WorldWideScience

Sample records for blind braille readers

  1. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  2. Vibrotactile masking experiments reveal accelerated somatosensory processing in congenitally blind braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ye, Amanda J; Lisak, Joy A; Vargas, Maria G; Goldreich, Daniel

    2010-10-27

    Braille reading is a demanding task that requires the identification of rapidly varying tactile patterns. During proficient reading, neighboring characters impact the fingertip at ∼100 ms intervals, and adjacent raised dots within a character at 50 ms intervals. Because the brain requires time to interpret afferent sensorineural activity, among other reasons, tactile stimuli separated by such short temporal intervals pose a challenge to perception. How, then, do proficient Braille readers successfully interpret inputs arising from their fingertips at such rapid rates? We hypothesized that somatosensory perceptual consolidation occurs more rapidly in proficient Braille readers. If so, Braille readers should outperform sighted participants on masking tasks, which demand rapid perceptual processing, but would not necessarily outperform the sighted on tests of simple vibrotactile sensitivity. To investigate, we conducted two-interval forced-choice vibrotactile detection, amplitude discrimination, and masking tasks on the index fingertips of 89 sighted and 57 profoundly blind humans. Sighted and blind participants had similar unmasked detection (25 ms target tap) and amplitude discrimination (compared with 100 μm reference tap) thresholds, but congenitally blind Braille readers, the fastest readers among the blind participants, exhibited significantly less masking than the sighted (masker, 50 Hz, 50 μm; target-masker delays, ±50 and ±100 ms). Indeed, Braille reading speed correlated significantly and specifically with masking task performance, and in particular with the backward masking decay time constant. We conclude that vibrotactile sensitivity is unchanged but that perceptual processing is accelerated in congenitally blind Braille readers.

  3. Nasa Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    BALTIMORE - At a Tuesday ceremony at the National Federation of the Blind, NASA unveiled a new book that brings majestic images taken by its Great Observatories to the fingertips of the blind. "Touch the Invisible Sky" is a 60-page book with color images of nebulae, stars, galaxies and some of the telescopes that captured the original pictures. Each image is embossed with lines, bumps and other textures. These raised patterns translate colors, shapes and other intricate details of the cosmic objects, allowing visually impaired people to experience them. Braille and large-print descriptions accompany each of the book's 28 photographs, making the book's design accessible to readers of all visual abilities. Sample page Sample page The book contains spectacular images from the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope and powerful ground-based telescopes. The celestial objects are presented as they appear through visible-light telescopes and different spectral regions invisible to the naked eye, from radio to infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X-ray light. The book introduces the concept of light and the spectrum and explains how the different observatories complement each others' findings. Readers take a cosmic journey beginning with images of the sun, and travel out into the galaxy to visit relics of exploding and dying stars, as well as the Whirlpool galaxy and colliding Antennae galaxies. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion Black Holes Are The Rhythm at The Heart of Galaxies "Touch the Invisible Sky" was written by astronomy educator and accessibility specialist Noreen Grice of You Can Do Astronomy LLC and the Museum of Science, Boston, with authors Simon Steel, an astronomer with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and Doris Daou, an astronomer

  4. Perceptual correlates of changes in cortical representation of fingers in blind multifinger Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, A; Müller, M M; Elbert, T; Rockstroh, B; Pantev, C; Taub, E

    1998-06-01

    The mature mammalian nervous system alters its functional organization in a use-dependent manner. Enhanced stimulation of a body part enlarges its cortical representational zones and may change its topographic order. Little is known about the perceptual and behavioral relevance of these plastic alterations in cortical organization. We used blind Braille readers who use several fingers on each hand and who do so for many hours each day as a model to investigate this issue. Magnetic source imaging indicated that the cortical somatosensory representation of the fingers was frequently topographically disordered in these subjects; in addition, they frequently misperceived which of these fingers was being touched by a light tactile stimulus. In contrast, neither the disordered representation nor mislocalizations were observed in sighted controls. Blind non-teacher Braille readers who used only one finger for reading were not significantly different from the sighted controls. Thus, use-dependent cortical reorganization can be associated with functionally relevant changes in the perceptual and behavioral capacities of the individual.

  5. Electronic Braille Document Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Shahab; Holmes, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into developing a portable Braille device which would allow visually impaired individuals to read electronic documents by actuating Braille text on a finger. Braille books tend to be bulky in size due to the minimum size requirements for each Braille cell. E-books can be read in Braille using refreshable Braille displays connected to a computer. However, the refreshable Braille displays are expensive, bulky and are not portable. These factors restrict blin...

  6. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens; Schoenen, J; Gjedde, A; Kupers, R

    2008-01-01

    Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex. The number of cortical sites inducing tactile sensations appeared to be related to the number of hours of Braille reading per day, Braille reading speed and dexterity. These data, taken in conjunction with previous anatomical, behavioural and functional imaging results, suggest the presence of a polysynaptic cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical deference hypothesis.

  7. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens

    2008-01-01

    Various non-visual inputs produce cross-modal responses in the visual cortex of early blind subjects. In order to determine the qualitative experience associated with these occipital activations, we systematically stimulated the entire occipital cortex using single pulse transcranial magnetic...... cortical pathway between the somatosensory cortex and the visual cortex in early blind subjects. These results also add new evidence that the activity of the occipital lobe in the blind takes its qualitative expression from the character of its new input source, therefore supporting the cortical deference...... stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex...

  8. Uncontracted or Contracted Braille for Emergent Readers: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Charles, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the attitudes of teachers of students who are visually impaired or blind about the use of contracted or uncontracted Braille for emergent readers, the author posted a questionnaire on three electronic listservs from October through December 2002 and received responses from 40 teachers in India, Canada, the West Indies, and the United…

  9. The Role of Hand Dominance in Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the role of "hand dominance" in beginning braille readers. "Hand dominance" refers to whether an individual is "right handed" or "left handed." The data for these analyses were taken from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study). The ABC Braille Study was a five-year nonrandomized…

  10. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-03-15

    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills.

  11. Alexia for Braille following bilateral occipital stroke in an early blind woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, R; Keenan, J P; Catala, M; Pascual-Leone, A

    2000-02-07

    Recent functional imaging and neurophysiologic studies indicate that the occipital cortex may play a role in Braille reading in congenitally and early blind subjects. We report on a woman blind from birth who sustained bilateral occipital damage following an ischemic stroke. Prior to the stroke, the patient was a proficient Braille reader. Following the stroke, she was no longer able to read Braille yet her somatosensory perception appeared otherwise to be unchanged. This case supports the emerging evidence for the recruitment of striate and prestriate cortex for Braille reading in early blind subjects.

  12. Modulation of motor cortical outputs to the reading hand of braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, A; Cammarota, A; Wassermann, E M; Brasil-Neto, J P; Cohen, L G; Hallett, M

    1993-07-01

    We used focal transcranial magnetic stimulation to map the motor cortical areas targeting the first dorsal interosseous and the abductor digiti minimi muscles bilaterally in 10 proficient braille readers and 10 blind controls who were matched for age (mean, 50.6 yr) and age at time of blindness (mean, 7.5 yr). The proficient braille readers had learned braille at age 8 to 14 years and used it daily for 5 to 10 hours. Controls had not learned braille until age 17 to 21 years and used it daily for braille readers, the representation of the first dorsal interosseous muscle in the reading hand was significantly larger than that in the nonreading hand or in either hand of the controls. Conversely, the representation of the abductor digiti minimi muscle in the reading hand was significantly smaller than that in the nonreading hand or in either hand of the controls. These differences were not due to differences in motor thresholds. Our results suggest that the cortical representation of the reading finger in proficient braille readers is enlarged at the expense of the representation of other fingers.

  13. Adaptation of the Wilson Reading System for Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Roz; McCarthy, Mary; Rines, Justine Carlone

    2014-01-01

    Teachers at Perkins School for the Blind have been teaching braille to students of all ages for many years. As part of this experience, the teachers at Perkins have seen many capable students of different ages struggle to learn to read and write braille. In particular, they observed students who were unable to sound out or decode words because of…

  14. A Portable Piezoelectric Tactile Terminal for Braille Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Velázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel concept on reading assistive technologies for the blind: the TactoBook, a system that is able to translate entire electronic books (eBooks to Braille code and to reproduce them in portable electronic Braille terminals. The TactoBook consists of a computer-based translator that converts fast and automatically any eBook into Braille. The Braille version of the eBook is then encrypted as a file and stored in a USB memory drive which is later inserted and reproduced in a compact, lightweight, and highly-portable tactile terminal. In particular, this paper presents a piezoelectric ultrasonic actuation approach to design and implement such portable Braille terminal. Actuating mechanism, design concept, first prototype, and performance results are presented and discussed.

  15. Social Experiences of Beginning Braille Readers in Literacy Activities: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings of the ABC Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Sharon Z.; Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Erin, Jane N.; Barclay, Lizbeth; Sitar, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-design investigation examined the social experiences of beginning braille readers who were initially taught contracted or alphabetic braille in literacy activities as part of the ABC Braille Study. No differences in the quality or quantity of social experiences were found between the two groups over time. (Contains 4 tables.)

  16. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  17. Letter Position Coding Across Modalities: The Case of Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Methodology Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. Principal Findings We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. Conclusions The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus. PMID:23071522

  18. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. METHODOLOGY: Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. CONCLUSIONS: The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  19. A portable eBook reader for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Ramiro; Hernandez, Hermes; Preza, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and first prototype of the TactoBook system, a novel concept of reading assistive device that aims to make eBooks accessible to the blind. The TactoBook consists of a computer-based software translator that converts fast and automatically any eBook into Braille. The Braille version of the eBook is then encrypted as a file and stored in a USB memory drive which is later inserted and reproduced in a compact, lightweight, and highly-portable tactile terminal. Braille readers can store multiple eBooks in the same USB and access/reproduce them in the tactile terminal without this being plugged to a computer. The first Braille terminal developed is a 10-cell prototype based on a piezoelectric ultrasonic actuation approach. Its overall performance is quite similar to the one obtained with traditional Braille terminals. However, unlike them, the full device is only 1 kg mass and its compact dimensions (20 × 15 × 10 cm) make it easily carried by the user. A technical overview of all subsystems is presented and discussed.

  20. The role of reading activity on the modulation of motor cortical outputs to the reading hand in Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, A; Wassermann, E M; Sadato, N; Hallett, M

    1995-12-01

    We studied the cortical motor output maps of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) of both hands and the abductor digiti minimi of the reading hand in 6 blind proficient Braille readers. The maps were generated using transcranial magnetic stimulation. We compared the maps obtained on a day in which they worked as Braille proofreaders (reading Braille for approximately 6 hours) with the maps obtained on a day they took off from work. On the work day, the maps for the FDI of the reading hand were significantly larger after the working shift than in the morning after having been off work for 2 days. These changes were not seen for the same muscle on the day off work or on any of the 2 days in the other two muscles studied. These results illustrate the rapid modulation in motor cortical outputs in relation to preceding activity and emphasize the importance of precise timing in studies of the neurophysiological correlates of skill acquisition.

  1. A system for tracking braille readers using a Wii Remote and a refreshable braille display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranyanak, Inthraporn; Reilly, Ronan G

    2013-03-01

    This article describes a cheap and easy-to-use finger-tracking system for studying braille reading. It provides improved spatial and temporal resolution over the current available solutions and can be used with either a refreshable braille display or braille-embossed paper. In conjunction with a refreshable braille display, the tracking system has the unique capacity to implement display-change paradigms derived from sighted reading research. This will allow researchers to probe skilled braille reading in significantly more depth than has heretofore been possible.

  2. The Unified English Braille Code: Examination by Science, Mathematics, and Computer Science Technical Expert Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, M. Cay; MacCuspie, P. Ann

    2010-01-01

    Braille-reading mathematicians, scientists, and computer scientists were asked to examine the usability of the Unified English Braille Code (UEB) for technical materials. They had little knowledge of the code prior to the study. The research included two reading tasks, a short tutorial about UEB, and a focus group. The results indicated that the…

  3. Differential Cognitive and Perceptual Correlates of Print Reading versus Braille Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2013-01-01

    The relations between reading, auditory, speech, phonological and tactile spatial processing are investigated in a Dutch speaking sample of blind braille readers as compared to sighted print readers. Performance is assessed in blind and sighted children and adults. Regarding phonological ability, braille readers perform equally well compared to…

  4. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  5. Braille alexia during visual hallucination in a blind man with selective calcarine atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kengo; Yasuda, Hitoshi; Haneda, Masakazu; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2003-04-01

    The case of a 56-year-old man who has been blind for 25 years due to retinal degeneration is herein described. The patient complained of elementary visual hallucination, during which it was difficult for him to read Braille. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed marked atrophy of the bilateral striate cortex. Visual hallucination as a release phenomenon of the primary visual cortex has never been reported to cause alexia for Braille. The present case supports the results of recent functional imaging studies of the recruitment of striate and prestriate cortex for Braille reading.

  6. Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

    2012-02-15

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection.

  7. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  8. Braille Makes a Comeback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    A few decades ago, Braille was on the wane. Technology was seen as likely to replace the tactile communication method, as text-to-speech readers and recorded books, for example, offered access to classroom materials. Students at special schools for the blind moved into regular classrooms, which are rich in text, but not text that is accessible to…

  9. Adaptive changes in early and late blind: a fMRI study of Braille reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, H; Snyder, A Z; Conturo, T E; Akbudak, E; Ollinger, J M; Raichle, M E

    2002-01-01

    Braille reading depends on remarkable adaptations that connect the somatosensory system to language. We hypothesized that the pattern of cortical activations in blind individuals reading Braille would reflect these adaptations. Activations in visual (occipital-temporal), frontal-language, and somatosensory cortex in blind individuals reading Braille were examined for evidence of differences relative to previously reported studies of sighted subjects reading print or receiving tactile stimulation. Nine congenitally blind and seven late-onset blind subjects were studied with fMRI as they covertly performed verb generation in response to reading Braille embossed nouns. The control task was reading the nonlexical Braille string "######". This study emphasized image analysis in individual subjects rather than pooled data. Group differences were examined by comparing magnitudes and spatial extent of activated regions first determined to be significant using the general linear model. The major adaptive change was robust activation of visual cortex despite the complete absence of vision in all subjects. This included foci in peri-calcarine, lingual, cuneus and fusiform cortex, and in the lateral and superior occipital gyri encompassing primary (V1), secondary (V2), and higher tier (VP, V4v, LO and possibly V3A) visual areas previously identified in sighted subjects. Subjects who never had vision differed from late blind subjects in showing even greater activity in occipital-temporal cortex, provisionally corresponding to V5/MT and V8. In addition, the early blind had stronger activation of occipital cortex located contralateral to the hand used for reading Braille. Responses in frontal and parietal cortex were nearly identical in both subject groups. There was no evidence of modifications in frontal cortex language areas (inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Surprisingly, there was also no evidence of an adaptive expansion of the somatosensory or

  10. rTMS of the occipital cortex abolishes Braille reading and repetition priming in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupers, R; Pappens, M; de Noordhout, A Maertens; Schoenen, J; Ptito, M; Fumal, A

    2007-02-27

    To study the functional involvement of the visual cortex in Braille reading, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over midoccipital (MOC) and primary somatosensory (SI) cortex in blind subjects. After rTMS of MOC, but not SI, subjects made significantly more errors and showed an abolishment of the improvement in reading speed following repetitive presentation of the same word list, suggesting a role of the visual cortex in repetition priming in the blind.

  11. Unified English Braille in the United Kingdom: Part 2--Examination by Literary Braille Users, Braille Teachers, and Transcribers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Heather; Home, Sarah; Morley Wilkins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    To inform decision-making around the adoption of the Unified English Braille (UEB) code in the United Kingdom, a suite of research was carried out. This study involved a variety of braille stakeholders--student braille readers (in full time education), adult braille readers, braille teachers, and braille transcribers. Participants were sent…

  12. Functional asymmetry in sensory discrimination in visually blind and its association to braille reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan P.Choraghe

    2015-12-01

    Results: Most participants (n=44 chose finger from right hand as preferred finger for braille reading; this was unrelated to motor handedness. In visually blind population average values of 2PD in right hand was significantly (p<0.001 less than right. In normal visioned subjects there was no significant difference in sensory discrimination between right and left hand. Conclusions: Due to presence of language areas in left hemisphere (90-92% of people, all our language related modalities are inclined toward left hemisphere. Here we proved that blind people prefer right hand over left hand while reading written braille language and thus have better sensory discrimination for same. Previous studies have shown that blindness itself acts as stimulus to activate latent pathways (cross-modal plasticity between somatosensory cortex, visual cortex and language areas. Overall we tried to prove brain is hardwired to do all language related activities preferably with right hand. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3530-3533

  13. Differences in two-point discrimination and sensory threshold in the blind between braille and text reading: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated two-point discrimination (TPD) and the electrical sensory threshold of the blind to define the effect of using Braille on the tactile and electrical senses. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight blind participants were divided equally into a text-reading and a Braille-reading group. We measured tactile sensory and electrical thresholds using the TPD method and a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator. [Results] The left palm TPD values were significantly different between the groups. The values of the electrical sensory threshold in the left hand, the electrical pain threshold in the left hand, and the electrical pain threshold in the right hand were significantly lower in the Braille group than in the text group. [Conclusion] These findings make it difficult to explain the difference in tactility between groups, excluding both palms. However, our data show that using Braille can enhance development of the sensory median nerve in the blind, particularly in terms of the electrical sensory and pain thresholds.

  14. Acquisition of Literacy Skills by Young Children Who Are Blind: Results from the ABC Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Holbrook, M. Cay; D'Andrea, Frances Mary

    2009-01-01

    The Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study examined the reading and writing skills of young braille-reading students. Students who were introduced to more contractions earlier in instruction performed better on reading measures, such as vocabulary, decoding, and comprehension, but all students did well in spelling. Thus, the authors…

  15. Studies of Braille Reading Rates and Implications for the Unified English Braille Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Robin; Knowlton, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Reading rate data was collected from both print and braille readers in the areas of mathematics and literary braille. Literary braille data was collected for contracted and uncontracted braille text with dropped whole-word contractions and part-word contractions as they would appear in the Unified English Braille Code. No significant differences…

  16. Image Steganography Technique By Using Braille Method of Blind People (LSBraille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmgeid Amin Ali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity. Steganography is a Greek origin word which means “hidden writing”. Steganography word is classified into two parts: steganos which means “secret or covered” (where you want to hide the secret messages and the graphic which means “writing” (text. It can be defined as the art of hiding the fact that communication is taking place, by hiding information in other information. Many different carrier file formats can be used, but digital images are the most popular. In this paper, a new image steganography method is proposed. The proposed method hides the secret message inside the cover image by representing the secret message characters using Braille method of reading and writing for blind people that can save more than one-fourth of the required space for embedding. From the experimental results it is seen that the proposed method achieves higher visual quality as indicated by the high peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR in spite of hiding a large number of secret bits in the image.

  17. Paperless Braille Reading: A Preliminary Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, M.; Ashcroft, S. C.

    The study involving three blind elementary school, six blind high school, and four blind college students was designed to establish oral reading rates and oral reading error rates for Ss reading conventional braille volumes and brailled materials with the Digi-cassette, an electronic braille reading and writing machine. Data suggested several…

  18. The continuing quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Noel H.; Blazie, Deane B.

    2011-10-01

    The Boston-based National Braille Press has established a Center for Braille Innovation (CBI), whose mission is to research and develop affordable braille literacy products. The primary focus has been to facilitate the development of dramatically lower cost electronic braille display devices, and the much-sought-after "Holy Braille" of a full-page electronic braille display. Developing affordable new braille technologies is crucial to improving the extremely low braille literacy rate (around 12%) of blind students. Our CBI team is working to aid developers of braille technology by focusing attention and resources on the development of the underlying braille actuator technologies. We are also developing braille-related information resources to aid braille display developers. The CBI braille requirements summary (available through the NBP website (http://www.nbp.org) is one of these resources. The braille specifications include braille dot dimensions, spacing, displacement, lifting force, and response time requirements. In addition, mentoring, helping to evaluate new braille display ideas, and openly sharing braille display technology are all part of the activities of the NBP braille innovation team. NBP has expanded the CBI project with domestic and international partners including the China Braille Press, World Braille Foundation, National Federation of the Blind, American Printing House for the Blind, American Foundation for the Blind, and many university and research partners.

  19. 基于51单片机的盲文助读器系统设计%A Design of Braille Reader System Based on Microcontroller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦明; 李文景; 陈红梅; 骈根

    2015-01-01

    因盲文书籍价格高,盲文出版物的品种和数量有限,难以满足我国900万盲人的阅读需求。设计了一种以微型步进电机为主体、PC机作上位机、单片机作主机和从机的盲文助读器,能将电子版的文字转化为盲文凸起形式。%Because of the high price of books in braille and the limited quantity of braille publications ,it’s very difficult to meet nine million blind people’s reading demands .In this paper ,a kind of braille read device is designed ,which makes miniature stepper motors as the main components ,a computer as the upper ,several microcontrollers as master and slave computers ,transforming the words of electronic version into braille convex form .

  20. Jean Langlais (1907-91): an historical case of a blind organist with stroke-induced aphasia and Braille alexia but without amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C A H; Larner, A J

    2008-11-01

    The subject of a prior report of a blind organist with aphasia and Braille alexia without amusia, published in French, has been identified as Jean Langlais. His artistic and medical history is presented, the latter via translation of the original 1987 paper.

  1. Teaching Beginning Braille Reading Using an Alphabet or Uncontracted Braille Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Janice Neibaur; McDonnell, Andrea P.; O'Neill, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using a research based print reading program modified to accommodate beginning braille readers using an alphabet or uncontracted braille reading approach with five beginning braille readers. Four of the 5 participants displayed a clear increase in their ability to read high frequency words when they began using…

  2. Unified English Braille in the United Kingdom: Part 1--Examination by Technical Expert Braille Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Heather; Home, Sarah; Morley Wilkins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The Unified English Braille (UEB) code has already been adopted by various countries. To inform the decision about UK adoption, a suite of research was carried out with UK braille readers and other stakeholders. Previous research indicates that readers of technical braille codes may be most affected by a move to UEB. In this study, six technical…

  3. Braille Touch : Mobile Touchscreen Text Entry for the Visually Impaired

    OpenAIRE

    Southern, Caleb; CLawson, James; Frey, Brian; Abowd, Gregory; Romero, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We present a demonstration of BrailleTouch, an accessible keyboard for blind users on a touchscreen smartphone (see Figure 1). Based on the standard Perkins Brailler, BrailleTouch implements a six-key chorded braille soft keyboard [1]. We will briefly introduce audience members to the braille code, and then allow them to hold the BrailleTouch prototype and enter text, with the aid of a visual chart of the braille alphabet. QC 20160418

  4. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  5. Procedural Adaptations for Use of Constant Time Delay to Teach Highly Motivating Words to Beginning Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Guerra, Jennifer A.; Hatton, Deborah D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay is an evidence-based practice to teach sight word recognition to students with a variety of disabilities. To date, two studies have documented its effectiveness for teaching braille. Methods: Using a multiple-baseline design, we evaluated the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach highly motivating words to…

  6. Hand Movements and Braille Reading Efficiency: Data from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa; Wormsley, Diane P.; Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Using a subset of data from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study, researchers analyzed the patterns and characteristics of hand movements as predictors of reading performance. Statistically significant differences were found between one- and two-handed readers and between patterns of hand movements and reading rates. (Contains 6…

  7. Biography of louis braille and invention of the braille alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Javier; Olea, Jesús; Torres, Jesús; Alonso, Inmaculada; Harder, Dirk; Fischer, Konstanze

    2009-01-01

    Louis Braille (1809-1852) was born in France. At the age of three, he wounded his right eye with a cobbler's tool while playing in his father's workshop. No medical knowledge could save his eyesight at that time. Louis's left eye became inflamed, apparently due to subsequent sympathetic ophthalmia, and he eventually lost the sight in that eye. At the age of five, Louis Braille was completely blind. He is considered to be the inventor of a writing system by touch that bears his name, the Braille system. This revolutionary system has allowed blind people to access written culture, and it can therefore be considered a major advance in the quality of life for the blind. The immediate precursor of the invention of the Braille system was the alphabet created by Charles Barbier de la Serre (1767-1841) who created a language by touch designed for military and secret use. Louis Braille modified this alphabet into the Braille alphabet, which is practically the same one that is currently used. It required time to be recognized and to be implemented as a reading and writing method for blind people throughout the world. In 1950, UNESCO effectively universalized the Braille alphabet, and in 2005 it recognized Braille system as a "vital language of communication, as legitimate as all other languages in the world."

  8. Behavioural and electrophysiological effects related to semantic violations during braille reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyn, Vania; Lim, Vanessa K; Hamm, Jeff P; Mathur, Ashwin; Hughes, Barry

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the potential to detect event related potentials (ERPs) occurring in response to a specific task in braille reading. This would expand current methodologies for studying the cognitive processes underlying braille reading. An N400 effect paradigm was utilised, whereby proficient blind braille readers read congruent- and incongruent-ending braille sentences. Kinematic and electroencephalography (EEG) data were obtained simultaneously and synchronised. The ERPs differed between the incongruent and congruent sentences in a manner consistent with the N400 effect found with a previous sighted reading paradigm, demonstrating that ERPs can be obtained during braille reading. The frequency of finger reversals and the degree of intermittency in the finger velocity were significantly higher when reading incongruent versus congruent sentence endings. Both reversals and the potential N400 effect may reflect processes involved in semantic unification. These findings have significant implications for the modelling of braille reading. The refinement of the technique will enable other ERPs to be identified and related to behavioural responses, to further our understanding of the braille reading process.

  9. BrailleEasy: One-handed Braille Keyboard for Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepić, Barbara; Ghanem, Abdurrahman; Vogel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of mobile technology is moving at a very fast pace. Smartphones are currently considered a primary communication platform where people exchange voice calls, text messages and emails. The human-smartphone interaction, however, is generally optimized for sighted people through the use of visual cues on the touchscreen, e.g., typing text by tapping on a visual keyboard. Unfortunately, this interaction scheme renders smartphone technology largely inaccessible to visually impaired people as it results in slow typing and higher error rates. Apple and some third party applications provide solutions specific to blind people which enables them to use Braille on smartphones. These applications usually require both hands for typing. However, Brailling with both hands while holding the phone is not very comfortable. Furthermore, two-handed Brailling is not possible on smartwatches, which will be used more pervasively in the future. Therefore, we develop a platform for one-handed Brailing consisting of a custom keyboard called BrailleEasy to input Arabic or English Braille codes within any application, and a BrailleTutor application for practicing. Our platform currently supports Braille grade 1, and will be extended to support contractions, spelling correction, and more languages. Preliminary analysis of user studies for blind participants showed that after less than two hours of practice, participants were able to type significantly faster with the BrailleEasy keyboard than with the standard QWERTY keyboard.

  10. Translator program converts computer printout into braille language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. A.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program converts print image tape files into six dot Braille cells, enabling a blind computer programmer to monitor and evaluate data generated by his own programs. The Braille output is printed 8 lines per inch.

  11. Parallel versus Sequential Processing in Print and Braille Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2012-01-01

    In the current study we investigated word, pseudoword and story reading in Dutch speaking braille and print readers. To examine developmental patterns, these reading skills were assessed in both children and adults. The results reveal that braille readers read less accurately and fast than print readers. While item length has no impact on word…

  12. Letter position coding across modalities: braille and sighted reading of sentences with jumbled words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    This article explores how letter position coding is attained during braille reading and its implications for models of word recognition. When text is presented visually, the reading process easily adjusts to the jumbling of some letters (jugde-judge), with a small cost in reading speed. Two explanations have been proposed: One relies on a general mechanism of perceptual uncertainty at the visual level, and the other focuses on the activation of an abstract level of representation (i.e., bigrams) that is shared by all orthographic codes. Thus, these explanations make differential predictions about reading in a tactile modality. In the present study, congenitally blind readers read sentences presented on a braille display that tracked the finger position. The sentences either were intact or involved letter transpositions. A parallel experiment was conducted in the visual modality. Results revealed a substantially greater reading cost for the sentences with transposed-letter words in braille readers. In contrast with the findings with sighted readers, in which there is a cost of transpositions in the external (initial and final) letters, the reading cost in braille readers occurs serially, with a large cost for initial letter transpositions. Thus, these data suggest that the letter-position-related effects in visual word recognition are due to the characteristics of the visual stream.

  13. Touchable Online Braille Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooseob Jeong

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of a touchable online Braille generator has been developed for the visually impaired or blind using force feedback technology, which has been used in video games for years. Without expensive devices, this prototype allows blind people to access information on the Web by touching output Braille displays with a force feedback mouse. The data collected from user studies conducted with blind participants has provided valuable information about the optimal conditions for the use of the prototype. The end product of this research will enable visually impaired people to enjoy information on the Web more freely.

  14. Teaching Braille Line Tracking Using Stimulus Fading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Line tracking is a prerequisite skill for braille literacy that involves moving one's finger horizontally across a line of braille text and identifying when a line ends so the reader may reset his or her finger on the subsequent line. Current procedures for teaching line tracking are incomplete, because they focus on tracking lines with only…

  15. How the Blind “See” Braille and the Deaf “Hear” Sign: Lessons from fMRI on the Cross-Modal Plasticity, Integration, and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Sadato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available What does the visual cortex of the blind do during Braille reading? This process involves converting simple tactile information into meaningful patterns that have lexical and semantic properties. The perceptual processing of Braille might be mediated by the somatosensory system, whereas visual letter identity is accomplished within the visual system in sighted people. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled exploration of the neural substrates of Braille reading (Sadato et al. 1996, 1998, 2002, Cohen et al. 1997, 1999. The primary visual cortex of early-onset blind subjects is functionally relevant to Braille reading, suggesting that the brain shows remarkable plasticity that potentially permits the additional processing of tactile information in the visual cortical areas. Similar cross-modal plasticity is observed by the auditory deprivation: Sign language activates the auditory cortex of deaf subjects (Neville et al. 1999, Nishimura et al. 1999, Sadato et al. 2004. Cross-modal activation can be seen in the sighted and hearing subjects. For example, the tactile shape discrimination of two dimensional (2D shapes (Mah-Jong tiles activated the visual cortex by expert players (Saito et al. 2006, and the lip-reading (visual phonetics (Sadato et al. 2004 or key touch reading by pianists (Hasegawa et al. 2004 activates the auditory cortex of hearing subjects. Thus the cross-modal plasticity by sensory deprivation and cross-modal integration through the learning may share their neural substrates. To clarify the distribution of the neural substrates and their dynamics during cross-modal association learning within several hours, we conducted audio-visual paired association learning of delayed-matching-to-sample type tasks (Tanabe et al. 2005. Each trial consisted of the successive presentation of a pair of stimuli. Subjects had to find pre-defined audio-visual or visuo-visual pairs in a trial and error manner with feedback in

  16. Braille Reading Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Two proposed electromechanical systems for making braille characters produced relatively inexpensively. Similar in operating principle to dotmatrix printers, two methods use electronically actuated pins to reproduce characters from information stored on magnetic tape. First, one or more pins scanned over blank page and energized at intervals to emboss text on paper, one or more dots at time. Second, handheld device containing one or more character-generator cells used by reader to scan lines of text manually.

  17. STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: BRAILLE READING RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojichikj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison reading performance was done between 8 students who are using Braille and 14 students who are using enlarged print to read. Reading performance was determined using reading rate (words per minute, wpm. Reading rate results showed no significant difference (p>0.05 between those using the Braille (16.62±11.61 wpm and those using the enlarged print (27.21±24.89 wpm. This study has shown that Braille reader students read at lower reading rate compared to print reader students with visual impairment.

  18. Study on Braille Input Output Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Padmavathi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This document is about the Braille devices .there nearly 45 to 50 million are many people in the world who are blind and more than 269 who visually impaired. before the inversion of Braille device blind people cannot able to read or gain knowledge through reading Louis Braille is the person who invented the device called Braille which became popular by the usage ,nowadays there are many devices arrived in this world to solve the visually impaired peoples problem not only we can use such devices but also we can reduce the cost by combining various techniques. This paper is about the various Braille devices and their methods or their combination to make them cost effective.

  19. Methods for Presenting Braille Characters on a Mobile Device with a Touchscreen and Tactile Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, J; Raisamo, R; Lylykangas, J; Surakka, V; Raisamo, J; Salminen, K; Pakkanen, T; Hippula, A

    2009-01-01

    Three novel interaction methods were designed for reading six-dot Braille characters from the touchscreen of a mobile device. A prototype device with a piezoelectric actuator embedded under the touchscreen was used to create tactile feedback. The three interaction methods, scan, sweep, and rhythm, enabled users to read Braille characters one at a time either by exploring the characters dot by dot or by sensing a rhythmic pattern presented on the screen. The methods were tested with five blind Braille readers as a proof of concept. The results of the first experiment showed that all three methods can be used to convey information as the participants could accurately (91-97 percent) recognize individual characters. In the second experiment the presentation rate of the most efficient and preferred method, the rhythm, was varied. A mean recognition accuracy of 70 percent was found when the speed of presenting a single character was nearly doubled from the first experiment. The results showed that temporal tactile feedback and Braille coding can be used to transmit single-character information while further studies are still needed to evaluate the presentation of serial information, i.e., multiple Braille characters.

  20. EAP actuators aid the quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Noel; Blazie, Deane

    2010-04-01

    The authors present the worldwide need for electronic Braille displays to promote literacy among the blind. The use of of EAP's to produce Braille displays is encouraged and detailed descriptions of the technology of Braille are presented. Prior art is covered since the early 1950's through present day displays based mostly on piezoelectric technologies. EAP's offer the promise of the "Holy Braille", the ability to display a full page of Braille electronically. Details on "how not to make a Braille display" are covered in prior art.

  1. Movement Kinematics of the Braille-Reading Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barry

    2011-01-01

    A new means of measuring the movement properties of the braille-reading finger is described and exemplified in an experiment in which experienced readers of braille encountered sentences comprised of keywords in which word and orthographic frequencies were manipulated. These new data are considered in theoretical and practical terms. (Contains 2…

  2. Tactile Perception and Braille Letter Recognition: Effects of Developmental Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Sally S.

    1978-01-01

    The extent to which a developmental program of tactile perception and braille letter recognition would affect errors in these abilities and reduce scrubbing and backtracking behaviors of 30 legally blind braille users (5-15 years old) was studied. (Author/BD)

  3. [Louis Braille (1809-1852)--inventor of raised dots system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewicz, Piotr; Kopacz, Dorota

    2005-01-01

    Louis Braille was born on January 4th 1809 in Coupvray, France. An injury to his eye at the age of three, resulted in total loss of vision. In 1819 he entered the Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. There he would live, study, and later teach. When he was fifteen, he developed system of reading and writing by means of raised dots, which is known today as Braille. The basis of the Braille system is known as a Braille cell. The cell is comprised of six dots numbered in a specific order. Each dot or combination of dots represents a letter of the alphabet. This Braille system has established itself internationally and formed the basic Braille for all languages.

  4. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, A.; Graffigna, J. P.; Polimeni, G.; Fernández, H. H.

    2007-11-01

    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system.

  5. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acerbi, A; Graffigna, J P; Polimeni, G; Fernandez, H H [Gabinete de Tecnologia Medica, Fac. de Ingenieria, Universidad Nac. de San Juan Av Libertador San Martin 1109(O), J5400ARL, San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system.

  6. Resources and Information for Parents about Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Resources and Information for Parents About Braille Learning Braille The following are resources that teach the ... music braille, grade three braille, and Spanish and German braille codes. They also sell the official code ...

  7. A New Approach for Hardware Control Procedure Used in Braille Glove Vibration System for Disabled Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Shivakumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To help the deaf and blind people benefit from the latest computer technology, by means of a vibrating hand glove, this is connected to a computer using hardware control procedures and a screen input program for communication purposes. The vibrations in six different positions in the hand glove match the Braille code. So the blind person can understand the characters of English language. In this study it explains the software design of English text to Braille code conversion, Hardware design of Braille Hand glove, Braille equivalent vibrations in six different positions in the Braille glove using hardware control procedure numbers and how it is tested using Chi-square test. Braille is an important language used by the visually impaired to read and write. It is vital for communication and educational purposes. This study puts forward the new idea for the benefit of deaf and blind people, who prefer to work in computer environment.

  8. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Bola

    Full Text Available Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.

  9. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.

  10. Evaluation of the modified braille dots printed with the UV ink-jet technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raša Urbas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Braille presents a complex system of writing with additional symbols and letters designating numbers, capital letters and other special symbols in mathematics, physics, music etc. Due to mentioned braille texts are usually very long, bulky, space consuming and complex. In this research a study of modified braille dots is presented. Samples were prepared in several different steps, enabling the determination of the optimal braille dot height on top which additional elements were printed. Properties of ordinary braille dot samples and braille dot samples printed with additional element were compared and analyzed. An extensive sensory analysis with blind and visually impaired people was performed for establishing weather modified braille dots can be tactile recognized and used in practice.

  11. The Development of Phonological Awareness by Braille Users: A Review of the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Martin R.; Bowen, Sandy K.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of research on the development of phonological awareness by braille readers. The review determined that the relationship between phonological awareness and braille is uncertain because of the lack of commonality among the studies, the extent of contradictory findings, and the small number of studies involving…

  12. Electrocutaneous stimulation system for Braille reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenique, Ana Maria; Graffigna, Juan Pablo; Mut, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This work is an assistive technology for people with visual disabilities and aims to facilitate access to written information in order to achieve better social inclusion and integration into work and educational activities. Two methods of electrical stimulation (by current and voltage) of the mechanoreceptors was tested to obtain tactile sensations on the fingertip. Current and voltage stimulation were tested in a Braille cell and line prototype, respectively. These prototypes are evaluated in 33 blind and visually impaired subjects. The result of experimentation with both methods showed that electrical stimulation causes sensations of touch defined in the fingertip. Better results in the Braille characters reading were obtained with current stimulation (85% accuracy). However this form of stimulation causes uncomfortable sensations. The latter feeling was minimized with the method of voltage stimulation, but with low efficiency (50% accuracy) in terms of identification of the characters. We concluded that electrical stimulation is a promising method for the development of a simple and unexpensive Braille reading system for blind people. We observed that voltage stimulation is preferred by the users. However, more experimental tests must be carry out in order to find the optimum values of the stimulus parameters and increase the accuracy the Braille characters reading.

  13. The nature of working memory for Braille.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Cohen

    Full Text Available Blind individuals have been shown on multiple occasions to compensate for their loss of sight by developing exceptional abilities in their remaining senses. While most research has been focused on perceptual abilities per se in the auditory and tactile modalities, recent work has also investigated higher-order processes involving memory and language functions. Here we examined tactile working memory for Braille in two groups of visually challenged individuals (completely blind subjects, CBS; blind with residual vision, BRV. In a first experimental procedure both groups were given a Braille tactile memory span task with and without articulatory suppression, while the BRV and a sighted group performed a visual version of the task. It was shown that the Braille tactile working memory (BrWM of CBS individuals under articulatory suppression is as efficient as that of sighted individuals' visual working memory in the same condition. Moreover, the results suggest that BrWM may be more robust in the CBS than in the BRV subjects, thus pointing to the potential role of visual experience in shaping tactile working memory. A second experiment designed to assess the nature (spatial vs. verbal of this working memory was then carried out with two new CBS and BRV groups having to perform the Braille task concurrently with a mental arithmetic task or a mental displacement of blocks task. We show that the disruption of memory was greatest when concurrently carrying out the mental displacement of blocks, indicating that the Braille tactile subsystem of working memory is likely spatial in nature in CBS. The results also point to the multimodal nature of working memory and show how experience can shape the development of its subcomponents.

  14. The nature of working memory for Braille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Henri; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco; Scherzer, Peter

    2010-05-26

    Blind individuals have been shown on multiple occasions to compensate for their loss of sight by developing exceptional abilities in their remaining senses. While most research has been focused on perceptual abilities per se in the auditory and tactile modalities, recent work has also investigated higher-order processes involving memory and language functions. Here we examined tactile working memory for Braille in two groups of visually challenged individuals (completely blind subjects, CBS; blind with residual vision, BRV). In a first experimental procedure both groups were given a Braille tactile memory span task with and without articulatory suppression, while the BRV and a sighted group performed a visual version of the task. It was shown that the Braille tactile working memory (BrWM) of CBS individuals under articulatory suppression is as efficient as that of sighted individuals' visual working memory in the same condition. Moreover, the results suggest that BrWM may be more robust in the CBS than in the BRV subjects, thus pointing to the potential role of visual experience in shaping tactile working memory. A second experiment designed to assess the nature (spatial vs. verbal) of this working memory was then carried out with two new CBS and BRV groups having to perform the Braille task concurrently with a mental arithmetic task or a mental displacement of blocks task. We show that the disruption of memory was greatest when concurrently carrying out the mental displacement of blocks, indicating that the Braille tactile subsystem of working memory is likely spatial in nature in CBS. The results also point to the multimodal nature of working memory and show how experience can shape the development of its subcomponents.

  15. Argonne Braille Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, A.

    1977-07-01

    Development of a braille machine is summarized. It is noted that the machine has reached the stage where development of the system appears both possible and desirable. Sections are included containing papers on computer translation and auxiliary equipment, and on letters and awards in recognition of the braille machine development. (JRD)

  16. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica. Universidad N. de San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  17. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, A.; Purés, P.; Echenique, A. M.; Ensinck, J. P. Graffigna y. G.

    2007-11-01

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  18. Design of a Braille Learning Application for Visually Impaired Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Lutfun; Jaafar, Azizah; Ahamed, Eistiak; Kaish, A B M A

    2015-01-01

    Visually impaired students (VIS) are unable to get visual information, which has made their learning process complicated. This paper discusses the overall situation of VIS in Bangladesh and identifies major challenges that they are facing in getting education. The Braille system is followed to educate blind students in Bangladesh. However, lack of Braille based educational resources and technological solutions have made the learning process lengthy and complicated for VIS. As a developing country, Bangladesh cannot afford for the costly Braille related technological tools for VIS. Therefore, a mobile phone based Braille application, "mBRAILLE", for Android platform is designed to provide an easy Braille learning technology for VIS in Bangladesh. The proposed design is evaluated by experts in assistive technology for students with disabilities, and advanced learners of Braille. The application aims to provide a Bangla and English Braille learning platform for VIS. In this paper, we depict iterative (participatory) design of the application along with a preliminary evaluation with 5 blind subjects, and 1 sighted and 2 blind experts. The results show that the design scored an overall satisfaction level of 4.53 out of 5 by all respondents, indicating that our design is ready for the next step of development.

  19. On the Nonsmooth, Nonconstant Velocity of Braille Reading and Reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barry; McClelland, Amber; Henare, Dion

    2014-01-01

    Relative to print reading, braille-reading finger movements are held to be of more constant speed, with continuous and exhaustive contact with all words. However, the continuity of movements is intermittent in two distinct ways: (a) readers reverse direction and reread material already encountered and (b) the continual fluctuations of velocity…

  20. General Education Teachers' Ratings of the Academic Engagement Level of Students Who Read Braille: A Comparison with Sighted Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardin, Julie A.; Lewis, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    English and language arts teachers of braille-reading students in general education classes rated these students' academic engagement and the academic achievement of low- and average-achieving sighted students in the same classrooms. The braille readers were found to be statistically similar to the low-achieving students with regard to effort,…

  1. Reading visual braille with a retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Thomas Z; Harris, Jordan; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, Jose A; Dorn, Jessy D; McClure, Kelly; Greenberg, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10 × 6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10 × 6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera) to create visual percepts of individual braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time) in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual braille in retinal prosthesis patients.

  2. Reading visual Braille with a retinal prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zaccarin Lauritzen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual Braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10 x 6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the Braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual Braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10 x 6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera to create visual percepts of individual Braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual Braille in retinal prosthesis patients.

  3. Dot Detection of Braille Images Using A Mixture of Beta Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Al-Saleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Braille is a tactile format of written communication for people with low vision and blindness worldwide. Optical Braille Recognition (OBR offers many benefits to Braille users and people who work with them. Approach: This study presents an algorithm for detecting dots composing braille characters in an image of embossed braille material obtained by an optical scanner. We assumed that a mixture of Beta distributions could model the histogram of a scanned braille document. The core of the proposed method was the use of stability of thresholding with Beta distribution to initiate the process of thresholds estimation. Segmented Braille image was used to form a grid that contains recto dots and another one that contains verso dots. Results: Braille dots composing characters on both singlesided and double-sided documents were automatically identified from those grids with excellent accuracy. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different scanned Braille document images.

  4. Helping To Integrate The Visually Challenged Into Mainstream Society Through A Low-Cost Braille Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée Jordan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The visually challenged are often alienated from mainstream society because of their disabilities. This problem is even more pronounced in developing countries which often do not have the resources necessary to integrate this people group into their communities or even help them to become independent. It should therefore be the aim of governments in developing countries to provide this vulnerable people group with access to assistive technologies at a low cost. This paper describes an ongoing project that aims to provide low-cost assistive technologies to the visually challenged in Barbados. As a part of this project a study was conducted on a sample of visually challenged members of the Barbados Association for the Blind and Deaf to determine their ICT skills, knowledge of Braille and their use of assistive technologies. An analysis of the results prompted the design and creation of a low-cost Braille device prototype. The cost of this prototype was about one-half that of a commercially available device and can be used without a screen reader. This device should help create equal opportunities for the visually challenged in Barbados and other developing countries. It should also allow the visually challenged to become more independent.

  5. Can Braille be revived? A possible impact of high-end Braille and mainstream technology on the revival of tactile literacy medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiazowski, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    With a decline in use of Braille, very few attractive technological options can be offered to young learners. Various research data confirm that teachers of the visually impaired do not have sufficient skills to introduce their students to modern devices. The Mountbatten Brailler can be considered as a tool that combines Braille technology with mainstream tools commonly used by students and teachers. This combination of devices opens new possibilities for the teachers and their students to reverse the trend in the use of Braille. Thanks to features offered by the Brailler and iOS devices, sighted and blind users receive a tool for unimpaired written communication.

  6. Nem toda pessoa cega lê em Braille nem toda pessoa surda se comunica em língua de sinais Not every blind person reads Braille and not every deaf person knows sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Fátima Torres

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi definido tendo como objetivo discutir e explicitar algumas das diferenças existentes, quanto ao acesso à informação e à comunicação, entre aquelas pessoas que, embora possuam deficiências semelhantes, vivenciam discapacidades diferentes. O recorte metodológico aplicado foca especificamente as pessoas com deficiência visual e as com deficiência auditiva, não simultâneas, com ênfase às pessoas com surdez e às com cegueira. O arcabouço conceitual utilizado é o mesmo que o adotado pela classificação CIF-OMS, sendo o referencial teórico complementado com os aportes de outros autores que desenvolvem estudos relacionados com o tema da discapacidade. Além das pesquisas bibliográficas, integram a metodologia dados coletados em pesquisas de campo, conduzidas em trabalhos anteriores, e os resultantes de observações de pessoas adultas em situações que demandam por acessibilidade à informação e à comunicação. Os resultados encontrados evidenciam a diversidade existente entre as pessoas com um mesmo tipo de deficiência sensorial e assinalam alguns dos equívocos e prejuízos que podem ocorrer quando essa diversidade não é considerada. Ao longo do texto, fica constatado que as diferenças encontradas entre as pessoas com um mesmo tipo de deficiência sensorial são definidas tanto em função de suas preferências individuais, bem como das limitações e capacidades que são peculiares a cada um desses indivíduos.The objective of this work is to discuss and explain some differences that exist regarding the access to information and to communication among those people who, despite having similar handicaps, experience different inabilities. The methodological approach used here focuses specifically on people with non-simultaneous visual or hearing impairments, with an emphasis on blind or deaf people. The conceptual framework used is the same one adopted by the ICF-WHO classification, and the theoretical

  7. Characterization of a pneumatic balloon actuator for use in refreshable Braille displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Richard E; Feinman, Adam M; Wottawa, Christopher; King, Chih-Hung; Franco, Miguel L; Dutson, Erik P; Grundfest, Warren S; Culjat, Martin O

    2009-01-01

    Many existing refreshable Braille display technologies are costly or lack robust performance. A process has been developed to fabricate consistent and reliable pneumatic balloon actuators at low material cost, using a novel manufacturing process. This technique has been adapted for use in refreshable Braille displays that feature low power consumption, ease of manufacture and small form factor. A prototype refreshable cell, conforming to American Braille standards, was developed and tested. The cell was fabricated from molded PDMS to form balloon actuators with a spin-coated silicone film, and fast pneumatic driving elements and an electronic control system were developed to drive the Braille dots. Perceptual testing was performed to determine the feasibility of the approach using a single blind human subject. The subject was able to detect randomized Braille letters rapidly generated by the actuator with 100% character detection accuracy.

  8. AN ELECTRONIC DESIGN OF A LOW COST BRAILLE HANDGLOVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sivakumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— This paper documents a new design for a BrailleHand glove, comprising of a majority of electrical components,the design aims to produce a product to perform vibrations insix position of blind’s person right hand. A low cost and robustdesign will provide the blind with an affordable and reliable toolalso it produce the new technique and communications methodfor blind persons.

  9. Reconfigurable Braille display with phase change locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Cody W.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    Automatically updated signs and displays for sighted people are common in today’s world. However, there is no cheap, low power equivalent available for the blind. This work demonstrates a reconfigurable Braille cell using the solid-to-liquid phase change of a low melting point alloy as a zero holding power locking mechanism. The device is actuated with the alloy in the liquid state, and is then allowed to solidify to lock the Braille dot in the actuated position. A low-cost manufacturing process is developed that includes molding of a rigid silicone to create pneumatic channels, and bonding of a thin membrane of a softer silicone on the surface for actuation. A plug of Field’s metal (melting point 62 °C) is placed in the pneumatic channels below each Braille dot to create the final device. The device is well suited for low duty cycle operation in applications such as signs, and is able to maintain its state indefinitely without additional power input. The display requires a pneumatic pressure of only 24 kPa for actuation, and reconfiguration has been demonstrated in less than a minute and a half.

  10. Application of EAP materials toward a refreshable Braille display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Spigna, N.; Chakraborti, P.; Yang, P.; Ghosh, T.; Franzon, P.

    2009-03-01

    The development of a multiline, refreshable Braille display will assist with the full inclusion and integration of blind people into society. The use of both polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film planar bending mode actuators and silicone dielectric elastomer cylindrical tube actuators have been investigated for their potential use in a Braille cell. A liftoff process that allows for aggressive scaling of miniature bimorph actuators has been developed using standard semiconductor lithography techniques. The PVDF bimorphs have been demonstrated to provide enough displacement to raise a Braille dot using biases less than 1000V and operating at 10Hz. In addition, silicone tube actuators have also been demonstrated to achieve the necessary displacement, though requiring higher voltages. The choice of electrodes and prestrain conditions aimed at maximizing axial strain in tube actuators are discussed. Characterization techniques measuring actuation displacement and blocking forces appropriate for standard Braille cell specifications are presented. Finally, the integration of these materials into novel cell designs and the fabrication of a prototype Braille cell are discussed.

  11. Analysis of the Length of Braille Texts in English Braille American Edition, the Nemeth Code, and Computer Braille Code versus the Unified English Braille Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Marie; Wetzel, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the length of text in English Braille American Edition, the Nemeth code, and the computer braille code with the Unified English Braille Code (UEBC)--also known as Unified English Braille (UEB). The findings indicate that differences in the length of text are dependent on the type of material that is transcribed and the grade…

  12. Manual braille writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Lawrence S.; Turner, Joe H.

    1992-01-01

    A manual-type braille writer that provides for both writing and reading in a normal left-to-right manner. In the preferred form, this braille writer has a clip board type base, and in the preferred embodiment a guide plate assembly can be moved to, and releasable fixed at, selected vertical locations along this base. The guide plate assembly is provided with a plurality of character cells uniformly spaced along rows across the guide plate assembly as well as in uniformly spaced rows. This guide plate assembly has a lower portion to be placed under a sheet of paper positioned on the clip board base and an upper portion to be positioned on top of the sheet. This upper portion is hinged with respect to the lower portion. Each character cell is typically made up of six appropriately spaced pins extending up from the lower portion that are aligned with a rosette-shaped cutout in the upper portion. A stylus member is provided that has a distal end to be fitted into the cutout of the character cell so that a recess in the end thereof presses the writing paper over the pin associated with that recess to produce a braille dot at that location. When desired, the upper portion can be lifted up so that the text already written can be read or to determine the place for initiating writing when writing has been interrupted.

  13. A Theoretical Rationale for Using the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach to Braille Literacy Education with Students Who Have Mild to Moderate Cognitive Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormsley, Diane P.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the components of the Individualized Meaning-centered Approach to Braille Literacy Education (I-M-ABLE) for teaching braille reading and writing to students who are blind and have additional cognitive impairments. The components of I-M-ABLE are: (1) selecting and teaching the Key Vocabulary; (2) teaching the efficient use of…

  14. A Guide to Paperless Braille Devices. Random Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This review examines electronic braille input-output devices which have a braille keyboard for data entry and/or a braille display. Four braille notetakers and two braille computer systems are evaluated, commenting on their keyboards, ease of use, documentation, and analysis of speech and/or the braille display. (JDD)

  15. Novel grid-based optical Braille conversion: from scanning to wording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefi Babadi, Majid; Jafari, Shahram

    2011-12-01

    Grid-based optical Braille conversion (GOBCO) is explained in this article. The grid-fitting technique involves processing scanned images taken from old hard-copy Braille manuscripts, recognising and converting them into English ASCII text documents inside a computer. The resulted words are verified using the relevant dictionary to provide the final output. The algorithms employed in this article can be easily modified to be implemented on other visual pattern recognition systems and text extraction applications. This technique has several advantages including: simplicity of the algorithm, high speed of execution, ability to help visually impaired persons and blind people to work with fax machines and the like, and the ability to help sighted people with no prior knowledge of Braille to understand hard-copy Braille manuscripts.

  16. Orthographic units in the absence of visual processing: Evidence from sublexical structure in braille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; Englebretson, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Reading relies on the recognition of units larger than single letters and smaller than whole words. Previous research has linked sublexical structures in reading to properties of the visual system, specifically on the parallel processing of letters that the visual system enables. But whether the visual system is essential for this to happen, or whether the recognition of sublexical structures may emerge by other means, is an open question. To address this question, we investigate braille, a writing system that relies exclusively on the tactile rather than the visual modality. We provide experimental evidence demonstrating that adult readers of (English) braille are sensitive to sublexical units. Contrary to prior assumptions in the braille research literature, we find strong evidence that braille readers do indeed access sublexical structure, namely the processing of multi-cell contractions as single orthographic units and the recognition of morphemes within morphologically-complex words. Therefore, we conclude that the recognition of sublexical structure is not exclusively tied to the visual system. However, our findings also suggest that there are aspects of morphological processing on which braille and print readers differ, and that these differences may, crucially, be related to reading using the tactile rather than the visual sensory modality.

  17. Linguistic and perceptual-motor contributions to the kinematic properties of the braille reading finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barry; Van Gemmert, Arend W A; Stelmach, George E

    2011-08-01

    Recordings of the dominant finger during the reading of braille sentences by experienced readers reveal that the velocity of the finger changes frequently during the traverse of a line of text. These changes, not previously reported, involve a multitude of accelerations and decelerations, as well as reversals of direction. We investigated the origin of these velocity intermittencies (as well as movement reversals) by asking readers to twice read out-loud or silently sentences comprising high- or low-frequency words which combined to make grammatical sentences that were either meaningful or nonmeaningful. In a control condition we asked braille readers to smoothly scan lines of braille comprised of meaningless cell combinations. Word frequency and re-reading each contribute to the kinematics of finger movements, but neither sentence meaning nor the mode of reading do so. The velocity intermittencies were so pervasive that they are not easily attributable either to linguistic processing, text familiarity, mode of reading, or to sensory-motor interactions with the textured patterns of braille, but seem integral to all braille finger movements except reversals. While language-related processing can affect the finger movements, the effects are superimposed on a highly intermittent velocity profile whose origin appears to lie in the motor control of slow movements.

  18. Touch the Invisible Sky: A Multi-Wavelength Braille Book Featuring Tactile NASA Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, N.; Steel, S.; Daou, D.

    2008-06-01

    According to the American Foundation for the Blind and the National Federation of the Blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States. Because astronomy is often visually based, many people assume that it cannot be made accessible. A new astronomy book, Touch the Invisible Sky, makes wavelengths not visible to human eyes, accessible to all audiences through text in print and Braille and with pictures that are touchable and in color.

  19. Parents' Perspectives on Braille Literacy: Results from the ABC Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Parents who were the primary caretakers of children in the Alphabetic and Contracted Braille Study (ABC Braille Study) revealed their perspectives about braille literacy. Methods: A 30-item questionnaire was constructed by the ABC Braille research team, and researchers conducted telephone interviews with 31 parents who were the…

  20. Emotional Communication in Finger Braille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Matsuda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe analyses of the features of emotions (neutral, joy, sadness, and anger expressed by Finger Braille interpreters and subsequently examine the effectiveness of emotional expression and emotional communication between people unskilled in Finger Braille. The goal is to develop a Finger Braille system to teach emotional expression and a system to recognize emotion. The results indicate the following features of emotional expression by interpreters. The durations of the code of joy were significantly shorter than the durations of the other emotions, the durations of the code of sadness were significantly longer, and the finger loads of anger were significantly larger. The features of emotional expression by unskilled subjects were very similar to those of the interpreters, and the coincidence ratio of emotional communication was 75.1%. Therefore, it was confirmed that people unskilled in Finger Braille can express and communicate emotions using this communication medium.

  1. The WinBraille approach to producing Braille wuickly and effectively

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, Mats; Burman, Per

    2002-01-01

    With WinBraille it is possible to emboss directly from a word processor like Microsoft Word on any of Index Braille's embossers, and on-the-fly contract the document into grade 2 Braille. The benefit of WinBraille is that it has a simple interface for the novice, but is still powerful for the advanced user. WinBraille contains Windows drivers for Index Braille's embossers, the WinBraille application, contraction rules for more than 20 languages, a contraction rule editor, predefined profiles ...

  2. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  3. Review of Research: Neuroscience and the Impact of Brain Plasticity on Braille Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Cheryl Kamei

    2006-01-01

    In this systematic review of research, the author analyzes studies of neural cortical activation, brain plasticity, and braille reading. The conclusions regarding the brain's plasticity and ability to reorganize are encouraging for individuals with degenerative eye conditions or late-onset blindness because they indicate that the brain can make…

  4. Probing the Perceptual and Cognitive Underpinnings of Braille Reading. An Estonian Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Mannamaa, Mairi; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have…

  5. Geometric Correction for Braille Document Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathi.S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Braille system has been used by the visually impair ed people for reading.The shortage of Braille books has caused a need for conversion of Braille t o text. This paper addresses the geometric correction of a Braille document images. Due to the standard measurement of the Braille cells, identification of Braille characters could be achie ved by simple cell overlapping procedure. The standard measurement varies in a scaled document an d fitting of the cells become difficult if the document is tilted. This paper proposes a line fitt ing algorithm for identifying the tilt (skew angle. The horizontal and vertical scale factor is identified based on the ratio of distance between characters to the distance between dots. Th ese are used in geometric transformation matrix for correction. Rotation correction is done prior to scale correction. This process aids in increased accuracy. The results for various Braille documents are tabulated.

  6. Recovery of nerve injury-induced alexia for Braille using forearm anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Anders; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran

    2008-04-16

    Nerve injuries in the upper extremity may severely affect hand function. Cutaneous forearm anaesthesia has been shown to improve hand sensation in nerve-injured patients. A blind man who lost his Braille reading capability after an axillary plexus injury was treated with temporary cutaneous forearm anaesthesia. After treatment sensory functions of the hand improved and the patient regained his Braille reading capability. The mechanism behind the improvement is likely unmasking of inhibited or silent neurons, but after repeated treatment sessions at increasing intervals the improvement has remained at 1-year follow-up, implying a structural change in the somatosensory cortex.

  7. Simulation of durability the evaluation of relief-dot Braille images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Havenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model of factors that influence on the quality of relief-dot Braille inscriptions in their intensive use by blind people. It was constructed matrix of depending and distancing by using a directed graph. It allowed establish a hierarchy between studied criteria’s of impact the on durability of relief prints. It was developed a basic structure of digital system of assessment the conformity of Braille symbols to applicable international standards and definition of operational stability.

  8. Determining the Optimum Font Size for Braille on Capsule Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Braille fonts allow us to easily make braille labels on capsule paper. For legibility, fonts should be printed at optimum sizes. To find the optimum sizes for Japanese braille fonts, we conducted an experiment in which a Japanese braille font was printed at various sizes on capsule paper and read and rated by young braille users. The results show that braille printed at 17 and 18 point sizes were read faster and evaluated higher than those printed at smaller or bigger sizes.

  9. Technology for Early Braille Literacy: Comparison of Traditional Braille Instruction and Instruction with an Electronic Notetaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, James O.; Falco, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study reported here evaluated whether there was a difference in students' outcomes for braille fluency when instruction was provided with traditional braille media or refreshable braille. Students' and teachers' perceptions of the efficacy of the use of the different instructional media were analyzed. Methods: Nine students from…

  10. Thermal Analysis of Braille Formed by Using Screen Printing and Inks with Thermo Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svіtlana HAVENKO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the integration of blind people into society, suitable conditions should be provided for them. The expansion of Braille (BR use could serve the purpose. Depending on the materials used for Braille, it can be formed or printed in different ways: embossing, screen printing, thermoforming, digital printing. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of thermal properties of screen printing inks and inks with thermo-powder on the qualitative parameters of Braille. Screen printing inks and inks with thermo-powder were chosen for the research. Carrying out the qualitative analysis of printouts with Braille, the thermal stability was evaluated by analyzing the thermograms obtained with derivatograph Q-1500. This paper presents the findings of the thermogravimetric (TG, differential thermogravimetric (DTG and differential thermal analysis (DTA of printouts printed on paperboard Plike and using traditional screen printing inks and screen printing inks with thermo-powder. Based on the testing findings it is determined that thermal stability of printouts printed with thermo-powder ink is higher than printed with screen printing inks. It is determined that the appropriate temperature range of screen printing inks with thermo-powder drying is 98 ºC – 198 ºC because in this case better relief of Braille dots is obtained.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5702

  11. The Blind Learning Aptitude Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, T. Ernest

    A Blind Learning Aptitude Test (BLAT) was developed on the basis of sense of touch rather than on conventional experience, fine sensory discrimination, or verbal competency. From a pool of about 350 items, most of them used in testing intelligence in the sighted, a pool of 94 was selected and embossed after the manner of braille. A residual pool…

  12. Teaching Braille Letters, Numerals, Punctuation, and Contractions to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Braille-character recognition is one of the foundational skills required for teachers of braille. Prior research has evaluated computer programming for teaching braille-to-print letter relations (e.g., Scheithauer & Tiger, 2012). In the current study, we developed a program (the Visual Braille Trainer) to teach not only letters but also…

  13. Using the Braille Lite To Produce Mathematical Expressions in Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapperman, Gaylen; Sticken, Jodi

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a strategy for using Braille Lite, a portable notetaking device that combines synthetic speech and Braille, to produce mathematical expressions that can be easily interpreted by sighted teachers who do not use Braille. The strategy also allows students to review their work tactilely on the Braille display. (Contains 2…

  14. Sharpen Your Skills: Foreign Language Braille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Alice M.

    1983-01-01

    Three short articles about foreign language braille are presented for braille transcribers and teachers of the visually handicapped. Because dictionaries of languages other than English rarely show syllable division, the articles provide guidelines to the syllabication of Spanish, French, and German. The guidelines give specific rules concerning…

  15. A New Dynamic Tactile Display for Reconfigurable Braille: Implementation and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eMotto Ros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Different tactile interfaces have been proposed to represent either text (braille or, in a few cases, tactile large-area screens as replacements for visual displays. None of the implementations so far can be customized to match users preferences, perceptual differences and skills. Optimal choices in these respects are still debated; we approach a solution by designing a flexible device allowing the user to choose key parameters of tactile transduction.We present here a new dynamic tactile display, a 8×8 matrix of plastic pins based on well-established and reliable piezoelectric technology to offer high resolution (pin gap 0.7 mm as well as tunable strength of the pins displacement, and refresh rate up to 50 s-1. It can reproduce arbitrary patterns, allowing it to serve the dual purpose of providing, depending on contingent user needs, tactile rendering of non-character information, and reconfigurable braille rendering. Given the relevance of the latter functionality for the expected average user, we considered testing braille encoding by volunteers a benchmark of primary importance. Tests were performed to assess the acceptance and usability with minimal training, and to check whether the offered flexibility was indeed perceived by the subject as an added value compared to conventional braille devices. Different mappings between braille dots and actual tactile pins were implemented to match user needs.Performances of eight experienced braille readers were defined as the fraction of correct identifications of rendered content. Different information contents were tested (median performance on random strings, words, sentences identification was about 75%, 85%, 98%, respectively, with a significant increase, p< 0.01, obtaining statistically significant improvements in performance during the tests (p< 0.05. Experimental results, together with qualitative ratings provided by the subjects, show a good acceptance and the effectiveness of the proposed

  16. A new dynamic tactile display for reconfigurable braille: implementation and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motto Ros, Paolo; Dante, Vittorio; Mesin, Luca; Petetti, Erminio; Del Giudice, Paolo; Pasero, Eros

    2014-01-01

    Different tactile interfaces have been proposed to represent either text (braille) or, in a few cases, tactile large-area screens as replacements for visual displays. None of the implementations so far can be customized to match users' preferences, perceptual differences and skills. Optimal choices in these respects are still debated; we approach a solution by designing a flexible device allowing the user to choose key parameters of tactile transduction. We present here a new dynamic tactile display, a 8 × 8 matrix of plastic pins based on well-established and reliable piezoelectric technology to offer high resolution (pin gap 0.7mm) as well as tunable strength of the pins displacement, and refresh rate up to 50s(-1). It can reproduce arbitrary patterns, allowing it to serve the dual purpose of providing, depending on contingent user needs, tactile rendering of non-character information, and reconfigurable braille rendering. Given the relevance of the latter functionality for the expected average user, we considered testing braille encoding by volunteers a benchmark of primary importance. Tests were performed to assess the acceptance and usability with minimal training, and to check whether the offered flexibility was indeed perceived by the subject as an added value compared to conventional braille devices. Different mappings between braille dots and actual tactile pins were implemented to match user needs. Performances of eight experienced braille readers were defined as the fraction of correct identifications of rendered content. Different information contents were tested (median performance on random strings, words, sentences identification was about 75%, 85%, 98%, respectively, with a significant increase, p < 0.01), obtaining statistically significant improvements in performance during the tests (p < 0.05). Experimental results, together with qualitative ratings provided by the subjects, show a good acceptance and the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  17. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  18. A system for converting print into braille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkhorn, P

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes a method for converting text into braille, in the form in which it is stored as in a computer. The system has been designed to be configurable for a wide range of languages and character sets, and uses a predominantly table driven method to achieve this. The algorithm is explained in the context of the conversion of text into Standard English Braille (British), and the tables for this transformation are given. Particular importance has been attached to enabling braille specialists, who are not experts in computer algorithms, to be able to modify the system for either slight modifications to an existing braille code translator, or for producing a braille code translator for a new language.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of a Braille-Reading-Inspired Finger Motion Adaptive Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Ulusoy

    Full Text Available Braille reading is a complex process involving intricate finger-motion patterns and finger-rubbing actions across Braille letters for the stimulation of appropriate nerves. Although Braille reading is performed by smoothly moving the finger from left-to-right, research shows that even fluent reading requires right-to-left movements of the finger, known as "reversal". Reversals are crucial as they not only enhance stimulation of nerves for correctly reading the letters, but they also show one to re-read the letters that were missed in the first pass. Moreover, it is known that reversals can be performed as often as in every sentence and can start at any location in a sentence. Here, we report experimental results on the feasibility of an algorithm that can render a machine to automatically adapt to reversal gestures of one's finger. Through Braille-reading-analogous tasks, the algorithm is tested with thirty sighted subjects that volunteered in the study. We find that the finger motion adaptive algorithm (FMAA is useful in achieving cooperation between human finger and the machine. In the presence of FMAA, subjects' performance metrics associated with the tasks have significantly improved as supported by statistical analysis. In light of these encouraging results, preliminary experiments are carried out with five blind subjects with the aim to put the algorithm to test. Results obtained from carefully designed experiments showed that subjects' Braille reading accuracy in the presence of FMAA was more favorable then when FMAA was turned off. Utilization of FMAA in future generation Braille reading devices thus holds strong promise.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of a Braille-Reading-Inspired Finger Motion Adaptive Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Melda; Sipahi, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Braille reading is a complex process involving intricate finger-motion patterns and finger-rubbing actions across Braille letters for the stimulation of appropriate nerves. Although Braille reading is performed by smoothly moving the finger from left-to-right, research shows that even fluent reading requires right-to-left movements of the finger, known as "reversal". Reversals are crucial as they not only enhance stimulation of nerves for correctly reading the letters, but they also show one to re-read the letters that were missed in the first pass. Moreover, it is known that reversals can be performed as often as in every sentence and can start at any location in a sentence. Here, we report experimental results on the feasibility of an algorithm that can render a machine to automatically adapt to reversal gestures of one's finger. Through Braille-reading-analogous tasks, the algorithm is tested with thirty sighted subjects that volunteered in the study. We find that the finger motion adaptive algorithm (FMAA) is useful in achieving cooperation between human finger and the machine. In the presence of FMAA, subjects' performance metrics associated with the tasks have significantly improved as supported by statistical analysis. In light of these encouraging results, preliminary experiments are carried out with five blind subjects with the aim to put the algorithm to test. Results obtained from carefully designed experiments showed that subjects' Braille reading accuracy in the presence of FMAA was more favorable then when FMAA was turned off. Utilization of FMAA in future generation Braille reading devices thus holds strong promise.

  1. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  2. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  3. Learning to Write in Braille: An Analysis of Writing Samples from Participants in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted (ABC) Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin, Jane N.; Wright, Tessa S.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of data from 114 writing samples of 39 children who read braille and who were included in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille (ABC) Study between 2002 and 2005. Writing characteristics, miscues, and composition characteristics are analyzed, and two case studies are included. (Contains 1 box and 2 tables.)

  4. Effective Teaching Strategies: Case Studies from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lizbeth; Herlich, Stephanie A.; Sacks, Sharon Zell

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses some of the qualitative data that were documented during the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study. Two case studies of students are described, highlighting many effective teaching strategies used by their teachers of students with visual impairments that resulted in the students' successful academic progress.…

  5. Collaborative Research: The Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study as an Example of Collaborative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormsley, Diane P.; Emerson, Robert Wall; Erin, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the Alphabetic Braille Contracted Braille Study in relation to the dimensions of collaborative research: extent, intensity, substance, heterogeneity, velocity, formality, and productivity. It also discusses the dimensions of financing research and researchers' attitudes. The overall consensus is that the study would not have…

  6. "Learn Braille": A Serious Game Mobile App for sighted Braille Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Hatzigiannakoglou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel serious game for learning Greek and English Braille code is presented. Its novelty lies in that it offers its users the opportunity to learn and practice Braille and at the same time to test their knowledge through playing a game. As it is indicated by related research a good command of Braille code is a crucial factor that amends the quality of life of individuals with visual impairment; Therefore, it is meaningful that both their family environment and their trainers have a good command of Braille code. The software aims to help such people to acquire and maintain a level of knowledge of Braille code. The developed serious game is a mobile learning application and runs on mobile phones and other portable Android devices.

  7. 我国七个少数民族使用盲文状况的调查研究%The Survey of Using Braille in Seven Minority Nationalities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳虹; 顾定倩; 程黎; 魏丹; 韩萍; 钟经华

    2015-01-01

    Abstracts:The study investigated the status of studying and using different Braille Schemes in 7 mi-nority nationalities,including Mongolian,Tibetan,Uighur,Kazakhs,Chuang,Yi and Korean.The re-sults show that 1)The Chinese Current Braille Scheme is the only used braille scheme by public special ed-ucation schools in minority nationalities except Tibetan and Korean minority nationalities because no blind students of those two minority nationalities are in their public special education school;2)Under the sup-porting of foreign finance,the Tibetan blind students study the English Braille scheme,the Current Braille Scheme and the Tibetan Braille Scheme which was created by blind German;3)Braille Scheme of Uighur language has experienced the process of studied-stopped-experimented-stopped again since it was made;4) Korean blind people can use Chinese Current Braille Scheme and Korean Braille Scheme very well;5)Dif-ferent groups have different opinions on whether the government should make different Braille schemes for each minority nationality,but all of them agree on creating and widely using a national universal Braille scheme;and 6)Majority of blind students and blind adults from minority nationalities suggest that the government should offer enough learning resources about braille and more braille equipment to help them read and writ braille.To those blind adults who have left school,they pay more attention on braille infor-matization and the development and promoting of braille informatization study tool.%对蒙古族、藏族、维吾尔族、哈萨克族、壮族、彝族和朝鲜族的7个少数民族盲文使用状况进行调查。结果显示,除西藏、吉林的公办特殊教育学校没有藏族和朝鲜族盲生外,现行盲文是少数民族公办特殊教育学校唯一使用的盲文。在外国资金支助下的拉萨盲童学校学习英语盲文、汉语现行盲文和德国盲人研制的藏语盲文三种盲文。维吾尔语盲文方案自

  8. Use dependent limb dominence and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs in the congenitally blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayananda Giriyappa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Vision has been considered as the dominant modality in the human multi-sensory perception of the surroundings. The congenitally blind individuals use cortical areas that are normally reserved for vision during Braille reading. Use-dependent reorganization and neural plasticity changes occur as a consequence of many events, including the normal development and maturation of the organism, the acquisition of new skills. The research was designed to study the effect of blindness on SEPs in the dominant hand (Braille reading hand compared to the non dominant (non Braille reading hand in the congenitally blind. Material and methods: SEPs were recorded in 15 Braille reading congenitally blind females and compared with 15 age matched normal sighted females following right and left index finger stimulation. Latency and amplitudes of SEP waveforms (N9, N13, and N20 were measured. Results: The SEP-N20 amplitude was significantly increased in the congenitally blind (p < 0.0001 for right index finger and p < 0.005 for left index finger. There is a very large effect of blindness (3.11 on right index finger. Conclusions: The congenitally blind individuals have larger N20 amplitude, which is suggestive of greater somatosensory cortical activity. Effect of blindness and Braille reading skills is greater on SEPs recorded from the dominant and preferred hand. A varied contribution from Basic mechanisms in plasticity like neurogenesis, activity-dependent synaptic and neuronal plasticity may be involved.

  9. A History of Instructional Methods in Uncontracted and Contracted Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Frances Mary

    2009-01-01

    This literature review outlines the history of the braille code as used in the United States and Canada, illustrating how both the code itself and instructional strategies for teaching it changed over time. The review sets the stage for the research questions of the recently completed Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study.

  10. Six Sensational Dots: Braille Literacy for Sighted Classmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Anna M.; Cozart, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    From the moment sighted children see their first dot, teachers find that they are fascinated by the braille code. If they are fortunate enough to have a classmate who reads braille, they have daily opportunities to observe braille used for a variety of purposes, from reading chapter books to solving problems with tactile graphics. Teachers of…

  11. Instruction of Keyboarding Skills: A Whole Language Approach to Teaching Functional Literacy Skills to Students Who are Blind and Have Additional Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an unconventional method to teach un-contracted braille reading and writing skills to students who are blind and have additional disabilities. It includes a keyboarding curriculum that focuses on the whole language approach to literacy. A special feature is the keyboard that is adapted with braille symbols. Un-contracted…

  12. Analysis of Phonemes, Graphemes, Onset-Rimes, and Words with Braille-Learning Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Six primary school-aged braille students were taught to name 4 to 10 braille letters as phonemes and another 4 to 10 braille letters as graphemes (Study 1). They were then taught to name 10 braille words as onset-rimes and another 10 braille words as whole words (Study 2). Instruction in phonemes and onset rimes resulted in fewer trials and a…

  13. Sources of Braille Reading Materials. Reference Circular No. 86-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Linda, Comp.

    This reference circular lists sources of braille books available for loan, purchase, rental, or free (give-away) distribution. Divided into four sections, it includes general sources of braille books, sources of specialized braille materials, the major braille presses, and resources for further information about braille books and magazines.…

  14. Braille Literacy: Resources for Instruction, Writing Equipment, and Supplies. NLS Reference Circulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaco, Freddie L., Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This reference circular lists instructional materials, supplies, and equipment currently available for learning braille, and cites sources about braille literacy. The resources given are intended to assist sighted individuals who are interested in learning braille or want to transcribe print materials into braille; instructors who teach braille;…

  15. Braille Reading Accuracy of Students Who Are Visually Impaired: The Effects of Gender, Age at Vision Loss, and Level of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Vassilis; Papadimitriou, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study assesses the performance of students who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) in braille reading accuracy and examines potential correlations among the error categories on the basis of gender, age at loss of vision, and level of education. Methods: Twenty-one visually impaired…

  16. Aplikasi Pengenalan Kata pada Huruf Braille dan Pelafalannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Mega Iswara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dan karya dalam bidang optical character recognition terutama pengenalan karakter Braille, hingga saat ini masih jarang dilakukan dan pada umumnya penelitian yang telah ada untuk pengenalan huruf Braille masih berorientasi pada citra statis yang menggunakan scanner. Untuk mengubah lembaran Braille menjadi citra untuk dikenali sebagai karakter alphabet harus menggunakan alat scanner yang mahal, tidak portable, dan tidak praktis. Untuk menyederhanakan proses pengenalan huruf Braille tersebut perlu digunakan sistem pengenalan huruf Braille secara dinamis dengan kamera webcam atau kamera telpon genggam yang lebih murah dan lebih praktis. Tujuan utama dari pembuatan karya ini adalah untuk menyederhanakan proses pengenalan huruf Braille tersebut. Pengenalan huruf Braille secara dinamis ini menggunakan metode chain approximation untuk mendeteksi titik-titik Braille dan metode horizontal and vertical projection untuk pengelompokan posisi-posisi Braille menjadi karakter sesuai dengan aturan pembacaan huruf Braille yang berlaku. Hasil yang didapat dari proyek ini adalah sebuah program yang dapat bekerja untuk mengenali huruf Braille secara dinamis dengan menggunakan kamera webcam dengan tingkat akurasi sebesar 84% benar.

  17. Magnetic Tactile Sensor for Braille Reading

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-04-27

    We report a biomimetic magnetic tactile sensor for Braille characters reading. The sensor consists of magnetic nanocomposite artificial cilia implemented on magnetic micro sensors. The nanocomposite is produced from the highly elastic polydimethylsiloxane and iron nanowires that exhibit a permanent magnetic behavior. This design enables remote operation and does not require an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires. The highly elastic nanocomposite is easy to pattern, corrosion resistant and thermally stable. The tactile sensors can detect vertical and shear forces, which allows recognizing small changes in surface texture, as in the case of Braille dots. The 6 dots of a braille cell are read from top to bottom with a tactile sensor array consisting of 4 elements and 1 mm long nanocomposite cilia.

  18. A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

    Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

  19. Expanding the Current Definition of Literacy Pertaining to Blind and Visually Impaired Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Said, Sharifa Khalid Qais

    2010-01-01

    This research explored the notion of what constitutes literacy, particularly as pertaining to people who are blind or visually impaired, specifically those that do not use Braille as their primary way to access and produce text. To achieve this goal, a mixed design was used including a biographical presentation of what it means to be blind and…

  20. Homemade Wooden Vernier Scales for Use by Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Mike; Bidleman, Cricket; Brown, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Because she had been blind since birth, we knew that our new student, Cricket, would be unable to make the necessary measurements needed to get any meaningful lab data while all of the other students would be able to use highly accurate commercial Vernier calipers. All we had on loan for Cricket was a Brailled plastic tactile meter stick with low…

  1. COCHABAMBA READER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA

    INTENDED AS FOLLOWUP MATERIAL AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE TWO-VOLUME SPOKEN COCHABAMBA COURSE, THIS READER CONSISTS OF A SINGLE LONG STORY, "JUANITO," WRITTEN BY OSCAR TERAN. IT HAS BEEN USED AS A RADIO SCRIPT FOR A SERIES OF BROADCASTS FROM A COCHABAMBA STATION WHICH SERVES THE SURROUNDING INDIGENOUS POPULATION. THE MATERIAL IS…

  2. Reader's Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Dear readers: This is the last issue for year 2002. Thanks to your consistent assistance and concerns, our magazine has accordingly made much an effort to objectively and genuinely introduce and reflect new achievements and climate by port sector across the country in terms of reform, construction, operation and development.

  3. Teaching Early Braille Literacy Skills within a Stimulus Equivalence Paradigm to Children with Degenerative Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Karen A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved…

  4. Teaching Adults to Read Braille Using Phonological Methods: Single-Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Four women with visual impairments were taught 13 braille letters as phonemes and another 13 braille letters as graphemes and then were taught 10 braille words as onset-rime and another 10 braille words as whole words. Phoneme and onset-rime instruction resulted in faster and more accurate performance. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

  5. Ruimtelike oriëntering en kognitiewe belading as faktore wat leer by blinde leerders in die lewenswetenskappe beïnvloed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbulaheni O. Maguvhe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Little research is done in South Africa on factors influencing cognitive load during teaching and learning. It challenges our social accountability towards learners with special education needs as the principles of equity and equality are not always achieved in this field of specialisation. This article reports on a secondary analysis conducted on the results of two recent investigations by Maguvhe (2005 and Gumede (2010 that focused on the teaching of Life Sciences to blind and visually impaired learners. The purpose of the secondary analysis was to determine from the original results how the principles of cognitive load, modality and spatial orientation are accounted for when Life Sciences is taught to blind and visually impaired learners. The secondary analysis confirmed that blind learners very seldom participate in investigations, experiments and activities, and when they do, such interactions remain basic, elementary and confirmatory. Because teaching occurs mainly by means of narratives, the possibilities remain high that cognitive load might decrease the auditory functions in the absence of other visual and tactile stimuli. Tactile stimulation depends heavily on factors such as specialised resources, well-trained teachers, Braille trainers, readers and writers, and a sound understanding of a holistic methodology that can optimise the tactile senses of blind and visually impaired learners.

  6. How Useful Is Braille Music?: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyu-Yong

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the usefulness of Braille music as a mediational means for musicians with visual impairment (MVI). Specifically, three broad issues are the focus of this study: (1) three notions as the conceptual frameworks, namely, mediation, appropriation and mastery; (2) three criteria of the usefulness of Braille music, including…

  7. Using a Group Approach to Motivate Adults to Learn Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Kendra R.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching braille is one of the most time-consuming tasks for a vision rehabilitation therapist. Complicating this process, adults who might be considered to be good candidates for learning braille are often resistant to the idea (Ponchillia & Ponchillia, 1996). In an attempt to address these challenges, a combination of correspondence braille…

  8. Automated Braille production from word-processed documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkhorn, P; Evans, G

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method for automatically generating Braille documents from word-processed (Microsoft Word) documents. In particular it details how, by using the Word Object Model, the translation system can map the layout information (format) in the print document into an appropriate Braille equivalent.

  9. Readers respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra N. Wig

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Please allow me to congratulate you on bringing out Mens Sana 8th and 9th Monographs on Medical Practice, Psychiatry and the Pharmaceutical Industry. You and Shakuntala have obviously put in an enormous effort to study dozens of documents, articles and books to bring out such a comprehensive review of this topic with focus on important areas for debate in India. You deserve congratulations of all the readers of these Monographs.

  10. Children's Perceptions of Learning Braille: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings of the ABC Braille Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Sharon Z.; Hannan, Cheryl K.; Erin, Jane N.

    2011-01-01

    Children's perceptions of learning to read and write braille were measured using an open ended 10-item questionnaire. The data were evaluated by amount of time, level of contractedness, and level of achievement. No differences were found with respect to time or the introduction of contractions. Differences were apparent between the high- and…

  11. Polyester non-woven fabric finger cover as a TRUCT Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kouki; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2007-11-01

    Transparent resinous ultraviolet-curing type (TRUCT) Braille signs are becoming more and more popular in Japan, especially when they are printed together with visual characters. These signs are made by screen printing, a technique that can be applied to various base materials, such as paper, metal, and plastic. TRUCT Braille signs have begun to be used in public facilities, such as on tactile maps and on handrails. Naturally, it is expected that Braille beginners will utilize these signs. However, it has been pointed out that the friction between the forefinger and the base material may affect reading accuracy and speed. In this study, we developed a finger cover made of soft, thin polyester non-woven fabric to reduce friction during Braille reading. We also carried out a study to investigate the effect of its use. The subjects were 12 Braille learners with acquired visual impairment, who were asked to read randomly selected characters with and without the finger cover. The results showed that most participants could read TRUCT Braille significantly faster and more accurately with a finger cover than without it, regardless of the base material and dot height. This result suggests that wearing the finger cover enables Braille learners to read TRUCT Braille more efficiently. The finger cover can be used as a Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners. An additional, health-related advantage of the finger cover is that the forefinger remains clean. We expect that the finger cover will be in practical use in Japan within 1 or 2 years.

  12. Reconocimiento automático de texto braille

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Héctor

    2007-01-01

    El presente trabajo consiste en el desarrollo de una herramienta que permita escanear un texto braille, reconocer en forma automática los caracteres y obtener el texto digital correspondiente para ser almacenado y recuperado en formato textual para varios propósitos. Este tipo de herramienta puede ser útil para reimprimir documentos braille, como ayuda en el aprendizaje de braille o como medio de integración para estudiantes no videntes en todos los niveles o integración en el ámbito social, ...

  13. Design and implementation of intelligent Tibetan Braille learning machine%智能藏语盲文学习机的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武强; 崔静静; 边巴旺堆; 次仁朗杰

    2011-01-01

    Based on actual demands of the blind study in the Tibet region,a new type of Tibetan Braille learning machine is designed.The system adopts SPCE3200 as the master chip,which achieves mode selection and Braille training through external Braille keyboard,storing and calling corresponding voice resource in expand Flash(SD card) according to certain algorithm,utilizing SPCE3200 own decoder and two 16-bit fast ADC(DAC),which accomplishes operation of MP3 and WAV format files,achieving two-channel stereo sound output through SPY0030 power amplifier.Actual test shows that the system has characteristic of rapid response,stability,which has functions of Braille training,standard voice broadcasting,voice recording and storage.The system makes the blind learning Braille by himself,and can be used in the Tibetan Braille Teaching process,which makes Tibetan Braille learning more convenient and fast.%基于西藏地区盲人学习的实际需要,设计了一种新型的藏语盲文学习机。系统采用SPCE3200作为主控芯片,通过外接的盲文键盘实现模式选择与点字训练,根据一定的算法实现存储和调用外扩Flash(SD卡)中相应的的语音资源,利用SPCE3200自带的解码器和两路16位快速模数转换器(DAC),完成MP3和WAV格式文件的播放,通过SPY0030功放实现声音的双通道立体声输出。实际测试结果表明,该系统响应速度快,运行稳定,具有点位训练,标准语音的播放以及录音并存储等功能。该系统可以帮助藏族盲人朋友独立地学习藏语盲文

  14. Aids for Handicapped Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular provides information on approximately 50 reading and writing aids intended for physically or visually handicapped individuals. Described are low vision aids, aids for holding a book or turning pages, aids for reading in bed, handwriting aids, typewriters and accessories, braille writing equipment, sound reproducers, and aids…

  15. A compact electroactive polymer actuator suitable for refreshable Braille display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kailiang; Liu, Sheng; Lin, Minren; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Q. M.

    2007-04-01

    The large strain, high elastic modulus, and easy processing of P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) electrostrictive terpolymer make it very attractive to replace low strain piezoceramics and piezopolymers in many applications with much improved performance. In this paper, a compact polymer actuator is developed utilizing the electrostrictive terpolymer, which is suitable for full page Braille Display and graphic display. Key issues related to the reliability of electroactive polymers used in the compact actuators and for the mass fabrication of these polymer actuators are investigated. Making use of a recently developed conductive polymer, a screen printing deposition method was developed which enables direct deposition very thin conductive polymer electrode layer (Braille actuator was designed and fabricated with these terpolymer films wound on a spring core. The test results demonstrate that the EAP Braille actuator meets all the functional requirements of actuators for refreshable full Braille display, which offers compact size, reduced cost and weight.

  16. Haptic Stylus and Empirical Studies on Braille, Button, and Texture Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Uk Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a haptic stylus interface with a built-in compact tactile display module and an impact module as well as empirical studies on Braille, button, and texture display. We describe preliminary evaluations verifying the tactile display's performance indicating that it can satisfactorily represent Braille numbers for both the normal and the blind. In order to prove haptic feedback capability of the stylus, an experiment providing impact feedback mimicking the click of a button has been conducted. Since the developed device is small enough to be attached to a force feedback device, its applicability to combined force and tactile feedback display in a pen-held haptic device is also investigated. The handle of pen-held haptic interface was replaced by the pen-like interface to add tactile feedback capability to the device. Since the system provides combination of force, tactile and impact feedback, three haptic representation methods for texture display have been compared on surface with 3 texture groups which differ in direction, groove width, and shape. In addition, we evaluate its capacity to support touch screen operations by providing tactile sensations when a user rubs against an image displayed on a monitor.

  17. Haptic stylus and empirical studies on braille, button, and texture display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Ki-Uk; Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Junseok

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a haptic stylus interface with a built-in compact tactile display module and an impact module as well as empirical studies on Braille, button, and texture display. We describe preliminary evaluations verifying the tactile display's performance indicating that it can satisfactorily represent Braille numbers for both the normal and the blind. In order to prove haptic feedback capability of the stylus, an experiment providing impact feedback mimicking the click of a button has been conducted. Since the developed device is small enough to be attached to a force feedback device, its applicability to combined force and tactile feedback display in a pen-held haptic device is also investigated. The handle of pen-held haptic interface was replaced by the pen-like interface to add tactile feedback capability to the device. Since the system provides combination of force, tactile and impact feedback, three haptic representation methods for texture display have been compared on surface with 3 texture groups which differ in direction, groove width, and shape. In addition, we evaluate its capacity to support touch screen operations by providing tactile sensations when a user rubs against an image displayed on a monitor.

  18. Readers Respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Wig

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is in response to the MSM theme monograph Academia-Industry Symposium 2007: Medical Practice and the Pharmaceutical Industry: And Ever the Duo shall Meet.I recall that it was just five years ago when you first wrote to me, informing me about the start of Mens Sana Monographs . I was excited because it was something new, something different that was happening in the field of mental health and philosophy in India.You have come a long way since then. In fact, it is amazing how rapidly MSM has progressed, as testified to by the present theme monograph. Your readers and contributors are no longer confined to India; you are now international in reach and outlook. Please allow me to wholeheartedly congratulate you. It is a remarkable achievement by any standard.The present volume is excellent in its design and contents. The two editorials by Jerome Kassirer and Joel Lexchin are outstanding and deeply thought provoking. The article by Martin Van Der Weyden is equally rewarding and has very useful information. The main monograph has been superbly, very competently, and comprehensively written by both of you.In the series "What Medicine Means To Me," I especially liked the piece by Helen Herrman. Her message of public health psychiatry is particularly relevant for developing countries.The book review of David Healy's book by Leemon McHenry is very refreshing and challenging. I congratulate you on your decision to publish it when other journals were still hesitating.And lastly, the obituary reference to my dear friend Dr. Ravi Kapur by Ajit Bhide and you were so touching; I cried all over again.So keep up your good work, dear friends. May God bless you and may you both achieve many more successes in your careers.

  19. A COMPUTER-BASED PROGRAM TO TEACH BRAILLE READING TO SIGHTED INDIVIDUALS

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Instructors of the visually impaired need efficient braille-training methods. This study conducted a preliminary evaluation of a computer-based program intended to teach the relation between braille characters and English letters using a matching-to-sample format with 4 sighted college students. Each participant mastered matching visual depictions of the braille alphabet to their printed-word counterparts. Further, each participant increased the number of words they read in a braille passage ...

  20. Analysis on Error Tolerance Rate Theory and Its Relative Effecting Factors in Braille Reading%盲文阅读中的容错率理论及相关影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇[; 李纯莲; 钟经华

    2016-01-01

    Braille error tolerance rate includes two aspects: the scheme error tolerance rate corresponding to Braille scheme and the spelling error tolerance rate corresponding to readers.In order to reasonably evaluate the spelling efficiency of Chinese Braille scheme and further improve it, this paper presents a concept of scheme error tolerance rate and makes a statistical analysis on it.The results show that the error tolerance rate is objective necessary and controllable, pointing out the Braille scheme with the greater error tolerance rate will be easier to use and popularize.Finally, it gives an optimization function of scheme error tolerance rate, which is helpful to improve the current Braille scheme.Meanwhile, it discusses the influences of readers′psychological factors on Braille error tolerance rate when reading and reveals the relations of mutual influence, mutual promotion and mutual compensation between the scheme error tolerance rate of Braille scheme and the spelling error tolerance rate of Braille readers.%盲文容错率包括盲文方案的方案容错率和盲文读者的拼读容错率两个方面。为了合理评估汉语盲文方案的拼读效率、进一步改进盲文方案,提出盲文方案的方案容错率概念并对其进行统计学分析,得出容错率存在的必然性和可控性,指出容错率较大的盲文方案较容易使用和推广,最后给出了盲文方案容错率的优化函数以利于改进现有盲文方案。同时还分析了读者在阅读盲文时,其心理因素对盲文容错率的影响,揭示了盲文方案的方案容错率和盲文读者的拼读容错率之间相互影响、相互促进、相互代偿的关系。

  1. The Use of Final-Letter Braille Contractions: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, Emily M.; Herzberg, Tina S.

    2013-01-01

    Louis Braille developed a six-dot braille code in the early 1800s, thus creating an effective way for persons who are visually impaired to communicate through reading and writing (Holbrook, D'Andrea, & Sanford, 2011). Students with visual impairments require braille instruction from teachers of students with visual impairments, who are responsible…

  2. Proposing a Web-Based Tutorial System to Teach Malay Language Braille Code to the Sighted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Lee Lay; Keong, Foo Kok

    2010-01-01

    The "e-KodBrailleBM Tutorial System" is a web-based tutorial system which is specially designed to teach, facilitate and support the learning of Malay Language Braille Code to individuals who are sighted. The targeted group includes special education teachers, pre-service teachers, and parents. Learning Braille code involves memorisation…

  3. Investigation of Resistance to Mechanical Effect of Braille Formed on Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida VENYTĖ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative analysis of stresses emerged in paperboard during Braille embossing, using specialized polarimetric equipment, was carried out. Resistance to mechanical effect of Braille dot surfaces, formed with different printing types on different materials (paper, paperboard, polymer, textile, Al foil was investigated. It was determined that Braille dot height change after period mechanical effect is different.

  4. Assessing Generative Braille Responding Following Training in a Matching-to-Sample Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Brittany C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of teaching sighted college students to select printed text letters given a braille sample stimulus in a matching-to-sample (MTS) format on the emergence of untrained (a) construction of print characters given braille samples, (b) construction of braille characters given print samples, (c) transcription of print characters…

  5. Teaching Literacy through Braille in Mainstream Settings whilst Promoting Inclusion: Reflections on Our Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Joao; Rogers, Sue; Donaldson, Marion; Gordon, Clare; Meager, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    We would describe teaching literacy through braille as one of the most rewarding and challenging aspects of the role of a Qualified Teacher for the Visually Impaired (QTVI). This article focuses on teaching literacy through braille in mainstream settings whilst promoting inclusion and meeting the social-emotional needs of children who use braille.…

  6. How a Braille Contest Serendipitously Accelerated the Use of Digital Audio Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebrugge, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    When Braille Institute in Los Angeles conceived The Braille Challenge contest more than a decade ago, the goal was to create an innovative way to promote braille literacy. Now that more than 4,500 students over the last 12 years from across the United States and Canada have chosen to participate in The Challenge, it is safe to say that it has been…

  7. Focus Group Research on the Implications of Adopting the Unified English Braille Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Robin; Knowlton, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Five focus groups explored concerns about adopting the Unified English Braille Code. The consensus was that while the proposed changes to the literary braille code would be minor, those to the mathematics braille code would be much more extensive. The participants emphasized that "any code that reduces the number of individuals who can access…

  8. Instruction in Specialized Braille Codes, Abacus, and Tactile Graphics at Universities in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Smith, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study gathered data on methods and materials that are used to teach the Nemeth braille code, computer braille, foreign-language braille, and music braille in 26 university programs in the United States and Canada that prepare teachers of students with visual impairments. Information about instruction in the abacus and the…

  9. Reader Response in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Glenna

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of critical theory to show how the method of Reader Response evolved. Discusses theories of reading and the reader; variations within reader response; and implementing reader response in literacy programs. Includes a brief response by Robert E. Probst. (RS)

  10. A Transcription System from MusicXML Format to Braille Music Notation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, D.; Gotoh, T.; Minamikawa-Tachino, R.; Tamura, N.

    2006-12-01

    The Internet enables us to freely access music as recorded sound and even music scores. For the visually impaired, music scores must be transcribed from computer-based musical formats to Braille music notation. This paper proposes a transcription system from the MusicXML format to Braille music notation using a structural model of Braille music notation. The resultant Braille scores inspected by volunteer transcribers are up to the international standard. Using this simple and efficient transcription system, it should be possible to provide Braille music scores via the Internet to the visually impaired.

  11. A Transcription System from MusicXML Format to Braille Music Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minamikawa-Tachino R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet enables us to freely access music as recorded sound and even music scores. For the visually impaired, music scores must be transcribed from computer-based musical formats to Braille music notation. This paper proposes a transcription system from the MusicXML format to Braille music notation using a structural model of Braille music notation. The resultant Braille scores inspected by volunteer transcribers are up to the international standard. Using this simple and efficient transcription system, it should be possible to provide Braille music scores via the Internet to the visually impaired.

  12. Royal National Institute for the Blind - RNIB İngiltere'de Körler İçin Bir Hizmet Kuruluşu Olarak Kraliyet Körler Enstitüsü

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kaynar

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The services of the Braille Books Library and the Cassette Library of the Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB are briefly explained İngiltere'deki Kraliyet Körler Enstitüsü Kütüphanesi tanıtılmakta ve Braille Kitaplar Kütüphanesi ve Kaset Kütüphanesinin hizmetleri anlatılmaktadır.

  13. Usability and Accessibility of eBay by Screen Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Akhter, Fahim

    The evolution of Information and Communication Technology and the rapid growth of the Internet have fuelled a great diffusion of eCommerce websites. Usually these sites have complex layouts crowded with active elements, and thus are difficult to navigate via screen reader. Interactive environments should be properly designed and delivered to everyone, including the blind, who usually use screen readers to interact with their computers. In this paper we investigate the interaction of blind users with eBay, a popular eCommerce website, and discuss how using the W3C Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite could improve the user experience when navigating via screen reader.

  14. Realization of Braille Segmentation System Based on SOPC%基于SOPC技术的盲文分词系统的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐英杰; 高鹏飞; 蔡强

    2014-01-01

    为了便于盲人对文本内容的理解,盲文阅读系统首先要对文本内容进行分词处理。针对基于FPGA的便携式盲文阅读系统的特点,提出了一种采用SOPC技术的汉字分词软件的实现方法,给出了该系统的硬件设计结构,并采用基于词典的正向匹配算法实现分词处理。通过测试证明,该方法可以满足便携式盲文阅读系统的实时性和可靠性的要求。%In order to facilitate blind understanding the text content, the word segmentation processing is necessary for Braille reading system. On the characteristics of portable Braille reading system based on FPGA, the paper proposes a method of Chinese word segmentation software using SOPC technology, given the hardware design, and the forward matching algorithm for word segmentation. The tests proved that the method can be used for portable Braille reading system for real-time performance and reliability requirements.

  15. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  16. Vocabulary Word Instruction for Students Who Read Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Compton, Donald L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Lloyd, Blair P.

    2016-01-01

    The association made between the meaning, spelling, and pronunciation of a word has been shown to help children remember the meanings of words. The present study addressed whether the presence of a target word in Braille during instruction facilitated vocabulary learning more efficiently than an auditory-only instructional condition. The authors…

  17. Could Specific Braille Reading Difficulties Result from Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2010-01-01

    A proportion of children with visual impairments have specific reading difficulties that cannot be easily explained. This article reviews the data on problems with braille reading and interprets them from the framework of the temporal-processing deficit theory of developmental dyslexia.

  18. [Educative game on drugs for blind individuals: development and assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Monaliza Ribeiro; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-08-01

    Study aimed to develop and assess an educational game on psychoactive drugs accessible to blind individuals, conducted in three steps: development of the educative game, evaluation by three special education experts, and assessment by twelve blind individuals. As a result, a board game called Drugs: staying clean was developed. In the Alpha version, experts made suggestions regarding the game rules and instructions and the board base, including square texture, game pieces, and Braille writing. In Beta version, we proceeded to the assessment by the blind participants, who suggested changes in the square texture and the addition of Velcro-type material to fix the counters on the board. Then, the Gamma version was played by the last pairs of blind players and was considered by them to be adequate. In the evaluation of the experts, the game was appropriate, as it allowed access to information on psychoactive drugs in a ludic and playful manner.

  19. CROSS-MODAL PLASTICITY OF TACTILE PERCEPTION IN BLINDNESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, K.; Stilla, Randall

    2011-01-01

    This review focusses on cross-modal plasticity resulting from visual deprivation. This is viewed against the background of task-specific visual cortical recruitment that is routine during tactile tasks in the sighted and that may depend in part on visual imagery. Superior tactile perceptual performance in the blind may be practice-related, although there are unresolved questions regarding the effects of Braille-reading experience and the age of onset of blindness. While visual cortical areas are clearly more involved in tactile microspatial processing in the blind than in the sighted, it still remains unclear how to reconcile these tactile processes with the growing literature implicating visual cortical activity in a wide range of cognitive tasks in the blind, including those involving language, or with studies of short-term, reversible visual deprivation in the normally sighted that reveal plastic changes even over periods of hours or days. PMID:20404414

  20. "Readers Forum" in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    On 23 April in Shanghai, a "Readers Forum" was held by Women of China to promote contact and exchangewith our readers and improve our work. It was a great honor that some of our foreign women readers, who areliving in Shanghai with their families on business at present, joined us, and nine of them made speeches at theforum. Moreover, two readers who couldn’t attend the forum in person, accepted a telephone interview. Shown hereare their kind comments and suggestions for our magazine.

  1. 盲生专用答题卡自动阅卷系统的研究与开发%Study and Development of an Automatic Paper Checking System for Answer Sheets of Blind Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓丽

    2014-01-01

    描述一种盲生专用答题卡自动阅卷系统,由盲人机读卡填写模板袋、机读卡、光标阅读机、数据传输线和装有阅卷分析模块的计算机所组成,其中:机读卡粘附在盲人机读卡填写模板袋上;盲文阅卷模块控制光标阅读机采集机读卡上的数据信息,并通过数据传输线把采集到的试卷信息传输给计算机,计算机通过装载的盲文阅卷模块进行答题卡标记的识别以及成绩的输出。%This paper describes an automatic paper checking system of answer sheets for blind students, composing of template bag, machine-read card, optical mark recognition device, data transmission line and computer equipped with paper checking analysis mod-ule, in which the machine-read card sticks to the template bag, Braille paper checking module control cursor reader acquires data infor-mation on the machine-read card, then transfers them to the computer through the transmission line, finally, the computer makes recog-nition on the answer sheets and output of marks by the loaded Braille paper checking module.

  2. Teachers as Readers: Building Communities of Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Safford, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Given the narrow scope of primary teachers' knowledge and use of children's literature identified in Phase I of "Teachers as Readers" (2006-2007), the core goal of the Phase II project was to improve teachers' knowledge and experience of such literature in order to help them increase children's motivation and enthusiasm for reading,…

  3. A PC-based Braille library system for the sightless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A; Dutta, P; Roy, S; Banerjee, S

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents a novel multiclient braille reading system developed around a single low cost personal computer. The system primarily addresses the needs of the Braille libraries, where different texts are needed to be read by different users simultaneously. Moreover, the system can simultaneously cater to different texts written in different languages. This feature makes it specially suitable for use by multilingual nationalities. The major advantage of this system is its low cost, compared to the other systems available and is specially attractive for the developing or underdeveloped countries. The paper describes the system, first from the user point of view and then presents the hardware and software design details. The system performance has been evaluated by the sightless users and has shown encouraging results.

  4. Romancing the YA Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Mosley, Shelley; Bouricius, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the romance genre and provides guidelines for librarians with high school aged readers. Highlights include where to find information about the romance genre; the appeal of romance fiction; levels of sex and sensuality; reference tools; subgenres; and authors and titles that may be popular with young adult romance readers. (LRW)

  5. Our Readers and Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In Shanghai,a rapidly-developing modern metropolisthere are a lot of foreign women who have moved with theirfamilies to live and work there.During their leisure time theytake sightseeing trips and study Chinese culture,so theybecome readers and friends of our magazine.Recently,at ourReaders Forum in Shanghai,women from the UK,Belgium,the

  6. Emotion Teaching Interface for Finger Braille Emotion Teaching System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Matsuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finger Braille is one of the tactual communication methods utilized by deafblind individuals. Deafblind people who are skilled in Finger Braille can catch up with speech conversation and express various emotions by changing dotting strength and speed. In this paper, we designed the emotion teaching interface in order to express joy, sadness, anger and neutral for the Finger Braille emotion teaching system. We changed the previous background color (beige of the teaching interface into 17 different colors. We also designed 8 kinds of dot patterns with different horizontal width and vertical length. The experiment to select the most suitable emotion teaching interfaces for joy, sadness, anger and neutral was conducted. The results showed that the dot patterns 6 (the wide and middle length pattern or 1 (the small circle with the lime, dark orange or yellow background colors are suitable for joy; the dot patterns 7 (the narrow and long pattern or 4 (the narrow and middle length pattern with the lavender, navy or blue background colors are suitable for sadness; the dot patterns 9 (the large circle or 8 (the middle width and long pattern with the red background color are suitable for anger; the dot pattern 5 (the middle circle with the previous, honeydew, saddle brown or white background colors are suitable for neutral.

  7. An Artificial Intelligence Tutor: A Supplementary Tool for Teaching and Practicing Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Tessa; Rosenblum, L. Penny; Johnson, Benny G.; Dittel, Jeffrey; Kearns, Devin M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluated the usability and effectiveness of an artificial intelligence Braille Tutor designed to supplement the instruction of students with visual impairments as they learned to write braille contractions. Methods: A mixed-methods design was used, which incorporated a single-subject, adapted alternating treatments design…

  8. U.S. National Certification in Literary Braille: History and Current Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a certification examination for teachers of students with visual impairments--the National Literary Braille Competency Test (NLBCT). It discusses the history, development, pilot testing, and validation of NLBCT and the creation of the National Certification in Literary Braille. Data on the current administration of the test…

  9. Innovative Solutions for Words with Emphasis: Alternative Methods of Braille Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The author of this study proposed two alternative methods for transcribing words with emphasis into braille and compared the use of the symbols for emphasis with the current braille code. The results showed that students were faster at locating words presented in one of the alternate formats, but that there was no difference in students' accuracy…

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND BRAILLE LITERACY TO EDUCATE STUDENTS HAVING VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismat Bano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the comparative analysis of computer software and Braille literacy to educate students having visual impairment. The main objective of this research focus on compare the feasibility andusage of Braille literacy and computer software to educate children with visual impairment. Main objectives of the study were to identify the importance of Braille and Computer literacy by the perceptions of male and female students with visual impairment, to identify the importance of the Braille and Computer literacy in different classes of students with visual impairment and to identify the difference of Braille and Computer literacy importance in different schools of students with visual impairment. Five special education institutions were selected where students with visual impairment were studying. A convenient sample of 100 students was taken from these schools. A three point rating scale was used as research instrument. Researchers personally collected data from the respondents. Data was analyzed through SPSS. Major findings showed that students were more interested in Braille system than computer software. Braille system and required material was resent in all the schools while computer teachers with required experience were not available in these institutions. Teachers were found expert in Braille literacy as compare to the computer software- It was recommended that proper awareness about most recent technologies were necessary for teachers in special education institutions. Students as well as teachers should be provided chances of hands on practice to create interest in computer software use in special education.

  11. Conceptual Understanding of Shape and Space by Braille-Reading Norwegian Students in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Oliv G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here investigated the ways in which students who read braille were able to complete geometric tasks and how they constructed mental representations of the shapes of objects. Methods: Data were collected in an educational experiment conducted as a geometry course for students who read braille. A case study approach…

  12. An Investigation of the Height of Embossed Braille Dots for Labels on Pharmaceutical Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Graeme; Weston, Annette; Whittaker, Jennifer; Wilkins, Sarah Morley; Robinson, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    European legislation requires new pharmaceutical packaging to include both the name and strength of the drug in braille on boxes and bottles. Much of the braille on medical packaging is currently produced by an embossing process on boxes. The height of the dots that can be achieved through these methods is less than 0.3 mm. The physical dimensions…

  13. The Impact of Assistive Technology on Curriculum Accommodation for a Braille-Reading Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Charles R.; Luckner, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Over 5 months, the authors evaluated the efficacy of electronic assistive technology (the BrailleNote mPower BT-32 notetaker and Tiger Cub Jr. embosser) and associated software components in creating curriculum materials for a middle school Braille-reading student. The authors collected data at the beginning and end of the study from parents,…

  14. Current Practices in Instruction in the Literary Braille Code University Personnel Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Lewis, Sandra; D'Andrea, Frances Mary

    2010-01-01

    University instructors were surveyed to determine the requirements for their literary braille courses. Twenty-one instructors provided information on the textbooks they used; how they determined errors; reading proficiency requirements; and other pertinent information, such as methods of assessing mastery of the production of braille using a…

  15. Preferences and Practices among Students Who Read Braille and Use Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Frances Mary

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Students who read braille use assistive technology to engage in literacy tasks and to access the general curriculum. There is little research on the ways in which technology has changed the reading and writing practices and preferences of students who use braille, nor is there much research on how assistive technology is learned by…

  16. A Computer-Based Program to Teach Braille Reading to Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors of the visually impaired need efficient braille-training methods. This study conducted a preliminary evaluation of a computer-based program intended to teach the relation between braille characters and English letters using a matching-to-sample format with 4 sighted college students. Each participant mastered matching visual depictions…

  17. On the Efficacy of a Computer-Based Program to Teach Visual Braille Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Mindy C.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Miller, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Scheithauer and Tiger (2012) created an efficient computerized program that taught 4 sighted college students to select text letters when presented with visual depictions of braille alphabetic characters and resulted in the emergence of some braille reading. The current study extended these results to a larger sample (n?=?81) and compared the…

  18. Willed blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. A willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enables us...... blindness focusing on the development of either a new moral vision of our obligations or new visions of what a good life is....

  19. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  20. Color blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness is achromatopsia. This is a rare condition in which a person cannot see any color, only shades of gray. Most color blindness is due to ...

  1. Demonstration of Vibrational Braille Code Display Using Large Displacement Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Arouette, Xavier; Matsumoto, Yasuaki; Miki, Norihisa

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a vibrational Braille code display with large-displacement micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) actuator arrays. Tactile receptors are more sensitive to vibrational stimuli than to static ones. Therefore, when each cell of the Braille code vibrates at optimal frequencies, subjects can recognize the codes more efficiently. We fabricated a vibrational Braille code display that used actuators consisting of piezoelectric actuators and a hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism (HDAM) as cells. The HDAM that encapsulated incompressible liquids in microchambers with two flexible polymer membranes could amplify the displacement of the MEMS actuator. We investigated the voltage required for subjects to recognize Braille codes when each cell, i.e., the large-displacement MEMS actuator, vibrated at various frequencies. Lower voltages were required at vibration frequencies higher than 50 Hz than at vibration frequencies lower than 50 Hz, which verified that the proposed vibrational Braille code display is efficient by successfully exploiting the characteristics of human tactile receptors.

  2. To our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments. We have also gotten letters in which our readers have given their opinions on what they would like to see in this journal. Some readers pointed out to us the mistakes in the translation. Other readers noted the occasional delay in delivery or even missing issues. We are grateful to those who have always supported us. We also feel the need to improve for those who have not been totally satisfied with our journal.

  3. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments. We have also gotten letters in which our readers have given their opinions on what they would like to see in this journal. Some readers pointed out to us the mistakes in the translation. Other readers noted the occasional delay in delivery or even missing issues. We are grateful to those who have alwayssupported us. We also feel the need to improve for those who have not been totally satisfied with our journal.

  4. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor in Ch

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments. We have also gotten letters in which our readers have given their opinions on what they would like to see in this journal. Some readers pointed out to us the mistakes in the translation. Other readers noted the occasional delay in delivery or even missing issues. We are grateful to those who have always supported us. We also feel the need to improve for those who have not been totally satisfied with our journal.

  5. PANJABI READER, LEVEL 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    THIS SECOND-LEVEL READER IN THE PANJABI LANGUAGE CAN BE USED IN A SECOND- OR THIRD-YEAR COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. THE GRAMMAR APPENDIX INCLUDED IS IDENTICAL TO THAT FOUND IN THE FIRST-LEVEL PANJABI READER (ED 010 485). THE MAIN PORTION OF THE BOOK CONSISTS OF 23 UNITS,…

  6. Letters from Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Since the first publication of Cultural Exchang-China& World in October 1992,we have received a unmber of verykind letters from Chinese and foreign readers giving support andencouagement to this magazine.We would like to take thisopportunity to thank them all and to invite others to write in as well,especially if they have suggestions or criticisms to make.Thefollowing are letters from two of our overseas readers.

  7. Reader Response Approaches and the Growth of Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Dixie Lee

    1998-01-01

    Outlines what reader response might look like in the classroom. Presents four basic assumptions of reader response theory. Discusses ways reader response approaches to literature help students grow both in the depth and breadth of their responses to literature, and as strategic readers. (SR)

  8. The integration of novel EAP-based Braille cells for use in a refreshable tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Spigna, N.; Chakraborti, P.; Winick, D.; Yang, P.; Ghosh, T.; Franzon, P.

    2010-04-01

    Structures demonstrating the viability of both the hydraulic and latching Braille dot, and the dielectric elastomer fiber Braille dot have been fabricated and characterized. A hydraulic proof-of-concept structure has achieved the necessary volumetric change required to lift a Braille dot over 0.5mm at voltages under 1000V and at speeds under 100ms. Long bimorphs have been fabricated that demonstrate large tip displacements over 2mm that could be used to mechanically latch the Braille rod in the 'up' position to achieve the force requirement. The addition of radial prestrain in dielectric elastomer tubes has reduced the wall thickness and directed the strain in the axial direction which has had a dramatic impact on their resulting characteristics. The required bias voltage for the dielectric elastomer fiber Braille dot has been reduced from 15.5kV to 8.75kV while the Braille head tip displacement of a fabricated prototype has almost tripled on average and now also exceeds the required displacement for a refreshable Braille display. Finally, potential solutions to the current shortcomings of both designs in meeting all of the requirements for such a display are discussed.

  9. The Bakhtin Reader The Bakhtin Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Reid Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication of Caryl Emerson’s book The First Hundred Years of Mikhail Bakhtin in December 1997 is an indication that interest in Bakhtin continues to flourish, among both Russian and Western scholars. Emerson’s book traces the interesting differences of attitude and emphasis between these two groups of critics and provides a broad-ranging and scholarly history of Bakhtin studies. The book I am concerned with here, The Bakhtin Reader, though of a different nature and designed for a different audience, is perhaps an even more significant testament to Bakhtin’s extraordinary and continuing influence. The publication of Caryl Emerson’s book The First Hundred Years of Mikhail Bakhtin in December 1997 is an indication that interest in Bakhtin continues to flourish, among both Russian and Western scholars. Emerson’s book traces the interesting differences of attitude and emphasis between these two groups of critics and provides a broad-ranging and scholarly history of Bakhtin studies. The book I am concerned with here, The Bakhtin Reader, though of a different nature and designed for a different audience, is perhaps an even more significant testament to Bakhtin’s extraordinary and continuing influence.

  10. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system.

  11. Proposta de bula de medicamentos em braille direcionada ao usuário cego

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Maria Olinda

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo neste estudo, de caráter exploratório, foi desenvolver uma bula de medicamentos em Braille a partir de conceitos e critérios de apresentação gráfica e informacional, provindos do Design da Informação, através do modelo de Karel Van Der Waarde (1999). Inicia-se com a explanação sobre o design de documentos, bulas de medicamentos e sobre o Sistema Braille, o que culminou em um estudo analítico sobre a qualidade gráfica e informacional de uma bula transcrita para o Braille....

  12. Tactile perception recruits functionally related visual areas in the late-blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manu S; Hansen, Peter J; Blakemore, Colin B

    2006-09-18

    When blind people touch Braille characters, blood flow increases in visual areas, leading to speculation that visual circuitry assists tactile discrimination in the blind. We tested this hypothesis in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study designed to reveal activation appropriate to the nature of tactile stimulation. In late-blind individuals, hMT/V5 and fusiform face area activated during visual imagery of moving patterns or faces. When they touched a doll's face, right fusiform face area was again activated. Equally, hMT/V5 was activated when objects moved over the skin. We saw no difference in hMT/V5 or fusiform face area activity during motion or face perception in the congenitally blind. We conclude that specialized visual areas, once established through visual experience, assist equivalent tactile identification tasks years after the onset of blindness.

  13. Design and implementation of braille display based on electrode stimulation principle%基于电极刺激原理的盲文点显器的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小艳; 胡作进

    2014-01-01

    By the aid of the blindman's sensitivity to the electric pulse stimulation, this paper put forward a design scheme of braille display circuit and implemented it. Through the decoding circuit, the braille, which output from computer' host serial port, were decoded to multi-channel I/O signals. Then, these I/O signals controlled the pulse generator to drive acupuncture electrode. The blind man can touch them to identify the braille.%基于电刺激,利用盲人对电脉冲刺激的敏感性,提出了一种盲文点字显示器电路设计方案,并进行了电路实现。经计算机串口输出的盲文信号通过解码电路解码为多路I/O信号,I/O信号控制脉冲发生器产生脉冲触发针灸电极,盲人通过触摸电极有无刺激感觉来识别盲文。

  14. Mid-frequency readers

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, Ian Stephen Paul; Anthony, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new free extensive reading resource for learning the mid-frequency words of English and for reading well known texts with minor vocabulary adaptation. A gap exists between the end of graded readers at around 3,000 word families and the vocabulary size needed to read unsimplified texts at around 8,000 word families. Mid-frequency readers are designed to fill this gap. They consist of texts from Project Gutenberg adapted for learners with a vocabulary size of 4,000 word...

  15. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  16. Understanding Readers' Differing Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the characteristics of reader understandings that vary from those stated in the text. Eighty-seven fourth graders orally read complex academic literary and scientific texts, followed by probed retellings. Retold ideas not directly supported by, or reflective of, the texts were identified. These differing understandings…

  17. Readers of histone modifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miyong Yun; Jun Wu; Jerry L Workman; Bing Li

    2011-01-01

    Histone modifications not only play important roles in regulating chromatin structure and nuclear processes but also can be passed to daughter cells as epigenetic marks.Accumulating evidence suggests that the key function of histone modifications is to signal for recruitment or activity of downstream effectors. Here, we discuss the latest discovery of histone-modification readers and how the modification language is interpreted.

  18. PANJABI READER. LEVEL 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    A FIRST-LEVEL READER IS PRESENTED, PRIMARILY FOR THOSE STUDENTS WHO HAVE A SPEAKING KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI AND SOME KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI GRAMMAR. THIS VOLUME CAN BE USED IN A GENERAL PANJABI LANGUAGE COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. A GLOSSARY AND A BRIEF GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX HAVE…

  19. Exploring the Invisible Universe: A Tactile and Braille Exhibit of Astronomical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, K. K.; Watzke, M.; de Pree, C.

    2010-06-01

    A tactile/Braille exhibit for the visually impaired community in the USA was launched in July 2009. The exhibit is part of the global From Earth to the Universe (FETTU) project, a Cornerstone of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The science content of the travelling tactile/Braille exhibit includes explanations of our Sun, Eta Carinae, the Crab Nebula, the Whirlpool Galaxy and the electromagnetic spectrum, and was adapted from the tactile/Braille book Touch the Invisible Sky. We present some of the early observations and findings on the tactile/Braille FETTU exhibit. The new exhibit opens a wider door to experiencing and understanding astronomy for the underserved visually impaired population.

  20. The development of compact electroactive polymer actuators suitable for use in full page Braille displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Lee J.; Zellers, Brian C.; Lin, Minren; Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2010-04-01

    Piezoceramic actuators, presently used in commercial Braille displays, are limited by the material's relatively small strain and brittle nature. For this reason, it is a challenge to develop full page, compact, graphic Braille displays that are affordable. A newly developed material composed of P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer blended with 5% P(VDF-CTFE) electrostrictive actuators exhibits large strains (~5% at 150V/μm), fast actuation (>5 mm/s), and has a relatively high elastic modulus (1.2 GPa). This material exhibits more than double the elastic energy density and a 50% higher modulus of the original electrostrictive terpolymer. Hence, the potential for viable actuators in compact, full page Braille displays is greater than ever, provided actuators can be manufactured reliably in quantity. This talk presents recent work in scaling production of such rolled actuators. Actuators extend .5 mm, are confined to the 2.5 mm grid spacing of conventional Braille text, generate >0.5 N force and operate at less than 200V, thus meeting the primary requirements for a commercialized Braille display. To manufacture these actuators, cast films are stretched using a roll-to-roll zone drawing machine that is capable of producing quantities of 2 μm thick film with high quality. What follows is a discussion of this machine, the roll-to-roll film stretching process and an assessment of the resulting stretched film for use as linear strain actuators, like those used in our Braille cell.

  1. The assessment of writing ability: Expert readers versus lay readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Vergeer, M.; Eiting, M.

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on three studies about the reading reliability of lay and expert readers in rating three kinds of writing assignments. Readers had to rate the Con tent and Language Usage of students' writing performances. The studies show that expert readers are more reliable in rating Usage, w

  2. Readers' Readings: Applications of Reader-Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Linda

    In the interest of applying reader response theory to journalism this paper posits that readers of newspapers, like readers of literature, take an active role in making meaning from the articles they read, rather than passively accepting news as a finished, static product. Additionally, it proposes that journalism textbooks pay little attention to…

  3. Blind Masseurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Guan Enming and his wife Hao Dejuan, a blind couple, vowed to "never become a burden for society." The couple retired from the QJngdao Massotherapy Hospital in 1992, and thereafter opened a private clinic with assistance from their

  4. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  5. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor in Chief

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments.

  6. Space and time in the sighted and blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Roberto; Crepaldi, Davide; Casasanto, Daniel; Crollen, Virgine; Collignon, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    Across many cultures people conceptualize time as extending along a horizontal Mental Time Line (MTL). This spatial mapping of time has been shown to depend on experience with written text, and may also depend on other graphic conventions such as graphs and calendars. All of this information is typically acquired visually, suggesting that visual experience may play an important role in the development of the MTL. Do blind people develop a MTL? If so, how does it compare with the MTL in sighted? In this study we tested early blind, late blind and sighted participants in a space-time congruity task. Participants had to classify temporal words by pressing a right and a left key, either with crossed or uncrossed hands. We found that the MTL develops in the absence of vision, and that it is based on the same external frame of reference in sighted and blind people. Reading braille may provide the same experiential link between space and time in the manual modality as reading printed text provides in the visual modality. These results showing a similar MTL in sighted and blind participants contrast with previous results showing that the Mental Number Line (MNL) depends on different spatial coordinates in the sighted and the blind, and suggest that spatial representations of time and number may have different experiential bases.

  7. Impact of a Braille-Note on Writing: Evaluating the Process, Quality, and Attitudes of Three Students Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Lawson, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Educators of students with visual impairments have long advocated that children who read and write in braille benefit from access to and use of a braille note-taker (BNT) with refreshable braille display. However, little research exists that evaluates whether using a BNT impacts literacy. In this single-subject study, authors investigated if using…

  8. Chipless RFID reader architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Nemai Chandra; Kalansuriya, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    In the era of information communication technology (ICT), radio frequency identification (RFID) has been going through tremendous development. RFID technology has the potential of replacing barcodes due to its large information carrying capacity, flexibility in operations, and applications. The deployment of RFID has been hindered by its cost. However, with the advent of low powered ICs, energy scavenging techniques, and low-cost chipless tags, RFID technology has achieved significant development. This book addresses the new reader architecture, presents fundamentals of chipless RFID systems,

  9. Bytes, Books and Readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Krista Stinne Greve

    2016-01-01

    Geschichte von Editionen und der Entwicklung der Digital Humanities besonderes Augenmerk geschenkt, um zu demonstrieren, wie bedeutsam die Analyse der Überlieferung und der Textbegriff für die Geschichte von Editionen sind. Beispiele aus Alastair McKinnons erster digitaler Edition von Soren Kierkegaards......In diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse aus der Dissertation der Autorin Bytes, Books, and Readers. A Historical Analysis of the Transition from Printed to Digital Scholarly Editions Focusing on ‘The Writings of Søren Kierkegaard’ (2015) vorgestellt. Dabei wird dem Wechselverhältnis zwischen der...

  10. An Alternative Option to Dedicated Braille Notetakers for People with Visual Impairments: Universal Technology for Better Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sunggye

    2012-01-01

    Technology provides equal access to information and helps people with visual impairments to complete tasks more independently. Among various assistive technology options for people with visual impairments, braille notetakers have been considered the most significant because of their technological innovation. Braille notetakers allow users who are…

  11. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille and the Nemeth Code for Mathematics and Science Notation to Students Making the Transition from Print to Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Hooper, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Many students with adventitious vision loss or progressive vision loss need to transition from print to braille as a primary literacy medium. It is important that this transition is handled efficiently so that the student can have continued access to a literacy medium and make progress in the core curriculum. For this study, we used…

  12. Narrative tension analysis: reader`s and text aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Вениаминовна Лещенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article narrative tension is conceptualized as a complex cognitive and affective phenomenon being analysed in two dimensions: psychological and textological. In the receptive and psychological framework narrative tension is considered as reader`s psychological response to the fictional events of the storyworld. In modern text theory narrative tension is thought as a specific narrative strategy represented by definite narrative structures inducing the particular emotional state of the reader

  13. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  14. A new bistable electroactive polymer for prolonged cycle lifetime of refreshable Braille displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhi; Niu, Xiaofan; Chen, Dustin; Hu, Wei; Pei, Qibing

    2014-03-01

    ABSTRACT: Bistable electroactive polymers (BSEP) amalgamating electrically induced large-strain actuation and shape memory effect present a unique opportunity for refreshable Braille displays. A new BSEP material with long-chain crosslinkers to achieve prolonged cycle lifetime of refreshable Braille displays is reported here. The modulus of the BSEP material decreases by more than three orders of magnitude from a rigid, plastic state to a rubbery state when heated above the polymer's glass transition temperature. In its rubbery state, the polymer film can be electrically actuated to buckle convexly when a high voltage is applied across a circular active area. Modifying the concentration of long-chain crosslinkers in the polymer allows not only for fine-tuning of the polymer's glass transition temperature and elasticity in the rubbery state, but also enhancement of the actuation stability. For a raised height of 0.4 mm by a Braille dot with a 1.3 mm diameter, actuation can be repeated over 2000 cycles at 70°C in the rubbery state. The actuated dome shape can be fixed by cooling the polymer below the glass transition temperature. This refreshable rigid-to-rigid actuation simultaneously provides large-strain actuation and large force support. Devices capable of displaying Braille characters over a page-size area consisting of 324 Braille cells have been fabricated.

  15. QEFSM model and Markov Algorithm for translating Quran reciting rules into Braille code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah M. Abualkishik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Quran is the central religious verbal text of Islam. Muslims are expected to read, understand, and apply the teachings of the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran was translated to Braille code as a normal Arabic text without having its reciting rules included. It is obvious that the users of this transliteration will not be able to recite the Quran the right way. Through this work, Quran Braille Translator (QBT presents a specific translator to translate Quran verses and their reciting rules into the Braille code. Quran Extended Finite State Machine (QEFSM model is proposed through this study as it is able to detect the Quran reciting rules (QRR from the Quran text. Basis path testing was used to evaluate the inner work for the model by checking all the test cases for the model. Markov Algorithm (MA was used for translating the detected QRR and Quran text into the matched Braille code. The data entries for QBT are Arabic letters and diacritics. The outputs of this study are seen in the double lines of Braille symbols; the first line is the proposed Quran reciting rules and the second line is for the Quran scripts.

  16. Blind Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    No matter how dedicated they may be, some teachers are daunted by extreme challenges. Carol Agler, music director at the Ohio State School for the Blind (OSSB), is not one of those teachers. Since joining the OSSB staff 11 years ago, Agler has revived the school's long-dormant band program and created its first marching band. Next January, she…

  17. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Golden October is a harvest month in China,bringing hope andjoy to people,so it is an appropriate time for us to dedicate,withgood wishes and deep friendship,Cultural Exchange—China World to both Chinese and foreign readers.Today the rising tide of reform and opening to the outside world inChina impels Chinese to pursue novelty and development.Looking tothe future,the Chinese are creating a beautiful life for themselves withunprecedented enthusiasm and ambition.This magazine is born at a timewhen exchanges in various fields between the Chinese people and thepeoples of the world are increasing and relationships are becoming closerand closer.The magazine will work to promote Chinese and foreigncultural exchanges.

  18. PVDF core-free actuator for Braille displays: design, fabrication process, and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, Thomas; Diglio, Paul J.; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Gorny, Lee J.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2011-04-01

    Refreshable Braille displays require many, small diameter actuators to move the pins. The electrostrictive P(VDF-TrFECFE) terpolymer can provide the high strain and actuation force under modest electric fields that are required of this application. In this paper, we develop core-free tubular actuators and integrate them into a 3 × 2 Braille cell. The films are solution cast, stretched to 6 μm thick, electroded, laminated into a bilayer, rolled into a 2 mm diameter tube, bonded, and provided with top and bottom contacts. Experimental testing of 17 actuators demonstrates significant strains (up to 4%). A novel Braille cell is designed and fabricated using six of these actuators.

  19. Core-free rolled actuators for Braille displays using P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, Thomas; Diglio, Paul J.; Lu, Sheng-Guo; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2012-01-01

    Refreshable Braille displays require many small diameter actuators to move the pins. The electrostrictive P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) terpolymer can provide the high strain and actuation force under modest electric fields that are required for this application. In this paper, we develop core-free tubular actuators and integrate them into a 3 × 2 Braille cell. The terpolymer films are solution cast, stretched to 6 μm thick, electroded, laminated into a bilayer, rolled into a 2 mm diameter tube, bonded, and provided with top and bottom contacts. Experimental testing of 17 actuators demonstrates significant strains (up to 4%) and blocking forces (1 N) at moderate electric fields (100 MV m-1). A novel Braille cell is designed and fabricated using six of these actuators.

  20. 9969 Braille: Deep Space 1 infrared spectroscopy, geometric albedo, and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, B.J.; Britt, D.T.; Soderblom, L.A.; Hicks, M.D.; Boice, D.C.; Brown, R.H.; Meier, R.; Nelson, R.M.; Oberst, J.; Owen, T.C.; Rivkin, A.S.; Sandel, B.R.; Stern, S.A.; Thomas, N.; Yelle, R.V.

    2004-01-01

    Spectra of Asteroid 9969 Braille in the 1.25-2.6 ??m region returned by the Deep Space 1 (DS1) Mission show a ???10% absorption band centered at 2 ??m, and a reflectance peak at 1.6 ??m. Analysis of these features suggest that the composition of Braille is roughly equal parts pyroxene and olivine. Its spectrum between 0.4 and 2.5 ??m suggests that it is most closely related to the Q taxonomic type of asteroid. The spectrum also closely matches that of the ordinary chondrites, the most common type of terrestrial meteorite. The geometric albedo of Braille is unusually high (pv = 0.34), which is also consistent with its placement within the rarer classes of stony asteroids, and which suggests it has a relatively fresh, unweathered surface, perhaps due to a recent collision. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bistable electroactive polymer for refreshable Braille display with improved actuation stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofan; Brochu, Paul; Stoyanov, Hristiyan; Yun, Sung Ryul; Pei, Qibing

    2012-04-01

    Poly(t-butyl acrylate) is a bistable electroactive polymer (BSEP) capable of rigid-to-rigid actuation. The BSEP combines the large-strain actuation of dielectric elastomers with shape memory property. We have introduced a material approach to overcome pull-in instability in poly(t-butyl acrylate) that significantly improves the actuation lifetime at strains greater than 100%. Refreshable Braille display devices with size of a smartphone screen have been fabricated to manifest a potential application of the BSEP. We will report the testing results of the devices by a Braille user.

  2. O sistema Braille e o ensino da Matemática para pessoas cegas

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Virginia Mamcasz Viginheski; Antonio Carlos Frasson; Sani de Carvalho Rutz da Silva; Elsa Midori Shimazaki

    2014-01-01

    Ao levar em consideração a inclusão de pessoas com deficiência visual no ensino regular, este artigo tem como objetivo centrar-se na perspectiva de referenciar o sistema Braille como um dos recursos de aprendizagem de Matemática para alunos cegos. Caracteriza-se como uma pesquisa exploratória com ênfase bibliográfica, bem como em experiências vivenciadas pela pesquisadora em um Centro de Atendimento Especializado a Pessoas com Deficiência Visual. Foi possível constatar que o sistema Braille s...

  3. PROTOTIPO DE TECNOLOGÍA EN ASISTENCIA PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DEL BRAILLE

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar Augusto Hernandez Suarez; Luis A. Jiménez Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Con el diseño y fabricación del dispositivo denominado sistema electrónico mecánico para el aprendizaje la lectoescritura del Braille (SEMLEB), junto con la aplicación de una metodología basada en acompañamiento de un tutor, se buscó determinar y analizar los factores que facilitaran el proceso de aprendizaje de la lectoescritura del sistema Braille para niños ciegos en etapa escolar y sus repercusiones en el aprendizaje del castellano para identificar las letras del alfabeto, los fonemas, la...

  4. Shifting Perspectives on Struggling Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeaux, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Draws on social constructivist theory to present principles of reading instruction for struggling readers. Focuses on three social constructivist-based components that have been used successfully with struggling readers to enhance their reading instruction: a responsive literacy environment, explicit comprehension-strategy instruction, and time…

  5. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  6. THE E-READER BOOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The fire Amazon.com Inc.'s Kindle has kindled in the United States has spread to China. But it's not a buying spree of Kindle products, which aren't being sold here, but a manufacturing frenzy of Kindle-like products——electronicbook readers (e-readers).

  7. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad interpretation of the subject…

  8. Readers Responding--And Then?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Gunnar

    1992-01-01

    Argues that recognition of the reader's role in the production of meanings in literary works has major consequences for the theory, research, and teaching of literature. Discusses the need to include the reader's role when writing the history of literature; develop new language for the description of the meanings of works; and develop new models…

  9. Designing Haptic Assistive Technology for Individuals Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluk, Dianne T V; Adams, Richard J; Kitada, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers issues relevant for the design and use of haptic technology for assistive devices for individuals who are blind or visually impaired in some of the major areas of importance: Braille reading, tactile graphics, orientation and mobility. We show that there is a wealth of behavioral research that is highly applicable to assistive technology design. In a few cases, conclusions from behavioral experiments have been directly applied to design with positive results. Differences in brain organization and performance capabilities between individuals who are "early blind" and "late blind" from using the same tactile/haptic accommodations, such as the use of Braille, suggest the importance of training and assessing these groups individually. Practical restrictions on device design, such as performance limitations of the technology and cost, raise questions as to which aspects of these restrictions are truly important to overcome to achieve high performance. In general, this raises the question of what it means to provide functional equivalence as opposed to sensory equivalence.

  10. Beyond the “Handicapped” Label: Narrating Options to Teach Foreign Languages to Blind and Visually Impaired Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imperio Arenas González

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the research project carried out with a blind student, who studied French at a public university. The pedagogical experience over three years began in a classroom when a foreign language teacher and educator felt herself “handicapped,” as she had not been prepared for working with blind people. In order to put her student on the same level of other students in terms of study possibilities, the teacher entered the blind and visually impaired students’ world through Braille. She designed methodologies in order to encourage the autonomous learning of the foreign language as well as tried to motivate other blind or visually impaired people to acquire the same knowledge.

  11. Cortical activation during Braille reading is influenced by early visual experience in subjects with severe visual disability: a correlational fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, P; Morgan, V L; Pickens, D R; Price, R R; Wall, R S; Ebner, F F

    2001-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on blind adults resting and reading Braille. The strongest activation was found in primary somatic sensory/motor cortex on both cortical hemispheres. Additional foci of activation were situated in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes where visual information is processed in sighted persons. The regions were differentiated most in the correlation of their time courses of activation with resting and reading. Differences in magnitude and expanse of activation were substantially less significant. Among the traditionally visual areas, the strength of correlation was greatest in posterior parietal cortex and moderate in occipitotemporal, lateral occipital, and primary visual cortex. It was low in secondary visual cortex as well as in dorsal and ventral inferior temporal cortex and posterior middle temporal cortex. Visual experience increased the strength of correlation in all regions except dorsal inferior temporal and posterior parietal cortex. The greatest statistically significant increase, i.e., approximately 30%, was in ventral inferior temporal and posterior middle temporal cortex. In these regions, words are analyzed semantically, which may be facilitated by visual experience. In contrast, visual experience resulted in a slight, insignificant diminution of the strength of correlation in dorsal inferior temporal cortex where language is analyzed phonetically. These findings affirm that posterior temporal regions are engaged in the processing of written language. Moreover, they suggest that this function is modified by early visual experience. Furthermore, visual experience significantly strengthened the correlation of activation and Braille reading in occipital regions traditionally involved in the processing of visual features and object recognition suggesting a role for visual imagery.

  12. Narrative tension analysis: reader`s and text aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Анна Вениаминовна Лещенко

    2016-01-01

    In this article narrative tension is conceptualized as a complex cognitive and affective phenomenon being analysed in two dimensions: psychological and textological. In the receptive and psychological framework narrative tension is considered as reader`s psychological response to the fictional events of the storyworld. In modern text theory narrative tension is thought as a specific narrative strategy represented by definite narrative structures inducing the particular emotional state of the ...

  13. Phoneme, Grapheme, Onset-Rime and Word Analysis in Braille with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.; Hoekman, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Two groups of sighted pre-school children were taught to name six braille letters: one group received phoneme instruction and the other grapheme instruction. Ten boys and ten girls (average age 4:5 years) participated. There was a statistically significant advantage for the phoneme group (Experiment 1). In a repeated measures design, 16 sighted…

  14. Error Analysis of Brailled Instructional Materials Produced by Public School Personnel in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Tina

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a detailed error analysis was performed to determine if patterns of errors existed in braille transcriptions. The most frequently occurring errors were the insertion of letters or words that were not contained in the original print material; the incorrect usage of the emphasis indicator; and the incorrect formatting of titles,…

  15. The Development of Accepted Performance Items to Demonstrate Competence in Literary Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sandra; D'Andrea, Frances Mary; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This research attempted to establish the content validity of several performance statements that are associated with basic knowledge, production, and reading of braille by beginning teachers. Methods: University instructors (n = 21) and new teachers of students with visual impairments (n = 20) who had taught at least 2 braille…

  16. Affordance of Braille Music as a Mediational Means: Significance and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyu-Yong; Kim, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Affordance refers to the properties or designs of a thing that offer the function of the thing. This paper discusses the affordance of Braille music in terms of three notions: mediational means, mastery and appropriation, and focuses on answering the following three questions: (i) How do musicians with visual impairments (MVI) perceive Braille…

  17. An Examination of 40 Years of Mathematics Education among Norwegian Braille-Reading Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Oliv G.; Fosse, Per; Augestad, Liv Berit

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here estimated the occurrence of braille-reading students in Norway who were educated according to their grade-level progression in mathematics from 1967 to 2007. It also analyzed the association among these students' progression in mathematics and the causes of visual impairment, the age at which the diagnosis…

  18. An Investigation of Spelling in the Written Compositions of Students Who Read Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Bischke, Christine; Stoner, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the spelling skills in the written compositions of 20 students who read braille and offers further evidence that the skills of these students are similar to those of sighted students. The assessment of writing samples focused on the number of words spelled correctly and used an error analysis to describe patterns of spelling…

  19. Teachers' Experiences with Literacy Instruction for Dual-Media Students Who Use Print and Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Tina S.; Rosenblum, Penny; Robbins, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study analyzed survey responses from 84 teachers of students with visual impairments who had provided literacy instruction to dual-media students who used both print and braille. Methods: These teachers in the United States and Canada completed an online survey during spring 2015. Results: The teachers reported that they…

  20. Results of an Online Refresher Course to Build Braille Transcription Skills in Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Tina S.; Rosenblum, L. Penny; Robbins, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Certified transcribers, non-certified transcribers, volunteers, paraeducators, and teachers of students with visual impairments transcribe braille materials for K-12 students (those in kindergarten through 12th grade), and their training and level of preparedness varies greatly (Corn & Wall, 2002; Herzberg & Stough, 2007; Rosenblum &…

  1. Braille and Tactile Graphics: Youths with Visual Impairments Share Their Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Herzberg, Tina S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Data were collected from youths with visual impairment about their experiences with tactile graphics and braille materials used in mathematics and science classes. Methods: Youths answered questions and explored four tactile graphics made using different production methods. They located specific information on each graphic and shared…

  2. Evaluating Training and Implementation of the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach to Teaching Braille Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durando, Julie A.; Wormsley, Diane P.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of training workshops in braille literacy for teachers of students who are visually impaired and have additional disabilities. Participants in the training workshops in the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach indicated general satisfaction with the training. Most reported using the approach with…

  3. New Dots Downunder: The Implementation of Unified English Braille (UEB) in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, Frances; Steer, Michael; Howse, Josie

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors will outline and describe the recent implementation of Unified English Braille (UEB) in Australia's complex school systems. The New South Wales Department of Education and Communities (NSW/DEC) played a leading role in the process. The education sector at all levels in Australia appears to have embraced the introduction…

  4. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  5. Writing for the Invisible Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of the lesbian writer in addressing the invisibility of teenage readers. Argues that writing about homosexuality is a matter of presenting it rather than promoting it. Includes a review of "The Year they Burned the Books." (NH)

  6. Choosing the Right Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Ruth H.

    1980-01-01

    Looks at factors in the textbook publishing industry, especially costs and censorship, which affect the quality of available reading series. Notes the problem of readability and content bias. Finally, presents a checklist of basal reader evaluation criteria. (SJL)

  7. Measuring with the spiral reader

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The spiral reader shown here was at the time, together with the Shivamatic scanning system, the basic equipment used for measuring bubble chamber pictures. Anne Anton sits at the table. (See Photo Archive 7408343.)

  8. On the Characteristics and Enlightenment of the Visually Impaired Service in Russian Braille Library%俄罗斯盲人图书馆视障服务的特点与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林军

    2015-01-01

    俄罗斯有72个盲人图书馆。俄罗斯盲人图书馆的服务对象除了视障人士,还包括其他残疾人。文章概述俄罗斯盲人图书馆视障服务的特点:信息无障碍利用、培养阅读素养、信息需求调查、重视馆藏文献资源建设、书目推荐、图书送到身边、数字化服务、个性化服务、注重对外合作等。最后指出对我国公共图书馆视障服务的启示。%There are 72 federal libraries for the blind in Russia.Russian Braille libraries service the visually impaired and the other people with disabilities.The artide summaries the characteristics of the visually impaired serv-ice in the Russian Braille library:developing information barrier -free utilization,cultivating reader’s literacy,ca-ring the information demand investigation,and attaching great importance to the library literature resources construc-tion,recommended bibliography,books sent to the side,the digital service,personalized service,and the internation-al cooperation,etc.Finally it points out the enlightenment for our libray.

  9. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornby Stella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  10. Readers Theatre: A different approach to English for struggling readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Drew

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the use of Readers Theatre in English lessons with groups of academically-challenged pupils in a Norwegian lower secondary school. The study is based on the teacher’s logs, interviews with the teacher, a questionnaire answered by the pupils, and lesson observations. Readers Theatre, a group reading activity that can be used with a wide range of texts, was successfully incorporated into the curriculum with relatively small ‘fordypning’ (specialisation groups in English. These pupils had opted for more English lessons instead of learning a second foreign language. Most of them struggled with English as their first foreign language and were struggling readers. However, the majority of the pupils experienced Readers Theatre as both enjoyable and educational. The experience had a positive effect on their confidence and motivation to read. It also helped to improve their reading fluency and accuracy, for example pronunciation, and facilitated growth in vocabulary. The experience of practising and performing as a group was especially satisfying and motivating for the pupils involved. The majority were keen to participate in other Readers Theatre projects.

  11. [Double-blind peer review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyvesi, Tamás

    2002-02-03

    The peer review process in medical sciences is much debated. The method is not yet evidence based. Who are the reviewers and how do they perform? They are "independent" experts. As such they are bound to be involved in research similar to that outlined in the manuscript. Very often they are contestant in the same race. That is why the author consider the double blind method, where the author is blinded and the reviewer masked from each other's identity, the best choice. Nevertheless in very many scientific journals of high quality and envied impact factors do not blind the identity of the authors. Science is a race for fame, self accomplishment and also a means to get grants for pursuing the scientific research. Only success is able to provide resources for expensive scientific research. There is no fail-safe method against bias in grant giving and editorial process. In the tidal wave of electronic information it is mandatory to help in differentiating between signal and noise in science. Peer review is the best method to protect readers from the trash of uncontrolled publications in medical science.

  12. Aesthetics of reception, Jauss, implied reader and actual reader.

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson Cleiton de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss how Hans Robert Jauss, the creator of the aesthetics of reception, has introduced the category of the reader into the literary studies especially when it comes to the importance of the reader to the understanding of the text, and to the history of a society and its literary system or, in other words to the way the formal elements of a literary work are organized and how they are related to aesthetic, ethic and moral evaluations. To do so, it is necessary to...

  13. Readers' Theatre as a History Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Sandra D.; Riney-Kehrberg, Pamela; Westbury, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Describes the production of a readers' theater version of the first women's rights convention held at Seneca Falls, New York (includes script). Discusses the benefits of readers' theater for studying women's history and encouraging female student class participation; strategies for using readers' theater; and students creating their own readers'…

  14. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette eHeine

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence that congenitally blind individuals rely more strongly on non-visual information compared to sighted controls when interacting with the outside world. Although brain imaging studies indicate that congenitally blind individuals recruit occipital areas when performing various non-visual and cognitive tasks, it remains unclear through which pathways this is accomplished. To address this question, we compared resting state functional connectivity in a group of congenitally blind and matched sighted control subjects. We used a seed-based analysis with a priori specified regions-of-interest (ROIs within visual, somato-sensory, auditory and language areas. Between-group comparisons revealed increased functional connectivity within both the ventral and the dorsal visual streams in blind participants, whereas connectivity between the two streams was reduced. In addition, our data revealed stronger functional connectivity in blind participants between the visual ROIs and areas implicated in language and tactile (Braille processing such as the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca’s area, thalamus, supramarginal gyrus and cerebellum. The observed group differences underscore the extent of the cross-modal reorganisation in the brain and the supra-modal function of the occipital cortex in congenitally blind individuals.

  15. Making Astronomy and Space Science Accessible to the Blind and Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Winchatz, B.; Hoette, V.; Grice, N.

    2003-12-01

    One of the biggest obstacles blind and visually impaired people face in science is the ubiquity of important graphical information, which is generally not made available in alternate formats accessible to them. Funded by NASA's Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science (IDEAS), we have recently formed a team of scientists and educators from universities, the SOFIA NASA mission, a science museum, an observatory, and schools for the blind. Our goal is to develop and test Braille/tactile space science activities that actively engage students from elementary grades through introductory college-level in space science. We will discuss effective strategies and low-cost technologies that can be used to make graphical information accessible. We will also demonstrate examples, such a thermal expansion graphics created from telescope images of the Moon and other celestial objects, a tactile planisphere, three-dimensional models of near-Earth asteroids and tactile diagrams of their orbits, and an infrared detector activity.

  16. Working memory for braille is shaped by experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Henri; Scherzer, Peter; Viau, Robert; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco

    2011-03-01

    Tactile working memory was found to be more developed in completely blind (congenital and acquired) than in semi-sighted subjects, indicating that experience plays a crucial role in shaping working memory. A model of working memory, adapted from the classical model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch1 and Baddeley2 is presented where the connection strengths of a highly cross-modal network are altered through experience.

  17. PROTOTIPO DE TECNOLOGÍA EN ASISTENCIA PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DEL BRAILLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Hernandez Suarez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Con el diseño y fabricación del dispositivo denominado sistema electrónico mecánico para el aprendizaje la lectoescritura del Braille (SEMLEB, junto con la aplicación de una metodología basada en acompañamiento de un tutor, se buscó determinar y analizar los factores que facilitaran el proceso de aprendizaje de la lectoescritura del sistema Braille para niños ciegos en etapa escolar y sus repercusiones en el aprendizaje del castellano para identificar las letras del alfabeto, los fonemas, las sílabas, y algunas palabras y frases de corta longitud.

  18. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S. G.; Chen, X.; Levard, T.; Diglio, P. J.; Gorny, L. J.; Rahn, C. D.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-06-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly.

  19. Touch the Invisible Sky: A multi-wavelength Braille book featuring NASA images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, S.; Grice, N.; Daou, D.

    2008-06-01

    Multi-wavelength astronomy - the study of the Universe at wavelengths beyond the visible, has revolutionised our understanding and appreciation of the cosmos. Hubble, Chandra and Spitzer are examples of powerful, space-based telescopes that complement each other in their observations spanning the electromagnetic spectrum. While several Braille books on astronomical topics have been published, to this point, no printed material accessible to the sight disabled or Braille reading public has been available on the topic of multi-wavelength astronomy. Touch the Invisible Sky presents the first printed introduction to modern, multi-wavelength astronomy studies to the disabled sight community. On a more fundamental level, tactile images of a Universe that had, until recently, been invisible to all, sighted or non-sighted, is an important learning message on how science and technology broadens our senses and our understanding of the natural world.

  20. Functional and Structural Neuroplasticity Induced by Short-Term Tactile Training Based on Braille Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Weronika; Wolak, Tomasz; Nowicka, Anna; Kozak, Anna; Szwed, Marcin; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplastic changes induced by sensory learning have been recognized within the cortices of specific modalities as well as within higher ordered multimodal areas. The interplay between these areas is not fully understood, particularly in the case of somatosensory learning. Here we examined functional and structural changes induced by short-term tactile training based of Braille reading, a task that requires both significant tactile expertise and mapping of tactile input onto multimodal representations. Subjects with normal vision were trained for 3 weeks to read Braille exclusively by touch and scanned before and after training, while performing a same-different discrimination task on Braille characters and meaningless characters. Functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences were used to assess resulting changes. The strongest training-induced effect was found in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), where we observed bilateral augmentation in activity accompanied by an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) within the contralateral SI. Increases of white matter fractional anisotropy were also observed in the secondary somatosensory area (SII) and the thalamus. Outside of somatosensory system, changes in both structure and function were found in i.e., the fusiform gyrus, the medial frontal gyri and the inferior parietal lobule. Our results provide evidence for functional remodeling of the somatosensory pathway and higher ordered multimodal brain areas occurring as a result of short-lasting tactile learning, and add to them a novel picture of extensive white matter plasticity.

  1. Active Continuous-Flow Micromixer Using an External Braille Pin Actuator Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Miwa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a continuous-flow active micromixer based on channel-wall deflection in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS chip for volume flows in the range up to 2 μL s−1 which is intended as a novel unit operation for the microfluidic Braille pin actuated platform. The chip design comprises a main microchannel connected to a series of side channels with dead ends aligned on the Braille pins. Computer-controlled deflection of the side-channel walls induces chaotic advection in the main-channel, which substantially accelerates mixing in low-Reynolds number flow. Sufficient mixing (mixing index MI below 0.1 of volume flows up to 0.5 μL s−1 could be achieved within residence times ~500 ms in the micromixer. As an application, continuous dilution of a yeast cell sample by a ratio down to 1:10 was successfully demonstrated. The mixer is intended to serve as a component of bio-analytical devices or as a unit operation in the microfluidic Braille pin actuated platform.

  2. Functional and Structural Neuroplasticity Induced by Short-Term Tactile Training Based on Braille Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Weronika; Wolak, Tomasz; Nowicka, Anna; Kozak, Anna; Szwed, Marcin; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplastic changes induced by sensory learning have been recognized within the cortices of specific modalities as well as within higher ordered multimodal areas. The interplay between these areas is not fully understood, particularly in the case of somatosensory learning. Here we examined functional and structural changes induced by short-term tactile training based of Braille reading, a task that requires both significant tactile expertise and mapping of tactile input onto multimodal representations. Subjects with normal vision were trained for 3 weeks to read Braille exclusively by touch and scanned before and after training, while performing a same-different discrimination task on Braille characters and meaningless characters. Functional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences were used to assess resulting changes. The strongest training-induced effect was found in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), where we observed bilateral augmentation in activity accompanied by an increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) within the contralateral SI. Increases of white matter fractional anisotropy were also observed in the secondary somatosensory area (SII) and the thalamus. Outside of somatosensory system, changes in both structure and function were found in i.e., the fusiform gyrus, the medial frontal gyri and the inferior parietal lobule. Our results provide evidence for functional remodeling of the somatosensory pathway and higher ordered multimodal brain areas occurring as a result of short-lasting tactile learning, and add to them a novel picture of extensive white matter plasticity.

  3. Meios de acesso à literatura para pessoas com cegueira: Braille ou Áudio-livro?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O acesso à literatura por pessoas cegas vem acontecendo, prioritariamente, através do sistema braille. Devido ao avanço e a popularização da tecnologia, tem ocorrido uma procura maior pela literatura em áudio em nosso país. Dessa forma, o estudo surgiu do questionamento de como o acesso à literatura por pessoas cegas vem ocorrendo, tendo como objetivo analisar as implicações do uso desses meios de acesso por pessoas cegas. O instrumento de coleta de dados consistiu em um roteiro de entrevista semiestruturado, que foi aplicado a cinco pessoas cegas. Estas, por sua vez, foram gravadas e transcritas, com os dados agrupados por blocos temáticos, em tabelas e gráficos, para análise qualitativa e quantitativa. Os resultados indicaram que os sujeitos mais velhos, não dão preferência por nenhum dos meios, pois de acordo com os mesmos, ambos têm suas vantagens e desvantagens. Já os sujeitos mais jovens, revelaram preferência pelo áudio e pelo braille. Conclui-se que, ambos os meios de acesso estudados possuem suas implicações positivas e negativas, de tal forma que as pessoas cegas tendem a optar por ambos, mas apesar disso, em termos de preferência, o braille prevalece drasticamente.

  4. Research of Transformation System Between Mandarin Braille and Chinese%汉字盲文转换系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨潮; 车磊

    2011-01-01

    针对盲文的特点讨论了汉字盲文转换系统的设计。系统根据盲文规则设计了盲文点阵的计算机字型编码形式,建立起汉字汉语拼音库和汉语拼音盲文拼音库,实现了汉字盲文转换,通过汉字自动分词,汉字盲文转换,盲文生成,得到相对应的盲文码,由此,汉字源文本被翻译为对应的盲文文本。%Based on the features of braille,Chinese characters to Chinese braille conversion system is discussed.According to the rules of braille,the braille in computer is designed,the libraries of Chinese to Pinyin and Pinyin to braille is built,and the system has been realized by Chinese word segmentation,Chinese-braille conversion,and the generation of braille.The text of Chinese characters is translated into Chinese Braille.

  5. Evaluation of the Knowledge Level of High School Students in the João Pessoa City with Visual Impairment About Unified Chemistry and Mathematics Braille Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista M. de Resende Filho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Braille Code is very important in the educational process of students with visual impairment, because this writing system allows which the students know the systematic and organized writing knowledge. These students need to know the symbols and the use’s standards of them, so they can write, read and understand the contents. The Unified Chemistry and Mathematics Braille Code are fundamentally important for these students to understand the texts about these themes. This study aimed to evaluation of the knowledge level of High School students with visual impairment in the João Pessoa city about Unified Chemistry and Mathematics Braille Code. The students showed a relatively good knowledge of symbols and rules of the Unified Mathematics Braille Code, presenting, in the most cases, difficulties in recognizing unusual symbols. The student’s main difficulties were related to Unified Chemistry Braille Code, because they did not know many symbols and writing rules, presenting a low knowledge level.

  6. Usability evaluation with screen reader users: a video presentation of the PCTA's experimental setting and rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Stefano; Borsci, Simone; Mele, Maria Laura

    2010-08-01

    In the study entitled "Web usability evaluation with screen reader users: Implementation of the Partial Concurrent Thinking Aloud technique" (Federici et al. 2010), we have proposed a modified protocol of usability evaluation technique for blind users, which integrates the features of the concurrent and the retrospective techniques. This new technique, called partial concurrent thinking aloud (PCTA), while respecting the properties of classic verbal protocols, overcomes the structural interference and the limits of concurrent and retrospective protocols when used with screen reader users. In order to facilitate understanding and acquisition of the PCTA's technique for practitioners and researchers, we have video recorded three different verbal protocols by visualizing five experimental sections. In the first two videos, we have compared a concurrent with a retrospective's verbal protocol of a sighted user, showing the difference of the verbalizations provided by the user in these two conditions. The third video shows the structural interference of the screen reader, during a blind user concurrent thinking aloud. In the last two videos, we show the difference of a blind user behaviour when PCTA or retrospective protocol is adopted. The videos clearly visualize the advantage of the PCTA use in respect of the two other protocols. In conclusion, the visualization of the PCTA technique confirms that this new verbal protocol promotes and guarantees a more user-driven usability assessment with disabled people, by better involving screen reader users, overcoming the structural interference and the limits of the concurrent and retrospective protocols.

  7. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  8. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  9. Postmodern theories about readers in electronic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanka Kuić

    2015-01-01

    Introductory part of the paper discusses theories about readers in the last decades of the 20th century. In particular, two big theoretical schools are discussed: aesthetic reception theory and reader-response-criticism movement. Readers are a subject of very different scientific disciplines: literature theory, sociology, anthropology, book history and library science. The idea that a reader is an essential subject for future life of a literary work is common to all theorists. By constructing...

  10. Blind system identification

    OpenAIRE

    Abed-Meriam, Karim; Qui, Wanzhi; Hua, Yingbo

    1997-01-01

    Blind system identification (BSI) is a fundamental signal processing technology aimed at retrieving a system's unknown information from its output only. This technology has a wide range of possible applications such as mobile communications, speech reverberation cancellation, and blind image restoration. This paper reviews a number of recently developed concepts and techniques for BSI, which include the concept of blind system identifiability in a deterministic framework, the blind techniques...

  11. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reader should have an understanding of the subject matter based upon prior training or experience which... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reader service. 21.150... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran...

  12. The Reader's Devices: The affordances of ebook readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather MacFadyen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Print books and ebook devices now co-exist in a reading eco-system. The ways in which readers understand and describe their experience of reading on ebook devices is shaped by long-established cultural expectations about the abstract as well as the physical affordances of the print book. Ebook devices cannot help but challenge those expectations. A review of readers’ reactions to the emergence of ebook devices offers a glimpse into the complex cultural position of both the idea and the experience of reading.

  13. Design and evaluation of an innovative MRI-compatible Braille stimulator with high spatial and temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowska, Weronika; Wolak, Tomasz; Soluch, Pawel; Orzechowski, Mateusz; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2013-02-15

    Neural correlates of Braille reading have been widely studied with different neuroimaging techniques. Nevertheless, the exact brain processes underlying this unique activity are still unknown, due to suboptimal accuracy of imaging and/or stimuli delivery methods. To study somatosensory perception effectively, the stimulation must reflect parameters of the natural stimulus and must be applied with precise timing. In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) providing these characteristics requires technologically advanced solutions and there have been several successful direct tactile stimulation devices designed that allow investigation of somatotopic organization of brain sensory areas. They may, however, be of limited applicability in studying brain mechanisms related to such distinctive tactile activity as Braille reading. In this paper we describe the design and experimental evaluation of an innovative MRI-compatible Braille Character Stimulator (BCS) enabling precise and stable delivery of standardized Braille characters with high temporal resolution. Our device is fully programmable, flexible in stimuli delivery and can be easily implemented in any research unit. The Braille Character Stimulator was tested with a same-different discrimination task on Braille characters during an event-related fMRI experiment in eleven right-handed sighted adult subjects. The results show significant activations in several cortical areas, including bilateral primary (SI) and secondary somatosensory (SII) cortices, bilateral premotor and supplementary motor areas, inferior frontal gyri, inferior temporal gyri and precuneus, as well as contralateral (to the stimulated hand) thalamus. The results validate the use of the BCS as a method of effective stimuli application in fMRI studies, in both sighted and visually impaired subjects.

  14. Early auditory change detection implicitly facilitated by ignored concurrent visual change during a Braille reading task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Tomohiro; Kuriki, Shinya

    2013-09-01

    Unconscious monitoring of multimodal stimulus changes enables humans to effectively sense the external environment. Such automatic change detection is thought to be reflected in auditory and visual mismatch negativity (MMN) and mismatch negativity fields (MMFs). These are event-related potentials and magnetic fields, respectively, evoked by deviant stimuli within a sequence of standard stimuli, and both are typically studied during irrelevant visual tasks that cause the stimuli to be ignored. Due to the sensitivity of MMN/MMF to potential effects of explicit attention to vision, however, it is unclear whether multisensory co-occurring changes can purely facilitate early sensory change detection reciprocally across modalities. We adopted a tactile task involving the reading of Braille patterns as a neutral ignore condition, while measuring magnetoencephalographic responses to concurrent audiovisual stimuli that were infrequently deviated either in auditory, visual, or audiovisual dimensions; 1000-Hz standard tones were switched to 1050-Hz deviant tones and/or two-by-two standard check patterns displayed on both sides of visual fields were switched to deviant reversed patterns. The check patterns were set to be faint enough so that the reversals could be easily ignored even during Braille reading. While visual MMFs were virtually undetectable even for visual and audiovisual deviants, significant auditory MMFs were observed for auditory and audiovisual deviants, originating from bilateral supratemporal auditory areas. Notably, auditory MMFs were significantly enhanced for audiovisual deviants from about 100 ms post-stimulus, as compared with the summation responses for auditory and visual deviants or for each of the unisensory deviants recorded in separate sessions. Evidenced by high tactile task performance with unawareness of visual changes, we conclude that Braille reading can successfully suppress explicit attention and that simultaneous multisensory changes can

  15. Small volume low mechanical stress cytometry using computer-controlled Braille display microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yi-Chung; Torisawa, Yu-suke; Futai, Nobuyuki; Takayama, Shuichi

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes a micro flow cytometer system designed for efficient and non-damaging analysis of samples with small numbers of precious cells. The system utilizes actuation of Braille-display pins for micro-scale fluid manipulation and a fluorescence microscope with a CCD camera for optical detection. The microfluidic chip is fully disposable and is composed of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slab with microchannel features sealed against a thin deformable PDMS membrane. The channels are designed with diffusers to alleviate pulsatile flow behaviors inherent in pin actuator-based peristaltic pumping schemes to maximize hydrodynamic focusing of samples with minimal disturbances in the laminar streams within the channel. A funnel connected to the microfluidic channel is designed for efficient loading of samples with small number of cells and is also positioned on the chip to prevent physical damages of the samples by the squeezing actions of Braille pins during actuation. The sample loading scheme was characterized by both computational fluidic dynamics (CFD) simulation and experimental observation. A fluorescein solution was first used for flow field investigation, followed by use of fluorescence beads with known relative intensities for optical detection performance calibration. Murine myoblast cells (C2C12) were exploited to investigate cell viability for the sample loading scheme of the device. Furthermore, human promyelocytic leukemia (HL60) cells stained by hypotonic DNA staining buffer were also tested in the system for cell cycle analysis. The ability to efficiently analyze cellular samples where the number of cells is small was demonstrated by analyzing cells from a single embryoid body derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Consequently, the designed microfluidic device reported in this paper is promising for easy-to-use, small sample size flow cytometric analysis, and has potential to be further integrated with other Braille display-based microfluidic

  16. Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Boutron

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blinding is a cornerstone of treatment evaluation. Blinding is more difficult to obtain in trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment and frequently relies on "creative" (nonstandard methods. The purpose of this study was to systematically describe the strategies used to obtain blinding in a sample of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched in Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing nonpharmacological treatment with blinding, published during 2004 in high-impact-factor journals. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction form. We identified 145 articles, with the method of blinding described in 123 of the reports. Methods of blinding of participants and/or health care providers and/or other caregivers concerned mainly use of sham procedures such as simulation of surgical procedures, similar attention-control interventions, or a placebo with a different mode of administration for rehabilitation or psychotherapy. Trials assessing devices reported various placebo interventions such as use of sham prosthesis, identical apparatus (e.g., identical but inactivated machine or use of activated machine with a barrier to block the treatment, or simulation of using a device. Blinding participants to the study hypothesis was also an important method of blinding. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors relied mainly on centralized assessment of paraclinical examinations, clinical examinations (i.e., use of video, audiotape, photography, or adjudications of clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: This study classifies blinding methods and provides a detailed description of methods that could overcome some barriers of blinding in clinical trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment, and provides information for readers assessing the quality of results of such trials.

  17. Multiplexed hydraulic valve actuation using ionic liquid filled soft channels and Braille displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei; Chen, Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung; Meiners, Jens-Christian; Takayama, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Pneumatic actuation with multilayer soft lithography enables operation of up to thousands of valves in parallel using far fewer control lines. However, it is dependent on macroscopic switches and external pressure sources that require interconnects and limit portability. The authors present a more portable and multiplexed valve actuation strategy that uses a grid of mechanically actuated Braille pins to hydraulically, rather than pneumatically, deform elastic actuation channels that act as valves. Experimental and theoretical analyses show that the key to reliable operation of the hydraulic system is the use of nonvolatile ionic liquids as the hydraulic fluid.

  18. Transient Thermal State of an Active Braille Matrix with Incorporated Thermal Actuators by Means of Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alutei, Alexandra-Maria; Szelitzky, Emoke; Mandru, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the transient thermal analysis for a developed thermal linear actuator based on wax paraffin used to drive the cells of a Braille device. A numerical investigation of transient heat transfer phenomenon during paraffin melting and solidification in an encapsulated recipient has been carried out using the ANSYS…

  19. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  20. E-book Reader Devices and Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažur, I.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most library studies thematically related to electronic books don't consider readers of electronic books. Only in recent years librarians conduct studies in which they want to find out readers' opinions about the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of reading using e-readers, as well as their possible application in the libraries.User studies of e-readers have shown that their opinion is generally positive, but great attachment to traditional books is still present, e-readers are still seen only as an additional tool for reading. Sony with its e-reader (the latest Reader model Daily and Reader Store online bookstore (http://ebookstore.sony.com/is the only one who cooperate with libraries and has made lending electronic books possible. Cooperation was launched in 2009th,and the New York Public Library was the first library that offered such a service.Cooperation between Sony and libraries, indicates clearly what the near future could be if other online booksellers / publishers begin to follow the model of lending e-books through the libraries over the network. However it is possible that a large online bookstores / publishers consider that the further price reduction of e-readers and electronic books will constantly increase their sales, and in that case lending e-books will be unnecessary.Are the libraries ready for this scenario?

  1. Reader Response Theory and Classroom Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Harold K., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Presents annotations of nine journal articles, monographs, and "learning packages" (published between 1989 and 1993) that examine teaching approaches founded upon the insights of reader response theory. (RS)

  2. O sistema Braille e o ensino da Matemática para pessoas cegas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Virginia Mamcasz Viginheski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao levar em consideração a inclusão de pessoas com deficiência visual no ensino regular, este artigo tem como objetivo centrar-se na perspectiva de referenciar o sistema Braille como um dos recursos de aprendizagem de Matemática para alunos cegos. Caracteriza-se como uma pesquisa exploratória com ênfase bibliográfica, bem como em experiências vivenciadas pela pesquisadora em um Centro de Atendimento Especializado a Pessoas com Deficiência Visual. Foi possível constatar que o sistema Braille se apresenta como um dos recursos disponíveis para o ensino da Matemática, no entanto, ainda são necessárias outras adaptações de materiais que possibilitem, ao aluno cego, o acesso às várias formas de representação dos conteúdos matemáticos.

  3. High Reynolds number rough wall turbulent boundary layer experiments using Braille surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael; Monty, Jason; Nova, Todd; Allen, James; Chong, Min

    2007-11-01

    This paper details smooth, transitional and fully rough turbulent boundary layer experiments in the New Mexico State high Reynolds number rough wall wind tunnel. The initial surface tested was generated with a Braille printer and consisted of an uniform array of Braille points. The average point height being 0.5mm, the spacing between the points in the span was 0.5mm and the surface consisted of span wise rows separated by 4mm. The wavelength to peak ratio was 8:1. The boundary layer thickness at the measurement location was 190mm giving a large separation of roughness height to layer thickness. The maximum friction velocity was uτ=1.5m/s at Rex=3.8 x10^7. Results for the skin friction co-efficient show that this surface follows a Nikuradse type inflectional curve and that Townsends outer layer similarity hypothesis is valid for rough wall flows with a large separation of scales. Mean flow and turbulence statistics will be presented.

  4. Batch fabrication of optical actuators using nanotube-elastomer composites towards refreshable Braille displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, C. J.; Campanella, H.; Marshall, J. E.; Torras, N.; Zinoviev, K.; Terentjev, E. M.; Esteve, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports an opto-actuable device fabricated using micro-machined silicon moulds. The actuating component of the device is made from a composite material containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in a liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) matrix. We demonstrate the fabrication of a patterned LCE-CNT film by a combination of mechanical stretching and thermal cross-linking. The resulting poly-domain LCE-CNT film contains ‘blister-shaped’ mono-domain regions, which reversibly change their shape under light irradiation and hence can be used as dynamic Braille dots. We demonstrate that blisters with diameters of 1.0 and 1.5 mm, and wall thickness 300 µm, will mechanically contract under irradiation by a laser diode with optical power up to 60 mW. The magnitude of this contraction was up to 40 µm, which is more than 10% of their height in the ‘rest’ state. The stabilization time of the material is less than 6 s for both actuation and recovery. We also carried out preliminary tests on the repeatability of this photo-actuation process, observing no material or performance degradation. This manufacturing approach establishes a starting point for the design and fabrication of wide-area tactile actuators, which are promising candidates for the development of new Braille reading applications for the visually impaired.

  5. Control of soft machines using actuators operated by a Braille display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadegh, Bobak; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Shepherd, Robert F; Morin, Stephen A; Gupta, Unmukt; Sani, Idin Zhalehdoust; Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Whitesides, George M

    2014-01-07

    One strategy for actuating soft machines (e.g., tentacles, grippers, and simple walkers) uses pneumatic inflation of networks of small channels in an elastomeric material. Although the management of a few pneumatic inputs and valves to control pressurized gas is straightforward, the fabrication and operation of manifolds containing many (>50) independent valves is an unsolved problem. Complex pneumatic manifolds-often built for a single purpose-are not easily reconfigured to accommodate the specific inputs (i.e., multiplexing of many fluids, ranges of pressures, and changes in flow rates) required by pneumatic systems. This paper describes a pneumatic manifold comprising a computer-controlled Braille display and a micropneumatic device. The Braille display provides a compact array of 64 piezoelectric actuators that actively close and open elastomeric valves of a micropneumatic device to route pressurized gas within the manifold. The positioning and geometries of the valves and channels in the micropneumatic device dictate the functionality of the pneumatic manifold, and the use of multi-layer soft lithography permits the fabrication of networks in a wide range of configurations with many possible functions. Simply exchanging micropneumatic devices of different designs enables rapid reconfiguration of the pneumatic manifold. As a proof of principle, a pneumatic manifold controlled a soft machine containing 32 independent actuators to move a ball above a flat surface.

  6. Habilidades cognitivo-linguísticas e segmentação lexical em Braille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa de Arruda Nicolaiewsky

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo examinou a relação entre habilidades cognitivas e linguísticas e segmentação lexical na produção textual em braille de 21 alunos dos três primeiros anos do ensino fundamental de instituição especializada em deficiência visual. A habilidade de demarcar os limites das palavras no texto é desenvolvida ao longo do processo de aquisição da língua escrita, sendo fundamental para a compreensão textual. Foi investigada a ocorrência de hipossegmentações (junção de duas ou mais palavras e hipersegmentações (espaço indevido inserido em uma palavra na produção escrita de histórias. Houve predominância de hipossegmentações. Os participantes que apresentaram maior número de hipossegmentações em sua escrita obtiveram desempenho mais baixo nas tarefas referentes à habilidade verbal, memória de trabalho, consciência morfológica e leitura. Em oposição, aqueles que realizaram menos transgressões obtiveram melhor desempenho nessas tarefas. A elaboração de práticas pedagógicas que enfoquem habilidades cognitivas e linguísticas facilitaria a aquisição da língua escrita em braille.

  7. Blindness and vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means you cannot see anything and DO NOT see light. (Most people who use the term "blindness" mean ... the vision loss. For long-term vision loss, see a low-vision specialist, who can help you learn to care for yourself and ... of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness ...

  8. Blindness%失明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2009-01-01

    @@ There was a blind girl who hated herself because she was blind. She hated everyone,except her loving boyfriend who was always there for her. She told her boyfriend, "If I could only see the World, I will marry you."

  9. Blindness and Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Anthony David

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the claims that, among many blind persons, physical inactivity leads to poor physical fitness; that a state of anxiety is often a concomitant of unguided blind mobility; and that Yogic practices offer a solution to both difficulties. (GW)

  10. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  11. Blind Pre-School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  12. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...... background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material...

  13. How Does a Reader Make a Poem Meaningful? Reader-Response Theory and the Poetry Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Sandra Lee

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a reader-response approach can help students construct a portfolio of readings that reflects their development as poetry readers. Describes using a reader-response journal, communal learning activities, and a portfolio to create a recursive process through which students develop a better understanding of how poetry works. Discusses…

  14. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  15. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  16. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting rap

  17. Developing Readers: Lessons from Agatha Christie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Reminds readers that looking at individual authors rather than dealing in generalizations is a very meaningful approach to increasing an understanding of how reading works by making sense of the text. Discusses how Agatha Christie's writing follows very predictable patterns and may provide useful experiences for novice readers. (MG)

  18. Reader Imposed Structure and Prose Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Mark D.

    1979-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the impact of a reader's perspective on prose learning: (1) subjects read stories from one of two directed perspectives or with no directed perspective; or (2) readers organized and familiarized themselves with a perspective before the perspective was applied to a story. Perspective influenced recall and organization.…

  19. The active reader: what is active?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.

    2012-01-01

    How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept

  20. Advanced Hindi Reader in the Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatuk, Ved Prakash

    This reader contains 25 selections in standard Hindi by recognized authorities in the major fields of social science; namely sociology, anthropology, folklore, economics, and political science. The writings, evenly divided both in content and style, are intended to give the reader a broad perspective of Indian culture. A 128-page Hindi-English…

  1. Developing Preservice Teachers' Perspectives on Reader Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Dana L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines preservice teachers' developing conceptions of reader response theory, specifically focusing on the importance of aesthetic response to students' engagement with and motivation for reading. Finds that the aesthetic reader stance predominated in students' written responses and discussions; and that written response did not influence the…

  2. An Overview of Reader-Response Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to give a brief introduction to reader-response theory.including its origin,main concepts and general classification. with the following conclusion drawn in the end: reader-response theory. in spite of its subjectivity,has provided a broader horizon for literary criticism due to its variety and openness.

  3. Postmodern theories about readers in electronic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Kuić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introductory part of the paper discusses theories about readers in the last decades of the 20th century. In particular, two big theoretical schools are discussed: aesthetic reception theory and reader-response-criticism movement. Readers are a subject of very different scientific disciplines: literature theory, sociology, anthropology, book history and library science. The idea that a reader is an essential subject for future life of a literary work is common to all theorists. By constructing the theory about a reader, theorists have thought about the reader who uses the conventions of printed text. The issue whether these concepts correspond to electronic surroundings is discussed. Characteristics of the hypertext are emphasized as a new paradigm, and also the issue weather readers enjoys in hypertextual fiction. In conclusion, paper expands the virtual dimension of Isers's theory about interaction between the text and the reader, and also Fish's concept of “interpretative community” which may be constituted on the Internet as a flexible virtual community.

  4. Intermediate Amharic Cultural Reader. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reader is intended to provide material for the intermediate-level student of Amharic, as well as to introduce the student to the cultural and social life of Ethiopia. The 39 texts were each prepared by a different student at Haile Selassie I University, thus providing the reader with a variety of language styles. The Amharic texts are…

  5. PressReader User Guide for Android eReader

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Представлено краткое руководство для работы с электронными газетами и журналами на платформе Library PressDisplay на английском языке с помощью Android eReader. "Библиотека ПрессДисплей" - самый большой киоск ежедневной прессы, предлагает полные цифровые копии (больше контента, чем на Google) более 2300 газет и журналов из 100 стран на 54 языках и мнгновенный перевод с 13 языков....

  6. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  7. The Invisible Universe: A Tactile and Braille Exhibit of Astronomical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, Kimberly; Lestition, K.; Watzke, M.; Steel, S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the "From Earth to the Universe" (FETTU) project, a NASA-funded tactile exhibit for the visually impaired community was launched in July 2009 at the Martin Luther King Library in D.C. The exhibit is part of the global FETTU exhibit, a project of the International Year of Astronomy 2009. The science content of the exhibit includes explanations of our Sun, Eta Carinae, Crab Nebula, Whirlpool Galaxy, and the electromagnetic spectrum, and was adapted from the NASA-funded Braille/tactile book Touch the Invisible Sky. Multiple geographic locations and venue types have been targeted for the displays. The FETTU-tactile exhibit opens a wider door to experiencing and understanding astronomy, bridging a gap in learning. This exhibit is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under proposal 08-EPO08-0068 issued through the Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with night blindness often have trouble seeing stars on a clear night or walking through a ... certain drugs Vitamin A deficiency (rare) Nontreatable causes: Birth defects Retinitis pigmentosa

  9. Blind Loop Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more commonly result from other conditions such as short bowel syndrome or chronic pancreatitis. Small intestine aspirate and fluid ... people with severe blind loop syndrome resulting in short bowel syndrome. References Townsend CM Jr, et al. Sabiston Textbook ...

  10. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  11. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the stomach) and operations for extreme obesity As a complication of inflammatory bowel disease Diseases such as diabetes or scleroderma may slow down movement in a segment of the intestine, leading to blind loop syndrome.

  12. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  13. Models for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material objects are rarely used as historical testimonies for the simple reason that they, unlike archival material, do not present historians with written documents that can be held as evidence of the past. However, as I point out, certain historical questions of which archives remain silent could be approached by other means such as the use of material objects. Rather than delivering concrete methodological suggestions, this second part reflects upon the historical use of material objects - both their possibilities and their limits - within the context of blindness.

  14. Calculation of the importance of quality factors in braille application process on labels by screen UV-varnishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Repeta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oriented graph has been drawn in the article according to fixed factors of the quality of applying Braille screen printing on the label by screen UV-varnishes. Using hierarchical representation of relationships between factors in the form of oriented graphs we have ranked the factors of the screen printing process of Braille elements by UV-varnishes and calculated their corresponding coefficients. We have found that the most ranked are such factors as the surface energy of the printing material, the printing speed, the temperature of UV-varnish and its viscosity. Received results of ranking will enable to synthesize the model of the process’ priority factors and to reveal the possibilities of regulations of geometrical parameters of the tactile font elements.

  15. Turning Polite Guests into Executive Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Dale D.

    1983-01-01

    Expands the usual notion of critical reading from just the judgments readers make about the text to include judgments they make about their "reading" of the text. Describes activities to develop "executive" metacomprehension skills. (HTH)

  16. Illustrative and descriptive format of pedagogic strategies and resources for the instruction of blind and low vision students in inclusive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Osmar Seabra Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The participation of all in a Physical Education class requires pedagogical resources and proper and/or adapted teaching strategies to each group of participants. The aim of this study was to: identify, interpret and categorize the suggestions found in the literature on teaching strategies and learning resources offered to teach blind and visually impaired students. The specific objectives were: 1 Presentation of teaching strategies and learning resources in an illustrative manual, and 2 A description of the illustrations, which can be read in Braille, enabling accessibility to the blind. The re - sults were obtained by the: 1 selection of propositions that describing teaching stra - tegies and pedagogic resources in literature, 2 the classification and categorization of the propositions, 3 development of the illustrative manual, and 4 description of the figures in the manual. The material produced will serve as a tool for academics, teachers, coaches of adapted sports, and for the daily use of teachers.

  17. Towards Quranic reader controlled by speech

    CERN Document Server

    Yekache, Yacine; Kouninef, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the process of designing a task-oriented continuous speech recognition system for Arabic, based on CMU Sphinx4, to be used in the voice interface of Quranic reader. The concept of the Quranic reader controlled by speech is presented, the collection of the corpus and creation of acoustic model are described in detail taking into account a specificities of Arabic language and the desired application.

  18. Towards Quranic reader controlled by speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Yekache

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the process of designing a task-oriented continuous speech recognition system for Arabic, based on CMU Sphinx4, to be used in the voice interface of Quranic reader. The concept of the Quranic reader controlled by speech is presented, the collection of the corpus and creation of acoustic model are described in detail taking into account a specificities of Arabic language and the desired application.

  19. A Reader-Response Criticism towards "Trifles"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莎莉

    2007-01-01

    Susan Glaspell's Trifles is considered one of the most important feminist works in last century.This play is about a murder mystery that explores gender relationships,power between the sexes,and the nature of truth.In this article we are going to examine and explain the relationship between the text and the reader in the process of reading with the view of reader-response criticism.

  20. Impact of verbal, braille text, and tactile oral hygiene awareness instructions on oral health status of visually impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Brahmanna Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visually impaired children face limitations in interacting with the environment, as they cannot see the facial expression of parents, teachers and cannot perceive social behavior. These children are challenged every day in learning basic life skills and maintenance of oral hygiene being one among them. Aim: To evaluate the impact of verbal, braille text, and tactile oral hygiene awareness instructions on oral health status of visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty institutionalized visually impaired children aged 6-16 years were selected and divided into three groups (40 children each. Group I: Verbal and tactile, Group II: Verbal and braille, Group III: Verbal, braille, and tactile. Instructions regarding maintenance of good oral hygiene and brushing technique were explained to all the children, and oral health status of these children using plaque index (Silness and Loe and gingival index (Loe and Silness was evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months interval. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test was used to analyze the intra- and inter-group comparisons and Tukey post-hoc test for multiple group comparisons. Results: Children in all the groups showed reduction in plaque and gingival scores. There was the highest percentage of reduction in plaque scores in Group III (70.6%, and the decrease in gingival scores was the highest in Group II (84%. Conclusion: Severity of dental plaque and gingivitis in visually impaired individuals can be reduced by a controlled and supervised educational program. The combination of all three, i.e., verbal, braille, and tactile mode of oral health educational aids proved to be effective.

  1. Neįgalaus kūno asmens tapatybės kaita XX amžiaus pirmoje pusėje: Prano Daunio Vargo keliais. Atsiminimai iš kovų dėl nepriklausomybės ir aklųjų gyvenimo | Identity change of the disable body during 1st half of the 20th century: On the Roads of Misery. Memories from the Battles for Independence and the Life of the Blind by Pranas Daunys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Birgerytė

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the first autobiography of the disabled in the 20th century Lithuanian literature – the memoirs of Pranas Daunys – On the Roads of Misery / Memories from the Battles for Independence and the Life of the Blind. In the context of the disability body studies, the article discusses different levels in the formation of the corporal identity of the blind person. The study emphasizes the importance of cultural space to the identity of the blind, which is related to the Braille. The article explains the integrity dimension of the blind person’s identity, which mergers different experiences of personal life (the experience of eye trauma during the war and the memories of patriotic feelings, which are equally important to the personal identity. The research deals with the corporal and sensual self-perception of the blind, which is closely related to the social and public emancipation, changing the lines of national identity.

  2. Between- and within-reader variability in the assessment of pleural abnormality using the ILO 1980 international classification of pneumoconioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbeau, J; Ernst, P

    1988-01-01

    Although there are published data concerning reader variability in the assessment of parenchymal pneumoconiotic changes using the ILO Classification of Radiographs, nothing has been published on reader variability with regard to pleural abnormalities. Therefore, in the context of an epidemiologic study, we assessed between- and within-reader variability in the reading of chest radiographs for pleural abnormality using the ILO 1980 International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses. Chest radiographs of 182 insulation workers interspersed with 24 subjects without documented exposure to asbestos were assembled and read blindly by two readers, reading separately on two occasions, 1 week apart. The results of this study suggest that confident separation of pleural plaques and diffuse pleural thickening may be difficult to achieve using the present guidelines of the ILO 1980 classification. In the evaluation of the width of chest wall pleural abnormality, within-reader agreement improves as the width increases, while between-reader agreement was much less satisfactory. Excellent agreement is obtained in the evaluation of other sites, especially costophrenic angle obliteration and the presence of pleural calcification.

  3. Martian Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Just north of the hematite deposit in Meridiani Planum, the remnants of a formerly extensive layer of material remain as isolated knobs and buttes. Note the transition from north to south in the size and frequency of these features, a reflection of the decreasing elevation along this trend.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -0, Longitude 353 East (7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  4. Louis Braille

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张顺伍

    2001-01-01

    One day Louis was in arestaurantfriend read 1 ofwith a friend. The an article about awriting that could beused in the 2 . It was called“ight writing” . Louis was ex-cited. He went to the 3 ofthe system and asked manyquestion.

  5. Models for the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in n...

  6. E-Book Readers in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur N. Olsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research project at the University of Agder that has studied the use of e-readers as a tool for academic study. E-readers (Kindle DX and iPad were loaded with texts from required reading lists in five courses with 94 participating students. Initially, 87 students responded to the invitation to participate in a survey, but eventually 13 of these submissions had to be removed, as the degree of completion was not sufficient. The final response rate achieved was 79%. Students were in general positive to the use of e-readers but still show a preference for print on paper as the best medium for serious academic study. When reading books, 54% preferred print, 28% a combination of print and e-reader, and finally only 11% were satisfied solely using an e-reader. The iPad scored significantly better than the Kindle DX on tasks that required active interaction with the texts such as highlighting and note taking.

  7. Examining Readers' Evaluations of Objectivity and Bias in News Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Peter; Eisenhart, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Readers' objectivity and bias evaluations of news texts were investigated in order to better understand the process by which readers make these kinds of judgments and the evidence on which they base them. Readers were primed to evaluate news texts for objectivity and bias, and their selections and metacommentary were analyzed. Readers detected…

  8. Reader Response Theory in the High School English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Karen Yvonne

    A study examined the theory concerning reader response and the rationale and practice of reader response in the high school English curriculum. Formal experimental studies existed that explored reader response practices in the high school setting, but no formal studies existed on the questioning practices of potential reader response teachers. A…

  9. "It's All Coming Together": An Encounter between Implied Reader and Actual Reader in the Australian Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sandra J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how taking a particular literary theory--the implied reader--serves to offer a focus for the teacher's initial reading of a text and provides a formative assessment tool. Iser's Implied Reader theory is discussed, after which a picture book, "Where the Forest Meets the Sea" by Jeannie Baker, is analysed from this…

  10. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  11. Oplysnigens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  12. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    repellent, yet 'welfare-only' positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the 'Blind Hens' Challenge'. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and theoretical reasons why even those adopting 'welfare-only' views should be concerned...

  13. Contrast Study of structuralism and reader- response criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建晓; 郑灵珍

    2012-01-01

    In literary criticism, both structuralism and reader-response criticism enjoy their positions. They share similarities in some ways, but obviously they are two different ways of literary criticism, with structuralism focusing on text and reader-response criti- cism focusing on readers. This essay attempts to contrast structuralism with reader-response criticism in their assumption on text's meaning and the reader's role in the process of reading a text.

  14. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future.

  15. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness...

  16. Brain mapping in a patient with congenital blindness – a case for multimodal approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod L Roland

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in basic neuroscience research across a wide range of methodologies have contributed significantly to our understanding of human cortical electrophysiology and functional brain imaging. Translation of this research into clinical neurosurgery has opened doors for advanced mapping of functionality that previously was prohibitively difficult, if not impossible. Here we present the case of a unique individual with congenital blindness and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent neurosurgical treatment of her seizures. Pre-operative evaluation presented the challenge of accurately and robustly mapping the cerebral cortex for an individual with a high probability of significant cortical re-organization. Additionally, a blind individual has unique priorities in one’s ability to read Braille by touch and sense the environment primarily by sound than the non-vision impaired person. For these reasons we employed additional measures to map sensory, motor, speech, language, and auditory perception by employing a number of cortical electrophysiologic mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. Our data show promising results in the application of these adjunctive methods in the pre-operative mapping of otherwise difficult to localize, and highly variable, functional cortical areas.

  17. 45 CFR 1151.18 - Illustrative examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Arts. (1) A museum exhibition catalogue or small press editions supported by the Endowment may be made usable by the blind and the visually impaired through cassette tapes, records, discs, braille, readers... facility must be conducted in accordance with these regulations, e.g., a museum receiving a grant...

  18. Interpretación y traducción de texto y matemáticas en Braille escrito a máquina

    OpenAIRE

    González Cano, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    El trabajo expuesto en la presente memoria, forma parte de un proyecto de colaboración entre el Centro de Visión por Computador de la UAB y el Centro Joan Amades (ONCE), cuyo objetivo es la creación de recursos educativos que faciliten la integración de niños invidentes en las aulas. Se presenta el proceso de implementación de un intérprete y traductor de documentos escritos en Braille con contenido matemático y de texto, que permite a un profesor que no conozca el sistema Braille, la lectura...

  19. Dispositivo tecnológico para la optimización del tiempo de aprendizaje del lenguaje braille en personas invidentes

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez Suarez, Cesar Augusto; Pedraza Martinez, Luis Fernando; Lopez Sarmiento, Danilo Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo El objetivo de este proyecto es diseñar e implementar un prototipo electrónico, que permita mejorar los tiempos de aprendizaje inicial de la escritura Braille en personas con situación de discapacidad visual especialmente en niños.Métodos El desarrollo de este proyecto, se basa fundamentalmente en un prototipo electrónico digital, el cual después de realizar la escritura por parte del usuario, identifica y hace una traducción del Braille por medio de un sistema de síntesis de voz que...

  20. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  1. A Study on Design Concept for a Braille Tactile Sensor Segment Using Softness Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongwei; Arabshahi, Sayyed Alireza; Watanabe, Tetsuyou

    The purpose of this report is to introduce and discuss about the design parameters for a segment of a tactile sensor reading one dot of a Braille alphabet. A sensor segment consisting of a piezoelectric (PVDF) film sandwiched between two elastic materials is designed. Experiments and simulations are used to define and examine the design parameters. With regards to the sensor structure, Free and Clamped boundary conditions are presented and the relevant equations containing the design parameters, e.g. “bending softness”, are derived. Applying different materials and thicknesses for layers surrounding the PVDF film, simulations are used to quantize the approximate values for each design parameter. The results show that the output of sensor is mostly dependent on the bending effect near the PVDF layer, and the structure encouraging more bending produces higher output. Finally, it is concluded that the real sensor has a structure which is between Free and Clamped boundary conditions, therefore design parameters are modified to compromise between the two cases and optimum values are presented.

  2. Individually programmable cell stretching microwell arrays actuated by a Braille display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamotani, Yoko; Bersano-Begey, Tommaso; Kato, Nobuhiro; Tung, Yi-Chung; Huh, Dongeun; Song, Jonathan W; Takayama, Shuichi

    2008-06-01

    Cell culture systems are often static and are therefore nonphysiological. In vivo, many cells are exposed to dynamic surroundings that stimulate cellular responses in a process known as mechanotransduction. To recreate this environment, stretchable cell culture substrate systems have been developed, however, these systems are limited by being macroscopic and low throughput. We have developed a device consisting of 24 miniature cell stretching chambers with flexible bottom membranes that are deformed using the computer-controlled, piezoelectrically actuated pins of a Braille display. We have also developed efficient image capture and analysis protocols to quantify morphological responses of the cells to applied strain. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) were found to show increasing degrees of alignment and elongation perpendicular to the radial strain in response to cyclic stretch at increasing frequencies of 0.2, 1, and 5 Hz, after 2, 4, and 12h. Mouse myogenic C2C12 cells were also found to align in response to the stretch, while A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells did not respond to stretch.

  3. Shakespeare and Reader's Theatre: Fellow Traveling Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2010-01-01

    Whether constructed on literary analysis models or inspired by conventional acting theories, Reader's Theatre performance techniques are an invaluable instructional tool available to teachers who want their students to see, hear and feel Shakespeare texts in classroom discussion and performance. These exercises are designed to promote both a…

  4. Revisiting the Reader's Rudder: A Comprehension Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Presents the structured comprehension method, a strategy that facilitates literal, inferential, and critical reading comprehension for passive readers who can decode but not comprehend. Uses the method to illustrate how other areas of students' instruction (e.g., vocabulary enhancement through morphemic analysis, use of a phonogram approach to…

  5. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  6. Print Readers' Perceptions of Various Advertising Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Charles W., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The findings of a study of print readers' perceptions of the believability and interest of various advertising formats fail to support increasing either the frequency or specificity of comparative messages. The findings suggest that advertisers should consider the dimensions of intensity and directionality in their message development. (GT)

  7. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  8. Understanding Deaf Readers: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelstone, Aaron Weir

    2013-01-01

    The development of reading skills, beyond a functional level, is difficult for most deaf readers. Standardized testing demonstrates a median 4th grade reading level that remains consistent even after national norming of the Stanford Achievement test on the population of deaf school children. Deaf education continues to generate various educational…

  9. Author and reader in Instructions for use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steehouder, Michael F.

    1997-01-01

    Instructions for use should not be seen as merely instrumental-they should also persuade the reader to read the text and to act accordingly. Moreover, they should establish a positive image of the product and the manufacturer. In this paper, a collection of instructions for use is used to identify s

  10. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  11. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Susana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  12. Transcending Bias through Reader-Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soublis, Theoni; Winkler, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The preservice teachers from all disciplines will be benefited if they incorporate reading in their classes according to Dr. Louise Rosenblatt's reader-response theory. A teacher's experience with her students while reading Chris Crutcher's "Staying Fat for Sarah Byanes" in the Secondary Content Area and a student's response on the novel are…

  13. Japanese-American Internment. A Historical Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This Historical Reader on "Japanese American Internment" in World War II introduces students to key events and issues during the period through the voices of people with firsthand experienced. Source documents and illustrations are arranged in chronological order and/or thematic units that establish context. Each selection is followed by…

  14. Understanding readers' understanding theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Tierney, Robert J; Mitchell, Judy Nichols

    2013-01-01

    This collection features papers addressing current issues in reading comprehension from cognitive and linguistic perspectives. Organized into three sections, the volume investigates text considerations and reader-text interactions. Each paper presents a substantial and comprehensive review of theory and research related to cognition and reading comprehension.

  15. Advanced Vietnamese: A Reader in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Nguyen Dang

    This fourth-year reader in Vietnamese presents a broad picture of Vietnamese culture through a selection of scholarly texts written by Vietnamese. The book seeks to introduce students to the culture of the Vietnamese and facilitate a transition from general reading matter to a more literary and technical style of writing. General chapter…

  16. Reader Response: Young Children Can Do That!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kaye; Johnston, Cammie

    2000-01-01

    Describes "reader response" teaching techniques to enhance young children's critical thinking skills, build a sound literacy foundation, and clarify the relationship between reading and writing. Provides examples of response logs/journal entries, aesthetic responses such as drawings and dramatic reenactments, and student discussions…

  17. Critical Literacy as Comprehension: Expanding Reader Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Maureen; De Voogd, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical underpinnings of critical literacy and related principles. It also provides ideas for creating environments to promote reading from a critical stance, teaching strategies, sample classroom applications, and annotated lists of theme-related texts. When engaging in critical literacy, readers move beyond…

  18. Reader-Response and the Pathos Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nan

    1988-01-01

    Reviews and equates theories of reader-response and rhetorical theories on audience response (the pathos principle). Concludes that the fundamental synonymity between them represents a significant bridge between analysis of literary texts and the dynamics of formal and social discourse and provides a theoretical foundation for teaching reading and…

  19. 盲用多点触摸输入法的设计与实现%DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MULTI-TOUCH INPUT METHOD FOR BLIND USAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张居晓; 曾晓勤; 孟朝晖

    2015-01-01

    With the popularity of smart phones and other electronic products,the application of multi-touch screen has been increasingly widespread.However,since the smooth surface of the touch screen,the blinds cannot get the information through touching the screen,and it results in the difficulty for the blinds to input words on touch screen as well.The paper presents the Chinese input method by using online handwritten braille recognition technology with multi-touch gestures.This work not only enables the blinds to input text information through multi-point touch screen,but can also be applied to the sighted person in Chinese input with touch screen online handwritten braille recognition,and the speed of Chinese writing is much higher than existing handwriting input method for touch screen.%随着智能手机等电子产品的普及,多点触摸屏应用越来越广泛。但是因触摸屏表面较光滑,使得盲人不能通过触觉获得屏幕的信息,造成其输入文字困难。提出采用多点触摸联机手写识别盲文技术的汉字输入法。该方法不仅解决了盲人能利用多点触摸屏输入文字信息,也能应用于明眼人的触摸屏联机手写盲文识别进行汉字输入,其书写汉字速度远高于现有的触摸屏的手写输入法。

  20. Unconditionally verifiable blind computation

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2012-01-01

    Blind Quantum Computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output and computation remain private. Recently the authors together with Broadbent proposed a universal unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol, or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. In this paper we extend the BQC protocol presented in [Broadbent, Fitzsimons and Kashefi, FOCS 2009 p517] with new functionality allowing blind computational basis m...

  1. Blind Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, P; Arrighi, Pablo; Salvail, Louis

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input. Say Alice wants Bob to compute some well-known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The setting is quantum, the security is unconditional, the eavesdropper is as malicious as can be. Keywords: Secure Circuit Evaluation, Secure Two-party Computation, Information Hiding, Information gain vs disturbance.

  2. Color Blind Affirmative Action

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the consequences of the widespread adoption of race-neutral alternatives' to conventional racial affirmative action policies in college admissions. A simple model of applicant competition with endogenous effort is utilized to show that, in comparison to color-conscious affirmative action, these color-blind alternatives can significantly lower the efficiency of the student selection process in equilibrium. We examine data on matricul...

  3. Postpartum cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Shakeel Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    A 30-years-old third gravida with previous normal pregnancies and an unremarkable prenatal course had an emergency lower segment caesarean section at a periphery hospital for failure of labour to progress. She developed bilateral cortical blindness immediately after recovery from anesthesia due to cerebral angiopathy shown by CT and MR scan as cortical infarct cerebral angiopathy, which is a rare complication of a normal pregnancy.

  4. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  5. Tools for Teaching Mathematical Functions and Geometric Figures to Tactile Visualization through a Braille Printer for Visual Impairment People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena León

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we showed the features and facilities offered by two new computer programs developed for the treatment and generation of geometric figures and math functions, through a Braille printer designed for visually impaired people. The programs have complete accessible features, in which users with full visual impairments can communicate with the systems via short-keys, and the speech synthesizer. The system sends sound messages that will accompanying the user during all the process to generate geometrical figures or to do a mathematical treatment. Finally, a tactile visualization displays as the results to the person with visual impairment, thus they will can complete their geometry and mathematical studies.

  6. Metacognition and reading: Comparing three forms of metacognition in normally developing readers and readers with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Bjarte Reidar; Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition refers to ‘cognition about cognition’ and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) ...

  7. Designing Motion Gesture Interfaces in Mobile Phones for Blind People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任向实

    2014-01-01

    Despite the existence of advanced functions in smartphones, most blind people are still using old-fashioned phones with familiar layouts and dependence on tactile buttons. Smartphones support accessibility features including vibration, speech and sound feedback, and screen readers. However, these features are only intended to provide feedback to user commands or input. It is still a challenge for blind people to discover functions on the screen and to input the commands. Although voice commands are supported in smartphones, these commands are difficult for a system to recognize in noisy environments. At the same time, smartphones are integrated with sophisticated motion sensors, and motion gestures with device tilt have been gaining attention for eyes-free input. We believe that these motion gesture interactions offer more efficient access to smartphone functions for blind people. However, most blind people are not smartphone users and they are aware of neither the affordances available in smartphones nor the potential for interaction through motion gestures. To investigate the most usable gestures for blind people, we conducted a user-defined study with 13 blind participants. Using the gesture set and design heuristics from the user study, we implemented motion gesture based interfaces with speech and vibration feedback for browsing phone books and making a call. We then conducted a second study to investigate the usability of the motion gesture interface and user experiences using the system. The findings indicated that motion gesture interfaces are more efficient than traditional button interfaces. Through the study results, we provided implications for designing smartphone interfaces.

  8. Developing the Reader Self-Efficacy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ÜLPER

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension has affective and social dimensions as well as its cognitive dimension. Thus, to understand and improve reading instruction, affective and social dimensions should be well understood. Perceived self-efficacy is one of affective issues influencing learning and it should be taken into consideration in reading instruction. With this in mind, this study aims at developing the Reader Self-Efficacy Scale with a group of 518 students as participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a 6-item scale with one factor. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient was determined to be 0.948. This new Reader Self-Efficacy Scale could easily be used for training and research purposes depending on its high validity and reliability.

  9. RFID reader immunity test against electrostatic discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospisilik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of an immunity test against the electrostatic discharge according to the standard EN 61000-4-2 that was applied to an RFID reader. The RFID reader was primarily developed for access systems, employing the on-board recognition of the RFID tags. The results obtained by the test are described hereby as well as the discussion on the security of this solution. The results of this experiment are beneficial for the developers of RFID devices, as these devices are endangered by the electrostatic discharge brought by their users. The hereby described results also shown a security hole in a simple access system based on the RFID technology. Details can be found in the paper.

  10. A Response to Matsuda and Tardy's "Voice in Academic Writing: The Rhetorical Construction of Author Identity in Blind Manuscript Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Paul; Helms-Park, Rena

    2008-01-01

    In a recent article in ESP, Matsuda and Tardy (2007) investigate the role of voice in academic writing via a simulated blind manuscript review process. Based on their findings, they claim that voice does play a role in such writing, and call for further research into the issue of the reader's construction of authorial identity. Matsuda and Tardy's…

  11. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone reader. (a) Identification. An automated zone reader is a mechanical device intended for medical purposes...

  12. A Problem Solving Framework for Managing Poor Readers in Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Judith S.

    1988-01-01

    Points out that poor readers may exhibit behavioral, cognitive, and emotional problems. Offers a problem-solving framework for intervention in poor readers' nonacademic problems, and describes several possible types of intervention. (ARH)

  13. Using Reader Response in a College Literature Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soles, Derek

    1995-01-01

    Claims that the insights of reader response theory can be brought into the teaching of poetry in college literature courses. Outlines methods for utilizing reader response techniques to help students enjoy and understand poetry. (HB)

  14. The StorySpinner Sculptural Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Clare; Weal, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This demo is of a hypertext reading system called StorySpinner. It follows the sculptural hypertext methodology and has been used as a test bed for experimenting with the authoring of narrative flow in automatically generated stories. Readers are able to select and read one of two available stories. Reading a story involves selecting tarot cards which are mapped to chunks of story text based on possible interpretations of the cards and information concerning current story state.

  15. Plastic Logic quits e-reader market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Simon

    2012-07-01

    A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.

  16. Formalist criticism and reader-response theory

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD AL FUADI

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the interaction of formalism as a trend in language and literature studies, on the one hand, and a teaching method, a technique of teaching to understand and investigate literary text proceeding from its structure and content, on the other hand. One of the main principles is dialogism (M. Bakhtin) that creates the coeducation between the writer and reader. Thus the process becomes bilateral, or even multilateral and it includes criticism on both parts a teacher and a st...

  17. Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, John

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual gives you the essential tools for getting the most out of Wikipedia. As a supplement to Wikipedia: The Missing Manual, this handbook provides a basic road map to the largest online collaborative encyclopedia. You'll learn the best ways to search Wikipedia for the information you need, how to navigate the encyclopedia by category, and what to do if you spot an error in an article.

  18. Fighting blindness with microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrenner, Eberhart

    2013-11-06

    There is no approved cure for blindness caused by degeneration of the photoreceptor cells of the retina. However, there has been encouraging progress with attempts to restore vision using microelectronic retinal implant devices. Yet many questions remain to be addressed. Where is the best location to implant multielectrode arrays? How can spatial and temporal resolution be improved? What are the best ways to ensure the safety and longevity of these devices? Will color vision be possible? This Perspective discusses the current state of the art of retinal implants and attempts to address some of the outstanding questions.

  19. Reader Engagement in English and Persian Applied Linguistics Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarin, Ali Akbar; Tarlani-Aliabdi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the way academic writers establish the presence of their readers over the past few years. Establishing the presence of readers or what Kroll (1984, p.181) calls imagining "a second voice" is accomplished when a writer refers "explicitly" to their readers using explicit linguistic resources…

  20. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  1. A Comparison of Laterality Between Normal and Dyslexic Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Barbara

    Examined with 38 right-handed boys who were either dyslexic or normal readers and matched for age and IQ (mean age both groups=10.6, mean IQ normal readers=106, mean IQ dyslexic readers=105) were the weak, strong, and equal lateralization theories of dyslexia. Cerebral lateralization was measured for linguistic material (digits) using the dichotic…

  2. In situ electron microscopy of Braille microsystems: photo-actuation of ethylene vinyl acetate/carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaniková, Klaudia; Krupa, Igor; Račko, Dušan; Šmatko, Vasilij; Campo, Eva M.; Pavlova, Ewa; Omastová, Mária

    2015-02-01

    The development of new types of tactile displays based on the actuation of composite materials can aid the visually impaired. Micro/nano systems based on ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) polymeric matrices enriched with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can produce ensembles capable of light-induced actuation. In this report, we investigate two types of commercial EVA copolymers matrices containing 28 and 50 wt% vinyl-acetate (VA). Non-covalent modification of carbon nanotubes was achieved through a compatibilization technique that appends the pyrenenyl and cholesteryl groups on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) surface. EVA/MWCNT nanocomposites were prepared by casting from a solution. These composites were shaped into Braille elements using molds. The deformation of the Braille element (BE) under light-emitting diode (LED) illumination was observed for the first time by in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The superior actuation performance promoted by the EVA/MWCNT nanocomposites indicates that these materials will be useful in the future as light-driven micro/nano system actuators.

  3. Effective Learning and Retention of Braille Letter Tactile Discrimination Skills in Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Maisam; Dorfberger, Shoshi; Karni, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia (DD) may differ from typical readers in aspects other than reading. The notion of a general deficit in the ability to acquire and retain procedural ("how to") knowledge as long-term procedural memory has been proposed. Here, we compared the ability of elementary school children, with and without…

  4. Neuroplasticity associated with tactile language communication in a deaf-blind subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souzana Obretenova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding debate in cognitive neuroscience pertains to the innate nature of language development and the underlying factors that determine this faculty. We explored the neural correlates associated with language processing in a unique individual who is early blind, congenitally deaf, and possesses a high level of language function. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we compared the neural networks associated with the tactile reading of words presented in Braille, Print on Palm (POP, and a haptic form of American Sign Language (haptic ASL or hASL. With all three modes of tactile communication, indentifying words was associated with robust activation within occipital cortical regions as well as posterior superior temporal and inferior frontal language areas (lateralized within the left hemisphere. In a normally sighted and hearing interpreter, identifying words through hASL was associated with left-lateralized activation of inferior frontal language areas however robust occipital cortex activation was not observed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-based tractography revealed differences consistent with enhanced occipital-temporal connectivity in the deaf-blind subject. Our results demonstrate that in the case of early onset of both visual and auditory deprivation, tactile-based communication is associated with an extensive cortical network implicating occipital as well as posterior superior temporal and frontal associated language areas. The cortical areas activated in this deaf-blind subject are consistent with characteristic cortical regions previously implicated with language. Finally, the resilience of language function within the context of early and combined visual and auditory deprivation may be related to enhanced connectivity between relevant cortical areas.

  5. 单手键入盲文点符编码输入法的实现及改进%IMPLEMENTATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHOD FOR INPUTTING BRAILLE CODES BY SINGLE-HAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张居晓

    2014-01-01

    For a Braille editor to input Braille codes,since Sunshine Braille Inputting Method requires using both hands,the editor often suffers from low efficiency and is easy to be fatigue.The article discusses how to input Braille by single-hand,how to embed it into other inputting methods and its compatibility issue in Win 7 environment.%盲文书籍的编辑在录入盲文过程中,因阳光盲文输入法需要同时使用两只手,所以编辑录入效率低、易疲劳。探讨实现单手键入盲文的方法、嵌入其他输入法及在Win 7环境下的兼容性问题。

  6. Deaf, blind or deaf-blind: Is touch enhanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, Costanza; Cecchetto, Carlo; Pisoni, Alberto; Bolognini, Nadia

    2016-02-01

    When someone looses one type of sensory input, s/he may compensate by using the sensory information conveyed by other senses. To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on the type of sensory loss, we investigated the effects of deafness and blindness on temporal and spatial tactile tasks in deaf, blind and deaf-blind people. Deaf and deaf-blind people performed the spatial tactile task better than the temporal one, while blind and controls showed the opposite pattern. Deaf and deaf-blind participants were impaired in temporal discrimination as compared to controls, while deaf-blind individuals outperformed blind participants in the spatial tactile task. Overall, sensory-deprived participants did not show an enhanced tactile performance. We speculate that discriminative touch is not so relevant in humans, while social touch is. Probably, more complex tactile tasks would have revealed an increased performance in sensory-deprived people.

  7. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  8. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?; Como diagnosticar cualquier tipo de TLD Reader?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso, E-mail: manolo@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: jotag@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: alex@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: stefan@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: andy@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: gilberto@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included.

  9. New Blind Graphic Printing Technology Based on Canny Operator%基于caany算子的新型盲用图形生成技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 王治平; 刘俊标; 方光荣

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays , Graphic printing becomes more and more important for the blind. As a new Braille printing tool, New Braille Printer(NBP) has overcome many shortcomings of traditional Braille printer. But, till now, the NBP could't has the functin of graphic printing. In order to improve the new Braille printer, a blind graphic printing method has been proposed. Considering the characteristics of the printing image, it utilized loop iteration method to select Canny operators with different thresholds, and then, took edge detection on the printing image to gained a series of edge images with the selected Canny operators. The accurate shape information of printing image was translated into NBP's control information, then the control information was used to control the NBP to print the blind graphic which gained from iterative calculation of this edge images. This method has been test on NBP, and blind graphics were printed on A4 paper clearly and completely.%随着信息技术的发展,盲用图形对于盲人而言,变得越来越重要。新型盲文打印机作为盲文印刷的新型工具,它克服了传统盲文印刷的许多缺点,但是,目前该盲文打印机还不具备打印盲文图形的功能,为了完善新型盲文打印机,本文针对待打印的盲文图像的特点,采用循环迭代的方式,选择不同阈值的Canny算子对待打印图像进行边缘提取,并对所得到的一系列的边缘图像进行迭代计算,从而实现了待打印图像边缘特征的精确提取。待打印图像的边缘信息最终被转化为新型盲文打印机的控制信息控制新型盲文打印机完成打印,生成盲用图形,从而实现了新型盲文打印机图形打印功能。目前,该方法已经在新型盲文打印机试验,成功的实现了待打印图像在A4纸张上的清晰完整的打印。

  10. Techno-Literacy Practices of Emergent Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razeale G. Fernandez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available – This research explored the techno-literacy practices of emergent readers. The study found that young children experienced a multi-literate practices in their homes that comprised not only print and paper-based literacies but also techno-literacies. That television, games on tablets and phones are the sources of textual pleasure of young children.Families reported that children watched television and play games on tablets/phones regularly. This is due to the limited options of leisure activities available to younger children. Emergent readers are highly focused to televisual text as they demonstrate meaningmaking practices when they constantly ask questions and talk about what they are watching,hence they are active meaning-makers. The learning opportunities which include hand eye coordination, parallel processing, and problem solving skills young children acquired through playing computer games and games on tablet/iPad . Aside from these, they also developed a number of literacy skills as well as how to behave as players.It can be concluded thatexposure to imagery in electronic technologies contributed to the children’s literacy development. The literate identities of emergent readers can be further enhanced as they begin formal schooling. Data indicated that young children are developing techno-literacy practices and this concurs to the findings of Marsh (2010. Therefore, technology serves as a tool for the literacy development of young children. That techno-literacy practices of young children should be valued in school. Future research should also consider attitude, behavior and practices of parents towards the use of technology by children.

  11. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build relationships and become the eventual basis for language learning. As the child who is deaf-blind becomes ... those near them, deaf-blindness fosters opportunities for learning and mutual ... M. (Eds.), (1993). Second edition. A model service delivery system for persons ...

  12. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  13. National Center On Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Logout Menu NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help ... Collaborate Project Staff Service Provider Family Member State Deaf-Blind Projects Click on a state on the ...

  14. Print to Braille: Preparation and Accuracy of Mathematics Materials in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Tina S.; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study analyzed the accuracy of 107 mathematics worksheets prepared for tactile learners. The mean number of errors was calculated, and we examined whether there was a significant difference in the level of accuracy based on National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) certification or job role of…

  15. Blind Cognitive MAC Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Mehanna, Omar; Gamal, Hesham El

    2008-01-01

    We consider the design of cognitive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols enabling an unlicensed (secondary) transmitter-receiver pair to communicate over the idle periods of a set of licensed channels, i.e., the primary network. The objective is to maximize data throughput while maintaining the synchronization between secondary users and avoiding interference with licensed (primary) users. No statistical information about the primary traffic is assumed to be available a-priori to the secondary user. We investigate two distinct sensing scenarios. In the first, the secondary transmitter is capable of sensing all the primary channels, whereas it senses one channel only in the second scenario. In both cases, we propose MAC protocols that efficiently learn the statistics of the primary traffic online. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed blind protocols asymptotically achieve the throughput obtained when prior knowledge of primary traffic statistics is available.

  16. Corneal blindness: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Burton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Blindness from corneal disease is a major ophthalmic public health problem. There are three important elements to addressing corneal blindness: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation.

  17. Are Avid Readers Lurking in Your Language Arts Classroom? Myths of the Avid Adolescent Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nance S.; Kelley, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study conducted with 10 identified avid adolescent readers who completed the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) (Pitcher, Albright, DeLaney, Walker, Seunarienesingh, & Moggie, 2007) that includes both a survey to determine students' self-concept and value of reading and an interview that sheds light on what…

  18. Error Detection Mechanism for Words and Sentences: A Comparison between Readers with Dyslexia and Skilled Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The activity level of the error monitoring system for processing isolated versus contextual words in Hebrew was studied in adults with dyslexia and skilled readers while committing reading errors. Behavioural measures and event-related potentials were measured during a lexical decision task using words in a list and sentences. Error-related…

  19. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations.

  20. Proficient Readers' Reading Behavior in Taiwan: The Study of Young Chinese Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reading behavior of young proficient Chinese readers at preschool age. Especially, the roles of phonetic skill and Chinese Character recognition in reading comprehension were explored. 10 kindergartens were recruited to participate in the study. Subjects were 72-98 kindergarten children. Instruments…

  1. Adapting smart phone applications about physics education to blind students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülbül, M. Ş.; Yiğit, N.; Garip, B.

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of necessary equipment in a physics laboratory are available for smartphone users via applications. Physics teachers may measure from acceleration to sound volume with its internal sensors. These sensors collect data and smartphone applications make the raw data visible. Teachers who do not have well-equipped laboratories at their schools may have an opportunity to conduct experiments with the help of smart phones. In this study, we analyzed possible open source physics education applications in terms of blind users in inclusive learning environments. All apps are categorized as partially, full or non-supported. The roles of blind learner’s friend during the application are categorized as reader, describer or user. Mentioned apps in the study are compared with additional opportunities like size and downloading rates. Out of using apps we may also get information about whether via internet and some other extra information for different experiments in physics lab. Q-codes reading or augmented reality are two other opportunity provided by smart phones for users in physics labs. We also summarized blind learner’s smartphone experiences from literature and listed some suggestions for application designers about concepts in physics.

  2. 基于红外条码的盲人扑克游戏辅助仪的设计%Design and implementation of blind poker game auxiliary instrument based on infrared scanning bar code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景亚霓; 杨海平

    2014-01-01

    The paper designs a blind poker game auxiliary instrument based on bar code technology, embedded system and voice chip technology. The instrument has the characteristics of compact structure , simple and convenient operation and embed popular poker game program, thus users can conveniently select the type of game according to their interest. Its main feature is that it can broadcast information that others played poker and supplies situation of yourself poker in hands by earplug if need. The auxiliary instrument makes the blind to get poke information by "listen" instead of "touch", so that blind and low vision people can play cards as a normal person even if he does not know Braille. In other hand, some problem can be avoided, such as mistake of player distinguishing Braille.%设计了一款基于集条形码技术、嵌入式系统及语音芯片技术于一体、结构紧凑、操作简单方便的盲人扑克游戏辅助仪。该装置设计了常见的扑克游戏程序,使用者可根据兴趣方便地选择游戏种类。其主要特点是利用语音技术能够实时播报其他人的出牌信息并可根据需要耳机播报本人手中牌的信息,让盲人用“听”牌代替了“摸”牌,使盲人以及不懂盲文的低视力人群能像正常人一样打扑克、玩桥牌等,克服了现有低视力群体打牌游戏中常见的问题,如盲文识别错误等。

  3. Type Testing of Model 7200 Automatic TLD Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek Mohammadi, M; Hosseini Pooya, S M

    2016-04-15

    The type testing of measuring devices is one of the most important parts of a quality management system in a personal dosimetry services program. In this study, based upon the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 62387 criteria, a reader-testing program was performed for a home-made personal thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) reader. The stability of the reader, the effects of light exposure, temperature and fluctuations of primary power supply on TLD read-outs as the main parameters were investigated in this program. Moreover, this study assesses some important criteria of dosimetry system including the non-linearity of response, reusability, after effect and overload that may include significant contribution in the performance of a reader. The results showed that the TLD reader met all requirements of the IEC for the reader tests by a large margin.

  4. Chinese deaf readers have early access to parafoveal semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea, parafoveal semantic information is obtained earlier among the deaf readers. In addition, a phonological preview benefit effect was found for the better deaf readers (relative to less-skilled deaf readers), although we also provide an alternative explanation for this effect. Providing evidence that Chinese deaf readers have higher efficiency when processing parafoveal semantics, the study indicates flexibility across individuals in the mechanisms underlying word recognition adapting to the inputs available in the linguistic environment.

  5. Reception theory and the Christian reader: A preliminary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Comhrink

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant shift in emphasis from text- centred criticism in literature to reader-centred criticism. This new field of criticism, called Reception Theory or Reader Response Criticism, denies the immutable nature of the "text” and regards as its object of study the work of literature that is created through the co-constituent creative and interpre­tive acts o f both writer and reader.

  6. Reception theory and the Christian reader: A preliminary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. Comhrink

    1983-01-01

    In recent years there has been a significant shift in emphasis from text- centred criticism in literature to reader-centred criticism. This new field of criticism, called Reception Theory or Reader Response Criticism, denies the immutable nature of the "text” and regards as its object of study the work of literature that is created through the co-constituent creative and interpre­tive acts o f both writer and reader.

  7. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  8. LOVE IS COLOR BLIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦扬

    2013-01-01

    <正>看完这部电影,突然想起小时候看完《辛德勒的名单》后,问过母亲一个问题:"为什么有些人要嘲笑和歧视那些与众不同的人?"母亲告诉我:"我们都是一样的,没有人应当受到责备,每个人都应当为自己而活,要始终坚信‘Love is color blind(爱无定界)’。"爱究竟有无定界?有太多故事让我们相信这句话并非纸上谈兵。《汤姆叔叔的小屋》、《美国往事》、《为黛西小姐开车》……是的,"Love"是"Listen(倾听)",是无条件无偏见地倾听对方的需求,并予以协助;是"Obligate(感恩)",需要不断地感恩,付出爱来灌

  9. The Reader Response Approach to Teaching of English Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳

    2008-01-01

    During interview with English majors, it was found that a majority of students expressed disappointment with their experience of English literature classes. Students' dislike of learning English literature appears to be the major problem of teaching English literature in China. Reader response approach is a good way to solve this problem. In this paper, I explain the rationale behind the reader response approach, such as its origin, definition, features, assumptions, and strategies. Then I illustrate how reader response approach works as a teaching strategy by presenting several teaching models. At last I evaluate its usefuiness for teachers and present the advantages of reader response approach in Chinese context.

  10. Improved reader for magnetically-encoded ID cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T. T.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid demodulator in electronic card reader for magnetically encoded identification cards, accommodates variations in insertion speeds, yet is simpler and less expensive than equivalent all-digital circuits.

  11. A Comparative Research on Blind Children's Braille Writing Efficiency%盲童点字书写效果比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁东

    2004-01-01

    本研究运用单一被试实验法、观察法和测试法,对宁波盲校小学部1996级10名学生点字书写的4年研究发现:盲童使用点字板(笔)和使用盲文打字机的书写效果不同,使用盲文打机比使用点字板/笔书写速度快2倍,使用盲文打字机书写效率较高;盲童使用不同规格点字板、点字笔和纸张对点字书写速度有一定影响.

  12. Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhor, K.; Shetty, V.; Garcha, V.; Nimbulkar, G. C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12–17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. Materials and Methods: A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12–17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A (n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B (n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t-test. Results: The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. Conclusion: OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille. PMID:27891313

  13. The e-Reader — an Educational or an Entertainment Tool? e-Readers in an Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ahlroos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors will discuss a pilot project conducted at the Tritonia Academic Library, Vaasa, in Finland, from September 2010 until May 2011. The project was designed to investigate the application of e-readers in academic settings and to learn how teachers and students experience the use of e-readers in academic education. Four groups of students and one group of teachers used Kindle readers for varied periods of time in different courses. The course material and the textbooks were downloaded on the e-readers. The feedback from the participants was collected through questionnaires and teacher interviews. The results suggest that the e-reader is a future tool for learning, though some features need to be improved before e-readers can really enable efficient learning and researching.

  14. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  15. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  16. A Deep Learning Method for Braille Recognition%基于深度学习的盲文识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly proposes a deep learning method, using Stacked Denoising AutoEncoder ( SDAE) to solve the prob-lems of automatic feature extraction and dimension reduction in Braille recognition. In the construction of a network with deep ar-chitecture, a feature extractor was trained with unsupervised greedy layer-wise training algorithm to initialize the weights for ex-tracting features from Braille images, and then a following classifier was set up for recognition. The experimental results show that comparing to traditional methods, the constructed network based on the deep learning method can easily recognize Braille images with satisfied performance. The deep learning model can effectively solve the Braille recognition problem in automatic feature ex-traction and dimension reduction with a reduced preprocessing.%提出一种基于深度学习的盲文点字识别方法,利用深度模型———堆叠去噪自动编码器( Stack Denoising AutoEncod-er,SDAE)解决盲文识别中特征的自动提取与降维等问题。在构建深度模型过程中,采用非监督贪婪逐层训练算法( Greedy Layer-Wise Unsupervised Learning Algorithm)初始化网络权重,使用反向传播算法优化网络参数。利用SDAE自动学习盲文点字图片特征,使用Softmax分类器进行识别。实验结果表明,本文所提方法较之传统方法,可以有效解决样本特征的自动学习与特征降维等问题,操作更为简易,并能获得满意的识别结果。

  17. Da escuridão para a luz: origem e extensão da Bíblia em braille no Brasil. Dissertação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adriano Lovera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available LOVERA, Marcos Adriano. Da escuridão para a luz: origem e extensão da Bíblia em braille no Brasil. Dissertação (Mestrado 2013. 176p. - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte

  18. Blindness in children: a worldwide perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gilber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many of the causes of childhood blindness are avoidable, being either preventable or treatable. Only three per cent of the world's blind population are children. However, because children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them, the number of ‘blind person years’ resulting from blindness starting in childhood is second only to cataract. Controlling blindness in children is a priority of VISION 20203,4; however, as its causes differ from that of blindness in adults, different strategies, personnel, infrastructure, and equipment are required to combat it. There is also a greater urgency when managing children, as delays in treatment can lead to amblyopia (lazy eye.

  19. What do mind readers know and what do we know about mind readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Jacqueline D

    2014-11-01

    In this commentary, I raise various questions about Kim and Harris's fascinating findings. I ask what kind of knowledge children expect telepathic individuals to have, who children might consider to be good mind readers, why children value telepathy, and how puzzled children are by telepathy. I suggest potential ways to address some of these questions and end by reiterating the importance of probing individual differences in scepticism and credulity.

  20. Primary Three-Dimensional Analysis with Perspective-Filet View Versus Primary Two-Dimensional Analysis: Evaluation of Lesion Detection by Inexperienced Readers at Computed Tomographic Colonography in Symptomatic Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisichella, V.A.; Horvath, S.; Hellstroem, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)); Jaederling, F. (Dept. of Radiology, St. Goerans Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stotzer, P.O.; Kilander, A. (Dept. of Gastroenterology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Background: 'Perspective-filet view' is a novel three-dimensional (3D) viewing technique for computed tomography colonography (CTC). Studies with experienced readers have shown a sensitivity for perspective-filet view similar to that of 2D or 3D endoluminal fly-through in detection of colorectal lesions. It is not known whether perspective-filet view, compared to axial images, improves lesion detection by inexperienced readers. Purpose: To compare primary 3D analysis using perspective-filet view (3D Filet) with primary 2D analysis, as used by inexperienced CTC readers. Secondary aims were to compare lesion detection by 3D Filet when used by experienced and inexperienced readers, and to evaluate the effect of combined 3D Filet + 2D analysis. Material and Methods: Fifty symptomatic patients were prospectively enrolled. An experienced reader performed 3D Filet analysis followed by complete 2D analysis (3D Filet + 2D), before colonoscopy with segmental unblinding. Two inexperienced readers (readers 2 and 3), blinded to CTC and colonoscopy findings, retrospectively performed 3D Filet analysis and, after 5 weeks, 2D analysis. True positives =6 mm detected by the inexperienced readers with 3D Filet and/or 2D were combined to obtain 3D Filet + 2D. Results: Colonoscopy revealed 116 lesions: 16 lesions =10 mm, 19 lesions 6-9 mm, and 81 lesions =5 mm. For the experienced reader, sensitivities for lesions =6 mm with 3D Filet and 3D Filet + 2D were 77% and 83%, respectively. For the inexperienced readers, sensitivities for lesions =6 mm with 3D Filet and 2D were 51% and 57% (reader 2) and 40% and 43% (reader 3), respectively. There was no significant difference between 3D Filet and 2D regarding sensitivity and reading time. For lesions =6 mm, 3D Filet + 2D improved the sensitivity of reader 2 to 63% and of reader 3 to 51%. Conclusion: Lesion detection by inexperienced readers using perspective-filet view is comparable to that obtained by 2D. Lesion detection improves

  1. Multiframe Blind Super Resolution Imaging Based on Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元伟; 张立毅

    2016-01-01

    As an ill-posed problem, multiframe blind super resolution imaging recovers a high resolution image from a group of low resolution images with some degradations when the information of blur kernel is limited. Note that the quality of the recovered image is influenced more by the accuracy of blur estimation than an advanced regularization. We study the traditional model of the multiframe super resolution and modify it for blind deblurring. Based on the analysis, we proposed two algorithms. The first one is based on the total variation blind deconvolution algorithm and formulated as a functional for optimization with the regularization of blur. Based on the alternating minimization and the gradient descent algorithm, the high resolution image and the unknown blur kernel are esti-mated iteratively. By using the median shift and add operator, the second algorithm is more robust to the outlier influence. The MSAA initialization simplifies the interpolation process to reconstruct the blurred high resolution image for blind deblurring and improves the accuracy of blind super resolution imaging. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority and accuracy of our novel algorithms.

  2. Infographics for Educational Purposes: Their Structure, Properties and Reader Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Infographics are one of the new educational environments used to provide information to their readers in a visual way. Infographics are designed to provide information to their readers using various visuals such as texts, pictures, drawings, diagrams, graphs, etc. The use of infographics becomes increasingly widespread both in advertising…

  3. Sexism Springs Eternal--in the Reader's Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G.; Meadow, Wendy

    This document reports on an empirical investigation of anti-women humor appearing in the Reader's Digest over three decades, revealing the operation of an unconscious sexist ideology. A systematic analysis was made of 1,069 jokes appearing in two featured columns of the Reader's Digest for the two-year periods 1947-48, 1957-58, and 1967-68.…

  4. Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance program (now called Accelerated Reader Best Classroom Practices) is a guided reading intervention in which teachers direct student reading of text. It involves two components. Reading Renaissance, the first component, is a set of recommended principles on guided reading (or teachers' direction of…

  5. Comparing Reading Processing Strategies of Second Language Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parilah M. Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The message that a writer tries to convey in a text would be subjected to several interpretations by readers. Apparently, reading is a complex process of getting input. A well-known researcher offers two views of reading: (i reading is a process of decoding written symbols and (ii reading is a process of reconstructing meaning. It has also been proposed that readers used reading processing strategies in the process of understanding text. Most language educators are not aware of the specific reading strategies that second language readers utilize. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to conduct a study that could explore the specific types of strategies used and to compare the strategies utilized by readers of differing abilities. Approach: A study is conducted to examine the second language readers use of reading strategies at the Malaysian secondary schools. They read a piece of reading material, and then respond to questionnaires concerning reading strategies such as supervising strategies, support strategies and paraphrase strategies. Results: The findings indicate that there are differences in reading strategies used by second language readers of differing abilities for some of the question items. The results suggest the need to address the incorporation of reading strategy instruction in the language curriculum in order to produce more efficient readers. Conclusion: This investigation is another useful contribution to the applied linguistics research since second language educators would gain better insight into the readers comprehension process.

  6. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  7. Designating Reader Perspective to Increase Comprehension and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Crystal M.; Sperling, Rayne A.

    2010-01-01

    In three experiments we examined whether reader perspective on a long expository text could be manipulated such that increased text interest and enhancement of two comprehension outcomes would result. In Experiment 1 we verified the viability of a new text for experimental purposes. We then assigned readers a perspective before reading in…

  8. Teaching Materials for German. G3: Readers. Teaching Materials Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).

    This publication, part of a bibliography of language teaching materials, lists 91 readers. It contains a contents list, annotated entries, an index of authors, editors, compilers and adapters, and a title index. In addition to basic bibliographical details, the following are provided for each entry: an annotation describing the reader, a statement…

  9. Homophone Effects in Deaf Readers: Evidence from Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the nature of deaf readers' phonological processing during online word recognition, and how this compares to similar effects in hearing individuals. Unlike many previous studies on phonological activation, we examined whether deaf readers activated phonological representations for words as opposed to pseudohomophones.…

  10. Chinese Deaf Readers Have Early Access to Parafoveal Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea,…

  11. Helping the Slow-Reader in the Primary School Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund V.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for primary teachers to use with children who have reading difficulties. It includes developing a profile of each slow reader, testing each slow reader to determine reading level and specific weaknesses, and using certain practical methods to help solve the problem. (two references) (LB)

  12. Can Bold Typeface Improve Readers' Comprehension and Metacomprehension of Negation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on negation has demonstrated that while readers are aware that this text construction is difficult, they seem to be able to do little to improve their comprehension. The present research evaluated whether a change in typeface could improve comprehension and metacomprehension of negation. Results indicated that while readers were…

  13. A Comparative Review of Stratification Texts and Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Clayton D.

    2012-01-01

    Social stratification is a core substantive area within sociology. There are a number of textbooks and readers available on the market that deal with this central topic. In this article, I conduct a comparative review of (a) four stratification textbooks and (b) four stratification readers. (Contains 2 tables.)

  14. Chinese Mandarin Advanced Course: Newspaper and Periodicals Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsett, Dale F.; Poelman, James S.

    This reader provides supplementary materials for improvement of reading fluency and expansion of vocabulary for advanced students of Chinese. It familiarizes students with terminology used in mainland China publications. Twenty articles, taken from several newspapers, are compiled in this reader. Vocabulary lists are provided for each selection.…

  15. Miscue Analysis: A Transformative Tool for Researchers, Teachers, and Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Yetta M.

    2015-01-01

    When a reader produces a response to a written text (the observed response) that is not expected by the listener, the result is called a miscue. Using psychosociolingustic analyses of miscues in the context of an authentic text, miscue analysis provides evidence to discover how readers read. I present miscue analysis history and development and…

  16. Stance, Navigation, and Reader Response in Expository Hypertext

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneaney, John E.; Li, Ledong; Allen, Kris; Guzniczak, Lizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two studies investigating reader stance, navigation, and response in expository hypertext. Subjects in the studies included 69 and 147 adult readers prompted to adopt either an efferent or aesthetic stance when reading a 36-node expository hypertext. Reading was followed by recall and essay writing tasks. Results of the…

  17. How Think-and-Feel-Aloud Instruction Influences Poetry Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva-Wood, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Assuming readers' emotional responses can inform literary analysis, this study of poetry readers featured an instructional intervention that involved modeling both cognitive and affective reading processes through a think-and-feel-aloud pedagogy. Eleventh-grade students in 2 conditions participated in a 4-week unit on reading poetry. Control group…

  18. 10 CFR 1041.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with impaired vision include readers, Brailled materials, audio recordings, telecommunications devices...; special sense organs; respiratory, including speech organs; cardiovascular; reproductive;...

  19. 12 CFR 268.702 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vision include readers, Brailled materials, audio recordings, telecommunications devices and other...; musculoskeletal; special sense organs; respiratory, including speech organs; cardiovascular;...

  20. 10 CFR 4.503 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with impaired vision include readers, brailled materials, audio recordings, telecommunications devices...; special sense organs; respiratory, including speech organs; cardiovascular; reproductive;...

  1. Handheld E-Book Readers and Scholarship Report and Reader Survey: ACLS Humanities E-Book. White Paper No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Nina

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a conversion experiment and subsequent reader survey conducted by the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) Humanities E-Book (HEB) in late 2009 and early 2010 to assess the viability of using scholarly monographs with handheld e-readers. As sample content, HEB selected six titles from its own online collection, three…

  2. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information about characters'…

  3. Access to Mathematics by Blind Students: A Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Karshmer, Arthur I.; Daryoush D. Farsi

    2007-01-01

    The issue of blindness and legally blind is becoming a global issue. Based on the last statistics from American Foundation for the blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States alone. Over 45 million people around the world are completely blind. 180 million more people are legally blind, and approximately 7 million people are diagnosed as blind or legally blind every year. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in the ability of the blind to e...

  4. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  5. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life...... and a structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  6. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  7. From Shell Shock to Shellac: The Great War, Blindness, and Britain's Talking Book Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubery, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Britain's Talking Book Service began as a way of providing reading material to soldiers blinded during the First World War. This account traces the talking book's development from the initial experiments after the War to its debut and reception among blind soldiers and civilians in the 1930s. It has been put together using archives held by the Royal National Institute of Blind People (before its Royal Charter, the NIB) and Blind Veterans UK (formerly St. Dunstan's), the two organizations responsible for Britain's Talking Book Service. The essay's first section reconstructs the search for an alternative way of reading that would benefit people with vision impairments. The next part demonstrates the talking book's impact on the lives of people with disabilities, recovering the voices of blind readers left out of most histories of books, literacy, and reading practices in the twentieth century. The final section reconstructs a debate over the value of recorded books, showing that disputes over their legitimacy are as old as recorded books themselves. In sum, this essay confronts the central issue raised by the convergence of books, media, and disability in the War's aftermath: can a book talk?

  8. Examining College Students’ Reading Behaviors and Needs for Ebook Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jane Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates college students’ reading behaviors and attitudes toward print and electronic carriers of books. With the prosperity and variety of ebook readers currently, it is important to understand the genuine needs of the users to better leverage the features and functions of the ebook readers. The methodology of survey research is conducted to explore 76 undergraduate students’ experiences, preferences and appraisals toward reading via the print books and ebook readers. Generally the college students possess positive attitudes toward and are willing to take advantage of the ebook and ebook reader services provided by libraries, but the current rate of use is low. The results suggested that student adoption of ebook readers are affected by their goals of reading. The college students prefer ebook readers significantly for leisure reading, and highly demand the functionality of multimedia presentations and file management. When reading academic contexts, the college students preferred hardcovers and online ebooks via the Web browser, and they value the functions of searching, marking and file management on ebook readers especially. [Article content in Chinese

  9. RFID reader design for identification of industrial metallic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurkowski, M.; Jankowski, H.; Worek, C.; Maksymowicz, L. J.

    2006-10-01

    An electronic circuit design of the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) reader was the aim of our research. This device is designed for identification of transponders, which are present on the surface of metal elements or inside machine elements made of metal. In order to achieve that, we optimized the antenna reader circuit, that works in near field (magnetic coupling), by means of field flux lines analysis (using finite elements method) and experimental data collecting. Finally, one obtaines a specific shaped magnetic field around the reader.

  10. Teenagers Poor Readers: Evaluation of Basic Cognitive Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa del Carmen Flores Macías

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the cognitive processes associated with reading difficulties of teenage poor readers. Several studies suggest that this population presents a poor comprehension, despite reading the words properly and have good phonological skills (which distinguishes them from a population with dyslexia. With a comparative cross-sectional design the Sicole-R multimedia battery, which assesses basic cognitive processes related to reading, was applied to participants. Results indicate that poor reader students exhibit a lower performance than normal readers in phonological awareness, orthographic processing and processing syntax, although only the latter comparison was statistically significant.

  11. E-Books on the Mobile E-Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulyun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for e-books has been established during the past several years. Many e-book readers are commercially available, and millions of e-book titles are available for purchase or free download. E-paper technology has matured enough to be used as the screen for dedicated e-book readers which make reading possible with the familiar feel of reading printed books. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the status of the e-book, including the architecture and features of e-book readers, market adoption and e-book industry ecosystem.

  12. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  13. The Concept and Operations of Blind Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yan-jun; LIU Kai-di; ZHANG Bo-wen

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the definition and operations of blind number, and discusses its operationproperties. Blind number is a mathematical tool to express and deal with complex information with severalkinds of uncertainty.

  14. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  15. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Research Navigator: A Series on Research in Blindness and Visual Impairment Stay Involved Enter your e-mail address to receive AFB eNews: Helen Keller A Driving Force Behind AFB Learn more about Helen Keller Visit the Helen Keller Kids Museum Directory of Services Find Local Services: Select a ...

  16. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources fro...

  17. The Blind as "Ordinary People".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    1978-01-01

    Based on a paper presented at the 1977 Western Social Science Association Meeting in Denver, Colorado, the article reports on a study that compared major demographic features of a sample of 70 legally blind adults with the sighted adult sample studied in the 1975 National Opinion Research Center General Social Survey. (Author/DLS)

  18. Partially Blind Signatures Based on Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Niu, Hui-Fang

    2012-12-01

    In a partially blind signature scheme, the signer explicitly includes pre-agreed common information in the blind signature, which can improve the availability and performance. We present a new partially blind signature scheme based on fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyze the security of this scheme, and show it is not possible to forge valid partially blind signatures. Moreover, the comparisons between this scheme and those based on public-key cryptography are also discussed.

  19. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C;

    2010-01-01

    Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals and envi......Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals...

  20. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  1. Are e-readers suitable tools for scholarly work?

    CERN Document Server

    Schomisch, Siegfried; Mayr, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to offer insights into the usability, acceptance and limitations of e-readers with regard to the specific requirements of scholarly text work. To fit into the academic workflow non-linear reading, bookmarking, commenting, extracting text or the integration of non-textual elements must be supported. A group of social science students were questioned about their experiences with electronic publications for study purposes. This same group executed several text-related tasks with the digitized material presented to them in two different file formats on four different e-readers. Their performances were subsequently evaluated by means of frequency analyses in detail. Findings - e-Publications have made advances in the academic world; however e-readers do not yet fit seamlessly into the established chain of scholarly text-processing focusing on how readers use material during and after reading. Our tests revealed major deficiencies in these techniques. With a small number of participants (n=26) quali...

  2. Students Explore Text, Themselves, and Life through Reader Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutray, Carol L.; Pollard, Jean Ann; McGinley, Jill

    2001-01-01

    Examines the benefits of reader response by means of student letters to authors. Notes that students involved in response writing become more interested in reading, are more reflective individuals, and more responsible for monitoring and resolving their own questions. (SD)

  3. 'Reading' bubble chamber pictures with the Spiral Reader eyes.

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Interactive techniques were widely used to study bubble chamber pictures. After a visual scanning of the pictures and a vertex measurement on a Shivamatic, the Spiral Reader allowed the track polar coordinates to be easily measured. See photo 7408137X

  4. "Pro Patria": Young Readers and the "Great War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Geoff

    1985-01-01

    Provides a thematic presentation of poems written for young readers during the First World War. Draws heavily upon the poems and articles that appeared in "The Boy's Own Paper," a British popular magazine of the period. (HOD)

  5. The Reading-Writing Connection for Struggling Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Kathleen; Au, Kathryn; Carroll, Jacquelin; Nakanishi, Patricia; Scheu, Judith; Wong-Kam, Jo Ann

    1999-01-01

    Describes and discusses six recent books for teachers that illuminate, from different perspectives, aspects of the reading-writing connection for struggling readers, and how to teach reading and writing effectively. (SR)

  6. ERIC/RCS: Reader Response in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Hilary Taylor

    1987-01-01

    Explores briefly the New Criticism that dominated literature instruction until recently and then provides an overview of reader response theory and how response approaches can be used in the classroom to enhance reading. (NKA)

  7. What Is That Lapping the Miles?: Responding to Reader Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    Responds to an article in an earlier issue of this journal about using reading response in a college literature classroom. Argues that the use of reader-response theory with two-year college students requires some caution. (SR)

  8. Effects of the Artificial Skin Thickness on the Subsurface Pressure Profiles of Flat, Curved, and Braille Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cabibihan, John-John; Suresh, Shruthi

    2014-01-01

    The primary interface of contact between a robotic or prosthetic hand and the external world is through the artificial skin. To make sense of that contact, tactile sensors are needed. These sensors are normally embedded in soft, synthetic materials for protecting the subsurface sensor from damage or for better hand-to-object contact. It is important to understand how the mechanical signals transmit from the artificial skin to the embedded tactile sensors. In this paper, we made use of a finite element model of an artificial fingertip with viscoelastic and hyperelastic behaviors to investigate the subsurface pressure profiles when flat, curved, and Braille surfaces were indented on the surface of the model. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of 1, 3 and 5 mm thickness of the skin on the subsurface pressure profiles. The simulation results were experimentally validated using a 25.4 {\\mu}m thin pressure detecting film that was able to follow the contours of a non-planar surface, which is analogous to an ar...

  9. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  10. BLIND ADAPTIVE XPIC BASED ON HOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Haiyang; Yang Longxiang; Peng Jianglong

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new blind XPIC and a new adaptive blind deconvolutional algorithm based on HOS processing, which separates and equalizes the signals in real time. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed adaptive blind algorithm,compared with the conventional algorithms, is outstanding with the feature of feasibility, stability and fast convergence rate.

  11. Psychomotor Development for the Deaf-Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Claudine

    The stages of psychomotor development in deaf blind children and youth are reviewed, and educational principles to guide psychomotor development programs for the deaf blind are outlined. Etiological factors which contribute to the psychomotor development of deaf blind persons are discussed including nonambulation and sensory deprivation, heart…

  12. Making a Commitment to Strategic-Reader Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FREDRICKA L. STOLLER; REIKO KOMIYAMA

    2013-01-01

    Skilled readers by definition are strategic; they are able to use a repertoire of reading strategies , flexibly and in meaningful combinations , to achieve their reading comprehension goals . Thus , one of the aims of foreign and second language (L2) reading curricula should be to move students toward becoming more strategic readers . This curricular orientation can be best achieved when a strong commitment is made to strategic-reader training as a regular and consistent component of instruction across the curriculum . To explore this stance , we examine the reading strategies used by skilled readers , contrast teaching strategies with training strategic readers ( i .e . , strategic-reader training) , and examine five strategic-reader training approaches from first language contexts that can be adapted by L2 professionals to enhance the reading instruction offered in their L 2 classes . The five approaches targeted for exploration include Directed Reading-Thinking Activity , Reciprocal Teaching , Transactional Strategies Instruction , Questioning the Author , and Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction . Though distinct from one another , they all acknowledge the importance of explicit explanations about strategies (or reminders about the use of select strategies) , teacher modeling , scaffolded tasks , active student engagement , student practice , classroom discussions of strategy use , and the gradual release of responsibility to students who eventually decide for themselves (and/or with peers) when , where , and why to use which strategies to achieve their comprehension goals . We conclude with a discussion of the challenges , and suggestions for overcoming them , that L 2 teachers and students often face in making a commitment to strategic-reader training .

  13. Optimised inductively coupled reader antennas for smart HF RFID systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Soodmand, Soheyl

    2015-01-01

    The Internet of things (IoT) refers to uniquely identifiable objects and their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure to be managed and inventoried by computers. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) - a prerequisite for the IoT - is an automatic way for data transaction in object identification and is used to improve automation, inventory control and checkout operations. An RFID system consists of a reader device and one or several tags. Smart reader systems are...

  14. 高校特殊教育专业盲文实践教学及效果--以A学院特殊教育为例%The Braille Practice Teaching and Effect forSpecial Education Professional--- In Special Education of A University for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖菊英

    2014-01-01

    文章总结高校特殊教育专业盲文教学的特殊性、盲文实践教学的形式,并对几种实践教学效果进行分组实践研究,结果显示,高校特殊教育学生实践教学更倾向于纸笔以及盲文板笔进行盲文的学习。据此结合调查以及访谈资料对几种实践教学效果进行讨论,以期对高校盲文实践教学有一定的启发意义。%The article summarizes the particularity of Braille teaching of special education professional and the form of Braille prac‐tice teaching in college through long-term Braille practice teaching .And then there is a study about effect of several practical teaching for grouping .The results showed that special education students in colleges and universities are more inclined to use pen and Braille tools ,Braille paper to learn Braille in practice teaching .Then there is a discussion about several practical teaching effects combining to investigation and interview data so as to have the certain enlightenment for Braille practice teaching in colleges .

  15. On Database Systems With Sounds for the Blind%盲用有声数据库系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春雨; 董德存; 欧冬秀; 朱双六

    2001-01-01

    本文提出了一种适合中国盲人操作的多用户有声数据库系统的开发与实现方法,通过键盘输入盲文点字,调用语音库的语音实现语音输出,盲人通过语音提示独立操作数据库系统。并对软件的开发环境,关键技术进行了分析。%This paper proposes a method of developing a multi-user database system with sounds for the blind. It also makes an analysis on the environment and key techniques of the software development. Such a system accepts the input of keystrokes in braille by the blind user and outputs corresponding sounds by accessing its sound bank so that he or she can use the database system with the help of sounds.

  16. RFID Reader Anticollision Protocols for Dense and Mobile Deployments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Aziz Mbacke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification technology has allowed its large adoption and led to increasing deployments of RFID solutions in diverse environments under varying scenarios and constraints. The nature of these constraints ranges from the amount to the mobility of the readers deployed, which in turn highly affects the quality of the RFID system, causing reading collisions. Although several solutions were proposed to engage the issue of reading collision, few were ever concerned with the densification and/or mobility of readers. This paper proposes two distributed TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access approaches designed to reduce these collisions through local coordination between neighboring devices for different scenarios tested here. The first proposal is based on a reservation phase organized between readers with different priority levels given to readers depending on their previous success. The second one takes advantage of the particular case of RFID collisions, allowing a local and mutual decision of each reader to access or not tags in their vicinity. Simulations were run over different stressful environments in terms of tag/reader density and mobility, proving that our proposals achieved the best performance in terms of throughput, collision avoidance and coverage delay when compared to other collision reducing schemes.

  17. An IoT Reader for Wireless Passive Electromagnetic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Romera, Gabriel; Carnerero-Cano, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, José Juan; Herraiz-Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2017-03-28

    In the last years, many passive electromagnetic sensors have been reported. Some of these sensors are used for measuring harmful substances. Moreover, the response of these sensors is usually obtained with laboratory equipment. This approach highly increases the total cost and complexity of the sensing system. In this work, a novel low-cost and portable Internet-of-Things (IoT) reader for passive wireless electromagnetic sensors is proposed. The reader is used to interrogate the sensors within a short-range wireless link avoiding the direct contact with the substances under test. The IoT functionalities of the reader allows remote sensing from computers and handheld devices. For that purpose, the proposed design is based on four functional layers: the radiating layer, the RF interface, the IoT mini-computer and the power unit. In this paper a demonstrator of the proposed reader is designed and manufactured. The demonstrator shows, through the remote measurement of different substances, that the proposed system can estimate the dielectric permittivity. It has been demonstrated that a linear approximation with a small error can be extracted from the reader measurements. It is remarkable that the proposed reader can be used with other type of electromagnetic sensors, which transduce the magnitude variations in the frequency domain.

  18. Implementation and extension of a GNU-Radio RFID reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smietanka, G.; Brato, S.; Freudenberg, M.; Götze, J.

    2013-07-01

    The development of a flexible software defined RFID is discused. Commercial reader systems only allow a top level view on the communication and restrict the variation for many transmission parameters. Recently a software reader from the CGran project was proposed which uses the GNU Radio environment in combination with an USRP front end. Because most of the signal processing is done on a common host PC, this reader offers high flexibility, but also has several disadvantages. One of the main hardware limitations is the usage of only one separated antenna per transmit and receive path. Commercial readers usually use four antennas which are time multiplexed and can be used as transmitter and receiver. In this work a HF multiplexer for the USRP device is introduced. With this extension up to four transmit and receive antennas can be used in combination with the software reader. It is shown that the multiplexer achieves good read rates for a switching interval of 100 ms. Using this multiplexer the read range of the system decrease compared to the basic software reader, but distances over two meters can still be realized without additional hardware extensions.

  19. From" Televised Blind Date” to" Televised Half-blind Wedding”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates” , arranged by a television station. It is interesting to see how a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding” to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that 1 think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out.

  20. From "Televised Blind Date" to "Televised Half-blind Wedding"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates", arranged by a television station, It is interesting to see bow a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding" to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that I think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out. In the beginning, the directors of FOX put ads in newspapers, openly asking the public: "Who wants to marry a multi-millionaire?" It did not cost much time or