting agent tonabersat in migraine prophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goadsby, P J; Ferrari, M D; Csanyi, A

    2009-01-01

    . In month 3 of treatment, the responder rate, defined as a 50% reduction in migraine attacks, was 62% for tonabersat and 45% for placebo (P ...Tonabersat is a novel putative migraine prophylactic agent with an unique stereospecific binding site in the brain. Tonabersat has been shown, in animal models, to inhibit experimentally induced cortical spreading depression, the likely underlying mechanism for migraine aura, and cerebrovascular...... responses to trigeminal nerve stimulation. The aim was to study the potential for tonabersat as a migraine preventive. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, parallel group study recruited patients with migraine with and without aura experiencing between two and six migraine attacks...

  5. REASSESSMENT OF DEFIBRASE IN TREATMENT OF ACUTE CEREBRAL INFARCTION: A MULTICENTER, RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE-BLIND,PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    The Cooperative Group for Reassessment of Defibras

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of defibrase in patients with acute cerebral infarction by a large sample,multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.Methods Patients with acute cerebral infarction within 12 hours of stroke onset were randomly assigned to receive either an initial intravenous infusion of defibrase 15 U plus normal saline 250 Ml or 250 Ml of normal saline only.Subsequent infusions of defibrase 15 U or placebo (normal saline) were given on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th day, respectively.Both groups received standard care of acute cerebral infarction. The primary efficacy outcome was functional status(Barthel Index) at 3 months after treatment. Safety outcome were bleeding events and mortality rate. Secondary outcome included Chinese Stroke Scale (CSS) score at 14 days and recurrence rate of stroke at 1 year. Results A total of 1053 patients were enrolled at 46 centers from September 2001 to July 2003, and 527 patients were randomly assigned to receive defibrase and 526 to receive placebo. A similar proportion of patients in both groups completed a full course of treatment. There was a significantly greater proportion of favorable functional status (Barthel Index ≥95) in defibrase group than in placebo group at 3 months (52.2% vs. 42.8%, P < 0.01), and the proportion of dependent functional status (Barthel Index ≤60) was a little lower in defibrase group compared with placebo group(27.7%vs. 32.4%). These differences were more obvious among patients who were treated within 6 hours of stroke onset.Patients in defibrase group had better improvement with respect to CSS score than those in placebo group at 14 days (P <0.05). Recurrence rate of stroke at 1 year was lower in the defibrase group compared with placebo group (6.2% vs. 10.1%,P = 0.053). Patients in defibrase group had higher risk of extracranial bleeding events (4.7%vs. 1.5%, P< 0.01) and a tendency of higher risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage

  6. Zinc adjunct therapy reduces case fatality in severe childhood pneumonia: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Maheswari G

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumonia is a leading cause of children's deaths in developing countries and hinders achievement of the fourth Millennium Development Goal. This goal aims to reduce the under-five mortality rate, by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015. Few studies have examined the impact of zinc adjunct therapy on the outcome of childhood pneumonia. We determined the effect of zinc as adjunct therapy on time to normalization of respiratory rate, temperature and oxygen saturation. We also studied the effect of zinc adjunct therapy on case fatality of severe childhood pneumonia (as a secondary outcome in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Methods In this double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 352 children aged 6 to 59 months, with severe pneumonia were randomized to zinc (20 mg for children ≥12 months, and 10 mg for those Results Time to normalization of the respiratory rate, temperature and oxygen saturation was not significantly different between the two arms. Case fatality was 7/176 (4.0% in the zinc group and 21/176 (11.9% in the placebo group: Relative Risk 0.33 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.76. Relative Risk Reduction was 0.67 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.85, while the number needed to treat was 13. Among HIV infected children, case fatality was higher in the placebo (7/27 than in the zinc (0/28 group; RR 0.1 (95% CI 0.0, 1.0. Among 127 HIV uninfected children receiving the placebo, case fatality was 7/127 (5.5%; versus 5/129 (3.9% among HIV uninfected group receiving zinc: RR 0.7 (95% CI 0.2, 2.2. The excess risk of death attributable to the placebo arm (Absolute Risk Reduction or ARR was 8/100 (95% CI: 2/100, 14/100 children. This excess risk was substantially greater among HIV positive children than in HIV negative children (ARR: 26 (95% CI: 9, 42 per 100 versus 2 (95% CI: -4, 7 per 100; P-value for homogeneity of risk differences = 0.006. Conclusion Zinc adjunct therapy for severe pneumonia had no significant effect on time to normalization of

  7. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A; Lloyd, Jenny; Silber, Beata; Redman, Stephanie; Hutchison, Chris; Wesnes, Keith; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2008-12-01

    While Ayurvedic medicine has touted the cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monniera for centuries, there is a need for double-blind placebo-controlled investigations. One hundred and seven healthy participants were recruited for this double-blind placebo-controlled independent group design investigation. Sixty-two participants completed the study with 80% treatment compliance. Neuropsychological testing using the Cognitive Drug Research cognitive assessment system was conducted at baseline and after 90 days of treatment with a special extract of Bacopa monniera (2 x 150 mg KeenMind) or placebo. The Bacopa monniera product significantly improved performance on the 'Working Memory' factor, more specifically spatial working memory accuracy. The number of false-positives recorded in the Rapid visual information processing task was also reduced for the Bacopa monniera group following the treatment period. The current study provides support for the two other published studies reporting cognitive enhancing effects in healthy humans after a 90 day administration of the Bacopa monniera extract. Further studies are required to ascertain the effective dosage range, the time required to attain therapeutic levels and the effects over a longer term of administration.

  8. The Lipid lowering and Onset of Renal Disease (LORD Trial: A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial assessing the effect of atorvastatin on the progression of kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraghty Dominic P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that dyslipidemia is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Experimental studies have established that lipids are damaging to the kidney and animal intervention studies show statins attenuate this damage. Small clinical trials, meta-analyses, observational studies and post-hoc analyses of cardiovascular intervention studies all support the concept that statins can reduce kidney damage in humans. Based on this background, a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of atorvastatin 10 mg on slowing the progression of kidney disease in a population of patients with CKD. Method/Design The Lipid lowering and Onset of Renal Disease (LORD trial is a three-year, single center, multi-site, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial. The primary outcome measure is kidney function measured by eGFR calculated by both Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD and Cockcroft and Gault equations. Secondary outcome measures include kidney function measured by 24-hour urine creatinine clearance and also 24-hour urinary protein excretion, markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and drug safety and tolerability. Discussion The results of this study will help determine the effectiveness and safety of atorvastatin and establish its effects on oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with CKD. Trial Registration ANZCTRN012605000693628

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY WITH ALANYL-GLUTAMINE IN HIV PATIENTS: a randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Dias LEITE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Glutamine is the main source of energy of the enterocyte and diarrhea and weight loss are frequent in HIV infected patients. Objective To determine the effect of alanyl-glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and absorption in these patients. Methods Randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled study using isonitrogenous doses of alanyl-glutamine (24 g/day and placebo (glycine, 25 g/day during 10 days. Before and after this nutritional supplementation lactulose and mannitol urinary excretion were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results Forty six patients with HIV/AIDS, 36 of whom were male, with 37.28 ± 3 (mean ± standard error years were enrolled. Twenty two and 24 subjects were treated with alanyl-glutamine and with glycine respectively. In nine patients among all in the study protocol that reported diarrhea in the 14 days preceding the beginning of the study, mannitol urinary excretion was significantly lower than patients who did not report this symptom [median (range: 10.51 (3.01–19.75 vs. 15.37 (3.93–46.73; P = 0.0281] and lactulose/mannitol ratio was significantly higher [median (range: 0.04 (0.00–2.89 vs. 0.02 (0.00–0.19; P = 0.0317]. There was also a significant increase in mannitol urinary excretion in the group treated with alanyl-glutamine [median (range: 14.38 (8.25–23.98 before vs 21.24 (6.27–32.99 after treatment; n = 14, P = 0.0382]. Conclusion Our results suggest that the integrity and intestinal absorption are more intensely affected in patients with HIV/AIDS who recently have had diarrhea. Additionally, nutritional supplementation with alanyl-glutamine was associated with an improvement in intestinal absorption. Contexto A glutamina é a principal fonte de energia do enterócito e diarreia e perda de peso são frequentes em pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Objetivo Determinar o efeito da alanil-glutamina sobre a permeabilidade e a absorção intestinais nesses

  10. History of early abuse as a predictor of treatment response in patients with fibromyalgia : A post-hoc analysis of a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pae, Chi-Un; Masand, Prakash S.; Marks, David M.; Krulewicz, Stan; Han, Changsu; Peindl, Kathleen; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a post-hoc analysis to determine whether a history of physical or sexual abuse was associated with response to treatment in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled release (CR) in fibromyalgia. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, placeb

  11. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pincus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fmri 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril. Each subject performed Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance.

  12. Antihypertensive potential of combined extracts of olive leaf, green coffee bean and beetroot: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rachel H X; Garg, Manohar L; Wood, Lisa G; Howe, Peter R C

    2014-11-05

    Extracts of olive leaf, green coffee bean and beetroot may deliver cardiovascular benefits. This study sought to evaluate the effects of regularly consuming a combination of these extracts on blood pressure (BP), arterial compliance, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity. A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted in adults with untreated high normal or borderline elevated BP. They were randomised to take an active supplement, comprising 500 mg olive leaf extract, 100 mg green coffee bean extract and 150 mg beet powder, or a matching placebo twice daily for six weeks, followed by the alternate supplement for a further six weeks. Assessments of 24-h ambulatory BP (ABP), clinic BP arterial compliance (pulse-wave analysis), blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin were obtained at baseline and at the end of each treatment phase. Baseline clinic BP in 37 overweight middle-aged men and women who completed the trial averaged 145/84 mmHg. There was no significant effect of treatment on ABP or any other outcome measure. The failure to confirm prior evidence of the antihypertensive benefits of these extracts emphasises the importance of placebo control and the value of ABP monitoring. Further dose-response evaluation of olive leaf, green coffee bean or beetroot extracts is required to confirm or refute the purported benefits.

  13. Antihypertensive Potential of Combined Extracts of Olive Leaf, Green Coffee Bean and Beetroot: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H.X. Wong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of olive leaf, green coffee bean and beetroot may deliver cardiovascular benefits. This study sought to evaluate the effects of regularly consuming a combination of these extracts on blood pressure (BP, arterial compliance, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity. A double-blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial was conducted in adults with untreated high normal or borderline elevated BP. They were randomised to take an active supplement, comprising 500 mg olive leaf extract, 100 mg green coffee bean extract and 150 mg beet powder, or a matching placebo twice daily for six weeks, followed by the alternate supplement for a further six weeks. Assessments of 24-h ambulatory BP (ABP, clinic BP arterial compliance (pulse-wave analysis, blood lipids, blood glucose and insulin were obtained at baseline and at the end of each treatment phase. Baseline clinic BP in 37 overweight middle-aged men and women who completed the trial averaged 145/84 mmHg. There was no significant effect of treatment on ABP or any other outcome measure. The failure to confirm prior evidence of the antihypertensive benefits of these extracts emphasises the importance of placebo control and the value of ABP monitoring. Further dose-response evaluation of olive leaf, green coffee bean or beetroot extracts is required to confirm or refute the purported benefits.

  14. Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy trial in alcoholism conducted in Germany and comparison with the US COMBINE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karl; Lemenager, Tagrid; Hoffmann, Sabine; Reinhard, Iris; Hermann, Derik; Batra, Anil; Berner, Michael; Wodarz, Norbert; Heinz, Andreas; Smolka, Michael N; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Wellek, Stefan; Kiefer, Falk; Anton, Raymond F

    2013-11-01

    The results of placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) with acamprosate or naltrexone vary substantially. Those differences have been attributed to differing patient characteristics, recruitment strategies, treatment settings and remuneration systems. We tested these assumptions by comparing a new double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted in Germany (called PREDICT Study) with data from the US COMBINE Study. PREDICT was designed according to the protocol of the COMBINE Study. A total of 426 alcohol-dependent patients were compared to 459 COMBINE Study patients corresponding to the treatment cells in PREDICT. All patients received acamprosate, naltrexone or placebo for 3 months (PREDICT) or 4 months (COMBINE). Biweekly manualized 'medical management' to enhance compliance was delivered in both studies. Time until the first occurrence of heavy drinking was the main outcome measure. PREDICT found neither acamprosate nor naltrexone to supply any additional benefit compared with placebo, which is at variance with a positive naltrexone effect being reported in the COMBINE Study. A secondary comparison between both studies showed better overall treatment outcomes in PREDICT, although these patients had been more severely affected than their COMBINE counterparts. The divergence in results may be attributable to basic differences in the treatment environments (such as in-patient pre-treatment versus primary outpatient care). We suggest that identically designed RCTs conducted in different parts of the world may help improve the external validity of RCTs. This approach could be called 'comparative efficacy research'.

  15. A Placebo-Controlled, Blinded and Randomised Study on the Effects of Recombinant Human Thyrotropin on Quality of Life in the Treatment of Thyroid Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Birte; Bastholt, Lars; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) in thyroid cancer patients can induce a decrease in quality of life (QOL). Recombinant human thyrotropin (rh-TSH) has been used to avoid this; however, no blinded studies have ever documented the effect. OBJECTIVE: To compare QOL...... in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) treated with either rh-TSH or liothyronine (L-T3) THW for 10 days. STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind, randomised cross-over. PATIENTS: Fifty-six patients with DTC treated by total thyroidectomy and indication for postsurgery radioiodine (RI) ablation therapy...

  16. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, cross over study to evaluate the analgesic activity of Boswellia serrata in healthy volunteers using mechanical pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Prabhavathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Experimental pain models in human healthy volunteers are advantageous for early evaluation of analgesics. All efforts to develop nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs which are devoid of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system effects are still far from achieving a breakthrough. Hence we evaluated the analgesic activity of an ayurvedic drug, Boswellia serrata by using validated human pain models which has shown its analgesic activity both in-vitro and preclinical studies to evaluate the analgesic activity of single oral dose (125 mg, 2 capsules of Boswellia serrata compared to placebo using mechanical pain model in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods: After taking written informed consent, twelve healthy subjects were randomized (1:1 to receive single oral dose of Boswellia serrata (Shallaki® 125 mg, 2 capsules or identical placebo in a crossover design. Mechanical pain was assessed using Ugo basile analgesymeter (by Randall Selitto test at baseline and at 1 hr, 2 hrs and 3 hrs after test drug administration. Pain Threshold force and time and Pain Tolerance force and time were evaluated. Statistical analysis was done by paired t-test. Results : Twelve healthy volunteers have completed the study. Mean percentage change from baseline in Pain Threshold force and time with Boswellia serrata when compared to placebo had significantly increased [Force: 9.7 ± 11.0 vs 2.9 ± 3.4 (P = 0.05 and time: 9.7 ± 10.7 vs 2.8 ± 3.4 (P = 0.04] at third hr. Mean Percentage change from baseline in Pain Tolerance force and time with Boswellia serrata when compared to placebo had significantly (P ≤ 0.01 increased at 1 hr, 2 hrs and 3 hrs. Conclusion : In the present study, Boswellia serrata significantly increased the Pain Threshold and Pain Tolerance force and time compared to placebo. Both study medications were well tolerated. Further multiple dose studies may be needed to establish the analgesic efficacy of the drug.

  17. Rizatriptan vs. rizatriptan plus trimebutine for the acute treatment of migraine: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krymchantowski, A V; Filho, P F M; Bigal, M E

    2006-07-01

    Gastroparesis frequently happens during migraine attacks, postponing the onset of action of orally administered drugs. Furthermore, triptans seem to work better in the earlier phases of the migraine attacks. Therefore, associating a gastrokinetic drug with a triptan may translate into better efficacy and higher consistency of response. Trimebutine is an opioid derivative with exclusive action on receptors of the Meissner and Auerbach plexus throughout the digestive tube. It has no absorption or central penetration. Herein we contrast the combination of rizatriptan plus trimebutine with rizatriptan alone in the acute treatment of migraine. Forty patients with migraine consecutively seen in our clinic were randomized to treat two consecutive moderate or severe attacks with one tablet of 10 mg rizatriptan plus one capsule of 200 mg trimebutine and two attacks with the same triptan and placebo, in counterbalanced order. We collected information on the severity of the attack, as well as presence of nausea and photophobia at the time of drug intake, and after 1, 2 and 4 h. Recurrence and adverse events were also contrasted. Sixty-four attacks were treated with each drug regimen. At 1 h postdose, 30 (46.8%) of 64 attacks treated with the combination resolved completely, vs. eight (12.5%) of the rizatriptan-treated attacks, a difference of 34% (P rizatriptan alone resolved completely, a difference of 42% (95% confidence interval 26, 58, P rizatriptan and trimebutine is more effective than rizatriptan alone. The combination does not increase adverse events or recurrence of pain.

  18. Efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in 45 adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J.J.; Burger, H.; Boonstra, A.M.; Linden, P.D. van der; Kalma, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in adults with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking in Europe. This study was undertaken to report on the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate in an adult out-patient population with ADHD, and to compare results

  19. Medium-dose riboflavin as a prophylactic agent in children with migraine: A preliminary placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K.J. Bruijn (Jacques); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. Passchier (Jan); H. Locher (Heiko); N. Dijkstra (Natascha); W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Riboflavin seems to have a promising effect on migraine in adults. The present study examines whether riboflavin has a prophylactic effect on migraine in children. Objective: To investigate whether riboflavin in a dosage of 50 mg/day has a prophylactic effect on migraine atta

  20. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paracetamol and ketoprofren lysine salt for pain control in children with pharyngotonsillitis cared by family pediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Casa Alberighi Ornella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the analgesic effect and tolerability of paracetamol syrup compared to placebo and ketoprofen lysine salt in children with pharyngotonsillitis cared by family pediatricians. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a 12 mg/kg single dose of paracetamol paralleled by open-label ketoprofren lysine salt sachet 40 mg. Six to 12 years old children with diagnosis of pharyngo-tonsillitis and a Children's Sore Throat Pain (CSTP Thermometer score > 120 mm were enrolled. Primary endpoint was the Sum of Pain Intensity Differences (SPID of the CSTP Intensity scale by the child. Results 97 children were equally randomized to paracetamol, placebo or ketoprofen. Paracetamol was significantly more effective than placebo in the SPID of children and parents (P Conclusions A single oral dose of paracetamol or ketoprofen lysine salt are safe and effective analgesic treatments for children with sore throat in daily pediatric ambulatory care.

  1. The effect of ranitidine on postoperative infectious complications following emergency colorectal surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, F; Jensen, L S; Christiansen, P M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To study the potential effect of ranitidine on postoperative infectious complications following emergency colorectal surgery. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in three university clinics and two county hospitals in Denmark. PATIENTS...... patients were withdrawn from the study (for reasons such as other diagnosis, refused to continue, medication not given as prescribed). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were observed for signs of infectious complications; such as wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, septicemia, and pneumonia. RESULTS...... pneumonia were 12.9%, 5.2%, 3.8% and 14%, respectively in group I. In group II, the infectious complications were 16.1%, 6.8%, 6.9% and 22%, respectively. Twelve patients (13.8%) in the placebo group developed more than one complication...

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single enantiomer (+)-mefloquine compared with racemic mefloquine in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansley, Robert; Lotharius, Julie; Priestley, Anthony; Bull, Fiona; Duparc, Stephan; Möhrle, Jörg

    2010-12-01

    Racemic mefloquine is a highly effective antimalarial whose clinical utility has been compromised by its association with neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal side effects. It is hypothesized that the cause of the side effects may reside in the (-) enantiomer. We sought to compare the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile of (+)-mefloquine with racemic mefloquine in a randomized, ascending-dose, double-blind, active and placebo-controlled, parallel cohort study in healthy male and female adult volunteers. Although differing in its manifestations, both study drugs displayed a substantially worse tolerability profile compared with placebo. The systemic clearance was slower for (-)-mefloquine than (+)-mefloquine. Thus, (+)-mefloquine has a different safety and tolerability profile compared with racemic mefloquine but its global safety profile is not superior and replacement of the currently used antimalarial drug with (+)-mefloquine is not warranted.

  3. Duloxetine versus placebo for the treatment of women with stress predominant urinary incontinence in Taiwan: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyrer Julie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This manuscript compares the efficacy and safety of duloxetine with placebo in Taiwanese women with SUI. Methods Taiwanese women with SUI were were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 61 or duloxetine 80 mg/day (n = 60 in this double-blind, 8-week, placebo-controlled study. Outcome variables included: incontinence episode frequency (IEF, Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire (I-QOL scores, and Patient Global Impression of Improvement rating (PGI-I. Results Decrease in IEF was significantly greater in duloxetine-treated than placebo-treated women (69.98% vs 42.56%, P Conclusion Data provide evidence for the safety and efficacy of duloxetine for the treatment for Taiwanese women with SUI. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00475358

  4. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial evaluating topical zinc oxide for acute open wounds following pilonidal disease excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Agren, MS; Ostenfeld, U;

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial was to compare topical zinc oxide with placebo mesh on secondary healing pilonidal wounds. Sixty-four (53 men) consecutive patients, aged 17-60 years, were centrally randomized to either treatment with 3% zinc oxide...... range 42-71 days) for the zinc and 62 days (55-82 days) for the placebo group (p = 0.32). Topical zinc oxide increased (p zinc levels to 1,540 (1,035-2,265) microM and decreased (p zinc oxide (n = 3) than placebo......-treated patients (n = 12) were prescribed postoperative antibiotics (p = 0.005). Serum-zinc levels increased (p Zinc oxide was not associated with increased pain by the visual analog scale, cellular...

  5. Effect of perioperative beta blockade in patients with diabetes undergoing major non-cardiac surgery: randomised placebo controlled, blinded multicentre trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anne Benedicte; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian;

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long term effects of perioperative blockade on mortality and cardiac morbidity in patients with diabetes undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Design Randomised placebo controlled and blinded multicentre trial. Analyses were by intention to treat. Setting University...... anaesthesia and surgical centres and one coordinating centre. Participants 921 patients aged > 39 scheduled for major non-cardiac surgery. Interventions 100 mg metoprolol controlled and extended release or placebo administered from the day before surgery to a maximum of eight perioperative days. Main outcome...... was 4.6 days in the metoprolol group and 4.9 days in the placebo group. Metoprolol significantly reduced the mean heart rate by 11% (95% confidence interval 9% to 13%) and mean blood pressure by 3% (1% to 5%). The primary outcome occurred in 99 of 462 patients in the metoprolol group (21%) and 93 of 459...

  6. Effects of a Topical Saffron (Crocus sativus L) Gel on Erectile Dysfunction in Diabetics: A Randomized, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh-Moghadam, Hossein; Nazari, Seyed Mohammad; Shamsa, Ali; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Esmaeeli, Habibollah; Asadpour, Amir Abbas; Khajavi, Abdoljavad

    2015-10-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a man's persistent or recurrent inability to achieve and maintain erection for a satisfactory sexual relationship. As diabetes is a major risk factor for erectile dysfunction, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among diabetic men has been reported as 35% to 90%. This randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a topical saffron (Crocus sativus L) gel on erectile dysfunction in diabetic men. Patients were randomly allocated to 2 equal groups (with 25 patients each). The intervention group was treated with topical saffron, and the control received a similar treatment with placebo. The 2 groups were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire before the intervention and 1 month after the intervention. Compared to placebo, the prepared saffron gel could significantly improve erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients (P saffron can be considered as a treatment option for diabetic men with erectile dysfunction.

  7. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial evaluating topical zinc oxide for acute open wounds following pilonidal disease excision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agren, Magnus S; Ostenfeld, Ulla; Kallehave, Finn;

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial was to compare topical zinc oxide with placebo mesh on secondary healing pilonidal wounds. Sixty-four (53 men) consecutive patients, aged 17-60 years, were centrally randomized to either treatment with 3% zinc oxide...... range 42-71 days) for the zinc and 62 days (55-82 days) for the placebo group (p = 0.32). Topical zinc oxide increased (p wound fluid zinc levels to 1,540 (1,035-2,265) microM and decreased (p wounds. Fewer zinc oxide (n = 3) than placebo...... abnormalities by histopathological examination of wound biopsies, or other harmful effects. Larger clinical trials will be required to show definitive effects of topical zinc oxide on wound healing and infection....

  8. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-month trial of bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets as an aid to smoking cessation in hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgareth, Oli Jacob; Hansen, Niels-Christian Gerner; Søes-Petersen, Ulrik;

    2004-01-01

    (Zyban) compared with placebo as an aid to smoking cessation in health care workers. A total of 336 hospital employees who smoked at least 10 cigarettes daily were randomized (2:1) to 7 weeks of treatment with bupropion (n=222) or placebo (n=114). All participants were motivated to quit smoking......Despite changes in smoking behavior, one-third of the Danish population continues to smoke. Many of these smokers are hospital employees. This 6-month, multicenter, parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated treatment with bupropion hydrochloride sustained release...... more frequently in the bupropion group than in the placebo group. Bupropion was effective as an aid to smoking cessation in a broad group of hospital employees in Denmark....

  9. No Effect of a Homeopathic Preparation on Neonatal Calf Diarrhoea in a Randomised Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenius S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of a homeopathic treatment of neonatal calf diarrhoea was performed using 44 calves in 12 dairy herds. Calves with spontaneously derived diarrhoea were treated with either the homeopathic remedy Podophyllum (D30 (n = 24 or a placebo (n = 20. No clinically or statistically significant difference between the 2 groups was demonstrated. Calves treated with Podophyllum had an average of 3.1 days of diarrhoea compared with 2.9 days for the placebo group. Depression, inappetence and fever were presented equally in the 2 groups. These results support the widely held opinion that scientific proof for the efficacy of veterinary homeopathy is lacking. In the European Union this implies a considerable risk for animal welfare, since in some countries priority is given to homeopathic treatments in organic farming.

  10. Ivabradine for patients with stable coronary artery disease and left-ventricular systolic dysfunction (BEAUTIFUL): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Kim; Ford, Ian; Steg, P Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ivabradine specifically inhibits the I(f) current in the sinoatrial node to lower heart rate, without affecting other aspects of cardiac function. We aimed to test whether lowering the heart rate with ivabradine reduces cardiovascular death and morbidity in patients with coronary artery......, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. 5479 patients received 5 mg ivabradine, with the intention of increasing to the target dose of 7.5 mg twice a day, and 5438 received matched placebo in addition to appropriate cardiovascular medication. The primary endpoint was a composite.......9) beats per minute (bpm). Median follow-up was 19 months (IQR 16-24). Ivabradine reduced heart rate by 6 bpm (SE 0.2) at 12 months, corrected for placebo. Most (87%) patients were receiving beta blockers in addition to study drugs, and no safety concerns were identified. Ivabradine did not affect...

  11. Intra-articular hyaluronan is without clinical effect in knee osteoarthritis: a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of 337 patients followed for 1 year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anette; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Simonsen, Lars Ole;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the long-term efficacy and safety of five intra-articular injections with hyaluronan in knee osteoarthritis. Methods A multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled double-blind study of 337 patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for knee...... efficacy parameter. LFI, pain on walking 50 m based on visual analogue scale (VAS pain 50 m), paracetamol consumption, patients' global assessment, Nottingham health profile, joint effusion and number of responders were secondary efficacy parameters. The efficacy parameters were analysed by intention...... to treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP). All adverse events (AE) were recorded as safety parameters. Results Time to recurrence showed no significant treatment effect (ITT analysis, p = 0.26). Change from baseline in LFI and VAS pain 50 m for the ITT population showed no treatment effect. Paracetamol...

  12. [Treatment of essential headache in developmental age with L-5-HTP (cross over double-blind study versus placebo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, G; Rudoi, I; Iannuccelli, M; Strinati, R; Panizon, F

    1984-01-01

    Thirty patients (mean age: 10.38 years) affected by primary headache were selected for a double-blind cross-over clinical trial. The patients were randomized into 2 homogeneous groups of 15 and treated for 12 weeks with L-5-HTP (100 mg/day) and placebo as per the following design: placebo - L-5-HTP (group A) and L-5-HTP - placebo (group B). Evaluation was carried out every 3 weeks by the Migraine Index supplying a general assessment of the attacks, i.e. severity, duration and frequency. The decrease in mean score values was directly proportional to L-5-HTP treatment, and statistical significance (Wilcoxon's test) was observed only for L-5-HTP in both groups, from 0.05 to 0.01. Improvement, as evaluated by CGI on percentage distribution of the patients, was homogeneous in both groups.

  13. A Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled, Double Blind, Multi-Site Trial of the alpha-2-adrenergic Agonist, Lofexidine, for Opioid Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Elmer; Miotto, Karen; Akerele, Evaristo; Montgomery, Ann; Elkashef, Ahmed; Walsh, Robert; Montoya, Ivan; Fischman, Marian W.; Collins, Joseph; McSherry, Frances; Boardman, Kathy; Davies, David K.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Ling, Walter; Kleber, Herbert; Herman, Barbara H.

    2008-01-01

    Context Lofexidine is an alpha-2-A noradrenergic receptor agonist that is approved in the United Kingdom for the treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms. Lofexidine has been reported to have more significant effects on decreasing opioid withdrawal symptoms with less hypotension than clonidine. Objective To demonstrate that lofexidine is well tolerated and effective in the alleviation of observationally-defined opioid withdrawal symptoms in opioid dependent individuals undergoing medically supervised opioid detoxification as compared to placebo. Design An inpatient, Phase 3, placebo-controlled, double blind, randomized multi-site trial with three phases: (1) Opioid Agonist Stabilization Phase (days 1–3), (2) Detoxification/Medication or Placebo Phase (days 4–8), and (3) Post Detoxification/Medication Phase (days 9–11). Subjects Sixty-eight opioid dependent subjects were enrolled at three sites with 35 randomized to lofexidine and 33 to placebo. Main Outcome Measure Modified Himmelsbach Opiate Withdrawal Scale (MHOWS) on study day 5 (2nd opioid detoxification treatment day). Results Due to significant findings, the study was terminated early. On the study day 5 MHOWS, subjects treated with lofexidine had significantly lower scores (equating to fewer/less severe withdrawal symptoms) than placebo subjects (Least squares means 19.5 ± 2.1 versus 30.9 ± 2.7; p=0.0019). Lofexidine subjects had significantly better retention in treatment than placebo subjects (38.2% versus 15.2%; Log rank test p=0.01). Conclusions Lofexidine is well tolerated and more efficacious than placebo for reducing opioid withdrawal symptoms in inpatients undergoing medically supervised opioid detoxification. Trial Registration trial registry name A Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Multi-Site Trial of Lofexidine for Opiate Withdrawal, registration number NCT00032942, URL for the registry http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00032942?order=4. PMID:18508207

  14. Use of pentosan polysulphate in cats with idiopathic, non-obstructive lower urinary tract disease: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallius, Barbro M; Tidholm, Anna E

    2009-06-01

    Idiopathic feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a common clinical entity where different treatments, for example glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as pentosan polysulphate (PPS), are advocated. However, few treatments have been investigated by well-controlled clinical trials. This paper compares the use of PPS in FLUTD compared to placebo. Of the 18 cats in the experiment, nine were treated with PPS and nine were treated with placebo with subcutaneous injections of 3mg/kg PPS or placebo day 1, 2, 5 and 10. The study was double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled. Revaluation was performed after 5 and 10 days, 2 weeks, 2, 6 and 12 months. There were no statistically significant differences concerning clinical signs between groups during treatment or at re-evaluation, except for pretreatment stressful events where PPS-treated cats had experienced significantly more stressful events compared to cats treated with placebo before entering the study. Six cats (33%) showed recurrence of clinical signs during the entire study period, and only one of these cats had more than one recurrent episode. One cat (placebo) was euthanased 7 days after initial treatment because of recurrence of clinical signs. Another cat (placebo) was euthanased due to other reasons after 6 months. At 2 weeks two cats (placebo and PPS) showed clinical signs. At 2 months re-evaluation one cat showed mild clinical signs. At 6 and 12 months all remaining 16 cats were healthy. Idiopathic, non-obstructive FLUTD is a self-limiting disease with good short-term and excellent long-term prognosis without treatment. Whether or not PPS may be beneficial in a subpopulation of cats with continuous or frequently recurring clinical signs may be elucidated in forthcoming double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trials including only this subpopulation of cats.

  15. Efficacy and safety of oral strontium ranelate for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: rationale and design of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrus Cooper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The osteoporosis drug strontium ranelate dissociates bone remodelling processes. It also inhibits subchondral bone resorption and stimulates cartilage matrix formation in vitro. Exploratory studies in the osteoporosis trialsreport that strontium ranelate reduces biomarkers of cartilage degradation, and attenuates the progression and clinical symptoms of spinal osteoarthritis, suggesting symptom- and structure-modifying activity in osteoarthritis. We describethe rationale and design of a randomised trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate in knee osteoarthritis.Research design, methods, and results: This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (98 centres, 18 countries includes ambulatory Caucasian men and women aged ≥50 years with primary knee osteoarthritis of the medial tibiofemoralcompartment (Kellgren and Lawrence grade 2 or 3, joint space width (JSW 2.5 to 5 mm, and knee pain on most days in the previous month (intensity ≥40 mm on a visual analogue scale. Patients are randomly allocated to three groups (strontium ranelate 1 or 2g/day, or placebo. Follow-up is expected to last 3 years. The primary endpoint is radiographic change in JSW from baseline in each group versus placebo. The main clinical secondary endpoint is WOMAC score at the knee. Safety is assessed at every visit. It is estimated that 1600 patients are required to establish statistical significance with power >90% (0.2 mm ±10% between-group difference in change in JSW over 3 years. Recruitment started in April 2006. The results are expected in spring 2012.Clinical trial registration: The trial is registered on www.controlled-trials.com (number ISRCTN41323372.Conclusions: This randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled study will establish the potential of strontium ranelate in improving structure and symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  16. Prophylactic use of pregabalin for prevention of succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and myalgia: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit K. Srivastava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Succinylcholine is commonly used to achieve profound neuromuscular blockade of rapid onset and short duration. OBJECTIVE: The present study compared the efficacy of pregabalin for prevention of succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and myalgia. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blinded study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients of both genders undergoing elective spine surgery were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in Group P (pregabalin group received 150 mg of pregabalin orally 1 h prior to induction of anesthesia with sips of water and patients in Group C (control group received placebo. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 1.5 mcg/kg, propofol 1.5-2.0 mg/kg followed by succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg. The intensity of fasciculations was assessed by an observer blinded to the group allotment of the patient on a 4-point scale. A blinded observer recorded postoperative myalgia grade after 24 h of surgery. Patients were provided patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl for postoperative pain relief. RESULTS: Demographic data of both groups were comparable (p > 0.05. The incidence of muscle fasciculation's was not significant between two groups (p = 0.707, while more patients in group C had moderate to severe fasciculation's compared to group P (p = 0.028. The incidence and severity of myalgia were significantly lower in group P (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Pregabalin 150 mg prevents succinylcholine-induced fasciculations and myalgia and also decreases the fentanyl consumption in elective sine surgery.

  17. Utility of intranasal Ketamine and Midazolam to perform gastric aspirates in children: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a sedation protocol based on intranasal Ketamine and Midazolam (INKM) administered by a mucosal atomizer device in uncooperative children undergoing gastric aspirates for suspected tuberculosis. Primary outcome: evaluation of Modified Objective Pain Score (MOPS) reduction in children undergoing INKM compared to the placebo group. Secondary outcomes: evaluation of safety of INKM protocol, start time sedation effect, duration of sedation and evaluation of parents and doctors’ satisfaction about the procedure. Methods In the sedation group, 19 children, mean age 41.5 months, received intranasal Midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) and Ketamine (2 mg/kg). In the placebo group, 17 children received normal saline solution twice in each nostril. The child’s degree of sedation was scored using the MOPS. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the parents’ and doctors’ opinions on the procedures of both groups. Results Fifty-seven gastric washings were performed in the sedation-group, while in the placebo-group we performed 51 gastric aspirates. The degree of sedation achieved by INMK enabled all procedures to be completed without additional drugs. The mean duration of sedation was 71.5 min. Mean MOPS was 3.5 (range 1-8) in the sedation-group, 7.2 (range 4-9) in the placebo-group (p <0.0001). The questionnaire revealed high levels of satisfaction by both doctors and parents in the sedation-group compared to the placebo-group. The only side effect registered was post-sedation agitation in 6 procedures in the sedation group (10.5%). Conclusions Our experience suggests that atomized INKM makes gastric aspirates more acceptable and easy to perform in children. Trial registration Unique trial Number: UMIN000010623; Receipt Number: R000012422. PMID:24598046

  18. Botulinum toxin type A for cephalic cutaneous allodynia in chronic migraine: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Hollanda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cephalic allodynia (CA can be observed in 50-70% of patients with chronic migraine (CM. The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (Botx-A in the treatment of CA associated with CM. In this placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomized either into Botx-A or 0.9% saline injections and efficacy measures were assessed every 4 weeks for 3 months. Efficacy endpoints were number of migraine episodes associated with CA, changes from baseline in visual analogical scale scores for pain (VAS and frequency of common analgesics use for migraine. A total of 38 subjects were randomized to saline (n=18 or Botx-A (n=20. There were no significant differences in baseline between active intervention or placebo groups regarding mean age, number of headache episodes [mean 12.1 (9.22 and 17.00 (9.69 respectively; P=0.12], pain severity as measured by the VAS or frequency of analgesic use for headache episodes. Efficacy analysis showed that Botx-A injections led to an important decrease from baseline in the mean migraine episodes associated with CA after 12 weeks (5.20 versus 11.17; P=0.01. Also, VAS scores and frequency of analgesics use for headache were significantly reduced in the Botx-A group. This study suggests that Botx-A injections are superior to saline in the treatment of CA associated with CM, with mild self limited side effects.

  19. THERAPEUTIC EQUIVALENCE OF ORIGINAL CLOPIDOGREL (PLAVIX AND ITS GENERIC (EGITROMB. RESULTS OF COMPARATIVE RANDOMIZED CROSS-OVER BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Yakusevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study therapeutic equivalence (efficacy, safety and tolerability of original clopidogrel (Plavix and its generic (Egitromb in patients of high cardiovascular risk. Material and methods. Thirty one patients with coronary heart disease and indications for clopidogrel therapy were involved into the randomized cross-over blind study. Half of the patients received original clopidogrel (75 mg daily during the first 2 weeks and then they received generic clopidogrel in the same dose during next 2 weeks. Another half of the patients received the drugs in reverse order. Antiplatelet activity of Plavix and Egitromb was estimated by effects on ADP-induced platelet aggregation initially and after 2 weeks of treatment with each drug. Study blinding was provided by the following approach: doctors of cardiology clinic performed clinical monitoring and drug distribution; coded blood samples for platelet aggregation assessment were studied in independent laboratory of thrombosis; statistical data analysis was performed by biostatistics expert in other research center. Results. 2-week therapy with each drug led to a significant decrease of ADP-induced platelet aggregation which remained low after switching from original drug to generic and vice versa. Aggregation dynamics did not depend on the first administered drug. There were no significant differences between aggregation changes as a result of treatment with original or generic drug. No one adverse event was observed in association with both drugs therapy. Conclusion. Generic drug Egitromb (Egis, Hungary and original clopidogrel Plavix (Sanofi-Aventis, France have equivalent antiplatelet effect.

  20. Oxygen therapy for cluster headache. A mask comparison trial. A single-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads Cj; Lund, Nunu Lt

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to investigate possible differences in effect between three types of masks in the acute treatment of cluster headache (CH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-seven CH patients according to ICHD-II-criteria participated in a single-blinded, semi-randomized, placebo...

  1. Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial of prednisolone in children admitted to hospital with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, JBM; Wolfs, TFW; vanAalderen, WMC; Brand, PLP; Kimpen, JLL

    1997-01-01

    Background - Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is an immune mediated disease. Corticosteroids might therefore be effective in the treatment of RSV bronchiolitis. Methods - A randomised double blind trial was conducted in children up to t

  2. Evaluation of the effect of Vaccinium arctostaphylos L. fruit extract on serum inflammatory biomarkers in adult hyperlipidemic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Soltani, Rasool; Mirvakili, Saeide; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory condition. Many pro-inflammatory factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) are expressed in atherosclerotic lesions. The plants of genus Vaccinium are rich in anthocyanins with anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract on the serum level of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult patients with mild hyperlipidemia to detect its possible inhibitory effects on progression of atherosclerosis. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, eligible hyperlipidemic patients were randomly and equally divided in to two groups of study drug or placebo control to receive either the Vaccinium extract or placebo capsules, respectively, twice daily for four consecutive weeks. Each drug capsule contained 0.8 mg of anthocyanins. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were measured before and after the interventions and finally were compared.A total of 8 men and 12 women in drug group as well as 11 men and 9 women in placebo group completed the study (P = 0.527). The use of Vaccinium extract significantly reduced only the IL-6 level (P = 0.037); however, this reduction was not significant compared to placebo (P = 0.062). Consumption of Vaccinium arctostaphylos fruit extract with the dose of 500 mg twice daily did not show any significant effect on serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in adult hyperlipidemic patients. However, considering slight decrease in the level of IL-6, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, the use of higher doses with longer duration might have significant effects on these factors. PMID:27651815

  3. Improved training tolerance by supplementation with α-Keto acids in untrained young adults: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuefei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise causes a variety of physiological and metabolic changes that can in turn reduce exercise tolerance. One of the potential mechanisms responsible for fatigue is “exercise-induced hyperammonemia”. Previous studies have shown that supplementation with amino acids can increase training tolerance. The α-keto acids are biochemical analogs of amino acids and can be converted to amino acids through transamination, thus reducing the cellular ammonia level. This double blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the effects of α-keto acid supplementation (KAS on training tolerance, training effect, and stress-recovery state. Methods Thirty-three untrained young male adults underwent four weeks of training (5 sessions/week; 30 minutes running at the individual anaerobic threshold followed by 3 x 3 minute sprints/each session. Throughout the 4 weeks of training and one week of recovery, subjects took α-ketoglutarate (AKG group, 0.2 g/kg/d, n = 9, branched-chain keto acids (BCKA group, 0.2 g/kg/d, n = 12 or isocaloric placebo (control group, n = 12 daily. Results The 4th week training volume, maximum power output and muscle torque were higher in the AKG group (175 ± 42 min, 412 ± 49 Watts and 293 ± 58 Newton meters, respectively, Prd week of training increased significantly in the control group (P Conclusions Under KAS, subjects could bear a higher training volume and reach a higher power output and peak muscle torque, accompanied by a better stress-recovery-state. Thus, KAS improves exercise tolerance and training effects along with a better stress-recovery state. Whether the improved training tolerance by KAS is associated with effects on ammonia homeostasis requires further observation.

  4. Does the new angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor cilazapril prevent restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty? Results of the MERCATOR study: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); W.R. Rutsch (Wolfgang); N. Danchin (Nicolas); W. Wijns (William); H.U. Emanuelsson (Hakan); F. Chappuis; W.R.M. Hermans (Walter)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. Cilazapril is a novel angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor with antiproliferative effects in the rat model after balloon injury. METHODS AND RESULTS. We conducted a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the effect of cilazapril in angiographic resteno

  5. The effects of a new mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride and zinc lactate on the microflora of oral halitosis patients : a dual-centre, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roldan, S; Winkel, EG; Herrera, D; Sanz, M; Van Winkelhoff, AJ

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the microbial effects of a newly formulated mouthwash (Halita((R)) ) on oral halitosis patients. Methods: Forty subjects were included in this dual-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select patients. At bas

  6. Stem cell mobilization induced by subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to improve cardiac regeneration after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: result of the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled stem cells in myocardial infarction (STEMMI) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Jørgensen, Erik; Wang, Yongzhong;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phase 1 clinical trials of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment after myocardial infarction have indicated that G-CSF treatment is safe and may improve left ventricular function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial aimed to assess the efficacy...

  7. Clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in patients with adult periodontitis : A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, EG; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Barendregt, DS; van der Weijden, GA; Timmerman, MF; van der Velden, U

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and microbiological effects of initial periodontal therapy in conjunction with systemic amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid in adult periodontitis patients using a double-blind, parallel-group, and placebo-controlled protocol. 21 patients wit

  8. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study of the safety and efficacy of BIOBYPASS (AdGVVEGF121.10NH) gene therapy in patients with refractory advanced coronary artery disease: the NOVA trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens; Jørgensen, Erik; Fuchs, Shmuel

    2011-01-01

    Genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can potentially augment myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled gene therapy study with the adenovirus carrying VEGF121 (BIOBYPASS [AdGVVEGF121.10NH])....

  9. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of adalimumab in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I; Lynggaard, C D; Lophaven, S;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) has an impact on patients' quality of life. Treatment of HS is generally unsatisfactory, thus new treatments are needed. OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of adalimumab in HS. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo...... the outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary efficacy endpoints were changes in the HS scores (Sartorius and Hurley scoring systems). Secondary efficacy endpoints included changes in pain (visual analogue scale), days with lesions and Dermatology Life Quality Index, and evaluation of scarring......-controlled, two-centre clinical trial conducted in Denmark. Inclusion criteria were age above 18 years and a clinical diagnosis of moderate to severe HS defined as Hurley stage II or III for at least 6 months. The patients were randomized 1:2 (placebo/active). Actively treated patients received adalimumab 80 mg...

  10. Lack of efficacy of moclobemide or imipramine in the treatment of recurrent brief depression: results from an exploratory randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David S; Green, Mary; Montgomery, Stuart A

    2014-11-01

    'Recurrent brief depression' (RBD) is a common, distressing and impairing depressive disorder for which there is no current proven pharmacological or psychological treatment. This multicentre, randomized, fixed-dose, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study of the reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase moclobemide (450 mg/day) and the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (150 mg/day) evaluated the potential efficacy of active medication, when compared with placebo, in patients with recurrent brief depression, recruited in the mid-1990s. After a 2-4-week single-blind placebo run-in period, a total of 35 patients were randomized to receive double-blind medication for 4 months, but only 16 completed the active treatment period. An intention-to-treat analysis of the 34 evaluable patients found no evidence for the efficacy of moclobemide or imipramine, when compared with placebo, in significantly reducing the severity, duration or frequency of depressive episodes. A total of 28 patients experienced at least one adverse event, and four patients engaged in nonfatal self-harm. Limitations of the study include the small sample size and the high rate of participant withdrawal. The lack of efficacy of these antidepressant drugs and the previous finding of the lack of efficacy of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine together indicate that medications other than antidepressant drugs should be investigated as potential treatments for what remains a common, distressing and potentially hazardous condition.

  11. Influence of inhomogeneous static magnetic field-exposure on patients with erosive gastritis: a randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, single centre, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Márk; Nagy, Viktor L; Székely, Hajnal; Kocsis, Dorottya; Tulassay, Zsolt; László, János F

    2014-09-06

    This pilot study was devoted to the effect of static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure on erosive gastritis. The randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study included 16 patients of the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University diagnosed with erosive gastritis. The instrumental analysis followed a qualitative (pre-intervention) assessment of the symptoms by the patient: lower heartburn (in the ventricle), upper heartburn (in the oesophagus), epigastric pain, regurgitation, bloating and dry cough. Medical diagnosis included a double-line upper panendoscopy followed by 30 min local inhomogeneous SMF-exposure intervention at the lower sternal region over the stomach with peak-to-peak magnetic induction of 3 mT and 30 mT m(-1) gradient at the target site. A qualitative (post-intervention) assessment of the same symptoms closed the examination. Sham- or SMF-exposure was used in a double-blind manner. The authors succeeded in justifying the clinically and statistically significant beneficial effect of the SMF- over sham-exposure on the symptoms of erosive gastritis, the average effect of inhibition was 56% by p = 0.001, n = 42 + 96. This pilot study was aimed to encourage gastroenterologists to test local, inhomogeneous SMF-exposure on erosive gastritis patients, so this intervention may become an evidence-based alternative or complementary method in the clinical use especially in cases when conventional therapy options are contraindicated.

  12. Effect of Pumpkin Seed Oil on Hair Growth in Men with Androgenetic Alopecia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hye Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin seed oil (PSO has been shown to block the action of 5-alpha reductase and to have antiandrogenic effects on rats. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of PSO for treatment of hair growth in male patients with mild to moderate androgenetic alopecia (AGA. 76 male patients with AGA received 400 mg of PSO per day or a placebo for 24 weeks. Change over time in scalp hair growth was evaluated by four outcomes: assessment of standardized clinical photographs by a blinded investigator; patient self-assessment scores; scalp hair thickness; and scalp hair counts. Reports of adverse events were collected throughout the study. After 24 weeks of treatment, self-rated improvement score and self-rated satisfaction scores in the PSO-treated group were higher than in the placebo group (P = 0.013, 0.003. The PSO-treated group had more hair after treatment than at baseline, compared to the placebo group (P<0.001. Mean hair count increases of 40% were observed in PSO-treated men at 24 weeks, whereas increases of 10% were observed in placebo-treated men (P<0.001. Adverse effects were not different in the two groups.

  13. Oats in the Diet of Children with Celiac Disease: Preliminary Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Italian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gatti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A gluten-free diet (GFD is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”, or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”. A and B diets included gluten-free (GF products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score and intestinal permeability tests (IPT, were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.

  14. Transient improvement of poststroke apathy with zolpidem: a single-case, placebo-controlled double-blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autret, Katell; Arnould, Annabelle; Mathieu, Sarah; Azouvi, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 44-year-old patient with severe and disabling apathy nearly 2 years after a right hemisphere haemorrhagic stroke. The effect of a single dose of zolpidem was tested over a 2-week period, in alternation with either no treatment or a placebo in a double-blind randomised trial. Zolpidem was associated with a dramatic improvement in apathy, as assessed with the Apathy Inventory and the Behavioral Dysexecutive Syndrome Inventory. No adverse effect occurred during the trial. PMID:23396925

  15. Symptoms after ingestion of pig whipworm Trichuris suis eggs in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Roepstorff, Allan Knud;

    2011-01-01

    21 days for 168 days (total 8 doses) in a double-blind clinical trial. In a previous publication, we reported a lack of efficacy and a high prevalence of adverse gastrointestinal reactions. The aim of the present study was to present a detailed description of the adverse event data and post...... reactions lasting up to 14 days, whereas 4 months further treatment mainly provoked a subclinical stimulation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University hospital Medical Information Network trial registry Reg. no. R000001298, Trial ID UMIN000001070....

  16. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Trichuris suis ova (TSO) in active Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schölmerich, Jürgen; Fellermann, Klaus; Seibold, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: To investigate the efficacy and safety of three different dosages of embryonated, viable eggs of Trichuris suis (TSO) versus placebo for induction of remission in mildly-to-moderately active ileocolonic, uncomplicated Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Adults with active CD (n=252......) randomly received six fortnightly doses of 250, 2500 or 7500 TSO/15 ml suspension/day (TSO 250, TSO 2500, TSO 7500), or 15ml placebo solution/day, in a double-blind fashion, with four weeks' follow-up. Primary endpoint was the rate of clinical remission (Crohn's disease activity index [CDAI

  17. Acrivastine versus terfenadine in the treatment of symptomatic dermographism--a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J; Marks, P; Gibson, J R

    1989-01-01

    Twelve patients with symptomatic dermographism were entered into a double-blind, crossover study. Patients received 8 mg acrivastine three times daily, 60 mg terfenadine three times daily or placebo, according to a fully randomized balanced treatment plan. Subjective clinical assessments were performed and the response to experimentally induced dermographism was assessed. Both active treatments were well tolerated and were shown to be significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of symptomatic dermographism and in reducing the signs and symptoms of wealing induced by a dermographometer.

  18. L-carnitine supplementation in patients with advanced cancer and carnitine deficiency: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Ricardo A; Dvorkin, Ella; Homel, Peter; Culliney, Bruce; Malamud, Stephen; Lapin, Jeanne; Portenoy, Russell K; Esteban-Cruciani, Nora

    2009-04-01

    Carnitine deficiency is prevalent in populations with chronic illness, including cancer. In a recent open-label study, L-carnitine supplementation was well tolerated and appeared to improve fatigue and other outcomes in cancer patients. To further evaluate this finding, adult patients with advanced cancer, carnitine deficiency (free carnitine more than 35 micromol/L for males or less than 25 micromol/L for females, or acyl/free carnitine ratio of more than 0.4), moderate to severe fatigue, and a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score of 50 or more, were randomly assigned to receive either L-carnitine (0.5 g/day for two days, followed by 1g/day for two days, and then 2g/day for 10 days) or placebo. This double-blind phase was followed by an open-label phase, during which all patients received L-carnitine supplementation for two weeks. Outcomes included the fatigue subscale of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An), the Linear Analog Scale Assessments (LASA), the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), and the KPS. Twenty-nine patients (12 placebo, 17 L-carnitine) were included in the intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis. From baseline to the end of the double-blind phase, serum total and free L-carnitine increased from 32.9+/-3.8 to 56.6+/-20.5 (P=0.004), and from 22.9+/-19.4 to 45.3+/-17.2 (P=0.004), respectively, in the L-carnitine-treated group, and from 28.2+/-10.2 to 36.2+/-8.7 (P=ns), and from 22.6+/-7.9 to 28.7+/-8.6 (P=ns) in the placebo group, respectively. The planned ITT analysis revealed no significant improvement in any of the study's endpoints, and these negative findings were not different when data from two patients who did not adhere to the protocol were eliminated. However, an exploratory covariate analysis that excluded these two protocol violators and included outcome data from both the double-blind and open-label phases demonstrated significantly improved fatigue on the FACT-An fatigue subscale (Pcarnitine during the double-blind phase

  19. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udani Jay K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabinogalactan from Larch tree (Larix spp. bark has previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ingestion of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract, ResistAid™, would selectively enhance the antibody response to the pneumococcal (pneumonia vaccine in healthy adults. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study included 45 healthy adults who had not previously been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The volunteers began taking the study product or placebo (daily dosage 4.5 g at the screening visit (V1-Day 0 and continued over the entire 72 day study period. After 30 days the subjects received the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (V2. They were monitored the following day (V3-Day 31, as well as 21 days (V4-Day 51 and 42 days (V5-Day 72 after vaccination. Responses by the adaptive immune system (antigen specific were measured via pneumococcal IgG antibodies (subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F and salivary IgA levels. Responses by the innate immune system (non-specific were measured via white blood cell counts, inflammatory cytokines and the complement system. Results Vaccination significantly increased pneumococcal IgG levels as expected. The arabinogalactan group demonstrated a statistically significant greater IgG antibody response than the placebo group in two antibodies subtypes (18C and 23F at both Day 51 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002 and at Day 72 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041. These same subtypes (18C and 23F also demonstrated change scores from baseline which were significant, in favor of the arabinogalactan group, at Day 51 (p = 0.033 and 0.001 and at Day 72 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003. Change scores from baseline and mean values were greater in the arabinogalactan group than placebo for most time points in antibody subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 19F, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There

  20. Photobiomodulation Therapy Improves Performance and Accelerates Recovery of High-Level Rugby Players in Field Test: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Henrique D; Vanin, Adriane A; Miranda, Eduardo F; Tomazoni, Shaiane S; Johnson, Douglas S; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna M; Aleixo, Ivo de O; Grandinetti, Vanessa Dos S; Casalechi, Heliodora L; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso C; Leal, Ernesto Cesar P

    2016-12-01

    Pinto, HD, Vanin, AA, Miranda, EF, Tomazoni, SS, Johnson, DS, Albuquerque-Pontes, GM, de Oliveira Aleixo Junior, I, Grandinetti, VdS, Casalechi, HL, de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, P, and Pinto Leal Junior. Photobiomodulation therapy improves performance and accelerates recovery of high-level rugby players in field test: A randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3329-3338, 2016-Although growing evidence supports the use of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for performance and recovery enhancement, there have only been laboratory-controlled studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of PBMT in performance and recovery of high-level rugby players during an anaerobic field test. Twelve male high-level rugby athletes were recruited in this randomized, crossover, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. No interventions were performed before the Bangsbo sprint test (BST) at familiarization phase (week 1); at weeks 2 and 3, pre-exercise PBMT or placebo were randomly applied to each athlete. Photobiomodulation therapy irradiation was performed at 17 sites of each lower limb, employing a cluster with 12 diodes (4 laser diodes of 905 nm, 4 light emitting diodes [LEDs] of 875 nm, and 4 LEDs of 640 nm, 30 J per site, manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical). Average time of sprints, best time of sprints, and fatigue index were obtained from BST. Blood lactate levels were assessed at baseline, and at 3, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after BST. Athletes' perceived fatigue was also assessed through a questionnaire. Photobiomodulation therapy significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the average time of sprints and fatigue index in BST. Photobiomodulation therapy significantly decreased percentage of change in blood lactate levels (p ≤ 0.05) and perceived fatigue (p ≤ 0.05). Pre-exercise PBMT with the combination of super-pulsed laser (low-level laser), red LEDs, and infrared LEDs can enhance performance

  1. Prophylactic use of gabapentin for prevention of succinylcholine-induced fasciculation and myalgia: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Succinylcholine is used for rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia. Fasciculations and myalgia are adverse effects. The pretreatment modalities prevent or minimize its adverse effects. Aims: The present study is designed to evaluate the efficacy of gabapentin on the incidence of fasciculation and succinylcholine-induced myalgia. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled manner. Materials and Methods: Patients of both genders undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in Group I (Gabapentin group received 600 mg of gabapentin orally 2 h prior to surgery and patients in Group II (placebo group received matching placebo. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 3 μg/kg, thiopentone 3-5 mg/kg and succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg. All patients were observed and graded for fasciculations by a blinded observer and patients were intubated. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen in air, sevoflurane and intermittent vecuronium bromide. After completion of surgery, neuromuscular blockade was reversed. A blinded observer recorded myalgia grade at 24 h. Patients were provided patient-controlled analgesia with fentanyl for postoperative pain relief. Statistical analysis: Demographic data, fasciculation grade, fentanyl consumption, and myalgia grade were compared using student t test and test of proportions. Results: The study included 76 American Society of Anesthesiologists′ Grade I or II patients of either gender undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. But only 70 patients completed the study. Results demonstrated that the prophylactic use of gabapentin significantly decreases the incidence and the severity of myalgia (20/35 vs. 11/35 (P<0.05 and decreases fentanyl consumption significantly in the study group (620+164 μg vs. 989+238 μg (P<0.05 without any effects on the incidence and severity of fasciculations

  2. Analgesic effect of salmon calcitonin in osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyritis, G P; Tsakalakos, N; Magiasis, B; Karachalios, T; Yiatzides, A; Tsekoura, M

    1991-12-01

    Back pain due to vertebral collapse is the main symptom of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The clinical picture in these crush fractures varies, depending on the type and the location of fracture, but in general, a new vertebral crush fracture gives rise to severe pain that immobilizes the patient and necessitates bedrest. In this double-blind controlled clinical trial, 56 patients who had recently (within the last 3 days) suffered an osteoporotic vertebral fracture were hospitalized for a period of 14 days. Salmon calcitonin (100 IU) or placebo injections were given daily. Pain was rated daily on a 10-point scale by the same observers. Blood and urinary parameters were also evaluated. The results showed a significant (P less than 0.001) difference in pain intensity between the calcitonin group and the placebo group. This beneficial effect was generally apparent from the second day of treatment onward, and over the following 2 weeks, the patients were able to sit and stand, and gradually started to walk again. A significant decrease in urinary hydroxyproline and urinary calcium was also noted in the calcitonin group. It is concluded that calcitonin exerts a beneficial effect on back pain following a vertebral crush fracture.

  3. Effects of Oxcarbazepine Versus Carbamazepine on Tinnitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Kazemnejad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is still a challenge to find an effective treatment for tinnitus. The aim of this study was the evaluation of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine effects on tinnitus.Methods: In a randomized double–blind clinical trial, 57 patients who were visited in a university hospital due to chronic non-pulsatile tinnitus, were randomized in three groups and treated with carbamazepine (300-600 mg/day, oxcarbazepine (450-900 mg/day and placebo for 12 weeks. Visual analogue scale (VAS and tinnitus severity index (TSI were measured in all subjects in the beginning and at the end of the 8th and 12th weeks of the trial. Data was analyzed by repeated measure analysis, paired and independent t-test.Results: Among 51 participants who completed the trial course (28 men, 23 women, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and placebo decreased tinnitus severity in 56.6%, 46.2% and 38.5% of patients according to VAS, and in 61.1%, 58.8% and 50% of patients according to TSI, respectively. The effects of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine were better in the first 8 weeks of treatment. However, their effect on tinnitus did not show any statistical difference in comparison with placebo (P = 0.34, P = 0.28.Conclusion: Carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are not more effective than placebo in decreasing tinnitus severity.

  4. Effect of Brazilian green propolis in patients with type 2 diabetes: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUKUDA, TAKUYA; FUKUI, MICHIAKI; TANAKA, MUHEI; SENMARU, TAKAFUMI; IWASE, HIROYA; YAMAZAKI, MASAHIRO; AOI, WATARU; INUI, TOSHIO; NAKAMURA, NAOTO; MARUNAKA, YOSHINORI

    2015-01-01

    Propolis contains a variety of chemical compounds, including polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic aldehydes, amino acids and vitamins, and presents numerous biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of propolis on blood examination data in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the double-blind, 8-week randomized controlled study, 80 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive Brazilian green propolis (226.8 mg/day for 8 weeks) (n=41) or the placebo (n=39). The primary endpoint was to detect changes in blood examination data associated with metabolic disorders in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus, including the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), uric acid and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from baseline to the end of this study. The value of HOMA-IR was not significantly changed by the 8-week administration of propolis or placebo from the baseline data. Values of blood uric acid and eGFR in patients taking the placebo became worse at 8 weeks compared to the baseline, whereas this did not occur in patients consuming Brazilian green propolis. However, HOMA-IR was not improved by propolis intake. A randomized, controlled 8-week trial suggests that Brazilian green propolis (226.8 mg/day) prevents patients with type 2 diabetes from developing worse blood uric acid and eGFR. PMID:26137235

  5. Clonidine premedication in patients with sleep apnea syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Michael T; Hansen, Ernil; Waldhauser, Daniela; Selig, Christoph; Kuehnel, Thomas S

    2005-11-01

    Patients with sleep apnea often present with cardiac diseases and breathing difficulties, with a high risk of postoperative respiratory depression. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, prospective study in 30 adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea, undergoing elective ear-nose-throat surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or clonidine (2 microg/kg oral) the night before and the next morning 2 h before surgery. Spo2, heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, snoring, and oronasal airflow were monitored for 36 h. A standard anesthesia was used consisting of propofol and remifentanil. Anesthetic drug consumption, postoperative analgesics, and pain score were recorded. In the clonidine group, mean arterial blood pressures were significantly lower during induction, operation, and emergence from anesthesia. Both propofol dose required for induction (190 +/- 32.2 mg) and anesthesia (6.3 +/- 1.3 mg . kg(-1).h(-1)) during surgery were significantly reduced in the clonidine group compared with the placebo group (induction 218 +/- 32.4, anesthesia 7.70 +/- 1.5; P clonidine group. Apnea and desaturation index were not different between the groups, whereas the minimal postoperative oxygen saturation on the day of surgery was significantly lower in the placebo than in the clonidine group (76.7% +/- 8.0% versus 82.4% +/- 5.8%; P clonidine premedication stabilizes hemodynamic variables during induction, maintenance, and emergence from anesthesia and reduces the amount of intraoperative anesthetics and postoperative opioids without deterioration of ventilation.

  6. Increasing work-place healthiness with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan Vlaicu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short term illnesses, usually caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases are disruptive to productivity and there is relatively little focus on preventative measures. This study examined the effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri protectis (ATCC55730 on its ability to improve work-place healthiness by reducing short term sick-leave caused by respiratory or gastrointestinal infections. Methods 262 employees at TetraPak in Sweden (day-workers and three-shift-workers that were healthy at study start were randomised in a double-blind fashion to receive either a daily dose of 108 Colony Forming Units of L. reuteri or placebo for 80 days. The study products were administered with a drinking straw. 181 subjects complied with the study protocol, 94 were randomised to receive L. reuteri and 87 received placebo. Results In the placebo group 26.4% reported sick-leave for the defined causes during the study as compared with 10.6% in the L. reuteri group (p L. reuteri group (p L. reuteri group(p

  7. Effects of Semelil (ANGIPARSTM on diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A randomized, double-blind Placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bakhshayeshi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Background and the purpose of the study: Diabetic neuropathy is the most common diabetic complication that often is accompanied by significant morbidity, mortality and economic burden. The purpose of this study was evaluation of effect of Semelil (ANGIPARSTM, a new herbal drug for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers or diabetic peripheral neuropathy. "nMethods: In this double blind clinical trial, 49 type 2 diabetes patients with different degrees of neuropathy were evaluated in two groups (ANGIPARSTM and placebo groups. All patients were assessed at the start and 12 weeks after treatment, with laboratory tests, United Kingdom screening test, Michigan neuropathy screening score, Michigan diabetic neuropathy score, vibration perception thresholds, nerve conduction study, monofilament test and visual analog scale. "nResults: Michigan diabetic neuropathy score was decreased notably in ANGIPARSTM group. In the nerve conduction study, appropriate meaningful changes were observed in the distal latency and amplitude in the motor Ulnar nerve in ANGIPARSTM group. Conclusion: The results showed limited evidence of efficacy of ANGIPARSTM in diabetic neuropathy treatment and more studies with a larger sample size and longer duration are required.

  8. Baclofen for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN32121581

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi-Abhari Seyed Ali

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of preclinical studies suggest that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may be useful in treatment of opioid dependence. This study was aimed at assessing the possible efficacy of baclofen for maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Methods A total of 40 opioid-dependent patients were detoxified and randomly assigned to receive baclofen (60 mg/day or placebo in a 12-week, double blind, parallel-group trial. Primary outcome measure was retention in treatment. Secondary outcome measures included opioids and alcohol use according to urinalysis and self-report ratings, intensity of opioid craving assessed with a visual analogue scale, opioid withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Short Opiate Withdrawal Scale and depression scores on the Hamilton inventory. Results Treatment retention was significantly higher in the baclofen group. Baclofen also showed a significant superiority over placebo in terms of opiate withdrawal syndrome and depressive symptoms. Non-significant, but generally favorable responses were seen in the baclofen group with other outcome measures including intensity of opioid craving and self-reported opioid and alcohol use. However, no significant difference was seen in the rates of opioid-positive urine tests. Additionally, the drug side effects of the two groups were not significantly different. Conclusion The results support further study of baclofen in the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence.

  9. A pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial of low-dose pramipexole in sleep-related eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provini, F; Albani, F; Vetrugno, R; Vignatelli, L; Lombardi, C; Plazzi, G; Montagna, P

    2005-06-01

    Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by recurrent arousals from sleep associated with compulsive ingestion of food. No controlled therapeutic trials are available for SRED. We assessed the safety, tolerability and efficacy of pramipexole, a dopamine D3-receptor agonist, in the treatment of SRED. Eleven consecutive patients with SRED in the absence of concurrent daytime eating disorders underwent actigraphic recording and subjective sleep diary evaluation for a week before and every week for 2 weeks of treatment with pramipexole 0.18-0.36 mg or placebo, administered in a double-blind crossover randomized sequence. The primary outcomes of the trial were actigraphic measures of night sleep parameters (sleep efficiency, motor activity mean and median, number and duration of wake episodes), secondary outcomes were the number of good sleep nights/weekly, number and duration of nocturnal awakenings/night, and visual analogue preference score. Pramipexole was well tolerated without any patient withdrawing from the study. Pramipexole reduced night-time activity median (P = 0.02) and increased the number of nights of good sleep/week (P = 0.02). All other measurements remained unaffected. Pramipexole at low doses was well tolerated, improving some measures of sleep quality and reducing median night activity in SRED. Further studies with higher dosages and for longer time-periods are warranted.

  10. Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Lee; Rowlands, David S.; Caldwell, Aaron R.; Sanders, Elizabeth; Kreutzer, Andreas; Mitchell, Joel B.; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0.7 to 5.3%, p = 0.032; benefit : harm odds ratio 546 : 1) with the 200 mg dose, relative to placebo. The 50 mg dose also increased FMD relative to placebo by 1.7% (−0.6 to 4.0%, p = 0.23; 25 : 1), but the outcome was not clinically decisive. In apparently healthy adults, 8 weeks of 200 mg oral curcumin supplementation resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in endothelial function as measured by FMD. Oral curcumin supplementation may present a simple lifestyle strategy for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This trial was registered at ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN90184217). PMID:27630772

  11. Effects of Panax ginseng extract in patients with fibromyalgia: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra S. Braz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of an extract of Panax ginseng in patients with fibromyalgia. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was carried out over 12 weeks to compare the effects of P. ginseng (100 mg/d with amitriptyline (25 mg/d and placebo in 38 patients with fibromyalgia: 13 in Group I (amitriptyline, 13 in Group II (placebo, and 12 in Group III (P. ginseng. Ratings on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS revealed a reduction in pain in the P. ginseng group (p < .0001, an improvement in fatigue (p < .0001 and an improvement in sleep (p < .001, with respect to baseline characteristics, but there were no differences between the three groups. With respect to anxiety, improvements occurred in the P. ginseng group compared to baseline (p < .0001; however, amitriptyline treatment resulted in significantly greater improvements (p < .05. P. ginseng reduced the number of tender points and improved patients' quality of life (using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire - FIQ; however, there were no differences between groups. The beneficial effects experienced by patients for all parameters suggest a need for further studies to be performed on the tolerability and efficacy of this phytotherapic as a complementary therapy for fibromyalgia.

  12. An Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard Alleviates Symptoms of Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadur Ramamurthy Raveendra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard, an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, in patients with functional dyspepsia. The primary outcome variables of the study were the change in the severity symptoms and the global assessment of efficacy. The quality of life was evaluated as a secondary outcome measure. The patients received either placebo or GutGard (75 mg twice daily for 30 days. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of change in the severity of symptoms (as measured by 7-point Likert scale, the global assessment of efficacy, and the assessment of quality of life using the short-form Nepean Dyspepsia Index. In comparison with placebo, GutGard showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in total symptom scores on day 15 and day 30, respectively. Similarly, GutGard showed marked improvement in the global assessment of efficacy in comparison to the placebo. The GutGard group also showed a significant decrease (P≤.05 in the Nepean dyspepsia index on day 15 and 30, respectively, when compared to placebo. GutGard was generally found to be safe and well-tolerated by all patients. GutGard has shown significant efficacy in the management of functional dyspepsia.

  13. Green tea beverages enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety reduce body fat in moderately obese adults: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Kawano, Takanori; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Fukuhara, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether ingesting a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults. Design Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Subjects A total of 126 obese subjects (25 ≤ body mass index tea beverages without catechins (placebo), or a group receiving green tea beverages with a low or high content of catechins with a galloyl moiety. Each subject ingested 500 mL bottled green tea beverages containing 25, 180, or 279.5 mg green tea catechins (0, 149.5, or 246.5 mg catechins with a galloyl moiety, respectively), at mealtimes for 12 weeks; the subjects were instructed to ingest the beverage during the meal that had the highest fat content on that day. Methods Anthropometric measurements and blood chemistry analysis were performed during the run-in period; at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12 of the intake period; and at the end of the withdrawal period. Abdominal fat area was measured by computed tomography at weeks 0, 8, and 12 of the intake period and at the end of the withdrawal period. Results Both the low- and high-dose groups exhibited significant reductions in visceral and subcutaneous fat areas compared to the control group at 12 weeks post-intervention. Conclusion Ingestion of a green tea beverage enriched with catechins with a galloyl moiety during a high-fat meal reduces body fat in moderately obese adults.

  14. Overall skin tone and skin-lightening-improving effects with oral supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin isomers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juturu, Vijaya; Bowman, James P; Deshpande, Jayant

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Carotenoids, especially lutein and zeaxanthin isomers (L/Zi), filter blue light and protect skin from environmental factors including high-energy sources. These carotenoids may be able to block the formation of melanin pathways, decrease cytokines, and increase antioxidants. Subjects and methods This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial over a 12-week supplementation period. Fifty healthy people (50 healthy subjects were recruited and 46 subjects completed the study) (males and females, age: 18–45 years) with mild-to-moderate dry skin were included in this study. Skin type of the subjects was classified as Fitzpatrick skin type II–IV scale. Subjects were administered with either an oral dietary supplement containing 10 mg lutein (L) and 2 mg zeaxanthin isomers (Zi) (L/Zi: RR-zeaxanthin and RS (meso)-zeaxanthin) or a placebo daily for 12 weeks. The minimal erythemal dose and skin lightening (L*) were measured via the Chromameter®. The individual typological angle was calculated. Subjective assessments were also recorded. Results Overall skin tone was significantly improved in the L/Zi group compared to placebo (Pskin conditions. PMID:27785083

  15. Morinda citrifolia (Noni as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Fletcher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Noni (Morinda citrifolia has been used for many years as an anti-inflammatory agent. We tested the efficacy of Noni in women with dysmenorrhea. Method. We did a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 100 university students of 18 years and older over three menstrual cycles. Patients were invited to participate and randomly assigned to receive 400 mg Noni capsules or placebo. They were assessed for baseline demographic variables such as age, parity, and BMI. They were also assessed before and after treatment, for pain, menstrual blood loss, and laboratory variables: ESR, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results. Of the 1027 women screened, 100 eligible women were randomized. Of the women completing the study, 42 women were randomized to Noni and 38 to placebo. There were no significant differences in any of the variables at randomization. There were also no significant differences in mean bleeding score or pain score at randomization. Both bleeding and pain scores gradually improved in both groups as the women were observed over three menstrual cycles; however, the improvement was not significantly different in the Noni group when compared to the controls. Conclusion. Noni did not show a reduction in menstrual pain or bleeding when compared to placebo.

  16. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial to determine the efficacy and safety of ibudilast, a potential glial attenuator, in chronic migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok YH

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yuen H Kwok,1 James E Swift,1 Parisa Gazerani,2 Paul Rolan1 1Discipline of Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, Level 5 Medical School North, South Australia, Australia; 2Department of Health Science & Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Background: Chronic migraine (CM is problematic, and there are few effective treatments. Recently, it has been hypothesized that glial activation may be a contributor to migraine; therefore, this study investigated whether the potential glial inhibitor, ibudilast, could attenuate CM. Methods: The study was of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover design. Participants were randomized to receive either ibudilast (40 mg twice daily or placebo treatment for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the participants underwent a 4-week washout period followed by a second 8-week treatment block with the alternative treatment. CM participants completed a headache diary 4 weeks before randomization throughout both treatment periods and 4 weeks after treatment. Questionnaires assessing quality of life and cutaneous allodynia were collected on eight occasions throughout the study. Results: A total of 33 participants were randomized, and 14 participants completed the study. Ibudilast was generally well tolerated with mild, transient adverse events, principally nausea. Eight weeks of ibudilast treatment did not reduce the frequency of moderate to severe headache or of secondary outcome measures such as headache index, intake of symptomatic medications, quality of life or change in cutaneous allodynia. Conclusion: Using the current regimen, ibudilast does not improve migraine with CM participants. Keywords: chronic migraine, glia, ibudilast, headache, immune system

  17. The role of the dopaminergic system in mood, motivation and cognition in Parkinson's disease: a double blind randomized placebo-controlled experimental challenge with pramipexole and methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijgers, Rosa L; Verhey, Frans R J; Tissingh, Gerrit; van Domburg, Peter H M F; Aalten, Pauline; Leentjens, Albert F G

    2012-09-15

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) reduced dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway is implied in the pathophysiology of several non-motor symptoms related to mood, motivation and cognition. Insight in the pathophysiology of these syndromes may pave the way for more rational treatments. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design with three arms, we studied the effects of a direct dopaminergic challenge with the dopamine 2 receptor agonist pramipexole, an indirect challenge with the dopamine reuptake inhibitor methylphenidate, and placebo on measures of mood, motivation and cognition in 23 agonist-naïve PD patients and 23 healthy controls. Acute challenge with pramipexole had a negative effect on mood and fatigue in both patients and controls. In addition, challenge with pramipexole led to increased anger, fatigue, vigor and tension in healthy control subjects, but not in PD patients. Challenge with methylphenidate had a positive effect on anhedonia and vigor in PD patients. Due to its side effects after a single administration, pramipexole is probably less suitable for acute challenge studies. The acute effects of a methylphenidate challenge on anhedonia and vigor in PD patients make this drug an interesting choice for further studies of the treatment of mood and motivational disorders in this population.

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Cucumis sativus Seed Extract on Serum Lipids in Adult Hyperlipidemic Patients: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Rasool; Hashemi, Mohammad; Farazmand, Alimohammad; Asghari, Gholamreza; Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, Kiyan; Kharazmkia, Ali; Ghanadian, Syed Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis; therefore, control of this risk factor is very important in preventing atherosclerosis. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed is used traditionally as a lipid-lowering nutritional supplement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cucumber seed extract on serum lipid profile in adult patients with mild hyperlipidemia. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, hyperlipidemic patients with inclusion criteria were randomly and equally assigned to either Cucumis or placebo groups and used one medicinal or placebo capsule, respectively, once daily with food for 6 wk. Body mass index (BMI) as well as fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) were measured for all patients pre- and post-intervention and finally the changes were compared between the groups. Twenty-four patients in Cucumis group and 23 patients in placebo group completed the study. Cucumis seed extract resulted in significant reduction of total cholesterol (P = 0.016), LDL-C (P < 0.001), TG (P < 0.001), and BMI (P < 0.001) as well as significant increase of HDL-C (P = 0.012) compared to placebo. In conclusion, the consumption of C. sativus seed extract with daily dose of 500 mg results in desirable effects on serum lipid profile in adult hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, cucumber seed could be considered as a food supplement for treatment of dyslipidemia.

  19. Therapy of CF-Patients with Amitriptyline and Placebo - a Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase IIb Multicenter, Cohort-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Nährlich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several recent studies revealed an accumulation of ceramide in bronchial, tracheal and intestinal epithelial cells of mice and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Normalization of ceramide concentrations in lungs of CF mice employing the functional acid sphingomyelinase inhibitor amitriptyline also normalized mucociliary clearance, chronic inflammation and infection susceptibility to pulmonary P. aeruginosa in these mice. Methods: To test for a beneficial effect of amitriptyline in vivo, we performed a phase IIb randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-one CF patients were treated with 25 mg/d amitriptyline twice daily for 28 days. The placebo consisted of 19 patients and was also treated twice per day. The primary endpoint was the change in lung function in the intention-to-treat (ITT population. Secondary endpoints were ceramide levels in epithelial cells and safety. Results: After treatment, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec predicted (FEV1 increased 6.3±11.5% (p=0.08 in the ITT population (36 of 40 CF patients and 8.5±10% (p=0.013 in the per protocol (PP population (29 of 40 patients. Ceramide levels decreased in nasal epithelial cells after amitriptyline treatment. Amitriptyline had no severe and only mild and mostly transient adverse effects, i.e. xerostomia and tiredness. Conclusion: Amitriptyline is safe in CF-patients, increases FEV1 and reduces ceramide in lung cells of CF patients.

  20. Ipragliflozin in combination with metformin for the treatment of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: ILLUMINATE, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, A; Kazuta, K; Goto, K; Yoshida, S; Ueyama, E; Utsuno, A

    2015-03-01

    This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in combination with metformin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients were randomized in a 2 : 1 ratio to 50 mg ipragliflozin (n = 112) or placebo (n = 56) once daily for 24 weeks, followed by a 28-week open-label extension in which all patients received 50 or 100 mg ipragliflozin, while continuing metformin. The primary outcome was the change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to week 24. HbA1c decreased significantly in the ipragliflozin group (-0.87%; adjusted mean difference from placebo: -1.30%; p < 0.001). The overall incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar in both groups, although pollakiuria and constipation were more common in the ipragliflozin group; thus, ipragliflozin significantly improved glycaemic control and reduced body weight without major safety issues in Japanese patients with T2DM.

  1. Placebo controlled, prospectively randomized, double-blinded study for the investigation of the effectiveness and safety of the acoustic wave therapy (AWT(®)) for cellulite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russe-Wilflingseder, Katharina; Russe-Wilfingsleder, Katharina; Russe, Elisabeth; Vester, Johannes C; Haller, Gerd; Novak, Pavel; Krotz, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Placebo controlled double-blinded, prospectively randomized clinical trial with 17 patients (11 verum, 5 placebo) for evaluation of cellulite treatment with Acoustic Wave Therapy, (AWT(®)) was performed. The patients were treated once a week for 7 weeks, a total of 8 treatments with the D-ACTOR(®) 200 by Storz Medical AG. Data were collected at baseline, before 8th treatment, at 1 month (follow-up 1) and at 3 months (follow-up 2) after the last treatment with a patients' questionnaire, weight control, measurement of circumference and standardized photography. Treatment progress was further documented using a specially designed 3D imaging system (SkinSCAN(3D), 3D-Shape GmbH) providing an objective measure of cellulite (primary efficacy criteria). Patient's questionnaire in the verum group revealed an improvement in number and depth of dimples, skin firmness and texture, in shape and in reduction of circumference. The overall result (of skin waviness, Sq and Sz, surface and volume of depressions and elevations, Vvv and Vmp) at two follow-up visits indicates a more than medium sized superiority (MW = 0.6706) and is statistically significant (pWei-Lachin = 0.0106). The placebo group revealed no statistical significance. No side effects were seen. This indicates the efficacy and safety of AWT(®) for patients with cellulite.

  2. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, H M; Dawkins, J; Rattray, C; Wharfe, G; Reid, M; Gordon-Strachan, G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been used for many years as an anti-inflammatory agent. We tested the efficacy of Noni in women with dysmenorrhea. Method. We did a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 100 university students of 18 years and older over three menstrual cycles. Patients were invited to participate and randomly assigned to receive 400 mg Noni capsules or placebo. They were assessed for baseline demographic variables such as age, parity, and BMI. They were also assessed before and after treatment, for pain, menstrual blood loss, and laboratory variables: ESR, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results. Of the 1027 women screened, 100 eligible women were randomized. Of the women completing the study, 42 women were randomized to Noni and 38 to placebo. There were no significant differences in any of the variables at randomization. There were also no significant differences in mean bleeding score or pain score at randomization. Both bleeding and pain scores gradually improved in both groups as the women were observed over three menstrual cycles; however, the improvement was not significantly different in the Noni group when compared to the controls. Conclusion. Noni did not show a reduction in menstrual pain or bleeding when compared to placebo.

  3. Analgesic and sedative effects of perioperative gabapentin in total knee arthroplasty A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Husted, Henrik; Laursen, Mogens Berg

    2015-01-01

    Gabapentin has shown acute postoperative analgesic effects, but the optimal dose and procedure-specific benefits vs harm have not been clarified. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 300 opioid-naive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized......, and the secondary outcome was sedation 6 hours after surgery. Other outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest and sedation during the first 48 hours and from days 2-6, morphine use, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and nausea, vomiting, dizziness, concentration difficulty, headache...... was as follows: 3.2 [0-10] vs 2.6 [0-9] vs 2.3 [0-9], the mean difference A vs C being 0.9 [0.2-1.7], P = 0.046. No between-group differences were observed in overall pain or morphine use the first 48 hours and from days 2-6. Sleep quality was better during the first 2 nights in group A and B vs C. Dizziness...

  4. Rizatriptan for the acute treatment of ICHD-II proposed menstrual migraine: two prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, L K; Loder, E; Nett, R; Mueller, L; Rodgers, A; Hustad, C M; Ramsey, K E; Skobieranda, F

    2007-05-01

    These are the first prospective studies to use criteria for menstrual migraine proposed in the 2004 revision of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) to examine the efficacy of rizatriptan for treatment of a menstrual attack. Two identical protocols (MM1 and MM2) were randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled, double-blind studies. Adult women with ICHD-II menstrual migraine were assigned to either rizatriptan 10-mg tablet or placebo in a 2 : 1 ratio. Patients treated a single menstrual migraine attack of moderate or severe pain intensity. The primary end-point was 2-h pain relief and the secondary end-point was 24-h sustained pain relief. A total of 707 patients (MM1 357, MM2 350) treated a menstrual migraine attack. The percentage of patients reporting 2-h pain relief was significantly greater for rizatriptan than for placebo (MM1 70% vs. 53%, MM2 73% vs. 50%), as was the percentage of patients reporting 24-h sustained pain relief (MM1 46% vs. 33%; MM2 46% vs. 33%). Rizatriptan 10 mg was effective for the treatment of ICHD-II menstrual migraine, as measured by 2-h pain relief and 24-h sustained pain relief.

  5. Long-term oral calcium supplementation reduces diastolic blood pressure in end stage renal disease. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Rudnicki, M; Højsted, J

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that oral calcium supply reduces blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral calcium supply reduces blood pressure in patients undergoing haemodialysis. The study was randomized, double-blind, and placebo controlled. Eleven patients received two grams of calcium per day and 12 patients received placebo. Three patients (one from the calcium group and two from the placebo group) dropped out within the first month. The groups were comparable at inclusion regarding blood pressure, weight, and serum values. Blood pressure measurements were auscultatory with a mercury manometer and diastolic blood pressure was measured as Korotkoff phase V. At inclusion a significant positive correlation between serum phosphate and blood pressure was found. After a study period of six months a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure was found between the two groups (p < 0.05), but no difference was found in systolic blood pressure. The reduction in diastolic blood pressure was 6.9 mmHg of the pretreatment level in the calcium group. In conclusion, the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism with oral calcium gives good benefits in the regulation of diastolic blood pressure. A well controlled phosphate homeostasis may also be of importance for the control of blood pressure in haemodialysis patients.

  6. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on Endocrine Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Mehri; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Bahmani, Fereshteh; Talaee, Rezvan; Monavari, Mahshid; Asemi, Zatollah

    2016-04-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc supplementation on endocrine outcomes, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty-eight women (18-40 years) with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam criteria were randomly assigned to receive either 220 mg zinc sulfate (containing 50 mg zinc) (group 1; n = 24) and/or placebo (group 2; n = 24) for 8 weeks. Hormonal profiles, biomarkers of inflammation, and oxidative stress were measured at study baseline and after 8-week intervention. After 8 weeks of intervention, alopecia (41.7 vs. 12.5%, P = 0.02) decreased compared with the placebo. Additionally, patients who received zinc supplements had significantly decreased hirsutism (modified Ferriman-Gallwey scores) (-1.71 ± 0.99 vs. -0.29 ± 0.95, P zinc intake on reducing high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels (P = 0.06) was also observed. We did observe no significant changes of zinc supplementation on hormonal profiles, inflammatory cytokines, and other biomarkers of oxidative stress. In conclusion, using 50 mg/day elemental zinc for 8 weeks among PCOS women had beneficial effects on alopecia, hirsutism, and plasma MDA levels; however, it did not affect hormonal profiles, inflammatory cytokines, and other biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  7. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial to determine the efficacy and safety of ibudilast, a potential glial attenuator, in chronic migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Yuen H; Swift, James E; Gazerani, Parisa; Rolan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine (CM) is problematic, and there are few effective treatments. Recently, it has been hypothesized that glial activation may be a contributor to migraine; therefore, this study investigated whether the potential glial inhibitor, ibudilast, could attenuate CM. Methods The study was of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover design. Participants were randomized to receive either ibudilast (40 mg twice daily) or placebo treatment for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the participants underwent a 4-week washout period followed by a second 8-week treatment block with the alternative treatment. CM participants completed a headache diary 4 weeks before randomization throughout both treatment periods and 4 weeks after treatment. Questionnaires assessing quality of life and cutaneous allodynia were collected on eight occasions throughout the study. Results A total of 33 participants were randomized, and 14 participants completed the study. Ibudilast was generally well tolerated with mild, transient adverse events, principally nausea. Eight weeks of ibudilast treatment did not reduce the frequency of moderate to severe headache or of secondary outcome measures such as headache index, intake of symptomatic medications, quality of life or change in cutaneous allodynia. Conclusion Using the current regimen, ibudilast does not improve migraine with CM participants. PMID:27826212

  8. Metformin administration versus laparoscopic ovarian diathermy in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective parallel randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, Stefano; Orio, Francesco; Nardo, Luciano Giovanni; Falbo, Angela; Russo, Tiziana; Corea, Domenico; Doldo, Patrizia; Lombardi, Gaetano; Tolino, Achille; Colao, Annamaria; Zullo, Fulvio

    2004-10-01

    At present, it is unclear what the role is of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) and of metformin administration as second-line treatments for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) after failure of clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment. The aim of the present study was to compare in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled fashion the effectiveness of LOD with metformin administration in the treatment of CC-resistant women with PCOS. A total of 120 overweight primary infertile anovulatory CC-resistant women with PCOS were enrolled and randomized into two groups of treatment. Group A underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, whereas group B underwent LOD. At hospital discharge, the patients were treated for 6 months with metformin cloridrate (group A; 850 mg twice daily) or with multivitamins (group B). The ovulation, pregnancy, abortion, and live-birth rates were evaluated. At the end of the study, the total ovulation rate was not statistically different between both treatment groups (54.8 vs. 53.2% [correction] in groups A and B, respectively), whereas the pregnancy (21.8 [correction] vs. 13.4%), the abortion (9.3 [correction] vs. 29.0%), and the live-birth (86.0 [correction] vs. 64.5%) rates were significantly (P < 0.05) different between the two groups. Our data show that metformin administration is more effective than LOD in overall reproductive outcomes in overweight infertile CC-resistant women with PCOS.

  9. [Effect of specific physiotherapy on chronic pain, functional level and quality of life in osteoporosis. A prospective randomized single-blind placebo-controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmros, B; Jensen, M B; Charles, P; Mortensen, L S

    1999-08-16

    Patients suffering from osteoporotic vertebral fractures are handicapped by pain and reduced quality of life. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a short training program for osteoporotic patients with regard to pain level, use of analgetics and quality of life. We performed a prospective randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled study. The training program included general training of balance and muscle strength and stabilization of the back. The participants were randomised to 10 weeks of ambulatory training. Controls and training participants were tested weekly by registration of pain level and analgetic intake. Questionnaires on daily level of function and quality of life were given at the start and after five and 10 weeks. After three months both groups filled out the questionnaires at home. The training group had a significant reduction in pain score and use of analgetics. The distribution of functional score improved during training. Quality of life score improved significantly throughout the study and after three months. In conclusion, this ambulatory training program is effective for training osteoporotic patients with moderately severe pain and the training should be continued.

  10. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study to evaluate the potential of pycnogenol for improving allergic rhinitis symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dale; Evans, Malkanthi; Guthrie, Najla; Sharma, Prachi; Baisley, Joshua; Schonlau, Frank; Burki, Carolina

    2010-08-01

    The potential of Pycnogenol for relieving allergic rhinitis (birch pollen) symptoms was explored in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In 2008 19 subjects started treatment 3 weeks prior to the onset of birch pollen season in Ontario, Canada. While there was an improvement of eye and nasal symptoms with Pycnogenol, there was no significance versus placebo. It was postulated that Pycnogenol may require a lag-time between the start of therapy and the onset of action. Therefore 39 subjects were treated 5-8 weeks prior to the 2009 birch allergy season. The evaluation of subjects in 2009 showed much lower scores for eye (-35%) and nasal (-20.5%) symptoms with Pycnogenol compared with placebo. In succession of the allergy season birch specific IgE increased by 31.9% in the placebo group compared with only 19.4% in the Pycnogenol group. Detailed analysis suggested that symptom-relief was better the longer subjects were on Pycnogenol prior to the allergen exposure. The best results were found with subjects who took Pycnogenol 7-8 weeks ahead of the allergy season. With the limited number of 39 patients statistical predications were unattainable. In conclusion, Pycnogenol improved allergic rhinitis symptoms when supplementation was started at least 5 weeks before the onset of the allergy season.

  11. An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rajendran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibiscus sabdariffa is used regularly in folk medicine to treat various conditions. Methods The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Sixty subjects with serum LDL values in the range of 130-190 mg/dl and with no history of coronary heart disease were randomized into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 1 gm of the extract for 90 days while the placebo received a similar amount of maltodextrin in addition to dietary and physical activity advice for the control of their blood lipids. Anthropometry, blood biochemistry, dietary and physical activity were assessed at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Results While body weight, serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased in both groups, there were no significant differences between the experimental and placebo group. Conclusions It is likely that the observed effects were as a result of the patients following the standard dietary and physical activity advice. At a dose of 1 gm/day, hibiscus sabdariffa leaf extract did not appear to have a blood lipid lowering effect. Trial Registration REFCTRI2009000472

  12. Pain relief by applying transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) during unsedated colonoscopy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer-Cuenca, J J; Goicoechea, C; Girona-López, A; Andreu-Plaza, J L; Palao-Román, R; Martínez-Santa, G; Lisón, J F

    2011-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive alternative to traditional pain treatments. TENS has been studied in the past as a pain reduction modality in colonoscopy with limited success. Reviews and meta-analysis have shown that the inconclusive results of TENS may be due to the lack of randomized controlled trials and the difficulty in defining precise output parameters. The objective of this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was to investigate the pain-relieving effect of a new application of TENS in unsedated screening colonoscopy. Ninety patients undergoing unsedated screening colonoscopy were randomly allocated to one of three groups: a control group (n=30), a group to receive active TENS (n=30), or a group to receive placebo TENS (n=30). A visual analogue scale (VAS) and a five-point Likert scale were used to assess pain 5 min into the procedure and at the end of the procedure. The patient's bloating sensation during colonoscopy and the effect on the duration of the procedure were also evaluated. Throughout the procedure, the active TENS group experienced a VAS pain score reduction ≥50% compared to the placebo TENS group (PTENS group compared to the placebo TENS and control groups (P=0.009). No significant differences were found between the study groups as to the bloating sensation and the duration of the procedure. We conclude that TENS can be used as a pain relief therapy in unsedated screening colonoscopy.

  13. Combination of glucosamine and low-dose cyclosporine for atopic dermatitis treatment: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Won-Suk; Sung, Nam Hee; Cheong, Kyung Ah; Lee, Ai-Young

    2015-01-01

    Our recent pilot study showed better outcomes using a combination of low-dose cyclosporine and glucosamine than cyclosporine alone in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Here, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-designed study was planned to compare the efficacy and safety of low-dose cyclosporine and glucosamine combination to low-dose cyclosporine alone for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe AD. AD patients with a Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index ≥ 30 were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either cyclosporine 2 mg/kg and glucosamine 25 mg/kg (group A) or cyclosporine and placebo (group B) for 8 weeks. SCORAD indices, serum levels of chemokine ligand 17 and interleukin-31, eosinophil counts, and blood cyclosporine levels were examined before and after treatment. The SCORAD indices for group A (n = 19) were significantly reduced after the treatment and a significant correlation between the changes in the SCORAD indices and changes in the serum levels of chemokine ligand 17, but not interleukin-31, was detected. Glucosamine combined with cyclosporine did not increase adverse events and serum cyclosporine levels compared with cyclosporine alone. Therefore, combination of low-dose cyclosporine and glucosamine may be useful to allow the long-term use of cyclosporine in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe AD.

  14. Testosterone replacement therapy in older male subjective memory complainers: double-blind randomized crossover placebo-controlled clinical trial of physiological assessment and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asih, Prita R; Wahjoepramono, Eka J; Aniwiyanti, Vilia; Wijaya, Linda K; de Ruyck, Karl; Taddei, Kevin; Fuller, Stephanie J; Sohrabi, Hamid; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Verdile, Giuseppe; Carruthers, Malcolm; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been investigated in older men as a preventative treatment against Alzheimer's disease and dementia. However, previous studies have been contradictory. We assessed TRT physiological effects in 44 older men (aged 61 ± 7.7 years) with subjective memory complaints using a double blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Participants were randomized into 2 groups, one group received transdermal testosterone (50 mg) daily for 24 weeks, followed by a 4 week wash-out period, then 24 weeks of placebo; the other group received the reverse treatment. Blood evaluation revealed significant increases in total testosterone, free (calculated) testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and a decrease in luteinizing hormone levels (p<0.001) following TRT. Although there were significant increases in red blood cell counts, hemoglobin and prostate specific antigen levels following TRT, they remained within normal ranges. No significant differences in plasma amyloid beta, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, insulin levels, body fat percentage, or body mass index were detected. This is the first carefully controlled study that has investigated the influence of TRT in Indonesian men on blood biomarkers linked to dementia risk. Our study suggests TRT is safe and well-tolerated in this Indonesian cohort, yet longitudinal studies with larger cohorts are needed to assess TRT further, and to establish whether TRT reduces dementia risk.

  15. No negative symptoms in healthy volunteers after single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Park, Tae-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Lee, Keon-Hak; Huang, Guang-Biao; Tong, Zhao; Park, Myung-Sook; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-03-01

    Noncompliance and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia are closely related to the negative symptoms secondary to antipsychotics. No controlled study has evaluated whether amisulpride and aripiprazole induce negative symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, haloperidol, and risperidone in healthy volunteers. Seventy-eight young volunteers took part in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study of four antipsychotics: 400 mg amisulpride, 10 mg aripiprazole, 3 mg haloperidol, and 2 mg risperidone. Assessments of negative symptoms were done 4 h after administration using both subjective rating scales (Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and Subjective Deficit Syndrome Scale) and an objective rating scale (Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms). Risperidone only produced significant increases on the avolition score of the Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and blunted affect and alogia scores of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms compared with placebo. The effect on blunted affect persisted after controlling for mental sedation. Amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol did not induce negative symptoms. Aripiprazole and risperidone induced mild extrapyramidal symptoms. The most common adverse events were somnolence and cognitive slowing. These data indicate that a single risperidone dose induces negative symptoms in normal volunteers, whereas amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol do not. These characteristics of antipsychotics should be considered when choosing optimal drugs for patients with psychosis.

  16. Effectiveness of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus for the management of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Malkanthi; Salewski, Ryan P; Christman, Mary C; Girard, Stephanie-Anne; Tompkins, Thomas A

    2016-07-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use can disrupt the gastrointestinal microbiota resulting in diarrhoea. Probiotics may be beneficial in managing this type of diarrhoea. The aim of this 10-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 supplementation on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults. Subjects were randomised to receive 1 week of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (875 mg/125 mg) once per day, plus a daily dose of 8×109 colony-forming units of a multi-strain probiotic (n 80) or placebo (n 80). The probiotic or placebo intervention was maintained for 1 week after completion of the antibiotic. Primary study outcomes of consistency and frequency of bowel movements were not significantly different between the probiotic and placebo groups. The secondary outcomes of diarrhoea-like defecations, Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale scores, safety parameters and adverse events were not significantly different between the probiotic intervention and the placebo. A post hoc analysis on the duration of diarrhoea-like defecations showed that probiotic intervention reduced the length of these events by 1 full day (probiotic, 2·70 (sem 0·36) d; placebo, 3·71 (sem 0·36) d; P=0·037; effect size=0·52). In conclusion, this study provides novel evidence that L. helveticus R0052 and L. rhamnosus R0011 supplementation significantly reduced the duration of diarrhoea-like defecations in healthy adults receiving antibiotics.

  17. The dose-dependent efficiency of radial shock wave therapy for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Ming-Jen; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chou, Yu-Ching; Li, Tsung-Ying; Chu, Heng-Yi; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2016-12-02

    Recently, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been shown to be a novel therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, previous studies did not examine the diverse effects of different-session ESWT for different-grades CTS. Thus, we conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixty-nine patients (90 wrists) with mild to moderate CTS were randomized into 3 groups. Group A and C patients received one session of radial ESWT (rESWT) and sham eESWT per week for 3 consecutive weeks, respectively; Group B patients received a single session of rESWT. The night splint was also used in all patients. The primary outcome was Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) points, whereas secondary outcomes included the sensory nerve conduction velocity and cross-sectional area of the median nerve. Evaluations were performed at 4, 10, and 14 weeks after the first session of rESWT. Compared to the control group, the three-session rESWT group demonstrated significant BCTQ point reductions at least 14 weeks, and the effect was much longer lasting in patients with moderate CTS than mild CTS. In contrast, the effect of single-session rESWT showed insignificant comparison. rESWT is a valuable strategy for treating CTS and multiple-session rESWT has a clinically cumulative effect.

  18. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Seok Chung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13±2.87 to 23.98±4.10, p=0.015 and placebo treatment (from 20.06±2.64 to 23.78±3.28, p=0.003. However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.702. KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction.

  19. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelin Tiralongo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21 and quality of life (SF-12 at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12, however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4. Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02 and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05. These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry’s physical and mental health benefits.

  20. Elderberry Supplementation Reduces Cold Duration and Symptoms in Air-Travellers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiralongo, Evelin; Wee, Shirley S; Lea, Rodney A

    2016-03-24

    Intercontinental air travel can be stressful, especially for respiratory health. Elderberries have been used traditionally, and in some observational and clinical studies, as supportive agents against the common cold and influenza. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of 312 economy class passengers travelling from Australia to an overseas destination aimed to investigate if a standardised membrane filtered elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract has beneficial effects on physical, especially respiratory, and mental health. Cold episodes, cold duration and symptoms were noted in a daily diary and assessed using the Jackson score. Participants also completed three surveys containing questions regarding upper respiratory symptoms (WURSS-21) and quality of life (SF-12) at baseline, just before travel and at 4-days after travel. Most cold episodes occurred in the placebo group (17 vs. 12), however the difference was not significant (p = 0.4). Placebo group participants had a significantly longer duration of cold episode days (117 vs. 57, p = 0.02) and the average symptom score over these days was also significantly higher (583 vs. 247, p = 0.05). These data suggest a significant reduction of cold duration and severity in air travelers. More research is warranted to confirm this effect and to evaluate elderberry's physical and mental health benefits.

  1. Anti-Stress, Behavioural and Magnetoencephalography Effects of an l-Theanine-Based Nutrient Drink: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

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    David J. White

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available l-theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide is an amino acid found primarily in the green tea plant. This study explored the effects of an l-theanine-based nutrient drink on mood responses to a cognitive stressor. Additional measures included an assessment of cognitive performance and resting state alpha oscillatory activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Thirty-four healthy adults aged 18–40 participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study. The primary outcome measure, subjective stress response to a multitasking cognitive stressor, was significantly reduced one hour after administration of the l-theanine drink when compared to placebo. The salivary cortisol response to the stressor was reduced three hours post-dose following active treatment. No treatment-related cognitive performance changes were observed. Resting state alpha oscillatory activity was significantly greater in posterior MEG sensors after active treatment compared to placebo two hours post-dose; however, this effect was only apparent for those higher in trait anxiety. This change in resting state alpha oscillatory activity was not correlated with the change in subjective stress response or the cortisol response, suggesting further research is required to assess the functional relevance of these treatment-related changes in resting alpha activity. These findings further support the anti-stress effects of l-theanine.

  2. Effects of gum Arabic ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage in healthy adult females: two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Rasha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gum Arabic (acacia Senegal is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals. It has been considered as a safe dietary fiber by the United States, Food and Drug Administration (FDA since the 1970s. Although its effects were extensively studied in animals, there is paucity of data regarding its quantified use in humans. This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. Methods A two-arm randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial was conducted in the Department of Physiology at the Khartoum University. A total of 120 healthy females completed the study. They were divided to two groups: A test group of 60 volunteers receiving GA (30 gm /day for 6 weeks and a placebo group of 60 volunteers receiving pectin (1 gm/day for the same period of time. Weight and height were measured before and after intervention using standardized height and weight scales. Skin fold thickness was measured using Harpenden Skin fold caliper. Fat percentage was calculated using Jackson and Pollock 7 caliper method and Siri equation. Results Pre and post analysis among the study group showed significant reduction in BMI by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.17 to 0.47; P Conclusions GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. The effect could be exploited in the treatment of obesity.

  3. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbor Gabriel A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To evaluate the effects of two formulations, Cissus quadrangularis-only and a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination, on weight loss in overweight and obese human subjects. Methods The study was a 10 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 72 obese or overweight participants (45.8% male; 54.2% female; ages 21–44; mean age = 29.3. The participants were randomly divided into three equal (n = 24 groups: placebo, Cissus quadrangularis-only, and Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination. Capsules containing the placebo or active formulations were administered twice daily before meals; no major dietary changes nor exercises were suggested during the study. A total of six anthropomorphic and serological measurements (body weight, body fat, waist size; total plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose level were taken at baseline and at 4, 8 and 10 weeks. Results Compared to the placebo group, the two active groups showed a statistically significant difference on all six variables by week 10. The magnitude of the differences was noticeable by week 4 and continued to increase over the trial period. Conclusion Although the Cissus quadrangularis-only group showed significant reductions on all variables compared to the placebo group, the Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination resulted in even larger reductions. This apparently synergistic formulation should prove helpful in the management of obesity and its related complications.

  4. Effect of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized and dose-ranging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masanori Noguchi; Kei Matsuoka; Tatsuyuki Kakuma; Katsnro Tomiyasu; Yoshiko Kurita; Hiroko Kukihara; Fumiko Konishi; Shoichiro Kumamoto; Kuniyoshi Shimizu; Ryuichiro Kondo

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized and dose-ranging study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the extract of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods: We enrolled male volunteers (> 50 years) with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS; questions 1-7)≥ 5 and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value < 4 ng/mL. Volunteers were randomized into groups of placebo (n = 12), G. lucidum of 0.6 mg (n = 12), 6 mg (n = 12) or 60 mg (n = 14), administered once daily. Efficacy was measured as a change from baseline in IPSS and the peak urine flow rate (Qmax). Prostate volume and residual urine were estimated by ultrasonography, and blood tests, including PSA levels, were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment. Results: The overall administration was well tolerated, with no major adverse effects. Statistical significances in the magnitude of changes between the experimental groups were observed at weeks 4 and 8. No changes were observed with respect to Qmax, residual urine, prostate volume or PSA levels. Conclusion: The extract of G. lucidum was well tolerated and an improvement in IPSS was observed. The recommended dose of the extract of G. lucidum is 6 mg in men with LUTS. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 651-658)

  5. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial With Magnesium Oxide to Reduce Intrafraction Prostate Motion for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lips, Irene M., E-mail: i.m.lips@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gils, Carla H. van [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kotte, Alexis N.T.J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Leerdam, Monique E. van [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Franken, Stefan P.G.; Heide, Uulke A. van der; Vulpen, Marco van [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether magnesium oxide during external-beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer reduces intrafraction prostate motion in a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Methods and Materials: At the Department of Radiotherapy, prostate cancer patients scheduled for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 35 fractions) using fiducial marker-based position verification were randomly assigned to receive magnesium oxide (500 mg twice a day) or placebo during radiotherapy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction prostate motion, defined as the proportion of patients who demonstrated in {>=}50% of the fractions an intrafraction motion outside a range of 2 mm. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life and acute toxicity. Results: In total, 46 patients per treatment arm were enrolled. The primary endpoint did not show a statistically significant difference between the treatment arms with a percentage of patients with clinically relevant intrafraction motion of 83% in the magnesium oxide arm as compared with 80% in the placebo arm (p = 1.00). Concerning the secondary endpoints, exploratory analyses demonstrated a trend towards worsened quality of life and slightly more toxicity in the magnesium oxide arm than in the placebo arm; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Magnesium oxide is not effective in reducing the intrafraction prostate motion during external-beam radiotherapy, and therefore there is no indication to use it in clinical practice for this purpose.

  6. Treatment of cyclical mastalgia with a solution containing a Vitex agnus castus extract: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaska, M; Beles, P; Gorkow, C; Sieder, C

    1999-08-01

    In a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study the efficacy of a Vitex agnus castus extract-containing solution (VACS) was investigated in patients suffering from cyclical mastalgia. Patients had mastalgia on at least 5 days in the pre-treatment cycle. During this cycle and during treatment (3 cycles; 2 x 30 drops/day), the intensity of mastalgia was recorded once per cycle using a visual analogue scale (VAS). After one/two treatment cycles, the mean decrease in pain intensity (mm, VAS) was 21.4 mm /33.7 mm in women taking VACS (n=48) and 10.6 mm/20.3 mm with placebo (n=49). The differences of the VAS-values for VACS were significantly greater than those with placebo (p=0.018; p=0.006). After three cycles, the mean VAS-score reduction for women taking VACS was 34.3 mm, a reduction of 'borderline significance' (p=0.064) on statistical testing compared with placebo (25.7 mm). There was no difference in the frequency of adverse events between both groups (VACS: n=5; placebo : n=4). VACS appears effective and was well tolerated and further evaluation of this agent in the treatment of cyclical mastalgia is warranted.

  7. Efficacy of an Extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum (OciBest in the Management of General Stress: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Chandra Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of OciBest, an extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. in symptomatic control of general stress. The participants received either placebo (n=79 or OciBest (n=71; 1200 mg of actives per day for six weeks. The severity of stress-related symptoms was self-evaluated by patients at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6 of the trial period using a symptom rating scale. After six weeks of intervention, scores of symptoms such as forgetfulness, sexual problems of recent origin, frequent feeling of exhaustion, and frequent sleep problems of recent origin decreased significantly (P≤0.05 in OciBest group as compared with placebo group. Also, the total symptom scores of OciBest group revealed significant reduction (P≤0.05 as compared to placebo group. The overall improvement in OciBest group was found to be 1.6 times or 39% more in the control of general stress symptoms with respect to placebo. No adverse events were reported during the study. The findings revealed that OciBest was found to be effective and well tolerated by all the patients over the six weeks of study period.

  8. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Salvia officinalis L. leaf extract in patients with hyperlipidemia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianbakht, S; Abasi, B; Perham, M; Hashem Dabaghian, F

    2011-12-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a common metabolic disorder contributing to morbidities and mortalities due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Conventional antihyperlipidemic drugs have limited efficacies and important side effects, so that alternative lipid lowering agents are needed. Salvia officinalis L. (sage) leaves have PPAR γ agonistic, pancreatic lipase and lipid absorption inhibitory, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibitory and antiinflammatory effects. Thus, in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with 67 hyperlipidemic (hypercholesterolemic and/or hypertriglyceridemic) patients aged 56.4 ± 30.3 years (mean ± SD), the effects of taking sage leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule every 8 h for 2 months) on fasting blood levels of lipids, creatinine and liver enzymes including SGOT and SGPT were evaluated in 34 patients and compared with the placebo group (n = 33). The extract lowered the blood levels of total cholesterol (p  0.05) compared with the placebo group at the endpoint. No adverse effects were reported. The results suggest that sage may be effective and safe in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  9. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of live oral cholera vaccine 638 in Cuban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Rodrigo; García, Hilda María; Jidy, Manuel Díaz; Mirabal, Mayelin; Armesto, Marlene Isabel; Fando, Rafael; García, Luis; Fernández, Roberto; Año, Gemma; Cedré, Bárbara; Ramírez, Margarita; Bravo, Laura; Serrano, Teresita; Palma, Sara; González, Daniel; Miralles, Fernando; Medina, Vilma; Nuñez, Felicita; Plasencia, Yilian; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Mandarioti, Aleyda; Lugones, Juan; Rodríguez, Boris Luis; Moreno, Arlenis; González, Domingo; Baro, Morelia; Solis, Rosa Lidia; Sierra, Gustavo; Barbera, Ramón; Domínguez, Francisco; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Kouri, Gustavo; Campa, Concepción; Menéndez, Jorge

    2009-11-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and the immunogenicity of a 2 x 10(9)CFU dose of the 638 lyophilized live attenuated cholera vaccine for oral administration, formulated and produced at Finlay Institute, City of Havana, Cuba. Thirty-six healthy female and male adult volunteers from 18 to 40 years old were involved, clinically examined and laboratory tested after the informed consent signature. Adverse events were monitored and seroconversion rates and geometrical mean titer (GMT) of vibriocidal antibodies were tested in volunteer's sera samples. Neither serious adverse events nor other damages to the volunteers due to vaccine or placebo feeding were reported during the clinical follow-up period of this study; none of the adverse events registered within the first 72 h after inoculation were life-threatening for volunteers. Neither severe nor moderate adverse events were reported. Sixty-one percent of subjects showed mild expected adverse events in an interval lower than 24h up to the first 72 h, 75% of these in the vaccinated group and 18% in the placebo group. Fourteen days after inoculation the GMT of vibriocidal antibodies in the vaccine group significantly increased in comparison to the placebo group. All subjects in the vaccine group (24) seroconverted (100%). Results show that this vaccine is safe, well tolerated and immunogenic in healthy female and male volunteers.

  10. Lubiprostone plus PEG electrolytes versus placebo plus PEG electrolytes for outpatient colonoscopy preparation: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Aijaz A; Nawras, Ali T; Pai, Chetan; Samuels, Qiana; Silverman, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    Bowel preparation using large volume of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions is often poorly tolerated. Therefore, there are ongoing efforts to develop an alternative bowel cleansing regimen that should be equally effective and better tolerated. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of lubiprostone (versus placebo) plus PEG as a bowel cleansing preparation for colonoscopy. Our study was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled design. Patients scheduled for screening colonoscopy were randomized 1:1 to lubiprostone (group 1) or placebo (group 2) plus 1 gallon of PEG. The primary endpoints were patient's tolerability and endoscopist's evaluation of the preparation quality. The secondary endpoint was to determine any reduction in the amount of PEG consumed in the lubiprostone group compared with the placebo group. One hundred twenty-three patients completed the study and were included in the analysis. There was no difference in overall cleanliness. The volume of PEG was similar in both the groups. The volume of PEG approached significance as a predictor of improved score for both the groups (P = 0.054). Lubiprostone plus PEG was similar to placebo plus PEG in colon cleansing and volume of PEG consumed. The volume of PEG consumed showed a trend toward improving the quality of the colon cleansing.

  11. Assessment of cetirizine, an antihistamine, to prevent cutaneous reactions to nevirapine therapy: results of the viramune-zyrtec double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, O; Roudière, L; Boukli, N; Dupont, B; Prévoteau du Clary, F; Patey, O; David, F; Lortholary, O; Devidas, A; Piketty, C; Rey, E; Urbinelli, R; Allaert, F A; Tréluyer, J M; Caumes, E

    2004-04-15

    We conducted a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of cetirizine to assess the ability of antihistamines to prevent nevirapine-associated rash in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Patients initiating treatment with nevirapine were randomized to receive either cetirizine, 10 mg q.d. (104 patients), or placebo (96 patients) during the first 6 weeks of therapy. Rash occurred in 22 (11%) of 200 patients; 10 (9.6%) were in the cetirizine group and 12 (12.5%) were in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-1.81; P=.5). Five of 22 rashes were cases of hypersensitivity syndrome. The rate of nevirapine discontinuation due to rash was similar in the 2 groups (7.7% and 6.25% in the cetirizine and placebo groups, respectively; P=.4). Multivariate analysis showed no treatment-group effect but indicated that age >40 years (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.4-10.46; P=.008) was associated with an increased risk of rash. Cetirizine has no preventive effect on nevirapine-associated rash.

  12. Antibiotic prophylaxis in third molar surgery: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial using split-mouth technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A; Morkel, J A; Zafar, S

    2010-02-01

    The use of prophylactic antibiotics to reduce postoperative complications in third molar surgery remains controversial. The study was a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 100 patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Each patient acted as their own control using the split-mouth technique. Two unilateral impacted third molars were removed under antibiotic cover and the other two were removed without antibiotic cover. The first group received antibiotics on the first surgical visit. On the second surgical visit (after 3 weeks), placebo capsules were given or vice versa. The second group received antibiotics with continued therapy for 2 days on the first surgical visit and on the second surgical visit (after 3 weeks) placebo capsules were given or vice versa. Pain, swelling, infection, trismus and temperature were recorded on days 3, 7 and 14 after surgery. Of 380 impactions, 6 sockets (2%) became infected. There was no statistically significant difference in the infection rate, pain, swelling, trismus, and temperature between the two groups (p>0.05). Results of the study showed that prophylactic antibiotics did not have a statistically significant effect on postoperative infections in third molar surgery and should not be routinely administered when third molars are removed in non-immunocompromised patients.

  13. Oral supplementation of specific collagen peptides has beneficial effects on human skin physiology: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, E; Segger, D; Degwert, J; Schunck, M; Zague, V; Oesser, S

    2014-01-01

    Various dietary supplements are claimed to have cutaneous anti-aging properties; however, there are a limited number of research studies supporting these claims. The objective of this research was to study the effectiveness of collagen hydrolysate (CH) composed of specific collagen peptides on skin biophysical parameters related to cutaneous aging. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 69 women aged 35-55 years were randomized to receive 2.5 g or 5.0 g of CH or placebo once daily for 8 weeks, with 23 subjects being allocated to each treatment group. Skin elasticity, skin moisture, transepidermal water loss and skin roughness were objectively measured before the first oral product application (t0) and after 4 (t1) and 8 weeks (t2) of regular intake. Skin elasticity (primary interest) was also assessed at follow-up 4 weeks after the last intake of CH (t3, 4-week regression phase). At the end of the study, skin elasticity in both CH dosage groups showed a statistically significant improvement in comparison to placebo. After 4 weeks of follow-up treatment, a statistically significantly higher skin elasticity level was determined in elderly women. With regard to skin moisture and skin evaporation, a positive influence of CH treatment could be observed in a subgroup analysis, but data failed to reach a level of statistical significance. No side effects were noted throughout the study.

  14. The effect of dietary intake of coenzyme Q10 on skin parameters and condition: Results of a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žmitek, Katja; Pogačnik, Tina; Mervic, Liljana; Žmitek, Janko; Pravst, Igor

    2017-01-02

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a natural constituent of foods and is also often used in both functional foods and supplements. In addition, it is a common ingredient of cosmetics where it is believed to reduce the signs of skin ageing. However, the existing data about the effect of dietary intake of CoQ10 on skin parameters and condition are scarce. To gain an insight into this issue, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with 33 healthy subjects. Our objective was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of daily supplementation with 50 and 150 mg of CoQ10 on skin parameters and condition. Study was conducted with a water-soluble form of CoQ10 with superior bioavailability (Q10Vital(®) ). While the results of some previous in vitro studies showed possible protection in UVB response, we did not observe significant changes in the minimal erythema dose (MED). On the other hand, the intake of CoQ10 limited seasonal deterioration of viscoelasticity and reduced some visible signs of ageing. We determined significantly reduced wrinkles and microrelief lines, and improved skin smoothness. Supplementation with CoQ10 did not significantly affect skin hydration and dermis thickness. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):132-140, 2017.

  15. Efficacy of a microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Spanish iron-deficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; González-Vizcayno, Carmen; Delgado, Marco A; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2011-06-01

    Fe-deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem. We studied the influence of consuming an Fe-fortified fruit juice on Fe status in menstruating women. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 16 weeks of duration was performed. Subjects were randomised into two groups: the P group (n 58) or the F group (n 64), and consumed, as a supplement to their usual diet, 500 ml/d of a placebo fruit juice or an Fe-fortified fruit juice, respectively. The Fe-fortified fruit juice, containing microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate, provided 18 mg Fe/d (100 % of the RDA). At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight and Fe parameters were determined: total erythrocytes, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), Hb, serum Fe, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The fruit juice consumption involved increased intake of carbohydrates and vitamin C, and increased BMI within normal limits. Ferritin was higher in the F group after week 4 (P fruit juice improves Fe status and may be used to prevent Fe-deficiency anaemia.

  16. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Cerebrolysin in patients with acute ischaemic stroke in Asia--CASTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Z; Moessler, H; Bornstein, N; Brainin, M; Heiss, W-D

    2009-10-01

    Cerebrolysin has exhibited neuroprotective as well as neurotrophic properties in various animal models of cerebral ischaemia and has shown clinical efficacy and good safety in several small controlled clinical studies in ischaemic stroke. Therefore, a large double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was launched in Asia to prove the validity of this treatment strategy. In the more than 50 participating centres patients with acute ischemic hemispheric stroke are randomized within 12 hours of symptoms onset to treatment (30 ml Cerebrolysin diluted in physiologic saline) or placebo (saline) given as intravenous infusion once daily added to standard care for 10 days. The patients are followed with regular visits for 90 days. Efficacy is evaluated on day 90 by three outcome scales - modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index and NIH Stroke Scale - combined to single global directional test. Additionally, adverse events are documented to prove safety. In this study a total of 1060 patients will be included and analysis of data will be completed in 2010. If positive, this trial will add an effective strategy to the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke.

  17. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to test the efficacy of topical 2-hydroxypropyl-Beta-cyclodextrin in the prophylaxis of recurrent herpes labialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senti, Gabriela; Iannaccone, Reto; Graf, Nicole; Felder, Manuela; Tay, Fabian; Kündig, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Herpes labialis affects one third of the population. We evaluated the topical application of an antiviral compound, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD), in reducing herpes labialis relapses. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 40 patients were randomized to a polyethylene glycol (PEG) formulation containing 20% 2-HPβCD or to a vehicle control arm. The gel was applied to the lips twice daily for 6 months. The primary objective was reducing herpes relapses. Surprisingly, the drug group had significantly more relapses than the vehicle group (p = 0.003). While the median numbers of relapses in the preceding year were 12 in the vehicle group and 10 in the drug group, both groups experienced very few relapses during the 6-month treatment period, with a median of 0 in the vehicle group and a median of 2 in the drug group. The impressive reduction of relapses in both groups may be due to a placebo effect or due to the topical treatment with PEG.

  18. A phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of pilocarpine for vaginal dryness: North Central Cancer Treatment group study N04CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Charles L; Balcueva, Ernie P; Liu, Heshan; Sloan, Jeff A; Kottschade, Lisa A; Stella, Philip J; Carlson, Mark D; Moore, Dennis F; Zon, Robin T; Levitt, Ralph; Jaslowski, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Vaginal dryness is a common problem for which effective and safe nonestrogenic treatments are needed. Based on preliminary promising data that pilocarpine attenuated vaginal dryness, the current trial was conducted. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial design was used to compare pilocarpine, at target doses of 5 mg twice daily and 5 mg four times daily, with a placebo. Vaginal dryness was recorded by patient-completed questionnaires at baseline and weekly for 6 weeks after study initiation. The primary endpoint for this study was the area under the curve summary statistic composed of the longitudinal responses obtained at baseline and through the 6 weeks of treatment to a numerical analogue scale asking patients to rate their perceived amount of vaginal dryness. The primary analysis was carried out by a single t test using a two-side alternative to compare the collective pilocarpine treatment arms with the collective placebo arms. A total of 201 patients enrolled in this trial. The primary analysis, comparing vaginal dryness symptoms in the collective pilocarpine arms against the placebo arm, did not reveal any benefit for the pilocarpine treatment. This finding was confirmed by other secondary analyses. Toxicity evaluation revealed more nausea, sweating, rigors, and urinary frequency with the pilocarpine arms compared with the placebo arm.

  19. Benefits of Semelil (ANGIPARSTM on oxidant-antioxidant balance in diabetic patients; A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hemmatabadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world with dreadful complications which not only is debilating for the patients but also puts a big burden on the health system.One of the mechanisms by which the complications of diabetes occur is imbalance in the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium in the body and therefore many studies have been performed to either correct this equilibrium or delay the occurrence of the complications. "nMethods:In this randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, a total number of 61 subjects were divided into two groups and the antioxidant effects of a novel herbal drug, Semelil,was compared with placebo. Baseline laboratory tests including a complete blood count, fasting blood sugar,lipid profile,fasting plasma insulin, liver and renal function tests plus tumor necrotizing factor α (TNFα and C-reactive protein (CRP and homocystein were performed. Total antioxidant power assay, cellular lipid peroxidation assay, and nuclear damage (deoxyguanosine and carbonly molecules were also measured to help determination of state of antioxidants- oxidants equilibrium in serum. "nResult:Apart from deoxyguanosine, no significant change was found in TNFα or CRP levels in the studied group who received Semelil.Conclusion: Mechanisms other than antioxidant effects are involved for Semelil in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

  20. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Has Narrowed the Spectrum of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Sadeghi, Amirsaeid; Malekzadeh, Reza; Khatavi, Fatima; Etemadi, Mehrnoosh; Kalantri, Ebrahim; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Rostami, Kamran

    2015-06-05

    Several studies have shown that a large number of patients who are fulfilling the criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are sensitive to gluten. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a gluten-free diet on gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. In this double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 148 IBS patients fulfilling the Rome III criteria were enrolled between 2011 and 2013. However, only 72 out of the 148 commenced on a gluten-free diet for up to six weeks and completed the study; clinical symptoms were recorded biweekly using a standard visual analogue scale (VAS). In the second stage after six weeks, patients whose symptoms improved to an acceptable level were randomly divided into two groups; patients either received packages containing powdered gluten (35 cases) or patients received placebo (gluten free powder) (37 cases). Overall, the symptomatic improvement was statistically different in the gluten-containing group compared with placebo group in 9 (25.7%), and 31 (83.8%) patients respectively (p gluten. Using the term of IBS can therefore be misleading and may deviate and postpone the application of an effective and well-targeted treatment strategy in gluten sensitive patients.

  1. Treatment of distal subungual onychomycosis with a topical preparation of urea, propylene glycol and lactic acid: results of a 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtestam, L; Kaaman, T; Rensfeldt, K

    2012-11-01

    Onychomycosis is difficult to cure as this requires eradication of the primary infection and protection of new areas of growth from reinfection. A new topical treatment (K101) has been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of K101 treatment of distal subungual onychomycosis. This was a 24-week (plus 2-week washout), multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 493 patients with distal subungual onychomycosis (K101, n = 346; placebo, n = 147), stratified according to degree of nail involvement. More patients with ≤50% nail involvement achieved the primary endpoint (mycological cure after 26 weeks) in the K101 group (27.2%) than placebo (10.4%; P = 0.0012). Proportions for patients with 51-75% involvement were 19.1% for K101 and 7.0% for placebo (not significant). More patients applying K101 than placebo judged that their condition had improved from week 2 (P = 0.0148) to week 24 (P = 0.0004). No safety issues were identified. K101 provides early visible improvements in nail appearance and a clinically meaningful antifungal activity.

  2. Effects of carvedilol in heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Results of a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study (CARIBE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Chizzola

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of carvedilol in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, 30 patients (7 women with functional class II and III heart failure were assessed. Their ages ranged from 28 to 66 years (mean of 43±9 years, and their left ventricular ejection fraction varied from 8% to 35%. Carvedilol was added to the usual therapy of 20 patients; placebo was added to the usual therapy of 10 patients. The initial dose of carvedilol was 12.5 mg, which was increased weekly until it reached 75 mg/day, according to the patient's tolerance. Clinical assessment, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and radionuclide ventriculography were performed in the pretreatment phase, being repeated after 2 and 6 months of medication use. RESULTS: A reduction in heart rate (p=0.016 as well as an increase in left ventricular shortening fraction (p=0.02 and in left ventricular ejection fraction (p=0.017 occurred in the group using carvedilol as compared with that using placebo. CONCLUSION: Carvedilol added to the usual therapy for heart failure resulted in better heart function.

  3. Effect of Paracetamol Pretreatment on Rocuronium-Induced Injection Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Comparison with Lidocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz Ates

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of intravenous paracetamol on rocuronium-induced injection pain with that of lidocaine. Material and Method: One hundred and eighty patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were recruited to this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. A 20-gauge cannula was inserted into a vein on the dorsum of the patient%u2019s left hand and lactated Ringer%u2019s solution was infused at 100 ml/h. After 5 minutes, infusion was stopped and the left arm of the patient%u2019s was elevated for 15 seconds for gravity of venous blood. While venous occlusion was applied to the left upper arm using a pneumatic tourniquet, one of the pretreatment solutions (normal saline 5 mL, lidocaine 40 mg, paracetamol 50 mg was injected over a period of 10 seconds. The intensity of the pain patients experienced was assessed using a 4-point verbal rating scale in Group C (normal saline 5 mL, n=60, Group L (lidocaine 40 mg, n=60 and Group P (paracetamol 50 mg, n=60. After 2 minutes, the venous occlusion was released and the patients received 0.06 mg/kg rocuronim bromide over 10 seconds and the rocuronim-induced pain was assessed. Results: The overall incidence of rocuronium-induced injection pain was significantly more in Group C than the other groups (p

  4. Anti-Stress, Behavioural and Magnetoencephalography Effects of an L-Theanine-Based Nutrient Drink: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J; de Klerk, Suzanne; Woods, William; Gondalia, Shakuntla; Noonan, Chris; Scholey, Andrew B

    2016-01-19

    L-theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide) is an amino acid found primarily in the green tea plant. This study explored the effects of an L-theanine-based nutrient drink on mood responses to a cognitive stressor. Additional measures included an assessment of cognitive performance and resting state alpha oscillatory activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Thirty-four healthy adults aged 18-40 participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study. The primary outcome measure, subjective stress response to a multitasking cognitive stressor, was significantly reduced one hour after administration of the L-theanine drink when compared to placebo. The salivary cortisol response to the stressor was reduced three hours post-dose following active treatment. No treatment-related cognitive performance changes were observed. Resting state alpha oscillatory activity was significantly greater in posterior MEG sensors after active treatment compared to placebo two hours post-dose; however, this effect was only apparent for those higher in trait anxiety. This change in resting state alpha oscillatory activity was not correlated with the change in subjective stress response or the cortisol response, suggesting further research is required to assess the functional relevance of these treatment-related changes in resting alpha activity. These findings further support the anti-stress effects of L-theanine.

  5. Acute anxiolytic effects of quetiapine during virtual reality exposure--a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in patients with specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Julia; Domschke, Katharina; Mühlberger, Andreas; Winter, Bernward; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Notzon, Swantje; Silling, Karen; Arolt, Volker; Zwanzger, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most frequent psychiatric disorders. With regard to pharmacological treatment, antidepressants, the calcium modulator pregabalin and benzodiazepines are recommended according to current treatment guidelines. With regard to acute states of anxiety, so far practically only benzodiazepines provide an immediate anxiolytic effect. However, the risk of tolerance and dependency limits the use of this class of medication. Therefore, there is still a need for alternative pharmacologic strategies. Increasing evidence points towards anxiety-reducing properties of atypical antipsychotics, particularly quetiapine. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the putative acute anxiolytic effects of this compound, choosing the induction of acute anxiety in patients with specific phobia as a model for the evaluation of ad-hoc anxiolytic properties in a proof-of-concept approach. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 58 patients with arachnophobia were treated with a single dose of quetiapine XR or placebo prior to a virtual reality spider challenge procedure. Treatment effects were monitored using rating scales for acute anxiety as well as measurements of heart rate and skin conductance. Overall, quetiapine showed significant anxiolytic effects compared to placebo. However, effects were not seen on the primary outcome measure (VAS Anxiety), but were limited to somatic anxiety symptoms. Additionally, a significant reduction of skin conductance was observed. Further exploratory analyses hint towards a mediating role of the (COMT) val158met genotype on treatment response. The present results thus suggest a possible suitability of quetiapine in the acute treatment of anxiety, particularly with regard to somatic symptoms.

  6. Schisandra chinensis fruit modulates the gut microbiota composition in association with metabolic markers in obese women: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-young; Wang, Jing-hua; Eom, Taewoong; Kim, Hojun

    2015-08-01

    Schisandra chinensis fruit (SCF) is known to have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, including obesity, and to affect gut microbiota in in vivo studies. However, in human research, there have been a few studies in terms of its clinical roles in lipid metabolism and modulation of gut microbiota. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 28 obese women with SCF or placebo was conducted for 12 weeks. Anthropometry and blood and fecal sampling were performed before and after treatment. Analysis of the gut microbiota in feces was performed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Although the values did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, the SCF group tended to show a greater decrease in waist circumference, fat mass, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase than the placebo group. Clustering of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints for total bacteria before and after treatment indicated more separate clustering in SCF group than placebo. In correlation analysis, Bacteroides and Bacteroidetes (both increased by SCF) showed significant negative correlation with fat mass, aspartate aminotransferase, and/or alanine aminotransferase, respectively. Ruminococcus (decreased by SCF) showed negative correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. In conclusion, administration of SCF for 12 weeks resulted in modulation of the gut microbiota composition in Korean obese women, and significant correlations with some bacterial genera and metabolic parameters were noted. However, in general, SCF was not sufficient to induce significant changes in obesity-related parameters compared with placebo.

  7. Effectiveness of Moxibustion Treatment in Quality of Life in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumei Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To observe the effects of traditional Chinese moxibustion, compared with sham moxibustion, on the quality of life (QOL in patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis (KOA. Methods. This is a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. 150 patients with KOA were randomly allocated to either a true moxibustion treatment (n = 77 or a sham moxibustion treatment (n = 73 three times a week for six weeks. The QOL of patients was evaluated with SF-36 at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 weeks after baseline. Results. 136 patients were available for analysis. Participants in the true moxibustion group experienced statistically significantly greater improvement in GH (general health scores than the sham group at week 6 (P = 0.015 and week 12 (P = 0.029. Participants in the true moxibustion group experienced statistically significantly greater improvement in VT (vitality scores than the sham group at week 12 (P = 0.042. No significant adverse effects were found during the trial. Conclusion. A 6-week moxibustion treatment seems to improve general health and vitality, which are associated with physical and mental quality of life, in patients with KOA up to 12 weeks, relative to credible sham moxibustion. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov ISRCTN68475405.

  8. Efficacy of ketamine in the rapid treatment of major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu; Chen, Jianjun; Zou, Dezhi; Zheng, Peng; Li, Qi; Wang, Haiyang; Li, Pengfei; Zhou, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Yiyun; Xie, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies are reporting that ketamine could be treated as a novel antidepressant for major depressive disorder (MDD). Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to comprehensively and systematically assess the efficacy of ketamine for treating patients with MDD. Method Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on ketamine versus placebo for treating MDD were searched up to April 2016 in medical databases (PubMed, CCTR, Web of Science, Embase, CBM-disc, and CNKI). Three treatment time points (24 and 72 h, and day 7) were chosen. Response and remission rates were the main outcomes. The random effects model was used. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results Nine high-quality studies that included 368 patients were selected to compare the efficacy of ketamine to placebo. The therapeutic effects of ketamine at 24 and 72 h, and day 7 were found to be significantly better than placebo. Response and remission rates in the ketamine group at 24 and 72 h, and day 7 were 52.2% and 20.6%; 47.9% and 23.8%; and 39.8% and 26.2%, respectively. No significant heterogeneity existed, and the Egger’s test showed no publication bias. Conclusion These results indicated that ketamine could yield a good efficacy in the rapid treatment of MDD. Future large-scale clinical studies are needed to confirm our results and investigate the mid- and long-term efficacy of ketamine in treating MDD. PMID:27843321

  9. A Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial that Combines Disulfiram and Naltrexone for Treating Co-Occurring Cocaine and Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinati, Helen; Kampman, Kyle M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Xie, Hu; Dackis, Charles; Rabinowitz, Amanda R.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND This is a double blind, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated the efficacy of disulfiram, naltrexone and their combination in patients with co-occurring cocaine and alcohol dependence. METHODS 208 patients were randomized to disulfiram (250mg/day), naltrexone (100mg/day), the combination, or placebo for 11 weeks. Outcomes were in-trial abstinence from cocaine and/or alcohol. RESULTS Few safety concerns were reported, although medication adherence was low in a number of patients for both medications, alone or in combination. In the primary analyses (GEE modeling), abstinence from cocaine as measured by cocaine-negative urines and days of self-reported abstinence from cocaine or alcohol did not differ between placebo and any of the medication groups. However, patients taking disulfiram (alone or in combination) were most likely to achieve combined abstinence from cocaine and alcohol. Secondary analyses revealed that patients taking the disulfiram-naltrexone combination were most likely to achieve 3 consecutive weeks of abstinence from cocaine and alcohol. CONCLUSION There was an association between disulfiram treatment and abstinence from cocaine and alcohol. More patients taking the disulfiram-naltrexone combination achieved 3 consecutive weeks of abstinence in treatment than placebo-treated patients. PMID:18079068

  10. Intravenous dipyrone for the acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Bigal

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute headaches are responsible for a significant percentage of the case load at primary care units and emergency rooms in Brazil. Dipyrone (metamizol is easily available in these settings, being the most frequently used drug. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to assess the effect of dipyrone in the acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache. Sixty patients were randomized to receive placebo (intravenous injection of 10 ml saline or 1 g dipyrone in 10 ml saline. We used seven parameters of analgesic evaluation. The patients receiving dipyrone showed a statistically significant improvement (P<0.05 of pain compared to placebo up to 30 min after drug administration. The therapeutic gain was 30% in 30 min and 40% in 60 min. The number of patients needed to be treated for at least one to have benefit was 3.3 in 30 min and 2.2 in 60 min. There were statistically significant reductions in the recurrence (dipyrone = 25%, placebo = 50% and use of rescue medication (dipyrone = 20%, placebo = 47.6% for the dipyrone group. Intravenous dipyrone is an effective drug for the relief of pain in tension-type headache and its use is justified in the emergency room setting.

  11. Double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of testosterone supplementation in elderly men with moderate to low testosterone levels: design and baseline characteristics [ISRCTN23688581

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    Verhaar Harald JJ

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In ageing men testosterone levels decline, while cognitive function, muscle and bone mass, sexual hair growth, libido and sexual activity decline and the risk of cardiovascular diseases increase. We set up a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effects of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, quality of life, body composition, cognitive function, vascular function and risk factors, and bone mineral density in older hypogonadal men. We recruited 237 men with serum testosterone levels below 13.7 nmol/L and ages 60–80 years. They were randomized to either four capsules of 40 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU or placebo daily for 26 weeks. Primary endpoints are functional mobility and quality of life. Secondary endpoints are body composition, cognitive function, aortic stiffness and cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral density. Effects on prostate, liver and hematological parameters will be studied with respect to safety. Measure of effect will be the difference in change from baseline visit to final visit between TU and placebo. We will study whether the effect of TU differs across subgroups of baseline waist girth ( At baseline, mean age, BMI and testosterone levels were 67 years, 27 kg/m2 and 10.72 nmol/L, respectively.

  12. The Influence of Oral Ginger before Operation on Nausea and Vomiting after Cataract Surgery under General Anesthesia: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, Jamal; Ebnerasooli, Shahrokh; Shahsawari, Sirous; Nzarian, Simin

    2017-01-01

    Background According to Iranian traditional medicine, using safe ginger may contribute to taking less chemical medicines and result in fewer side effects. Objective To determine the influence of using ginger before operation on nausea and vomiting, after cataract surgery under general anesthesia. Methods This study was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted at Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. 122 candidates of cataract surgery were randomly allocated in three groups. The first group received a ginger capsule in a single 1 g dose, the second received two separate doses of ginger capsule each containing 500 mg and the third group received placebo capsule before operation. The patients were examined and studied for the level of nausea and occurrence of vomiting for 6 hours after the operation. The intensity of nausea was scored from zero to ten, based upon Visual Analog Scale. SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the data. We used Chi square and Kruskal-Wallis test for the analyses of outcomes. Results The frequency and intensity of nausea and the frequency of vomiting after operation among those who had taken the ginger capsule in 2 separate 500 mg doses was less than the other 2 groups. This difference was significant (pKurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. PMID:28243400

  13. A pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone as adjunctive treatment to risperidone: Effects on aberrant behavior in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Rasa, Soudeh Mohebbi; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2015-09-30

    To assess the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone added to risperidone in the treatment of irritability in autistic disorder (AD), we conducted this study. In a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 44 outpatients of both genders aged 4-12 years with a diagnosis of AD and a score of ≥12 on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) irritability subscale were included. Mean change of ABC-C irritability subscale score as primary outcome, change in other ABC-C subscale scores and partial and complete responses were compared between two groups. Twenty patients completed the trial in each group. Level of reduction and effect of time×treatment interaction in the treatment group were significant for irritability (P=0.03), lethargy/social withdrawal (P=0.04) and hyperactivity/non-compliance (P=0.03) but not for stereotypic behavior and inappropriate speech subscales compared with the placebo group. Vomiting and headache were the most frequent reported side-effects. Results of this preliminary study indicate positive effects of pioglitazone compared with placebo in improving the behavioral symptoms of AD.

  14. Effect of the serotonin receptor agonist, buspirone, on immune function in HIV-infected individuals: a six-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Benfield, T; Axen, T E;

    2000-01-01

    . Blood samples were drawn prior to treatment, after 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months, and as a follow-up sample 1 month after completion of study. RESULTS: A significant decrease in CD8+ T-cell counts (p =.02) and an increase in CD4/CD8 ratio (p =.0003) in buspirone-treated patients compared......PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown that agents modulating the cAMP/PKA pathway have a beneficial effect on immune reconstitution in HIV-infected individuals. Here we evaluate the effect of buspirone on immune function as measured by CD4 and CD8 T-cell counts, CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio, HIV viral load......, and response to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) in antiretroviral naive HIV-1-infected individuals. METHOD: Twenty-three HIV-infected patients with CD4 T-cell counts above 300 per microL were enrolled in a 6-month double-blinded placebo controlled trial. No patients received antiretroviral therapy during the study...

  15. Effectiveness of Topical Curcumin for Treatment of Mastitis in Breastfeeding Women: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Raha Afshariani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the efficacy of topical curcumin in reducing breast inflammation in women suffering from lactational mastitis. Methods: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 63 breastfeeding women with lactational mastitis were randomly assigned to receive curcumin topical cream, one pump every 8 hours for 3 days (n=32 or topical moisturizer as placebo (n=31. Using an index for severity of breast inflammation, all of the patients had moderate breast inflammation before entering the study. The outcome of treatment was evaluated using the same index at 24, 48 and 72 hours of starting the treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics such as age (p=0.361 and duration of lactation (p=0.551. After 72-hour of therapy, patients in curcumin groups had significantly lower rate of moderate (p=0.019 and mild (p=0.002 mastitis. Patients in curcumin group had significantly lower scores for tension (p<0.001, erythema (p<0.001 and pain (p<0.001, after 72-hour of treatment. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that topical preparation of curcumin successfully decrease the markers of lactational mastitis such as pain, breast tension and erythema within 72 hours of administration without side effects. Thus, topical preparation of curcumin could be safely administered for those suffering from lactational mastitis after excluding infectious etiologies.

  16. Effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm) on markers of muscle damage: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felismino, Amanda Soares; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Araújo Moura Lemos, Telma Maria; de Brito Vieira, Wouber Hérickson

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK) and strength performance) in the biceps brachii. Twenty-two physically active men were randomized into two groups: placebo and laser. All volunteers were submitted to an exercise-induced muscle damage protocol for biceps brachii (biceps curl, 10 sets of 10 repetitions with load of 50% of one-repetition maximum test (1RM)). Active LLLT (808 nm; 100 mW; 35.7 W/cm(2), 357.14 J/cm(2) per point, energy of 1 J per point applied for 10 s on four points of the biceps brachii belly of each arm) or placebo was applied between the sets of the biceps curl exercise. CK activity and maximum strength performance (1RM) were measured before, immediately after, 24, 48, and 72 h after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol. There was an increase in CK activity after the muscle damage protocol in both groups; however, this increase was attenuated in the laser group compared to the placebo group at 72 h (placebo = 841 vs. laser = 357%; p effect on the recovery of strength performance.

  17. Effects of Ezetimibe/Simvastatin and Rosuvastatin on Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Neuropathy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Geannyne Villegas-Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of ezetimibe/simvastatin (EZE/SIMV and rosuvastatin (ROSUV on oxidative stress (OS markers in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN. Methods. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial in adult patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM and DPN, as evaluated by composite scores and nerve conduction studies (NCS. Seventy-four subjects with T2DM were allocated 1 : 1 : 1 to placebo, EZE/SIMV 10/20 mg, or ROSUV 20 mg for 16 weeks. All patients were assessed before and after treatment: primary outcomes were lipid peroxidation (LPO, and nitric oxide (NO surrogate levels in plasma; secondary outcomes included NCS, neuropathic symptom scores, and metabolic parameters. Data were expressed as mean ± SD or SEM, frequencies, and percentages; we used nonparametric analysis. Results. LPO levels were reduced in both statin arms after 16 weeks of treatment (p<0.05 versus baseline, without changes in the placebo group. NO levels were not significantly affected by statin treatment, although a trend towards significance concerning increased NO levels was noted in both statin arms. No significant changes were observed for the NCS or composite scores. Discussion. EZE/SIMV and ROSUV are superior to placebo in reducing LPO in subjects with T2DM suffering from polyneuropathy. This trial is registered with NCT02129231.

  18. BounceBack™ capsules for reduction of DOMS after eccentric exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot study

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    Singh Betsy B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS is muscle pain and discomfort experienced approximately one to three days after exercise. DOMS is thought to be a result of microscopic muscle fiber tears that occur more commonly after eccentric exercise rather than concentric exercise. This study sought to test the efficacy of a proprietary dietary supplement, BounceBack™, to alleviate the severity of DOMS after standardized eccentric exercise. Methods The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Ten healthy community-dwelling untrained subjects, ranging in age from 18–45 years, were enrolled. Mean differences within and between groups were assessed inferentially at each data collection time-point using t-tests for all outcome measures. Results In this controlled pilot study, intake of BounceBack™ capsules for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in standardized measures of pain and tenderness post-eccentric exercise compared to the placebo group. There were trends towards reductions in plasma indicators of inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein and muscle damage (creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin. Conclusion BounceBack™ capsules were able to significantly reduce standardized measures of pain and tenderness at several post-eccentric exercise time points in comparison to placebo. The differences in the serological markers of DOMS, while not statistically significant, appear to support the clinical findings. The product appears to have a good safety profile and further study with a larger sample size is warranted based on the current results.

  19. Effect of a Growing-up Milk Containing Synbiotics on Immune Function and Growth in Children: A Cluster Randomized, Multicenter, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Ninh Nguyen; Wang, Dantong; Grathwohl, Dominik; Lan, Phuong Nguyen Thi; Kim, Hoa Vu Thi; Goyer, Amélie; Benyacoub, Jalil

    2013-01-01

    Common infectious diseases, such as diarrhea, are still the major cause of death in children under 5-years-old, particularly in developing countries. It is known that there is a close relationship between nutrition and immune function. To evaluate the effect of a growing-up milk containing synbiotics on immune function and child growth, we conducted a cluster randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial in children between 18 and 36 months of age in Vietnam. Eligible children from eight and seven kindergartens were randomly assigned to receive test and isocaloric/ isoproteic control milk, respectively, for 5 months. We found that the blood immunoglobulin A (IgA) level and growth parameters were increased in the test group. Compared to the control group, there was also a trend of decreased vitamin A deficiency and fewer adverse events in the test group. These data suggest that a growing-up milk containing synbiotics may be useful in supporting immune function and promoting growth in children.

  20. Comparison of the analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after third molar surgery: A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario-Alberto; Martinez-Rider, Ricardo; Perez-Urizar, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Preemptive analgesia is considered an alternative for treating the postsurgical pain of third molar removal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preemptive analgesic efficacy of oral ketorolac versus intramuscular tramadol after a mandibular third molar surgery. Material and Methods A parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out. Thirty patients were randomized into two treatment groups using a series of random numbers: Group A, oral ketorolac 10 mg plus intramuscular placebo (1 mL saline solution); or Group B, oral placebo (similar tablet to oral ketorolac) plus intramuscular tramadol 50 mg diluted in 1 mL saline solution. These treatments were given 30 min before the surgery. We evaluated the time of first analgesic rescue medication, pain intensity, total analgesic consumption and adverse effects. Results Patients taking oral ketorolac had longer time of analgesic covering and less postoperative pain when compared with patients receiving intramuscular tramadol. Conclusions According to the VAS and AUC results, this study suggests that 10 mg of oral ketorolac had superior analgesic effect than 50 mg of tramadol when administered before a mandibular third molar surgery. Key words:Ketorolac, tramadol, third molar surgery, pain, preemptive analgesia. PMID:27475688

  1. Local and Systemic Cardiovascular Effects from Monochromatic Infrared Therapy in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Ru-Lan Hsieh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared (IR therapy is used for pain relief in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. However, IR’s effects on the cardiovascular system remain uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the local and systemic cardiovascular effects of monochromatic IR therapy on patients with knee OA in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Seventy-one subjects with knee OA received one session of 40 min of active or placebo monochromatic IR treatment (with power output of 6.24 W, wavelength of 890 nm, power density of 34.7 mW/cm2 for 40 min, total energy of 41.6 J/cm2 per knee per session over the knee joints. Heart rate, blood pressure, and knee arterial blood flow velocity were periodically assessed at the baseline, during, and after treatment. Data were analyzed by repeated-measure analysis of covariance. Compared to baseline, there were no statistically significant group x time interaction effects between the 2 groups for heart rate (P=0.160, blood pressure (systolic blood pressure: P=0.861; diastolic blood pressure: P=0.757, or mean arterial blood flow velocity (P=0.769 in follow-up assessments. The present study revealed that although there was no increase of knee arterial blood flow velocity, monochromatic IR therapy produced no detrimental systemic cardiovascular effects.

  2. Lovastatin as an Adjuvant to Lithium for Treating Manic Phase of Bipolar Disorder: A 4-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Many patients with bipolar disorder suffer from metabolic disorder. Lovastatin is effective for treating major depression. This double-blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial investigates whether lovastatin is a useful adjuvant to lithium for treating mania. Methods. Fifty-four patients with bipolar disorder-manic phase were randomly allocated into lovastatin or placebo group. The clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline, week 2, and week 4 using Young Mania Rating Scale. Adverse effects were checked. Results. Forty-six out of 54 patients completed this trial. The mania score in the lovastatin group decreased from 40.6 (11.1 at baseline to 12.9 (8.7 and 4.1 (5.4 at weeks 2 and 4, respectively. The score in the placebo group decreased from 41.0 (11.2 at baseline to 12.8 (8.07 and 5.8 (4.6 at weeks 2 and 4, respectively. However, there was no significant difference between groups at week 2 and week 4. The adverse effects rates were comparable between the two groups. No serious adverse effect was found. Tremor and nausea were the most common adverse effects. Conclusions. Lovastatin neither exacerbated nor decreased the symptoms of mania in patients with bipolar disorder. Current results support that the combination of lovastatin with lithium is tolerated well in bipolar disorder. The trial was registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry (IRCT201302203930N18.

  3. Efficacy and safety of topical alprostadil cream for the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD): a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma-Nathan, Harin; Brown, Candace; Fendl, Jane; Salem, Shawki; Yeager, James; Harningr, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses of a novel alprostadil cream in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 94 women presenting with female sexual arousal disorder of at least 6 month s duration. We sent the subjects home with 10 premeasured doses of 500 g, 1000 g, or 1500 g alprostadil or a placebo cream to be applied to the vulvar area prior to vaginal intercourse over a period of 6 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter, the arousal success rate (as measured by diary responses to the Female Sexual Encounter Profile [FSEP]), was highest in the alprostadil 1000 g group and lowest in the 500 g group, but the responses were not different from that of the placebo cream, at the p = 0.05 level, for any of the three alprostadil doses. However, the change from baseline for Item 6 of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000; satisfaction with arousal during sexual activity) suggested an important dose-related trend (p = 0.173; 1500 g versus placebo). The mean percent responder rate (responder = > 50% arousal success rate with > 3 sexual attempts) suggested a dose-response effect (p = 0.157; 1500 g versus placebo). Adverse events were generally mild or moderate in intensity and mainly involved localized reactions in the genital area.

  4. Clinical evaluation of efficacy of Majoon Ushba and Roghane Hindi in the management of psoriasis: A randomized single-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Azad Hussain; Ahmad, Tanzeel; Naiyar, A H

    2011-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common dermatological disease affecting up to 1-2% of the world's population. It is associated with both organic and psychosocial complications like psoriatic arthropathy, nephritis, infection, hyperuricemia, hypoproteinemia, depression, and stress, and is responsible for hindering patients' daily activities. The present study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of two pharmacopeial Unani formulations (Majoon Ushba and Roghane Hindi) in the management of psoriasis on scientific parameters. Thirty diagnosed psoriasis patients, satisfying the inclusion criteria, were selected for a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study in the Department of Moalajat (Medicine), National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore. The patients were divided by the method of Random Table Numbers into test and control groups after obtaining informed consent. The experimental group comprised 20 patients to whom Majoon Ushba 5 g was administered orally twice daily and Roghane Hindi was applied locally twice daily. The control group comprised 10 patients who were given placebo drugs orally and topically. The duration of the trial was 8 weeks and follow-up was done fortnightly. The severity of psoriasis and efficacy of the drug was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) Scale. The results of both groups were compared and analyzed statistically. The study showed significant reduction in the PASI score in the test group (P Hindi are safe and effective in the management of psoriasis.

  5. A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with Vitamin D3 in MS: Subgroup Analysis of Patients with Baseline Disease Activity Despite Interferon Treatment

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    J. Åivo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a subgroup analysis of the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial with vitamin D3 in MS. In the overall study population, there were 34 patients in the vitamin D arm and 32 patients in the placebo arm. All the patients were using interferon-β-1b (IFNB therapy. The subgroup consisted of 15 patients in the vitamin D arm and 15 patients in the placebo arm, who had either at least one relapse during the year preceding the study or enhancing T1 lesions at the baseline MRI scan. We measured the total number of MRI T1 enhancing lesions, the number of new/enlarging T2 lesions and T2 lesion volume (BOD (mm3, EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, annual relapse Rate (ARR, timed 25-foot walk (T25FW, and timed 10-foot tandem walk (TT10W at baseline and at 12 months in the vitamin D-treated and in the placebo-treated patients. There was a statistically significant reduction in the number of T1 enhancing lesions, a smaller T2 lesion volume growth and less new/enlarging T2 brain MRI lesions in the vitamin D3-treated than in the placebo-treated subgroup patients. The MRI results were slightly more pronounced in the subgroup than in the overall study population.

  6. The effect of oscillating-energy manual therapy on lateral epicondylitis: a randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Fearon, Frank J

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of lateral epicondylitis (LE) are attributed to degenerative changes and inflammatory reactions in the common extensor tendon induced by microscopic tears in the tissue after repetitive or overload functions of the wrist and hand extensor muscles. Conventional treatments, provided on the premise of inflammatory basis of LE, have shown 39-80% failure rate. An alternative approach suggests that symptoms of LE could be due to active tender points developed in the origin of hand and wrist extensor muscles after overuse or repetitive movements. Oscillating-energy Manual Therapy (OEMT), also known as V-spread, is a craniosacral manual technique that has been clinically used for treating tender points over the suture lines in the skull. Considering symptoms of LE may result from active tender points, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of OEMT on pain, grip strength, and functional abilities of subjects with chronic LE. Twenty-three subjects with chronic LE (>3mo) between ages of 24 and 72 years participated in this study. Before their participation, all subjects were screened to rule out cervical and other pathologies that could possibly contribute to their lateral elbow pain. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria were randomized into treatment and placebo treatment groups by a second (treating) therapist. Subjects were blinded to their group assignment. Subjects in the treatment group received OEMT for six sessions. During each treatment session, first a tender point was located through palpation. After proper hand placement, the therapist focused the direction of the oscillating energy on the localized tender point. Subjects in the placebo group underwent the same procedure, but the direction of the oscillating energy was directed to an area above or below the tender points, not covering the affected area. Jamar Dynamometer, Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) were used to measure grip strength

  7. Effect of n-3 fatty acids on patients with advanced lung cancer: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Concetta; Segre, Olivia; Fadda, Maurizio; Monge, Taira; Scigliano, Mara; Schena, Marina; Tinivella, Marco; Tiozzo, Elisa; Catalano, Maria G; Pugliese, Mariateresa; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Aragno, Manuela; Muzio, Giuliana; Maggiora, Marina; Oraldi, Manuela; Canuto, Rosa A

    2012-07-01

    PUFA from fish oil appear to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects and improve nutritional status in cancer patients. With this as background, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EPA plus DHA on inflammatory condition, and oxidative and nutritional status in patients with lung cancer. In our multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial, thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of advanced inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer and undergoing chemotherapy were divided into two groups, receiving four capsules/d containing 510 mg of EPA and 340 mg of DHA, or 850 mg of placebo, for 66 d. At the start of chemotherapy (T₀), after 8 d (T₁), 22 d (T₂) and 66 d (T₃), biochemical (inflammatory and oxidative status parameters) and anthropometric parameters were measured in both groups. A significant increase of body weight in the n-3 group at T₃ v. T₀ was observed. Concerning inflammation, C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels differed significantly between the n-3 and placebo groups at T₃, and progressively decreased during chemotherapy in the n-3 group, evidencing n-3 PUFA anti-inflammatory action. Concerning oxidative status, plasma reactive oxygen species levels increased in the placebo group v. the n-3 group at the later treatment times. Hydroxynonenal levels increased in the placebo group during the study, while they stabilised in the n-3 group. Our data confirm that the continual assumption of EPA plus DHA determined an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative action which could be considered a preliminary goal in anti-cachectic therapy.

  8. The effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough: a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical study

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    Zakir Arslan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. Methods: This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. Results: Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5% and lidocaine group (15% (Fischer exact test, p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0188, respectively. There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5% and lidocaine group (15% (Fischer exact test, p = 0.4325. Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.009, respectively. There was no significant change in cough severity between pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p = 0.856. Conclusion: Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough.

  9. Maintenance Therapy by Vaginal Progesterone after Threatened Idiopathic Preterm Labor: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Double-blind Trial

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    Seyede Hajar Sharami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with arrested preterm labor (PTL are at increased risk for recurrence ofpreterm birth (PTB. Maintenance tocolysis after arrest of acute PTL is of questionable value. Theobjective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 200 mg vaginal progesterone in order toprevent PTB in women with episodes of threatened PTL.Materials and Methods: This is a randomized double blind clinical trial study.Women with singletonpregnancies between 28-36 weeks of gestation, who were hospitalized for PTL were included. Atotal of 173 pregnant patients were randomly allocated to receive 200 mg vaginal progesteronesuppositories (n=86 or placebo (n=87 daily until the 36th gestational week. The two groups werecompared relative to demographic characteristics, incidence of PTB before 34 and 37 weeks, andmaternal and neonatal complications. Data were analyzed by chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests.Results: Mean latency until delivery in the cases was longer than the control group (23.88 ± 18.01vs. 16.67 ± 12.9; p=0.004.Treatment with progesterone was not associated with a reduction inthe rate of PTB before 34 weeks [cases: 9 (10.8% vs. controls: 8 (10%] and 37 weeks [cases: 45(54.2% vs. controls: 33 (41.2%]. Log rank analysis revealed a significant difference for mean timeto delivery between the two groups (p=0.028. There were no significant differences for neonataland maternal complications in the two groups.Conclusion: Prophylactic administration of 200 mg vaginal progesterone suppositories aftersuccessful tocolysis in patients with threatened idiopathic PTL is associated with a longer latencyto delivery, but failed to reduce the rate of PTB (Registeration Number: IRCT138706051096N1.

  10. Oxybutynin reduces sweating in depressed patients treated with sertraline: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study

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    Ghaleiha A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ali Ghaleiha,1 Leila Jahangard,1 Zahra Sherafat,1 Mohammad Ahmadpanah,1 Serge Brand,2 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,2 Hafez Bajoghli,3 Mohammad Haghighi11Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Roozbeh Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranBackground: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are primarily used in the pharmacological treatment of patients experiencing a major depressive disorder. However, one of the common unwanted effects is excessive sweating or hyperhidrosis. Oxybutynin is an anticholinergic medication which reduces sweating. The aim of this double-blind study was to examine the effect of administration of oxybutynin on subjective sweating in patients treated with sertraline.Methods: A total of 140 patients experiencing a major depressive disorder (mean age 37.69 ± 10.44 years, 86 females [61.4%] treated with sertraline (mean dose 83 mg/day were consecutively enrolled in the study, and all reported excessive sweating as a side effect. Thereafter, the patients were randomly assigned to either an oxybutynin 5 mg/day group or to a placebo group. At the beginning and end of the 2-week trial, the patients completed questionnaires related to sweating and medication-related side effects.Results: Over time, subjective sweating reduced significantly in the treatment group as compared with the control group. Oxybutynin-induced side effects were uncommon. Relative to male patients, female patients reported less subjective sweating.Conclusion: Administration of oxybutynin successfully reduced excessive sweating in patients experiencing a major depressive disorder and treated with sertraline. However, possible gender effects should be taken into account

  11. Polyethylene glycol 3350 in occasional constipation: A one-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Mc Graw

    2016-01-01

    AIM:to evaluate the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol(PEG)3350 in subjects with self-reported occasional constipation.METHODS:Eligible subjects≥17 years of age were randomized to receive either placebo or PEG 335017 g once daily in this multicenter,double-blind trial.Evaluations were conducted before(baseline)and after a 7-d treatment period.The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of subjects reporting complete resolution of straining and hard or lumpy stools.Secondary efficacy variables assessed the severity of the subjects’daily bowel movement(BM)symptoms,and preference of laxatives based on diary entries,visual analog scale scores,and questionnaires.RESULTS:Of the 203 subjects enrolled in the study,11had major protocol violations.Complete resolution was noted by 36/98(36.7%)subjects in the PEG 3350 group and 23/94(24.5%)in the placebo group(P=0.0595).The number of complete BMs without straining or lumpy stools was similar between both groups.Subjects receiving PEG 3350 experienced significant relief in straining and reduction in hardness of stools over a7-d period(P<0.0001).Subjects reported that PEG3350 had a better effect on their daily lives,provided better control over a BM,better relief from constipation,cramping,and bloating,and was their preferred laxative.Adverse events(AEs)were balanced between the PEG3350 and the placebo groups.No deaths,serious AEs,or discontinuations due to AEs were reported.This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00770432.CONCLUSION:Oral administration of 17 g PEG3350 once daily for a week is effective,safe,and well tolerated in subjects with occasional constipation.

  12. Oxymatrine therapy for chronic hepatitis B: A randomized double-blind and placebo- controlled multi- center trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun-Gen Lu; Wei-Min She; Xiong Cai; Jun Ye; Xia-Qiu Zhou; Hui Wang; Sham-Ming Wu; Mei-Fang Tang; Jin-Shui Zhu; Wei-Xiong Chen; Hui-Quan Zhang; Min-De Zeng; Yi-Min Mao; Ji-Qiang Li; Mo-Bin Wan; Cheng-Zhong Li; Cheng-Wei Chen; Qing-Chun Fu; Ji-Yao Wang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of capsule oxymatrine in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.METHODS: A randomised double-blind and placebocontrolled multicenter trial was conducted. Injection of oxymatrine was used as positive-control drug. A total of 216 patients with chronic hepatitis B entered the study for 24 weeks, of them 108 received capsule oxymatrine, 36 received injection of oxymatrine, and 72 received placebo.After and before the treatment, clinical symptoms, liver function, serum hepatitis B virus markers, and adverse drug reaction were observed.RESULTS: Among the 216 patients, six were dropped off,and 11 inconsistent with the standard were excluded.Therefore, the efficacy and safety of oxymatrine in patients were analysed. In the capsule treated patients, 76.47 % became normal in ALT level, 38.61% and 31.91% became negative both in HBV DNA and in HBeAg. In the injection treated patients, 83.33 % became normal in ALT level,43.33 % and 39.29 % became negative both in HBV DNA and in HBeAg. In the placebo treated patients, 40.00 % became normal in ALT level, 7.46 % and 6.45 % became negative both in HBV DNA and in HBeAg. The rates of complete response and partial response were 24.51% and 57.84 % in the capsule treated patients, and 33.33 % and 50.00 % in the injection treated patients, and 2.99 % and 41.79 % in the placebo treated patients, respectively.There was no significance between the two groups of patients, but both were significantly higher than the placebo. The adverse drug reaction rates of the capsule,injection and placebo were 7.77 %, 6.67 % and 8.82 %,respectively. There was no statistically significant difference among them.CONCLUSION: Oxymatrine is an effective and safe agent for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

  13. Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial of Celecoxib for Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, Rajesh V.; Choquette, Linda E.; Curley, Kathleen F.; Dowsett, Robert J.; Feinn, Richard S.; Hegde, Upendra P.; Pilbeam, Carol C.; Salner, Andrew L.; Sonis, Stephen T.; Peterson, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Oral mucositis (OM) is a painful complication of radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (H&NC). OM can compromise nutrition, require opioid analgesics and hospitalization for pain control, and lead to treatment interruptions. Based on the role of inflammatory pathways in OM pathogenesis, we investigated effect of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition on severity and morbidity of OM. Methods In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 40 H&NC patients were randomized to daily use of 200 mg celecoxib or placebo, for the duration of RT. Clinical OM, normalcy of diet, pain scores, and analgesic use were assessed 2–3 times/week by blinded investigators during the 6–7 week RT period, using validated scales. Results Twenty subjects were randomized to each arm, which were similar with respect to tumor location, radiation dose, and concomitant chemotherapy. In both arms, mucositis and pain scores increased over course of RT. Intention-to-treat analyses demonstrated no significant difference in mean Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS) scores at 5000 cGy (primary endpoint). There was also no difference between the two arms in mean OMAS scores over the period of RT, mean worst pain scores, mean normalcy of diet scores, or mean daily opioid medication use in IV morphine equivalents. There were no adverse events attributed to celecoxib use. Conclusions Daily use of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, during period of RT for H&NC, did not reduce the severity of clinical OM, pain, dietary compromise or use of opioid analgesics. These findings also have implications for celecoxib use in H&NC treatment regimens (NCT00698204). PMID:25151488

  14. Role of intravenously administered hyoscine butyl bromide in retrograde terminal ileoscopy: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SP Misra; M Dwivedi

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluated the role of hyoscine butyl bromide in facilitating retrograde ileoscopy.METHODS:Retrograde terminal ileoscopy was attempted in 200 consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy. After intubation of the cecum and visualization of the ileocecal valve,butyl bromide injection or normal saline was given intravenously to the patients in a double blind random fashion. The pulse rate and oxygen saturation were measured continuously. After completion of the procedure,endoscopists were then asked to score the ease of intubation and the ease of visualization of the terminal ileum on a visual scale of 1 to 10. The patients were also asked to score the pain after receiving hyoscine butyl bromide injection on a score of 1 to 10.RESULTS:Terminal ileoscopy could be performed in 188 patients. The mean (SD) visual analogue score for the ease of intubation of the cecum was 7.4 (0.65) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.8) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) length of ileum visualized in the injection group was 14.4 (3.3) cm and 10.4 (2.7) cm in the placebo group (P<0.001). The mean (SD) visual analogue score for ease of visualization of the terminal ileum was 7.5 (0.69) in the injection group and 5.9 (0.7) in the placebo group (P<0.001). The pain score experienced by the patients was 6.5 (0.7) in the injection group and 6.7 (0.69) in the placebo group (P<0.008). Although the pulse rate increased significantly in patients receiving the drug,no statistically significant difference was noted in the oxygen saturation between the two groups either before or after administration of the drug. No complications were observed in either of the groups.CONCLUSION:Hyoscine butyl bromide injection is a useful adjunct in helping the intubation and visualizationof terminal ileum during colonoscopy.

  15. The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnood Abbasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nearly 50% of older adults have insomnia, with difficulty in getting to sleep, early awakening, or feeling unrefreshed on waking. With aging, several changes occur that can place one at risk for insomnia, including age-related changes in various circadian rhythms, environmental and lifestyle changes, and decreased nutrients intake, absorption, retention, and utilization. The natural N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA antagonist and GABA agonist, Mg 2+ , seems to play a key role in the regulation of sleep. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of magnesium supplementation to improve insomnia in elderly. Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted in 46 elderly subjects, randomly allocated into the magnesium or the placebo group and received 500 mg magnesium or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Questionnaires of insomnia severity index (ISI, physical activity, and sleep log were completed at baseline and after the intervention period. Anthropometric confounding factors, daily intake of magnesium, calcium, potassium, caffeine, calories form carbohydrates, and total calorie intake, were obtained using 24-h recall for 3 days. Blood samples were taken at baseline and after the intervention period for analysis of serum magnesium, renin, melatonin, and cortisol. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 19 and P values < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: No significant differences were observed in assessed variables between the two groups at the baseline. As compared to the placebo group, in the experimental group, dietary magnesium supplementation brought about statistically significant increases in sleep time ( P = 0.002, sleep efficiency ( P = 0.03, concentration of serum renin ( P < 0.001, and melatonin ( P = 0.007, and also resulted in significant decrease of ISI score ( P = 0.006, sleep onset latency ( P = 0.02 and serum cortisol concentration ( P = 0

  16. A pilot double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the efficacy of trace elements in the treatment of endometriosis-related pain: study design and methodology

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    Oberweis D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Didier Oberweis,1 Patrick Madelenat,2 Michelle Nisolle,3 Etienne Demanet4 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, CHU de Charleroi, Hôpital André Vésale, Montigny-le-Tilleul, Belgium; 2Private Consultation, Paris, France; 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, CHR Citadelle, Liège, 4Clinical Research Unit, Charleroi, Belgium Abstract: Endometriosis is one of the most common benign gynecological disorders, affecting almost 10%–15% of all women of reproductive age and >30% of infertile women. The pathology is associated with various distressing symptoms, particularly pelvic pain, which adversely affect patients' quality of life. It is an estrogen-dependent disease. There is evidence both in animals and in humans that metal ions can activate the estrogen receptors. They are defined as a variety of xenoestrogens, called metalloestrogens, which could act as endocrine disruptors. Therefore, it could be considered to act on this gynecological disorder using food supplements containing trace elements (ie, nutripuncture. The assumption is that they could modulate estrogen receptors and thus influence the tropism and the survival of cells involved in endometriosis. By a modulation of the antioxidant system, they might also interact with various parameters influencing tissue biochemistry. The objective of this article is to describe and discuss the design and methodology of an ongoing double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study aiming to evaluate the efficacy of metal trace elements on the reduction of pain and improvement of quality of life, in patients with a revised American Fertility Society Score Stages II–IV endometriosis, combined or not with adenomyosis, during a treatment period of 4 months. Trace elements or placebo is proposed in the absence of any other treatment or as an add-on to current therapies, such as sexual hormones, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and surgery. A placebo run-in period of one menstrual cycle or

  17. Acute effects of beer on endothelial function and haemodynamics: a single-blind, cross-over study in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Rontoyanni, Victoria G.; Protogerou, Athanase D.; Georgoulia, Aggeliki; Xenos, Konstantinos; Chrysou, John; Sfikakis, Petros P.; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Moderate consumption of beer is associated with lower cardiovascular (CV) risk. To explore the underlying mechanisms we studied the acute effects of the constituents of beer (alcohol and antioxidants), on established predictors of CV risk: endothelial function, aortic stiffness, pressure wave reflections and aortic pressure. Research Methods & Proceedures In a randomized, single – blind, cross - over study 17 healthy, non-smoking, volunteers (28.5±5.2 years and 24.4±2.5 BMI) consumed in 3 separate days, at least one week apart: a) 400 ml of beer & 400 ml water, b) 800 ml of dealcoholized beer (same amount of polyphenols), and c) 67 ml of vodka & 733 ml water (same amount of alcohol). Each time aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity, pressure wave reflections (Aix), aortic and brachial pressure (Sphygmocor device) and endothelial function (brachial flow mediated dilatation) were assessed at fast and 1 and 2 hours postprandial. Results Aortic stiffness was significantly and similarly reduced by all 3 interventions. However, endothelial function was significantly improved only after beer consumption (average of 1.33%, CI 0.15-2.53). Although wave reflections were significantly reduced by all 3 interventions (average of beer: 9.1%, dealcoholized beer: 2.8%, vodka 8.5%, all CI within limits of significance), the reduction was higher after beer consumption compared todealcoholized beer (p=0.018). Pulse pressure amplification (i.e. brachial/aortic) was increased by all 3 test drinks. Conclusions Beer improves acutely parameters of arterial function and structure, in healthy non-smokers. This benefit seems to be mediated by the additive or synergistic effects of alcohol and anti-oxidants and merits further investigation. PMID:23810643

  18. Synbiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and cellobiose does not affect human gut bacterial diversity but increases abundance of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and branched-chain fatty acids: a randomized, double-blinded cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Gabriella C; Krych, Lukasz; Röytiö, Henna; Forssten, Sofia; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren; Svensson, Birte; Jespersen, Lene; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2014-10-01

    Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is synbiotics, have been reported to modulate gut microbiota of humans. In this study, effects of a novel synbiotic on the composition and metabolic activity of human gut microbiota were investigated. Healthy volunteers (n = 18) were enrolled in a double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled cross-over study and received synbiotic [Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (10(9) CFU) and cellobiose (5 g)] or placebo daily for 3 weeks. Fecal samples were collected and lactobacilli numbers were quantified by qPCR. Furthermore, 454 tag-encoded amplicon pyrosequencing was used to monitor the effect of synbiotic on the composition of the microbiota. The synbiotic increased levels of Lactobacillus spp. and relative abundances of the genera Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, and Eubacterium while the genus Dialister was decreased (P < 0.05). No other effects were found on microbiota composition. Remarkably, however, the synbiotic increased concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, measured by gas chromatography, while short-chain fatty acids were not affected.

  19. Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Mikako

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular hydrogen has prominent effects on more than 30 animal models especially of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases. In addition, hydrogen effects on humans have been reported in diabetes mellitus type 2, hemodialysis, metabolic syndrome, radiotherapy for liver cancer, and brain stem infarction. Hydrogen effects are ascribed to specific radical-scavenging activities that eliminate hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite, and also to signal-modulating activities, but the detailed molecular mechanisms still remain elusive. Hydrogen is a safe molecule that is largely produced by intestinal bacteria in rodents and humans, and no adverse effects have been documented. Methods We performed open-label trial of drinking 1.0 liter per day of hydrogen-enriched water for 12 weeks in five patients with progressive muscular dystrophy (PMD, four patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM, and five patients with mitochondrial myopathies (MM, and measured 18 serum parameters as well as urinary 8-isoprostane every 4 weeks. We next conducted randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of 0.5 liter per day of hydrogen-enriched water or placebo water for 8 weeks in 10 patients with DM and 12 patients with MM, and measured 18 serum parameters every 4 weeks. Results In the open-label trial, no objective improvement or worsening of clinical symptoms was observed. We, however, observed significant effects in lactate-to-pyruvate ratios in PMD and MM, fasting blood glucose in PMD, serum matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3 in PM/DM, and serum triglycerides in PM/DM. In the double-blind trial, no objective clinical effects were observed, but a significant improvement was detected in lactate in MM. Lactate-to-pyruvate ratios in MM and MMP3 in DM also exhibited favorable responses but without statistical significance. No adverse effect was observed in either trial except for hypoglycemic episodes in an insulin

  20. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effects of caffeine and L-theanine both alone and in combination on cerebral blood flow, cognition and mood

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Rationale -Evidence suggests interactive effects of the tea components caffeine and L-theanine on behaviour, yet no data exists exploring the impact of the two on cerebral blood flow (CBF).\\ud \\ud Objectives - The current placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover study examined the effects of caffeine and L-theanine on CBF and extended previous cognitive and mood findings by using lower doses than previous studies of a similar methodology, which more closely reflect the rat...

  1. Linking vitamin D status, executive functioning and self-perceived mental health in adolescents through multivariate analysis: A randomized double-blind placebo control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grung, Bjørn; Sandvik, Asle M; Hjelle, Kay; Dahl, Lisbeth; Frøyland, Livar; Nygård, Irene; Hansen, Anita L

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present randomized double-blind placebo control trial was to investigate if vitamin D supplementation had an effect on vitamin D status, executive functioning and self-perceived mental health in a group of Norwegian adolescents during winter time. Fifty adolescents were randomly assigned into an intervention group (vitamin D pearls) or a control group (placebo pearls). Before (pre-test in December/January) and after (post-test in April/May) the intervention period the participants were exposed to a test procedure, consisting of blood draw, completion of cognitive tests (Tower of Hanoi and Tower of London), and the Youth Self-report version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Multivariate data analysis showed that participants with low vitamin D status scored worse on the Tower of London tests and the more difficult sub-tasks on the Tower of Hanoi tests. They also had a tendency to report higher frequency of externalizing behavior problems and attention deficit. At pre-test, the overall mean vitamin D status measured as 25-hydroxy vitamin D was 42 nmol/L, defining deficiency (Intervention group = 44 nmol/L, Control group = 39 nmol/L). However, vitamin D supplementation caused a significant increase in vitamin D status resulting in a sufficient level in the Intervention group at post-test (mean 62 nmol/L). The results also revealed that the intervention group improved their performance on the most demanding sub-tasks on the ToH. Overall, the study indicates that vitamin D status in adolescents may be important for both executive functioning and mental health.

  2. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise-induced apoptosis in athletes: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Creatine monohydrate (CrM has been shown to be beneficial to health due to its antioxidant potential. Strenuous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, which could lead to apoptosis. We investigated the ability of CrM in amelioration of apoptosis induced by incremental aerobic exercise (AE to exhaustion in young athletes. Materials and Methods: In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 31 young athletes (age 19.52 ± 2.75 years, body mass 79.24 ± 16.13 kg, height 1.73 ± 6.49 m, body fat 16.37% ± 5.92% were randomly assigned to CrM (4 × 5 g/day, n = 15 or placebo (PL: 4 × 5 g/day of maltodextrine powder; n = 16 to investigate the effect of 7 days CrM on serum p53 and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 concentration after acute incremental AE test to exhaustion. Subjects performed AE before (test 1 and after 7 days of supplementation (test 2. Results: Before supplementation, AE to exhaustion induced a significant increase in serum p53 and IGF-1 concentrations at both CrM and PL groups (P 0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation with CrM prevents apoptosis, as measured by decreases in p53 concentration, induced by AE to exhaustion in young athletes. However, CrM had no effect on IGF-1 concentration after AE to exhaustion in young athletes.

  3. Application of the essential oil from copaiba (Copaifera langsdori Desf.) for acne vulgaris: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ary Gomes; Puziol, Paula de Freitas; Leitao, Roane Nunes; Gomes, Tatiana Rafaela; Scherer, Rodrigo; Martins, Monica Lacerda Lopes; Cavalcanti, Aurea Scardua Saade; Cavalcanti, Luiz Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Copaiba oil-resin is widely used in traditional medicine due to its anti-inflammatory, healing, and antiseptic activities. This research aims to extract and evaluate the qualitative and quantitative composition of copaiba essential oil from the oil-resin, and test its effects, after incorporation in a gel applied in volunteers with acne, in a double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. The essential oil was extracted by steam distillation, and purified by freezing to remove the residual remnant water. The density of the essential oil was gravimetrically determined by weighing 1 mL of liquid at 20 degree C. The identification of the essential oil components was carried out through high-resolution gas chromatography analysis, coupled with mass spectrometry. The essential oil has a density of 0.9175 mg/mL and was composed of 48 substances, 14 of which were the major components representing 95.80% of total essential oil composition. Cis-thujopsene was the main component (46.96% of total essential oil composition). The surface affected with acne decreased when treated with placebo (F = 13.931, p = 0.001, r = 0.518; r2 = 0.268), but the linear model could explain only 26.8% of total variance in original data matrix. There was a highly significant decrease in the surface affected with acne in the areas treated with the 1.0% copaiba essential oil preparation (F = 86.494, p = 0.000, r = 0.834; r2 = 0.695).

  4. Recovery of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in tonsil tissue after oral administration: randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpu, Minna; Swanljung, Elisa; Tynkkynen, Soile; Hatakka, Katja; Kekkonen, Riina A; Järvenpää, Salme; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2013-06-28

    The present randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine whether consumption of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) would lead to the recovery of GG in tonsil tissue. After 3 weeks’ daily consumption of GG as a single strain (n 20), GG as a part of a multispecies combination (n 17) or placebo (n 20), tonsil tissue samples were collected from fifty-seven young adults during tonsillectomy due to chronic or recurrent tonsillitis. Strain-specific real-time PCR was used to detect GG in the tonsil tissue. GG was recovered in the tonsil sample of 40% of the subjects in the GG group, 41% in the multispecies group and 30% in the placebo group (P value between groups 0.79). In all subjects with positive recovery of GG in the tonsil tissue, GG was also recovered in the faecal sample taken at the start of the intervention and at the time of the tissue sample collection, which indicates more persistent adherence of the probiotic. To conclude, GG can be recovered from tonsil tissue after oral administration as a singlestrain probiotic or as a part of a multispecies probiotic combination. The present results suggest that individual variation exists in the ability of GG to adhere to tonsil tissue. Persistence of GG appears to be high in tonsil tissue as well, in addition to persistence in faecal samples, which has been demonstrated previously. Further clinical trials are warranted to evaluate whether probiotic adherence in the tonsil tissue could have a role in respiratory symptom prevalence.

  5. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Topical Ethyl Vanillate in Enhancing the Effect of Narrow Band Ultraviolet B against Vitiligo: A Double Blind Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Mohammad Reza Namazi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an acquired disease of skin that presents with depigmented patches due to lack of melanocytes in the epidermis. Accumulation of toxic free radicals like hydrogen peroxide in the epidermis may be responsible for melanocytes death. Since ethyl vanillate (vanillic acid ethyl ester is a strong hydrogen peroxide scavenger, it may be effective against vitiligo. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of ethyl vanillate cream on vitiligo patients receiving phototherapy. Methods: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial using ethyl vanillate cream 20% was performed on 30 cases of generalized stable vitiligo (randomly selected who were receiving phototherapy in the outpatient clinic of Faghihi Hospital (Shiraz, Iran. The patients randomly applied ethyl vanillate on an assigned lesion (left or right side of the body and placebo on the opposite side lesion (almost the same size and location twice a day for 3 months, while receiving a narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB 2-3 times weekly. Photos were taken at the beginning of the trial and at the end of 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks. Then, images were compared with the photos from the beginning of the trial based on VASI score. Results: There was a significant change in pigmentation after applying ethyl vanillate compared with baseline in medication side (P=0.002, but no significant change in placebo side (P=0.066. Additionally, there was a significant difference between medication and placebo sides in pigmentation (P=0.005. Conclusion: Ethyl vanillate may serve as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of vitiligo, although changes in pigmentation are mild clinically.

  6. The effect of oxcarbazepine in peripheral neuropathic pain depends on pain phenotype: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phenotype-stratified study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demant, Dyveke T; Lund, Karen; Vollert, Jan; Maier, Christoph; Segerdahl, Märtha; Finnerup, Nanna B; Jensen, Troels S; Sindrup, Søren H

    2014-11-01

    In neuropathic pain it has been suggested that pain phenotype based on putative pain mechanisms may predict response to treatment. This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and phenotype-stratified study with 2 6-week treatment periods of oxcarbazepine (1800-2400mg) and placebo. The primary efficacy measure was change in median pain intensity between baseline and the last week of treatment measured on an 11-point numeric rating scale, and the primary objective was to compare the effect of oxcarbazepine in patients with and without the irritable nociceptor phenotype as defined by hypersensitivity and preserved small nerve fibre function determined by detailed quantitative sensory testing. Ninety-seven patients with peripheral neuropathic pain due to polyneuropathy, surgical or traumatic nerve injury, or postherpetic neuralgia were randomised. The intention-to-treat population comprised 83 patients: 31 with the irritable and 52 with the nonirritable nociceptor phenotype. In the total sample, oxcarbazepine relieved pain of 0.7 points (on a numeric rating scale 0-10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4-1.4) more than placebo (P=0.015) and there was a significant interaction between treatment and phenotype of 0.7 (95% CI 0.01-1.4, P=0.047). The number needed to treat to obtain one patient with more than 50% pain relief was 6.9 (95% CI 4.2-22) in the total sample, 3.9 (95% CI 2.3-12) in the irritable, and 13 (95% CI 5.3-∞) in the nonirritable nociceptor phenotype. In conclusion, oxcarbazepine is more efficacious for relief of peripheral neuropathic pain in patients with the irritable vs the nonirritable nociceptor phenotype.

  7. A single dose of preoperative gabapentin for pain reduction and requirement of morphine after total mastectomy and axillary dissection: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial

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    Grover V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Gabapentin has been recently found to be useful for reducing acute postoperative pain when administered preoperatively. Although various dose regimens have been tried in different surgical settings, the minimum effective dose is not established. Aims : We aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of single low dose gabapentin in patients undergoing total mastectomy and axillary dissection. Settings and Design : Prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods : Fifty women scheduled for total mastectomy and axillary dissection were randomized to receive either gabapentin 600 mg or placebo orally 1 h preoperatively. The intraoperative and postoperative management was standardized. Postoperative pain was assessed at rest and on movement for 12 h using the numerical rating scale (NRS. Morphine was administered if NRS exceeded 30. Primary outcome measure was total morphine consumption. Statistical Analysis : The morphine consumption was compared using independent t test while pain and sedation scores were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results : Forty-six patients completed the trial. The postoperative morphine consumption was significantly less (5.8 ± 4.2 vs. 11.0 ± 3.4 mg; P 〈 0.001 and the median [IQR] time to first analgesic was significantly longer (90 [37.5-120] vs. 0 [0-90] min; P 〈 0.001 in the gabapentin group than in the placebo group. The incidence of side effects was similar in the two groups. Conclusions : A single low dose of 600 mg gabapentin administered 1 h prior to surgery produced effective and significant postoperative analgesia after total mastectomy and axillary dissection without significant side effects.

  8. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of tolperisone in spasticity following cerebral stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenova, P; Koytchev, R; Kuhn, K; Hansen, C; Horvath, F; Ramm, S; Pongratz, D

    2005-06-01

    To study the efficacy and safety of tolperisone - a centrally acting muscle relaxant with membrane stabilizing activity - in the treatment of stroke-related spasticity. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study with parallel groups. Treatment lasted 12 weeks and was started with a titration period of variable length (dose range 300-900 mg tolperisone daily). The degree of spasticity determined on the Ashworth Scale in the most severely affected joint area was defined as primary target parameter. Hundred and twenty patients (43 females, 77 males) in a mean age of 63.3 +/- 10.6 years were recruited and received treatment. In the majority of patients both limbs of each side (right: n = 59; left: n = 56) were affected by the spasticity which on average had been present for 3.3 +/- 4.4 years. A 62% of the patients were treated with a daily dose >/=600 mg tolperisone. Tolperisone reduced the mean Ashworth Score by a mean of 1.03 +/- 0.71 compared with a mean reduction of 0.47 +/- 0.54 in the placebo group (P tolperisone versus 45% of the placebo patients experienced a reduction by at least 1 point on the Ashworth Scale (P tolperisone. Adverse events occurred less often on active treatment (n = 19) than on placebo (n = 26) and were mostly of mild-to-moderate intensity. No withdrawals caused by adverse events were reported in the tolperisone group. The findings of the present study demonstrate the efficacy and excellent tolerance of tolperisone in the treatment of spastic hypertonia following cerebral stroke. Study data further suggest that an individual dose titration which may exceed the recommended maximum dose of 450 mg daily results in optimized therapeutic benefit.

  9. Topical insulin accelerates wound healing in diabetes by enhancing the AKT and ERK pathways: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H M Lima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wound healing is impaired in diabetes mellitus, but the mechanisms involved in this process are virtually unknown. Proteins belonging to the insulin signaling pathway respond to insulin in the skin of rats. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the regulation of the insulin signaling pathway in wound healing and skin repair of normal and diabetic rats, and, in parallel, the effect of a topical insulin cream on wound healing and on the activation of this pathway. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated insulin signaling by immunoblotting during wound healing of control and diabetic animals with or without topical insulin. Diabetic patients with ulcers were randomized to receive topical insulin or placebo in a prospective, double-blind and placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial (NCT 01295177 of wound healing. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Expression of IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, SHC, ERK, and AKT are increased in the tissue of healing wounds compared to intact skin, suggesting that the insulin signaling pathway may have an important role in this process. These pathways were attenuated in the wounded skin of diabetic rats, in parallel with an increase in the time of complete wound healing. Upon topical application of insulin cream, the wound healing time of diabetic animals was normalized, followed by a reversal of defective insulin signal transduction. In addition, the treatment also increased expression of other proteins, such as eNOS (also in bone marrow, VEGF, and SDF-1α in wounded skin. In diabetic patients, topical insulin cream markedly improved wound healing, representing an attractive and cost-free method for treating this devastating complication of diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01295177.

  10. Effect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir on glycemic control and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

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    Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a global health problem in the world. Probiotic food has anti-diabetic property. The aim of this trial was to determine the effect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir on glucose and lipid profile control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 diabetic patients aged 35 to 65 years.Patients were randomly and equally (n=30 assigned to consume either probiotic fermented milk (kefir or conventional fermented milk (dough for 8 weeks. Probiotic group consumed 600 ml/day probiotic fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria and control group consumed 600 ml/day conventional fermented milk.Blood samples tested for fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C at the baseline and end of the study.The comparison of fasting blood glucose between two groups after intervention was statistically significant (P=0.01. After intervention, reduced HbA1C compared with the baseline value in probiotic fermented milk group was statistically significant (P=0.001, also the HbA1C level significantly decreased in probiotic group in comparison with control group (P=0.02 adjusting for serum levels of glucose, baseline values of HbA1c and energy intake according to ANCOVA model. Serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL- cholesterol levels were not shown significant differences between and within the groups after intervention.Probiotic fermented milk can be useful as a complementary or adjuvant therapy in the treatment of diabetes.

  11. Do formulation differences alter abuse liability of methylphenidate? A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover study in recreational drug users.

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    Parasrampuria, Dolly A; Schoedel, Kerri A; Schuller, Reinhard; Silber, Steven A; Ciccone, Patrick E; Gu, Joan; Sellers, Edward M

    2007-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if the abuse liability of methylphenidate is governed by formulation differences that affect rates of drug delivery. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study, subjects with a history of recreational drug use received single oral doses of placebo, 60 mg of immediate-release methylphenidate (IR) and 108 mg of extended-release methylphenidate (osmotic release oral system [OROS]). Over 24 hours after dosing, blood was collected to determine plasma concentrations of methylphenidate, and subjects completed subjective assessments of abuse liability (Addiction Research Center Inventory, Drug Rating Questionnaire-Subject, and Subjective Drug Value). The abuse-related subjective effects of IR and OROS methylphenidate were statistically significantly different from placebo, confirming the overall validity of the study. Although a higher dose of OROS methylphenidate was used compared with IR methylphenidate (108 mg vs 60 mg), subjective effects were consistently lower for OROS compared with IR methylphenidate (statistically significant for 3 of 6 measures of positive effects), particularly at early time points. In general, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters were correlated from a poor to modest degree, with greater correlations observed for IR methylphenidate. In addition, a post hoc "qualification" method was developed, which demonstrated that pharmacological qualification might improve the assessment of subjective effects. Although requiring epidemiological confirmation, the results suggest that OROS methylphenidate, with its characteristic slow ascending plasma concentration profile, may have lower abuse potential. This conclusion is reflected by lower subjective responses during early hours as compared with the IR formulation with its rapid drug delivery and accompanying greater subjective effects.

  12. Effect of intravenous GLutamine supplementation IN Trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition study protocol (GLINT Study): a prospective, blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

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    Al Balushi, Ruqaiya M; Paratz, Jennifer D; Cohen, Jeremy; Banks, Merrilyn; Dulhunty, Joel; Roberts, Jason A; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background Trauma patients are characterised by alterations in the immune system, increased exposure to infectious complications, sepsis and potentially organ failure and death. Glutamine supplementation to parenteral nutrition has been proven to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, glutamine supplementation in patients receiving enteral nutrition and its best route are still controversial. Previous trials have been limited by a small sample size, use of surrogate outcomes or a limited period of supplementation. The aim of this trial is to investigate if intravenous glutamine supplementation to trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition is associated with improved clinical outcomes in terms of decreased organ dysfunction, infectious complications and other secondary outcomes. Methods/design Eighty-eight critically ill patients with multiple trauma receiving enteral nutrition will be recruited in this prospective, triple-blind, block-randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial to receive either 0.5 g/kg/day intravenous undiluted alanyl-glutamine or intravenous placebo by continuous infusion (24 h/day). Both groups will be receiving the same standard enteral nutrition protocol and the same standard intensive care unit care. Supplementation will continue until discharge from the intensive care unit, death or a maximum duration of 3 weeks. The primary outcome will be organ-dysfunction evaluation assessed by the pattern of change in sequential organ failure assessment score over a 10-day period. The secondary outcomes are: the changes in total sequential organ failure assessment score on the last day of treatment, infectious complications during the ICU stay, 60-day mortality, length of stay in the intensive care unit and body-composition analysis. Discussion This study is the first trial to investigate the effect of intravenous alanyl-glutamine supplementation in multiple trauma patients receiving enteral nutrition on reducing severity of organ

  13. Vitamin D and aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS): a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

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    Rastelli, Antonella L; Taylor, Marie E; Gao, Feng; Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Jamalabadi-Majidi, Shohreh; Napoli, Nicola; Ellis, Matthew J

    2011-08-01

    A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized phase II trial was performed to determine whether High Dose Vitamin D2 supplementation (HDD) in women receiving adjuvant anastrozole improves aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS) and bone loss. Patients with early breast cancer and AIMSS were stratified according to their baseline 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) level. Stratum A (20-29 ng/ml) received either HDD 50,000 IU capsules weekly for 8 weeks then monthly for 4 months or placebo. Stratum B (10-19 ng/ml) received either HDD for 16 weeks and then monthly for 2 months, or placebo. AIMSS was assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured at baseline and at 6 months. The primary endpoint of the study was the change-from-baseline musculoskeletal pain. The secondary endpoint was the percent change in BMD at 6 months. Sixty women were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the groups. At 2 months, FIQ pain (P = 0.0045), BPI worst-pain (P = 0.04), BPI average-pain (P = 0.0067), BPI pain-severity (P = 0.04), and BPI interference (P = 0.034) scores were better in the HDD than placebo group. The positive effect of HDD on AIMSS was stronger across all time points in Stratum B than Stratum A (FIQ pain, P = 0.04; BPI average, P = 0.03; BPI severity, P = 0.03; BPI interference, P = 0.04). BMD at the femoral neck decreased in the placebo and did not change in the HDD group (P = 0.06). Weekly HDD improves AIMSS and may have a positive effect on bone health. Vitamin D supplementation strategies for breast cancer patients on AI should be further investigated.

  14. Diabetes Health, Residence & Metabolism in Asians: the DHRMA study, research into foods from the Indian subcontinent - a blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial

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    Patel Jeetesh V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary heart disease (CHD is highly prevalent amongst the South Asian communities in Britain. The reasons for this excess CHD risk are multifactorial, but in part relate to a susceptibility to diabetes mellitus - where the aberrant metabolism of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and glucose are likely to underpin vascular disease in this population. Dietary intervention is an important and first line approach to manage increased CHD risk. However, there is limited information on the impact of the South Asian diet on CHD risk. Methods/Design The Diabetes Health, Residence & Metabolism in Asians (DHRMA study is a blinded, randomised, placebo controlled trial that analyses the efficacy of reduced glycaemic index (GI staples of the South Asian diet, in relation to cardio-metabolic risk factors that are commonly perturbed amongst South Asian populations - primarily glucose, fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism and central adiposity. Using a 10-week dietary intervention study, 50 healthy South Asians will be randomised to receive either a DHRMA (reduced GI supply of chapatti (bread, stone ground, high protein wheat flour and white basmati rice (high bran, unpolished or commercially available (leading brand versions chapatti wheat flour and basmati rice. Volunteers will be asked to complete a 75g oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and at 10-weeks follow-up, where blood metabolites and hormones, blood pressure and anthropometry will also be assessed in a standardised manner. Discussion It is anticipated that the information collected from this study help develop healthy diet options specific (but not exclusive for South Asian ethnic communities. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02839188

  15. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sublingual immunotherapy in children with house dust mite allergy in primary care: study design and recruitment

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    de Jongste Johan C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For respiratory allergic disorders in children, sublingual immunotherapy has been developed as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy is more convenient, has a good safety profile and might be an attractive option for use in primary care. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was designed to establish the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen compared to placebo treatment in 6 to18-year-old children with allergic rhinitis and a proven house dust mite allergy in primary care. Described here are the methodology, recruitment phases, and main characteristics of the recruited children. Methods Recruitment took place in September to December of 2005 and 2006. General practitioners (in south-west Netherlands selected children who had ever been diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. Children and parents could respond to a postal invitation. Children who responded positively were screened by telephone using a nasal symptom score. After this screening, an inclusion visit took place during which a blood sample was taken for the RAST test. Results A total of 226 general practitioners invited almost 6000 children: of these, 51% was male and 40% Conclusion Our study was designed in accordance with recent recommendations for research on establishing the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy; 98% of the target sample size was achieved. This study is expected to provide useful information on sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen in primary care. The results on efficacy and safety are expected to be available by 2010. Trial registration the trial is registered as ISRCTN91141483 (Dutch Trial Register

  16. A prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind study of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar at donor site of skin grafting

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    Ravi Kumar Chittoria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic scarring at donor site of skin grafting is prevalent among Asians. The effectiveness of silicone gel in scar prevention may influence the surgeons and patients regarding its routine use during the postoperative period. Aims and Objectives: To study the efficacy of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scars at donor site of skin grafting. Design: Prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind study. Setting: The study was conducted in the department of Plastic Surgery, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences (SVIMS University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India from June 2007 to June 2009. Patients were recruited during follow-up in the OPD. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility to scar development varied among patients; therefore, donor site scars were divided into upper half and lower half. Two types of coded gel prepared by an independent pharmacist were used on either half. Thus, selection and assessment biases and confounders were eliminated. Results: 100 scars in 50 patients were randomized into two arms, 50 control and 50 silicone gel. The median age was 25.5 years and there were 30 men (60% and 20 women (40%. Thirty-seven patients (74% had good compliance. The overall incidence of donor site hypertrophic scar was 94% (47 out of 50. At the second month postoperatively, the silicone gel scars were scored lower when compared with the control scars. The differences were statistically significant in all parameters, including pigmentation ( P = 0.001, Vascularity ( P = 0.010, pliability ( P = 0.001, and height ( P = 0.010. Conclusion: The effect of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar development in donor site scars is promising. Success of silicone gel in its prophylactic role will create its routine use in all types of surgery to minimize the formation of hypertrophic scars in the early postoperative period.

  17. Correction of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients - VITdAL@ICU study protocol of a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

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    Amrein Karin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality in the general population and in critically ill patients. However, no randomized controlled trial has evaluated so far whether treatment with sufficiently large doses of vitamin D can improve clinical outcome of patients in an intensive care setting. Methods/design The VITdAL@ICU trial is an investigator-initiated, non-commercial, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. This study compares high-dose oral cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 versus placebo treatment in a mixed population of 480 critically ill patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels at study enrollment (≤ 20ng/ml. Following an initial loading dose of 540,000 IU of vitamin D3, patients receive 90,000 IU of vitamin D3 on a monthly basis for 5 months. The study is designed to compare clinical outcome in the two study arms with the primary endpoint being length of hospital stay. Secondary endpoints include among others length of ICU stay, the percentage of patients with 25(OHD levels > 30 ng/ml at day 7, ICU and hospital mortality and duration of mechanical ventilation. We describe here the VITdAL@ICU study protocol for the primary report. Discussion This trial is designed to evaluate whether high-dose vitamin D3 is able to improve morbidity and mortality in a mixed population of adult critically ill patients and correct vitamin D deficiency safely. Trial registration ClinicalTrials: NCT01130181

  18. Multivitamin supplementation in HIV infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: the protocol for a randomized double blinded placebo controlled efficacy trial

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    Guwatudde David

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of multivitamin supplements during the pre-HAART era has been found to reduce viral load, enhance immune response, and generally improve clinical outcomes among HIV-infected adults. However, immune reconstitution is incomplete and significant mortality and opportunistic infections occur in spite of HAART. There is insufficient research information on whether multivitamin supplementation may be beneficial as adjunct therapy for HIV-infected individuals taking HAART. We propose to evaluate the efficacy of a single recommended daily allowance (RDA of micronutrients (including vitamins B-complex, C, and E in slowing disease progression among HIV-infected adults receiving HAART in Uganda. Methods/Design We are using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial study design. Eligible patients are HIV-positive adults aged at least 18 years, and are randomized to receive either a placebo; or multivitamins that include a single RDA of the following vitamins: 1.4 mg B1, 1.4 mg B2, 1.9 mg B6, 2.6 mcg B12, 18 mg niacin, 70 mg C, 10 mg E, and 0.4 mg folic acid. Participants are followed for up to 18 months with evaluations at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. The study is primarily powered to examine the effects on immune reconstitution, weight gain, and quality of life. In addition, we will examine the effects on other secondary outcomes including the risks of development of new or recurrent disease progression event, including all-cause mortality; ARV regimen change from first- to second-line therapy; and other adverse events as indicated by incident peripheral neuropathy, severe anemia, or diarrhea. Discussions The conduct of this trial provides an opportunity to evaluate the potential benefits of this affordable adjunct therapy (multivitamin supplementation among HIV-infected adults receiving HAART in a developing country setting. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique

  19. Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users.

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    Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P; Schafer, Grainne; Gardener, Chelsea; Das, Ravi K; Morgan, Celia J A; Curran, H Valerie

    2015-03-01

    Acute administration of the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), impairs human facial affect recognition, implicating the endocannabinoid system in emotional processing. Another main constituent of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), has seemingly opposite functional effects on the brain. This study aimed to determine the effects of THC and CBD, both alone and in combination on emotional facial affect recognition. 48 volunteers, selected for high and low frequency of cannabis use and schizotypy, were administered, THC (8mg), CBD (16mg), THC+CBD (8mg+16mg) and placebo, by inhalation, in a 4-way, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. They completed an emotional facial affect recognition task including fearful, angry, happy, sad, surprise and disgust faces varying in intensity from 20% to 100%. A visual analogue scale (VAS) of feeling 'stoned' was also completed. In comparison to placebo, CBD improved emotional facial affect recognition at 60% emotional intensity; THC was detrimental to the recognition of ambiguous faces of 40% intensity. The combination of THC+CBD produced no impairment. Relative to placebo, both THC alone and combined THC+CBD equally increased feelings of being 'stoned'. CBD did not influence feelings of 'stoned'. No effects of frequency of use or schizotypy were found. In conclusion, CBD improves recognition of emotional facial affect and attenuates the impairment induced by THC. This is the first human study examining the effects of different cannabinoids on emotional processing. It provides preliminary evidence that different pharmacological agents acting upon the endocannabinoid system can both improve and impair recognition of emotional faces.

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of a tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy adults in India: A randomized, observer-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial.

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    Dubey, Anand Prakash; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Narayan, Arun; Ganguly, Satyabrata; Wartel, T Anh; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Menezes, Josemund

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic in India. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of recombinant, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) in Indian adults. In this observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase II study, adults aged 18-45 years were randomized 2:1 to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6 and 12 months in sub-cutaneous administration. Immunogenicity was assessed using a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50) at baseline and 28 days after each study injection. 189 participants were enrolled (CYD-TDV [n = 128]; placebo, [n = 61]). At baseline, seropositivity rates for dengue serotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 ranged from 77.0% to 86.9%. Seropositivity rates for each serotype increased after each CYD-TDV injection with a more pronounced increase after the first injection. In the CYD-TDV group, geometric mean titres (GMTs) were 2.38 to 6.11-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline but remained similar to baseline in the placebo group. In the CYD-TDV group, the GMTs were 1.66 to 4.95-fold higher and 9.23 to 24.6-fold higher after the third injection compared with baseline in those who were dengue seropositive and dengue seronegative, respectively. Pain was the most commonly reported solicited injection site reaction after the first injection in both the CYD-TDV (6.3%) and placebo groups (4.9%), but occurred less frequently after subsequent injections. No serious adverse events were vaccine-related, no immediate unsolicited adverse events, and no virologically-confirmed cases of dengue, were reported during the study. The immunogenicity and safety of CYD-TDV was satisfactory in both dengue seropositive and seronegative Indian adults.

  1. Effects of low-level laser therapy applied before or after plyometric exercise on muscle damage markers: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

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    Fritsch, Carolina Gassen; Dornelles, Maurício Pinto; Severo-Silveira, Lucas; Marques, Vanessa Bernardes; Rosso, Isabele de Albuquerque; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2016-12-01

    Promising effects of phototherapy on markers of exercise-induced muscle damage has been already demonstrated in constant load or isokinetic protocols. However, its effects on more functional situations, such as plyometric exercises, and when is the best moment to apply this treatment (pre- or post-exercise) remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) before or after plyometric exercise on quadriceps muscle damage markers. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 24 healthy men, 12 at pre-exercise treatment group and 12 at post-exercise treatment group. Placebo and LLLT (810 nm, 200 mW per diode, 6 J per diode, 240 J per leg) were randomly applied on right/left knee extensor muscles of each volunteer before/after a plyometric exercise protocol. Muscular echo intensity (ultrasonography images), soreness (visual analogue scale - VAS), and strength impairment (maximal voluntary contraction - MVC) were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise. Legs treated with LLLT before or after exercise presented significantly smaller increments of echo intensity (values up to 1 %) compared to placebo treatments (increased up to ∼7 %). No significant treatment effect was found for VAS and MVC, although a trend toward better results on LLLT legs have been found for VAS (mean values up to 30 % lesser than placebo leg). In conclusion, LLLT applied before or after plyometric exercise reduces the muscle echo intensity response and possibly attenuates the muscle soreness. However, these positive results were not observed on strength impairment.

  2. The efficacy of Shugan Jianpi Zhixie therapy for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

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    Ya Xiao

    Full Text Available Shugan Jianpi Zhixie therapy (SJZT has been widely used to treat diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D, but the results are still controversial. A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials was performed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of SJZT for IBS-D.The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database and the Wanfang database were searched up to June 2014 with no language restrictions. Summary estimates, including 95% confidence intervals (CI, were calculated for global symptom improvement, abdominal pain improvement, and Symptom Severity Scale (BSS score.Seven trials (N=954 were included. The overall risk of bias assessment was low. SJZT showed significant improvement for global symptom compared to placebo (RR 1.61; 95% CI 1.24, 2.10; P =0.0004; therapeutic gain = 33.0%; number needed to treat (NNT = 3.0. SJZT was significantly more likely to reduce overall BSS score (SMD -0.67; 95% CI -0.94, -0.40; P < 0.00001 and improve abdominal pain (RR 4.34; 95% CI 2.64, 7.14; P < 0.00001 than placebo. The adverse events of SJZT were no different from those of placebo.This meta-analysis suggests that SJZT is an effective and safe therapy option for patients with IBS-D. However, due to the high clinical heterogeneity and small sample size of the included trials, further standardized preparation, large-scale and rigorously designed trials are needed.

  3. The effect of continuous ultrasound on chronic non-specific low back pain: a single blind placebo-controlled randomized trial

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    Ebadi Safoora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders around the world including Iran. One of the most widely used modalities in the field of physiotherapy is therapeutic ultrasound (US. Despite its common use, there is still inconclusive evidence to support its effectiveness in patients with NSCLBP. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of continuous US compared with placebo US additional to exercise therapy for patients with NSCLBP. Methods In this single blind placebo controlled study, 50 patients with NSCLBP were randomized into two treatment groups: 1 continuous US (1 MHz &1.5 W/cm2 plus exercise 2 placebo US plus exercise. Patients received treatments for 4 weeks, 10 treatment sessions, 3 times per week, every other day. Treatment effects were assessed in terms of primary outcome measures: 1 functional disability, measured by Functional Rating Index, and 2 global pain, measured by a visual analog scale. Secondary outcome measures were lumbar flexion and extension range of motion (ROM, endurance time and rate of decline in median frequency of electromyography spectrum during a Biering Sorensen test. All outcome variables were measured before, after treatment, and after one-month follow-up. An intention to treat analysis was performed. Main effects of Time and Group as well as their interaction effect on outcome measures were investigated using repeated measure ANOVA. Results Analysis showed that both groups had improved regarding function (FRI and global pain (VAS (P .05. Improvement in function and lumbar ROM as well as endurance time were significantly greater in the group receiving continuous US (P Conclusions The study showed that adding continuous US to a semi supervised exercise program significantly improved function, lumbar ROM and endurance time. Further studies including a third group of only exercise and no US can establish the possible effects of

  4. Analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of melatonin in a human inflammatory pain model: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm crossover study.

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    Andersen, Lars P H; Gögenur, Ismail; Fenger, Andreas Q; Petersen, Marian C; Rosenberg, Jacob; Werner, Mads U

    2015-11-01

    Antinociceptive effects of melatonin have been documented in a wide range of experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic, antihyperalgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin using a validated burn injury (BI) model in healthy male volunteers. The design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm crossover study. Each volunteer participated in 3 identical study sessions with intravenous administration of placebo, melatonin 10 mg, or melatonin 100 mg. Sixty minutes after bolus injection of study medication, a BI was induced by a computerized contact thermode (47.0°C, 420 seconds, 5.0 × 2.5 cm). Pain ratings during the BI and quantitative sensory testing at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the BI were performed. Quantitative sensory testing included assessments of secondary hyperalgesia areas, mechanical and thermal thresholds in the BI area, and pressure algometry. Furthermore, markers of inflammation, skin-reflectance spectrophotometry, and high-resolution ultrasonography were applied to measure skin erythema and dermal thickness in the BI area. Pain during the BI and secondary hyperalgesia areas were defined as primary outcomes. Twenty-nine volunteers were randomized and completed the study. While the BI induced large secondary hyperalgesia areas and significantly increased the markers of inflammation, no significant effects of melatonin were observed with respect to primary or secondary outcomes, compared with placebo. The administration of melatonin was not associated with any adverse effects. Melatonin did not demonstrate any analgesic, antihyperalgesic, or anti-inflammatory properties in the BI model.

  5. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial on the management of post-infective cough by inhaled ipratropium and salbutamol administered in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Lecchi, Marzia; Del Forno, Manuela; Fabbri, Elisa; Mastroroberto, Marianna; Mazzolini, Massimiliano; Pisani, Lara; Pandolfi, Paolo; Nava, Stefano; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria

    2014-12-01

    Post-viral cough is a type of cough originating from upper respiratory tract infections that persists after the infection is resolved. Although it was hypothesized that bronchodilators might have a role in the management of post-viral cough, a clear demonstration of their efficacy is missing. Therefore, we tested the efficacy of a combination of a β-agonist and an anticholinergic agent in reducing post-viral cough with a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. Patients were treated for 10 days with either a nebulized combination of salbutamol 1.875 mg/0.5 mL and ipratropium bromide 0.375 mg/0.5 mL, or a placebo, and followed up for another 10 days. Daytime and nighttime cough severity and spirometry testing were assessed before starting treatment, after 10 and 20 days. Ninety-two patients were randomized to receive placebo (n = 46) or the active treatment (n = 46); nine of them (4 in the placebo group, 5 in the active treatment group) dropped out from the study. Daytime and nighttime cough severity were significantly reduced in both groups during the study period, but the reduction was more prominent in the active treatment group vs. placebo after 10 days of treatment (P = 0.003 for day cough; P = 0.061 for night cough), whereas at the end of follow-up period cough severity was comparable between the two groups. Small but significant increases in spirometric parameters were observed in the active treatment vs. placebo group, although at the end of follow-up these values returned to be comparable to placebo. The frequency of adverse events was not significantly different between the two groups of patients. We concluded that a combination of a β-agonist and an anticholinergic agent can effectively reduce post-viral cough, and can thus represent a valid option for this type of cough.

  6. A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bars, P L; Kieser, M; Itil, K Z

    2000-01-01

    This intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis was performed to provide a realistic image of the efficacy that could be expected after 26 weeks treatment with a 120-mg dose (40 mg t.i.d.) of EGb 761 (EGb). The data were collected during a 52-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed dose, parallel-group, multicenter study. Patients were mildly to severely impaired and diagnosed with uncomplicated Alzheimer's disease or multi-infarct dementia according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R criteria. The primary outcome measures included the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), Geriatric Evaluation by Relative's Rating Instrument (GERRI) and Clinical Global Impression of Change. From 309 patients included in the ITT analysis, 244 patients (76% for placebo and 73% for EGb) actually reached the 26th week visit. In comparison to the baseline values, the placebo group showed a statistically significant worsening in all domains of assessment, while the group receiving EGb was considered slightly improved on the cognitive assessment and the daily living and social behavior. Mean treatment differences favored EGb with 1.3 and 0.12 points, respectively, on the ADAS-Cog (p = 0.04) and the GERRI (p = 0.007). In the group receiving EGb, 26% of the patients achieved at least a 4-point improvement on the ADAS-Cog, compared to 17% with placebo (p = 0.04). On the GERRI, 30% of the EGb group improved and 17% worsened, while the placebo group showed an opposite trend with 37% of patients worsening for 25% improved (p = 0.006). Regarding safety, no differences between EGb and placebo were observed.

  7. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Chemoprevention Trial of Selenium Supplementation in Patients With Resected Stage I Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: ECOG 5597

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Daniel D.; Lee, Sandra J.; Keller, Steven M.; Wright, Gail Shaw; Aisner, Seena; Belinsky, Steven Alan; Johnson, David H.; Johnston, Michael R.; Goodman, Gary; Clamon, Gerald; Okawara, Gordon; Marks, Randolph; Frechette, Eric; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Lippman, Scott M.; Ruckdeschel, John; Khuri, Fadlo R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Selenium has been reported to have chemopreventive benefits in lung cancer. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with resected non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving selenium supplementation. Patients and Methods Patients with completely resected stage I NSCLC were randomly assigned to take selenized yeast 200 μg versus placebo daily for 48 months. Participation was 6 to 36 months postoperatively and required a negative mediastinal node biopsy, no excessive vitamin intake, normal liver function, negative chest x-ray, and no other evidence of recurrence. Results The first interim analysis in October 2009, with 46% of the projected end points accumulated, showed a trend in favor of the placebo group with a low likelihood that the trial would become positive; thus, the study was stopped. One thousand seven hundred seventy-two participants were enrolled, with 1,561 patients randomly assigned. Analysis was updated in June 2011 with the maturation of 54% of the planned end points. Two hundred fifty-two SPTs (from 224 patients) developed, of which 98 (from 97 patients) were lung cancer (38.9%). Lung and overall SPT incidence were 1.62 and 3.54 per 100 person-years, respectively, for selenium versus 1.30 and 3.39 per 100 person-years, respectively, for placebo (P = .294). Five-year disease-free survival was 74.4% for selenium recipients versus 79.6% for placebo recipients. Grade 1 to 2 toxicity occurred in 31% of selenium recipients and 26% of placebo recipients, and grade ≥ 3 toxicity occurred in less than 2% of selenium recipients versus 3% of placebo recipients. Compliance was excellent. No increase in diabetes mellitus or skin cancer was detected. Conclusion Selenium was safe but conferred no benefit over placebo in the prevention of SPT in patients with resected NSCLC. PMID:24002495

  8. Beneficial Effect of a Cellulose-Containing Chew Treat on Canine Periodontal Disease in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

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    A. C. Beynen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are indications that appropriate chew treats can contribute to the control of canine periodontal disease. It was reasoned that the incorporation of a cellulose fiber network into the treat may improve the efficacy, but for proof experimental data were required. Approach: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with privately owned dogs was carried out to assess the efficacy of a cellulose preparation (Arbocel BWW40® in the treatment of periodontal disease. With the use of a questionnaire, the clinical signs were evaluated by the owners. There were 10 clinical signs: extent and severity of dental plaque and calculus, extent of gingivitis, redness, swelling, bleeding and firmness of gingivae and halitosis. For a period of 8 weeks, the test dogs daily received a chew treat to which 4% of the cellulose preparation was added. The control dogs were given a chew treat with identical formula, but without added cellulose. During the trial, all dogs were fed the same, complete dry food. There were 16 test dogs and 15 control dogs. Results: When compared with the baseline values, the administration of the test chew significantly improved 8 out of the 10 clinical signs. In the placebo group there was a significant improvement for 6 clinical signs. When the improvements over time for the two groups were compared, there were no statistically significant differences. When the score changes for all 10 clinical signs were added up as an overall index of improvement of periodontal disease, the test group showed a 17% greater amelioration than did the control group. Conclusion: The addition of the cellulose preparation had further enhanced the efficacy of the treat, possibly through an increase in mechanical cleansing and chewing time. This study indicates that a cellulose-containing treat is beneficial for dogs with periodontal disease and it is suggested that it may also impair its development.

  9. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial of the Yiqigubiao pill for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at a stable stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Sen; Zhang, Yan-Li; Li, Zheng; Xu, Dan; Liao, Chun-Yan; Ma, Huan; Gong, Li; Su, Jun; Sun, Qi; Xu, Qian; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Ling; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Min; Tian, Ge; Hasan, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the Yiqigubiao pill is commonly used to enhance physical fitness. The current clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Yiqigubiao pill as an adjuvant therapy for patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial. The participants were recruited from outpatients at the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital affiliated with Xinjiang Medical University (Ürümqi, China) between February and September 2012. All participants were patients with stable COPD that were randomized to the Yiqigubiao pill (YQGB; n=84) or placebo (Pb; n=87) groups. The occurrences of acute exacerbation (AE) of COPD during the trial were recorded. Lung function value assessments, scoring of life quality and exercise endurance, arterial blood gas analysis and serum inflammatory cytokines level determination were performed prior to and throughout the study. A total of 139 participants completed the intervention and 132 participants completed the study. The interval between the initial intervention and the first AECOPD was greater in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group (P<0.01). The incidence rate of AECOPD was lower in the YQGB group than in the Pb group (P<0.01). Subsequent to the intervention or at the end of the study, the 6-min walking distance difference was longer in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group (P<0.01). The scores reflecting life quality decline became lower in the YQGB group (P<0.01). The serum levels of proinflammatory factors were downregulated to a greater extent in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group. Thus, the Yiqigubiao pill is an efficient and safe adjuvant therapy for the treatment of stable patients with COPD. PMID:27698749

  10. Xenotransplantation of Human Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure. Results from a Randomized, Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial.

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    Sanne J Jansen of Lorkeers

    Full Text Available Recently cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPCs were successfully isolated from fetal and adult human hearts. Direct intramyocardial injection of human CMPCs (hCMPCs in experimental mouse models of acute myocardial infarction significantly improved cardiac function compared to controls.Here, our aim was to investigate whether xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of fetal hCMPCs in a pig model of chronic myocardial infarction is safe and efficacious, in view of translation purposes.We performed a randomized, blinded, placebo controlled trial. Four weeks after ischemia/reperfusion injury by 90 minutes of percutaneous left anterior descending artery occlusion, pigs (n = 16, 68.5 ± 5.4 kg received intracoronary infusion of 10 million fetal hCMPCs or placebo. All animals were immunosuppressed by cyclosporin (CsA. Four weeks after infusion, endpoint analysis by MRI displayed no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end diastolic and left ventricular end systolic volumes between both groups. Serial pressure volume (PV-loop and echocardiography showed no differences in functional parameters between groups at any timepoint. Infarct size at follow-up, measured by late gadolinium enhancement MRI showed no difference between groups. Intracoronary pressure and flow measurements showed no signs of coronary obstruction 30 minutes after cell infusion. No premature death occurred in cell treated animals.Xenotransplantation via intracoronary infusion of hCMPCs is feasible and safe, but not associated with improved left ventricular performance and infarct size compared to placebo in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction.

  11. Effect of low-level laser therapy in the treatment of cochlear tinnitus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Mahboobeh Adami; Einolghozati, Sasan; Ghasemi, Seyyed Mohsen; Abolbashari, Samaneh; Meshkat, Mojtaba; Behzad, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Many treatments for chronic tinnitus have been attempted, but the condition remains difficult to cure, especially in the case of cochlear tinnitus. We conducted a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the effect of low-dose laser therapy on chronic cochlear tinnitus. Our study population was made up of 66 patients-33 who received active laser treatment (case group) and 33 who received inactive dummy treatment (control group). Patients in the laser group received 5 mV with a wavelength of 650 nm for 20 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks. The controls followed the same schedule, but they were "treated" with an inactive device. The degree of tinnitus was evaluated before and after treatment in each group in three ways: (1) the Tinnitus Severity Index (TSI), (2) a subjective 10-point self-assessment scale for tinnitus loudness, and (3) the Tinnitus Evaluation Test (TET). At study's end, we found no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups in the number of patients who experienced a reduction in TSI values (p = 0.589) or a reduction in subjective self-assessment scores (p = 0.475). Nor did we find any significant reductions in the loudness (p = 0.665) and frequency (p = 0.396) of tinnitus as determined by the TET. We conclude that 5-mV laser therapy with a wavelength of 650 nm is no better than placebo for improving hearing thresholds overall or for treating tinnitus with regard to age, sex, environmental noise level, and the duration of tinnitus.

  12. Clinical evaluation of efficacy of Majoon Ushba and Roghane Hindi in the management of psoriasis: A randomized single-blind, placebo-controlled study

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    Azad Hussain Lone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatological disease affecting up to 1-2% of the world′s population. It is associated with both organic and psychosocial complications like psoriatic arthropathy, nephritis, infection, hyperuricemia, hypoproteinemia, depression, and stress, and is responsible for hindering patients′ daily activities. The present study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of two pharmacopeial Unani formulations ( Majoon Ushba and Roghane Hindi in the management of psoriasis on scientific parameters. Thirty diagnosed psoriasis patients, satisfying the inclusion criteria, were selected for a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study in the Department of Moalajat (Medicine, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore. The patients were divided by the method of Random Table Numbers into test and control groups after obtaining informed consent. The experimental group comprised 20 patients to whom Majoon Ushba 5 g was administered orally twice daily and Roghane Hindi was applied locally twice daily. The control group comprised 10 patients who were given placebo drugs orally and topically. The duration of the trial was 8 weeks and follow-up was done fortnightly. The severity of psoriasis and efficacy of the drug was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI Scale. The results of both groups were compared and analyzed statistically. The study showed significant reduction in the PASI score in the test group ( P < 0.01 as compared to placebo. No obnoxious side effects were observed in the test group: toxicological parameters were within normal limits even after 2 months of treatment. It was therefore concluded that Majoon Ushba and Roghane Hindi are safe and effective in the management of psoriasis

  13. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on marital satisfaction in patients undergoing hemodialysis: A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial

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    Vajihe Biniaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the common problems in patients on hemodialysis (HD is marital dissatisfaction. Because anemia and fatigue are two important factors for marital dissatisfaction, and vitamin C can ameliorate both of them, we carried out this study to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on marital satisfaction among HD patients. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and parallel-group trial was conducted on 62 HD patients. The MFI-20 and ENRICH questionnaires were completed at the start and end of study. Required laboratory parameters including serum levels of hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit (Hct and ferritin were also measured at the start and at the end of the study. In the intervention group, 250 mg of vitamin C was injected intravenously immediately at the end of each HD session three times a week for eight consequent weeks. In the control group, placebo saline was injected. There was a significant change in the level of fatigue (P = 0.01 and the serum levels of Hb (P = 0.006 and Hct (P = 0.02. The mean of the marital satisfaction score increased significantly in the intervention group (P = 0.001: Baseline score of 35.7 ± 5.10 versus a final score of 38.0 ± 5.30. However, the mean of marital satisfaction score decreased in the control group: Baseline 37.1 ± 7.10 versus a final score of 34.7 ± 7.40. Our findings suggest that vitamin C supplementation can modify the marital satisfaction. Further studies are recommended.

  14. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on marital satisfaction in patients undergoing hemodialysis: A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biniaz, Vajihe; Tayebi, Ali; Ebadi, Abbas; Sadeghi, Shermeh; Einollahi, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    One of the common problems in patients on hemodialysis (HD) is marital dissatisfaction. Because anemia and fatigue are two important factors for marital dissatisfaction, and vitamin C can ameliorate both of them, we carried out this study to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on marital satisfaction among HD patients. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and parallel-group trial was conducted on 62 HD patients. The MFI-20 and ENRICH questionnaires were completed at the start and end of study. Required laboratory parameters including serum levels of hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct) and ferritin were also measured at the start and at the end of the study. In the intervention group, 250 mg of vitamin C was injected intravenously immediately at the end of each HD session three times a week for eight consequent weeks. In the control group, placebo saline was injected. There was a significant change in the level of fatigue (P = 0.01) and the serum levels of Hb (P = 0.006) and Hct (P = 0.02). The mean of the marital satisfaction score increased significantly in the intervention group (P = 0.001): Baseline score of 35.7 ± 5.10 versus a final score of 38.0 ± 5.30. However, the mean of marital satisfaction score decreased in the control group: Baseline 37.1 ± 7.10 versus a final score of 34.7 ± 7.40. Our findings suggest that vitamin C supplementation can modify the marital satisfaction. Further studies are recommended.

  15. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase II trial of Allisartan Isoproxil in essential hypertensive population at low-medium risk.

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    Ying Li

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs is a well-tolerated class of antihypertensive agents, exhibiting effective antihypertensive and cardiovascular protective function. The objective of the study was to examine the efficacy and safety of Allisartan Isoproxil, a newly developed, selective, nonpeptide blocker of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R, in essential hypertensive patients at low-medium risk.A Phase II prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial comparing Allisartan Isoproxil 240mg versus placebo was conducted in essential hypertensive patients at low-medium risk at 8 sites in China. After a 2-week placebo baseline period, 275 patients received once-daily treatment with Allisartan Isoproxil 240mg or placebo randomly for 8 weeks. Systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP was measured at week 2, 4 and 8. By the end of treatment, mean reductions from baseline of SBP and DBP in Allisartan Isoproxil and placebo groups were 14.5/10.4 and 8.3/7.7 mmHg, respectively (P0.05. No one withdraw because of an ADR in two groups. 124 patients received additional 56 weeks treatment with Allisartan Isoproxil and 84 of them completed the study. The rate of effective BP control kept up to 80% since week 24. No significant clinical change was observed and ADRs were generally mild or moderate during the long-term study.Allisartan Isoproxil 240mg was effective and safe for essential hypertension patients at low-medium risk.http://www.chictr.org/cn/ ChiCTR-TRC-10000886.

  16. Enantioselective effects of levodropropizine and dropropizine on psychomotor functions in normal volunteers: a placebo-controlled, double-blind comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, G; Barzaghi, N; Dominijanni, R; Cordaro, C; Perucca, E

    1993-01-01

    Levodropropizine is the l-isomer of dropropizine, a racemic drug widely used as a cough suppressant. Compared with the racemate, levodropropizine retains equal antitussive activity but exhibits considerably lower central nervous system (CNS) depressant effects in animal models. In order to assess whether the same differential pharmacodynamic profile also applies to man, a double-blind placebo-controlled study was carried out to investigate the effects of single oral doses (60 and 120 mg) of levodropropizine and dropropizine on subjective alertness (scored on visual analogue scales), general tolerability and psychomotor function tests (cancellation, tapping, choice reaction times and critical flicker fusion frequency) in ten normal volunteers. Treatments were administered in random sequence at intervals of at least one week, evaluation procedures being carried out at times 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 h after dosing. Following intake of a 60 mg levodropizine dose, subjective effects and objective estimates of psychomotor function were superimposable to those recorded after placebo. There was a trend for 60 mg dropropizine and 120 mg levodropropizine to produce detrimental effects at occasional evaluations, although the changes associated with these treatments could not be differentiated from placebo on the basis of most subjective scores and psychomotor function tests. Conversely, administration of 120 mg dropropizine was consistently associated with subjective CNS impairment and with reduced performance (compared to baseline) in recognition time, critical flicker fusion thresholds and possibly tapping rate, for up to three hours after dosing. These data are consistent with evidence that racemic dropropizine adversely affects central nervous system function to a greater extent compared with the levo-isomer.

  17. The effects of lorazepam on extrastriatal dopamine D(2/3)-receptors-A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkman, Harry; Kajander, Jaana; Aalto, Sargo; Vahlberg, Tero; Någren, Kjell; Allonen, Topias; Syvälahti, Erkka; Hietala, Jarmo

    2009-11-30

    Lorazepam is a widely used anxiolytic drug of the benzodiazepine class. The clinical actions of benzodiazepines are thought to be mediated via specific allosteric benzodiazepine binding sites and enhancement of GABAergic neurotransmission in the brain. However, the indirect effects of benzodiazepines on other neurotransmitter systems have not been extensively studied. Previous experimental evidence suggests that benzodiazepines inhibit striatal dopamine release by enhancing the GABAergic inhibitory effect on dopamine neurons whereas very little is known about cortical or thalamic gamma-amino-butyric (GABA)-dopamine interactions during benzodiazepine administration. We explored the effects of lorazepam (a single 2.5 mg dose) on cortical and thalamic D(2/3) receptor binding using Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) and the high-affinity D(2/3)-receptor ligand [(11)C]FLB 457 in 12 healthy male volunteers. We used a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study design. Dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor binding potential was measured with the reference tissue method in several extrastriatal D(2)-receptor areas including frontal, parietal, temporal cortices and thalamus. The main subjective effect of lorazepam was sedation. Lorazepam induced a statistically significant decrease of D(2)/D(3) receptor BP(ND) in medial temporal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was also confirmed by a voxel-level analysis. The sedative effect of lorazepam was associated with a decrease in D(2)/D(3) receptor BP(ND) in the DLPFC. In conclusion, lorazepam decreased [(11)C]FLB 457 binding in frontal and temporal cortex, suggesting that cortical GABA-dopamine interaction may be involved in the central actions of lorazepam in healthy volunteers. The correlation between lorazepam-induced sedation and D(2)/D(3) receptor binding potential (BP) change further supports this hypothesis.

  18. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Attilio Giacosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61. Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG showed a significant amelioration (SG: αS=+1.195 MCA score units (u, P=0.017; placebo: αP=+0.347 u, P=0.513. The intercept (α resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (αS-αP=+0.848 u, P<0.001. At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (βS-βP=+0.077 u, P=0.542. In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (βS-βP=-0.398 u, P<0.001, epigastric fullness (βS-βP=-0.241, P<0.001, epigastric pain (βS-βP=-0.173 u, P=0.002, and bloating (βS-βP=-0.167 u, P=0.017. Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease.

  19. Efficacy of mirtazapine for the treatment of fibromyalgia without concomitant depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kenji; Murakami, Masato; Oka, Hiroshi; Onozawa, Kaname; Yoshida, Sadahiro; Osada, Kenichi

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine in Japanese patients with fibromyalgia (FM), a parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIa study was conducted at 57 sites between November 2012 and February 2014. Patients aged 20 to 64 years who met the American College of Rheumatology 1990 diagnostic FM criteria and had stably high pain scores during a placebo run-in period were randomly assigned (1:1) by a computer-generated allocation sequence (block size 4) to receive mirtazapine orally (15 mg/d for 1 week and then 30 mg/d) or matching placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score from baseline to endpoint (week 12 or early discontinuation). Of the 430 patients randomized (n = 215 each group), 422 (n = 211 each group) were analyzed for the primary endpoint. At the study endpoint, mirtazapine caused a significantly greater reduction in the mean NRS pain score compared with placebo (difference, 0.44; 95% confidence interval, -0.72 to -0.17; P = 0.0018). The reduction by mirtazapine remained significantly greater compared with placebo from week 6 onward. More patients treated with mirtazapine had their NRS pain score reduced by ≥30% from baseline (45.5% vs 30.8%). Mirtazapine also improved pain-related quality of life assessed by the Japanese version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the Short-Form 36 Questionnaire. Adverse events were more common with mirtazapine than placebo (68.8% vs 56.7%), including somnolence (32.1% vs 7.4%), weight gain (17.7% vs 0.9%), and increased appetite (11.6% vs 3.3%). In conclusion, mirtazapine was an effective and safe treatment for Japanese patients with FM.

  20. The effect of probiotics on serum levels of cytokine and endotoxin in peritoneal dialysis patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-K; Wu, Y-Y; Yang, Y-F; Ting, I-W; Lin, C-C; Yen, T-H; Chen, J-H; Wang, C-H; Huang, C-C; Lin, H-C

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory markers such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are elevated in dialysis patients and can predict cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Endotoxin is an important source and also another marker of inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of oral probiotics on serum levels of endotoxemia and cytokines in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The decline of residual renal function, peritonitis episodes, and cardiovascular events were also recorded. From July 2011 to June 2012, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in PD patients. The intervention group received one capsule of probiotics containing 10(9) cfu Bifobacterium bifidum A218, 10(9) cfu Bifidobacterium catenulatum A302, 10(9) cfu Bifidobacterium longum A101, and 10(9) cfu Lactobacillus plantarum A87 daily for six months, while the placebo group received similar capsules containing maltodextrin for the same duration. Levels of serum TNF-α, interferon gamma, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and endotoxin were measured before and six months after intervention. 39 patients completed the study (21 in the probiotics group and 18 in the placebo group). In patients receiving probiotics, levels of serum TNF-α, IL-5, IL-6, and endotoxin significantly decreased after six months of treatment, while levels of serum IL-10 significantly increased. In contrast, there were no significant changes in levels of serum cytokines and endotoxin in the placebo group after six months. In addition, the residual renal function was preserved in patients receiving probiotics. In conclusion, probiotics could significantly reduce the serum levels of endotoxin, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), IL-5, increase the serum levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and preserve residual renal function in PD patients.

  1. Influence of the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius strain M18 on indices of dental health in children: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Jeremy P; Drummond, Bernadette K; Chilcott, Chris N; Tagg, John R; Thomson, W Murray; Hale, John D F; Wescombe, Philip A

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of dental caries continues to increase, and novel strategies to reverse this trend appear necessary. The probiotic Streptococcus salivarius strain M18 offers the potential to confer oral health benefits as it produces bacteriocins targeting the important cariogenic species Streptococcus mutans, as well as the enzymes dextranase and urease, which could help reduce dental plaque accumulation and acidification, respectively. In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 100 dental caries-active children, treatment with M18 was administered for 3 months and the participants were assessed for changes to their plaque score and gingival and soft-tissue health and to their salivary levels of S. salivarius, S. mutans, lactobacilli, β-haemolytic streptococci and Candida species. At treatment end, the plaque scores were significantly (P = 0.05) lower for children in the M18-treated group, especially in subjects having high initial plaque scores. The absence of any significant adverse events supported the safety of the probiotic treatment. Cell-culture analyses of sequential saliva samples showed no differences between the probiotic and placebo groups in counts of the specifically enumerated oral micro-organisms, with the exception of the subgroup of the M18-treated children who appeared to have been colonized most effectively with M18. This subgroup exhibited reduced S. mutans counts, indicating that the anti-caries activity of M18 probiotic treatments may be enhanced if the efficiency of colonization is increased. It was concluded that S. salivarius M18 can provide oral health benefits when taken regularly.

  2. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupp, Nerida L; Kiat, Hosen; Bensoussan, Alan; Steiner, Genevieve Z; Chang, Dennis H

    2016-08-11

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk components of metabolic syndrome using a prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-four participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were randomised to one of three intervention groups: Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum with Cordyceps sinensis, or placebo. The dosage was 3 g/day of Ganoderma lucidum, with or without Cordyceps sinensis, for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was blood glucose (glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c] and fasting plasma glucose [FPG]); a number of secondary outcome measures were also tested. Data from the two intervention groups were combined. The combined intervention had no effect on any of the primary (baseline-adjusted difference in means: HbA1c = 0.13%, 95% CI [-0.35, 0.60], p = 0.60; FPG = 0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI [-0.90, 0.96], p = 0.95) or secondary outcome measures over the course of the 16-week trial, and no overall increased risk of adverse events with either active treatment. Evidence from this randomised clinical trial does not support the use of Ganoderma lucidum for treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in people with diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. This Clinical Trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on November 23, 2006. Trial ID: ACTRN12606000485538 and can be accessed here: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=81705.

  3. The moisturizing effect of a wheat extract food supplement on women's skin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, S; Ghabri, S; Jannot, C; Gaillard, E; Lamour, I; Boisnic, S

    2011-04-01

    Ceramides, specific lipid components of the skin, represent 35-40% of the intercellular cement binding cells together and contributing to skin hydration. A wheat extract rich in ceramides and digalactosyl-diglycerides was developed by Hitex in two forms: wheat extract oil (WEO) and wheat extract powder (WEP). In vitro tests and two clinical studies demonstrated promising efficacy results with WEP on skin hydration. To confirm these early results, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was carried out on 51 women aged 20-63 years with dry to very dry skin who received either 350 mg of WEO or placebo for 3 months. Evaluation of skin hydration on legs, arms and face, assessed at baseline (D0) and at study end (D84) was performed by the dermatologist using dermatological scores (dryness, roughness, erythema), skin hydration measurement (corneometry) and self-assessment scores (Visual Analogue Scale: VAS). Perceived efficacy was noted by participants throughout the study; tolerability and overall acceptability of the study products were evaluated by the dermatologist and the participants at the end of study. Skin hydration was significantly increased between D0 and D84 on the arms (P skin dryness and redness tended to be reduced in the WEO group. Moreover, from D0 to D84, the VAS index had a tendency to increase in favour of WEO for the overall skin hydration (P = 0.084) indicating that participants perceived an improvement. The WEO capsules were perceived by participants as being more effective than placebo on all skin dryness signs. In conclusion, WEO capsules were well tolerated and appreciated. After 3 months' treatment, a significant increase in skin hydration and an improvement in associated clinical signs were observed in women with dry skin.

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of plantar fasciitis after low-level laser therapy: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiritsi, Olga; Tsitas, Konstantinos; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Mikroulis, Grogorios

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on plantar fasciitis documented by the ultrasonographic appearance of the aponeurosis and by patients' pain scores. Thirty individuals with diagnosis of unilateral plantar fasciitis were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, but 25 participants completed the therapeutic protocol. The contralateral asymptomatic fascia was used as control. After enrolment, symptomatic individuals were randomly assigned to receive LLLT, or identical placebo, for 6 weeks. Ultrasonography was performed at baseline and after completion of therapy. The subjective subcalcaneal pain was recorded at baseline and after treatment on a visual analogue scale (VAS). After LLLT, plantar fascia thickness in both groups showed significant change over the experimental period and there was a difference (before treatment and after treatment) in plantar fascia thickness between the two groups. However, plantar fascia thickness was insignificant (mean 3.627 +/- 0.977 mm) when compared with that in the placebo group (mean 4.380 +/- 1.0042 mm). Pain estimation on the visual analogue scale had improved significantly in all test situations (after night rest, daily activities) after LLLT when compared with that of the placebo group. (P=0.006 and P=0.01, respectively). Additionally, when the difference in pain scores was compared between the two groups, the change was statistically significant (after night rest P=0.000; daily activities P=0.001). In summary, while ultrasound imaging is able to depict the morphologic changes related to plantar fasciitis, 904 nm gallium-arsenide (GaAs) infrared laser may contribute to healing and pain reduction in plantar fasciitis.

  5. Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of bixa orellana in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms associated to benign prostatic hyperplasia

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    Luis Zegarra

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of Bixa Orellana (BO in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH presenting moderate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. One thousand four hundred and seventy eight patients presenting moderate LUTS associated to BPH were interviewed, from whom we selected 136 to fulfill the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Assignation was performed at random in blocks of four to receive B0 at a dose of 250 mg 3 times a day or placebo (Pbo for 12 months, 68 patients were assigned to each group. From the patients in the study we obtained data of demographic, epidemiologic, symptom score, uroflowmetry and post void residual urine variables. RESULTS: Basically both groups were compared clinically, demographically and biochemically. Throughout the study variations of symptom score, mean delta symptom score during each visit and the final average delta were similar for both groups (BO - 0.79 ± 1.87 and Pbo - 1.07 ± 1.49 (p = 0.33. Similarly variations of Qmax mean, Qmax average delta and final average delta were similar (BO 0.44 ± 1.07 and Pbo 0.47 ± 1.32 (p = 0.88. Variations of post void residual urine mean, post void residual urine average delta in each visit and the final average delta were similar for both groups (BO 4.24 ± 11.69 and Pbo 9.01 ± 18.66 (p = 0.07. No differences were found in the answers of clinically significant improvement assessed with relative risk and risk differences, even though the proportion of adverse effects was similar for both groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with BPH that present moderate LUTS did not show any benefit receiving BO when compared to placebo.

  6. Effect of curcumin on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in women with premenstrual syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

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    Fanaei, Hamed; Khayat, Samira; Kasaeian, Amir; Javadimehr, Mani

    2016-04-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a variety of physical, mental, and behavioral symptoms that start during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and the symptoms disappear after the onset of menses. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels during luteal phase in women associated with PMS have more alterations than women not suffering from PMS. In this regard, altered luteal BDNF levels in women with PMS might play a role in a set of psychological and somatic symptoms of the PMS. Studies of last decade revealed neuroprotective effects of curcumin and its ability to increase BDNF levels. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of curcumin on serum BDNF level and PMS symptoms severity in women with PMS. Present study is a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Curcumin treatment was given for three successive menstrual cycles and each cycle ran 10 days. After having identified persons with PMS, participants were randomly allocated into placebo (n=35) and curcumin (n=35) groups. Each sample in placebo and curcumin groups received two capsules daily for seven days before menstruation and for three days after menstruation for three successive menstrual cycles. Participants noted the severity of the symptoms mentioned in the daily record questionnaire. Self-report was used to determine menstrual cycle phase of participants. At the fourth day of each menstrual cycle venous blood samples were collected for BDNF measurement by ELISA method. Before intervention, BDNF levels and mean scores of PMS symptoms (mood, behavioral and physical symptoms) between two groups showed no significant differences. But in curcumin group first, second and third cycles after interventions BDNF levels were significantly higher and mean scores of PMS symptoms were significantly less than placebo group. Based on our results part of these beneficial effects of curcumin may be mediated through enhancing serum BDNF levels in women with PMS.

  7. Deferasirox reduces iron overload significantly in nontransfusion-dependent thalassemia: 1-year results from a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Ali T; Porter, John; Viprakasit, Vip; Kattamis, Antonis; Chuncharunee, Suporn; Sutcharitchan, Pranee; Siritanaratkul, Noppadol; Galanello, Renzo; Karakas, Zeynep; Lawniczek, Tomasz; Ros, Jacqueline; Zhang, Yiyun; Habr, Dany; Cappellini, Maria Domenica

    2012-08-02

    Nontransfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT) patients may develop iron overload and its associated complications despite receiving only occasional or no transfusions. The present 1-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled THALASSA (Assessment of Exjade in Nontransfusion-Dependent Thalassemia) trial assessed the efficacy and safety of deferasirox in iron-overloaded NTDT patients. A total of 166 patients were randomized in a 2:1:2:1 ratio to starting doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg/d of deferasirox or placebo. The means ± SD of the actual deferasirox doses received over the duration of the study in the 5 and 10 mg/kg/d starting dose cohorts were 5.7 ± 1.4 and 11.5 ± 2.9 mg/kg/d, respectively. At 1 year, the liver iron concentration (LIC) decreased significantly compared with placebo (least-squares mean [LSM] ± SEM, -2.33 ± 0.7 mg Fe/g dry weight [dw], P = .001, and -4.18 ± 0.69 mg Fe/g dw, P deferasirox groups, respectively (baseline values [means ± SD], 13.11 ± 7.29 and 14.56 ± 7.92 mg Fe/g dw, respectively). Similarly, serum ferritin decreased significantly compared with placebo by LSM -235 and -337 ng/mL for the deferasirox 5 and 10 mg/kg/d groups, respectively (P deferasirox significantly reduces iron overload in NTDT patients with a frequency of overall adverse events similar to placebo.

  8. Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Disulfiram for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence in Methadone-Stabilized Patients1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveto, Alison; Poling, James; Mancino, Michael J.; Feldman, Zachary; Cubells, Joseph F.; Pruzinsky, Rhonda; Gonsai, Kishorchandra; Cargile, Christopher; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Chopra, Mohit P.; Gonzalez-Haddad, Gerardo; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the dose-related efficacy of disulfiram for treating cocaine dependence in methadone-stabilized cocaine dependent participants. Design One hundred sixty-one cocaine-and opioid-dependent volunteers were entered into a 14-week, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial at two sites. Methods Participants were stabilized on methadone during weeks 1–2 and received disulfiram at 0, 62.5, 125 or 250 mg/day during weeks 3–14. All participants also received weekly cognitive behavioral therapy. Thrice-weekly urine samples and weekly self-reported drug use assessments were obtained. Results Baseline subject characteristics, retention and drug use did not differ across groups. Outcome analyses were performed on those who participated beyond week 2. Opioid positive urine samples and self-reported opioid use did not differ by treatment group. The prevalence of alcohol use was low prior to and during the trial and did not differ by treatment group. Cocaine-positive urines increased over time in the 62.5 and 125 mg disulfiram groups and decreased over time in the 250 mg disulfiram and placebo groups (p<0.0001). Self-reported cocaine use increased in the 125 mg disulfiram group relative to the other three treatment groups (p=0.04). Conclusions Disulfiram may be contraindicated for cocaine dependence at doses less than 250 mg/day. Whether disulfiram at higher doses is efficacious in reducing cocaine use in dually cocaine and opioid dependent individuals needs to be determined. PMID:20828943

  9. Pregabalin in patients with central neuropathic pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a flexible-dose regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, J H; Dijkgraaf, M G W; Kruis, M R; van der Vegt, M H; Hollmann, M W; Heesen, M

    2008-05-01

    The effective treatment of patients suffering from central neuropathic pain remains a clinical challenge, despite a standard pharmacological approach in combination with anticonvulsants and antidepressants. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the effects of pregabalin on pain relief, tolerability, health status, and quality of life in patients with central neuropathic pain caused by brain or spinal cord injuries. At baseline and 4 weeks after the start of treatment subjects were evaluated with standard measures of efficacy: pain intensity measured by visual analog scale, health status (Pain Disability Index and EQ-5D) and quality of life (SF-36). Forty patients received escalating doses of either pregabalin (150, 300, and 600mg/day) or matching placebo capsules. In both groups, patients started with 1 capsule per day (either 150mg of pregabalin or placebo). If pain relief was insufficient, patients were titrated to a higher dose. There was a statistically significant decrease in mean pain score at endpoint for pregabalin treatment, compared with placebo (P=0.016). Follow-up observation showed no significant difference in Pain Disability Index scores between the two groups. The pregabalin group, however, showed a statistically significant improvement for the EQ-5D. Pregabalin treatment led to a significant improvement in the bodily pain domain of the SF36. In the other domains, more favorable scores were reported without reaching statistical significance. Pregabalin, in a flexible-dose regime, produced clinically significant reductions in pain, as well as improvements in health status in patients suffering from severe central neuropathic pain.

  10. Effect of melatonin on depressive symptoms and anxiety in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Melissa V; Andersen, Lærke T; Madsen, Michael T; Hageman, Ida; Rasmussen, Lars S; Bokmand, Susanne; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances are known problems in patients with breast cancer. The effect of melatonin as an antidepressant in humans with cancer has not been investigated. We investigated whether melatonin could lower the risk of depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer in a three-month period after surgery and assessed the effect of melatonin on subjective parameters: anxiety, sleep, general well-being, fatigue, pain and sleepiness. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial undertaken from July 2011 to December 2012 at a department of breast surgery in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women, 30-75 years, undergoing surgery for breast cancer and without signs of depression on Major Depression Inventory (MDI) were included 1 week before surgery and received 6 mg oral melatonin or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of depressive symptoms measured by MDI. The secondary outcomes were area under the curve (AUC) for the subjective parameters. 54 patients were randomized to melatonin (n = 28) or placebo (n = 26) and 11 withdrew from the study (10 placebo group and 1 melatonin group, P = 0.002). The risk of developing depressive symptoms was significantly lower with melatonin than with placebo (3 [11 %] of 27 vs. 9 [45 %] of 20; relative risk 0.25 [95 % CI 0.077-0.80]), giving a NNT of 3.0 [95 % CI 1.7-11.0]. No significant differences were found between AUC for the subjective parameters. No differences in side effects were found (P = 0.78). Melatonin significantly reduced the risk of depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer during a three-month period after surgery.

  11. A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial to assess the effects of homoeopathic medicines on chronic rhinosinusitis

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    Raj K Manchanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is one of the most common illnesses interfering with patient′s quality of life and work. Observational studies conducted by the Council indicate positive outcome. This protocol has been developed to ascertain the usefulness of homoeopathic intervention in comparison with control group in a randomised control setting. Objectives: Primary objective is to evaluate the changes in TSS (Total Symptoms Score and SNOT-22 (Sino-nasal Outcome Test-22 within the two groups of the study (Homoeopathy + Placebo. Secondary objective is to evaluate changes in SNOT-22 at end of the trial, changes in Lund and Mackay staging of CT scan, rhinoscopy grading, absolute eosinophil count, global assessment by investigator and patient, and number of acute exacerbations of CRS (for frequency, duration and intensity as per TSS scale compared to placebo. Methods/Design: This is a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centric parallel arm trial of 6 months (three months treatment and three months observation period with 14 days run-in period. The primary outcome is a composite of the changes in the TSS and SNOT-22 over 3 months from baseline with area under the curve and changes over 3 months in the Sinus Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT-22 from baseline. Prescription shall be made as per the homoeopathic principles. Efficacy data will be analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Discussion: This trial will help to evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathic individualised treatment using LM-potencies versus placebo in patients suffering from CRS as per the homoeopathic dictum.

  12. Overall skin tone and skin-lightening-improving effects with oral supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin isomers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juturu V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vijaya Juturu,1 James P Bowman,2 Jayant Deshpande1 1Department of Scientific and Clinical Affairs, OmniActive Health Technologies Inc., Morristown, NJ, 2James P Bowman & Associates LLC, Loveland, OH, USA Purpose: Carotenoids, especially lutein and zeaxanthin isomers (L/Zi, filter blue light and protect skin from environmental factors including high-energy sources. These carotenoids may be able to block the formation of melanin pathways, decrease cytokines, and increase antioxidants.Subjects and methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial over a 12-week supplementation period. Fifty healthy people (50 healthy subjects were recruited and 46 subjects completed the study (males and females, age: 18–45 years with mild-to-moderate dry skin were included in this study. Skin type of the subjects was classified as Fitzpatrick skin type II–IV scale. Subjects were administered with either an oral dietary supplement containing 10 mg lutein (L and 2 mg zeaxanthin isomers (Zi (L/Zi: RR-zeaxanthin and RS (meso-zeaxanthin or a placebo daily for 12 weeks. The minimal erythemal dose and skin lightening (L* were measured via the Chromameter®. The individual typological angle was calculated. Subjective assessments were also recorded.Results: Overall skin tone was significantly improved in the L/Zi group compared to placebo (P<0.0237, and luminance (L* values were significantly increased in the L/Zi group. Mean minimal erythemal dose was increased with L/Zi supplementation after 12 weeks of supplementation. L/Zi supplementation significantly increased the individual typological angle.Conclusion: L/Zi supplementation lightens and improves skin conditions. Keywords: lutein, zeaxanthin isomers, skin lightening, minimal erythemal dose, individual typological angle, overall skin tone

  13. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and/or cryotherapy in skeletal muscle restitution, what is better? A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Paulo Roberto Vicente; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Johnson, Douglas Scott; Vanin, Adriane Aver; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna Móes; Machado, Caroline Dos Santos Monteiro; Casalechi, Heliodora Leão; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto

    2016-12-01

    Cryotherapy for post-exercise recovery remains widely used despite the lack of quality evidence. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) studies (with both low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) have demonstrated positive scientific evidence to suggest its use. The study aims to evaluate PBMT and cryotherapy as a single or combined treatment on skeletal muscle recovery after eccentric contractions of knee extensors. Fifty healthy male volunteers were recruited and randomized into five groups (PBMT, cryotherapy, cryotherapy + PBMT, PMBT + cryotherapy, or placebo) for a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated exercise performance (maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK)). Assessments were performed at baseline; immediately after; and at 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Comparator treatments was performed 3 min after exercise and repeated at 24, 48, and 72 h. PBMT was applied employing a cordless, portable GameDay(™) device (combination of 905 nm super-pulsed laser and 875- and 640-nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs); manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical(™), Solon - OH, USA), and cryotherapy by flexible rubber ice packs. PBMT alone was optimal for post-exercise recovery with improved MVC, decreased DOMS, and CK activity (p cryotherapy, and cryotherapy + PBMT. In the PBMT + cryotherapy group, the effect of PBMT was decreased (p > 0.05) but demonstrated significant improvement in MVC, decreased DOMS, and CK activity (p Cryotherapy as single treatment and cryotherapy + PBMT were similar to placebo (p > 0.05). We conclude that PBMT used as single treatment is the best modality for enhancement of post-exercise restitution, leading to complete recovery to baseline levels from 24 h after high-intensity eccentric contractions.

  14. Randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of VVZ-149 injections for postoperative pain following laparoscopic colorectal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Correll, Darin J; Bao, Xiaodong; Zamor, Natacha; Zeballos, Jose L; Zhang, Yi; Young, Mark J; Ledley, Johanna; Sorace, Jessica; Eng, Kristen; Hamsher, Carlyle P; Maniam, Rajivan; Chin, Jonathan W; Tsui, Becky; Cho, Sunyoung; Lee, Doo H

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In spite of advances in understanding and technology, postoperative pain remains poorly treated for a significant number of patients. In colorectal surgery, the need for developing novel analgesics is especially important. Patients after bowel surgery are assessed for rapid return of bowel function and opioids worsen ileus, nausea and constipation. We describe a prospective, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial testing the hypothesis that a novel analgesic drug, VVZ -149, is safe and effective in improving pain compared with providing opioid analgesia alone among adults undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Methods and analysis Based on sample size calculations for primary outcome, we plan to enrol 120 participants. Adult patients without significant medical comorbidities or ongoing opioid use and who are undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery will be enrolled. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either VVZ-149 with intravenous (IV) hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or the control intervention (IV PCA alone) in the postoperative period. The primary outcome is the Sum of Pain Intensity Difference over 8 hours (SPID-8 postdose). Participants receive VVZ-149 for 8 hours postoperatively to the primary study end point, after which they continue to be assessed for up to 24 hours. We measure opioid consumption, record pain intensity and pain relief, and evaluate the number of rescue doses and requests for opioid. To assess safety, we record sedation, nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression, laboratory tests and ECG readings after study drug administration. We evaluate for possible confounders of analgesic response, such as anxiety, depression and catastrophising behaviours. The study will also collect blood sample data and evaluate for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval of the study protocol has been obtained from

  15. Prophylactic gabapentin for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

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    Pandey Chandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug. Its antiemetic effect is demonstrated in chemotherapy-induced acute and delayed onset of nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients. Aim: To evaluate the antiemetic effect of gabapentin on incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Settings and Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned into two equal groups to receive 600 mg gabapentin or matching placebo two hours before surgery. Standard anaesthesia technique was used. Fentanyl was used as rescue postoperative analgesic. Ondansetron 4 mg was used intravenously as rescue medication for emesis. The total number of patients who had nausea or vomiting, and its severity and total fentanyl consumption in the first 24 hours were recorded. Statistical Analysis: "Z test" was used to test the significance of severity of post-operative nausea and vomiting between groups. Fentanyl consumed in each group (Mean±SD within 24 hrs was compared using student t test. P value< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were no demographic difference between the two groups. Incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting within 24 hrs after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was significantly lower in gabapentin group (46/125 than in the placebo group (75/125 (37.8% vs 60%; P =0.04. There was a significantly decreased fentanyl consumption in gabapentin group (221.2±92.4 µg as compared to placebo group (505.9±82.0 µg; P =0.01. Conclusion: Gabapentin effectively suppresses nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and post-operative rescue analgesic requirement.

  16. Sublingual versus Vaginal Misoprostol for the Induction of Labor at Term: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Bahia Namavar Jahromi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We sought to compare the effectiveness and safety of sublingual versus vaginal misoprostol for the termination of pregnancy with a live full-term fetus. Methods: This randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 200 primiparous women with normal, singleton, full-term pregnancies candidated for the induction of labor. Sublingual and vaginal tablets containing misoprostol (25 mcg or placebo in similar shapes were administered every 4 hours until the Bishop score reached above 8. Maternal and neonatal complications and outcomes were compared. Results: There were 100 parturient women in each group. The mean maternal age, gestational age, and Bishop score at the commencement of misoprostol had no statistical differences between the sublingual and vaginal groups. The mean time interval between misoprostol commencement and delivery was 497.10±291.49 and 511.67±08.46 minutes for the sublingual and vaginal groups, correspondingly. Twenty-two women had Cesarean deliveries in the sublingual group versus 14 in the vaginal group. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was seen in 12 women in the sublingual group and 4 in the vaginal group (P=0.03. Late fetal heart rate deceleration was observed in 8 women in the sublingual group and 4 in the vaginal group (P=0.22. The mean neonatal birth weight, blood gas value at birth, Apgar score, and length of admission time in the neonatal intensive care unit were not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Sublingual and vaginal misoprostol had similar effectiveness; however, meconium-stained liquor was observed considerably more frequently with sublingual misoprostol than with vaginal misoprostol. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201402096541N3

  17. Sublingual versus Vaginal Misoprostol for the Induction of Labor at Term: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Bahia Namavar; Poorgholam, Foroogh; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Salarian, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background: We sought to compare the effectiveness and safety of sublingual versus vaginal misoprostol for the termination of pregnancy with a live full-term fetus. Methods: This randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 200 primiparous women with normal, singleton, full-term pregnancies candidated for the induction of labor. Sublingual and vaginal tablets containing misoprostol (25 mcg) or placebo in similar shapes were administered every 4 hours until the Bishop score reached above 8. Maternal and neonatal complications and outcomes were compared. Results: There were 100 parturient women in each group. The mean maternal age, gestational age, and Bishop score at the commencement of misoprostol had no statistical differences between the sublingual and vaginal groups. The mean time interval between misoprostol commencement and delivery was 497.10±291.49 and 511.67±08.46 minutes for the sublingual and vaginal groups, correspondingly. Twenty-two women had Cesarean deliveries in the sublingual group versus 14 in the vaginal group. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was seen in 12 women in the sublingual group and 4 in the vaginal group (P=0.03). Late fetal heart rate deceleration was observed in 8 women in the sublingual group and 4 in the vaginal group (P=0.22). The mean neonatal birth weight, blood gas value at birth, Apgar score, and length of admission time in the neonatal intensive care unit were not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Sublingual and vaginal misoprostol had similar effectiveness; however, meconium-stained liquor was observed considerably more frequently with sublingual misoprostol than with vaginal misoprostol. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201402096541N3 PMID:26989277

  18. Perioperative topical nitrate and sphincter function in patients undergoing transanal stapled anastomosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Winter, D C

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: The use of transanal stapling devices may impair continence because of digital dilatation and\\/or instrumentation. This study assessed the effect of pharmacological dilatation of the sphincter prior to stapler insertion. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study of 60 patients undergoing transanal stapled anastomosis was undertaken. Consenting patients were randomly assigned to receive a single intraoperative dose of topical 0.2 percent nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate) ointment or nitroglycerin-free placebo. All patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by clinical methods (Wexner incontinence scores and examination), anorectal manometry by a station pull-through technique, and endoanal ultrasonography. RESULTS: Intraoperative mean (+\\/-SEM) resting pressures (mmHg) were significantly reduced by nitroglycerin compared with prenitroglycerin levels (9.9 +\\/- 0.9 vs. 50.5 +\\/- 2.7; P = 0.002) or controls (56.0 +\\/- 3.2; P = 0.001). Twenty-one of the 28 controls (75 percent) but only 4 of the 32 patients in the nitroglycerin group (12.5 percent) required digital dilatation to insert the stapling instrument ( P = 0.003). Squeeze pressures were unaltered by the intervention but mean resting pressures were higher in the nitroglycerin group postoperatively (52.9 +\\/- 3.2 - 31.6 +\\/- 1.3 = 21.3 mmHg; 95 percent confidence interval, 14-27). Incontinence scores were lower in the nitroglycerin group at the 3-month (1.1 +\\/- 0.2 vs. 4.6 +\\/- 0.3; P = 0.003) and 12-month (0.9 +\\/- 0.1 vs. 4.4 +\\/- 0.3; P = 0.002) clinic visits. CONCLUSION: Preoperative nitroglycerin dilatation protects sphincter function in patients undergoing transanal stapled anastomoses.

  19. Influence of the Chungkookjang on histamine-induced wheal and flare skin response: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

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    Kwon Dae-Young

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Allergic disease is a consequence of exposure to normally innocuous substances that elicit the activation of mast cells. Mast-cell-mediated allergic response is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic dermatitis. The development of food products for the prevention of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. The chungkookjang (CKJ has been reported to exhibit antiallergic inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the effects of the CKJ to reduce histamine-induced wheal and flare skin responses. Methods/Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 60 healthy subjects will be carried out. Sixty volunteers (aged 20-80 who gave a written consent before entering the study will be randomized in two groups of thirty subjects each. The skin prick test with histamine solution of 10 mg/ml will be performed on the ventral forearm, 10 cm from the elbow. The subjects will be instructed to take 35 g per day of either the CKJ pills or a placebo pills for a period of 3 months. Diameters of wheal and flare will be assessing 15 minutes after performing the above-mentioned skin prick test. The primary outcome is change in wheal and flare responses. Secondary outcomes will be include change in serum histamine, immunoglobulin E, cytokines (interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, -10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and eosinophil cationic protein. Discussion This study will show the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the CKJ in their skin activity when histamine is the challenging agent as occurs in the clinical situation. And the present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of the CKJ for allergy symptoms, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT. If this study will be successfully performed, the CKJ will be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for allergy patients

  20. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a physiotherapy program for chronic rotator cuff pathology: A protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Harris Anthony

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic rotator cuff pathology (CRCP is a common shoulder condition causing pain and disability. Physiotherapy is often the first line of management for CRCP yet there is little conclusive evidence to support or refute its effectiveness and no formal evaluation of its cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will involve 200 participants with CRCP recruited from medical practices, outpatient departments and the community via print and radio media. Participants will be randomly allocated to a physiotherapy or placebo group using concealed allocation stratified by treating physiotherapist. Both groups will receive 10 sessions of individual standardised treatment over 10 weeks from one of 10 project physiotherapists. For the following 12 weeks, the physiotherapy group will continue a home exercise program and the placebo group will receive no treatment. The physiotherapy program will comprise shoulder joint and spinal mobilisation, soft tissue massage, postural taping, and home exercises for scapular control, posture and rotator cuff strengthening. The placebo group will receive inactive ultrasound and gentle application of an inert gel over the shoulder region. Blinded assessment will be conducted at baseline and at 10 weeks and 22 weeks after randomisation. The primary outcome measures are self reported questionnaires including the shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI, average pain on an 11-point numeric rating scale and participant perceived global rating of change. Secondary measures include Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short form (SF-36, Assessment of Quality of Life index, numeric rating scales for shoulder pain and stiffness, participant perceived rating of change for pain, strength and stiffness, and manual muscle testing for shoulder strength using a handheld dynamometer. To evaluate cost-effectiveness, participants will record the use of all health

  1. Efficacy and safety of premedication with single dose of oral pregabalin in children with dental anxiety: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial

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    Tahereh Eskandarian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental anxiety is a relatively frequent problem that can lead to more serious problems such as a child entering a vicious cycle as he/she becomes reluctant to accept the required dental treatments. The aim of this randomized double-blind clinical trial study was to evaluate the anxiolytic and sedative effect of pregabalin in children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five children were randomized to a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Two visits were scheduled for each patient. At the first visit, 75 mg pregabalin or placebo was given randomly, and the alternative was administered at the next visit. Anxiolytic and sedative effects were measured using the visual analogue scale. The child′s behavior was rated with the Frankl behavioral rating scale and the sedation level during the dental procedure was scored using the Ramsay sedation scale. The unpaired, two-tailed Student′s t-test was used to compare the mean changes of visual analog scale (VAS for anxiety in the pregabalin group with that of the placebo group. A repeated measures MANOVA model was used to detect differences in sedation level in the pregabalin and placebo groups regarding the interaction of 3-time measurements; sub-group analysis was performed using Student′s t-test. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to analyze the nonparametric data of the Frankl and Ramsay scales. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The reduction of the VAS-anxiety score from 2 h post-dose was statistically significant in the pregabalin group. From 2 h to 4 h post-dose, the VAS-sedation score increased significantly in the pregabalin group. The child′s behavior rating was not significantly different between the groups. The number of "successful" treatment visits was higher in the pregabalin group compared to the placebo group. Conclusion: Significant anxiolytic and sedative effects can be anticipated 2 h after oral administration of pregabalin without serious

  2. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multi-center, Extension Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of a New Oral Supplement in Women with Self-perceived Thinning Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Ablon, Glynis; Dayan, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this six-month, randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled study was to determine if the administration of a new oral supplement will promote terminal hair growth. Design: A randomized, double-blind study. Setting: Two private practices (dermatology and facial plastics). Participants: Women 21 to 75 years of age with self-perceived thinning hair. Measurements: The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in terminal and vellus hairs in a 4cm2 target a...

  3. Rationale and design of decision: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory, differentiated thyroid cancer

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    Brose Marcia S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of thyroid cancer and the number of patients who die from this disease are increasing globally. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC is the histologic subtype present in most patients and is primarily responsible for the increased overall incidence of thyroid cancer. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several molecular signals believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, including those implicated in DTC. In phase II studies of patients with DTC, sorafenib treatment has yielded a median progression-free survival (PFS of 58 to 84 weeks and disease control rates of 59% to 100%. The DECISION trial was designed to assess the ability of sorafenib to improve PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, radioactive iodine (RAI-refractory DTC. Methods/design DECISION is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study in patients with locally advanced/metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. Study treatment will continue until radiographically documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, noncompliance, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy will be evaluated every 56 days (2 cycles, whereas safety will be evaluated every 28 days (1 cycle for the first 8 months and every 56 days thereafter. Following disease progression, patients may continue or start sorafenib, depending on whether they were randomized to receive sorafenib or placebo, at investigator discretion. Patients originally randomized to receive sorafenib will be followed up every 3 months for overall survival (OS; patients originally randomized to receive placebo will be followed up every month for 8 months after cross-over to sorafenib. The duration of the trial is expected to be 30 months from the time the first patient is randomized until the planned number of PFS events is attained. The primary endpoint is PFS; secondary endpoints include OS, time to disease progression, disease control rate

  4. L-carnitine supplementation in patients with HIV/AIDS and fatigue: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

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    Cruciani RA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo A Cruciani,1 Manuel Revuelta,2 Ella Dvorkin,3 Peter Homel,4 Pauline Lesage,5 Nora Esteban-Cruciani6 1Center for Comprehensive Pain Management and Palliative Care, Capital Institute for Neurosciences, Capital Health Medical Center, Pennington, NJ, 2Lee Memorial Hospital, Fort Myers, FL, 3Institutional Review Board, New York University, New York, NY, 4Department of Pain Medicine and Palliative Care, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY, 5Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, 6Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on fatigue in patients with terminal human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, patients who had end-stage HIV/AIDS with carnitine deficiency and fatigue received 3 g of oral L-carnitine or placebo for 2 weeks, followed by a 2-week, open-label phase with the same amount of L-carnitine for all patients. The primary outcome was the degree of fatigue according to the Brief Fatigue Inventory. Secondary outcomes included serum carnitine and lactate levels, physical, emotional, social, and functional well-being, performance status, mood, and CD4 count. Results: Eighteen patients in the treatment arm and 17 in the placebo arm completed the trial. At the end of the double-blind phase, total and free carnitine levels in the treatment arm rose from 28±9 to 48±17 nM/L (P<0.001 and from 24±8 to 40±13 nM/L (P<0.001 respectively, with no changes in the placebo arm. The primary outcome, ie, fatigue measured at the end of the blinded phase, did not improve. Secondary outcomes of function, quality of life, and mood did not show improvement either. The secondary outcome of serum lactate decreased from baseline in the treatment group (1.45±0.76 to 1.28±0.52 mmol/L and increased

  5. A phase I double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of a multigenic HIV-1 adenovirus subtype 35 vector vaccine in healthy uninfected adults.

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    Michael C Keefer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted a phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of escalating doses of two recombinant replication defective adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35 vectors containing gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase and nef (Ad35-GRIN and env (Ad35-ENV, both derived from HIV-1 subtype A isolates. The trial enrolled 56 healthy HIV-uninfected adults. METHODS: Ad35-GRIN/ENV (Ad35-GRIN and Ad35-ENV mixed in the same vial in equal proportions or Ad35-GRIN was administered intramuscularly at 0 and 6 months. Participants were randomized to receive either vaccine or placebo (10/4 per group, respectively within one of four dosage groups: Ad35-GRIN/ENV 2×10(9 (A, 2×10(10 (B, 2×10(11 (C, or Ad35-GRIN 1×10(10 (D viral particles. RESULTS: No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. Reactogenicity events reported were dose-dependent, mostly mild or moderate, some severe in Group C volunteers, all transient and resolving spontaneously. IFN-γ ELISPOT responses to any vaccine antigen were detected in 50, 56, 70 and 90% after the first vaccination, and in 75, 100, 88 and 86% of Groups A-D vaccine recipients after the second vaccination, respectively. The median spot forming cells (SFC per 10(6 PBMC to any antigen was 78-139 across Groups A-C and 158-174 in Group D, after each of the vaccinations with a maximum of 2991 SFC. Four to five HIV proteins were commonly recognized across all the groups and over multiple timepoints. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were polyfunctional. Env antibodies were detected in all Group A-C vaccinees and Gag antibodies in most vaccinees after the second immunization. Ad35 neutralizing titers remained low after the second vaccination. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ad35-GRIN/ENV reactogenicity was dose-related. HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses were seen in the majority of volunteers immunized with Ad35-GRIN/ENV or Ad35-GRIN and increased after the second

  6. The non-ergot derived dopamine agonist quinagolide in prevention of early ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in IVF patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Cristiano; Fernández-Sánchez, Manuel; García-Velasco, Juan Antonio; Landeras, José; Ballesteros, Augustín; Muñoz, Elkin; González, Sandra; Simón, Carlos; Arce, Joan-Carles; Pellicer, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) seems to be induced by the ovarian release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which increases vascular permeability. Dopamine agonists inhibit VEGF receptor phosphorylation and thereby decrease vascular permeability. METHODS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study assessing three oral doses (50, 100, 200 µg/day) of the non-ergot derived dopamine agonist quinagolide started on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and continued for 17–21 days without dose-titration in comparison to placebo in preventing moderate/severe early OHSS (onset ≤9 days after hCG administration) in 182 IVF patients with ≥20 but less than 30 follicles ≥10 mm. RESULTS The incidence of moderate/severe early OHSS was 23% (12/53) in the placebo group and 12% (6/51), 13% (7/52) and 4% (1/26) in the quinagolide 50, 100 and 200 µg/day groups, respectively. The moderate/severe early OHSS rate was significantly lower with all quinagolide groups combined compared with placebo [P = 0.019; OR = 0.28 (0.09–0.81)]. The incidence of ultrasound evidence of ascites among patients with no clinical pregnancy was significantly reduced from 31% (8/26) with placebo to 11% (8/70) with all quinagolide groups combined [P = 0.033; OR = 0.29 (0.10–0.88)], although there was no difference for those with clinical pregnancy. Quinagolide did not have a detrimental effect on pregnancy or live birth rates. The incidence of gastrointestinal and central nervous system adverse events increased with increasing doses of quinagolide. CONCLUSIONS Quinagolide appears to prevent moderate/severe early OHSS while not affecting treatment outcome. The effect is more marked in patients who did not achieve a clinical pregnancy. Quinagolide administered in high doses without dose-titration is associated with poor tolerability. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00329693. PMID:20139430

  7. A placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of Imedeen® Time Perfection® for improving the appearance of photodamaged skin

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    Stephens TJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas J Stephens,1 Monya L Sigler,1 James H Herndon Jr,2 Lisa Dispensa,3 Anne Le Moigne3 1Thomas J. Stephens and Associates, Inc., Richardson, TX, 2Dermatology Center of Dallas, Dallas, TX, 3Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Madison, NJ, USA Objective: To assess the efficacy of Imedeen Time Perfection for improving the appearance and condition of photoaged skin in healthy women. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial enrolled healthy women, 35–60 years of age, with Fitzpatrick I–III and Glogau II–III skin types and mild-to-moderate facial fine lines/wrinkles. The eligible subjects were randomized to receive two tablets daily of either Imedeen Time Perfection (Imedeen or a matching placebo for 12 weeks. Efficacy assessments included investigator rating of 16 photoaging parameters (ie, global facial appearance and 15 individual facial parameters and the average of all parameters, instrumentation (ie, ultrasound dermal density, moisture level of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, cutometry, and subjects' self-assessment. Differences in the mean change from baseline to week 12 values on these outcomes were compared between Imedeen and placebo using analysis of variance or a paired t-test. Results: Seventy-four subjects with primarily Fitzpatrick skin type III (78%–79% and Glogau type III (53%–58% completed the study (Imedeen: n=36; placebo: n=38. The mean difference in change from baseline to week 12 for global facial assessment significantly favored Imedeen over placebo (−0.52; P=0.0017. Additionally, the mean differences in the average of all facial photoaging parameters (−0.29, mottled hyperpigmentation (−0.25, tactile laxity (−0.24, dullness (−0.47, and tactile roughness (−0.62 significantly favored Imedeen over placebo (P≤0.05. Significantly greater increases in ultrasound dermal density (+11% vs +1%; P≤0.05 and stratum corneum moisturization (+30% vs +6%; P≤0.05 were also

  8. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of olanzapine as an adjunctive treatment for anorexia nervosa in adolescent females: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Moher David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anorexia Nervosa (AN is a serious, debilitating condition that causes significant physical, emotional, and functional impairment. The condition is characterized by destructive weight loss behaviours and a refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height. AN often develops in adolescence and is a predominantly female disorder. Treatment for AN typically involves medical, nutritional and psychological interventions. Pharmacotherapy is also often used; however, the literature on the effectiveness of these drugs in a pediatric population is very limited. Olanzapine, which is an 'atypical' antipsychotic, is becoming more widespread in the treatment of AN. Olanzapine is hypothesized to facilitate weight gain, while decreasing levels of agitation and decreasing resistance to treatment in young women with AN. This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial seeks to examine the effectiveness and safety of olanzapine in female youth with AN. Methods/Design Adolescent females between the ages of 12 and 17 diagnosed with AN (either restricting or binge/purge type or Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified with a Body Mass Index of less than or equal to 17.5, will be offered inclusion in the study. Patients will be randomly assigned to receive either olanzapine or placebo. Patients assigned to receive olanzapine will start at a low dose of 1.25 mg/day for three days, followed by 2.5 mg/day for four days, 5 mg/day for one week, then 7.5 mg/day (the target dose chosen for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks at 7.5 mg the medication will be tapered and discontinued over a period of two weeks. The effectiveness of olanzapine versus placebo will be determined by investigating the change from baseline on measures of eating attitudes and behaviors, depression and anxiety, and change in Body Mass Index at week 12, and after a follow-up period at week 40. It is anticipated that 67 participants will be recruited

  9. Effect of Deworming on Physical Fitness of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, China: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Wu, Fang-Wei; Du, Zun-Wei; Hattendorf, Jan; Chen, Ran; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Kriemler, Susi; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic. Methodology The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Children, aged 9–12 years, were treated with either triple-dose albendazole or placebo, and monitored for 6 months post-treatment. The Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques were used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Physical fitness was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test, where the maximum aerobic capacity within 1 min of exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) and the number of 20-m laps completed were recorded. Physical strength was determined with grip strength and standing broad jump tests. Body height and weight, the sum of skinfolds, and hemoglobin levels were recorded as secondary outcomes. Principal Findings Children receiving triple-dose albendazole scored slightly higher in the primary and secondary outcomes than placebo recipients, but the difference lacked statistical significance. Trichuris trichiura-infected children had 1.6 ml kg−1 min−1 (P = 0.02) less increase in their VO2 max estimate and completed 4.6 (P = 0.04) fewer 20-m laps than at baseline compared to non-infected peers. Similar trends were detected in the VO2 max estimate and grip strength of children infected with hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. In addition, the increase in the VO2 max estimate from baseline was consistently higher in children with low-intensity T. trichiura and hookworm infections than in their peers with high-intensity infections of all soil-transmitted helminths (range: 1.9–2.1 ml kg−1 min−1; all P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance We found no strong evidence for significant improvements in physical fitness and

  10. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating Dermytol® cream for the treatment of actinic keratoses

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    Evans M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Malkanthi Evans,1 Douglas Kalman,2 Patricia Alvarez,3 Maryse Paquet,4 Najla Guthrie1 1KGK Synergize Inc., London, ON, Canada; 2Miami Research Associates, South Miami, FL, USA; 3Latin American Research, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; 4Department of Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada Purpose: Actinic keratosis lesions (AKs have the potential to develop into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and thus therapies to prevent SCC development from AKs are warranted. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 3 month application of a canola phenolic acid-based cream (CPA on AK lesions. Patients and methods: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12 week clinical study conducted at a single-center in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Forty-five subjects (30 CPA and 15 placebo, aged 45–85 years with 3–10 AKs within a 20 cm2 treatment area (scalp, forehead, dorsal forearm, neck, or back of hand were enrolled. The primary outcome was complete or partial lesion clearance and the secondary outcome was safety of CPA. Results: Although complete AK lesion clearance was not seen in this study, a significant reduction in the mean change from baseline in the average lesion area was observed at weeks 3 (P=0.002, 6 (P<0.001, and 12 (P<0.001 in the CPA group, but only at weeks 6 and 12 in the placebo group (P=0.005 and P=0.002, respectively. Furthermore, the proportion of participants with a ≥10% decrease in average lesion area was significantly higher in the CPA group than the placebo group at weeks 3 (P=0.05 and 6 (P=0.02, and showed a trend at week 12 (P=0.06. A subset analysis of the change in average lesion area based upon the total lesion area at baseline revealed that CPA elicited a greater reduction than placebo (2× in participants with a baseline total AK lesion area of 100–500 mm2 than in participants with a total area <100 mm2 (1.3×. Conclusion: The results of this study and previous in vitro studies suggest

  11. Effects of probiotics on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in petrochemical workers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Ali Akbar Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the current study was to determine effects of probiotic yoghurt and multispecies probiotic capsule supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors in petrochemical workers. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done among petrochemical workers. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive 100 g/day probiotic yogurt (n = 12 or one probiotic capsule daily (n = 13 or 100 g/day conventional yogurt (n = 10 for 6 weeks. The probiotic yoghurt was containing two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis with a total of min 1 Χ 10 7 CFU. Multispecies probiotic capsule contains seven probiotic bacteria spices Actobacillus casei 3 Χ 10 3 , L. acidophilus 3 Χ 10 7 , Lactobacillus rhamnosus 7 Χ 10 9 , Lactobacillus bulgaricus 5 Χ 10 8 , Bifidobacterium breve 2 Χ 10 10 , Bifidobacterium longum 1 Χ 10 9 and Streptococcus thermophilus 3 Χ 10 8 CFU/g. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the trial to quantify biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. Results: Although a significant within-group decrease in plasma protein carbonyl levels was seen in the probiotic capsule group (326.0 ± 308.9 vs. 251.0 ± 176.3 ng/mL, P = 0.02, the changes were similar among the three groups. In addition, significant within-group decreases in plasma iso prostaglandin were observed in the probiotic supplements group (111.9 ± 85.4 vs. 88.0 ± 71.0 pg/mL, P = 0.003 and in the probiotic yogurt group (116.3 ± 93.0 vs. 92.0 ± 66.0 pg/mL, P = 0.02, nevertheless there were no significant change among the three groups. Conclusions: Taken together, consumption of probiotic yogurt or multispecies probiotic capsule had beneficial effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress in petrochemical workers.

  12. Effect of dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 (SBL88™) on sleep: a non-randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakita, Y; Tsuchimoto, N; Takata, Y; Nakamura, T

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 affects sleep rhythms in mice. The present study evaluated the effect of consumption of heat-killed SBC8803 on sleep architecture in humans. A non-randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind, and crossover pilot study was conducted using volunteers who scored at a slightly high level (i.e. ≥6) on the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Male subjects (n=17; age 41-69 y) consumed placebo or SBC8803 capsules (25 mg/day of heat-killed SBC8803) for 10 days. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded using a mobile, one-channel system, providing objective data on sleep. Subjects' sleep journals and administration of the AIS provided subjective data on sleep. Three subjects were excluded from the statistical analysis. Analysis of the remaining 14 volunteers revealed no significant differences between placebo and SBC8803 consumption in either the AIS or the sleep EEG. The sleep journals revealed an improvement in 'waking' for the SBC8803 consumption periods (P=0.047), and there was a marginally significant effect on 'drowsiness during the following day' (P=0.067). Effects on the EEG delta power value (μV(2)/min) were revealed by a stratified analysis based on age, AIS, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Specifically, effects were found among subjects in their 40s who consumed the SBC8803 capsules (P=0.049) and among subjects with a BDI score less than the all-subjects average (13.3) (P=0.045). A marginally significant effect was found among subjects with an AIS score less than the all-subjects average (11.6) (P=0.065). The delta power value of 5 subjects with both BDI and AIS scores less than the average increased significantly (P=0.017). While the number of subjects was limited, a beneficial effect on sleep due to consumption of heat-killed L. brevis SBC8803 was found in subjects with slightly challenged sleep.

  13. Influence of methylphenidate treatment assumptions on cognitive function in healthy young adults in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mommaerts JL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Luc Mommaerts,1 Gerlinde Beerens,1 Lieve Van den Block,1 Eric Soetens,2 Sandrina Schol,1 Erwin Van De Vijver,1 Dirk Devroey1 1Department of Family Medicine, 2Department of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium Background: Increasing numbers of students use stimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH to improve their study capacity, making them prone to subsequent prolonged drug abuse. This study explored the cognitive effects of MPH in students who either assumed they received MPH or assumed they received a placebo. Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a between-subjects design, 21 students were subjected to partial sleep deprivation, receiving no more than 4 hours sleep the night before they were tested. In the morning, they were given either a placebo or 20 mg of MPH. They then performed free recall verbal tests and Go/No-Go tasks repeatedly, their moods were evaluated using Profile of Mood States and their tiredness was assessed using a visual analog scale, with evaluation of vigilance. Results: No significant differences were found between those subjects who received MPH and those who received a placebo. However, significant differences were found between subjects who assumed they had received MPH or had no opinion, and those who assumed they had received a placebo. At three minutes, one hour, and one day after memorizing ten lists of 20 words, those who assumed they had received MPH recalled 54%, 58%, and 54% of the words, respectively, whereas those who assumed they had received placebo only recalled 35%, 37%, and 34%. Conclusion: Healthy, partially sleep-deprived young students who assume they have received 20 mg of MPH experience a substantial placebo effect that improves consolidation of information into long-term memory. This is independent of any pharmacologic effects of MPH, which had no significant effects on verbal memory in this study. This information may be

  14. Efficacy of ketamine in the rapid treatment of major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Y

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yu Han,1–3 Jianjun Chen,2–4 Dezhi Zou,1–3 Peng Zheng,1–3 Qi Li,1–3 Haiyang Wang,1–3 Pengfei Li,1–3 Xinyu Zhou,1–3 Yuqing Zhang,1–3 Yiyun Liu,1–3 Peng Xie1–3 1Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 2Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, 3Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, 4Institute of Life Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: An increasing number of studies are reporting that ketamine could be treated as a novel antidepressant for major depressive disorder (MDD. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to comprehensively and systematically assess the efficacy of ketamine for treating patients with MDD. Method: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies on ketamine versus placebo for treating MDD were searched up to April 2016 in medical databases (PubMed, CCTR, Web of Science, Embase, CBM-disc, and CNKI. Three treatment time points (24 and 72 h, and day 7 were chosen. Response and remission rates were the main outcomes. The random effects model was used. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: Nine high-quality studies that included 368 patients were selected to compare the efficacy of ketamine to placebo. The therapeutic effects of ketamine at 24 and 72 h, and day 7 were found to be significantly better than placebo. Response and remission rates in the ketamine group at 24 and 72 h, and day 7 were 52.2% and 20.6%; 47.9% and 23.8%; and 39.8% and 26.2%, respectively. No significant heterogeneity existed, and the Egger’s test showed no publication bias. Conclusion: These results indicated that ketamine could yield a good efficacy in the rapid treatment of MDD. Future large-scale clinical studies are needed to confirm our results and investigate the mid- and long-term efficacy of ketamine in treating MDD. Keywords: major depressive disorder

  15. Effect of deworming on physical fitness of school-aged children in Yunnan, China: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiling Yap

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable debate on the health impacts of soil-transmitted helminth infections. We assessed effects of deworming on physical fitness and strength of children in an area in Yunnan, People's Republic of China, where soil-transmitted helminthiasis is highly endemic.The double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Children, aged 9-12 years, were treated with either triple-dose albendazole or placebo, and monitored for 6 months post-treatment. The Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques were used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. Physical fitness was assessed with a 20-m shuttle run test, where the maximum aerobic capacity within 1 min of exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate and the number of 20-m laps completed were recorded. Physical strength was determined with grip strength and standing broad jump tests. Body height and weight, the sum of skinfolds, and hemoglobin levels were recorded as secondary outcomes.Children receiving triple-dose albendazole scored slightly higher in the primary and secondary outcomes than placebo recipients, but the difference lacked statistical significance. Trichuris trichiura-infected children had 1.6 ml kg(-1 min(-1 (P = 0.02 less increase in their VO2 max estimate and completed 4.6 (P = 0.04 fewer 20-m laps than at baseline compared to non-infected peers. Similar trends were detected in the VO2 max estimate and grip strength of children infected with hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, respectively. In addition, the increase in the VO2 max estimate from baseline was consistently higher in children with low-intensity T. trichiura and hookworm infections than in their peers with high-intensity infections of all soil-transmitted helminths (range: 1.9-2.1 ml kg(-1 min(-1; all P<0.05.We found no strong evidence for significant improvements in physical fitness and anthropometric indicators due to deworming over a 6-month follow-up period

  16. Safety and efficacy of tocotrienol supplementation for bone health in postmenopausal women: protocol for a dose–response double-blinded placebo-controlled randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Mo, Huanbiao; Yang, Shengping; Wang, Shu; Felton, Carol K; Tomison, Michael D; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis is a major health concern in postmenopausal women, and oxidative stress contributes to the development of bone loss. Cellular studies and ovariectomised rat model mimicking bone loss in postmenopausal women show the bone-protective effect of tocotrienols (TTs) with antioxidant capability. We aim to access the safety and efficacy of TT consumption for bone health in postmenopausal women. Methods and analysis In this 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled trial for the effects of dietary TT supplementation in postmenopausal women, postmenopausal women aged 45 years and older with at least 1 year after menopause and bone mineral density T-score at the spine and/or hip 2.5 or more below the reference values will be randomly assigned to 3 daily supplements: (1) placebo group receiving 860 mg olive oil, (2) low TT group receiving 430 mg of 70% pure TTs (containing 300 mg TT) and (3) high TT group receiving 860 mg of 70% pure TTs (600 mg TT). The primary outcome measure will be urinary N-terminal telopeptide. The secondary outcome measures will be serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin, urinary 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine and quality of life. At 0, 6 and 12 weeks, the following will be assessed: (1) primary and secondary outcome measures; (2) serum TT and tocopherol concentrations; (3) physical activity and food frequency questionnaires. Liver function will be monitored every 6 weeks for safety. ‘Intent-to-treat’ principle will be employed for data analysis. A model of repeated measurements with random effect error terms will be applied. Analysis of covariance, χ2 analysis and regression will be used for comparisons. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. The findings of this trial will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal in the areas of bone or

  17. Amelioration of acute sequelae of blast induced mild traumatic brain injury by N-acetyl cysteine: a double-blind, placebo controlled study.

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    Michael E Hoffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI secondary to blast exposure is the most common battlefield injury in Southwest Asia. There has been little prospective work in the combat setting to test the efficacy of new countermeasures. The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC versus placebo on the symptoms associated with blast exposure mTBI in a combat setting. METHODS: This study was a randomized double blind, placebo-controlled study that was conducted on active duty service members at a forward deployed field hospital in Iraq. All symptomatic U.S. service members who were exposed to significant ordnance blast and who met the criteria for mTBI were offered participation in the study and 81 individuals agreed to participate. Individuals underwent a baseline evaluation and then were randomly assigned to receive either N-acetyl cysteine (NAC or placebo for seven days. Each subject was re-evaluated at 3 and 7 days. Outcome measures were the presence of the following sequelae of mTBI: dizziness, hearing loss, headache, memory loss, sleep disturbances, and neurocognitive dysfunction. The resolution of these symptoms seven days after the blast exposure was the main outcome measure in this study. Logistic regression on the outcome of 'no day 7 symptoms' indicated that NAC treatment was significantly better than placebo (OR = 3.6, p = 0.006. Secondary analysis revealed subjects receiving NAC within 24 hours of blast had an 86% chance of symptom resolution with no reported side effects versus 42% for those seen early who received placebo. CONCLUSION: This study, conducted in an active theatre of war, demonstrates that NAC, a safe pharmaceutical countermeasure, has beneficial effects on the severity and resolution of sequelae of blast induced mTBI. This is the first demonstration of an effective short term countermeasure for mTBI. Further work on long term outcomes and the potential use of NAC in civilian m

  18. Efavirenz 400 mg daily remains non-inferior to 600 mg: 96 week data from the double-blind, placebo-controlled ENCORE1 study

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    Dianne Carey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ENCORE1 compared the efficacy and safety of reduced versus standard dose efavirenz (EFV with tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC as first-line HIV therapy. The primary analysis at 48 weeks showed 400 mg EFV was safe and virologically non-inferior to 600 mg. This analysis explores over 96 weeks the durability of efficacy and safety. Materials and Methods: A multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial in treatment-naïve HIV-positive adults randomized to TDF/FTC plus reduced (400 mg, EFV400 or standard dose (600 mg, EFV600 EFV. The difference between proportions of participants with plasma HIV RNA (VL 200 copies/mL (p=0.47 or mean change from baseline VL (p=0.74. Mean change from baseline in CD4 T-cell counts at week 96 remained significantly higher for EFV400 than EFV600 (difference 25 cells/µL; 95% CI 2–48; p=0.03. There was no difference in the frequency or severity of AEs (EFV400 = 89.4%, EFV600 = 89.3%; difference 0.09; 95% CI −4.73 to 4.90; p=0.97. The proportions ever reporting an AE definitely or probably EFV-related were EFV400 (37.7% and EFV600 (47.9% (difference −10.2%; 95% CI −17.9 to −2.51; p=0.01. SAEs did not differ in frequency (EFV400 = 7.5%, EFV600 = 10.4%; difference −2.9%; 95% CI −7.3 to 1.6; p=0.20. Conclusions: Non-inferiority of EFV 400 mg to EFV 600 mg when combined with TDF/FTC as initial HIV therapy was confirmed at week 96. Both doses demonstrated similar safety profiles. These results support the use of a lower EFV dose as part of routine HIV management.

  19. The Efficacy and Safety of Add-on Ginko TD (Ginkgo Biloba Treatment for PTSD: Results of a 12-Week Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study

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    Laleh Koohi Habibi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Exposure to traumatic stressors lead to activation of arousal responses mediated by serotonergic and noradrenergic systems and it may cause a change in numerous neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine systems. There is ample experimental and clinical evidence to suggest that Ginkgo biloba extract is neuroprotective and has antioxidant properties and can restore stress-induced elevation in brain levels of catecholamines, 5-HT and plasma corticosterone to normal level. "nMethod: In a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the efficacy and safety of adding-on a fixed-dose (200mg of Ginkgo TD to the previous treatment regime of adults with PTSD were examined. Subjects were forty male and female outpatients from a public-owned psychiatric clinic who met criteria for PTSD seven month after a 6.3 Richter earthquake in Bam city on December 26, 2003. The changes in five symptom domains including posttraumatic stress, anxiety and affective symptoms, general health and subjective stress after trauma were ssessed at weeks 0, 12 and 16 to examine effectiveness of the added-on Ginkgo TD and stability of its effects. "nResults: Ginkgo TD was associated with a significantly greater improvement than placebo in PTSD patients as measured by five symptom domain scales including: GHQ-28; Watson PTSD Scale; HAM-D; HAM-A and IES (p= 0.02, 0.01, 0.001, 0.01, 0.02 respectively Four weeks after the discontinuation of intervention, no significant difference was determined between the two groups in the five outcome measures (p= 0.005, 0.01, 0.004, 0.005, 0.01 respectively. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of side effects. "nConclusions: We found Ginkgo TD to be superior to placebo as an adding-on in the treatment of PTSD. Although we did not examine the comparative efficacy of Ginkgo TD on the three main elements of PTSD, beneficial effects both on specific PTSD symptomatology and general conditions including

  20. Atomoxetine effects on executive function as measured by the BRIEF--a in young adults with ADHD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

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    Lenard A Adler

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of atomoxetine treatment on executive functions in young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. METHODS: In this Phase 4, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, young adults (18-30 years with ADHD were randomized to receive atomoxetine (20-50 mg BID, N = 220 or placebo (N = 225 for 12 weeks. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult (BRIEF-A consists of 75 self-report items within 9 nonoverlapping clinical scales measuring various aspects of executive functioning. Mean changes from baseline to 12-week endpoint on the BRIEF-A were analyzed using an ANCOVA model (terms: baseline score, treatment, and investigator. RESULTS: At baseline, there were no significant treatment group differences in the percentage of patients with BRIEF-A composite or index T-scores ≥60 (p>.5, with over 92% of patients having composite scores ≥60 (≥60 deemed clinically meaningful for these analyses. At endpoint, statistically significantly greater mean reductions were seen in the atomoxetine versus placebo group for the BRIEF-A Global Executive Composite (GEC, Behavioral Regulation Index (BRI, and Metacognitive Index (MI scores, as well as the Inhibit, Self-Monitor, Working Memory, Plan/Organize and Task Monitor subscale scores (p<.05, with decreases in scores signifying improvements in executive functioning. Changes in the BRIEF-A Initiate (p = .051, Organization of Materials (p = .051, Shift (p = .090, and Emotional Control (p = .219 subscale scores were not statistically significant. In addition, the validity scales: Inconsistency (p = .644, Infrequency (p = .097, and Negativity (p = .456 were not statistically significant, showing scale validity. CONCLUSION: Statistically significantly greater improvement in executive function was observed in young adults with ADHD in the atomoxetine versus placebo group as measured by changes in the BRIEF

  1. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

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    Nagatomo A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Akifumi Nagatomo,1 Norihisa Nishida,1 Ikuo Fukuhara,2 Akira Noro,3 Yoshimichi Kozai,3 Hisao Sato,3 Yoichi Matsuura1 1Research and Development Division, Morishita Jintan Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 2Fukuhara Clinic, Hokkaido, Japan; 3New Drug Research Center, Inc., Hokkaido, Japan Background: Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent antiobesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods: We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results: Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01 after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05. In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion: These results

  2. The effects of melatonin versus placebo on delirium in hip fracture patients: study protocol of a randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind trial

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    van Velde Romuald

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an ageing population, older persons become a larger part of the hospital population. The incidence of delirium is high in this group, and experiencing delirium has major short- and long-term sequelae, which makes prevention crucial. During delirium, a disruption of the sleep-wake cycle is frequently observed. Melatonin plays an important role in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, so this raised the hypothesis that alterations in the metabolism of melatonin might play an important role in the development of delirium. The aim of this article is to describe the design of a randomised, placebo controlled double-blind trial that is currently in progress and that investigates the effects of melatonin versus placebo on delirium in older, postoperative hip fracture patients. Methods/Design Acutely hospitalised patients aged 65 years or older admitted for surgical repair of hip fracture are randomised (n = 452 into a treatment or placebo group. Prophylactic treatment consists of orally administered melatonin (3 mg at 21:00 h on five consecutive days. The primary outcome is the occurrence of delirium, to be diagnosed according to the Confusion Assessment Method, within eight days after start of the study medication. Secondary outcomes are delirium severity, measured by the Delirium Rating Scale; duration of delirium; differences in subtypes of delirium; differences in total length of hospital stay; total dose of antipsychotics and/or benzodiazepine use during delirium; and in-hospital complications. In the twelve-month follow up visit, cognitive function is measured by a Mini-Mental state examination and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. Functional status is assessed with the Katz ADL index score (patient and family version and grip strength measurement. The outcomes of these assessments are compared to the outcomes that were obtained during admission. Discussion The proposed study will

  3. Skin-whitening and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione: a double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy women

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    Watanabe F

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fumiko Watanabe,1 Erika Hashizume,1 Gertrude P Chan,2 Ayako Kamimura11Healthcare Products Development Center, KYOWA HAKKO BIO CO., LTD., Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 2Clinical Trial Management and Testing Associates, Inc., Filinvest Corporate City, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, PhilippinesPurpose: Glutathione is a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glycine, and glutamate and functions as a major antioxidant. It is synthesized endogenously in humans. Glutathione protects thiol protein groups from oxidation and is involved in cellular detoxification for maintenance of the cell environment. Reduced glutathione