Sample records for blind braille readers

  1. How Blind Readers Perceive and Gather Information Written in Braille. (United States)

    Simon, C.; Huertas, J. A.


    Twenty-six expert adult readers, 13 of whom were blind, were compared for how they perceived and retrieved written information. The study found that braille readers were not limited to the isolated identification of individual braille characters as previously thought, but could integrate greater quantities of written information. Implications for…

  2. Nasa Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers (United States)


    BALTIMORE - At a Tuesday ceremony at the National Federation of the Blind, NASA unveiled a new book that brings majestic images taken by its Great Observatories to the fingertips of the blind. "Touch the Invisible Sky" is a 60-page book with color images of nebulae, stars, galaxies and some of the telescopes that captured the original pictures. Each image is embossed with lines, bumps and other textures. These raised patterns translate colors, shapes and other intricate details of the cosmic objects, allowing visually impaired people to experience them. Braille and large-print descriptions accompany each of the book's 28 photographs, making the book's design accessible to readers of all visual abilities. Sample page Sample page The book contains spectacular images from the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope and powerful ground-based telescopes. The celestial objects are presented as they appear through visible-light telescopes and different spectral regions invisible to the naked eye, from radio to infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X-ray light. The book introduces the concept of light and the spectrum and explains how the different observatories complement each others' findings. Readers take a cosmic journey beginning with images of the sun, and travel out into the galaxy to visit relics of exploding and dying stars, as well as the Whirlpool galaxy and colliding Antennae galaxies. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion Black Holes Are The Rhythm at The Heart of Galaxies "Touch the Invisible Sky" was written by astronomy educator and accessibility specialist Noreen Grice of You Can Do Astronomy LLC and the Museum of Science, Boston, with authors Simon Steel, an astronomer with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and Doris Daou, an astronomer

  3. TMS of the occipital cortex induces tactile sensations in the fingers of blind Braille readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, M; Fumal, A; de Noordhout, A Martens


    stimulation (TMS) in early blind subjects and in blindfolded seeing controls. Whereas blindfolded seeing controls reported only phosphenes following occipital cortex stimulation, some of the blind subjects reported tactile sensations in the fingers that were somatotopically organized onto the visual cortex....... The number of cortical sites inducing tactile sensations appeared to be related to the number of hours of Braille reading per day, Braille reading speed and dexterity. These data, taken in conjunction with previous anatomical, behavioural and functional imaging results, suggest the presence of a polysynaptic...

  4. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers. (United States)

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin


    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills.

  5. A Portable Piezoelectric Tactile Terminal for Braille Readers

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    Ramiro Velázquez


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel concept on reading assistive technologies for the blind: the TactoBook, a system that is able to translate entire electronic books (eBooks to Braille code and to reproduce them in portable electronic Braille terminals. The TactoBook consists of a computer-based translator that converts fast and automatically any eBook into Braille. The Braille version of the eBook is then encrypted as a file and stored in a USB memory drive which is later inserted and reproduced in a compact, lightweight, and highly-portable tactile terminal. In particular, this paper presents a piezoelectric ultrasonic actuation approach to design and implement such portable Braille terminal. Actuating mechanism, design concept, first prototype, and performance results are presented and discussed.

  6. Social Experiences of Beginning Braille Readers in Literacy Activities: Qualitative and Quantitative Findings of the ABC Braille Study (United States)

    Sacks, Sharon Z.; Kamei-Hannan, Cheryl; Erin, Jane N.; Barclay, Lizbeth; Sitar, Debbie


    This mixed-design investigation examined the social experiences of beginning braille readers who were initially taught contracted or alphabetic braille in literacy activities as part of the ABC Braille Study. No differences in the quality or quantity of social experiences were found between the two groups over time. (Contains 4 tables.)

  7. The Cortical Network for Braille Writing in the Blind. (United States)

    Likova, Lora T; Tyler, Christopher W; Cacciamani, Laura; Mineff, Kristyo; Nicholas, Spero


    Fundamental forms of high-order cognition, such as reading and writing, are usually studied in the context of one modality - vision. People without sight, however, use the kinesthetic-based Braille writing, and haptic-based Braille reading. We asked whether the cognitive and motor control mechanisms underlying writing and reading are modality-specific or supramodal. While a number of previous functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the brain network for Braille reading in the blind, such studies on Braille writing are lacking. Consequently, no comparative network analysis of Braille writing vs. reading exists. Here, we report the first study of Braille writing, and a comparison of the brain organization for Braille writing vs Braille reading. FMRI was conducted in a Siemens 3T Trio scanner. Our custom MRI-compatible drawing/writing lectern was further modified to provide for Braille reading and writing. Each of five paragraphs of novel Braille text describing objects, faces and navigation sequences was read, then reproduced twice by Braille writing from memory, then read a second time. During Braille reading, the haptic-sensing of the Braille letters strongly activated not only the early visual area V1 and V2, but some highly specialized areas, such as the classical visual grapheme area and the Exner motor grapheme area. Braille-writing-from-memory, engaged a significantly more extensive network in dorsal motor, somatosensory/kinesthetic, dorsal parietal and prefrontal cortex. However, in contrast to the largely extended V1 activation in drawing-from-memory in the blind after training (Likova, 2012), Braille writing from memory generated focal activation restricted to the most foveal part of V1, presumably reflecting topographically the focal demands of such a "pin-pricking" task.

  8. Perceptions of Braille Usage by Legally Blind Adults. (United States)

    Schroeder, F. K.


    In this qualitative research, case study interviews were conducted to provide an in-depth examination of the meaning of braille in the lives of eight legally blind adults. Issues of self-esteem, self-identity, and the "stigma" of being a person with a disability were found to be integrally intertwined with the subjects' expressed feelings about…

  9. The Role of Letter Knowledge and Phonological Awareness in Young Braille Readers. (United States)

    Barlow-Brown, Fiona; Connelly, Vincent


    Considers how blind children do not receive exposure to environmental print and do not generally learn to recognize written letters of the alphabet prior to schooling in Braille. Concludes that letter learning is a major contributor to the development of phonological awareness in blind children. Suggests key similarities in the underlying…

  10. Studi Komparasi Modul Kimia Berbasis Media Screen Reader Jaws dan Braille Terhadap Prestasi, Motivasi, dan Kemandirian Belajar Peserta Didik Difabel Netra

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    Jamil Suprihatiningrum


    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the achievement, motivation, and independent learning of blind students who use screen reader JAWS and braille module.This research was conducted at MAN Maguwoharjo Yogyakarta involving 5 blind students in the chemistry subject of academic year 2013/2014. One student is as an instrument validation test subject, two students as subjects in the experimental class and two students as subjects in the control class. The instruments used in this study are the observation sheet,multiple choice test, questionnaire responses, motivation scale, and independent learning scale. Data of student achievement, motivation and independence scale were analyzed using nonparametric statistical test of independent samples. The result shows that no significant difference between the achievement, motivation, and independence of blind students who use screen reader JAWS module and braille module.

  11. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement. (United States)

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  12. Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind. (United States)

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin


    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Aphasia without amusia in a blind organist. Verbal alexia-agraphia without musical alexia-agraphia in braille]. (United States)

    Signoret, J L; van Eeckhout, P; Poncet, M; Castaigne, P


    A 77 year old right handed male was blind since the age of 2. He presented with an infarction involving the territory of the left middle cerebral artery involving the temporal and the inferior parietal lobes. He had learned to read and write language as well as read and write music in braille, ultimately becoming a famous organist and composer. There were no motor or sensory deficits. Wernicke's aphasia with jargonaphasia, major difficulty in repetition, anomia and a significant comprehension deficit without word deafness was present; verbal alexia and agraphia in braille were also present. There was no evidence of amusia. He could execute in an exemplary fashion pieces of music for the organ in his repertory as well as improvise. All his musical capabilities: transposition, modulation, harmony, rythm, were preserved. The musical notation in braille remained intact: he could read by touch and play unfamiliar scores, he could also read and sing the musical notes, he could copy and write a score. Nine months after the stroke his aphasia remained unchanged. Nevertheless he composed pieces for the organ which were published. Such data highly suggest the independence of linguistic and musical competences, defined as the analysis and organization of sounds according to the rules of music. This independence in an extremely talented musician leads to a discussion of the role of the right hemisphere in the anatomical-functional processes at the origin of musical competence. The use of braille in which the same constellations of dots correspond either to letters of the alphabet or musical notes supports the independence between language and music.

  14. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille (United States)

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter


    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…



    Legge, Gordon E.; Madison, Cindee; Vaughn, Brenna N.; Cheong, Allen M.Y.; Miller, Joseph C.


    Previous studies of tactile acuity on the fingertip using passive touch have demonstrated an age-related decline in spatial resolution for both sighted and blind subjects. We have re-examined this age dependence with two newly designed tactile-acuity charts requiring active exploration of the test symbols. One chart used dot patterns similar to Braille and the other used embossed Landolt rings. Groups of blind Braille readers and sighted subjects, ranging in age from 12 to 85 years, were test...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojichikj


    Full Text Available A comparison reading performance was done between 8 students who are using Braille and 14 students who are using enlarged print to read. Reading performance was determined using reading rate (words per minute, wpm. Reading rate results showed no significant difference (p>0.05 between those using the Braille (16.62±11.61 wpm and those using the enlarged print (27.21±24.89 wpm. This study has shown that Braille reader students read at lower reading rate compared to print reader students with visual impairment.

  17. How the Blind “See” Braille and the Deaf “Hear” Sign: Lessons from fMRI on the Cross-Modal Plasticity, Integration, and Learning

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    Norihiro Sadato


    Full Text Available What does the visual cortex of the blind do during Braille reading? This process involves converting simple tactile information into meaningful patterns that have lexical and semantic properties. The perceptual processing of Braille might be mediated by the somatosensory system, whereas visual letter identity is accomplished within the visual system in sighted people. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled exploration of the neural substrates of Braille reading (Sadato et al. 1996, 1998, 2002, Cohen et al. 1997, 1999. The primary visual cortex of early-onset blind subjects is functionally relevant to Braille reading, suggesting that the brain shows remarkable plasticity that potentially permits the additional processing of tactile information in the visual cortical areas. Similar cross-modal plasticity is observed by the auditory deprivation: Sign language activates the auditory cortex of deaf subjects (Neville et al. 1999, Nishimura et al. 1999, Sadato et al. 2004. Cross-modal activation can be seen in the sighted and hearing subjects. For example, the tactile shape discrimination of two dimensional (2D shapes (Mah-Jong tiles activated the visual cortex by expert players (Saito et al. 2006, and the lip-reading (visual phonetics (Sadato et al. 2004 or key touch reading by pianists (Hasegawa et al. 2004 activates the auditory cortex of hearing subjects. Thus the cross-modal plasticity by sensory deprivation and cross-modal integration through the learning may share their neural substrates. To clarify the distribution of the neural substrates and their dynamics during cross-modal association learning within several hours, we conducted audio-visual paired association learning of delayed-matching-to-sample type tasks (Tanabe et al. 2005. Each trial consisted of the successive presentation of a pair of stimuli. Subjects had to find pre-defined audio-visual or visuo-visual pairs in a trial and error manner with feedback in

  18. A Software Tutorial for Learning the Nemeth Code of Braille Mathematics. (United States)

    Kapperman, Gaylen; Sticken, Jodi


    This article describes a software tutorial that can be used by people who are blind to learn the Nemeth Code of Braille mathematics notation. The program was designed for use with the Braille Lite, a note taker that has speech and a refreshable Braille display. The tutorial has 18 lessons. (CR)

  19. Resources and Information for Parents about Braille (United States)

    ... Braille Literacy , edited by Diane P. Wormsley and Frances Mary D'Andrea Beginning with Braille: A Balanced ... a variety of code books, and braille transcription manuals for literary braille, Nemeth code, computer braille, music ...

  20. Retention of high tactile acuity throughout the life span in blindness. (United States)

    Legge, Gordon E; Madison, Cindee; Vaughn, Brenna N; Cheong, Allen M Y; Miller, Joseph C


    Previous studies of tactile acuity on the fingertip, using passive touch, have demonstrated an age-related decline in spatial resolution for both sighted and blind subjects. We have reexamined this age dependence with two newly designed tactile-acuity charts that require active exploration of the test symbols. One chart used dot patterns similar to braille, and the other used embossed Landolt rings. Groups of blind braille readers and sighted subjects ranging from 12 to 85 years old were tested in two experiments. We replicated previous findings for sighted subjects by showing an age-related decrease in tactile acuity by nearly 1% per year. Surprisingly, the blind subjects retained high acuity into old age, showing no age-related decline. For the blind subjects, tactile acuity did not correlate with braille reading speed, the amount of daily reading, or the age at which braille was learned. We conclude that when measured with active touch, blind subjects retain high tactile acuity into old age, unlike their aging sighted peers. We propose that blind people's use of active touch in daily activities, not specifically braille reading, results in preservation of tactile acuity across the life span.

  1. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults. (United States)

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin


    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.

  2. Argonne Braille Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, A.


    Development of a braille machine is summarized. It is noted that the machine has reached the stage where development of the system appears both possible and desirable. Sections are included containing papers on computer translation and auxiliary equipment, and on letters and awards in recognition of the braille machine development. (JRD)

  3. Evaluation of the modified braille dots printed with the UV ink-jet technique

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    Raša Urbas


    Full Text Available Braille presents a complex system of writing with additional symbols and letters designating numbers, capital letters and other special symbols in mathematics, physics, music etc. Due to mentioned braille texts are usually very long, bulky, space consuming and complex. In this research a study of modified braille dots is presented. Samples were prepared in several different steps, enabling the determination of the optimal braille dot height on top which additional elements were printed. Properties of ordinary braille dot samples and braille dot samples printed with additional element were compared and analyzed. An extensive sensory analysis with blind and visually impaired people was performed for establishing weather modified braille dots can be tactile recognized and used in practice.

  4. Communication and Computation Skills for Blind Students Attending Public Schools. (United States)

    Suffolk County Board of Cooperative Educational Services 3, Dix Hills, NY.

    Outlined are evaluative and instructional procedures used by itinerant teachers of blind children in public schools to teach readiness for braille reading and writing, as well as braille reading and writing, signature writing, and the Nemeth Code of braille mathematics and scientific notation. Readiness for braille reading and writing is…

  5. Discrepant screening mammography assessments at blinded and non-blinded double reading: impact of arbitration by a third reader on screening outcome. (United States)

    Klompenhouwer, Elisabeth G; Voogd, Adri C; den Heeten, Gerard J; Strobbe, Luc J A; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C; Broeders, Mireille J M; Duijm, Lucien E M


    To determine the value of adding a third reader for arbitration of discrepant screening mammography assessments. We included a consecutive series of 84,927 digital screening mammograms, double read in a blinded or non-blinded fashion. Arbitration was retrospectively performed by a third screening radiologist. Two years' follow-up was performed. Discrepant readings comprised 57.2% (830/1452) and 29.1% (346/1188) of recalls at blinded and non-blinded double readings, respectively. At blinded double reading, arbitration would have decreased recall rate (3.4 to 2.2%, p arbitration would have decreased recall rate (2.8 to 2.3%, p Arbitration of discrepant screening mammography assessments is a good tool to improve recall rate and PPV, but is not desirable as it reduces the programme sensitivity at blinded double reading. • Blinded double reading results in higher programme sensitivity than non-blinded reading. • Discrepant readings occur more often at blinded compared to non-blinded reading. • Arbitration of discrepant readings reduces the recall rate and PPV. • Arbitration would reduce the programme sensitivity at blinded double reading.

  6. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G


    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards

  7. The nature of working memory for Braille.

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    Henri Cohen

    Full Text Available Blind individuals have been shown on multiple occasions to compensate for their loss of sight by developing exceptional abilities in their remaining senses. While most research has been focused on perceptual abilities per se in the auditory and tactile modalities, recent work has also investigated higher-order processes involving memory and language functions. Here we examined tactile working memory for Braille in two groups of visually challenged individuals (completely blind subjects, CBS; blind with residual vision, BRV. In a first experimental procedure both groups were given a Braille tactile memory span task with and without articulatory suppression, while the BRV and a sighted group performed a visual version of the task. It was shown that the Braille tactile working memory (BrWM of CBS individuals under articulatory suppression is as efficient as that of sighted individuals' visual working memory in the same condition. Moreover, the results suggest that BrWM may be more robust in the CBS than in the BRV subjects, thus pointing to the potential role of visual experience in shaping tactile working memory. A second experiment designed to assess the nature (spatial vs. verbal of this working memory was then carried out with two new CBS and BRV groups having to perform the Braille task concurrently with a mental arithmetic task or a mental displacement of blocks task. We show that the disruption of memory was greatest when concurrently carrying out the mental displacement of blocks, indicating that the Braille tactile subsystem of working memory is likely spatial in nature in CBS. The results also point to the multimodal nature of working memory and show how experience can shape the development of its subcomponents.

  8. The nature of working memory for Braille. (United States)

    Cohen, Henri; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco; Scherzer, Peter


    Blind individuals have been shown on multiple occasions to compensate for their loss of sight by developing exceptional abilities in their remaining senses. While most research has been focused on perceptual abilities per se in the auditory and tactile modalities, recent work has also investigated higher-order processes involving memory and language functions. Here we examined tactile working memory for Braille in two groups of visually challenged individuals (completely blind subjects, CBS; blind with residual vision, BRV). In a first experimental procedure both groups were given a Braille tactile memory span task with and without articulatory suppression, while the BRV and a sighted group performed a visual version of the task. It was shown that the Braille tactile working memory (BrWM) of CBS individuals under articulatory suppression is as efficient as that of sighted individuals' visual working memory in the same condition. Moreover, the results suggest that BrWM may be more robust in the CBS than in the BRV subjects, thus pointing to the potential role of visual experience in shaping tactile working memory. A second experiment designed to assess the nature (spatial vs. verbal) of this working memory was then carried out with two new CBS and BRV groups having to perform the Braille task concurrently with a mental arithmetic task or a mental displacement of blocks task. We show that the disruption of memory was greatest when concurrently carrying out the mental displacement of blocks, indicating that the Braille tactile subsystem of working memory is likely spatial in nature in CBS. The results also point to the multimodal nature of working memory and show how experience can shape the development of its subcomponents.

  9. Thermal Analysis of Braille Formed by Using Screen Printing and Inks with Thermo Powder


    Svіtlana HAVENKO; Victoria KOCHUBEI; Marta LABETSKA; Svitlana KHADZHYNOVA; Edmundas KIBIRKŠTIS; Ingrida Venytė


    In order to improve the integration of blind people into society, suitable conditions should be provided for them. The expansion of Braille (BR) use could serve the purpose. Depending on the materials used for Braille, it can be formed or printed in different ways: embossing, screen printing, thermoforming, digital printing. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of thermal properties of screen printing inks and inks with thermo-powder on the qualitative parameters of Braille. Sc...

  10. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acerbi, A; Graffigna, J P; Polimeni, G; Fernandez, H H


    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system

  11. Design of a Braille Learning Application for Visually Impaired Students in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nahar, Lutfun; Jaafar, Azizah; Ahamed, Eistiak; Kaish, A B M A


    Visually impaired students (VIS) are unable to get visual information, which has made their learning process complicated. This paper discusses the overall situation of VIS in Bangladesh and identifies major challenges that they are facing in getting education. The Braille system is followed to educate blind students in Bangladesh. However, lack of Braille based educational resources and technological solutions have made the learning process lengthy and complicated for VIS. As a developing country, Bangladesh cannot afford for the costly Braille related technological tools for VIS. Therefore, a mobile phone based Braille application, "mBRAILLE", for Android platform is designed to provide an easy Braille learning technology for VIS in Bangladesh. The proposed design is evaluated by experts in assistive technology for students with disabilities, and advanced learners of Braille. The application aims to provide a Bangla and English Braille learning platform for VIS. In this paper, we depict iterative (participatory) design of the application along with a preliminary evaluation with 5 blind subjects, and 1 sighted and 2 blind experts. The results show that the design scored an overall satisfaction level of 4.53 out of 5 by all respondents, indicating that our design is ready for the next step of development.

  12. Designing and delivering Braille instruction for literacy


    Hrastovšek, Janja


    This thesis presents the areas that need to be developed in order to prepare blind children to read and write in Braille. It shows basic skills that a child with blindness should acquire through a structured, methodical-didactic based approach as well as through an informal learning – an acquisition of concepts about the world around him and gaining knowledge on concepts that are associated with learning to read and to write. We`ve described the importance of early experiences in promotin...

  13. Can Braille be revived? A possible impact of high-end Braille and mainstream technology on the revival of tactile literacy medium. (United States)

    Wiazowski, Jaroslaw


    With a decline in use of Braille, very few attractive technological options can be offered to young learners. Various research data confirm that teachers of the visually impaired do not have sufficient skills to introduce their students to modern devices. The Mountbatten Brailler can be considered as a tool that combines Braille technology with mainstream tools commonly used by students and teachers. This combination of devices opens new possibilities for the teachers and their students to reverse the trend in the use of Braille. Thanks to features offered by the Brailler and iOS devices, sighted and blind users receive a tool for unimpaired written communication.

  14. Helping To Integrate The Visually Challenged Into Mainstream Society Through A Low-Cost Braille Device

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    Desirée Jordan


    Full Text Available The visually challenged are often alienated from mainstream society because of their disabilities. This problem is even more pronounced in developing countries which often do not have the resources necessary to integrate this people group into their communities or even help them to become independent. It should therefore be the aim of governments in developing countries to provide this vulnerable people group with access to assistive technologies at a low cost. This paper describes an ongoing project that aims to provide low-cost assistive technologies to the visually challenged in Barbados. As a part of this project a study was conducted on a sample of visually challenged members of the Barbados Association for the Blind and Deaf to determine their ICT skills, knowledge of Braille and their use of assistive technologies. An analysis of the results prompted the design and creation of a low-cost Braille device prototype. The cost of this prototype was about one-half that of a commercially available device and can be used without a screen reader. This device should help create equal opportunities for the visually challenged in Barbados and other developing countries. It should also allow the visually challenged to become more independent.

  15. Braille in the United States: Its Production, Distribution, and Use. (United States)

    Goldish, Louis Harvey

    The braille production system in the United States is described. Aspects treated are the following: the need for braille (the braille system), the market for braille (size and characteristics), sources of braille (producers and braille book source information), and present methods and costs of producing braille. Technological advances are…

  16. Ninth National Conference Proceedings, National Braille Association, Inc. (Saddle Brook, New Jersey, May 4-7, 1967). (United States)

    National Braille Association, Inc., Midland Park, NJ.

    The proceedings include workshop reports on the Nemeth Code for beginners, elementary mathematics, advanced mathematics, teachers of Nemeth, foreign language, braille music, Library of Congress, parents of blind students, 20 questions in braille translating, textbook format, proofreading one's own work, recording, thermoform, proofreading,…

  17. Nem toda pessoa cega lê em Braille nem toda pessoa surda se comunica em língua de sinais Not every blind person reads Braille and not every deaf person knows sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Fátima Torres


    Full Text Available O trabalho foi definido tendo como objetivo discutir e explicitar algumas das diferenças existentes, quanto ao acesso à informação e à comunicação, entre aquelas pessoas que, embora possuam deficiências semelhantes, vivenciam discapacidades diferentes. O recorte metodológico aplicado foca especificamente as pessoas com deficiência visual e as com deficiência auditiva, não simultâneas, com ênfase às pessoas com surdez e às com cegueira. O arcabouço conceitual utilizado é o mesmo que o adotado pela classificação CIF-OMS, sendo o referencial teórico complementado com os aportes de outros autores que desenvolvem estudos relacionados com o tema da discapacidade. Além das pesquisas bibliográficas, integram a metodologia dados coletados em pesquisas de campo, conduzidas em trabalhos anteriores, e os resultantes de observações de pessoas adultas em situações que demandam por acessibilidade à informação e à comunicação. Os resultados encontrados evidenciam a diversidade existente entre as pessoas com um mesmo tipo de deficiência sensorial e assinalam alguns dos equívocos e prejuízos que podem ocorrer quando essa diversidade não é considerada. Ao longo do texto, fica constatado que as diferenças encontradas entre as pessoas com um mesmo tipo de deficiência sensorial são definidas tanto em função de suas preferências individuais, bem como das limitações e capacidades que são peculiares a cada um desses indivíduos.The objective of this work is to discuss and explain some differences that exist regarding the access to information and to communication among those people who, despite having similar handicaps, experience different inabilities. The methodological approach used here focuses specifically on people with non-simultaneous visual or hearing impairments, with an emphasis on blind or deaf people. The conceptual framework used is the same one adopted by the ICF-WHO classification, and the theoretical

  18. Manual braille writer (United States)

    Hawk, L.S.; Turner, J.H.


    A manual-type braille writer is described that provides for both writing and reading in a normal left-to-right manner. In the preferred form, this braille writer has a clip board type base, and in the preferred embodiment a guide plate assembly can be moved to, and releasable fixed at, selected vertical locations along this base. The guide plate assembly is provided with a plurality of character cells uniformly spaced along rows across the guide plate assembly as well as in uniformly spaced rows. This guide plate assembly has a lower portion to be placed under a sheet of paper positioned on the clip board base and an upper portion to be positioned on top of the sheet. This upper portion is hinged with respect to the lower portion. Each character cell is typically made up of six appropriately spaced pins extending up from the lower portion that are aligned with a rosette-shaped cutout in the upper portion. A stylus member is provided that has a distal end to be fitted into the cutout of the character cell so that a recess in the end thereof presses the writing paper over the pin associated with that recess to produce a braille dot at that location. When desired, the upper portion can be lifted up so that the text already written can be read or to determine the place for initiating writing when writing has been interrupted. 10 figs.

  19. Analysis of the Length of Braille Texts in English Braille American Edition, the Nemeth Code, and Computer Braille Code versus the Unified English Braille Code (United States)

    Knowlton, Marie; Wetzel, Robin


    This study compared the length of text in English Braille American Edition, the Nemeth code, and the computer braille code with the Unified English Braille Code (UEBC)--also known as Unified English Braille (UEB). The findings indicate that differences in the length of text are dependent on the type of material that is transcribed and the grade…

  20. Arbitration of discrepant BI-RADS 0 recalls by a third reader at screening mammography lowers recall rate but not the cancer detection rate and sensitivity at blinded and non-blinded double reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klompenhouwer, E. G.; Weber, R. J. P.; Voogd, A. C.; den Heeten, G. J.; Strobbe, L. J. A.; Broeders, M. J. M.; Tjan-Heijnen, V. C. G.; Duijm, L. E. M.


    To evaluate the characteristics of low suspicion lesions (BI-RADS 0) at blinded and non-blinded double reading of screening mammograms and to determine the potential effect of arbitration of discrepant BI-RADS 0 recalls by a third reader on screening outcome. We included a series of 84,927

  1. Emotional Communication in Finger Braille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Matsuda


    Full Text Available We describe analyses of the features of emotions (neutral, joy, sadness, and anger expressed by Finger Braille interpreters and subsequently examine the effectiveness of emotional expression and emotional communication between people unskilled in Finger Braille. The goal is to develop a Finger Braille system to teach emotional expression and a system to recognize emotion. The results indicate the following features of emotional expression by interpreters. The durations of the code of joy were significantly shorter than the durations of the other emotions, the durations of the code of sadness were significantly longer, and the finger loads of anger were significantly larger. The features of emotional expression by unskilled subjects were very similar to those of the interpreters, and the coincidence ratio of emotional communication was 75.1%. Therefore, it was confirmed that people unskilled in Finger Braille can express and communicate emotions using this communication medium.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellyza Ulya


    Full Text Available Berdasarkan studi pendahuluan pada 10 siswa tunanetra di Kota Semarang tahun ajaran 2012/2013 didapatkan 60% siswa memiliki pengetahuan gizi yang kurang baik. Selain itu pada dua sekolah dasar luar biasa di Kota Semarang, yaitu SDLB Negeri Semarang dan SDLB A Dria Adi belum tersedia media booklet gizi dengan huruf Braille. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk efektivitas media booklet dengan huruf braille dalam meningkatkan pengetahuan gizi pada anak tunanetra di Kota Semarang. Jenis penelitian ini adalah pra eksperimen dengan pendekatan One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara non random (non probability sampling dengan teknik purposive sampling. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa tunanetra di SDLB A Dria Adi dan SDLB Negeri Semarang. Sampel dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 15 siswa tunanetra. Hasil uji t test berpasangan diperoleh hasil signifikansi 0,000 berarti terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna antara selisih nilai pretest dan posttest. Maka didapatkan hasil bahwa media booklet dengan huruf braille efektif dalam meningkatkan pengetahuan gizi anak tunanetra di Kota Semarang. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa media booklet dengan huruf braille efektif dalam meningkatkan pengetahuan gizi pada anak tunanetra di Kota Semarang. Saran dari peneliti kepada pihak sekolah yaitu media booklet braille dapat dijadikan pertimbangan dasar dalam pembuatan media penyuluhan gizi. Based on the pre study on 10 blind students in Semarang found 60% of students have a poor nutritional knowledge. SLB N Semarang and SLB A Dria Adi does not have nutrient media booklet in Braille. This study aims to effectiveness media booklet Braille in improving nutrition knowledge of blind children at Semarang City.The study was pre experiment with approaches One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. Sampling was done by non-random (non-probability sampling with purposive sampling technique. The population in this study are all blind

  3. A Theoretical Rationale for Using the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach to Braille Literacy Education with Students Who Have Mild to Moderate Cognitive Disabilities (United States)

    Wormsley, Diane P.


    This article describes the components of the Individualized Meaning-centered Approach to Braille Literacy Education (I-M-ABLE) for teaching braille reading and writing to students who are blind and have additional cognitive impairments. The components of I-M-ABLE are: (1) selecting and teaching the Key Vocabulary; (2) teaching the efficient use of…

  4. A Cognitive Approach to Brailling Errors (United States)

    Wells-Jensen, Sheri; Schwartz, Aaron; Gosche, Bradley


    This article analyzes a corpus of 1,600 brailling errors made by one expert braillist. It presents a testable model of braille writing and shows that the subject braillist stores standard braille contractions as part of the orthographic representation of words, rather than imposing contractions on a serially ordered string of letters. (Contains 1…

  5. Sharpen Your Skills: Mathematics and Science Braille. (United States)

    Cohn, Doris; Eulert, Von E.


    Three short articles about mathematics and science braille are provided for braille transcribers and teachers of the visually handicapped. The first article discusses the differences between the rules for English textbook format and the Nemeth Braille Code (for mathematics, science, and notation) format in transcribing the mathematical section of…

  6. Arbitration of discrepant BI-RADS 0 recalls by a third reader at screening mammography lowers recall rate but not the cancer detection rate and sensitivity at blinded and non-blinded double reading. (United States)

    Klompenhouwer, E G; Weber, R J P; Voogd, A C; den Heeten, G J; Strobbe, L J A; Broeders, M J M; Tjan-Heijnen, V C G; Duijm, L E M


    To evaluate the characteristics of low suspicion lesions (BI-RADS 0) at blinded and non-blinded double reading of screening mammograms and to determine the potential effect of arbitration of discrepant BI-RADS 0 recalls by a third reader on screening outcome. We included a series of 84,927 consecutive digital screening mammograms, double read in a blinded (43,184 screens) or non-blinded (41,743 screens) fashion, between July 2009 and July 2011. Discrepant readings were routinely recalled for further evaluation. During 2 years of follow-up, radiology, surgical and pathology reports were collected of all recalled women. Arbitration of discrepant BI-RADS 0 recalls (only one radiologist assigning a BI-RADS 0 score) was retrospectively performed by a third screening radiologist. At blinded and non-blinded double reading, 32.0% and 32.5% of recalls were assigned BI-RADS 0 with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 7.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Compared to non-blinded double reading, BI-RADS 0 recalls at blinded double reading showed a higher discrepancy rate (9.0 versus 4.3 per 1000 screens, p Arbitration of discrepant BI-RADS 0 recalls would have significantly lowered recall rate (from 3.4% to 2.8% at blinded double reading, p Arbitration would have significantly increased the PPV at blinded double reading (from 22.3% to 26.3%, p = 0.015). We advise arbitration of discrepant BI-RADS 0 recalls, at (non-)blinded double reading of screening mammograms, to reduce recall rates and improve the PPV of recall at blinded double reading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Meios de acesso à literatura para pessoas com cegueira: Braille ou Áudio-livro?


    Santos, Vivian; Pereira, Amanda Cristina dos Santos; Zorel, Paulo Eduardo; Costa, Ailton Barcelos da; Almeida, Maria Amelia; Duarte, Marcia


    Access to literature for blind people has been going primarily through the braille system. Due to the advancement and popularization of technology, there has been an increased demand for literature in audio in our country. Thus, the study emerged from questioning of how access to literature for blind people has been occurring, and to analyze the implications of using these means of access for blind people. The data collection instrument consisted of a semi structured interview script, which w...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati Istanti


    Full Text Available Objectives to be achieved in this study were (1 Finding the problems and needs of blind students, planning, and prototype book enriching appreciation of literature in Braille that can be developed in school inclusion. (2 Develop prototype (draft enrichment of literary appreciation books in Braille for blind students in school inclusion. (3 Test the effectiveness of the application of the enrichment of literary appreciation books of the validator in Braille for blind students in school inclusion. The method in this study research design development. The subjects were blind students who will use the product of the enrichment books and Indonesian language and literature teacher who will conduct an assessment of the indicators of achievement of the basic competencies of students with visual impairment. Plan activities that have been carried out in this research is the development of book design enrichment phases: (1 a preliminary study; (2 the development stage; (3 the testing stage book; (4 dissemination of the results of the final product, namely enrichment of literary appreciation books in Braille. The final product in the form of books enrichment appreciation of literature in Braille can be used by blind students in inclusive classrooms.

  9. Probing the Perceptual and Cognitive Underpinnings of Braille Reading. An Estonian Population Study (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Mannamaa, Mairi; Ghesquiere, Pol


    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have…

  10. Concepts about Print for the Young Blind Child. (United States)

    Language Arts, 1982


    Provides teachers with an understanding of how sighted children develop concepts about print and how blind children develop concepts about braille. Prereading activities designed to extend young children's concepts about print are adapted for blind children. (HTH)

  11. Blindness (United States)

    ... Specific Prevalence Rates for Blindness by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence ... Race/Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Blindness by Race Table for 2010 Prevalence Rates of Blindness by ...

  12. Thermal Analysis of Braille Formed by Using Screen Printing and Inks with Thermo Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svіtlana HAVENKO


    Full Text Available In order to improve the integration of blind people into society, suitable conditions should be provided for them. The expansion of Braille (BR use could serve the purpose. Depending on the materials used for Braille, it can be formed or printed in different ways: embossing, screen printing, thermoforming, digital printing. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of thermal properties of screen printing inks and inks with thermo-powder on the qualitative parameters of Braille. Screen printing inks and inks with thermo-powder were chosen for the research. Carrying out the qualitative analysis of printouts with Braille, the thermal stability was evaluated by analyzing the thermograms obtained with derivatograph Q-1500. This paper presents the findings of the thermogravimetric (TG, differential thermogravimetric (DTG and differential thermal analysis (DTA of printouts printed on paperboard Plike and using traditional screen printing inks and screen printing inks with thermo-powder. Based on the testing findings it is determined that thermal stability of printouts printed with thermo-powder ink is higher than printed with screen printing inks. It is determined that the appropriate temperature range of screen printing inks with thermo-powder drying is 98 ºC – 198 ºC because in this case better relief of Braille dots is obtained.DOI:

  13. A New Dynamic Tactile Display for Reconfigurable Braille: Implementation and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eMotto Ros


    Full Text Available Different tactile interfaces have been proposed to represent either text (braille or, in a few cases, tactile large-area screens as replacements for visual displays. None of the implementations so far can be customized to match users preferences, perceptual differences and skills. Optimal choices in these respects are still debated; we approach a solution by designing a flexible device allowing the user to choose key parameters of tactile transduction.We present here a new dynamic tactile display, a 8×8 matrix of plastic pins based on well-established and reliable piezoelectric technology to offer high resolution (pin gap 0.7 mm as well as tunable strength of the pins displacement, and refresh rate up to 50 s-1. It can reproduce arbitrary patterns, allowing it to serve the dual purpose of providing, depending on contingent user needs, tactile rendering of non-character information, and reconfigurable braille rendering. Given the relevance of the latter functionality for the expected average user, we considered testing braille encoding by volunteers a benchmark of primary importance. Tests were performed to assess the acceptance and usability with minimal training, and to check whether the offered flexibility was indeed perceived by the subject as an added value compared to conventional braille devices. Different mappings between braille dots and actual tactile pins were implemented to match user needs.Performances of eight experienced braille readers were defined as the fraction of correct identifications of rendered content. Different information contents were tested (median performance on random strings, words, sentences identification was about 75%, 85%, 98%, respectively, with a significant increase, p< 0.01, obtaining statistically significant improvements in performance during the tests (p< 0.05. Experimental results, together with qualitative ratings provided by the subjects, show a good acceptance and the effectiveness of the proposed

  14. Learning to Write in Braille: An Analysis of Writing Samples from Participants in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted (ABC) Braille Study (United States)

    Erin, Jane N.; Wright, Tessa S.


    This article reports the results of data from 114 writing samples of 39 children who read braille and who were included in the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille (ABC) Study between 2002 and 2005. Writing characteristics, miscues, and composition characteristics are analyzed, and two case studies are included. (Contains 1 box and 2 tables.)

  15. A Case for Increased Training in the Nemeth Code of Braille Mathematics for Teachers of Students Who Are Visually Impaired. (United States)

    Kapperman, Gaylen; Sticken, Jodi


    This article discusses the lack of preparation teachers of students with visual impairments have in the Nemeth Code (the Braille code for mathematics). It then describes a Windows-based tutorial for sighted persons to learn the Nemeth Code, a tutorial for teachers with blindness, and how to access the tutorials. (Contains 10 references.) (CR)

  16. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired (United States)

    ... Losing Your Sight? Using Technology For Parents of Blind Children For Job Seekers For Seniors Braille Video Description Programs & Services Technology Evaluation Center on Vision Loss Learning Center Professional Development Public Policy Center Our Family of Websites Publications ...

  17. Computer-Translation: Grade 2 Braille from Print. Final Report. (United States)

    Schack, Ann; And Others

    Two studies of computer production of mathematical texts and musical scores in Braille analyzed production practices and input preparation problems; the studies also reviewed the Nemeth Code of Braille Mathematics and Scientific Notation and the Revised International Manual of Braille Music. Both studies demonstrated automation to be feasible.…




  19. Blindness (United States)

    ... doctors may do surgery to remove it. Is Learning Different? A baby who is blind can still ... do amazing things in many different fields, including music, the arts, and even sports. Serious vision problems ...

  20. Magnetic Tactile Sensor for Braille Reading

    KAUST Repository

    Alfadhel, Ahmed


    We report a biomimetic magnetic tactile sensor for Braille characters reading. The sensor consists of magnetic nanocomposite artificial cilia implemented on magnetic micro sensors. The nanocomposite is produced from the highly elastic polydimethylsiloxane and iron nanowires that exhibit a permanent magnetic behavior. This design enables remote operation and does not require an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires. The highly elastic nanocomposite is easy to pattern, corrosion resistant and thermally stable. The tactile sensors can detect vertical and shear forces, which allows recognizing small changes in surface texture, as in the case of Braille dots. The 6 dots of a braille cell are read from top to bottom with a tactile sensor array consisting of 4 elements and 1 mm long nanocomposite cilia.

  1. A Case Study of Tack Tiles[R] Literacy Instruction for a Student with Multiple Disabilities Including Congenital Blindness (United States)

    Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.


    Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…

  2. Braille Reading Accuracy of Students Who Are Visually Impaired: The Effects of Gender, Age at Vision Loss, and Level of Education (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Vassilis; Papadimitriou, Vassilios


    Introduction: The present study assesses the performance of students who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) in braille reading accuracy and examines potential correlations among the error categories on the basis of gender, age at loss of vision, and level of education. Methods: Twenty-one visually impaired…

  3. Teaching Early Braille Literacy Skills within a Stimulus Equivalence Paradigm to Children with Degenerative Visual Impairments (United States)

    Toussaint, Karen A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.


    Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved…

  4. Online Instruction in Braille Code Skills for Preservice Teachers. (United States)

    Koenig, Alan J.; Robinson, Margaret C.


    An evaluation of a Web-based course in Braille code skills for 20 preservice teachers of students with visual impairments found that the online course offered a high-quality, rigorous approach to delivering instruction in Braille code skills when students had appropriate technology skills and equipment and were independent, persistent learners.…

  5. How Useful Is Braille Music?: A Critical Review (United States)

    Park, Hyu-Yong


    This article discusses the usefulness of Braille music as a mediational means for musicians with visual impairment (MVI). Specifically, three broad issues are the focus of this study: (1) three notions as the conceptual frameworks, namely, mediation, appropriation and mastery; (2) three criteria of the usefulness of Braille music, including…

  6. Using a Group Approach to Motivate Adults to Learn Braille (United States)

    Farrow, Kendra R.


    Teaching braille is one of the most time-consuming tasks for a vision rehabilitation therapist. Complicating this process, adults who might be considered to be good candidates for learning braille are often resistant to the idea (Ponchillia & Ponchillia, 1996). In an attempt to address these challenges, a combination of correspondence braille…

  7. Consideration of Hand in the Reading of Braille. (United States)

    Kozel, Robert J.


    This literature review examines the research on the use of right and left hands in the reading of braille. Results suggest that right-handed people may read braille more accurately with the left hand. Studies have also found differences between girls and boys and changes over the developmental period. (DB)

  8. Polyester non-woven fabric finger cover as a TRUCT Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners. (United States)

    Doi, Kouki; Fujimoto, Hiroshi


    Transparent resinous ultraviolet-curing type (TRUCT) Braille signs are becoming more and more popular in Japan, especially when they are printed together with visual characters. These signs are made by screen printing, a technique that can be applied to various base materials, such as paper, metal, and plastic. TRUCT Braille signs have begun to be used in public facilities, such as on tactile maps and on handrails. Naturally, it is expected that Braille beginners will utilize these signs. However, it has been pointed out that the friction between the forefinger and the base material may affect reading accuracy and speed. In this study, we developed a finger cover made of soft, thin polyester non-woven fabric to reduce friction during Braille reading. We also carried out a study to investigate the effect of its use. The subjects were 12 Braille learners with acquired visual impairment, who were asked to read randomly selected characters with and without the finger cover. The results showed that most participants could read TRUCT Braille significantly faster and more accurately with a finger cover than without it, regardless of the base material and dot height. This result suggests that wearing the finger cover enables Braille learners to read TRUCT Braille more efficiently. The finger cover can be used as a Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners. An additional, health-related advantage of the finger cover is that the forefinger remains clean. We expect that the finger cover will be in practical use in Japan within 1 or 2 years.

  9. The Vocabulary of the Young Blind Schoolchild. (United States)

    Tobin, Michael


    The vocabularies of five- to eight-year-old blind children were sampled to help develop a graded series of braille reading books. Lists of words in alphabetic and frequency order are presented. (See TM 504 595 for availability). (Author/CTM)

  10. Reader's Companion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 4. Reader's Companion. Ganesh Subramanian. Book Review Volume 15 Issue 4 April 2010 pp 366-383. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  11. An Outreach Program at the Braille Institute Library. (United States)

    Amaya, R. D.


    A description of the Braille Institute Library's outreach programs (serving the Hispanic community in 10 southern California counties) includes information on program objectives, background data, materials and guidelines, project implementation, services, and actual contact with the community. (CB)

  12. Understanding and Improving Blind Students' Access to Visual Information in Computer Science Education (United States)

    Baker, Catherine M.

    Teaching people with disabilities tech skills empowers them to create solutions to problems they encounter and prepares them for careers. However, computer science is typically taught in a highly visual manner which can present barriers for people who are blind. The goal of this dissertation is to understand and decrease those barriers. The first projects I present looked at the barriers that blind students face. I first present the results of my survey and interviews with blind students with degrees in computer science or related fields. This work highlighted the many barriers that these blind students faced. I then followed-up on one of the barriers mentioned, access to technology, by doing a preliminary accessibility evaluation of six popular integrated development environments (IDEs) and code editors. I found that half were unusable and all had some inaccessible portions. As access to visual information is a barrier in computer science education, I present three projects I have done to decrease this barrier. The first project is Tactile Graphics with a Voice (TGV). This project investigated an alternative to Braille labels for those who do not know Braille and showed that TGV was a potential alternative. The next project was StructJumper, which created a modified abstract syntax tree that blind programmers could use to navigate through code with their screen reader. The evaluation showed that users could navigate more quickly and easily determine the relationships of lines of code when they were using StructJumper compared to when they were not. Finally, I present a tool for dynamic graphs (the type with nodes and edges) which had two different modes for handling focus changes when moving between graphs. I found that the modes support different approaches for exploring the graphs and therefore preferences are mixed based on the user's preferred approach. However, both modes had similar accuracy in completing the tasks. These projects are a first step towards

  13. Swimming: An Introduction to Swimming, Diving, and SCUBA Diving for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals. Leisure Pursuit Series. (United States)

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    The annotated guide lists information sources available from the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped in print, disc, cassette, and braille formats concerning swimming and diving with special reference to blind swimmers. The guide begins with a brief sketch of a champion swimmer who is also legally blind and an…

  14. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  15. Instruction in Specialized Braille Codes, Abacus, and Tactile Graphics at Universities in the United States and Canada (United States)

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Smith, Derrick


    Introduction: This study gathered data on methods and materials that are used to teach the Nemeth braille code, computer braille, foreign-language braille, and music braille in 26 university programs in the United States and Canada that prepare teachers of students with visual impairments. Information about instruction in the abacus and the…

  16. Reader survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big

  17. Creating opportunities in astronomy: Communication for people who are blind or visually impaired (United States)

    Grice, N.


    Astronomy is such a visually rich field that you may wonder if access is possible for a person who is blind or visually impaired. The good news is that with creative strategies and available resources, students who are blind need not be excluded. Braille text, tactile illustrations, handson models, and descriptive narration can remove many barriers.

  18. Homemade Wooden Vernier Scales for Use by Blind Students (United States)

    Tomac, Mike; Bidleman, Cricket; Brown, Dan


    Because she had been blind since birth, we knew that our new student, Cricket, would be unable to make the necessary measurements needed to get any meaningful lab data while all of the other students would be able to use highly accurate commercial Vernier calipers. All we had on loan for Cricket was a Brailled plastic tactile meter stick with low…

  19. Chemical Reactions: What Understanding Do Students with Blindness Develop? (United States)

    Lewis, Amy L. Micklos; Bodner, George M.


    This study examined the understanding of chemical equations developed by three students with blindness who were enrolled in the same secondary-school chemistry class. The students were interviewed while interpreting and balancing chemical equations. During the course of these interviews, the students produced diagrams using Braille symbols that…

  20. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition (United States)

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah


    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  1. Could Specific Braille Reading Difficulties Result from Developmental Dyslexia? (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Ghesquiere, Pol


    A proportion of children with visual impairments have specific reading difficulties that cannot be easily explained. This article reviews the data on problems with braille reading and interprets them from the framework of the temporal-processing deficit theory of developmental dyslexia.

  2. Improvement in quality testing of Braille printer output with Euclidean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on quality testing of Braille printed paper using calibrated camera by detecting dots and measuring the Euclidean distances between them with equal gap, vertically and horizontally. For higher accuracy, camera calibration is essential to observe a planar checker board pattern from different distances and ...

  3. A Direct TeX-to-Braille Transcribing Method (United States)

    Papasalouros, Andreas; Tsolomitis, Antonis


    The TeX/LaTeX typesetting system is the most wide-spread system for creating documents in Mathematics and Science. However, no reliable tool exists to this day for automatically transcribing documents from the above formats into Braille/Nemeth code. Thus, visually impaired students of related fields do not have access to the bulk of study material…

  4. Effects of the Proximity of Paraeducators on the Interactions of Braille Readers in Inclusive Settings (United States)

    Harris, Beth A.


    This article reports on a multiple-case study that found a relationship between the proximity of paraeducators and the interactions of students with visual impairments with teachers and sighted students in general education classrooms. More interactions were found with teachers and peers in the classrooms when paraeducators were physically distant…

  5. What Can Readers Read after Graded Readers? (United States)

    McQuillan, Jeff


    Nation (2014) concluded that most of the vocabulary one needs to read challenging texts in English can be acquired incidentally through voluminous reading. This study examines possible texts that second language (L2) readers can use to move from controlled-vocabulary materials such as graded readers, which go up through approximately the…

  6. An Artificial Intelligence Tutor: A Supplementary Tool for Teaching and Practicing Braille (United States)

    McCarthy, Tessa; Rosenblum, L. Penny; Johnson, Benny G.; Dittel, Jeffrey; Kearns, Devin M.


    Introduction: This study evaluated the usability and effectiveness of an artificial intelligence Braille Tutor designed to supplement the instruction of students with visual impairments as they learned to write braille contractions. Methods: A mixed-methods design was used, which incorporated a single-subject, adapted alternating treatments design…

  7. U.S. National Certification in Literary Braille: History and Current Administration (United States)

    Bell, Edward


    This article reports on a certification examination for teachers of students with visual impairments--the National Literary Braille Competency Test (NLBCT). It discusses the history, development, pilot testing, and validation of NLBCT and the creation of the National Certification in Literary Braille. Data on the current administration of the test…



  9. Thermoluminescence dosimeter reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, M.E.A.; Marshall, J.; Brabants, J.A.P.; Davies, M.E.


    An electric circuit arrangement is described including a photomultiplier tube and a high voltage source therefor also includes a feedback loop from the output of the tube to the high voltage source, and loop providing automatic gain stabilization for the tube. The arrangement is used in a dosimeter reader to provide sensitivity correction for the reader each time the reader is to be used

  10. Developmental Stages of Reading Processes in Children Who Are Blind and Sighted (United States)

    Steinman, Bernard A.; LeJeune, B. J.; Kimbrough, B. T.


    This article compares the development of print and braille reading in children who are blind and sighted in relation to Chall's stage model of reading development. Chall's model includes a prereading period, in which concepts are developed; middle stages, in which skills that are necessary for decoding text are developed; and later stages, which…

  11. Usability and Accessibility of eBay by Screen Reader (United States)

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Akhter, Fahim

    The evolution of Information and Communication Technology and the rapid growth of the Internet have fuelled a great diffusion of eCommerce websites. Usually these sites have complex layouts crowded with active elements, and thus are difficult to navigate via screen reader. Interactive environments should be properly designed and delivered to everyone, including the blind, who usually use screen readers to interact with their computers. In this paper we investigate the interaction of blind users with eBay, a popular eCommerce website, and discuss how using the W3C Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite could improve the user experience when navigating via screen reader.

  12. Muscle: The Tactile Texture Designed for the Blind


    Chantana Insra


    The research objective focuses on creating a prototype media of the tactile texture of muscles for educational institutes to help visually impaired students learn massage extra learning materials further than the ordinary curriculum. This media is designed as an extra learning material. The population in this study was 30 blinded students between 4th - 6th grades who were able to read Braille language. The research was conducted during the second semester in 2012 at The B...

  13. Learning from Graded Readers. (United States)

    Wodinsky, Marilyn; Nation, Paul


    A word frequency study of two graded readers and an unsimplified text indicated that graded readers facilitated better foreign-language reading and vocabulary learning than did unsimplified texts. It was found that students needed to read several same-level texts to master vocabulary, and that vocabulary mastery was not necessary for successful…

  14. Texts and Readers. (United States)

    Iser, Wolfgang


    Notes that, since fictional discourse need not reflect prevailing systems of meaning and norms or values, readers gain detachment from their own presuppositions; by constituting and formulating text-sense, readers are constituting and formulating their own cognition and becoming aware of the operations for doing so. (FL)

  15. 'They Shall See His Face': Blindness in British India, 1850-1950. (United States)

    Nair, Aparna


    This paper explores the social, medical, institutional and enumerative histories of blindness in British India from 1850 to 1950. It begins by tracing the contours and causes of blindness using census records, and then outlines how colonial physicians and observers ascribed both infectious aetiologies and social pathologies to blindness. Blindness was often interpreted as the inevitable consequence of South Asian ignorance, superstition and backwardness. This paper also explores the social worlds of the Blind, with a particular focus on the figure of the blind beggar. This paper further interrogates missionary discourse on 'Indian' blindness and outlines how blindness was a metaphor for the perceived civilisational inferiority and religious failings of South Asian peoples. This paper also describes the introduction of institutions for the Blind in addition to the introduction of Braille and Moon technologies.

  16. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children. (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca


    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital ("visual") brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4-17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). We find that "visual" cortices of young blind (but not sighted) children respond to sound. Responses to nonlanguage sounds increased between the ages of 4 and 17. By contrast, occipital responses to spoken language were maximal by age 4 and were not related to Braille learning. These findings suggest that occipital plasticity for spoken language is independent of plasticity for Braille and for sound. We conclude that in the absence of visual input, spoken language colonizes the visual system during brain development. Our findings suggest that early in life, human cortex has a remarkably broad computational capacity. The same cortical tissue can take on visual perception and language functions. Studies of plasticity provide key insights into how experience shapes the human brain. The "visual" cortex of adults who are blind from birth responds to touch, sound, and spoken language. To date, all existing studies have been conducted with adults, so little is known about the developmental trajectory of plasticity. We used fMRI to study the emergence of "visual" cortex responses to sound and spoken language in blind children and adolescents. We find that "visual" cortex responses to sound increase between 4 and 17 years of age. By contrast, responses to spoken language are present by 4 years of age and are not related to Braille-learning. These findings suggest that, early in development, human cortex can take on a strikingly wide range of functions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511674-08$15.00/0.

  17. The Bakhtin Reader The Bakhtin Reader


    Helen Reid Thomas


    The publication of Caryl Emerson’s book The First Hundred Years of Mikhail Bakhtin in December 1997 is an indication that interest in Bakhtin continues to flourish, among both Russian and Western scholars. Emerson’s book traces the interesting differences of attitude and emphasis between these two groups of critics and provides a broad-ranging and scholarly history of Bakhtin studies. The book I am concerned with here, The Bakhtin Reader, though of a different nature and designed for a d...

  18. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille and the Nemeth Code for Mathematics and Science Notation to Students Making the Transition from Print to Braille (United States)

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Hooper, Jonathan D.


    Introduction: Many students with adventitious vision loss or progressive vision loss need to transition from print to braille as a primary literacy medium. It is important that this transition is handled efficiently so that the student can have continued access to a literacy medium and make progress in the core curriculum. For this study, we used…

  19. Our Readers Write...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dr. H D Chandrappa Gowda, very senior surgeon of Shimoga has written a book on YSR in Kannada. I have mentioned YSR in my book Hamsa Haaduva ... interesting. They cover a vast range of topics without going into undue details so that a general reader can easily experience the excitement of science. I am thinking of ...

  20. Our Readers Write ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thus studying aged cultures in the laboratory can give several hints about microbial survival in the real world. Our Readers Write ... Suggested Reading. [1] M M Zambrano and R Kol- ter, GASPing for life in sta- tionary phase, Cell, Vol.86, pp.181–184, 1996. [2] S Finkel, Long-term survival during stationary phase: evo-.

  1. Rescuing Reluctant Readers. (United States)

    Crowe, Chris


    Discusses the attitudes and issues of reluctant readers by describing the author's son Jonathan, an intelligent young man who came to hate reading. Offers advice for teachers from Jonathan regarding how they can help students enjoy reading more. Presents annotations of 11 new or overlooked young adult books worth reading. (SR)

  2. Our Readers Write ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This concerns the article 'Ashoke Sen and S-duality'. The article omits an important fact: there is absolutely no experimental evidence for string theory. Without this information, readers may think they are reading about established facts, not speculation. A string theorist, Witten, was awarded a Fields Medal, which shows that ...

  3. Bytes, Books and Readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Krista Stinne Greve


    In diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse aus der Dissertation der Autorin Bytes, Books, and Readers. A Historical Analysis of the Transition from Printed to Digital Scholarly Editions Focusing on ‘The Writings of Søren Kierkegaard’ (2015) vorgestellt. Dabei wird dem Wechselverhältnis zwischen der...




  5. Helping Reluctant Readers (United States)

    McCormick, Montana K.; Segal, Pamela H.


    University educators work with preservice teachers who often feel overwhelmed when facing high school science classrooms full of reluctant readers. These struggling students often have various special-education modifications or are English language learners (ELLs) with different degrees of language proficiency. Teachers report that these students…

  6. Our Readers Write ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our Readers Write ... Resonance is thankful to Prof. Muthu for his valuable comments, which are given below. I take this opportunity to congratulate you for the September 2011 issue of Resonance featuring. Prof. Feynman ... his paper in Nature 118: 874 (1926) and not by Arthur Compton in 1927, as mentioned in the article.

  7. Tactual perception of embossed Morse code and braille: the alliance of vision and touch. (United States)

    Heller, M A


    In three experiments observers made visual matches to tangible embossed patterns. Stained glass was used to blur vision and thus allow the effect of visual guidance of tactual exploration on the accuracy of symbol recognition to be evaluated. Stained glass rendered the embossed code invisible, but allowed sight of the hand. In the first experiment subjects identified patterns made up of dots and dashes drawn from Morse code; in the second and third experiments they studied braille. The results show that subjects are more accurate in 'reading' tangible codes when provided with visual guidance. Performance was higher for braille than for Morse code. Vision aided touch through the provision of a frame of reference and through sight of scanning movements. Naive sighted observers were able to identify invisible braille dots by watching other individuals touch the symbols, suggesting the importance of vision of kinesthetic patterns.

  8. [Educative game on drugs for blind individuals: development and assessment]. (United States)

    Mariano, Monaliza Ribeiro; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag


    Study aimed to develop and assess an educational game on psychoactive drugs accessible to blind individuals, conducted in three steps: development of the educative game, evaluation by three special education experts, and assessment by twelve blind individuals. As a result, a board game called Drugs: staying clean was developed. In the Alpha version, experts made suggestions regarding the game rules and instructions and the board base, including square texture, game pieces, and Braille writing. In Beta version, we proceeded to the assessment by the blind participants, who suggested changes in the square texture and the addition of Velcro-type material to fix the counters on the board. Then, the Gamma version was played by the last pairs of blind players and was considered by them to be adequate. In the evaluation of the experts, the game was appropriate, as it allowed access to information on psychoactive drugs in a ludic and playful manner.

  9. The assessment of writing ability: Expert readers versus lay readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Vergeer, M.; Eiting, M.


    This article reports on three studies about the reading reliability of lay and expert readers in rating three kinds of writing assignments. Readers had to rate the Con tent and Language Usage of students' writing performances. The studies show that expert readers are more reliable in rating Usage,

  10. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia


    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  11. Affordance of Braille Music as a Mediational Means: Significance and Limitations (United States)

    Park, Hyu-Yong; Kim, Mi-Jung


    Affordance refers to the properties or designs of a thing that offer the function of the thing. This paper discusses the affordance of Braille music in terms of three notions: mediational means, mastery and appropriation, and focuses on answering the following three questions: (i) How do musicians with visual impairments (MVI) perceive Braille…

  12. Teachers' Perceptions of Need for and Competency in Transcribing Braille Materials in the Nemeth Code. (United States)

    DeMario, Norma C.; Lian, Ming-Gon John


    A survey asked 205 teachers of students with visual impairments to rate their perceived competency in transcribing math materials into the Nemeth code (the Braille code for math) and their need to do so. Results indicated a significant difference between mean rating on competency and need for 23 of the 55 listed math skills. (Contains references.)…

  13. Phoneme, Grapheme, Onset-Rime and Word Analysis in Braille with Young Children (United States)

    Crawford, Shauna; Elliott, Robert T.; Hoekman, Katherine


    Two groups of sighted pre-school children were taught to name six braille letters: one group received phoneme instruction and the other grapheme instruction. Ten boys and ten girls (average age 4:5 years) participated. There was a statistically significant advantage for the phoneme group (Experiment 1). In a repeated measures design, 16 sighted…

  14. An Investigation of Spelling in the Written Compositions of Students Who Read Braille (United States)

    Clark-Bischke, Christine; Stoner, Julia B.


    This study examined the spelling skills in the written compositions of 20 students who read braille and offers further evidence that the skills of these students are similar to those of sighted students. The assessment of writing samples focused on the number of words spelled correctly and used an error analysis to describe patterns of spelling…

  15. Error Analysis of Brailled Instructional Materials Produced by Public School Personnel in Texas (United States)

    Herzberg, Tina


    In this study, a detailed error analysis was performed to determine if patterns of errors existed in braille transcriptions. The most frequently occurring errors were the insertion of letters or words that were not contained in the original print material; the incorrect usage of the emphasis indicator; and the incorrect formatting of titles,…

  16. Implementation of Unified English Braille by Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments in the United States (United States)

    Hong, Sunggye; Rosenblum, L. Penny; Campbell, Amy Frank


    Introduction: This study analyzed survey responses from 141 teachers of students with visual impairments who shared their experiences about the implementation of Unified English Braille (UEB). Methods: Teachers of students with visual impairments in the United States completed an online survey during spring 2016. Results: Although most respondents…

  17. Evaluating Training and Implementation of the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach to Teaching Braille Literacy (United States)

    Durando, Julie A.; Wormsley, Diane P.


    This study investigated the effectiveness of training workshops in braille literacy for teachers of students who are visually impaired and have additional disabilities. Participants in the training workshops in the Individualized Meaning-Centered Approach indicated general satisfaction with the training. Most reported using the approach with…

  18. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.


    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  19. Chipless RFID reader architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Nemai Chandra; Kalansuriya, Prasanna


    In the era of information communication technology (ICT), radio frequency identification (RFID) has been going through tremendous development. RFID technology has the potential of replacing barcodes due to its large information carrying capacity, flexibility in operations, and applications. The deployment of RFID has been hindered by its cost. However, with the advent of low powered ICs, energy scavenging techniques, and low-cost chipless tags, RFID technology has achieved significant development. This book addresses the new reader architecture, presents fundamentals of chipless RFID systems,


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resa Wahyuni


    Full Text Available Anak tunanetra memiliki resiko yang sama seperti anak normal untuk mengalami masalah gizi karena kurangnya pengetahuan gizi, sehingga diperlukan pendidikan gizi beserta media tepat untuk dapat meningkatkan pengetahuan gizi anak-anak  tunanetra. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat perbedaan signifikan antara pengetahuan gizi buah dan sayur sebelum diberi dan setelah diberi media buku gizi braille pada anak tunanetra di Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Luar Biasa (MILB Budi Asih Semarang. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah pra eksperimen dengan pendekatan one group pretest posttest design. Pengambilan sampel pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan total sampling karena jumlah populasi yang terbatas, yaitu sebanyak 7 sampel. Diperoleh rata-rata skor untuk pre test sebesar 10,57, dan rata-rata skor post test sebesar 16,71. Berdasarkan uji t test berpasangan yang telah dilakukan, diperoleh nilai sig (0,018 < 0,05 hal ini berati terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara skor sebelum diberi media buku gizi braille dan setelah diberi media buku gizi braille. Children with visual impairment have the same risk as eyesight children to have a nutrition problems because the lack of nutrition knowledge, in order to the nutrition education is required with the appropriate media to be able to improve theirs nutrition knowledge. This study aimed to know the significant different about nutrient of fruits and vegetables knowledge before and after given nutrient book in children with visual impairment at Madrasah Ibtidaiyah Luar Biasa (MILB Budi Asih Semarang. The type of this research was pre experiment with one group pretest posttest design approach. Sampling was used total sampling because the population was limited, there were 7 samples. The mean of pre test score was 10,57 dan post score was 16,71. Based on the paired t test, the value of sig (0,018 <0,05 it means there were significant differences between score before given nutrient media braille

  1. RUDO: A Home Ambient Intelligence System for Blind People. (United States)

    Hudec, Milan; Smutny, Zdenek


    The article introduces an ambient intelligence system for blind people which besides providing assistance in home environment also helps with various situations and roles in which blind people may find themselves involved. RUDO, the designed system, comprises several modules that mainly support or ensure recognition of approaching people, alerting to other household members' movement in the flat, work on a computer, supervision of (sighted) children, cooperation of a sighted and a blind person (e.g., when studying), control of heating and zonal regulation by a blind person. It has a unified user interface that gives the blind person access to individual functions. The interface for blind people offers assistance with work on a computer, including writing in Braille on a regular keyboard and specialized work in informatics and electronics (e.g., programming). RUDO can complement the standard aids used by blind people at home, it increases their independence and creates conditions that allow them to become fully involved. RUDO also supports blind people sharing a home with sighted people, which contributes to their feeling of security and greater inclusion in society. RUDO has been implemented in a household for two years, which allows an evaluation of its use in practice.

  2. Change-readiness of the blind: a hospital based study in a coastal town of South India. (United States)

    Shetty, Ramya; Kulkarni, Uma D


    Blindness is a devastating condition with psychosocial and economic effects. The shortcomings result in a burden to the blind person, the family and society. Rehabilitation of the blind can transform their lives. The aim of this study was to assess the "change-readiness" of the blind to undergo a "change-management". The study was a semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire-based study of 50 blind subjects in a medical college hospital. The blind participants were assessed for depression using the Beck Depression Inventory II, for the perceived effect of blindness on family, social life and occupation. The participants were counseled to undergo psychiatric management, vocational training, use blind aids and learn Braille. The willingness of the participants with reasons was assessed using a verbal analogue scale. Pearson Chi-square test, ANOVA and the t-test were used for statistical analysis. Over two-thirds of the subjects were depressed. Family life, social life and occupation were perceived to be affected by 44%, 66% and 74%, respectively. Change-readiness scores were low for low vision and blind aids, vocational training, psychiatric management, change of job and learning Braille. The low score was due to the associated taboo, dependence, lack of skills, embarrassment, etc., The most valuable feature was the family cohesiveness. The results suggest that there is a need to modify health policy to include blind rehabilitation, to improve visibility of blind rehabilitation centers, to include family members and co-professionals while managing the blind so that we treat the "blind person" and not a "pair of blind eyes".

  3. Becoming a Reader: Significant Social Influences on Avid Book Readers (United States)

    Merga, Margaret K.


    Understanding how social influences can foster avid book reader identification is a key research goal that warrants further investigation beyond a limited early-years lens. The author's 2015 International Study of Avid Book Readers (ISABR) explored, as one of its key research questions, the influence positive social agents can have on avid book…

  4. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.


    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Hernandez Suarez


    Full Text Available Con el diseño y fabricación del dispositivo denominado sistema electrónico mecánico para el aprendizaje la lectoescritura del Braille (SEMLEB, junto con la aplicación de una metodología basada en acompañamiento de un tutor, se buscó determinar y analizar los factores que facilitaran el proceso de aprendizaje de la lectoescritura del sistema Braille para niños ciegos en etapa escolar y sus repercusiones en el aprendizaje del castellano para identificar las letras del alfabeto, los fonemas, las sílabas, y algunas palabras y frases de corta longitud.

  6. Large Displacement in Relaxor Ferroelectric Terpolymer Blend Derived Actuators Using Al Electrode for Braille Displays (United States)

    Lu, S. G.; Chen, X.; Levard, T.; Diglio, P. J.; Gorny, L. J.; Rahn, C. D.; Zhang, Q. M.


    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based polymers are attractive for applications for artificial muscles, high energy density storage devices etc. Recently these polymers have been found great potential for being used as actuators for refreshable full-page Braille displays for visually impaired people in terms of light weight, miniaturized size, and larger displacement, compared with currently used lead zirconate titanate ceramic actuators. The applied voltages of published polymer actuators, however, cannot be reduced to meet the requirements of using city power. Here, we report the polymer actuator generating quite large displacement and blocking force at a voltage close to the city power. Our embodiments also show good self-healing performance and disuse of lead-containing material, which makes the Braille device safer, more reliable and more environment-friendly.

  7. Playboy Entertainment for Men Braille Edition June 1996:In collaboration with Rosita McKenzie


    Douglas, Caroline


    'Playboy Entertainment for Men' features a passage of text read aloud from an article in the 1996 Braille edition of Playboy. The work interrogates issues of femininity, gender and prevailing relations of representation. Capturing the 'female' touch reading the 'male' gaze, it prompts dialogue between touch and the spoken word; seeing and projected fantasy; and text and image. The video was the recipient of the 9th International Keller Award.

  8. Blind Astronomers (United States)

    Hockey, Thomas A.


    The phrase "blind astronomer” is used as an allegorical oxymoron. However, there were and are blind astronomers. What of famous blind astronomers? First, it must be stated that these astronomers were not martyrs to their craft. It is a myth that astronomers blind themselves by observing the Sun. As early as France's William of Saint-Cloud (circa 1290) astronomers knew that staring at the Sun was ill-advised and avoided it. Galileo Galilei did not invent the astronomical telescope and then proceed to blind himself with one. Galileo observed the Sun near sunrise and sunset or through projection. More than two decades later he became blind, as many septuagenarians do, unrelated to their profession. Even Isaac Newton temporarily blinded himself, staring at the reflection of the Sun when he was a twentysomething. But permanent Sun-induced blindness? No, it did not happen. For instance, it was a stroke that left Scotland's James Gregory (1638-1675) blind. (You will remember the Gregorian telescope.) However, he died days later. Thus, blindness little interfered with his occupation. English Abbot Richard of Wallingford (circa 1291 - circa 1335) wrote astronomical works and designed astronomical instruments. He was also blind in one eye. Yet as he further suffered from leprosy, his blindness seems the lesser of Richard's maladies. Perhaps the most famous professionally active, blind astronomer (or almost blind astronomer) is Dominique-Francois Arago (1786-1853), director until his death of the powerful nineteenth-century Paris Observatory. I will share other _ some poignant _ examples such as: William Campbell, whose blindness drove him to suicide; Leonhard Euler, astronomy's Beethoven, who did nearly half of his life's work while almost totally blind; and Edwin Frost, who "observed” a total solar eclipse while completely sightless.

  9. Deriving Accessible Science Books for the Blind Students of Physics (United States)

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios; Kacorri, Hernisa


    We present a novel integrated methodology for the development and production of accessible physics and science books from the elementary up to tertiary educational levels. This language independent approach adopts the Design-for-All principles, the available international standards for alternative formats and the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Guidelines. Moreover it supports both static (embossed and refreshable tactile) and dynamic (based on synthetic speech and other sounds) accessibility. It can produce Tactile Books (Embossed Braille and Tactile Graphics), Digital Talking Books (or Digital Audio Books), Large Print Books as well as Acoustic-Tactile Books for the blind and visually impaired students as well as but for the print-disabled. This methodology has been successfully applied in the case of blind students of the Physics, Mathematics and Informatics Departments in the University of Athens.

  10. Measuring with the spiral reader

    CERN Multimedia


    The spiral reader shown here was at the time, together with the Shivamatic scanning system, the basic equipment used for measuring bubble chamber pictures. Anne Anton sits at the table. (See Photo Archive 7408343.)

  11. Readers Theatre: A different approach to English for struggling readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Drew


    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the use of Readers Theatre in English lessons with groups of academically-challenged pupils in a Norwegian lower secondary school. The study is based on the teacher’s logs, interviews with the teacher, a questionnaire answered by the pupils, and lesson observations. Readers Theatre, a group reading activity that can be used with a wide range of texts, was successfully incorporated into the curriculum with relatively small ‘fordypning’ (specialisation groups in English. These pupils had opted for more English lessons instead of learning a second foreign language. Most of them struggled with English as their first foreign language and were struggling readers. However, the majority of the pupils experienced Readers Theatre as both enjoyable and educational. The experience had a positive effect on their confidence and motivation to read. It also helped to improve their reading fluency and accuracy, for example pronunciation, and facilitated growth in vocabulary. The experience of practising and performing as a group was especially satisfying and motivating for the pupils involved. The majority were keen to participate in other Readers Theatre projects.

  12. [Cortical blindness]. (United States)

    Chokron, S


    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Paired associate learning of Morse code and Braille letter names by dyslexic and normal children. (United States)

    Rudel, R G; Denckla, M B; Spalten, E


    Twenty dyslexic and twenty normal children, matched for age and sex and with the same mean I.Q. were tested on their ability to learn letter names of Braille configurations presented visually or tactually and to Morse Code signals presented aurally. The dyslexic Ss learned fewer letters in all three modalities although for both groups the visual-verbal method was easiest. The deficits were not attributable to specific modality dysfunction nor to a failure of intersensory integration. More general encoding and retrieval difficulties appear to be implicated.

  14. Every reader his book – every book its reader?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte


    Collections are no longer the main attraction in libraries, and libraries are working to find new paths to tread. One strategy is to focus on reading and literature in new and surprising ways. The aim of this article is to enrich an understanding of activities situated in the span between readers...

  15. Reader response research in stylistics


    Whiteley, S.; Canning, P.


    This article introduces the special issue. In it, we argue that research into reader response\\ud should be recognised as a vital aspect of contemporary stylistics, and we establish our focus\\ud on work which explicitly investigates such responses through the collection and analysis of\\ud extra-textual datasets. Reader response research in stylistics is characterised by a commitment\\ud to rigorous and evidence-based approaches to the study of readers’ interactions with and\\ud around texts, and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate


    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  17. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre (United States)

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa


    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  18. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael


    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  19. Transient Thermal State of an Active Braille Matrix with Incorporated Thermal Actuators by Means of Finite Element Method (United States)

    Alutei, Alexandra-Maria; Szelitzky, Emoke; Mandru, Dan


    In this article the authors present the transient thermal analysis for a developed thermal linear actuator based on wax paraffin used to drive the cells of a Braille device. A numerical investigation of transient heat transfer phenomenon during paraffin melting and solidification in an encapsulated recipient has been carried out using the ANSYS…

  20. Impact of verbal, Braille text, and tactile oral hygiene awareness instructions on oral health status of visually impaired children. (United States)

    Chowdary, P Brahmanna; Uloopi, K S; Vinay, C; Rao, V Veerabhadra; Rayala, Chandrasekhar


    Visually impaired children face limitations in interacting with the environment, as they cannot see the facial expression of parents, teachers and cannot perceive social behavior. These children are challenged every day in learning basic life skills and maintenance of oral hygiene being one among them. To evaluate the impact of verbal, braille text, and tactile oral hygiene awareness instructions on oral health status of visually impaired children. One hundred and twenty institutionalized visually impaired children aged 6-16 years were selected and divided into three groups (40 children each). Group I: Verbal and tactile, Group II: Verbal and braille, Group III: Verbal, braille, and tactile. Instructions regarding maintenance of good oral hygiene and brushing technique were explained to all the children, and oral health status of these children using plaque index (Silness and Loe) and gingival index (Loe and Silness) was evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months interval. ANOVA test was used to analyze the intra- and inter-group comparisons and Tukey post-hoc test for multiple group comparisons. Children in all the groups showed reduction in plaque and gingival scores. There was the highest percentage of reduction in plaque scores in Group III (70.6%), and the decrease in gingival scores was the highest in Group II (84%). Severity of dental plaque and gingivitis in visually impaired individuals can be reduced by a controlled and supervised educational program. The combination of all three, i.e., verbal, braille, and tactile mode of oral health educational aids proved to be effective.

  1. Preparation in and Use of the Nemeth Braille Code for Mathematics by Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments (United States)

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Amato, Sheila


    This study examined the preparation in and use of the Nemeth braille code by 135 teachers of students with visual impairments. Almost all the teachers had taken at least one course in the Nemeth code as part of their university preparation. In their current jobs, they prepared a variety of materials, primarily basic operations, word problems,…

  2. O sistema Braille e o ensino da Matemática para pessoas cegas

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    Lúcia Virginia Mamcasz Viginheski


    Full Text Available Ao levar em consideração a inclusão de pessoas com deficiência visual no ensino regular, este artigo tem como objetivo centrar-se na perspectiva de referenciar o sistema Braille como um dos recursos de aprendizagem de Matemática para alunos cegos. Caracteriza-se como uma pesquisa exploratória com ênfase bibliográfica, bem como em experiências vivenciadas pela pesquisadora em um Centro de Atendimento Especializado a Pessoas com Deficiência Visual. Foi possível constatar que o sistema Braille se apresenta como um dos recursos disponíveis para o ensino da Matemática, no entanto, ainda são necessárias outras adaptações de materiais que possibilitem, ao aluno cego, o acesso às várias formas de representação dos conteúdos matemáticos.

  3. Habilidades cognitivo-linguísticas e segmentação lexical em Braille

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    Clarissa de Arruda Nicolaiewsky


    Full Text Available O presente estudo examinou a relação entre habilidades cognitivas e linguísticas e segmentação lexical na produção textual em braille de 21 alunos dos três primeiros anos do ensino fundamental de instituição especializada em deficiência visual. A habilidade de demarcar os limites das palavras no texto é desenvolvida ao longo do processo de aquisição da língua escrita, sendo fundamental para a compreensão textual. Foi investigada a ocorrência de hipossegmentações (junção de duas ou mais palavras e hipersegmentações (espaço indevido inserido em uma palavra na produção escrita de histórias. Houve predominância de hipossegmentações. Os participantes que apresentaram maior número de hipossegmentações em sua escrita obtiveram desempenho mais baixo nas tarefas referentes à habilidade verbal, memória de trabalho, consciência morfológica e leitura. Em oposição, aqueles que realizaram menos transgressões obtiveram melhor desempenho nessas tarefas. A elaboração de práticas pedagógicas que enfoquem habilidades cognitivas e linguísticas facilitaria a aquisição da língua escrita em braille.

  4. Beyond the “Handicapped” Label: Narrating Options to Teach Foreign Languages to Blind and Visually Impaired Students

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    Imperio Arenas González


    Full Text Available This article describes the research project carried out with a blind student, who studied French at a public university. The pedagogical experience over three years began in a classroom when a foreign language teacher and educator felt herself “handicapped,” as she had not been prepared for working with blind people. In order to put her student on the same level of other students in terms of study possibilities, the teacher entered the blind and visually impaired students’ world through Braille. She designed methodologies in order to encourage the autonomous learning of the foreign language as well as tried to motivate other blind or visually impaired people to acquire the same knowledge.

  5. The Active Reader: What Is Active? (United States)

    van Woerkum, Cees


    How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept of the "active reader," which is getting more…

  6. Extending the E-Z Reader Model of Eye Movement Control to Chinese Readers (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Li, Xingshan; Pollatsek, Alexander


    Chinese readers' eye movements were simulated in the context of the E-Z Reader model, which was developed to account for the eye movements of readers of English. Despite obvious differences between English and Chinese, the model did a fairly good job of simulating the eye movements of Chinese readers. The successful simulation suggests that the…

  7. Impact of verbal, braille text, and tactile oral hygiene awareness instructions on oral health status of visually impaired children

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    P Brahmanna Chowdary


    Full Text Available Background: Visually impaired children face limitations in interacting with the environment, as they cannot see the facial expression of parents, teachers and cannot perceive social behavior. These children are challenged every day in learning basic life skills and maintenance of oral hygiene being one among them. Aim: To evaluate the impact of verbal, braille text, and tactile oral hygiene awareness instructions on oral health status of visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty institutionalized visually impaired children aged 6-16 years were selected and divided into three groups (40 children each. Group I: Verbal and tactile, Group II: Verbal and braille, Group III: Verbal, braille, and tactile. Instructions regarding maintenance of good oral hygiene and brushing technique were explained to all the children, and oral health status of these children using plaque index (Silness and Loe and gingival index (Loe and Silness was evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months interval. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test was used to analyze the intra- and inter-group comparisons and Tukey post-hoc test for multiple group comparisons. Results: Children in all the groups showed reduction in plaque and gingival scores. There was the highest percentage of reduction in plaque scores in Group III (70.6%, and the decrease in gingival scores was the highest in Group II (84%. Conclusion: Severity of dental plaque and gingivitis in visually impaired individuals can be reduced by a controlled and supervised educational program. The combination of all three, i.e., verbal, braille, and tactile mode of oral health educational aids proved to be effective.

  8. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

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    Hornby Stella


    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  9. [Readers' position against induced abortion]. (United States)


    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  10. E-book Reader Devices and Libraries

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    Pažur, I.


    Full Text Available Most library studies thematically related to electronic books don't consider readers of electronic books. Only in recent years librarians conduct studies in which they want to find out readers' opinions about the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of reading using e-readers, as well as their possible application in the libraries.User studies of e-readers have shown that their opinion is generally positive, but great attachment to traditional books is still present, e-readers are still seen only as an additional tool for reading. Sony with its e-reader (the latest Reader model Daily and Reader Store online bookstore ( the only one who cooperate with libraries and has made lending electronic books possible. Cooperation was launched in 2009th,and the New York Public Library was the first library that offered such a service.Cooperation between Sony and libraries, indicates clearly what the near future could be if other online booksellers / publishers begin to follow the model of lending e-books through the libraries over the network. However it is possible that a large online bookstores / publishers consider that the further price reduction of e-readers and electronic books will constantly increase their sales, and in that case lending e-books will be unnecessary.Are the libraries ready for this scenario?

  11. Selective targeting of epigenetic reader domains. (United States)

    Greschik, Holger; Schüle, Roland; Günther, Thomas


    Epigenetic regulators including writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin marks have been implicated in numerous diseases and are therefore subject of intense academic and pharmaceutical research. While several small-molecule inhibitors targeting writers or erasers are either approved drugs or are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, the targeting of epigenetic readers has lagged behind. Proof-of-principle that epigenetic readers are also relevant drug targets was provided by landmark discoveries of selective inhibitors targeting the BET family of acetyl-lysine readers. More recently, high affinity chemical probes for non-BET acetyl- and methyl-lysine reader domains have also been developed. Areas covered: This article covers recent advances with the identification and validation of inhibitors and chemical probes targeting epigenetic reader domains. Issues related to epigenetic reader druggability, quality requirements for chemical probes, interpretation of cellular action, unexpected cross-talk, and future challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion: Chemical probes provide a powerful means to unravel biological functions of epigenetic readers and evaluate their potential as drug targets. To yield meaningful results, potency, selectivity, and cellular target engagement of chemical probes need to be stringently validated. Future chemical probes will probably need to fulfil additional criteria such as strict target specificity or the targeting of readers within protein complexes.

  12. Lesion type and reader experience affect the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI: A multiple reader ROC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Pascal A.T., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Imge-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kaiser, Werner Alois [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, 07740 Jena (Germany); Dietzel, Matthias, E-mail: [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)


    Highlights: • The main findings of our study are, that reader experience and lesion type (i.e., mass versus non-mass enhancement) are independent predictors of the diagnostic accuracy of breast MRI. • Specifically, benign and malignant non-mass lesions cannot be differentiated with sufficient accuracy, especially if readers are not experienced. • We conclude that future research in breast MRI should focus on non-mass lesions, as these are the problem makers in modern breast MRI. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the influence of lesion type (mass versus non-mass) and reader experience on the diagnostic performance of breast MRI (BMRI) in a non-screening setting. Materials and methods: Consecutive patients (mean age, 55 ± 12 years) with breast lesions that were verified by biopsy or surgery, and who had had BMRI as part of their diagnostic workup, were eligible for this retrospective single-center study. Cancers diagnosed by biopsy before BMRI were excluded to eliminate biological and interpretation bias due to biopsy or chemotherapy effects (n = 103). Six blinded readers (experience level, high (HE, n = 2); intermediate (IE, n = 2); and low (LE, n = 2)) evaluated all examinations and assigned independent MRI BI-RADS ratings. Lesion type (mass, non-mass, focal) was noted. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and logistic regression analysis was performed to compare diagnostic accuracies. Results: There were 259 histologically verified lesions (123 malignant, 136 benign) investigated. There were 169 mass (103 malignant, 66 benign) and 48 non-mass lesions (19 malignant, 29 benign). Another 42 lesions that met the inclusion criteria were biopsied due to conventional findings (i.e., microcalcifications, architectural distortions), but did not enhance on MRI (41 benign, one DCIS). ROC analysis revealed a total area under the curve (AUC) between 0.834 (LE) and 0.935 (HI). Logistic regression identified a significant effect of non-mass lesions (P < 0.0001) and

  13. Reader-Centered Technical Writing (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  14. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)


    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  15. The active reader: what is active?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.


    How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept

  16. Using Readers' Theater with Multicultural Literature (United States)

    Weisenburger, Stephanie


    The author needed a way to engage her students in the reading process and found one extremely successful strategy: using Readers' Theater. Readers' Theater "dramatizes" literature through a classroom performance and provides visual and oral stimulus to students who are not used to using imagination to appreciate literary texts. It involves a…

  17. Technology: News Readers and Other Handy Utilities (United States)

    Van Horn, Royal


    In this article, the author discusses how there are advantages and disadvantages to using an Internet News Reader instead of a Web browser. The major advantage is that one can read the headlines and short summaries of news articles from dozens of sources quickly. Another advantage the author points out to news readers is that one gets a short…

  18. Postmodern theories about readers in electronic environment

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    Ivanka Kuić


    Full Text Available Introductory part of the paper discusses theories about readers in the last decades of the 20th century. In particular, two big theoretical schools are discussed: aesthetic reception theory and reader-response-criticism movement. Readers are a subject of very different scientific disciplines: literature theory, sociology, anthropology, book history and library science. The idea that a reader is an essential subject for future life of a literary work is common to all theorists. By constructing the theory about a reader, theorists have thought about the reader who uses the conventions of printed text. The issue whether these concepts correspond to electronic surroundings is discussed. Characteristics of the hypertext are emphasized as a new paradigm, and also the issue weather readers enjoys in hypertextual fiction. In conclusion, paper expands the virtual dimension of Isers's theory about interaction between the text and the reader, and also Fish's concept of “interpretative community” which may be constituted on the Internet as a flexible virtual community.

  19. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita


    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  20. Why Readers Read What Writers Write. (United States)

    Crago, Hugh


    Explores the mystery of why readers choose to read texts. Considers the psychology of reading for pleasure and the figures of speech linking reading with love. Discusses a wide array of books and the reasons that readers have felt such a strong attachment to them. (HB)

  1. Secondary School Students' Opinions about Readers' Theatre (United States)

    Karabag, S. Gulin


    In this article, a teaching strategy which not only blends yesterday and today in a meaningful way but also powerfully integrates literacy and history will be examined. Firstly Readers' Theatre as a technique will be introduced. Secondly, the usage guidelines of Readers' Theatre will be presented. Finally the opinions of secondary school students…

  2. Cyber Literature: A Reader – Writer Interactivity

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    Fathu Rahman


    Full Text Available Cyber Literature is a term known since the coming of the internet which brings a convenience, changing habit and world view. This study is a survey-based on respondents’ opinion about the existence of cyber literature on social media; of its benefit and impact to the reader. This study limits to the poems on Facebook group. The reason is simple; it favors the short form. For the study of a reader-writer interactivity in cyber literature is more likely on poetry. The approach is reader response literary theory with focus on the reader-writer interactivity on Facebook. This research aimed at uncovering the motivation of readers to response the uploaded text, the reasons why they love it and what its advantages. The results showed that cyber literature is successfully to introduce a new literary genre as well as to raise motivation and creativity of authors to make use the internet space.

  3. Editing Wikipedia content by screen reader: easier interaction with the Accessible Rich Internet Applications suite. (United States)

    Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara


    This study aims to improve Wikipedia usability for the blind and promote the application of standards relating to Web accessibility and usability. First, accessibility and usability of Wikipedia home, search result and edit pages are analysed using the JAWS screen reader; next, suggestions for improving interaction are proposed and a new Wikipedia editing interface built. Most of the improvements were obtained using the Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite, developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) within the framework of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). Last, a scenario of use compares interaction of blind people with the original and the modified interfaces. Our study highlights that although all contents are accessible via screen reader, usability issues exist due to the user's difficulties when interacting with the interface. The scenario of use shows how building an editing interface with the W3C WAI-ARIA suite eliminates many obstacles that can prevent blind users from actively contributing to Wikipedia. The modified Wikipedia editing page is simpler to use via a screen reader than the original one because ARIA ensures a page overview, rapid navigation, and total control of what is happening in the interface.

  4. Cultural Journalism Publications for Reluctant Readers. (United States)

    Hatcher, Barbara


    Provides a list of cultural journalism publications (based on oral history interviews) written, edited, and produced by students around the country that provide good easy reading for older reluctant readers. (MKM)

  5. Face-to-face with the reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Thank you for inviting me to this meeting. I understood that it is a meeting of the editorial board with readers. But I would like to note that there is still such a small layer between the editors and readers, which is called the printing house. So it is the typography that materially embodies the ideas, thoughts and innovations of the editorial staff and the authors.

  6. What is Color Blindness? (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Color Blindness Sections What Is Color Blindness? What Are ... Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? ...

  7. A simple scoring system for breast MRI interpretation: does it compensate for reader experience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Maria Adele; Clauser, Paola; Woitek, Ramona; Wengert, Georg J.; Kapetas, Panagiotis; Bernathova, Maria; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H.; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Preidler, Klaus


    To investigate the impact of a scoring system (Tree) on inter-reader agreement and diagnostic performance in breast MRI reading. This IRB-approved, single-centre study included 100 patients with 121 consecutive histopathologically verified lesions (52 malignant, 68 benign). Four breast radiologists with different levels of MRI experience and blinded to histopathology retrospectively evaluated all examinations. Readers independently applied two methods to classify breast lesions: BI-RADS and Tree. BI-RADS provides a reporting lexicon that is empirically translated into likelihoods of malignancy; Tree is a scoring system that results in a diagnostic category. Readings were compared by ROC analysis and kappa statistics. Inter-reader agreement was substantial to almost perfect (kappa: 0.643-0.896) for Tree and moderate (kappa: 0.455-0.657) for BI-RADS. Diagnostic performance using Tree (AUC: 0.889-0.943) was similar to BI-RADS (AUC: 0.872-0.953). Less experienced radiologists achieved AUC: improvements up to 4.7 % using Tree (P-values: 0.042-0.698); an expert's performance did not change (P = 0.526). The least experienced reader improved in specificity using Tree (16 %, P = 0.001). No further sensitivity and specificity differences were found (P > 0.1). The Tree scoring system improves inter-reader agreement and achieves a diagnostic performance similar to that of BI-RADS. Less experienced radiologists, in particular, benefit from Tree. (orig.)

  8. Effectiveness of braille and audio-tactile performance technique for improving oral hygiene status of visually impaired adolescents. (United States)

    Deshpande, Sushmita; Rajpurohit, Ladusingh; Kokka, Vivian Varghese


    Visually impaired people encounter numerous challenges in their daily life which makes it a cumbersome task to pay special attention to oral health needs. Furthermore, there is little knowledge about oral health practices among caretakers and visually impaired individuals, due to which oral health is often neglected when compared to the general health. Hence, there was a need to educate visually challenged individuals about oral hygiene practices in a customized format so that the comprehension of brushing techniques could be conveyed at its best. The present study was a randomized control trial of sixty visually impaired adolescents who were divided into three groups of 20 each. In Group 1, Braille was used, whereas in Group 2, audio-tactile performance (ATP) technique and in Group 3, a combination of both the methods were used to teach tooth brushing as a part of oral health education. Pre- and post-plaque index score using Silness and Loe (1967) after health education were calculated and tabulated for statistical analysis. The postintervention mean plaque index score increased in Group 1 from 29.45 to 42.98, whereas the mean plaque score decreased in Groups 2 and 3 from 30.83-29.9 to 30.23-18.73, respectively. Intergroup comparison of postplaque index score using Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA analysis showed significant difference among all three study groups. The combination of Braille and ATP technique of health education served as the most effective medium to teach oral hygiene methods to visually impaired adolescents.

  9. Effective Learning and Retention of Braille Letter Tactile Discrimination Skills in Children with Developmental Dyslexia (United States)

    Hayek, Maisam; Dorfberger, Shoshi; Karni, Avi


    Children with developmental dyslexia (DD) may differ from typical readers in aspects other than reading. The notion of a general deficit in the ability to acquire and retain procedural ("how to") knowledge as long-term procedural memory has been proposed. Here, we compared the ability of elementary school children, with and without…

  10. Effect of reader experience on variability, evaluation time and accuracy of coronary plaque detection with computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saur, Stefan C.; Szekely, Gabor [ETH Zurich, Computer Vision Laboratory, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Group, Boston, MA (United States); Stolzmann, Paul; Baumueller, Stephan; Leschka, Sebastian; Scheffel, Hans; Desbiolles, Lotus [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Fuchs, Thomas J. [ETH Zurich, Department of Computer Science, Zurich (Switzerland); Cattin, Philippe C. [ETH Zurich, Computer Vision Laboratory, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Basel, Medical Image Analysis Center, Basel (Switzerland)


    To assess the effect of reader experience on variability, evaluation time and accuracy in the detection of coronary artery plaques with computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). Three independent, blinded readers with three different experience levels twice labelled 50 retrospectively electrocardiography (ECG)-gated contrast-enhanced dual-source CTCA data sets (15 female, age 67.3 {+-} 10.4 years, range 46-86 years) indicating the presence or absence of coronary plaques. The evaluation times for the readings were recorded. Intra- and interobserver variability expressed as {kappa} statistics and sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were calculated for plaque detection, with a consensus reading of the three readers taken as the standard of reference. A bootstrap method was applied in the statistical analysis to account for clustering. Significant correlations were found between reader experience and, respectively, evaluation times (r = -0.59, p < 0.05) and intraobserver variability (r = 0.73, p < 0.05). The evaluation time significantly differed among the readers (p < 0.05). The observer variability for plaque detection, compared with the consensus, varied between {kappa} = 0.582 and {kappa} = 0.802. Variability of plaque detection was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) and more accurate (p < 0.05) for the most experienced reader. Reader experience significantly correlated with observer variability, evaluation time and accuracy of coronary plaque detection at CTCA. (orig.)

  11. Impact of oral health education by audio aids, braille and tactile models on the oral health status of visually impaired children of Bhopal City. (United States)

    Gautam, Anjali; Bhambal, Ajay; Moghe, Swapnil


    Children with special needs face unique challenges in day-to-day practice. They are dependent on their close ones for everything. To improve oral hygiene in such visually impaired children, undue training and education are required. Braille is an important language for reading and writing for the visually impaired. It helps them understand and visualize the world via touch. Audio aids are being used to impart health education to the visually impaired. Tactile models help them perceive things which they cannot visualize and hence are an important learning tool. This study aimed to assess the improvement in oral hygiene by audio aids and Braille and tactile models in visually impaired children aged 6-16 years of Bhopal city. This was a prospective study. Sixty visually impaired children aged 6-16 years were selected and randomly divided into three groups (20 children each). Group A: audio aids + Braille, Group B: audio aids + tactile models, and Group C: audio aids + Braille + tactile models. Instructions were given for maintaining good oral hygiene and brushing techniques were explained to all children. After 3 months' time, the oral hygiene status was recorded and compared using plaque and gingival index. ANNOVA test was used. The present study showed a decrease in the mean plaque and gingival scores at all time intervals in individual group as compared to that of the baseline that was statistically significant. The study depicts that the combination of audio aids, Braille and tactile models is an effective way to provide oral health education and improve oral health status of visually impaired children.

  12. Impact of oral health education by audio aids, braille and tactile models on the oral health status of visually impaired children of Bhopal City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Gautam


    Full Text Available Context: Children with special needs face unique challenges in day-to-day practice. They are dependent on their close ones for everything. To improve oral hygiene in such visually impaired children, undue training and education are required. Braille is an important language for reading and writing for the visually impaired. It helps them understand and visualize the world via touch. Audio aids are being used to impart health education to the visually impaired. Tactile models help them perceive things which they cannot visualize and hence are an important learning tool. Aim: This study aimed to assess the improvement in oral hygiene by audio aids and Braille and tactile models in visually impaired children aged 6–16 years of Bhopal city. Settings and Design: This was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: Sixty visually impaired children aged 6–16 years were selected and randomly divided into three groups (20 children each. Group A: audio aids + Braille, Group B: audio aids + tactile models, and Group C: audio aids + Braille + tactile models. Instructions were given for maintaining good oral hygiene and brushing techniques were explained to all children. After 3 months' time, the oral hygiene status was recorded and compared using plaque and gingival index. Statistical Analysis Used: ANNOVA test was used. Results: The present study showed a decrease in the mean plaque and gingival scores at all time intervals in individual group as compared to that of the baseline that was statistically significant. Conclusions: The study depicts that the combination of audio aids, Braille and tactile models is an effective way to provide oral health education and improve oral health status of visually impaired children.

  13. 2D Presentation Techniques of Mind-maps for Blind Meeting Participants. (United States)

    Pölzer, Stephan; Miesenberger, Klaus


    Mind-maps, used as ideation technique in co-located meetings (e.g. in brainstorming sessions), which meet with increased importance in business and education, show considerably accessibility challenges for blind meeting participants. Besides an overview of general aspects of accessibility issues in co-located meetings, this paper focuses on the design and development of alternative non-visual presentation techniques for mind-maps. The different aspects of serialized presentation techniques (e.g. treeview) for Braille and audio rendering and two dimensional presentation techniques (e.g. tactile two dimensional array matrix and edge-projection method [1]) are discussed based on the user feedback gathered in intermediate tests following a user centered design approach.

  14. Blind's Eye: Employing Google Directions API for Outdoor Navigation of Visually Impaired Pedestrians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Vision plays a paramount role in our everyday life and assists human in almost every walk of life. The people lacking vision sense require assistance to move freely. The inability of unassisted navigation and orientation in outdoor environments is one of the most important constraints for people with visual impairment. Motivated by this problem, we developed a simplified and user friendly navigation system that allows visually impaired pedestrians to reach their desired outdoor location. We designed a Braille keyboard to allow the blind user to input their destination. The proposed system makes use of Google Directions API (Application Program Interface to generate the right path to a destination. The visually impaired pedestrians have to wear a vibration belt to keep them on the track. The evaluation exposes shortcomings of Google Directions API when used for navigating the visually impaired pedestrians in an outdoor environment.

  15. E-Book Readers in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur N. Olsen


    Full Text Available This article reports on a research project at the University of Agder that has studied the use of e-readers as a tool for academic study. E-readers (Kindle DX and iPad were loaded with texts from required reading lists in five courses with 94 participating students. Initially, 87 students responded to the invitation to participate in a survey, but eventually 13 of these submissions had to be removed, as the degree of completion was not sufficient. The final response rate achieved was 79%. Students were in general positive to the use of e-readers but still show a preference for print on paper as the best medium for serious academic study. When reading books, 54% preferred print, 28% a combination of print and e-reader, and finally only 11% were satisfied solely using an e-reader. The iPad scored significantly better than the Kindle DX on tasks that required active interaction with the texts such as highlighting and note taking.

  16. Representing vision and blindness. (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D


    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  17. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.


    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a

  18. Beck's Song Reader: An Unbound Music Book


    Maxwell, Kate


    This article is under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License. This article is also available via DOI:10.7202/1038035ar The pop/alternative musician Beck created a stir in the music world when he released his 2012 “album” Song Reader as a book compilation of individual pieces of sheet music. This included a guide to reading music notation, together with an introduction describing the work’s intentions and inviting readers to perform their own ...

  19. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying


    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  20. Vision - night blindness (United States)

    ... this page: // Vision - night blindness To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Night blindness is poor vision at night or in dim light. Considerations Night ...

  1. Leading Causes of Blindness (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of ... million Americans have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, ...

  2. Development of Comprehension Monitoring in Beginner Readers (United States)

    Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria


    The current study was designed to understand the development of comprehension monitoring among beginner readers from first to third grade, and to determine the extent to which first graders' comprehension monitoring predicts reading comprehension in grade three. Participants were 113 children (57% female) from four US states who were followed from…

  3. Next Generation Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velbeck, K.J.; Streetz, K.L.; Rotunda, J.E.


    BICRON NE has developed an advanced version of the Model 8800 Automatic TLD Reader. Improvements in the reader include a Windows NT TM -based operating system and a Pentium microprocessor for the host controller, a servo-controlled transport, a VGA display, mouse control, and modular assembly. This high capacity reader will automatically read fourteen hundred TLD Cards in one loading. Up to four elements in a card can be heated without mechanical contact, using hot nitrogen gas. Improvements in performance include an increased throughput rate and more precise card positioning. Operation is simplified through easy-to-read Windows-type screens. Glow curves are displayed graphically along with light intensity, temperature, and channel scaling. Maintenance and diagnostic aids are included for easier troubleshooting. A click of a mouse will command actions that are displayed in easy-to-understand English words. Available options include an internal 90 Sr irradiator, automatic TLD calibration, and two different extremity monitoring modes. Results from testing include reproducibility, reader stability, linearity, detection threshold, residue, primary power supply voltage and frequency, transient voltage, drop testing, and light leakage. (author)

  4. Young Readers Programme Evaluation 2015/2016 (United States)

    Pabion, Clémence; Clark, Christina


    The Young Readers Programme (YRP) motivates children to read for enjoyment by running a series of three literacy-focused events, teaching children strategies to choose books that are right for them, and showing them that reading can be enjoyable. One of the most effective ways of developing children's literacy skills is to engage them in reading…

  5. Readers' Survey Results: What is Computer Literacy? (United States)

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1986


    Readers of Classroom Computer Learning were asked for a definition of computer literacy; a summary of their responses is provided. Three opinions offered are that computer literacy instruction should begin early, that it should be made compulsory, and instruction should also focus on use of tool programs and education software. (JN)

  6. Accelerated Reader: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Siddiqui, Nadia; See, Beng Huat


    Accelerated Reader (AR) is a whole-group reading management and monitoring program that aims to foster the habit of independent reading among primary and early secondary age pupils. The internet-based software initially screens pupils according to their reading levels, and suggests books that match their reading age and reading interest. Pupils…

  7. Reader Reactions to Color in Newspapers. (United States)

    Bohle, Robert H.; Garcia, Mario R.

    In order to discover reader reactions to color on a newspaper page, specifically eye movement and overall opinion of the paper, identical pages were created and printed by the "St. Petersburg Times" (Florida). The content of fifteen front pages, six lifestyles pages, and three sports front pages were nearly identical, differing only in the kind…

  8. The Author as Reader and Writer (United States)

    Miller, Tom


    This article presents contemporary commentary on the previously published articles "Writing for the Reader: A Problem-Solution Approach" and "Motivating Learners at South Korean Universities." Having been out of the field of English as a foreign language for several years, the author was surprised and pleased when he was asked to write some…

  9. Project Physics Reader 4, Light and Electromagnetism. (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    As a supplement to Project Physics Unit 4, a collection of articles is presented in this reader for student browsing. The 21 articles are included under the following headings: Letter from Thomas Jefferson; On the Method of Theoretical Physics; Systems, Feedback, Cybernetics; Velocity of Light; Popular Applications of Polarized Light; Eye and…

  10. Patterns of Analogical Reasoning among Beginning Readers (United States)

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Wood, Clare; Canobi, Katherine H.; Faulkner, Dorothy


    Despite compelling evidence that analogy skills are available to beginning readers, few studies have actually explored the possibility of identifying individual differences in young children's analogy skills in early reading. The present study examined individual differences in children's use of orthographic and phonological relations between…

  11. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan


    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  12. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service. (United States)


    ... to have a visual impairment necessitating reader service includes a veteran: (1) Whose best corrected...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31... is limited to such an extent that the widest diameter of a visual field subtends to an angle no...

  13. Trade Related Reading Packets for Disabled Readers. (United States)

    Davis, Beverly; Woodruff, Nancy S.

    Six trade-related reading packets for disabled readers are provided for these trades: assemblers, baking, building maintenance, data entry, interior landscaping, and warehousing. Each packet stresses from 9 to 14 skills. Those skills common to most packets include context clues, fact or opinion, details, following directions, main idea,…

  14. Guiding Young Readers to Multicultural Literature (United States)

    Hinton-Johnson, KaaVonia; Dickinson, Gail


    Stocking the shelves of library media centers with multicultural literature is not enough, it is important that children are helped to choose the ones that would interest them as reading about various cultures is of great benefit to young readers. The importance of accurately representing to children a multicultural society is emphasized and…

  15. Meeting the Needs of Struggling Adolescent Readers (United States)

    Stover, Katie; O'Rear, Allison; Morris, Carolyn


    Research suggests that additional reading instruction is necessary to support struggling adolescent readers. In addition to time allocated for reading and access to appropriately leveled texts, many students need teacher support in learning and implementing a range of reading strategies. As a high school English teacher and a middle school Social…

  16. Understanding readers' understanding theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Tierney, Robert J; Mitchell, Judy Nichols


    This collection features papers addressing current issues in reading comprehension from cognitive and linguistic perspectives. Organized into three sections, the volume investigates text considerations and reader-text interactions. Each paper presents a substantial and comprehensive review of theory and research related to cognition and reading comprehension.

  17. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults. (United States)

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  18. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret


    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  19. Collaboration between SSMJ and its readers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All of us in the healthcare professions throughout the world can learn much from each other. This has been demonstrated so well by the collaboration between the editors, authors, medical experts and readers of the South Sudan Medical Journal. The Editor-in-Chief recently sent out a request for photographs and received a ...

  20. Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Boutron


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blinding is a cornerstone of treatment evaluation. Blinding is more difficult to obtain in trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment and frequently relies on "creative" (nonstandard methods. The purpose of this study was to systematically describe the strategies used to obtain blinding in a sample of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched in Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing nonpharmacological treatment with blinding, published during 2004 in high-impact-factor journals. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction form. We identified 145 articles, with the method of blinding described in 123 of the reports. Methods of blinding of participants and/or health care providers and/or other caregivers concerned mainly use of sham procedures such as simulation of surgical procedures, similar attention-control interventions, or a placebo with a different mode of administration for rehabilitation or psychotherapy. Trials assessing devices reported various placebo interventions such as use of sham prosthesis, identical apparatus (e.g., identical but inactivated machine or use of activated machine with a barrier to block the treatment, or simulation of using a device. Blinding participants to the study hypothesis was also an important method of blinding. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors relied mainly on centralized assessment of paraclinical examinations, clinical examinations (i.e., use of video, audiotape, photography, or adjudications of clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: This study classifies blinding methods and provides a detailed description of methods that could overcome some barriers of blinding in clinical trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment, and provides information for readers assessing the quality of results of such trials.

  1. Illustrative and descriptive format of pedagogic strategies and resources for the instruction of blind and low vision students in inclusive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Osmar Seabra Júnior


    Full Text Available The participation of all in a Physical Education class requires pedagogical resources and proper and/or adapted teaching strategies to each group of participants. The aim of this study was to: identify, interpret and categorize the suggestions found in the literature on teaching strategies and learning resources offered to teach blind and visually impaired students. The specific objectives were: 1 Presentation of teaching strategies and learning resources in an illustrative manual, and 2 A description of the illustrations, which can be read in Braille, enabling accessibility to the blind. The re - sults were obtained by the: 1 selection of propositions that describing teaching stra - tegies and pedagogic resources in literature, 2 the classification and categorization of the propositions, 3 development of the illustrative manual, and 4 description of the figures in the manual. The material produced will serve as a tool for academics, teachers, coaches of adapted sports, and for the daily use of teachers.

  2. RFID reader immunity test against electrostatic discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospisilik Martin


    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of an immunity test against the electrostatic discharge according to the standard EN 61000-4-2 that was applied to an RFID reader. The RFID reader was primarily developed for access systems, employing the on-board recognition of the RFID tags. The results obtained by the test are described hereby as well as the discussion on the security of this solution. The results of this experiment are beneficial for the developers of RFID devices, as these devices are endangered by the electrostatic discharge brought by their users. The hereby described results also shown a security hole in a simple access system based on the RFID technology. Details can be found in the paper.

  3. The StorySpinner Sculptural Reader


    Hooper, Clare; Weal, Mark


    This demo is of a hypertext reading system called StorySpinner. It follows the sculptural hypertext methodology and has been used as a test bed for experimenting with the authoring of narrative flow in automatically generated stories. Readers are able to select and read one of two available stories. Reading a story involves selecting tarot cards which are mapped to chunks of story text based on possible interpretations of the cards and information concerning current story state.

  4. Plastic Logic quits e-reader market (United States)

    Perks, Simon


    A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.

  5. Child readers' eye movements in reading Thai. (United States)

    Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan G; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Burnham, Denis


    It has recently been found that adult native readers of Thai, an alphabetic scriptio continua language, engage similar oculomotor patterns as readers of languages written with spaces between words; despite the lack of inter-word spaces, first and last characters of a word appear to guide optimal placement of Thai readers' eye movements, just to the left of word-centre. The issue addressed by the research described here is whether eye movements of Thai children also show these oculomotor patterns. Here the effect of first and last character frequency and word frequency on the eye movements of 18 Thai children when silently reading normal unspaced and spaced text was investigated. Linear mixed-effects model analyses of viewing time measures (first fixation duration, single fixation duration, and gaze duration) and of landing site location revealed that Thai children's eye movement patterns were similar to their adult counterparts. Both first character frequency and word frequency played important roles in Thai children's landing sites; children tended to land their eyes further into words, close to the word centre, if the word began with higher frequency first characters, and this effect was facilitated in higher frequency words. Spacing also facilitated more effective use of first character frequency and it also assisted in decreasing children's viewing time. The use of last-character frequency appeared to be a later development, affecting mainly single fixation duration and gaze duration. In general, Thai children use the same oculomotor control mechanisms in reading spaced and unspaced texts as Thai adults, who in turn have similar oculomotor control as readers of spaced texts. Thus, it appears that eye movements in reading converge on the optimal landing site using whatever cues are available to guide such placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, John


    Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual gives you the essential tools for getting the most out of Wikipedia. As a supplement to Wikipedia: The Missing Manual, this handbook provides a basic road map to the largest online collaborative encyclopedia. You'll learn the best ways to search Wikipedia for the information you need, how to navigate the encyclopedia by category, and what to do if you spot an error in an article.

  7. Improvements of RGD3 TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianxing; Wang Jiaqi; Li Yuanfang; Wu Furong; Xiao Wuyun


    The author summarized the main features of the improved RGD3 TLD reader. Through a large number of experiments some persuasive data are obtained, which show that an remarkable improvement has been achieved, especially in its stability to the standard illuminates, data dispersivity, and effectiveness to glow curves analysis. Working with the newly developed data processing software, the comprehensive performance of the whole system will be enhanced greatly

  8. Effect of oral health education in the form of Braille and oral health talk on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12-17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city: A comparative study. (United States)

    Bhor, K; Shetty, V; Garcha, V; Nimbulkar, G C


    To assess the effect of oral health education (OHE) in the form of Braille and combination with Oral health talk (OHT) on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, and status of 12-17 years old visually impaired school girls in Pune city. A 6-week comparative study was conducted among 74 residential visually impaired school girls aged 12-17 years, who were trained to read Braille. The participants were divided into two groups, namely, Group A ( n = 37) receiving OHE only in the form of Braille and Group B ( n = 37) receiving OHE in form of Braille and OHT at baseline, 2, and 4-week interval. Oral health knowledge was assessed using a self-administered, pre-validated, pre-tested questionnaire typed in Marathi Braille. Assessment of oral hygiene practices and status was done using standardized proforma and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), respectively, at baseline and at the end of 6 weeks. Data was analyzed using paired and unpaired Student's t -test. The results showed a statistically significant increase in oral health knowledge levels in Group B (4.95 ± 1.66) as compared to Group A (2.97 ± 1.28). There was a significant increase in the frequency of mouth-rinsing in Group B (97.3%) as compared to Group A (86.5%) as well as in the tongue cleaning practice in Group B (100%) as compared to Group A (81.1%) at the end of 6 weeks. OHE in the form of Braille and OHT was more effective than OHE using only Braille.

  9. Improving diagnostic sensitivity of combined dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy imaging through double reader concordance evaluation in telemedicine settings: A retrospective study of 1000 equivocal cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Witkowski

    Full Text Available Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM is an imaging device that permits non-invasive visualization of cellular morphology and has been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopically equivocal cutaneous lesions. The application of double reader concordance evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets in retrospective settings and its potential application to telemedicine evaluation has not been tested in a large study population.To improve diagnostic sensitivity of RCM image diagnosis using a double reader concordance evaluation approach; to reduce mismanagement of equivocal cutaneous lesions in retrospective consultation and telemedicine settings.1000 combined dermoscopy-RCM image sets were evaluated in blind by 10 readers with advanced training and internship in dermoscopy and RCM evaluation. We compared sensitivity and specificity of single reader evaluation versus double reader concordance evaluation as well as the effect of diagnostic confidence on lesion management in a retrospective setting.Single reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 76.3%, with misdiagnosis of 8 melanomas, 4 basal cell carcinomas and 2 squamous cell carcinomas. Combined double reader evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 98.3% and specificity of 65.5%, with misdiagnosis of 1 in-situ melanoma and 2 basal cell carcinomas.Evaluation of dermoscopy-RCM image sets of cutaneous lesions by single reader evaluation in retrospective settings is limited by sensitivity levels that may result in potential mismanagement of malignant lesions. Double reader blind concordance evaluation may improve the sensitivity of diagnosis and management safety. The use of a second check can be implemented in telemedicine settings where expert consultation and second opinions may be required.

  10. 75 FR 69986 - Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program AGENCY: Office of... for funding under the Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy program. SUMMARY: By February 2011, the...) projects to support comprehensive literacy development and to advance literacy skills, including pre...

  11. Management Problems in Readers' Services: The Nigerian Experience. (United States)

    Ifidon, Betty I.


    Identifies major problems that affect reader's services departments in Nigerian university libraries. Highlights include the functions of the reader's services department, including circulation, collection management, user education, and interlibrary loan; student population explosion; funding shortages; staffing shortages; and suggested…

  12. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader. (United States)


    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone reader. (a) Identification. An automated zone reader is a mechanical device intended for medical purposes to...

  13. Postictal blindness in adults.


    Sadeh, M; Goldhammer, Y; Kuritsky, A


    Cortical blindness following grand mal seizures occurred in five adult patients. The causes of seizures included idiopathic epilepsy, vascular accident, brain cyst, acute encephalitis and chronic encephalitis. Blindness was permanent in one patients, but the others recovered within several days. Since most of the patients were either unaware of or denied their blindness, it is possible that this event often goes unrecognised. Cerebral hypoxia is considered the most likely mechanism.

  14. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  15. Choosing the Adequate Level of Graded Readers--Preliminary Study (United States)

    Prtljaga, Jelena; Palinkaševic, Radmila; Brkic, Jovana


    Graded readers have been used as second language teaching material since the end of the Second World War. They are an important source of simplified material which provides comprehensible input on all levels. It is of crucial importance for a successful usage of graded readers in the classroom and in studies which focus on graded readers, that an…

  16. Reading and Spelling Error Analysis of Native Arabic Dyslexic Readers (United States)

    Abu-rabia, Salim; Taha, Haitham


    This study was an investigation of reading and spelling errors of dyslexic Arabic readers ("n"=20) compared with two groups of normal readers: a young readers group, matched with the dyslexics by reading level ("n"=20) and an age-matched group ("n"=20). They were tested on reading and spelling of texts, isolated…

  17. Reader Engagement in English and Persian Applied Linguistics Articles (United States)

    Ansarin, Ali Akbar; Tarlani-Aliabdi, Hassan


    There is an increasing interest in the way academic writers establish the presence of their readers over the past few years. Establishing the presence of readers or what Kroll (1984, p.181) calls imagining "a second voice" is accomplished when a writer refers "explicitly" to their readers using explicit linguistic resources…

  18. Neįgalaus kūno asmens tapatybės kaita XX amžiaus pirmoje pusėje: Prano Daunio Vargo keliais. Atsiminimai iš kovų dėl nepriklausomybės ir aklųjų gyvenimo | Identity change of the disable body during 1st half of the 20th century: On the Roads of Misery. Memories from the Battles for Independence and the Life of the Blind by Pranas Daunys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Birgerytė


    Full Text Available The article introduces the first autobiography of the disabled in the 20th century Lithuanian literature – the memoirs of Pranas Daunys – On the Roads of Misery / Memories from the Battles for Independence and the Life of the Blind. In the context of the disability body studies, the article discusses different levels in the formation of the corporal identity of the blind person. The study emphasizes the importance of cultural space to the identity of the blind, which is related to the Braille. The article explains the integrity dimension of the blind person’s identity, which mergers different experiences of personal life (the experience of eye trauma during the war and the memories of patriotic feelings, which are equally important to the personal identity. The research deals with the corporal and sensual self-perception of the blind, which is closely related to the social and public emancipation, changing the lines of national identity.

  19. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?; Como diagnosticar cualquier tipo de TLD Reader?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)


    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included.

  20. Face-to-face with the reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas SCHMITZ


    Full Text Available From the scientific perspective this review is very interesting. It is well-structured, has an attractive lay-out and typography and serves as an important forum for the scientific debate on public administration in the Republic of Moldova. Furthermore, there is a special website with several subwebsites for the review. This makes it easy for every interested reader to get an idea of the review. Finally, the websites allows free downloads even of the newest issue. This allows everybody to read it, even students (because it is free and foreign researchers (who otherwise would not have access to Moldovan scientific reviews.

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Astrophysics (Advanced Physics Readers) (United States)

    Kibble, Bob


    Here is a handy and attractive reader to support students on post-16 courses. It covers the astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology that are demanded at A-level and offers anyone interested in these fields an interesting and engaging reference book. The author and the production team deserve credit for producing such an attractive book. The content, in ten chapters, covers what one would expect at this level but it is how it is presented that struck me as the book's most powerful asset. Each chapter ends with a summary of key ideas. Line drawings are clear and convey enough information to make them more than illustrations - they are as valuable as the text in conveying information. Full colour is used throughout to enhance illustrations and tables and to lift key sections of the text. A number of colour photographs complement the material and serve to maintain interest and remind readers that astrophysics is about real observable phenomena. Included towards the end is a set of tables offering information on physical and astronomical data, mathematical techniques and constellation names and abbreviations. This last table puzzled me as to its value. There is a helpful bibliography which includes society contacts and a website related to the text. Perhaps my one regret is that there is no section where students are encouraged to actually do some real astronomy. Astrophysics is in danger of becoming an armchair and calculator interest. There are practical projects that students could undertake either for school assessment or for personal interest. Simple astrophotography to capture star trails, observe star colours and estimate apparent magnitudes is an example, as is a simple double-star search. There are dozens more. However, the author's style is friendly and collaborative. He befriends the reader as they journey together through the ideas. There are progress questions at the end of each chapter. Their style tends to be rather closed and they emphasize factual recall

  2. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis


    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...

  3. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness" (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret


    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  4. What Makes a Good Reader? Asking Students to Define Good Readers (United States)

    Johnson, Jill Caton


    This article shares a simple questionnaire that can be used with students to ascertain their understanding of good readers and the strategies they use. Responses from a questionnaire administered in January and August in one fourth-grade classroom are categorized and shared. The responses show the students' belief that good reading is done by both…

  5. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia. (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth


    Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations. 2015 The Authors. Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Regulating Readers: The Social Origins of the Readers' Advisor in the United States. (United States)

    Luyt, Brendan


    The readers' advisory service was a product of social forces operating in the context of early twentieth century capitalism. The work of French regulation theorists provides a framework for analyzing these forces using the concepts of regime of accumulation and mode of regulation. Libraries were connected in a society-wide project, as opposed to…

  7. Are Avid Readers Lurking in Your Language Arts Classroom? Myths of the Avid Adolescent Reader (United States)

    Wilson, Nance S.; Kelley, Michelle J.


    This article describes a pilot study conducted with 10 identified avid adolescent readers who completed the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) (Pitcher, Albright, DeLaney, Walker, Seunarienesingh, & Moggie, 2007) that includes both a survey to determine students' self-concept and value of reading and an interview that sheds light on what…

  8. The Reader-Text-Writer Interaction: L2 Japanese Learners' Response toward Graded Readers (United States)

    Tabata-Sandom, Mitsue


    This paper reports on two projects which investigated graded readers (GRs) as meaningful input for learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). Project One examined the intentions of six writers of Japanese GRs. A focus group interview demonstrated that the writers had a genuine communicative intent in the writing process. Project Two…

  9. A Regularization Approach to Blind Deblurring and Denoising of QR Barcodes. (United States)

    van Gennip, Yves; Athavale, Prashant; Gilles, Jérôme; Choksi, Rustum


    QR bar codes are prototypical images for which part of the image is a priori known (required patterns). Open source bar code readers, such as ZBar, are readily available. We exploit both these facts to provide and assess purely regularization-based methods for blind deblurring of QR bar codes in the presence of noise.

  10. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric


    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...

  11. Brain mapping in a patient with congenital blindness – a case for multimodal approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarod L Roland


    Full Text Available Recent advances in basic neuroscience research across a wide range of methodologies have contributed significantly to our understanding of human cortical electrophysiology and functional brain imaging. Translation of this research into clinical neurosurgery has opened doors for advanced mapping of functionality that previously was prohibitively difficult, if not impossible. Here we present the case of a unique individual with congenital blindness and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent neurosurgical treatment of her seizures. Pre-operative evaluation presented the challenge of accurately and robustly mapping the cerebral cortex for an individual with a high probability of significant cortical re-organization. Additionally, a blind individual has unique priorities in one’s ability to read Braille by touch and sense the environment primarily by sound than the non-vision impaired person. For these reasons we employed additional measures to map sensory, motor, speech, language, and auditory perception by employing a number of cortical electrophysiologic mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging methods. Our data show promising results in the application of these adjunctive methods in the pre-operative mapping of otherwise difficult to localize, and highly variable, functional cortical areas.

  12. Image based automatic water meter reader (United States)

    Jawas, N.; Indrianto


    Water meter is used as a tool to calculate water consumption. This tool works by utilizing water flow and shows the calculation result with mechanical digit counter. Practically, in everyday use, an operator will manually check the digit counter periodically. The Operator makes logs of the number shows by water meter to know the water consumption. This manual operation is time consuming and prone to human error. Therefore, in this paper we propose an automatic water meter digit reader from digital image. The digits sequence is detected by utilizing contour information of the water meter front panel.. Then an OCR method is used to get the each digit character. The digit sequence detection is an important part of overall process. It determines the success of overall system. The result shows promising results especially in sequence detection.

  13. Reader construction in interactive online journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    Studies suggest that online news journalists are very sceptical towards the value of the user participation, because of what they perceive as poor quality of the public participation, the scepticism varies from one interactivity feature to another and from newsroom to newsroom. This paper examines...... how online journalists are constructing their readers, seeking to explain how these views affect practices of journalism. Gans idea of the “constructed public” is re-visited, by analyzing the newsroom negotiations between one hand enabling the user participation and on the other hand their very...... scepticism towards it, dismissing audience feedback because they see it as largely unrepresentative of the general population (Gans, 1980; 230-5). The doors opened by interactivity in the newsrooms, thus equally opens the discussion of journalistic autonomy and specialist knowledge. And guarding the gate can...

  14. Blind Loop Syndrome (United States)

    ... of tissue that protrude through the intestinal wall (diverticulosis) Certain medical conditions, including Crohn's disease, radiation enteritis, ... History of radiation therapy to the abdomen Diabetes Diverticulosis of the small intestine Complications A blind loop ...

  15. Blindness and vision loss (United States)

    ... life. Alternative Names Loss of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness Images ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  16. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn


    about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...... repellent, yet 'welfare-only' positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the 'Blind Hens' Challenge'. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and theoretical reasons why even those adopting 'welfare-only' views should be concerned...

  17. Issues in Traumatic Blindness. (United States)

    Dale, B.


    This article discusses factors related to individuals with sudden blindness, focusing on the visually impaired client's readiness for rehabilitation, the reactions of family members and friends, and personality variables. Two cases illustrate the adjustment process and eventual rehabilitation. (DB)

  18. Implementation and extension of a GNU-Radio RFID reader


    G. Smietanka; S. Brato; M. Freudenberg; J. Götze


    The development of a flexible software defined RFID is discused. Commercial reader systems only allow a top level view on the communication and restrict the variation for many transmission parameters. Recently a software reader from the CGran project was proposed which uses the GNU Radio environment in combination with an USRP front end. Because most of the signal processing is done on a common host PC, this reader offers high flexibility, but also has several disadvantages. One ...

  19. Universal 3D Wearable Fingerprint Targets: Advancing Fingerprint Reader Evaluations


    Engelsma, Joshua J.; Arora, Sunpreet S.; Jain, Anil K.; Paulter Jr, Nicholas G.


    We present the design and manufacturing of high fidelity universal 3D fingerprint targets, which can be imaged on a variety of fingerprint sensing technologies, namely capacitive, contact-optical, and contactless-optical. Universal 3D fingerprint targets enable, for the first time, not only a repeatable and controlled evaluation of fingerprint readers, but also the ability to conduct fingerprint reader interoperability studies. Fingerprint reader interoperability refers to how robust fingerpr...

  20. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics


    Roodman, Aaron


    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of "experimenter's bias" and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

  1. In situ study of the impact of inter- and intra-reader variability on region of interest (ROI) analysis in preclinical molecular imaging. (United States)

    Habte, Frezghi; Budhiraja, Shradha; Keren, Shay; Doyle, Timothy C; Levin, Craig S; Paik, David S


    We estimated reader-dependent variability of region of interest (ROI) analysis and evaluated its impact on preclinical quantitative molecular imaging. To estimate reader variability, we used five independent image datasets acquired each using microPET and multispectral fluorescence imaging (MSFI). We also selected ten experienced researchers who utilize molecular imaging in the same environment that they typically perform their own studies. Nine investigators blinded to the data type completed the ROI analysis by drawing ROIs manually that delineate the tumor regions to the best of their knowledge and repeated the measurements three times, non-consecutively. Extracted mean intensities of voxels within each ROI are used to compute the coefficient of variation (CV) and characterize the inter- and intra-reader variability. The impact of variability was assessed through random samples iterated from normal distributions for control and experimental groups on hypothesis testing and computing statistical power by varying subject size, measured difference between groups and CV. The results indicate that inter-reader variability was 22.5% for microPET and 72.2% for MSFI. Additionally, mean intra-reader variability was 10.1% for microPET and 26.4% for MSFI. Repeated statistical testing showed that a total variability of CV variability has been observed mainly due to differences in the ROI placement and geometry drawn between readers, which may adversely affect statistical power and erroneously lead to negative study outcomes.

  2. Co-editors’ Note to Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh


    Full Text Available Dear Cross-Currents readers, We are pleased to present you with the fifteenth quarterly issue of the Cross-Currents e-journal. The research articles in the June 2015 issue—guest edited by Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Xiang Biao (University of Oxford, and Antonia Chao (Tunghai University—explore the theme “Governing Marriage Migrations: Perspectives from Mainland China and Taiwan.” The issue includes five articles by scholars from Japan, Germany, the UK, Taiwan, and Hong Kong who are engaged in critical analysis of cross-border migration for the purpose of marriage in the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan as a subject of governance. As the guest editors emphasize in their introduction, cross-border marriage is “perceived to be inseparable from a wide range of other issues, such as sexual morality, family norms, national identity, and border security.” The contributors—Hongfang Hao (Kyoto University, Caroline Grillot (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Mei-Hua Chen (National Sun Yat-sen University, and Hsun-Hui Tseng (Chinese University of Hong Kong—offer valuable new insights on international marriage migration in their multidisciplinary and fieldwork-based studies...

  3. Chinese Deaf Readers Have Early Access to Parafoveal Semantics (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Shu, Hua


    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea,…

  4. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level (United States)

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  5. Addressing Learning Disabilities with UDL and Technology: Strategic Reader (United States)

    Hall, Tracey E.; Cohen, Nicole; Vue, Ge; Ganley, Patricia


    CAST created "Strategic Reader," a technology-based system blending Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) in a digital learning environment to improve reading comprehension instruction. This experimental study evaluates the effectiveness of Strategic Reader using two treatment conditions for measuring…

  6. Effects of Subvocal Suppression of Learning Disabled Readers' Sentence Comprehension. (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee


    The role of subvocalization in 12 learning disabled (LD) adolescent readers' comprehension difficulties was studied. Nondisabled and LD readers were compared on silent reading and listening comprehension of noun lexical, verb lexical, semantic, and inferential sentences under conditions of suppressed and nonsuppressed subvocalization. (Author/SW)

  7. Breaking the Silence: Toward Improving LGBTQ Representation in Composition Readers (United States)

    Hudson, John


    Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender-Queer (LGBTQ) representation in composition readers remains limited and is frequently nonexistent. In addition, the LGBTQ-related materials that do find their way into composition readers are often problematic. In this essay I explain why WPAs and composition teachers should be concerned about LGBTQ representation…

  8. Sexism Springs Eternal--in the Reader's Digest. (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G.; Meadow, Wendy

    This document reports on an empirical investigation of anti-women humor appearing in the Reader's Digest over three decades, revealing the operation of an unconscious sexist ideology. A systematic analysis was made of 1,069 jokes appearing in two featured columns of the Reader's Digest for the two-year periods 1947-48, 1957-58, and 1967-68.…

  9. Accelerated Reader Program: What Do Teachers Really Think? (United States)

    Smith, Amy Frances; Westberg, Karen; Hejny, Anne


    What do teachers really think about the Accelerated Reader program, a widely used supplemental, independent reading program in which their students read fiction and non-fiction books of their choice and take brief online comprehension quizzes about the books? The Accelerated Reader (AR) program was designed by Renaissance Learning Company to…

  10. A Comparative Review of Stratification Texts and Readers (United States)

    Peoples, Clayton D.


    Social stratification is a core substantive area within sociology. There are a number of textbooks and readers available on the market that deal with this central topic. In this article, I conduct a comparative review of (a) four stratification textbooks and (b) four stratification readers. (Contains 2 tables.)

  11. Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007


    The Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance program (now called Accelerated Reader Best Classroom Practices) is a guided reading intervention in which teachers direct student reading of text. It involves two components. Reading Renaissance, the first component, is a set of recommended principles on guided reading (or teachers' direction of…

  12. Fictionalizing the Readers of Scholarly Articles in Biology. (United States)

    Gragson, Gay; Selzer, Jack


    Analyzes two scientific journal articles from a reader-response perspective. Elaborates the rhetorical nature of scientific discourse and demonstrates that even within the constraints of the journal articles, scientists have considerable freedom to exercise choices. Explicates how writers use cues to direct readers into fictional roles. (MG)

  13. Learning to Choose: The Hidden Art of the Enthusiastic Reader (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret


    Often the difference between a successful and unsuccessful reader is that the former is simply better at finding enjoyable books to read. The capacity to select appealing reading is not developed in classrooms where the decision about what book to read is made by someone other than the reader: the teacher, the curriculum planner, the person who…

  14. Teaching Materials for German. G3: Readers. Teaching Materials Lists. (United States)

    Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).

    This publication, part of a bibliography of language teaching materials, lists 91 readers. It contains a contents list, annotated entries, an index of authors, editors, compilers and adapters, and a title index. In addition to basic bibliographical details, the following are provided for each entry: an annotation describing the reader, a statement…

  15. Eye Movements Reveal Readers' Lexical Quality and Reading Experience (United States)

    Taylor, Jessica Nelson; Perfetti, Charles A.


    Two experiments demonstrate that individual differences among normal adult readers, including lexical quality, are expressed in silent reading at the word level. In the first of two studies we identified major dimensions of variability among college readers and among words using factor analysis. We then examined the effects of these dimensions of…

  16. Perceptions about "Good Readers": Analyzing Curricular, Linguistic, and Socioeconomic Differences (United States)

    Moses, Lindsey


    Students' perceptions about "what good readers do" are representative of their definition of reading and what they believe they should be striving toward as a reader. These beliefs about reading influence their motivation and ways they engage with texts. In this study, interviews were conducted with students in three first-grade…

  17. Infographics for Educational Purposes: Their Structure, Properties and Reader Approaches (United States)

    Yildirim, Serkan


    Infographics are one of the new educational environments used to provide information to their readers in a visual way. Infographics are designed to provide information to their readers using various visuals such as texts, pictures, drawings, diagrams, graphs, etc. The use of infographics becomes increasingly widespread both in advertising…

  18. "Struggling Readers: What Consultants Need to Know." The Consultant's Corner. (United States)

    Margolis, Howard


    To help struggling readers' improve their reading, educational consultants must know a great deal about reading, reading assessment, and struggling readers. This article provides basic information about these topics by discussing Lipson and Wixson's (2003) Assessment-Instruction Process, making recommendations for working with struggling readers…

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Contracted versus Alphabetical English Braille and Attitudes of English as a Foreign Language Learners: A Case Study of a Farsi-Speaking Visually Impaired Student (United States)

    Mobaraki, Mohsen; Nazarloo, Saber Atash; Toosheh, Elaheh


    In the educational system of Iran, in which English is a foreign language, the duration of primary school is six years. After that, these English as a foreign language students enter high school and start to learn English during an additional six-year period. In years seven and eight, English textbooks are embossed in alphabetic English braille;…

  20. Optimal blind quantum computation. (United States)

    Mantri, Atul; Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F


    Blind quantum computation allows a client with limited quantum capabilities to interact with a remote quantum computer to perform an arbitrary quantum computation, while keeping the description of that computation hidden from the remote quantum computer. While a number of protocols have been proposed in recent years, little is currently understood about the resources necessary to accomplish the task. Here, we present general techniques for upper and lower bounding the quantum communication necessary to perform blind quantum computation, and use these techniques to establish concrete bounds for common choices of the client's quantum capabilities. Our results show that the universal blind quantum computation protocol of Broadbent, Fitzsimons, and Kashefi, comes within a factor of 8/3 of optimal when the client is restricted to preparing single qubits. However, we describe a generalization of this protocol which requires exponentially less quantum communication when the client has a more sophisticated device.

  1. Towards More Secure Biometric Readers for Effective Digital Forensic Investigation (United States)

    Trabelsi, Zouheir; Al-Hemairy, Mohamed; Baggili, Ibrahim; Amin, Saad

    This paper investigates the effect of common network attacks on the performance, and security of several biometric readers. Experiments are conducted using Denial of Service attacks (DoSs) and the ARP cache poisoning attack. The experiments show that the tested biometric readers are vulnerable to DoS attacks, and their recognition performance is significantly affected after launching the attacks. However, the experiments show that the tested biometric readers are secure from the ARP cache poisoning attack. This work demonstrates that biometric readers are easy targets for malicious network users, lack basic security mechanisms, and are vulnerable to common attacks. The confidentiality, and integrity of the log files in the biometric readers, could be compromised with such attacks. It then becomes important to study these attacks in order to find flags that could aid in a network forensic investigation of a biometric device.

  2. Homer: The Blind Bard (United States)

    Doorley, Rachelle; King, Judith


    This article describes notable cultural, historical, and artistic elements emanating from sculptures originating in ancient Greece. The "blind bard" and its connection to the legendary Greek poet, Homer; Homer's impact on literary history; trends among Roman sculptures; and Roman replication of Greek art are described. Questions to…

  3. Examining College Students’ Reading Behaviors and Needs for Ebook Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jane Lin


    Full Text Available This study investigates college students’ reading behaviors and attitudes toward print and electronic carriers of books. With the prosperity and variety of ebook readers currently, it is important to understand the genuine needs of the users to better leverage the features and functions of the ebook readers. The methodology of survey research is conducted to explore 76 undergraduate students’ experiences, preferences and appraisals toward reading via the print books and ebook readers. Generally the college students possess positive attitudes toward and are willing to take advantage of the ebook and ebook reader services provided by libraries, but the current rate of use is low. The results suggested that student adoption of ebook readers are affected by their goals of reading. The college students prefer ebook readers significantly for leisure reading, and highly demand the functionality of multimedia presentations and file management. When reading academic contexts, the college students preferred hardcovers and online ebooks via the Web browser, and they value the functions of searching, marking and file management on ebook readers especially. [Article content in Chinese

  4. Postural control in blind subjects. (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes


    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.





    A review is made on the research and studies concerning physical and motor development of blind children. An emphasis is also put on development of hand movements as part of the whole motor development process of the blind.

  6. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares


    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  7. Teenagers Poor Readers: Evaluation of Basic Cognitive Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa del Carmen Flores Macías


    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the cognitive processes associated with reading difficulties of teenage poor readers. Several studies suggest that this population presents a poor comprehension, despite reading the words properly and have good phonological skills (which distinguishes them from a population with dyslexia. With a comparative cross-sectional design the Sicole-R multimedia battery, which assesses basic cognitive processes related to reading, was applied to participants. Results indicate that poor reader students exhibit a lower performance than normal readers in phonological awareness, orthographic processing and processing syntax, although only the latter comparison was statistically significant.

  8. Journal of Clipped Words in Reader's Digest Magazine


    Simanjuntak, Lestari


    This study deals with Clipped Words in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest. The objectives of the study are to find out the types of clipped words which are used in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest, to find out sthe dominantly used in the whole story and to reason the dominant clipped word use in the text. The study use descriptive qualitative method. The data were collected from seventeen selected Reader's Digest which contains the clipped word by applie...

  9. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey


    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enab...

  10. A Response to Matsuda and Tardy's "Voice in Academic Writing: The Rhetorical Construction of Author Identity in Blind Manuscript Review" (United States)

    Stapleton, Paul; Helms-Park, Rena


    In a recent article in ESP, Matsuda and Tardy (2007) investigate the role of voice in academic writing via a simulated blind manuscript review process. Based on their findings, they claim that voice does play a role in such writing, and call for further research into the issue of the reader's construction of authorial identity. Matsuda and Tardy's…

  11. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness]. (United States)

    Permin, H; Norn, M


    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  12. Multi-sample integrated TL/OSL reader system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.R.; Sutar, S.S.; Datta, D.


    In modern societies ionizing radiation measurements using thermo-luminescence (TL) and optically stimulated Luminescence (OSL) has occupied definite space of the applications, extending from medical dosimetry, personnel monitoring, environment monitoring and geological/archaeological dating. The need of low cost multi-sample functional TL/OSL reader system remains integral need of new age researchers. Only few such type of reader systems exist commercially. Considering this, BARC has developed low cost Multi-sample integrated TL-OSL reader (MS-ITOR) system. This reader system will fulfill the need of basic research in TL-OSL radiation dosimetry in India. The MS-ITOR-1 provides all advance TL/OSL features such as NL-TL and NL-OSL. The present paper describes its design and performance in brief

  13. Creating the Virtual Work: Readers' Processes in Understanding Literary Texts. (United States)

    Earthman, Elise Ann


    Studies the ways readers create meaning initially from literary texts. Analyzes the data collected via think-aloud protocols and interviews. Compares reading tactics of first-year college students and graduate students. (HB)

  14. A highly sensitive programmable OSL reader for research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna, P.; Gaonkar, Uma; Kulkarni, M.S.


    A highly sensitive programmable optical stimulation luminescence (OSL) reader system has been developed for research applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. The system hardware consists of stimulation source, light detection assembly, drawer assembly, high current driver for the stimulation light source, photon counting module and microcontroller card. The electronic hardware for the Reader is developed around P8952RD2BN microcontroller. Two Luxeon power LEDs (blue, 470 nm) placed diagonally opposite at 45 ° in the drawer assembly of the reader are used as a stimulation light source. The LED's together can generate a power of ∼ 100 mW/cm 2 at the sample position with a LED current of ∼ 200 mA. The reader works in constant wave-OSL (CW-OSL), light intensity modulated-OSL (LM-OSL) and nonlinear modulated OSL(NLOSL) modes of operation. The performance of the reader system is evaluated using a-Al 2 O 3 :C OSL phosphor developed in BARC. This paper discusses the study of the Reader parameters like linearity, reproducibility, sensitivity, minimum measurable dose using the Al 2 O 3 :C phosphor using CW-OSL mode. It also discusses the photoionization cross section of the Al 2 O 3 :C sample to evaluate the linearity of stimulation light intensity. The reader also has a facility to measure the LED light intensity at the sample position. The LM-OSL curves are plotted photoionization cross-section of various phosphor materials was evaluated. Such low cost reader systems are very useful for radiation dosimetry and material research. (author)

  15. A highly sensitive programmable OSL reader for research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna, P.; Gaonkar, Uma; Kulkarni, M.S.


    A Highly sensitive programmable Optical Stimulation Luminescence (OSL) reader system has been developed for Research applications in the field of radiation dosimetry. The system hardware consists of stimulation source, light detection assembly, drawer assembly, high current driver for the stimulation light source, photon counting module and microcontroller card. The electronic hardware for the Reader is developed around P8952RD2BN microcontroller. Two Luxeon power LEDs (blue, 470 nm) placed diagonally opposite at 45 deg. in the drawer assembly of the reader are used as a stimulation light source. The LEDs together can generate a power of ∼ 100 mW/cm 2 at the sample position with a LED current of ∼ 200 mA. The reader works in constant wave-OSL (CW-OSL), light intensity modulated-OSL (LM-OSL) and non linear modulated OSL (NLOSL) modes. The performance of the reader system is evaluated using a-Al 2 O 3 :C OSL phosphor developed in BARC. This paper discusses the study of the Reader parameters like linearity, reproducibility, sensitivity, minimum measurable dose of the reader for the Al 2 O 3 :C phosphor samples using CW-OSL mode. It also discusses the photoionization cross section of the Al 2 O 3 :C sample to evaluate the linearity of stimulation light intensity. For the verification of the LM-OSL mode, OSL curves are plotted and shown that how the glow peaks are shifting towards left with respect to the time scale as the stimulation light intensity increases on the sample for the same radiation exposure. It is also shown that if the ramp rate of power is constant, the LM-OSL peak height increases with respect to the increase in the exposures. This reader also gives the facility to measure the LED current and intensity at the sample position and feeds value to the PC along with the readings. (author)

  16. Inferential processes in readers with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosende-Vázquez, Marta


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to know if the source of the difficulty in making inferences, readers with Down syndrome, is in access to prior knowledge or constructing ideas from purely textual knowledge (based on Saldaña and Frith, 2002 for autism. Involved a sample of 20 students with Down syndrome and mild mental retardation (mean IQ = 60 and a control group of 20 children without cognitive deficits. They were matched as to their extent read metal age via Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (average 8 years. We created two experimental situations: a subjects had to generate inferences based on physical knowledge, b social inferences about knowledge. The ability to check and reaction times in the activation of inferences about physical and social knowledge. We also analyzed the influence that the effect "priming". Results showed: a a rate of correct inferences similar verification tasks between the two groups, b Down subjects take longer to access knowledge that the previous text, c reaction times used by subjects Down were higher in activating physical inferences, d there were no significant differences in the population without reaction times gap between physical and social inferences e subjects without deficits benefited effect "priming" in both types of inferences f Down subjects only improve reaction time in the inferences of social nature. El presente estudio pretende conocer si el origen de la dificultad para realizar inferencias, en lectores con Síndrome de Down, se encuentra en el acceso al conocimiento previo o en la construcción de ideas a partir del conocimiento puramente textual (basándonos en Saldaña y Frith, 2002 para autismo. Participó una muestra de 20 alumnos con Síndrome de Down y discapacidad mental leve (media de C.I.= 60 y un grupo control de 20 alumnos sin déficit cognitivo. Ambos fueron igualados en cuanto a su edad mental lectora medida a través de la Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (media 8 a

  17. Blind Compressed Sensing


    Gleichman, Sivan; Eldar, Yonina C.


    The fundamental principle underlying compressed sensing is that a signal, which is sparse under some basis representation, can be recovered from a small number of linear measurements. However, prior knowledge of the sparsity basis is essential for the recovery process. This work introduces the concept of blind compressed sensing, which avoids the need to know the sparsity basis in both the sampling and the recovery process. We suggest three possible constraints on the sparsity basis that can ...

  18. [Blindness and visual rehabilitation]. (United States)

    Matonti, F; Roux, S; Denis, D; Picaud, S; Chavane, F


    Blindness and visual impairment are a major public health problem all over the world and in all societies. A large amount of basic science and clinical research aims to rehabilitate patients and help them become more independent. Various methods are explored from cell and molecular therapy to prosthetic interfaces. We review the various treatment alternatives, describing their results and their limitations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. An IoT Reader for Wireless Passive Electromagnetic Sensors (United States)

    Galindo-Romera, Gabriel; Carnerero-Cano, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, José Juan; Herraiz-Martínez, Francisco Javier


    In the last years, many passive electromagnetic sensors have been reported. Some of these sensors are used for measuring harmful substances. Moreover, the response of these sensors is usually obtained with laboratory equipment. This approach highly increases the total cost and complexity of the sensing system. In this work, a novel low-cost and portable Internet-of-Things (IoT) reader for passive wireless electromagnetic sensors is proposed. The reader is used to interrogate the sensors within a short-range wireless link avoiding the direct contact with the substances under test. The IoT functionalities of the reader allows remote sensing from computers and handheld devices. For that purpose, the proposed design is based on four functional layers: the radiating layer, the RF interface, the IoT mini-computer and the power unit. In this paper a demonstrator of the proposed reader is designed and manufactured. The demonstrator shows, through the remote measurement of different substances, that the proposed system can estimate the dielectric permittivity. It has been demonstrated that a linear approximation with a small error can be extracted from the reader measurements. It is remarkable that the proposed reader can be used with other type of electromagnetic sensors, which transduce the magnitude variations in the frequency domain. PMID:28350356

  20. An IoT Reader for Wireless Passive Electromagnetic Sensors. (United States)

    Galindo-Romera, Gabriel; Carnerero-Cano, Javier; Martínez-Martínez, José Juan; Herraiz-Martínez, Francisco Javier


    In the last years, many passive electromagnetic sensors have been reported. Some of these sensors are used for measuring harmful substances. Moreover, the response of these sensors is usually obtained with laboratory equipment. This approach highly increases the total cost and complexity of the sensing system. In this work, a novel low-cost and portable Internet-of-Things (IoT) reader for passive wireless electromagnetic sensors is proposed. The reader is used to interrogate the sensors within a short-range wireless link avoiding the direct contact with the substances under test. The IoT functionalities of the reader allows remote sensing from computers and handheld devices. For that purpose, the proposed design is based on four functional layers: the radiating layer, the RF interface, the IoT mini-computer and the power unit. In this paper a demonstrator of the proposed reader is designed and manufactured. The demonstrator shows, through the remote measurement of different substances, that the proposed system can estimate the dielectric permittivity. It has been demonstrated that a linear approximation with a small error can be extracted from the reader measurements. It is remarkable that the proposed reader can be used with other type of electromagnetic sensors, which transduce the magnitude variations in the frequency domain.

  1. INTRODUCTION Childhood blindness is increasingly becoming a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of blind years resulting from blindness in children is also equal to the number of blind years due to age related cataract.10 The burden of disability in terms of blind years in these children represents a major. CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENT AT THE SCHOOL FOR THE. BLIND OWO, NIGERIA.

  2. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei


    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  3. Networks of reader and country status: an analysis of Mendeley reader statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haunschild


    Full Text Available The number of papers published in journals indexed by the Web of Science core collection is steadily increasing. In recent years, nearly two million new papers were published each year; somewhat more than one million papers when primary research papers are considered only (articles and reviews are the document types where primary research is usually reported or reviewed. However, who reads these papers? More precisely, which groups of researchers from which (self-assigned scientific disciplines and countries are reading these papers? Is it possible to visualize readership patterns for certain countries, scientific disciplines, or academic status groups? One popular method to answer these questions is a network analysis. In this study, we analyze Mendeley readership data of a set of 1,133,224 articles and 64,960 reviews with publication year 2012 to generate three different networks: (1 The network based on disciplinary affiliations of Mendeley readers contains four groups: (i biology, (ii social sciences and humanities (including relevant computer sciences, (iii bio-medical sciences, and (iv natural sciences and engineering. In all four groups, the category with the addition “miscellaneous” prevails. (2 The network of co-readers in terms of professional status shows that a common interest in papers is mainly shared among PhD students, Master’s students, and postdocs. (3 The country network focusses on global readership patterns: a group of 53 nations is identified as core to the scientific enterprise, including Russia and China as well as two thirds of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

  4. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography vs. mammography and MRI - clinical performance in a multi-reader evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallenberg, Eva M.; Schmitzberger, Florian F.; Amer, Heba; Engelken, Florian; Bick, Ulrich; Hamm, Bernd [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic of Radiology, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Ingold-Heppner, Barbara [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institut of Pathology, Berlin (Germany); Balleyguier, Corinne; Dromain, Clarisse [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Diekmann, Felix [St. Joseph-Stift Bremen, Department of Medical Imaging, Bremen (Germany); Mann, Ritse M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Renz, Diane M. [Universitaetsklinikum Jena, Department of Radiology, Jena (Germany)


    To compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) to digital mammography (MG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a prospective two-centre, multi-reader study. One hundred seventy-eight women (mean age 53 years) with invasive breast cancer and/or DCIS were included after ethics board approval. MG, CESM and CESM + MG were evaluated by three blinded radiologists based on amended ACR BI-RADS criteria. MRI was assessed by another group of three readers. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared. Size measurements for the 70 lesions detected by all readers in each modality were correlated with pathology. Reading results for 604 lesions were available (273 malignant, 4 high-risk, 327 benign). The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger for CESM alone (0.84) and CESM + MG (0.83) compared to MG (0.76) (largest advantage in dense breasts) while it was not significantly different from MRI (0.85). Pearson correlation coefficients for size comparison were 0.61 for MG, 0.69 for CESM, 0.70 for CESM + MG and 0.79 for MRI. This study showed that CESM, alone and in combination with MG, is as accurate as MRI but is superior to MG for lesion detection. Patients with dense breasts benefitted most from CESM with the smallest additional dose compared to MG. (orig.)

  5. Echoic memory processes in good and poor readers. (United States)

    Sipe, S; Engle, R W


    Four experiments were conducted to determine whether echoic memory plays a role in differences between good and poor readers. The first two experiments used a suffix procedure in which the subject is read a list of digits with either a tone control or the word go appended to the list. For lists that exceeded the length of the subjects memory span by one digit (i.e., that avoided ceiling effects), the poor readers showed a larger decrement in the suffix condition than did the good readers. The third experiment was directed at the question of whether the duration of echoic memory is different for good and poor readers. Children shadowed words presented to one ear at a rate determined to give 75-85% shadowing accuracy. The items presented to the nonattended ear were words and an occasional digit. At various intervals after the presentation of the digit, a light signaled that the subject was to cease shadowing and attempt to recall any digit that had occurred in the nonattended ear recently. Whereas good and poor readers recalled the digit equally if tested immediately after presentation, the poor readers showed a faster decline in recall of the digit as retention interval increased. A fourth experiment was conducted to determine whether the differences in echoic memory were specific to speech stimuli or occurred at a more basic level of aural persistence. Bursts of white noise were separated by 9-400 ms of silence and the subject was to say whether there were one or two sounds presented. There were no differences in detectability functions for good and poor readers.

  6. Background reduction and gain stabilisation in auto TLD badge reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna, P.; Kannan


    More than 40 Auto TLD Badge Readers are in use for country-wide personnel monitoring in India. The background of the reader consists of the two components, namely the non-radiation induced luminescence from the dosimeter and the reader background. The minimum measurable radiation dose being dependent on the variation in the background of the reader, it is important to reduce the variation in the background to as low as possible. The variation in the background of the reader was studied and it was found that there was a gradual increase in the temperature of the photo-cathode of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) as 50 badges are read over a period of 90 minutes. The resulting variation in dark current and sensitivity of the PMT was found to introduce a systematic variation in the measurement up to 7% from the first to the last badge. Simple forced N 2 gas cooling of the PMT reduces the variation to less than 2%. The results are presented. (author)

  7. CT colonography: effect of experience and training on reader performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Stuart A.; Burling, David; Morley, Simon; Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve; Bassett, Paul; Atkin, Wendy


    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of radiologist experience and increasing exposure to CT colonography on reader performance. Three radiologists of differing general experience (consultant, research fellow, trainee) independently analysed 100 CT colonographic datasets. Readers had no prior experience of CT colonography and received feedback and training after the first 50 cases from an independent experienced radiologist. Diagnostic performance and reporting times were compared for the first and second 50 datasets and compared with the results of a radiologist experienced in CT colonography. Before training only the consultant reader achieved statistical equivalence with the reference standard for detection of larger polyps. After training, detection rates ranged between 25 and 58% for larger polyps. Only the trainee significantly improved after training (P=0.007), with performance of other readers unchanged or even worse. Reporting times following training were reduced significantly for the consultant and fellow (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively), but increased for the trainee (P<0.001). In comparison to the consultant reader, the odds of detection of larger polyps was 0.36 (CI 0.16, 0.82) for the fellow and 0.36 (CI 0.14, 0.91) for the trainee. There is considerable variation in the ability to report CT colonography. Prior experience in gastrointestinal radiology is a distinct advantage. Competence cannot be assumed even after directed training via a database of 50 cases. (orig.)

  8. Phonics training for English-speaking poor readers. (United States)

    McArthur, Genevieve; Eve, Philippa M; Jones, Kristy; Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; Anandakumar, Thushara; Larsen, Linda; Marinus, Eva; Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne


    Around 5% of English speakers have a significant problem with learning to read words. Poor word readers are often trained to use letter-sound rules to improve their reading skills. This training is commonly called phonics. Well over 100 studies have administered some form of phonics training to poor word readers. However, there are surprisingly few systematic reviews or meta-analyses of these studies. The most well-known review was done by the National Reading Panel (Ehri 2001) 12 years ago and needs updating. The most recent review (Suggate 2010) focused solely on children and did not include unpublished studies. The primary aim of this review was to measure the effect that phonics training has on the literacy skills of English-speaking children, adolescents, and adults whose reading was at least one standard deviation (SD), one year, or one grade below the expected level, despite no reported problems that could explain their impaired ability to learn to read. A secondary objective was to explore the impact of various factors, such as length of training or training group size, that might moderate the effect of phonics training on poor word reading skills. We searched the following databases in July 2012: CENTRAL 2012 (Issue 6), MEDLINE 1948 to June week 3 2012, EMBASE 1980 to 2012 week 26, DARE 2013 (Issue 6), ERIC (1966 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to current), CINAHL (1938 to current), Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science (1990 to 29 June 2012), Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science & Humanities (1990 to 29 June 2012), ZETOC, Index to Theses-UK and Ireland,, ICTRP, the metaRegister of Controlled Trials, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, DART Europe E-theses Portal, Australasian Digital Theses Program, Education Research Theses, Electronic Theses Online System, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations

  9. A study on the development of an infographic reader questionnaire and reader opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Serkan


    Full Text Available Educational materials are commonly used to assist with communication during learning. One of the ways to determine the use of educational materials and their contribution to the learning process is to ask students for their opinions. Student opinions provide useful information regarding various objectives such as making both the learning process and resources more effective, bringing about the necessary improvements and organising the teaching process. In this study, we developed a questionnaire for determining the opinions of information graphics (infographics readers on information graphics prepared for teaching purposes. This study was conducted in the fall semester of the 2013-2014 academic year with the participation of 59 students from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education of the Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education. The students were provided with a questionnaire consisting of 29 items that inquired their opinions on infographics. The collected data were assessed using Principal Component Analysis. Based on the analysis results, a second questionnaire consisting of 23 items and six factors (Learnability, Selection Preferences, Sharing, Basic Presentation Structure, Memorability, and Role in the Learning Process was developed. According to the study results, the students considered infographics as highly instructive, and described that they help ensure a more lasting learning experience.

  10. Education Game to Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Oktorina Kusuma Sakti


    Now there are blind people who have their formal and informal education. Even though they cannot see, they can take benefit from another sense, like sense of hearing, palpability, smell, and taste. Their senses can be a modal to study. Developer games have their build game in audio to blind people too. Their game is variation between audio games and online games, so games can be used for blind people as an education tools. In this paper, there will be an explanation about how to facilitate blind people to study with paper

  11. Blind Quantum Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvail, Louis; Arrighi, Pablo


    We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situa......We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x....... The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation...... protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The cheat-sensitive security achieved relies only upon quantum theory being true. The security analysis carried out assumes the eavesdropper performs individual attacks....

  12. The Visceral Novel Reader and Novelized Medicine in Georgian Britain. (United States)

    Class, Monika

    The article introduces "the visceral novel reader" as a diachronic, context-sensitive mode of novelistic reception, in which fact and fiction overlap cognitively: the mental rehearsal of the activity of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touching while reading novels and, vice versa, the mental rehearsal of novels in the act of perceiving the real world. Located at the intersection of literature, medicine and science, "the visceral novel reader" enhances our understanding of the role that novels played in the dialectic construction of erudition in English. In Georgian Britain, reading practices became a testing ground for the professionalization of physicians, natural philosophers, and men of letters. While it was in the professionals' common interest to implement protocols that taught readers to separate body from mind, and fact from fiction, novels came to stand for "debased" (visceral) reading. Novels inverted these notions by means of medicalization (regimentation, somatization, and individuation) and contributed to the professional stratification of medicine and literature.

  13. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso


    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included

  14. Cognitive Processes in Discourse Comprehension: Passive Processes, Reader-Initiated Processes, and Evolving Mental Representations (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne


    As readers move through a text, they engage in various types of processes that, if all goes well, result in a mental representation that captures their interpretation of the text. With each new text segment the reader engages in passive and, at times, reader-initiated processes. These processes are strongly influenced by the readers'…

  15. How Do Fluent and Poor Readers' Endurance Differ in Reading? (United States)

    Bastug, Muhammet; Keskin, Hasan Kagan; Akyol, Mustafa


    It was observed in this research how endurance status of fluent readers and poor readers changed as the text became longer. 40 students of the primary school 4th-grade, 20 were fluent readers and other 20 were poor readers, participated in the research. A narrative text was utilised in the data collection process. Students' oral readings were…

  16. When high-capacity readers slow down and low-capacity readers speed up: Working memory and locality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eNicenboim


    Full Text Available We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German, while taking into account readers’ working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008 and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slow-down produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005. Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  18. Hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection (United States)

    Thompson, Deanna Lynn; Coleman, Matthew A; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Albala, Joanna; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian


    A hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection includes a microarray reader engineered to be small enough for portable applications. The invention includes a high-powered light-emitting diode that emits excitation light, an excitation filter positioned to receive the excitation light, a slide, a slide holder assembly for positioning the slide to receive the excitation light from the excitation filter, an emission filter positioned to receive the excitation light from the slide, a lens positioned to receive the excitation light from the emission filter, and a CCD camera positioned to receive the excitation light from the lens.

  19. Using Randomized Clinical Trials to Determine the Impact of Reading Intervention on Struggling Adolescent Readers: Reports of Research from Five Nationally Funded Striving Readers Grants (United States)

    Loadman, William; Sprague, Kim; Hamilton, Jennifer; Coffey, Deb; Faddis, Bonnie


    In 2005, the U.S. Department of Education awarded eight Striving Readers grants to projects around the country. The goal of Striving Readers is to improve literacy skills and achievement for struggling readers in middle and high school and to increase the research base using randomized clinical research to address improvement in adolescent…

  20. Reversible blindness in fulminating preeclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tung CF, Peng YC, Chen GH, Chow WK, Yang DY, Hu WH. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. (HELLP) syndrome with acute cortical blindness. Chin. Med J (Taipei) 2001;64:482-5. 5. Cunningham FG, Fernandez CO, Hernandez C. Blindness associated with preeclampsia and eclampsia. Am J.

  1. Overview on Deaf-Blindness (United States)

    Miles, Barbara


    It may seem that deaf-blindness refers to a total inability to see or hear. However, in reality deaf-blindness is a condition in which the combination of hearing and visual losses in children cause "such severe communication and other develop mental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A review is made on the research and studies concerning physical and motor development of blind children. An emphasis is also put on development of hand movements as part of the whole motor development process of the blind.

  3. The parts of a research paper? What your readers expect (United States)

    Scientific papers are organized into sections that are easy for scientific readers to follow. This second part of a three part series, summarizes the points that should be considered when writing the main sections of a research report. These sections typically include Introduction Methods, Results,...

  4. English Language Learners Utilizing the Accelerated Reader Program (United States)

    Gomez, Frank, II


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact (positive, negative, or neutral) of Accelerated Readers (AR), a standard based intervention, on the academic achievement of English Language Learners at Carolina Herrera Elementary School. Carolina Herrera Elementary School, was analyzed using these specific lenses: (1) curriculum and…

  5. Dose reader of dosimetric foil; Czytnik dawki folii dozymetrycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaj, B.; Strzalkowski, J.; Smolko, K.


    Read out the absorbance of a dosimetric foil is accomplished by two beam spectrophotometer. Such a solution makes possible the compensation of light source instabilities and ensures higher stability of the dose reader. The error of absorbance measurement caused by the instabilities does not exceed 0.0004 A. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs.

  6. Digital Books and Your Rights: A Checklist for Readers (United States)

    McSherry, Corynne; Cohn, Cindy


    After several years of false starts, the universe of digital books seems at last poised to expand dramatically. Readers should view this expansion with both excitement and wariness. Excitement because digital books could revolutionize reading, making more books more findable and more accessible to more people in more ways than ever before.…

  7. Using Audiobooks to Meet the Needs of Adolescent Readers (United States)

    Wolfson, Gene


    Audiobooks may be used with adolescent readers to improve fluency, expand vocabulary, activate prior knowledge, develop comprehension, and increase motivation to interact with books. Removing the restraints of word recognition and decoding allows a very positive focus on the meaning behind an author's words. This provides an opportunity for many…

  8. Learning Strategies in Proficient and Less Proficient Readers in Medicine (United States)

    Nemati, Majid; Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Ashrafzadeh, Anis


    The current study aimed to diagnose the probable significant differences in the use of language learning strategies among medical-text readers of opposite sex from different levels of proficiency. 120 (N = 120) participants were randomly selected from Azad Medical University of Mashhad: 60 medical students (age range 23-25; 30 = male and 30 =…

  9. Growing Readers and Writers with Help from Mother Goose. (United States)

    Hamner, Devon

    Primary-grade children can learn rhythm and rhyme from nursery rhymes. But those same poems can be used to help young students make connections to letters, sounds, and word chunks. This lesson lets Mother Goose help children grow as readers and writers. During the 5-10 minutes per day for these lessons, students will: develop a feel for the rhythm…

  10. Student Attitudes toward Accelerated Reader: "Thanks for Asking!" (United States)

    Smith, Amy; Westberg, Karen


    The Accelerated Reader program was designed by Renaissance Learning to increase students' motivation to read and students' achievement in reading; however, a review of the literature reveals inconsistent findings about its outcomes. The Renaissance Learning company reports several research studies on their website that suggest the program is…

  11. Strategy Availability and Use by Good and Poor Readers. (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert M.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    Two studies investigated the use of graphic and contextual information in word recognition, and the extent to which good and poor fourth grade readers were flexible in their ability to trade off one type of information for another as situations warranted. The subjects orally read stories containing ten altered words, with a single letter…

  12. Machine-Translated Text: Is It Comprehensible to Proficient Readers? (United States)

    Leffa, Vilson J.


    This paper examines the development and testing of a machine-translation program designed to translate English text into Portuguese. A comparison of machine- and human-translated texts, using Brazilian secondary school students as readers, found that they were equally understood, both in terms of main ideas and details. (six references) (MDM)

  13. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  14. Perception of Undergraduate Newspaper Readers on the Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found, among other things, that although most newspaper readers read because they want to be informed and educated, some are discouraged from reading because of the level of language use in some of these papers. In spite of geolinguistic and socio-cultural differences, the study shows that the perception of ...

  15. The Impact of Open Licensing on the Early Reader Ecosystem (United States)

    Butcher, Neil; Hoosen, Sarah; Levey, Lisbeth; Moore, Derek


    The Impact of Open Licensing on the Early Reader Ecosystem examines how to use open licensing to promote quality learning resources for young children that are relevant and interesting. Research in early reading tends to focus on traditional publishing value and supply chains, without taking much consideration of new approaches and solutions…

  16. English for Mass Communications and for Other Purposes-Readers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was an investigation into the way readers perceive the use of English, for different purposes, and in particular, for mass communication in a second language setting. For this purpose, a simple questionnaire in form of the Likert rating scale was used to generate data. The study involved 337 respondents.

  17. Selecting literature for beginner readers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hibbert, Liesel


    Full Text Available This article explores complexities of choosing appropriate reading material which may provide maximum engagement for beginner readers in Southern Africa, with the aim of instilling a lifelong love of reading. The article presents a case in favour of literary criteria as base line for choices of reading material for beginner readers. Furthermore, the article outlines general characteristics of reading material for beginner readers, as well as specific criteria to be considered in the Southern African context, taking into account the linguistic diversity which exists in formal education and the vast literacy backlog in the region. Furthermore, it is argued that translated children’s stories should ideally be adapted rather than literally translated, in order to meet the requirements of what is universally regarded as good children’s literature for beginner readers. A culture of reading can only be instilled by adhering to the following criteria, i.e. ensuring affective engagement, maximum meaning-making potential, delight, the engagement of the imagination for the purposes of developing the creative mind, and strong identification with the material for the purposes of developing a sense of agency.

  18. Phonological Activation of Word Meanings in Grade 5 Readers (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Ashby, Jane; Agauas, Stephen J.; Levy, Betty Ann


    Three experiments examined the role of phonology in the activation of word meanings in Grade 5 students. In Experiment 1, homophone and spelling control errors were embedded in a story context and participants performed a proofreading task as they read for meaning. For both good and poor readers, more homophone errors went undetected than spelling…

  19. Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund National Library Power Program. (United States)

    School Library Media Annual (SLMA), 1993


    Describes the National Library Power Program, a collaborative effort sponsored by the Dewitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund in cooperation with local education funds and public school districts that was designed to create public elementary and middle school library programs that are central to the education program of the school. (LRW)

  20. ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Stavarache, Lucia Larise; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; McNamara, Danielle S.; Bianco, Maryse


    Dascalu, M., Stavarache, L.L., Dessus, P., Trausan-Matu, S., McNamara, D.S., & Bianco, M. (2015). ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework. In G. Conole, T. Klobucar, C. Rensing, J. Konert & É. Lavoué (Eds.), 10th European Conf. on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 505–508). Toledo,

  1. Spongelike Acquisition of Sight Vocabulary in Beginning Readers? (United States)

    Stuart, Morag; Masterson, Jackie; Dixon, Maureen


    Investigates the relation between phonological awareness, sound-to-letter mapping knowledge, and printed word learning in novice five-year-old readers. Explores effects of visual memory and of teaching methods. Finds mental representations of printed words are more easily formed by beginners who are able to match at least some of the phonological…

  2. En guide til gyset. Horror: The Film Reader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus


    Der er gennem tiden skrevet og teoretiseret vidt og bredt om, hvad horrorgenren er for en størrelse – og det med skiftende held. Antologien Horror: The Film Reader forsøger at levere en både bred og dybdegående introduktion til det mudrede genrefelt, som horror er. Det lykkedes langt hen af vejen....

  3. The influence of psychological type preferences on readers trying To ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Around 65% could do so ('imaginers') and 35% could not. The likelihood of being an imaginer was higher among (i) women than among men, (ii) those who preferred intuition to sensing or feeling to thinking, and (iii) those who were most charismatically active. Readers with intuition as their dominant function were most ...

  4. Prosodic Awareness and Punctuation Ability in Adult Readers (United States)

    Heggie, Lindsay; Wade-Woolley, Lesly


    We examined the relationship between two metalinguistic tasks: prosodic awareness and punctuation ability. Specifically, we investigated whether adults' ability to punctuate was related to the degree to which they are aware of and able to manipulate prosody in spoken language. English-speaking adult readers (n = 115) were administered a receptive…

  5. Child Readers and the Worlds of the Picture Book (United States)

    Baird, Adela; Laugharne, Janet; Maagerø, Eva; Tønnessen, Elise Seip


    Children as readers of picture books and the ways they respond to, and make meaning from, such texts are the focus of this article, which reports on a small-scale study undertaken in Norway and Wales, UK. The theoretical framing of the research draws on concepts of the multimodal ensemble in picture books and of the reading event as part of a…

  6. Moral Choices in Contemporary Society: A Courses by Newspaper Reader. (United States)

    Rieff, Philip, Ed.; Finkle, Isaac, Ed.

    This reader, which contains 135 primary source readings about morality, is one of several college-level instructional materials developed to supplement a nationwide newspaper course on moral issues in contemporary society. The authors represent a diverse group including theologians, psychologists, politicians, professional athletes, lawyers, and…

  7. An Experimental Examination of Readers' Perceptions of Media Bias. (United States)

    D'Alessio, Dave


    Explores perceptions of media bias by manipulating expectations of bias and news topic. Explains that university students read dummy newspaper articles and then responded to a survey. Concludes that readers were more likely to designate material opposing their own views as biased. (PM)

  8. Does Linguistic Comprehension Support the Decoding Skills of Struggling Readers? (United States)

    Blick, Michele; Nicholson, Tom; Chapman, James; Berman, Jeanette


    This study investigated the contribution of linguistic comprehension to the decoding skills of struggling readers. Participants were 36 children aged between eight and 12 years, all below average in decoding but differing in linguistic comprehension. The children read passages from the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability and their first 25 miscues…

  9. Reader Response and the Verbal Icon: Implications for English Education. (United States)

    Harker, W. John

    During the past 15 years, a fundamental change has taken place in literary criticism, with a decline in New Criticism (literature viewed as a public object) and an increase in reader response criticism (literature viewed as a private experience). New Critics considered the meaning of a literary text to exist within the text as an independent and…

  10. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool (United States)

    Brezicki, Colin


    The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

  11. Video Vortex reader II: moving images beyond YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.; Somers Miles, R.


    Video Vortex Reader II is the Institute of Network Cultures' second collection of texts that critically explore the rapidly changing landscape of online video and its use. With the success of YouTube ('2 billion views per day') and the rise of other online video sharing platforms, the moving image

  12. The Development of Visual Search Strategies in Biscriptal Readers. (United States)

    Liow, Susan Rikard; Green, David; Tam, Melissa


    To test whether cognitive processing in bilingual depends on script combinations and language proficiency, this study investigated the development of alphabetic and logographic visual search strategies in two kinds of biscriptals: (1) Malay-English and (2) Chinese-English readers. Results support the view that there are script implications of…

  13. The Role of Reader in Felpo Filva, by Eva Furnari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elvira L. Gebara


    Full Text Available In order to analyze the relationship between writer-reader and mediation of the text, it is necessary to identify the positions they occupy. Before the Internet, it was not common for the reader to approach the writer directly, except though letters. This virtual (but not digital contact is modelling to understand the reader’s relationship with the author because, in the written lines, he ends up indicating how he understands himself and the other – in a game of faces, understood in this work as Kerbrat-Orecchioni (2006 it characterizes in conversation. In this hyper-gender, without socio-historical restrictions or of categorization (MAINGUENEAU, 2010, there is a mandatory provision that constrains the sender to identify his position from the moment he chooses how to address the recipient. In these forms of treatment, the relationships of preservation or threat to the in the light of what is extended or made explicit in the treatment given to the theme of the letter to be outlined. This article aims to identify the concepts of the reader in the correspondence exchanged by the main characters, Charlô and Felpo, core of the development of the narrative (FURNARI, 2006. These concepts allow us to comprehend, in a discursive and dialogical perspective, which boundaries remain for the reader towards the text and which are outdated.

  14. Statistical comparison of ROC curves from multiple readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swaving, M; VanHouwelingen, H; Ottes, FP; Steerneman, T


    Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis is the commonly accepted method for comparing diagnostic imaging systems. In general, ROC studies are designed in such a way that multiple readers read the same images and each image is presented by means of two different imaging systems. Statistical

  15. Instructions That Enhance Multiple-Text Comprehension for College Readers (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Kwon, Heekyung; Therriault, David J.


    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that prereading instructions, including how to self-explain during reading, would enhance multiple-text comprehension for college readers. Three prereading instruction conditions included a control condition that provided only the instruction for participants to try to comprehend well; a definition-only…

  16. Reader practice in mammography screen reporting in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, W.; Poulos, A.; Brennan, P.


    Full text: Reader variability is a problem in mammography image reporting and compromises the efficacy of screening programmes. The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey reader practice in reporting screening mammograms in Australia to identify aspects of practice that warrant further investigation. Mammography reporting practice and influences on concentration and attention were investigated by using an original questionnaire distributed to screen readers in Australia. A response rate of 71% (83 out of 117) was achieved. Demographic data indicated that the majority of readers were over 46 years of age (73%), have been reporting on screening mammograms for over 10 years (61%), take less than 1 min to report upon a screening mammogram examination (66%), report up to 200 examinations in a single session (83%) and take up to 2 h to report one session (61%). A majority report on more than 5000 examinations annually (66%); 93% of participants regard their search strategy as systematic, 87% agreed that their concentration can vary throughout a session, 64% agreed that the relatively low number of positives can lead to lapses in concentration and attention and almost all (94%) participants agreed that methods to maximise concentration should be explored. Participants identified a range of influences on concentration within their working environment including volume of images reported in one session, image types and aspects of the physical environment. This study has provided important evidence of the need to investigate adverse influences on concentration during mammography screen reporting

  17. Trends in Teacher Certification: Equipping Teachers to Prepare Proficient Readers (United States)

    Rowland, Julie


    Ensuring that students are reading proficiently by third grade is a key component of keeping students on track to graduate high school and pursue college and careers. Because of the magnitude of this academic milestone, states typically pursue policies that promote early identification and intervention for struggling readers. However, teachers are…

  18. Image based quantitative reader for Lateral flow immunofluorescence assay. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Kaushik Basak; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar


    Fluorescence Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) have wide range of applications in point-of-care testing (POCT). An integrated, motion-free, accurate, reliable reader that performs automated quantitative analysis of LFIA is essential for POCT diagnosis. We demonstrate an image based quantitative method to read the lateral flow immunofluorescence test strips. The developed reader uses line laser diode module to illuminate the LFIA test strip having fluorescent dye. Fluorescence light coming from the region of interest (ROI) of the LFIA test strip was filtered using an emission filter and imaged using a camera following which images were processed in computer. A dedicated control program was developed that automated the entire process including illumination of the test strip using laser diode, capturing the ROI of the test strip, processing and analyzing the images and displaying of results. Reproducibility of the reader has been evaluated using few reference cartridges and HbA1c (Glycated haemoglobin) test cartridges. The proposed system can be upgraded to a compact reader for widespread testing of LFIA test strips.

  19. Using Jacqueline Woodson's "Locomotion" with Middle School Readers (United States)

    Napoli, Mary; Ritholz, Emily Rose


    Motivation is an essential component in developing a love of reading in middle level struggling students. For these readers, novels in verse bridge the gap to more challenging pieces of literature. In this article, Title One students explored Locomotion by Jacqueline Woodson and learned that they, too, are poets. (Contains 9 figures.)

  20. Empowering Adolescent Readers: Intertextuality in Three Novels by David Almond (United States)

    Latham, Don


    In "Skellig," "Kit's Wilderness," and "Clay", David Almond employs various types of intertextuality to enrich his narratives. Through the use of allusion, adaptation, collage, and mise-en-abyme, he encourages his adolescent readers to seek out precursor texts and to consider the interrelationships between these texts and his own. By so doing, he…

  1. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moth Moth Myint Thein


    Full Text Available Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface GUI. This system will have the required databases for students attendance teachers subjects and students details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C language is used to implement this system.

  2. Mnemonic Strategy Instruction for Beginning Readers with Cognitive Impairments (United States)

    Burton, Rivka


    Many students with cognitive impairments are not afforded the opportunity to develop their potential as readers. A review of the literature reveals that few researchers have evaluated the effects of phonics instruction on the reading skills of students with cognitive impairments. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a…

  3. The Effect of the Reader's Background on Reading Comprehension Performance (United States)

    Al-Noori, Bushra Saadoon Mohammed


    This study aims at measuring the amount of the effect of the reader's background knowledge on performance in reading comprehension tests through the assessment of information gained in reading comprehension (RC) tests across-four testing techniques, short answer questions ,true-false items, multiple-choice items, and cloze test and re-test. This…

  4. Taxation: Myths and Realities. A Courses by Newspaper Reader. (United States)

    Break, George F., Ed.; Wallin, Bruce, Ed.

    This reader is one of two supplementary materials for a newspaper course about taxation and tax reform. Five units contain 75 primary-source readings about topics such as tax loopholes, social security financing, income tax reform, the impact of taxes on the economy, and alternatives to the property tax. Sources include government publications,…

  5. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes ... Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a scientist? Click to Watch ...

  6. Low-Skilled Adult Readers Look Like Typically Developing Child Readers: A Comparison of Reading Skills and Eye Movement Behavior (United States)

    Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk


    Adults enrolled in basic education exhibit poor academic performance, often reading at elementary and middle-school levels. The current study investigated the similarities and differences of reading skills and eye movement behavior between a sample of 25 low-skilled adult readers and 25 first grade students matched on word reading skill. t tests…

  7. Mind the Gap: Bridging the Divide between Non-Readers and Lifelong Readers with Hi-Lo Books (United States)

    Gleason, Carrie


    In the past few years, there has been increasing demand from school librarians for books for "reluctant readers"--despite the impressive offering of children's literature published each year and the success of blockbuster series like "Harry Potter, Diary of a Wimpy Kid, Twilight," and "Hunger Games," among others. This is also in addition to all…

  8. American Foundation for the Blind (United States)

    ... and Electronic Materials Webinars and Online Courses Accessible Technology AccessWorld ® : Technology News for People Who Are Blind ... Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma ...

  9. Sonority constraints on onset-rime cohesion: evidence from native and bilingual Filipino readers of English. (United States)

    Alonzo, Angelo; Taft, Marcus


    Research in English suggests that syllables can be analyzed in terms of two subunits-the onset (defined as the initial consonant or consonant cluster) and the rime (the unit formed by the vowel and following consonant/s). This study investigated whether nonnative readers of English, which in the case of the present study were native Filipino speakers, also make use of onset-rime units, particularly when some features of their native language (namely infixation and reduplication) appear to foster no awareness of such units. In two lexical decision experiments, monosyllabic English words were presented, divided in between their first and second consonants (e.g., B LIND), at their onset-rime boundary (e.g., BL IND), or at their antibody boundary (e.g., BLI ND). Results indicated that the processes of infixation and reduplication did not affect the English word processing of native Filipino speakers. Rather, results for both native Filipino and native English speakers suggest that onsets composed of an "s + consonant" sequence (e.g., STAMP) are less cohesive than onsets comprised of a stop-liquid sequence (e.g., BLIND). It was concluded that not only may sonority constraints underlie onset cohesiveness, but that such phonetic properties may also be involved in visual word recognition. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  10. A TLD reader for wide range in situ dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S; Apathy, I.; Bodnar, L.; Csoeke, A.; Hejja, I.


    A portable thermoluminescent dosemeter reader suitable for reading at the site of exposure is described. The instrument consists of a glass bulb containing the CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent material laminated to the surface of an electrically heated resistive metal plate. The bulb is encapsulated in a cylindrical, pen-like metal holder made of aluminium. A one-wire-port integrated electronic programmable memory chip mounted inside the holder contains the identification code and the individual calibration parameters of the dosemeter. The aperture of the holder is normally covered by a stainless steel tube to protect the bulb from light and mechanical shocks. The tube slips backwards automatically when the dosemeter is inserted into the reader. The system is used by the Hungarian nuclear power plant. (M.D.)

  11. Social Imaginary in web advertising of e-readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Marcela Angelozzi


    Full Text Available This paper explores the imaginary meanings that appear in the advertising discourses on e-book reading devices commonly known as e-readers. It starts from the assumption that imaginary meanings are associated with both: the imaginary associated to digital technologies (Cabrera, 2006, 2011 and to the imaginary of "order of books" (Chartier, 2000, 2005. In order to carry out the exploration, the advertising discourses in the homepages of three cases are analized: The Amazon Kindle, Kobo and MovistarBq brands. The conclusion is that e-readers are devices that participate of the imaginary of the digital technologies as other devices in the complex of digital technologies in everyday life, and also refers strongly to the imaginary meanings related to printed books.

  12. Power Efficient Gurumukhi Unicode Reader Design and Implementation on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Singh, Sunny; Pandey, Bishwajeet


    Gurumukhi is found to be the most widely used language of Pakistan, and it is ranked 3rd in Canada, 7th in India and almost 4th most spoken language in U.K. This Unicode Reader is cost effective solution for learning as well as understanding the Punjabi language by the people across the globe .Th...... Impedance) logic families to make this design more energy efficient. It is concluded that using LVDCI_DV2_15 rather than SSTL18_II_DCI, the total power can be saved up to 51.22% with the device operating at a frequency of 1MHz.......) and is implemented on Virtex-6 FPGA on Xilinx software. This GUR design is tested on different frequencies by applying frequency scaling techniques .The reader is also observed on different IO Standards of two logic families i.e. on SSTL (Stub-Series Terminated Logic) and LVDCI (Low Voltage Digitally Controlled...

  13. Simple pendulum for blind students (United States)

    Goncalves, A. M. B.; Cena, C. R.; Alves, D. C. B.; Errobidart, N. C. G.; Jardim, M. I. A.; Queiros, W. P.


    Faced with the need to teach physics to the visually impaired, in this paper we propose a way to demonstrate the dependence of distance and time in a pendulum experiment to blind students. The periodic oscillation of the pendulum is translated, by an Arduino and an ultrasonic sensor, in a periodic variation of frequency in a speaker. The main advantage of this proposal is the possibility that a blind student understands the movement without necessity of touching it.

  14. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Mostafavi, Nayyer Sadat; Mahmoudi, Golshan; Berenjkoub, Nafiseh; Akmali, Zahra; Hossein-Beigi, Fahimeh; Arsang, Vajiheh


    Background: The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Human serum samples were collected from 14 healthy donors (9 women and 5 men) and each sample was divided into four aliquots and was placed into four batches for the in-vitro quantitative determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). During colorimetric reading of the first, second, and third batches, the ELISA reader (Stat Fax 2100, Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) was exposed to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 W exposure of 900 MHz radiation, respectively. For the forth batch (control group), no radiation was applied. All experiments were performed comparing ELISA read out results of the I, II, and III batches with the control batch, using the Wilcoxon test with criterion level of P = 0.050. Results: The final scores in the exposed batches I, II, and III were not statistically significant relative to the control batch (P > 0.05). The results showed that 900 MHz radiation exposure did not alter the ELISA measured levels of hCG hormone in I (P = 0.219), II (P = 0.909), and III (P = 0.056) batches compared to the control batch. Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance). However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:27376040

  15. Afrikaans literature, Breyten Breytenbach, prison poetry, the reader ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Breyten Breytenbach's poetry the “I” is complex. “I” and “you”, the writer and the reader, are not represented with constituted meanings but as signifiers and as part of language production. This article reflects on the development process of the writer as the textual “I”, the “I” narrator in the poetic text – the “I” of language that ...

  16. An improved PC based TL reader for research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratna, P.; Gaikwad, N.P.; More, V.S.; Kulkarni, M.S.


    A new improved PC based TL Reader for its applications in routine dosimetry and research is described. The reader can generate glow curves both time versus TL response and temperature versus TL response with an overall reproducibility of ± 1 %. Here the main thing is design of a linear temperature controller capable of (± 0.5 %) reproducing a selected linear heating rate (0.5 - 60 deg C/s) up to a clamping temperature (500 deg C). Some of the limitations faced in the earlier versions of TL reader for dosimetry have been improved in this system. In the earlier versions, temperature can be clamped only up to 400 deg C and heating rate can be selected up to 35 deg C/s. It is a PC based instrument, where parameters like heating rate, end point temperature, EHT, cycle time etc can be entered and stored in the memory of the microcontroller IC. Phosphors can be in the form of powder, disc, tape etc. When the sample (in the powder form) is loaded on the kanthal heater directly, spilIage of the powder inside the drawer assembly takes place. This leads to the collection of the powder inside the drawer assembly. A small removable sample tray is designed using the same material (kanthal) to avoid the spillage of the sample powder. An elaborate study was carried to find out the lag in temperature when the sample is loaded on the tray and results were compared with the sample directly on the heater. To evaluate the performance of the reader for higher temperature, glow curves were taken for some new phosphors whose glow peaks were above 350 deg C. (author)

  17. The Use of English Collocations in Reader's Digest


    Sinaga, Yudita Putri Nurani; Sinaga, Lidiman Sahat Martua


    This descriptive qualitative study is aimed at identifying and describing the types of free collocations found in the articles of Reader's Digest. By taking a sample of ten articles from different months for each year since 2003 up to 2012, it was found all the four productive free collocations were in the data. Type 4 (Determiner + Adjective + Noun) was the dominant type (53.92 %). This was possible because the adjective in the pattern included the present participle and past participle of v...

  18. A Malawian school library: culture, literacy and reader development


    Anderson, J.; Matthews, P.


    Purpose: This project aimed to investigate the success and suitability of a Western-donated school library in furthering the aims of literacy and reader development in Malawi.\\ud \\ud Methodology: A qualitative, case study approach was taken using extensive interviews with school teachers and a library assistant at a primary school in Malawi.\\ud \\ud Findings: Contrary to a common discourse that libraries are of limited value in a predominately oral culture, the research revealed a valuable rol...

  19. Mexican Serials: Titles, Contents and Readers of Treasures to Tap


    Lau, Jesús


    Mexican journals are usually ignored at local and foreign universities despite the fact that they convey the most updated academic and scientific information generated by national researchers and writers. Libraries and readers have difficulty in accessing Mexican journals, because local serials are normally out of the mainstream of journal indexing and full-text databases from the industrialized world. The barriers for local journals are many, among them the language, limited marketing, and...

  20. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  1. STARtorialist: Astronomy Fashion & Culture Blog and Reader Survey Results (United States)

    Ash, Summer; Rice, Emily L.; Jarreau, Paige B.


    STARtorialist ( is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of "Astro Fashion" - clothing accessories, decor, and more - with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the astronomical imagery. Since launching in January 2013, we have written over 1000 unique posts about everything from handmade and boutique products to mass-produced commercial items to haute couture seen on fashion runways. Each blog post features images and descriptions of the products with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. We also feature profiles of astronomers, scientists, students, and communicators wearing, making, or decorating with "startorial" items. Our most popular posts accumulate hundreds or thousands of notes (faves or reblogs, in Tumblr parlance), and one post has nearly 150,000 notes. In our second year, we have grown from 1,000 to just shy of 20,000 followers on Tumblr, with an increased audience on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook as well. We present preliminary results from a reader survey conducted September-October 2015 in collaboration with science communication researcher Dr. Paige Jarreau. The survey provides data on reader habits, motivations, attitudes, and demographics in order to assess how STARtorialist has influenced our readers' views on science, scientists, and the scientific community as a whole.

  2. Acute work injuries among electric utility meter readers. (United States)

    Sahl, J D; Kelsh, M A; Haines, K D; Sands, F K; Kraus, J


    This report provides estimates of incidence rates for acute work injuries for a well defined cohort of electric utility meter readers. Specifically, person-time rates by sex, age, and job experience are evaluated by part of body injured and type of injury. Meter readers experienced 731 acute lost time [11.1 per 100 person-work years; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.3-11.9] and 4,401 acute non-lost time (66.5 per 100 person-work years; 95% CI = 64.6-68.5) work injuries over the study period, 1980-1992. Women had nearly twice the lost time injury rate as men (17.5 vs 9.6 per 100 person-work years). There is an inverse relation between job experience and both lost time and non-lost time injuries. Although these data are limited to the electric utility industry, they may be relevant to occupations with similar tasks and environments, including residential gas and water supply industry meter readers and postal carriers.

  3. Social  reading - the reader on digital margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Despot


    Full Text Available Electronic books enrich the reading experience through a range of possibilities digital technology offers, such as commenting or adding content at the margin space, marking interesting chapters and sharing the content with other readers. The phenomenon of social reading emerges with the influence of technology in the sphere of reading books and creates interactions for readers with the content and other readers. The great potential of enriching the reading experience is visible in the digital platforms for social reading, where the interaction and the creation of new content encourages the development of new way of reading and creativity. These activities may contribute to better understanding of the text. This enhances the communication about the text thus revitalizing the content and moves the reading itself from private to public sphere. This paper will show how are the activities in the digital margins transformed into a good indicator of the reading behavior, as well as the importance and usefulness of such for publishers to create new publishing products and services.

  4. Text Mining in Python through the HTRC Feature Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Organisciak


    Full Text Available We introduce a toolkit for working with the 13.6 million volume Extracted Features Dataset from the HathiTrust Research Center. You will learn how to peer at the words and trends of any book in the collection, while developing broadly useful Python data analysis skills. The HathiTrust holds nearly 15 million digitized volumes from libraries around the world. In addition to their individual value, these works in aggregate are extremely valuable for historians. Spanning many centuries and genres, they offer a way to learn about large-scale trends in history and culture, as well as evidence for changes in language or even the structure of the book. To simplify access to this collection the HathiTrust Research Center (HTRC has released the Extracted Features dataset (Capitanu et al. 2015: a dataset that provides quantitative information describing every page of every volume in the collection. In this lesson, we introduce the HTRC Feature Reader, a library for working with the HTRC Extracted Features dataset using the Python programming language. The HTRC Feature Reader is structured to support work using popular data science libraries, particularly Pandas. Pandas provides simple structures for holding data and powerful ways to interact with it. The HTRC Feature Reader uses these data structures, so learning how to use it will also cover general data analysis skills in Python.

  5. Integrated rapid-diagnostic-test reader platform on a cellphone. (United States)

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan


    We demonstrate a cellphone-based rapid-diagnostic-test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 g, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting diode (LED)-based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 s per image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT, as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data), to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android-based smartphones and an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist healthcare professionals and policymakers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness.

  6. Modeling Reader's Emotional State Response on Document's Typographic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tsonos


    Full Text Available We present the results of an experimental study towards modeling the reader's emotional state variations induced by the typographic elements in electronic documents. Based on the dimensional theory of emotions we investigate how typographic elements, like font style (bold, italics, bold-italics and font (type, size, color and background color, affect the reader's emotional states, namely, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD. An experimental procedure was implemented conforming to International Affective Picture System guidelines and incorporating the Self-Assessment Manikin test. Thirty students participated in the experiment. The stimulus was a short paragraph of text for which any content, emotion, and/or domain dependent information was excluded. The Analysis of Variance revealed the dependency of (a all the three emotional dimensions on font size and font/background color combinations and (b the Pleasure dimension on font type and font style. We introduce a set of mapping rules showing how PAD vary on the discrete values of font style and font type elements. Moreover, we introduce a set of equations describing the PAD dimensions' dependency on font size. This novel model can contribute to the automated reader's emotional state extraction in order, for example, to enhance the acoustic rendition of the documents, utilizing text-to-speech synthesis.

  7. Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...

  8. Real and virtual explorations of the environment and interactive tracking of movable objects for the blind on the basis of tactile-acoustical maps and 3D environment models. (United States)

    Hub, Andreas; Hartter, Tim; Kombrink, Stefan; Ertl, Thomas


    PURPOSE.: This study describes the development of a multi-functional assistant system for the blind which combines localisation, real and virtual navigation within modelled environments and the identification and tracking of fixed and movable objects. The approximate position of buildings is determined with a global positioning sensor (GPS), then the user establishes exact position at a specific landmark, like a door. This location initialises indoor navigation, based on an inertial sensor, a step recognition algorithm and map. Tracking of movable objects is provided by another inertial sensor and a head-mounted stereo camera, combined with 3D environmental models. This study developed an algorithm based on shape and colour to identify objects and used a common face detection algorithm to inform the user of the presence and position of others. The system allows blind people to determine their position with approximately 1 metre accuracy. Virtual exploration of the environment can be accomplished by moving one's finger on a touch screen of a small portable tablet PC. The name of rooms, building features and hazards, modelled objects and their positions are presented acoustically or in Braille. Given adequate environmental models, this system offers blind people the opportunity to navigate independently and safely, even within unknown environments. Additionally, the system facilitates education and rehabilitation by providing, in several languages, object names, features and relative positions.

  9. Reduced Text Structure at Two Text Levels: Impacts on the Performance of Technical Readers. (United States)

    Wenger, Michael J.; Spyridakis, Jan H.


    Studies empirically the effects on reader performance of reduced text structure in technical writing texts. Reveals that removal of cues to local coherence produced reliable decrements in reader performance. Discusses results with regard to questions of information design. (HB)

  10. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography vs. mammography and MRI - clinical performance in a multi-reader evaluation. (United States)

    Fallenberg, Eva M; Schmitzberger, Florian F; Amer, Heba; Ingold-Heppner, Barbara; Balleyguier, Corinne; Diekmann, Felix; Engelken, Florian; Mann, Ritse M; Renz, Diane M; Bick, Ulrich; Hamm, Bernd; Dromain, Clarisse


    To compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) to digital mammography (MG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a prospective two-centre, multi-reader study. One hundred seventy-eight women (mean age 53 years) with invasive breast cancer and/or DCIS were included after ethics board approval. MG, CESM and CESM + MG were evaluated by three blinded radiologists based on amended ACR BI-RADS criteria. MRI was assessed by another group of three readers. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared. Size measurements for the 70 lesions detected by all readers in each modality were correlated with pathology. Reading results for 604 lesions were available (273 malignant, 4 high-risk, 327 benign). The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger for CESM alone (0.84) and CESM + MG (0.83) compared to MG (0.76) (largest advantage in dense breasts) while it was not significantly different from MRI (0.85). Pearson correlation coefficients for size comparison were 0.61 for MG, 0.69 for CESM, 0.70 for CESM + MG and 0.79 for MRI. This study showed that CESM, alone and in combination with MG, is as accurate as MRI but is superior to MG for lesion detection. Patients with dense breasts benefitted most from CESM with the smallest additional dose compared to MG. • CESM has comparable diagnostic performance (ROC-AUC) to MRI for breast cancer diagnostics. • CESM in combination with MG does not improve diagnostic performance. • CESM has lower sensitivity but higher specificity than MRI. • Sensitivity differences are more pronounced in dense and not significant in non-dense breasts. • CESM and MRI are significantly superior to MG, particularly in dense breasts.

  11. Causes of blindness in blind unit of the school for the handicapped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the causes of blindness in pupils and staff in the blind unit of the School for the Handicapped in Kwara State. 2. To identify problems in the blind school and initiate intervention. All the blind or visually challenged people in the blind unit of the school for the handicapped were interviewed and examined using a ...

  12. Subgrouping Poor Readers on the Basis of Individual Differences in Reading-Related Abilities


    Catts, Hugh W.; Hogan, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E.


    The present study investigated the use of the Reading Component Model to subgroup poor readers. A large sample of poor readers was identified in second grade and subgrouped on the basis of relative strengths and weaknesses in word recognition and listening comprehension. Although homogeneous subgroups were not identified, poor readers could be classified into four subgroups that differed significantly in reading-related abilities. Further analyses showed that poor readers' strengths and weakn...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Frederico


    Full Text Available This work explores the interactive book app for children as a form of literary expression that requires from the young reader the capacity to orchestrate various forms of literacy to promote their ability of reading critically multimodal, digital and interactive texts. Serafini’s model for the analysis of picturebooks in three levels, perceptive, structural, and ideological (SERAFINI, 2010; 2015, is proposed as a didactic tool to promote these multiliteracies at school through the reading of picturebook apps.

  14. Neutral vs positive oral contrast in diagnosing acute appendicitis with contrast-enhanced CT: sensitivity, specificity, reader confidence and interpretation time (United States)

    Naeger, D M; Chang, S D; Kolli, P; Shah, V; Huang, W; Thoeni, R F


    Objective The study compared the sensitivity, specificity, confidence and interpretation time of readers of differing experience in diagnosing acute appendicitis with contrast-enhanced CT using neutral vs positive oral contrast agents. Methods Contrast-enhanced CT for right lower quadrant or right flank pain was performed in 200 patients with neutral and 200 with positive oral contrast including 199 with proven acute appendicitis and 201 with other diagnoses. Test set disease prevalence was 50%. Two experienced gastrointestinal radiologists, one fellow and two first-year residents blindly assessed all studies for appendicitis (2000 readings) and assigned confidence scores (1=poor to 4=excellent). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. Total interpretation time was recorded. Each reader's interpretation with the two agents was compared using standard statistical methods. Results Average reader sensitivity was found to be 96% (range 91–99%) with positive and 95% (89–98%) with neutral oral contrast; specificity was 96% (92–98%) and 94% (90–97%). For each reader, no statistically significant difference was found between the two agents (sensitivities p-values >0.6; specificities p-values>0.08), in the area under the ROC curve (range 0.95–0.99) or in average interpretation times. In cases without appendicitis, positive oral contrast demonstrated improved appendix identification (average 90% vs 78%) and higher confidence scores for three readers. Average interpretation times showed no statistically significant differences between the agents. Conclusion Neutral vs positive oral contrast does not affect the accuracy of contrast-enhanced CT for diagnosing acute appendicitis. Although positive oral contrast might help to identify normal appendices, we continue to use neutral oral contrast given its other potential benefits. PMID:20959365

  15. Tactile Approaches for Teaching Blind and Visually-Impaired Students in the Geosciences (United States)

    Permenter, J. L.; Runyon, C.


    Hearing and touch are perhaps the two most important senses for teaching visually-impaired students in any context. Classroom lectures obviously emphasize the auditory aspects of learning, while touch is often relegated to either Braille texts or raised--line drawings for illustrative figures. From the student's perspective, some lecture topics, especially in the sciences, can be a challenge to grasp without additional stimuli. Geosciences have a distinct visual component that can be lost when teaching blind or visually-impaired students, particularly in the study of geomorphology and landform change. As an example, the matters raised concerning volcanic hazards can be difficult to envision without due attention to the limitations of visually-impaired students. Here, we suggest an example of a tactile approach for introducing the study of volcanoes and the hazards associated with them. Large, visually-stimulating images of a volcanic, populated region in southern Peru are supplied for those students who have poor but extant visual acuity, while precise, clay-based models of the region complement the images for those students, as well as for students who have no visual ability whatsoever. We use a model of the terrestrial volcano El Misti and the nearby city of Arequipa, Peru, to directly reflect the volcanic morphology and hazardous aspects of the terrain. The use of computer-generated digital elevation models from remote sensing imaging systems allows accurate replication of the regional topography. Instructors are able to modify these clay models to illustrate spatial and temporal changes in the region, allowing students to better grasp potential geological and geographical transformations over time. The models spawn engaging class discussions and help with designing hazard mitigation protocols.

  16. 5 CFR 315.711 - Readers, interpreters, and personal assistants serving under Schedule A appointments. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Readers, interpreters, and personal... or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.711 Readers, interpreters, and... noncompetitively to career or career-conditional employment, a reader, interpreter, or personal assistant: (1) Who...

  17. Training readers to improve their accuracy in grading Crohn's disease activity on MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boellaard, Thierry N.; Nio, C. Yung; Stoker, Jaap


    To prospectively evaluate if training with direct feedback improves grading accuracy of inexperienced readers for Crohn's disease activity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-one inexperienced readers assessed 25 cases as a baseline set. Subsequently, all readers received training and

  18. Long-Term Performance of Readers Trained in Grading Crohn Disease Activity Using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puylaert, Carl A. J.; Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boellaard, Thierry N.; Nio, C. Yung; Stoker, Jaap


    We aim to evaluate the long-term performance of readers who had participated in previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reader training in grading Crohn disease activity. Fourteen readers (8 women; 12 radiologists, 2 residents; mean age 40; range 31-59), who had participated in a previous MRI

  19. Reading Maps Remake RA: Re-Create a Book's Entire Universe Online, and Transform Readers' Advisory (United States)

    Wyatt, Neal


    For years, readers' advisory librarians focused primarily on matching readers to books based upon the concept of appeal--traditionally considered pacing, character, story line, and frame (setting, tone, atmosphere, etc.). Books have internal lives of their own that readers want to reexperience, and they have additional elements or references that…

  20. Computer Games versus Maps before Reading Stories: Priming Readers' Spatial Situation Models (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Majchrzak, Dan; Hayes, Shelley; Drobisz, Jack


    The current study investigated how computer games and maps compare as preparation for readers to comprehend and retain spatial relations in text narratives. Readers create situation models of five dimensions: spatial, temporal, causal, goal, and protagonist (Zwaan, Langston, & Graesser 1995). Of these five, readers mentally model the spatial…

  1. French Immersion Experience and Reading Skill Development in At-Risk Readers (United States)

    Kruk, Richard S.; Reynolds, Kristin A. A.


    We tracked the developmental influences of exposure to French on developing English phonological awareness, decoding and reading comprehension of English-speaking at-risk readers from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Teacher-nominated at-risk readers were matched with not-at-risk readers in French immersion and English language programs. Exposure to spoken…

  2. Flexibility in reading literature. Differences between good and poor adolescent readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.; Braaksma, M.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; van den Bergh, H.


    Previous research has shown that adolescent readers differ in their ‘online’ processing of literary texts. Differences were found in the extent to which these readers performed certain (meta)cognitive and affective activities while reading literary texts. However, readers might also differ in

  3. Follow the Reader: An Effective Strategy to Support Students Reading More Complex Text (United States)

    Klvacek, Michelle L.; Monroe, Eula Ewing; Wilcox, Brad; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Morrison, Timothy G.


    This article describes how one second-grade teacher implemented Follow the Reader, her term for dyad reading. Common Core expects students to read increasingly complex texts. Teachers can implement dyad reading with this end in mind. It is a modified version of the neurological impress method in which a lead reader and an assisted reader sit side…

  4. A comparative evaluation of oral hygiene using Braille and audio instructions among institutionalized visually impaired children aged between 6 years and 20 years: A 3-monthfollow-up study. (United States)

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Nara, Asha; Kumari, Parveen Reddy; Halemani, Praveen Kumar Nugadoni; Buddiga, Vinutna; Mythri, Sarpangala


    The aim of this study is to compare the oral hygiene status among institutionalized visually impaired children of age between 6 and 20 years given with Braille and audio instructions in Raichur city of Karnataka. A total of 50 children aged between 6 to 20 years were included in this study from a residential school for visually impaired children. These children were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was given oral hygiene instructions by audio recordings and another written in Braille and were instructed to practice the same. After three months time the oral hygiene status and dental caries experience was recorded and compared using patient performance index. Statistical analysis was done by student paired t test and multiple comparison by Tukey's HSD (honest significant difference) test. The mean PHP (Patient Hygiene Performance) score of group A at baseline was 3.88 compared to 3.90 of group B. At 7 days PHP score of group A and group B was 3.42 and 3.45 respectively. At 3 month PHP score of group A and group B was 2.47 and 2.86 respectively. Even though over a period of time the mean score of PHP index reduced the score comparison between the 2 groups were statistically non significant. In group A the mean difference of PHP score between baseline and 7 days was 0.46, between baseline and 3 months it was 1.40. The PHP score between 7 days and 3 months was 0.94. All the above values were statistically significant. Effective dental health education method has to be instituted for visually impaired children. The present study shows improvement of oral health status in both the study population by decrease in the mean plaque score. Hence continuous motivation and reinforcement in the form of Braille and audio instruction is beneficial to achieve good oral hygiene levels in visually impaired children.

  5. Future trends in global blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Resnikoff


    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to discuss the available data on the prevalence and causes of global blindness, and some of the associated trends and limitations seen. A literature search was conducted using the terms "global AND blindness" and "global AND vision AND impairment", resulting in seven appropriate articles for this review. Since 1990 the estimate of global prevalence of blindness has gradually decreased when considering the best corrected visual acuity definition: 0.71% in 1990, 0.59% in 2002, and 0.55% in 2010, corresponding to a 0.73% reduction per year over the 2002-2010 period. Significant limitations were found in the comparability between the global estimates in prevalence or causes of blindness or visual impairment. These limitations arise from various factors such as uncertainties about the true cause of the impairment, the use of different definitions and methods, and the absence of data from a number of geographical areas, leading to various extrapolation methods, which in turn seriously limit comparability. Seminal to this discussion on limitations in the comparability of studies and data, is that blindness has historically been defined using best corrected visual acuity.

  6. From Shell Shock to Shellac: The Great War, Blindness, and Britain's Talking Book Library. (United States)

    Rubery, Matthew


    Britain's Talking Book Service began as a way of providing reading material to soldiers blinded during the First World War. This account traces the talking book's development from the initial experiments after the War to its debut and reception among blind soldiers and civilians in the 1930s. It has been put together using archives held by the Royal National Institute of Blind People (before its Royal Charter, the NIB) and Blind Veterans UK (formerly St. Dunstan's), the two organizations responsible for Britain's Talking Book Service. The essay's first section reconstructs the search for an alternative way of reading that would benefit people with vision impairments. The next part demonstrates the talking book's impact on the lives of people with disabilities, recovering the voices of blind readers left out of most histories of books, literacy, and reading practices in the twentieth century. The final section reconstructs a debate over the value of recorded books, showing that disputes over their legitimacy are as old as recorded books themselves. In sum, this essay confronts the central issue raised by the convergence of books, media, and disability in the War's aftermath: can a book talk?

  7. The Usefulness Metrics of The Most Popular eReader Used by Higher Education Students


    Dwi Puspita Sari; Elicia Lanham; Lei Pan


    In the digital technology era, mobile devices have an important rule to deploy a copy of data and information through the network. An electronic reader (eReader) allows readers to read written materials in an electronic manner that is available in many models. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of eReader by higher education students. We firstly identified the most frequently used eReader by surveying higher education students. The survey results showed that Apple iPad, Amaz...

  8. Integrated fluency instruction: Three approaches for working with struggling readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kuhn


    Full Text Available Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text’s meaning as they read. All three approaches integrate instructional principles known to improve reading fluency (modeling, scaffolding, repetition, and extensive opportunity for the reading of connected text. They are also clear and easy-to-implement and have proven successful with struggling readers. As a result, these approaches contribute to learners’ reading success both within and outside of the classroom.

  9. Integrated Fluency Instruction: Three Approaches for Working with Struggling Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie KUHN


    Full Text Available Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text’s meaning as they read. All three approaches integrate instructional principles known to improve reading fluency (modeling, scaffolding, repetition, and extensive opportunity for the reading of connected text. They are also clear and easy-to-implement and have proven successful with struggling readers. As a result, these approaches contribute to learners’ reading success both within and outside of the classroom.

  10. First French reader a beginner's dual-language book

    CERN Document Server

    Appelbaum, Stanley


    This excellent anthology offers the beginning French-language student a first taste of some of the world's most significant prose. Chosen for both their eloquence and ease of reading, excerpts from such masterpieces as Les Misérables, The Red and the Black, Madame Bovary, Carmen, and The Three Musketeers will open new worlds for linguists. Readers will savor the words of fifty great writers of multiple genres from the seventeenth through twentieth centuries, including Voltaire, Rousseau, Balzac, Baudelaire, Dumas, Proust, and other literary virtuosos.Lucid and accessible, the unabridged Englis

  11. Sentiment Perception of Readers and Writers in Emoji use


    Berengueres, Jose; Castro, Dani


    Previous research has traditionally analyzed emoji sentiment from the point of view of the reader of the content not the author. Here, we analyze emoji sentiment from the point of view of the author and present a emoji sentiment benchmark that was built from an employee happiness dataset where emoji happen to be annotated with daily happiness of the author of the comment. The data spans over 3 years, and 4k employees of 56 companies based in Barcelona. We compare sentiment of writers to reade...

  12. Epidemiology of blindness in children. (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Teoh, Lucinda; Rahi, Jugnoo


    An estimated 14 million of the world's children are blind. A blind child is more likely to live in socioeconomic deprivation, to be more frequently hospitalised during childhood and to die in childhood than a child not living with blindness. This update of a previous review on childhood visual impairment focuses on emerging therapies for children with severe visual disability (severe visual impairment and blindness or SVI/BL).For children in higher income countries, cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve anomalies remain the most common causes of SVI/BL, while retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and cataract are now the most common avoidable causes. The constellation of causes of childhood blindness in lower income settings is shifting from infective and nutritional corneal opacities and congenital anomalies to more resemble the patterns seen in higher income settings. Improvements in maternal and neonatal health and investment in and maintenance of national ophthalmic care infrastructure are the key to reducing the burden of avoidable blindness. New therapeutic targets are emerging for childhood visual disorders, although the safety and efficacy of novel therapies for diseases such as ROP or retinal dystrophies are not yet clear. Population-based epidemiological research, particularly on cerebral visual impairment and optic nerve hypoplasia, is needed in order to improve understanding of risk factors and to inform and support the development of novel therapies for disorders currently considered 'untreatable'. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Arsanilic acid blindness in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R.W.; Kintner, L.D.; Selby, L.A.; Stewart, R.W.; Marlenfeld, C.J.


    Blindness in pigs that were given an overdosage of arsanilic acid is reported. A 0.0375% level of arsanilic acid was fed to 640 pigs for 90 days beginning when the animals were 3 months old. Approximately one month after the start of feeding, partial or complete blindness was observed in 50 of the pigs. Clinical signs, pathologic findings and the chemical analysis of hair are discussed. The level of arsanilic acid used was that recommended for the control of swine dysentery, to be fed for only five or six days. The overdosage resulted from a misunderstanding between the farmer and the feed mill.

  14. Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals. (United States)

    Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka


    Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.

  15. A Minkowski Fractal Circularly Polarized Antenna for RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhong Yu


    Full Text Available A design of fractal-like antenna with circular polarization for radio frequency identification (RFID reader applications is presented in this article. The modified Minkowski fractal structure is adopted as radiating patch for size reduction and broadband operation. A corner-truncated technology and a slot-opened method are employed to realize circular polarization and improve the gain of the proposed antenna, respectively. The proposed antenna is analyzed and optimized by HFSS. Return loss and maximum gain of the optimized antenna achieve to -22.2 dB and 1.12 dB at 920 MHz, respectively. The optimized design has an axial ratio (AR of 1.2 dB at central frequency of 920 MHz and impedance bandwidth (S11<=-10 dB of 40 MHz (4.3 %. Its input impedance is (57.9-j2.6 W that is close to input impedance of coaxial line (50 W. Numerical results demonstrate that the optimized antenna exhibits acceptable performances and may satisfy requirements of RFID reader applications.

  16. From Reader to Writer: Citizen Journalism as News Produsage (United States)

    Bruns, Axel

    Today, participatory or citizen journalism - journalism which enables readers to become writers - exists online and offline in a variety of forms and formats, operates under a number of editorial schemes, and focuses on a wide range of topics from the specialist to the generic and the micro-local to the global. Key models in this phenomenon include veteran sites Slashdot and Indymedia, as well as news-related weblogs; more recent additions into the mix have been the South Korean OhmyNews, which in 2003 was “the most influential online news site in that country, attracting an estimated 2 million readers a day” (Gillmor, 2003a, p. 7), with its new Japanese and international offshoots, as well as the Wikipedia with its highly up-to-date news and current events section and its more recent offshoot Wikinews, and even citizen-produced video news as it is found in sites such as YouTube and

  17. Detection of prostate cancer with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI): effect of dedicated reader education on accuracy and confidence of index and anterior cancer diagnosis. (United States)

    Garcia-Reyes, Kirema; Passoni, Niccolò M; Palmeri, Mark L; Kauffman, Christopher R; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Polascik, Thomas J; Gupta, Rajan T


    To evaluate the impact of dedicated reader education on accuracy/confidence of peripheral zone index cancer and anterior prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis with mpMRI; secondary aim was to assess the ability of readers to differentiate low-grade cancer (Gleason 6 or below) from high-grade cancer (Gleason 7+). Five blinded radiology fellows evaluated 31 total prostate mpMRIs in this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study for index lesion detection, confidence in lesion diagnosis (1-5 scale), and Gleason grade (Gleason 6 or lower vs. Gleason 7+). Following a dedicated education program, readers reinterpreted cases after a memory extinction period, blinded to initial reads. Reference standard was established combining whole mount histopathology with mpMRI findings by a board-certified radiologist with 5 years of prostate mpMRI experience. Index cancer detection: pre-education accuracy 74.2%; post-education accuracy 87.7% (p = 0.003). Confidence in index lesion diagnosis: pre-education 4.22 ± 1.04; post-education 3.75 ± 1.41 (p = 0.0004). Anterior PCa detection: pre-education accuracy 54.3%; post-education accuracy 94.3% (p = 0.001). Confidence in anterior PCa diagnosis: pre-education 3.22 ± 1.54; post-education 4.29 ± 0.83 (p = 0.0003). Gleason score accuracy: pre-education 54.8%; post-education 73.5% (p = 0.0005). A dedicated reader education program on PCa detection with mpMRI was associated with a statistically significant increase in diagnostic accuracy of index cancer and anterior cancer detection as well as Gleason grade identification as compared to pre-education values. This was also associated with a significant increase in reader diagnostic confidence. This suggests that substantial interobserver variability in mpMRI interpretation can potentially be reduced with a focus on education and that this can occur over a fellowship training year.

  18. Blind Naso-Endotracheal Intubation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difficult endotracheal intubation techniques include, use of fiberoptic bronchoscope, intubating laryngeal mask airway, tracheostomy, blind nasotracheal and retrograde intubation. According to the Difficult Airway Society guidelines, intubating with the aid of a fiberoptic scope has taken its place as the standard adjuvant for.

  19. Piagetian Reasoning and the Blind. (United States)

    Hatwell, Yvette

    Available for the first time in an English translation, the book reports the results of a series of studies undertaken in the early 1960s on the cognitive development of children with congenital blindness. Chapters one and two review the literaure on such topics as the concept of sensory compensation and the nature of tactual space and provide…

  20. Aquatic Recreation for the Blind. (United States)

    Cordellos, Harry C.

    The sixth in a series of booklets on physical education and recreation for the handicapped describes aquatic activities for blind persons. Written by a partially sighted athlete, the document discusses swimming pool characteristics and special pools for the visually impaired. Qualities of swimming instructors are reviewed, and suggestions for…

  1. Metro Navigation for the Blind (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio


    This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…

  2. Finding children who are blind


    Mohammad, A Muhit


    Children who are blind need to be found as early as possible so they can be examined, treated, referred, or rehabilitated. This is crucial if they are to have the best possible chance of proper childhood development, education, and participation in broader social life.

  3. Finding children who are blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Muhit


    Full Text Available Children who are blind need to be found as early as possible so they can be examined, treated, referred, or rehabilitated. This is crucial if they are to have the best possible chance of proper childhood development, education, and participation in broader social life.

  4. Vesicouterine fistula and blind vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Hameed, S.; Asif, S.


    A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)

  5. Writer-reader contagion of inspiration and related states: Conditional process analyses within a cross-classified writer × reader framework. (United States)

    Thrash, Todd M; Maruskin, Laura A; Moldovan, Emil G; Oleynick, Victoria C; Belzak, Will C


    A longstanding tradition in the humanities holds that a writer's inspiration is infectious, but this thesis has not been tested. We hypothesized that (a) inspiration is infectious, such that inspired writers are more inspiring to the average reader; (b) contagion is mediated by the insightfulness of the text; and (c) contagion is moderated by readers' openness to experience, such that open readers are more prone to contagion. To test these hypotheses, a sample of 195 student writers, each of whom wrote 1 poem, was crossed with a sample of 220 student readers, who read all poems. Data were available for 36,020 cells of the resulting Writer × Reader matrix. Our analytic approach integrated cross-classified multilevel modeling with conditional process analysis. As hypothesized, writers who were more inspired elicited higher levels of inspiration in the average reader. Inspiration contagion was mediated by the insightfulness and pleasantness of the text and was partially suppressed by originality. Inspiration contagion was moderated by reader openness. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that open readers were prone to contagion because they were tolerant of the originality and sublimity of inspired writing. Additional analyses differentiated contagion of inspiration from contagion of its covariates (awe, positive affect), documented effects of writer inspiration on reader enthrallment (awe, chills), and showed that writer effort is a poor predictor of reader states. The infectiousness of inspiration-through poetry, if not also through scripture and academic writing-suggests that a given instance of inspiration may have far-reaching cultural implications, including dissemination of innovations and ideologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people ...

  7. What It's Like to Be Color Blind (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers ... your clothes don't match, someone might have teased you about being color blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean ...

  8. On imitation among young and blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted people. Imitation among blind young is a multi-sensory process that requires a body experience, including both blind and people who see. The paper concludes with an indication of the unique character of imitation and at the same time, with the affirmation of its relevance to the development and inclusion process of both the child and the young blind.

  9. Effect of computer-aided detection as a second reader in multidetector-row CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Thomas; Peloschek, Philipp; Plank, Christina; Maier, Andrea; Weber, Michael; Herold, Christian; Schima, Wolfgang; Graser, Anno; Bogoni, Luca


    Our purpose was to assess the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) on lesion detection as a second reader in computed tomographic colonography, and to compare the influence of CAD on the performance of readers with different levels of expertise. Fifty-two CT colonography patient data-sets (37 patients: 55 endoscopically confirmed polyps ≥0.5 cm, seven cancers; 15 patients: no abnormalities) were retrospectively reviewed by four radiologists (two expert, two nonexpert). After primary data evaluation, a second reading augmented with findings of CAD (polyp-enhanced view, Siemens) was performed. Sensitivities and reading time were calculated for each reader without CAD and supported by CAD findings. The sensitivity of expert readers was 91% each, and of nonexpert readers, 76% and 75%, respectively, for polyp detection. CAD increased the sensitivity of expert readers to 96% (P = 0.25) and 93% (P = 1), and that of nonexpert readers to 91% (P = 0.008) and 95% (P = 0.001), respectively. All four readers diagnosed 100% of cancers, but CAD alone only 43%. CAD increased reading time by 2.1 min (mean). CAD as a second reader significantly improves sensitivity for polyp detection in a high disease prevalence population for nonexpert readers. CAD causes a modest increase in reading time. CAD is of limited value in the detection of cancer. (orig.)

  10. Skew angle effects in shingled magnetic recording system with double/triple reader head array (United States)

    Elidrissi, Moulay Rachid; Sann Chan, Kheong; Greaves, Simon; Kanai, Yasushi; Muraoka, Hiroaki


    Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR) is a scheme used to extend the life of the current perpendicular magnetic recording technology. SMR enables writing narrow tracks with a wide writer. Currently, SMR employs a single reader and will suffer inter-track interference (ITI) as the tracks become comparable in width to the reader. ITI can be mitigated by using narrower readers; however, narrower readers suffer from increased reader noise. Another approach to combat ITI is to process 2D readback and use ITI cancellation schemes to retrieve the data track. Multiple readbacks can be obtained either with a single reader and multiple revolutions or with a reader array. The former suffers from increased readback latency. In this work, we focus on the latter. When using a reader array, the skew angle poses major challenges. During writing, there is increased adjacent track erasure, and during readback the effective reader pitch varies and there is an increase in the 2D intersymbol interference caused by the rotated reader profile. In this work, we run micromagnetic simulations at different skew angles to train the grain flipping probability model, and then evaluate raw bit channel error rate performance at skew. In particular, we investigate the performance degradation caused by skewing of the 2 or 3 read head array for various read-head geometries.

  11. "VisionTouch Phone" for the Blind. (United States)

    Yong, Robest


    Our objective is to enable the blind to use smartphones with touchscreens to make calls and to send text messages (sms) with ease, speed, and accuracy. We believe that with our proposed platform, which enables the blind to locate the position of the keypads, new games and education, and safety applications will be increasingly developed for the blind. This innovative idea can also be implemented on tablets for the blind, allowing them to use information websites such as Wikipedia and newspaper portals.

  12. Blind Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Attitudes. (United States)

    Agarwal, Rita; Piplani, Rashmi


    This study examined the perception of parental attitudes of 50 blind adolescents in northern India. Results indicated that blind girls perceived their parents as being more accepting and less rejecting than did blind boys, a result explained by culturally determined differences in social sex roles. (DB)

  13. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida


    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  14. Nominal Realism in Congenitally Blind Children. (United States)

    Anderson, D. W.; Fisher, K. P.


    The study of 10 congenitally blind and 10 sighted children (ages 3 through 9) indicated that preoperational thought patterns of nominal realism remain longer for blind than for sighted children indicating a delay in (Piagetian) cognitive development of congenitally blind children and their need for appropriate cognitive and linguistic experiences.…

  15. Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest For Undergraduates (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna; Astrobites Team


    Astrobites ( is a daily blog aimed primarily at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions around the world. Nearly every day we present a journal article recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences. In addition to summarizing new work, Astrobites provides valuable context for readers not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We will discuss the Astrobites format and recent readership statistics, as well as potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom.

  16. Updates from Astrobites: The Astro-ph Reader's Digest (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin; Chisari, N.; Donaldson, J.; Dressing, C. D.; Drout, M.; Faesi, C.; Fuchs, J. T.; Kohler, S.; Lovegrove, E.; Mills, E. A.; Nesvold, E.; Newton, E. R.; Olmstead, A.; Vasel, J. A.; Weiss, L. M.; Astrobites Team


    Astrobites ( is a daily blog aimed at undergraduates interested in astrophysical research and written by a team of graduate students located at diverse institutions across the United States. Primarily, we present journal articles recently posted to astro-ph in a brief format that is accessible to anyone with a general background in the physical sciences, including readers who are not yet familiar with the astrophysical literature. Special posts offer career guidance for undergraduates (e.g. applying for an NSF graduate fellowship) and describe personal experiences (e.g. attending an astronomy summer school). We present recent readership statistics and potential methods for incorporating Astrobites into the classroom. We also discuss the Astrobites format across multiple social media platforms, including the newly launched Astroplots, and highlight our recent work organizing the annual "Communicating Science" workshop for graduate students.

  17. Research on Positioning Algorithm of Forklift-mounted RFID Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjin Wang


    Full Text Available To conduct real-time and accurate positioning of the forklifts (people and goods in the warehouse is an effective means for improving warehouse management efficiency. To this end, this article puts forward the active positioning system with the forklift installed with RFID reader and the ground passageway embedded with RFID tag. In the running process, the position of forklift can be determined through recognition of the reference tags which are embedded at both sides of the passageway based on the three-side layout at right angle principle and their RSSI value. The positional accuracy can be improved by adjusting the layout distance of those reference tags. The experimental results show that this system can realize the positioning function of forklift, and it can be used in practical situations.

  18. Readers' opinion about English original articles in Ugeskrift for Laeger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Rosberg, Hanne Mohr; Rosenberg, J.


    in original articles from Danish into English. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted as an on-line questionnaire among the members of the DMA. A systematic sample was drawn from the Danish Medical Association's member database. The sample comprised a total of 1,970 e-mail addresses. Among these, 1......,952 were valid, and 1,952 physicians were invited to participate by e-mail. RESULTS: The response rate (1,046/1,952) was 54%. Among the participants, 43% were specialists, 36% were junior doctors and 20% general practitioners. Overall, 45% of the respondents publish scientific articles, and particularly...... specialists and junior doctors did not object to the shift from Danish to English language. CONCLUSION: Our survey showed that the readers and authors were willing to accept a shift from Danish into English publication language for original research papers...

  19. Understanding a reader's attraction to a literary short text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Luis Banegas


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand why a reader may feel attracted to a short stretch of fictional discourse. I analyse a short extract taken from Khaled Hosseini’s novel A Thousand Splendid Suns through the integration of different perspectives in discourse analysis. First, I analyse the text in terms of contexts of culture and situation including field, tenor, mode, participants’ social world, setting, channel, and key. In the second section I attempt to examine the text line by line following my interdisciplinary framework of reference. Secondly, I offer a line-by-line analysis through Grice’s maxims, topicality, deixis, coding time, types of utterances and verbal processes, and metaphors. Through my analysis I discovered that my reader’s attraction was based on the combination and integration of different textual devices and my personal interpretation of the pragmatics behind the text.

  20. Exploring intra- and inter-reader variability in uni-dimensional, bi-dimensional, and volumetric measurements of solid tumors on CT scans reconstructed at different slice intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Binsheng, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Tan, Yongqiang, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Bell, Daniel J., E-mail: [North Middlesex University Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Marley, Sarah E., E-mail: [AstraZeneca, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Guo, Pingzhen, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Mann, Helen, E-mail: [AstraZeneca, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Scott, Marietta L.J., E-mail: [AstraZeneca, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Schwartz, Lawrence H., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ghiorghiu, Dana C., E-mail: [AstraZeneca, Alderley Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire (United Kingdom)


    Objective: Understanding magnitudes of variability when measuring tumor size may be valuable in improving detection of tumor change and thus evaluating tumor response to therapy in clinical trials and care. Our study explored intra- and inter-reader variability of tumor uni-dimensional (1D), bi-dimensional (2D), and volumetric (VOL) measurements using manual and computer-aided methods (CAM) on CT scans reconstructed at different slice intervals. Materials and methods: Raw CT data from 30 patients enrolled in oncology clinical trials was reconstructed at 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mm slice intervals. 118 lesions in the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes were analyzed. For each lesion, two independent radiologists manually and, separately, using computer software, measured the maximum diameter (1D), maximum perpendicular diameter, and volume (CAM only). One of them blindly repeated the measurements. Intra- and inter-reader variability for the manual method and CAM were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models and Bland–Altman method. Results: For the three slice intervals, the maximum coefficients of variation for manual intra-/inter-reader variability were 6.9%/9.0% (1D) and 12.3%/18.0% (2D), and for CAM were 5.4%/9.3% (1D), 11.3%/18.8% (2D) and 9.3%/18.0% (VOL). Maximal 95% reference ranges for the percentage difference in intra-reader measurements for manual 1D and 2D, and CAM VOL were (−15.5%, 25.8%), (−27.1%, 51.6%), and (−22.3%, 33.6%), respectively. Conclusions: Variability in measuring the diameter and volume of solid tumors, manually and by CAM, is affected by CT slice interval. The 2.5 mm slice interval provides the least measurement variability. Among the three techniques, 2D has the greatest measurement variability compared to 1D and 3D.

  1. Fat-suppressed volume isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (VISTA) MR imaging in evaluating radial and root tears of the meniscus: Focusing on reader-defined axial reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Daekeon; Lee, Young Han; Kim, Sungjun; Song, Ho-Taek; Suh, Jin-Suck


    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of fat-suppressed (FS) three-dimensional (3D) volume isotropic turbo spin echo acquisition (VISTA) imaging in detecting radial and root tears of the meniscus, including the reader-defined reformatted axial (RDA) plane. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients with arthroscopically confirmed radial or root tears of the meniscus underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 2D and FS 3D VISTA sequences. MRIs were reviewed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists blinded to the arthroscopic findings. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and interobserver agreement were calculated for radial and root tears. Both radiologists reported confidence scale for the presence of meniscal tears in 2D axial imaging, 3D axial imaging, and RDA imaging, based on a five-point scale. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used to compare confidence scale. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FS 3D VISTA MR imaging versus 2D MR imaging were as follows: 96%, 96%, and 96% versus 91%, 91%, and 91%, respectively in reader 1, and 96%, 96%, and 96% versus 83%, 91%, and 87%, respectively, in reader 2. Interobserver agreement for detecting meniscal tears was excellent (κ = 1) with FS 3D VISTA. The confidence scale was significantly higher for 3D axial images than 2D imaging (p = 0.03) and significantly higher in RDA images than 3D axial image in detecting radial and root tears. Conclusions: FS 3D VISTA had a better diagnostic performance in evaluating radial and root tears of the meniscus. The reader-defined reformatted axial plane obtained from FS 3D VISTA MR imaging is useful in detecting radial and root tears of the meniscus

  2. Exploring intra- and inter-reader variability in uni-dimensional, bi-dimensional, and volumetric measurements of solid tumors on CT scans reconstructed at different slice intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Binsheng; Tan, Yongqiang; Bell, Daniel J.; Marley, Sarah E.; Guo, Pingzhen; Mann, Helen; Scott, Marietta L.J.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Ghiorghiu, Dana C.


    Objective: Understanding magnitudes of variability when measuring tumor size may be valuable in improving detection of tumor change and thus evaluating tumor response to therapy in clinical trials and care. Our study explored intra- and inter-reader variability of tumor uni-dimensional (1D), bi-dimensional (2D), and volumetric (VOL) measurements using manual and computer-aided methods (CAM) on CT scans reconstructed at different slice intervals. Materials and methods: Raw CT data from 30 patients enrolled in oncology clinical trials was reconstructed at 5, 2.5, and 1.25 mm slice intervals. 118 lesions in the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes were analyzed. For each lesion, two independent radiologists manually and, separately, using computer software, measured the maximum diameter (1D), maximum perpendicular diameter, and volume (CAM only). One of them blindly repeated the measurements. Intra- and inter-reader variability for the manual method and CAM were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models and Bland–Altman method. Results: For the three slice intervals, the maximum coefficients of variation for manual intra-/inter-reader variability were 6.9%/9.0% (1D) and 12.3%/18.0% (2D), and for CAM were 5.4%/9.3% (1D), 11.3%/18.8% (2D) and 9.3%/18.0% (VOL). Maximal 95% reference ranges for the percentage difference in intra-reader measurements for manual 1D and 2D, and CAM VOL were (−15.5%, 25.8%), (−27.1%, 51.6%), and (−22.3%, 33.6%), respectively. Conclusions: Variability in measuring the diameter and volume of solid tumors, manually and by CAM, is affected by CT slice interval. The 2.5 mm slice interval provides the least measurement variability. Among the three techniques, 2D has the greatest measurement variability compared to 1D and 3D

  3. iQuant™ Analyser: A rapid quantitative immunoassay reader. (United States)

    Joseph, Jayaraj; Vasan, Jayaraman Kiruthi; Shah, Malay; Sivaprakasam, Mohansankar; Mahajan, Lalit


    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) used in rapid quantitative point of care testing require an accurate, reliable and easy to operate instrument to read the LFIA kit and calculate the quantitative result value. We present iQuant® Analyser, an immunoassay reader designed for reading the Quanti® range of LFIA test kits for key markers such as HbA1C, Vitamin D, TSH etc. The instrument utilizes a laser based confocal optics system to capture the test and control lines from the LFIA kit, digitizes the fluorescent signal with high spatiotemporal resolution, computes necessary peak area ratios, applies calibration curves and declares the final result in an automated manner with minimal operator input. The instrument uses kit specific calibration information embedded on each LFIA test kit, to compute the final clinical parameter without using any external calibration chip. An intuitive icon based interface enables easy operation with minimal key presses, suited for point of care applications. The technology is designed in a modular manner to enable the instrument to perform tests on various parameters such as HbA1C, TSH, and Vitamin D etc without any hardware changes, using test-specific LFIA kits. The functional performance of the iQuant Analyser was verified over the range of expected area ratio values with standard reference cartridges that provided stable fluorescent lines. Repeatability of the instrument was found to be excellent with coefficient of variation (CoV) of area ratios found to be less than 1%. The inter-instrument reproducibility was also found to be good with CoV less than 4 %. Tests using blood samples with Quanti LFIA kits verified the accuracy of HbA1C results to be acceptable as per international standards with errors <; 4 %. The iQuant Analyser is a portable, easy to use rapid quantitative immunoassay reader best suited for point of care applications.

  4. Blindness, cataract surgery and mortality in Ethiopia. (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin J; Sanders, David S; Oliva, Matthew S; Orrs, Mark S; Glick, Peter; Ruit, Sanduk; Chen, Wei; Luoto, Jill; Tasfaw, Alemu Kerie; Tabin, Geoffrey C


    To examine the relationships between blindness, the intervention of cataract surgery and all-cause mortality in a rural Ethiopian population. Population-based, interventional prospective study. Community-based detection methods identified blind Ethiopian persons from two selected kebeles in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Data from 1201 blind patients were collected-628 cataract-blind and 573 blind from other conditions. Free cataract surgery was provided for consenting, cataract-blind patients. Follow-up surveys were conducted after 12 months (±1 month)-the main outcome measure for this report is all-cause mortality at 1 year. During the follow-up period, 110 persons died from the selected population (mortality 9.2%), which consisted of those cataract-blind patients who received cataract surgery (N=461), cataract-blind patients who did not receive surgery (N=167) and all non-cataract-blind patients (N=573). Of the 461 patients who received cataract surgery, 44 patients died (9.5%). Of the 740 patients who did not receive surgery, 66 died (8.9%)-28 patients from the cohort of cataract-blind patients who did not receive surgery (16.8%) and 38 patients from the cohort of non-cataract blind (6.6%). Subgroup analysis revealed significantly increased odds of mortality for cataract-blind patients over 75 years of age who did not receive surgery and for unmarried patients of all age groups. In this population, mortality risk was significantly elevated for older cataract-blind patients when compared with non-cataract-blind patients-an elevation of risk that was not noted in an age-matched cohort of cataract-blind patients who underwent cataract surgery as early as 1-year follow-up. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  5. What are the early indicators of persistent word reading difficulties among Chinese readers in elementary grades? (United States)

    Yeung, Pui-Sze; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Chan, David Wai-Ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-Hoa


    To identify the indicators of persistent reading difficulties among Chinese readers in early elementary grades, the performance of three groups of Chinese children with different reading trajectories ('persistent poor word readers', 'improved poor word readers' and 'skilled word readers') in reading-related measures was analysed in a 3-year longitudinal study. The three groups were classified according to their performance in a standardized Chinese word reading test in Grade 1 and Grade 4. Results of analysis of variance and logistic regression on the reading-related measures revealed that rapid naming and syntactic skills were important indicators of early word reading difficulty. Syntactic skills and morphological awareness were possible markers of persistent reading problems. Chinese persistent poor readers did not differ significantly from skilled readers on the measures of phonological skills. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Demonstration of blind quantum computing. (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip


    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  7. Change blindness and eyewitness testimony. (United States)

    Davies, Graham; Hine, Sarah


    The authors explored the relevance of research on change blindness to eyewitness identification and testimony under intentional and incidental memory conditions. Participants (N = 80, 40 men and 40 women) viewed a video enactment of a burglary in which the identity of the burglar changed at the halfway point of the film. Half of participants were briefed to remember the content, and the other half were not. All were tested for the recall of the content, awareness of the change, and ability to identify either or both of the burglars. Some 61% of participants did not notice the identity change. Rates of detection were significantly higher in participants in the intentional condition, who also recalled significantly more detail from the film. Awareness of change was also significantly related to content recall scores and accuracy of identification of both burglars. The results illustrate the interrelation between the eyewitness and change blindness literatures.

  8. EDMC: An enhanced distributed multi-channel anti-collision algorithm for RFID reader system (United States)

    Zhang, YuJing; Cui, Yinghua


    In this paper, we proposes an enhanced distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments which is based on the distributed multi-channel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID environments (called DiMCA). We proposes a monitor method to decide whether reader receive the latest control news after it selected the data channel. The simulation result shows that it improves interrogation delay.

  9. An Analysis of Reading Skill Development using E-Z Reader


    Mancheva, Lyuba; Reichle, Erik D.; Lemaire, Benoît; Valdois, Sylviane; Ecalle, Jean; Guérin-Dugué, Anne


    Previously reported simulations using the E-Z Reader model of eye-movement control suggest that the patterns of eye movements observed with children versus adult readers reflect differences in lexical processing proficiency (Reichle et al., 2013). However, these simulations fail to specify precisely what aspect(s) of lexical processing (e.g., orthographic processing) account for the concurrent changes in eye movements and reading skill. To examine this issue, the E-Z Reader model was first us...



    Fatih Bayram


    Giving information is one of the main function of mass communication tools. Newspaper readers are using newspaper for different motivations. Gaining information, entertainment, leisure time activities, social integration is some motivations of media. Uses and gratifications theory asserts that reader is active part of communication process and reading habits figure on social and psychological needs. Items from readers’gratifications are categorized by using factor analysis from questionnair...

  11. The blindness of John Milton. (United States)

    Bartley, G B


    John Milton (1608-1674) often has been regarded as the greatest poet of his time, yet he did not compose his most famous work, Paradise Lost, until after he had become blind in both eyes. On the basis of clues in Milton's writings, several possible diagnoses have been advanced to explain his loss of vision. The evidence for and against each theory is presented.

  12. Multichannel blind iterative image restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Filip; Flusser, Jan


    Roč. 12, č. 9 (2003), s. 1094-1106 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : conjugate gradient * half-quadratic regularization * multichannel blind deconvolution Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.642, year: 2003

  13. Blind Deconvolution With Model Discrepancies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotera, Jan; Šmídl, Václav; Šroubek, Filip


    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), s. 2533-2544 ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S; GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind deconvolution * variational Bayes * automatic relevance determination Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer hardware and architecture Impact factor: 4.828, year: 2016

  14. 20 CFR 365.103 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... impaired vision include readers, brailled materials, audio recordings, and other similar services and devices. Auxiliary aids useful for persons with impaired hearing include telephone handset amplifiers...

  15. Justifications shape ethical blind spots. (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul


    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Normal Speed and Accuracy of Saccade and Vergence Eye Movements in Dyslexic Reader Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Bucci


    Full Text Available Objective. Latency of eye movements depends on cortical structures while speed of execution and accuracy depends mostly on subcortical brainstem structures. Prior studies reported in dyslexic reader children abnormalities of latencies of saccades (isolated and combined with vergence; such abnormalities were attributed to deficits of fixation control and of visual attention. In this study we examine speed and accuracy characteristics of horizontal eye movements in natural space (saccades, vergence and combined movements in dyslexic reader children. Methods. Two paradigms are tested: gap paradigm (fixation offset 200 ms prior to target onset, producing shorter latencies, in both non-dyslexic reader and dyslexic reader children and simultaneous paradigm. Seventeen dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±0.08 years and thirteen non-dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±1 years were tested. Horizontal eye movements from both eyes were recorded simultaneously by a photoelectric device (Oculometer, Dr. Bouis. Results. For all movements tested (saccades, vergence, isolated or combined and for both paradigms, the mean velocity and accuracy were similar in dyslexic readers and non-dyslexic readers; no significant difference was found. Conclusion. This negative but important result, suggests no dysfunction of brainstem ocular motor circuits in dyslexic readers. It contrasts results on latencies related to visual attention dysfunction at cortical level.

  17. Low self-concept in poor readers: prevalence, heterogeneity, and risk. (United States)

    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin


    There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept-particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers.

  18. Low self-concept in poor readers: prevalence, heterogeneity, and risk


    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin


    There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept—particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types...

  19. The Usefulness Metrics of The Most Popular eReader Used by Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari


    Full Text Available In the digital technology era, mobile devices have an important rule to deploy a copy of data and information through the network. An electronic reader (eReader allows readers to read written materials in an electronic manner that is available in many models. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of eReader by higher education students. We firstly identified the most frequently used eReader by surveying higher education students. The survey results showed that Apple iPad, Amazon Kindle, and Samsung Tablet are the most popular eReader devices used by higher education students. We presented these results, and then we analyzed the surveyed results in detail in order to develop an evaluation metric of the eReader in a mobile platform that clearly allows the selection of the most suitable eReader for higher education students. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a set of criteria that can be used by students in the selection of an eReader that matches their specific needs and requirements.

  20. Low self-concept in poor readers: prevalence, heterogeneity, and risk (United States)

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Banales, Erin


    There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept—particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers. PMID:27867764

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of mammography readers and their memory performance have no correlation with each other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, P.; Cawson, J.N.; Mercuri, V.; Pitman, A.G.; Gledhill, S.; Shnier, D.; Taft, R.; Zentner, L.


    Full text: The study aims to determine if any association exists between visual memory performance and diagnostic accuracy performance in a group of radiologist mammogram readers. Materials and Methods: One hundred proven mammograms (23 with cancers) were grouped into 5 sets of 20 cases, with sets being of equal difficulty. Pairs of sets were presented in 5 reads (40 cases per read, order random) to a panel of 8 radiologist readers (either present or past screening readers, with experience range from 20 years). The readers were asked to either 'clear' or 'call back' cases depending on need for further workup, and at post-baseline reads to indicate whether each case was 'new' or 'old' (i .e. remembered from prior read). Two sets were presented only at baseline (40 cases per reader), and were used to calculate the reader's false recollection rate. Three sets were repeated post-baseline once or twice (100 cases per reader). Reading conditions were standardised. Results: Memory performance differed markedly between readers. The number of correctly remembered cases (of 100 'old' cases) had a median of 10.5 and range of 0-58. The observed number of false recollections (of 40 'totally new' cases) had a median of 2 and range of 0-17. Diagnostic performance measures were mean (range): sensitivity 0.68 (0.54-0.81); specificity 0.82 (0.74-0.91); positive predictive value (PPV) 0.55 (0.500.65); negative predictive value (NPV) 0.89 (0.86-0.93) and accuracy 0.78 (0.76-0.83). Confidence intervals (CIs; 95%) for each reader overlapped for all the diagnostic parameters, indicating a lack of statistically significant difference between the readers at the 5% level. The most sensitive and the most specific reader showed a trend away from each other on sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV; their accuracies were 0.76 and 0.82, respectively, and their accuracy 95% CIs overlapped considerably. Correlation analysis by reader showed no association between observed memory performance and

  2. Evidence for deficits in the temporal attention span of poor readers. (United States)

    Visser, Troy A W


    While poor reading is often associated with phonological deficits, many studies suggest that visual processing might also be impaired. In particular, recent research has indicated that poor readers show impaired spatial visual attention spans in partial and whole report tasks. Given the similarities between competition-based accounts for reduced visual attention span and similar explanations for impairments in sequential object processing, the present work examined whether poor readers show deficits in their "temporal attention span"--that is, their ability to rapidly and accurately process sequences of consecutive target items. Poor and normal readers monitored a sequential stream of visual items for two (TT condition) or three (TTT condition) consecutive target digits. Target identification was examined using both unconditional and conditional measures of accuracy in order to gauge the overall likelihood of identifying a target and the likelihood of identifying a target given successful identification of previous items. Compared to normal readers, poor readers showed small but consistent deficits in identification across targets whether unconditional or conditional accuracy was used. Additionally, in the TTT condition, final-target conditional accuracy was poorer than unconditional accuracy, particularly for poor readers, suggesting a substantial cost arising from processing the previous two targets that was not present in normal readers. Mirroring the differences found between poor and normal readers in spatial visual attention span, the present findings suggest two principal differences between the temporal attention spans of poor and normal readers. First, the consistent pattern of reduced performance across targets suggests increased competition amongst items within the same span for poor readers. Second, the steeper decline in final target performance amongst poor readers in the TTT condition suggests a reduction in the extent of their temporal attention

  3. Ciudad, espacio y ceguera en ciudad Juárez México / City, Space, and Blindness Juárez, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esther Vega-Ocampo


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Cambria;} Resumen. La comunidad ciega en ciudad Juárez Mexico en frontera con Estados Unidos, mantiene en nuestros días una ausencia participativa en lo cotidiano, la estructura urbana de poca inclusión, los lleva crear alternativas para su movilidad. El objetivo  de este estudio es comprender y analizar cómo es la interacción social y espacial del ciego en una ciudad deshabilitada para su movilidad. Se utilizo un enfoque cualitativo que permitiese una observación cercana al grupo mediante entrevistas semi estructurada y observación participante, se escogió a un grupo de jóvenes ciegos que asisten a la Escuela para Ciegos Luis Braille. Se encontró que la ciudad  muestra un reflejo marginal que genera restricciones en su traslado, movilidad y aprendizaje espacial manteniendo una difícil autonomía.   Abstract: The community of visually impaired persons in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, sitting astride the United States border, is practically absent from the city's day-to-day life. Providing negligible accommodations, Ciudad Juarez is not an inclusive environment and thus the visually impaired must auto-construct their own means of mobility to get out into the broader community they inhabit. The objective of this study is to analyze and understand the social and spacial interaction of the visually impaired in a northern Mexican border city entirely unequipped for them. The study focuses on a group of students at the Luis Braille School for the Blind in Ciudad Juarez, who were interviewed and observed during a prolonged period of time, and concludes that

  4. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study (United States)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman


    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  5. Migrant readers and wordless books: visual narratives’ inclusive experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Grilli


    Full Text Available The research here told is the Italian contribution to the international project Visual Journeys: Understanding Immigrant Children’s Response to Visual Images in Picturebooks, Conducted in Scotland, Arizona, Spain and Australia as an Observation of the Response of Migrant ten-eleven years old Readers to the Wordless Book The Arrival by Shaun Tan (2006. Reflections are made about co-construction and negotiation of meaning in a shared reading; wordless book is experienced as occasion of empowerment for those involved, giving value to individual stories and showing a positive outcome in school life, as for self-esteem and reciprocal relationships; it promotes discussion and increases interest in books, it shows an important effect on learning a foreign language and creating a group. The perspective of the whole experience is an interdisciplinary approach. The reading of wordless or silent book can be a true practice of right and belonging to the international community, and therefore a precious means for an education to global citizenship.

  6. Social Media Blurred the Distinction Between Author and Reader (United States)

    Lambiotte, Renaud

    The last few years have seen the emergence of the sharing economy. As social media blurred the distinction between author and reader, everyone can now offer or receive services thanks to the networking tools provided by new technological companies. Take Uber, and its billion of journeys in 2015 alone, with tens of thousands of vehicles crawling every moment in the globe's biggest cities. As often, when confronted with a technological change, we observe a polarization of society, and the search for an equilibrium characterized by new norms, rights, and obligations. Understanding the mechanisms behind this re-organization requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach, covering an intricate web of legal, societal, economical, and computational issues which, we believe, could benefit from a complex systems perspective. As a first step, we are currently studying the dynamics of pricing in Uber. In this new de-regulated world, journey prices fluctuate in time depending on traffic but also on the service's perceived balance of passenger demand and driver supply...

  7. The Birthing of Things: Bergson as a Reader of Lucretius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Healy


    Full Text Available I examine, in this short paper, the work of Henri Bergson on Lucretius first published in 1884, and argue for its vital significance in understanding the development of his philosophical thinking. This publication was to serve as an introduction to extracts from Lucretius, for his students at Clermont-Ferrand, with a commentary and notes on the poetry, philosophy, the physics, language and text of his poem De Rerum Natura. In the published volume most of the overview of Lucretius by Bergson is given in the long preface, and this is followed by extracts in Latin, without translation into French, with comments on lines and individual words, which covers all the books of the original poem. By 1899 it had gone to a third edition, and was still in print until the 1960's. Copies today are very difficult to obtain, and only recently has a full electronic version become available on the Internet Archive, to which readers are here directly referred.

  8. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher


    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  9. Reading Difficulties in Adult Deaf Readers of French: Phonological Codes, Not Guilty! (United States)

    Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.


    Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…

  10. Lexical processing in deaf readers: an FMRI investigation of reading proficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Corina

    Full Text Available Individuals with significant hearing loss often fail to attain competency in reading orthographic scripts which encode the sound properties of spoken language. Nevertheless, some profoundly deaf individuals do learn to read at age-appropriate levels. The question of what differentiates proficient deaf readers from less-proficient readers is poorly understood but topical, as efforts to develop appropriate and effective interventions are needed. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine brain activation in deaf readers (N = 21, comparing proficient (N = 11 and less proficient (N = 10 readers' performance in a widely used test of implicit reading. Proficient deaf readers activated left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle and superior temporal gyrus in a pattern that is consistent with regions reported in hearing readers. In contrast, the less-proficient readers exhibited a pattern of response characterized by inferior and middle frontal lobe activation (right>left which bears some similarity to areas reported in studies of logographic reading, raising the possibility that these individuals are using a qualitatively different mode of orthographic processing than is traditionally observed in hearing individuals reading sound-based scripts. The evaluation of proficient and less-proficient readers points to different modes of processing printed English words. Importantly, these preliminary findings allow us to begin to establish the impact of linguistic and educational factors on the neural systems that underlie reading achievement in profoundly deaf individuals.

  11. Acquisition of Malay Word Recognition Skills: Lessons from Low-Progress Early Readers (United States)

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin


    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both…

  12. So Long, Robot Reader! A Superhero Intervention Plan for Improving Fluency (United States)

    Marcell, Barclay; Ferraro, Christine


    This article presents an engaging means for turning disfluent readers into prosody superstars. Each week students align with Poetry Power Man and his superhero friends to battle the evil Robot Reader and his sidekicks. The Fluency Foursome helps students adhere to the multidimensional aspects of fluency where expression and comprehension are…

  13. Metacognitive Online Reading Strategy Use: Readers' Perceptions in L1 and L2 (United States)

    Taki, Saeed


    This study aimed to explore whether first-language (L1) readers of different language backgrounds would employ similar metacognitive online reading strategies and whether reading online in a second language (L2) could be influenced by L1 reading strategies. To this end, 52 Canadian college students as English L1 readers and 38 Iranian university…

  14. Exploring e-readers to support clinical medical education: two case studies. (United States)

    Shurtz, Suzanne; von Isenburg, Megan


    Can e-readers loaded with medical textbooks and other relevant material benefit medical students, residents, and preceptors in clinical settings? The settings are North Carolina community clinics served by Duke University Medical Center and St. Joseph's Hospital in Bryan, Texas, and Scott and White Memorial Hospital in Temple, Texas. DUKE UNIVERSITY: Twenty second-year medical students and fourteen family medicine clerkship preceptors used Kindle e-readers in clinics during eight months of rotations. Students and preceptors provided feedback through an anonymous online survey. Texas A&M University: Nine fourth-year medical students in an elective compared medical textbooks in print, online, and on a Kindle. Six residents at a local hospital completed an anonymous online survey after a three-week loan of a Kindle loaded with medical textbooks. The e-reader's major advantages in clinical settings are portability and searchability. The selected e-reader's limitations include connection speed, navigation, and display. User preferences varied, but online resources were preferred. Participants suggested additional uses for Kindles in medical education. The selected e-reader's limitations may be resolved with further development of the device. Investigation of other e-readers is needed. Criteria for evaluating e-readers in clinical settings should include portability, searchability, speed, navigation, and display. Research comparing e-readers and mobile devices in clinical education is also warranted.

  15. Literature Discussion: Encouraging Reading Interest and Comprehension in Struggling Middle School Readers (United States)

    Pittman, Pamela; Honchell, Barbara


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how literature discussion affects middle school struggling readers. The focus was on 16 middle school struggling readers in a rural Title I school in the southeastern United States. Findings indicated that (a) literature discussion increased student enjoyment of reading, and (b) students…

  16. Developmental Trajectories for Children With Dyslexia and Low IQ Poor Readers (United States)


    Reading difficulties are found in children with both high and low IQ and it is now clear that both groups exhibit difficulties in phonological processing. Here, we apply the developmental trajectories approach, a new methodology developed for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders, to both poor reader groups. The trajectory methodology enables identification of atypical versus delayed development in datasets gathered using group matching designs. Regarding the cognitive predictors of reading, which here are phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and rapid automatized naming (RAN), the method showed that trajectories for the two groups diverged markedly. Children with dyslexia showed atypical development in phonological awareness, while low IQ poor readers showed developmental delay. Low IQ poor readers showed atypical PSTM and RAN development, but children with dyslexia showed developmental delay. These divergent trajectories may have important ramifications for supporting each type of poor reader, although all poor readers showed weakness in all areas. Regarding auditory processing, the developmental trajectories were very similar for the two poor reader groups. However, children with dyslexia demonstrated developmental delay for auditory discrimination of Duration, while the low IQ children showed atypical development on this measure. The data show that, regardless of IQ, poor readers have developmental trajectories that differ from typically developing children. The trajectories approach enables differences in trajectory classification to be identified across poor reader group, as well as specifying the individual nature of these trajectories. PMID:27110928

  17. Teaching Early Readers to Self-Monitor and Self-Correct (United States)

    Pratt, Sharon M.; Urbanowski, Melena


    Proficient readers self-monitor and self-correct to derive meaning from text. This article reviews research on how students learn to self-monitor and self-correct and describes a Reciprocal Teaching (RT) instructional routine that was successfully used with early readers to build their metacognitive processes. The RT routine included teacher…

  18. From Reader to Mediated Witness: The Engaging Effects of Journalistic Crime Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krieken, K; Hoeken, J.A.L.; Sanders, J.


    This study tests the claim that news narratives about shocking criminal acts enable readers to become mediated witnesses, which implies that readers identify with actual eyewitnesses to a crime and vicariously experience the crime from up close. In an experiment (n = 128), participants read an

  19. A Dual-Route Perspective on Eye Movements of Dyslexic Readers (United States)

    Hawelka, Stefan; Gagl, Benjamin; Wimmer, Heinz


    This study assessed eye movement abnormalities of adolescent dyslexic readers and interpreted the findings by linking the dual-route model of single word reading with the E-Z Reader model of eye movement control during silent sentence reading. A dysfunction of the lexical route was assumed to account for a reduced number of words which received…

  20. Expository Text Comprehension in Secondary School: For Which Readers Does Knowledge of Connectives Contribute the Most? (United States)

    Welie, Camille; Schoonen, Rob; Kuiken, Folkert; Bergh, Huub


    The present study examined whether knowledge of connectives contributes uniquely to expository text comprehension above and beyond reading fluency, general vocabulary knowledge and metacognitive knowledge. Furthermore, it was examined whether this contribution differs for readers with different language backgrounds or readers who vary in reading…

  1. 78 FR 35935 - National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH)-Certified B Readers; Training and Testing (United States)


    ... CDC-2013-0008; NIOSH-234] National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH)--Certified B Readers; Training and Testing AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers... testing of National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH)--certified B Readers. SUMMARY: The National...

  2. Excitement, Adventure, Indifference: Romance Readers' Perceptions of How Romance Reading Impacts Their Sex Lives (United States)

    Anderton, Gretchen E.


    This mixed-methods study examined romance readers' perceptions of how reading romance novels has impacted their sex lives, feelings about their sex partners, knowledge of sexuality and their sexual behavior. Fifty-three women romance readers over the age of 18 completed an online survey composed of multiple choice and open-ended essay questions. …

  3. News in online and print newspapers: Differences in reader consumption and recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Haenens, Leen; Jankowski, Nicholas; Heuvelman, A.


    How readers consume and recall news presented in online and print versions of two newspapersin the Netherlands are investigated in this experimental study. Few differences are found between the online and print versions in terms of news supply. Reader attention to the news stories varies, depending

  4. Short Vowels versus Word Familiarity in the Reading Comprehension of Arab Readers: A Revisited Issue (United States)

    Seraye, Abdullah M.


    Arab readers, both beginning and advanced, are encouraged to read and accustomed to unvowelized and undiacriticized texts. Previous literature claimed that the presence of short vowels in the text would facilitate the reading comprehension of both beginning and advanced Arab readers. However, with a claimed strict controlling procedure, different…

  5. Developing Historical Reading and Writing with Adolescent Readers: Effects on Student Learning (United States)

    De La Paz, Susan; Felton, Mark; Monte-Sano, Chauncey; Croninger, Robert; Jackson, Cara; Deogracias, Jeehye Shim; Hoffman, Benjamin Polk


    In this study, the effects of a disciplinary reading and writing curriculum intervention with professional development are shared. We share our instructional approach and provide writing outcomes for struggling adolescent readers who read at or below basic proficiency levels, as well as writing outcomes for proficient and advanced readers.…

  6. Selecting "App"ealing and "App"ropriate Book Apps for Beginning Readers (United States)

    Cahill, Maria; McGill-Franzen, Anne


    Beginning with a brief rationale for selecting quality digital picture book apps for beginning readers, the authors describe the elements of digital picture books and provide a brief review of the instructional benefits of digital picture book use for beginning readers. They then present a detailed taxonomy for selecting quality picture book apps.…

  7. Rereading the Multicultural Reader: Toward More "Infectious" Practices in Multicultural Composition (United States)

    Jordan, Jay


    After summarizing typical criticisms of multicultural composition readers, the author draws on work in "New Literacy Studies" to point toward composition pedagogies that encourage multicultural interactions beyond selections in assigned readers. The author suggests that what is ultimately needed is a productive critical frame not only for refining…

  8. Differences in Visual Analysis and Sequence Memory of Skilled and Poor Readers. (United States)

    Gildemeister, Joan E.; Friedman, Philip

    Reading achievement tests have been used to identify deficiencies in inner city, poor readers; however, they often do not provide information about encoding strategies which lead some children to academic success. Immediate memory and visual analytic differences which contribute to the success of skilled readers are isolated in this study using 20…

  9. Making Connections: Linking Cognitive Psychology and Intervention Research to Improve Comprehension of Struggling Readers (United States)

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Espin, Christine A.; van den Broek, Paul


    Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of reading comprehension interventions for struggling readers, including students with learning disabilities. Yet, some readers continue to struggle with comprehension despite receiving these interventions. In this article, we argue that an explicit link between cognitive psychology and intervention…

  10. Motor Coordination Difficulties in a Municipality Group and in a Clinical Sample of Poor Readers (United States)

    Iversen, Synnove; Berg, Karin; Ellertsen, Bjorn; Tonnessen, Finn-Egil


    The purpose of the study was to investigate incidence, severity and types of motor problems in two groups of poor readers compared to good reading controls. A group of children with severe dyslexia referred to specialist evaluation, a teacher selected municipality sample comprising the 5% poorest readers, and a control group consisting of the 5%…

  11. Roles of Frequency, Attitudes, and Multiple Intelligence Modality Surrounding Electricity Content-Based Reader's Theatre (United States)

    Hosier, Julie Winchester


    Integration of subjects is something elementary teachers must do to insure required objectives are covered. Science-based Reader's Theatre is one way to weave reading into science. This study examined the roles of frequency, attitudes, and Multiple Intelligence modalities surrounding Electricity Content-Based Reader's Theatre. This study used…

  12. Engaging Readers, Increasing Comprehension, and Building Skills: The Power of Patterned Books (United States)

    Grote-Garcia, Stephanie; Durham, Patricia


    Reading comprehension requires thoughtful interactions between the reader, the text, and the author. The author may assist the reader in building meaning by creating purposefully crafted conversations that are organized into predictable patterns also known as patterned books. In this article, three predictable patterns found within children's text…

  13. Predictors of Reading Comprehension among Struggling Readers Who Exhibit Differing Levels of Inattention and Hyperactivity (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Barnes, Marcia; Fall, Anna-Mari; Roberts, Greg


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of inference making, decoding, memory, and vocabulary on reading comprehension among 7th- through 12th-grade struggling readers with varying levels of inattention and hyperactivity. We categorized a group of 414 struggling readers into 3 groups based on results from factor mixture modeling:…

  14. An Analysis of the Reading Strategies Used by Adult and Student Deaf Readers (United States)

    Banner, Alyssa; Wang, Ye


    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine effective reading strategies used by adult deaf readers compared with student deaf readers. There were a total of 11 participants: 5 deaf adults ranging from 27 to 36 years and 6 deaf students ranging from 16 to 20 years. Assessment methods included interview and think-aloud procedures in which…

  15. Design and trial evaluation of the user interface for MusicReader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoné, Marco; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.


    This paper describes the design and trial results of MusicReader, a networked application realizing sheet music related services for the support of ensemble and orchestra rehearsals and performances. To this end, MusicReader presents sheet music on computer screens and supports annotations, sheet

  16. Change blindness, aging, and cognition (United States)

    Rizzo, Matthew; Sparks, JonDavid; McEvoy, Sean; Viamonte, Sarah; Kellison, Ida; Vecera, Shaun P.


    Change blindness (CB), the inability to detect changes in visual scenes, may increase with age and early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To test this hypothesis, participants were asked to localize changes in natural scenes. Dependent measures were response time (RT), hit rate, false positives (FP), and true sensitivity (d′). Increased age correlated with increased sensitivity and RT; AD predicted even slower RT. Accuracy and RT were negatively correlated. Differences in FP were nonsignificant. CB correlated with impaired attention, working memory, and executive function. Advanced age and AD were associated with increased CB, perhaps due to declining memory and attention. CB could affect real-world tasks, like automobile driving. PMID:19051127

  17. Do good and poor readers make use of morphemic structure in English word recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne G. Duncan


    Full Text Available The links between oral morphological awareness and the use of derivational morphology are examined in the English word recognition of 8-year-old good and poor readers. Morphological awareness was assessed by a sentence completion task. The role of morphological structure in lexical access was examined by manipulating the presence of embedded words and suffixes in items presented for lexical decision. Good readers were more accurate in the morphological awareness task but did not show facilitation for real derivations even though morpho-semantic information appeared to inform their lexical decisions. The poor readers, who were less accurate, displayed a strong lexicality effect in lexical decision and the presence of an embedded word led to facilitation for words and inhibition for pseudo-words. Overall, the results suggest that both good and poor readers of English are sensitive to the internal structure of written words, with the better readers showing most evidence of morphological analysis.

  18. Low Access Delay Anti-Collision Algorithm for Reader in RFID systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Carlo; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.


    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology which is spreading more and more as a medium to identify, locate and track assets through the productive chain. As all the wireless communication devices sharing the same transmission channel, RFID readers and tags experience collisions whenever...... deployed over the same area. In this work, the RFID reader collision problem is studied and a centralized scheduling-based algorithm is proposed as possible candidate solution, especially for those scenarios involving static or low mobility readers. Taking into account the circuitry limitations of the tags......, which do not allow to use frequency or code division multiple access schemes in the RFID systems, this paper proposes an algorithm aiming to prevent the readers collisions, while keeping the access delay of the readers to the channel possibly low. The simulation results show that this algorithm performs...

  19. Finding Objects for Assisting Blind People


    Yi, Chucai; Flores, Roberto W.; Chincha, Ricardo; Tian, YingLi


    Computer vision technology has been widely used for blind assistance, such as navigation and wayfinding. However, few camera-based systems are developed for helping blind or visually-impaired people to find daily necessities. In this paper, we propose a prototype system of blind-assistant object finding by camera-based network and matching-based recognition. We collect a dataset of daily necessities and apply Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) featu...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Komarov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to some strategies aimed at involving the reader into the writer's book by means of making the reader's attitude to its content personal or subjective. In the article it is stated that there are two components which are intrinsic to virtual intercourse between writer and reader. One of the components is the content of the writer's publication while the other is the reader's attitude towards the content suggested. The article shows that the reader's attitude encompasses two processes: the process of self-estrangement from the writer's content and the process of self-involvement into it. In the article, the author analyses these two processes in relation to the content of the book. In the article, the author singles out and gives descriptions of such dimensions of the book's content as its topical and emotional dimension, its depth, human nature dimension and interpersonal relations dimension as well as of strategies used by the writer in order to involve the reader into his writings. The author argues that a successful strategy is based on managing to touch the reader to the quick, i.e. his or her subjectivity, and the result of successfulness can be measured by the reader's readiness and willingness to sink into one of the dimensions suggested. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that signs of the successful strategy can be traced in the reader's return to the intercourse with the writer when he or she rereads the writer's books, repeats or makes references to words, situations or ideas suggested or described by the writer who has grasped the reader's attention in one or several content dimensions.

  1. A prospective, randomized, double blind controlled trial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of intravenous diclofenac on postoperative sore throat in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi: A prospective, randomized, double blind controlled trial.

  2. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 290

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George


    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  3. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 293

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina


    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  4. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice


    thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...

  5. The Effect of the Reader's Background on Reading Comprehension Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Saadoon Mohammed Al-Noori


    Full Text Available This study aims at measuring the amount of the effect of the reader's background knowledge on performance in reading comprehension tests through the assessment of information gained in reading comprehension (RC tests across-four testing techniques, short answer questions ,true-false items , multiple - choice items , and cloze test and re-test. This technique involves the examinees in two types of tasks, i.e. pre-reading and post -reading task. Two hypotheses have been proposed to achieve the aims of this study. They are  1-There are no significant differences between the pre-reading and post-reading performances of examinees on reading comprehension(RC. 2-There are no significant differences in information gain scores across the different techniques of testing reading comprehension (RC in EFL. To verify the validity of these two hypotheses, a number of statistical procedures have been used such as arithmetical mean, t-test for correlated and independent samples to analyze the performance of third and fourth year College students studying at the Department of English at University of Baghdad /Ibn Rushd College of Education for Humanities on two reading passages taken from TOEFL practice tests (2011. The analysis of the data has shown the following results: 1-The background knowledge has an effect on the performance on reading comprehension (RC. 2-There is a significant difference in students' performance on reading comprehension (RC. 3-The effect of background knowledge is investable on reading comprehension (RC tests, but it can be identified or neutralized. Based on these conclusions, the researcher presented a number of recommendations.

  6. Causes of blindness and career choice among pupils in a blind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The causes of Blindness vary from place to place with about 80% of it been avoidable. Furthermore Blind people face a lot of challenges in career choice thus limiting their economic potential and full integration into the society. This study aims at identifying the causes of blindness and career choice among ...

  7. Definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness: Do we need to revise it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vashist


    Full Text Available A review appropriateness of the current definition of blindness under National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB, Government of India. Online search of peer-reviewed scientific published literature and guidelines using PubMed, the World Health Organization (WHO IRIS, and Google Scholar with keywords, namely blindness and visual impairment, along with offline examination of reports of national and international organizations, as well as their cross-references was done until December 2016, to identify relevant documents on the definition of blindness. The evidence for the historical and currently adopted definition of blindness under the NPCB, the WHO, and other countries was reviewed. Differences in the NPCB and WHO definitions were analyzed to assess the impact on the epidemiological status of blindness and visual impairment in India. The differences in the criteria for blindness under the NPCB and the WHO definitions cause an overestimation of the prevalence of blindness in India. These variations are also associated with an over-representation of refractive errors as a cause of blindness and an under-representation of other causes under the NPCB definition. The targets for achieving elimination of blindness also become much more difficult to achieve under the NPCB definition. Ignoring differences in definitions when comparing the global and Indian prevalence of blindness will cause erroneous interpretations. We recommend that the appropriate modifications should be made in the NPCB definition of blindness to make it consistent with the WHO definition.

  8. Childhood Fears among Children Who Are Blind: The Perspective of Teachers Who Are Blind (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman


    The aim of this study was to investigate childhood fears in children who are blind from the perspective of teachers who are blind. The study was conducted in Jordan. Forty-six teachers were interviewed. Results revealed that the main fear content in children who are blind includes fear of the unknown; environment-, transportation- and…

  9. Geometric Distribution-Based Readers Scheduling Optimization Algorithm Using Artificial Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litian Duan


    Full Text Available In the multiple-reader environment (MRE of radio frequency identification (RFID system, multiple readers are often scheduled to interrogate the randomized tags via operating at different time slots or frequency channels to decrease the signal interferences. Based on this, a Geometric Distribution-based Multiple-reader Scheduling Optimization Algorithm using Artificial Immune System (GD-MRSOA-AIS is proposed to fairly and optimally schedule the readers operating from the viewpoint of resource allocations. GD-MRSOA-AIS is composed of two parts, where a geometric distribution function combined with the fairness consideration is first introduced to generate the feasible scheduling schemes for reader operation. After that, artificial immune system (including immune clone, immune mutation and immune suppression quickly optimize these feasible ones as the optimal scheduling scheme to ensure that readers are fairly operating with larger effective interrogation range and lower interferences. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm, the simulation results indicate that GD-MRSOA-AIS could efficiently schedules the multiple readers operating with a fairer resource allocation scheme, performing in larger effective interrogation range.

  10. RAC-Multi: Reader Anti-Collision Algorithm for Multichannel Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangcheol Shin


    Full Text Available At present, RFID is installed on mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs and provides a means to obtain information about objects equipped with an RFID tag over a multi-channeled telecommunication networks. To use mobile RFIDs, reader collision problems should be addressed given that readers are continuously moving. Moreover, in a multichannel environment for mobile RFIDs, interference between adjacent channels should be considered. This work first defines a new concept of a reader collision problem between adjacent channels and then suggests a novel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID readers that use multiple channels. To avoid interference with adjacent channels, the suggested algorithm separates data channels into odd and even numbered channels and allocates odd-numbered channels first to readers. It also sets an unused channel between the control channel and data channels to ensure that control messages and the signal of the adjacent channel experience no interference. Experimental results show that suggested algorithm shows throughput improvements ranging from 29% to 46% for tag identifications compared to the GENTLE reader anti-collision algorithm for multichannel RFID networks.

  11. Cancer on a mammogram is not memorable: readers remember their recalls and not cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitman, Alexander G.; Kok, Phebe; Zentner, Lucila


    To determine if presence of cancer on a mammogram makes that mammogram more memorable. A total of 100 mammograms (25 cancers) were grouped into 5 sets of 20 cases. Set pairs were presented in five reads to eight radiologist readers. Readers were asked to 'clear' or 'call back' cases, and at post-baseline reads to indicate whether each case was 'new' or 'old ' (remembered from prior read). Two sets were presented only at baseline, to calculate each reader's false recollection rate. For cases presented more than once ('old' cases, 100 presentations) readers could have 'correct memory' or 'memory loss'. Memory performance was defined as odds ratio of correct memory to memory loss. Multivariate logistic data regression analysis identified predictors of memory performance from: reader, set, time since last read, presence of cancer, and whether the case was called back at the last read. Memory performance differed markedly between readers and reader identity was a highly significant predictor of memory performance. Presence of cancer was not a significant predictor of memory performance (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI: 0.49–1.21). Whether the case was called back at the last read was a highly significant predictor (odds ratio 4.22, 95% CI: 2.70–6.61) for the model incorporating reader variability, and also the model without reader variability (odds ratio 2.67, 95% CI: 1.74–4.08). The only statistically significant predictor of radiologist memory for a mammogram was whether the radiologist 'called it back' at a prior reading round. Presence of cancer on a mammogram did not make it memorable.

  12. Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics: The Vantage Points and the Horizons in Readers' Responses to an American Literature Text. (United States)

    Rees, Dilys Karen


    Presents how Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics can be used to analyze readers' responses to an American literature text. Readers are Brazilian college students reading a text by the American author, Amy Tan. (Author/VWL)

  13. Efficient universal blind quantum computation. (United States)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G


    We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.

  14. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari


    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  15. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik


    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources from...... the recorded mixtures, or at least to segregate a particular source. Furthermore, it may be useful to identify the mixing process itself to reveal information about the physical mixing system. In some simple mixing models each recording consists of a sum of differently weighted source signals. However, in many...... real-world applications, such as in acoustics, the mixing process is more complex. In such systems, the mixtures are weighted and delayed, and each source contributes to the sum with multiple delays corresponding to the multiple paths by which an acoustic signal propagates to a microphone...

  16. 33 CFR 117.861 - Blind Slough. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blind Slough. 117.861 Section 117.861 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Oregon § 117.861 Blind Slough. The draws of the Portland and...

  17. Does single blind peer review hinder newcomers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeber, Marco; Bacchelli, A.


    Several fields of research are characterized by the coexistence of two different peer review modes to select quality contributions for scientific venues, namely double blind (DBR) and single blind (SBR) peer review. In the first, the identities of both authors and reviewers are not known to each

  18. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.


    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  19. Acute, persistent quinine-induced blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 4, 1991 ... Acute, persistent quinine-induced blindness. A case report. P. RHEEDER, W. L. SIELlNG. Summary auinine-induced blindness arising during empirical treatment for malaria in a young man is reported. The condition was noteworthy because it was total and permanent, which is at varia.nce with other ...

  20. Tackling the high burden of blindness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... care delivery, and tackling the five major eye conditions that contribute to most blindness could reduce the current burden of blindness. This would open the window for addressing glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macula degeneration which are the new emerging global consequences of non-communicable diseases.