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Sample records for blepharitis

  1. Blepharitis: Always remember demodex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the incidence and density of Demodex species on the eyelashes of subjects with normal eyelids, anterior blepharitis (AB, meibomian-gland dysfunction (MGD, and mixed blepharitis (MB. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive patients diagnosed with AB, MGD, and MB were recruited. An additional 50 individuals were recruited who were free of lid and margin disease to serve as a control group. All patients underwent a standard eye examination. Data on ocular symptomatology were gathered. Digital photography was performed of the lid margins. Lash sampling was performed by epilating the lashes and the lashes were checked for Demodex based on morphology using light microscopy. The total number of mites were tabulated for each eye. Comparison between the affected eyes and the control eyes was performed. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 200 patients were included. Twenty percenth had AB, 40% had MGD, and 40% had MB. The incidence of Demodex infestation was 90% in cases of AB, 60% in MGD cases, and 90% in MB cases. The incidence of Demodex in control subjects was 18%. Conclusions: The incidence and density of Demodex infestation was highest in patients with AB and MB. Lid irritation and presence of cylindrical dandruff were indicative of a high-density infestation. These signs should alert the clinician to treat concomitant Demodex infestation.

  2. [Progress of study on the demodex blepharitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Sun, X G

    2016-04-11

    Demodex blepharitis is an infectious ocular disease which is common, but always to be neglected. There were a few related reports about this disease in China. The pathogenic mechanism of demodex blepharitis is not clear at present. Literatures held different ideas about its diagnosis, therapeutic methods and curative effect. This review will summarize the new development of demodex blepharitis in order to provide references for its basic and clinical researches.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 315-320).

  3. A Case of Dermatophytic Blepharitis

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    Mustafa Kulaç

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytoses are the most common fungal infections of the skin. In the clinical practise, tinea pedis is most common clinical form of dermatophytosis. Other clinical forms are tinea cruris, tinea capitis, tinea corporis and tinea faciei. Tinea faciei is a rare form of dermatophytosis of glabrous skin, characterized by a well- circumscribed erythematous patch, and is more commonly misdiagnosed with some dermatologic diseases as seborrheic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, polymorphic light eruption and lymphocytic infiltrations. In addition, it is reported its clinical forms resembling folliculitis, perioral dermatitis, impetigo and sycosis. To date, a few cases of dermatophytosis involving eyelid were presented in the literature. Here, we present a patient who has an erythematous and fine scaly patch on her eyelid and who is diagnosed as dermatophytic blepharitis by helping typical tinea corporis on her wrist.

  4. Diagnosis and management of blepharitis: an optometrist’s perspective

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    Putnam CM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Christopher M Putnam College of Optometry, Adjunct Faculty, University of Missouri-St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Blepharitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the eyelid margin and is a common cause of discomfort and irritation among people of all ages, ethnicity, and sex. In general, blepharitis is not a sight-threatening condition, but if left untreated has the potential to cause keratopathy, corneal neovascularization and ulceration, and permanent alterations in eyelid morphology. Historically, blepharitis has been categorized according to multiple structural classifications, including anatomic location, duration, and etiology. The substantial overlap of symptoms and signs from the differing structural classifications has led to initial misdiagnoses, clinical underreporting, and variability in treatment of blepharitis. The multifactorial nature is still not fully appreciated but infection and inflammation have been identified as the primary contributors. Ongoing clinical research continues the pursuit for a treatment panacea; however, long-term management of the underlying causes of blepharitis remains the best clinical approach. Here, we will attempt to review the existing literature as it pertains to clinical management of blepharitis and address a stepwise approach to diagnosis, treatment, and management. Keywords: blepharitis, categorization, seborrhea, meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye syndrome

  5. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci in Conjunctivitis and Blepharitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (C-NS) are regarded asnormal flora of the lids and conjunctiva.The ability of these organisms tocause conjunctivitis and blepharitis can be overlooked or disregarded.Toelucidate the role of individual C-NS species in these eye diseases wecompared Staphylococcus sp.isolated from the conjunctiva and lids of 50healthy volunteers with 248 strains of Staphylococcus isolated frompatients with staphylococcal conjunctivitis or blepharitis.S.epidermidiswas the most frequent spec...

  6. DEBS – a unification theory for dry eye and blepharitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynerson, James M; Perry, Henry D

    2016-01-01

    For many years, blepharitis and dry eye disease have been thought to be two distinct diseases, and evaporative dry eye distinct from aqueous insufficiency. In this treatise, we propose a new way of looking at dry eye, both evaporative and insufficiency, as the natural sequelae of decades of chronic blepharitis. Dry eye is simply the late form and late manifestation of one disease, blepharitis. We suggest the use of a new term in describing this one chronic disease, namely dry eye blepharitis syndrome (DEBS). Bacteria colonize the lid margin within a structure known as a biofilm. The biofilm allows for population densities that initiate quorum-sensing gene activation. These newly activated gene products consist of inflammatory virulence factors, such as exotoxins, cytolytic toxins, and super-antigens, which are then present for the rest of the patient’s life. The biofilm never goes away; it only thickens with age, producing increasing quantities of bacterial virulence factors, and thus, increasing inflammation. These virulence factors are likely the culprits that first cause follicular inflammation, then meibomian gland dysfunction, aqueous insufficiency, and finally, after many decades, lid destruction. We suggest that there are four stages of DEBS which correlate with the clinical manifestations of folliculitis, meibomitis, lacrimalitis, and finally lid structure damage evidenced by entropion, ectropion, and floppy eyelid syndrome. When one fully understands the structure and location of the glands within the lid, it becomes easy to understand this staged disease process. The longer a gland can resist the relentless encroachment of the invading biofilm, the longer it can maintain normal function. The stages depend purely on anatomy and years of biofilm presence. Dry eye now becomes a very easy disease to understand. We feel that dry eye should be treated and prevented by early and routine biofilm removal through electromechanical lid margin debridement. PMID

  7. Periodic acid–Schiff staining demonstrates fungi in chronic anterior blepharitis

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    Dadaci, Z; Kılınç, F; Ozer, T T; Sahin, G O; Acir, N O; Borazan, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the presence of fungi in patients with chronic anterior blepharitis with periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) staining of the eyelashes in addition to the conventional methods of fungal cultures and direct microscopy. Methods Nineteen patients with chronic anterior blepharitis of seborrheic or mixed seborrheic/staphylococcal type and 11 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were included in this prospective, nonrandomized, cross-sectional study. Blepharitis was diagnosed based on clinical evidence of greasy scales between the cilia, lid margin erythema, conjunctival hyperemia, telangiectasia, thickening, or irregularity of the eyelid margins by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Eyelash samples were obtained by epilation with a sterile forceps and evaluated with PAS staining, fungal cultures, and direct microscopy. Results We demonstrated fungal elements with PAS staining in 79% of the blepharitis group (hyphae and/or spores) and 18% of the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.002). Four patients in the blepharitis group (21%) had positive cultures for fungi. The isolated fungi were Penicillium species (2 cases), Candida species (1 case), and Trichophyton verrucosum (1 case). Direct microscopic examination revealed Demodex mites in 42.1% of the blepharitis group. No culture growth or Demodex mites were observed in the control group. Conclusions We have shown fungi with PAS staining in the majority of patients with chronic anterior blepharitis. Further controlled studies are necessary to clarify the role of fungi in the etiopathogenesis of blepharitis. PMID:26293142

  8. Bacillus oleronius and Demodex mite infestation in patients with chronic blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkaradkiewicz, A; Chudzicka-Strugała, I; Karpiński, T M; Goślińska-Pawłowska, O; Tułecka, T; Chudzicki, W; Szkaradkiewicz, A K; Zaba, R

    2012-10-01

    To better recognize the pathogenicity of ocular Demodex mites, we analysed Bacillus oleronius infection in patients with Demodex-related chronic blepharitis. The studies were conducted on 68 adult patients, in whom ophthalmological and parasitological tests permitted the distinction of a group of 38 patients with a diagnosis of Demodex-related chronic blepharitis (group 1, including a subgroup 1a with moderate blepharitis and a subgroup 1b with severe blepharitis) and a group of 30 healthy individuals (group 2). In every person studied six eyelashes were epilated from each eye and the number of Demodex per eyelash was scored. In parallel, bacterial culture and isolation allowed their phenotypic and molecular identification. The drug sensitivity of the isolates was tested using E-tests. Intensity of Demodex infestation showed no significant differences between subgroups 1a and 1b. From the epilated eyelashes 23 bacterial isolates were obtained, identified as being B. oleronius. All the studied strains were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and gentamicin. The Demodex mite represents an independent aetiopathogenetic factor in blepharitis. In parallel, the parasite may act as a carrier of B. oleronius bacteria, which most probably function as a co-pathogen in the development of severe forms of blepharitis.

  9. Ocular rosacea: an underdiagnosed cause of relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis in the elderly.

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    De Marchi, Sergio Umberto; Cecchin, Emanuela; De Marchi, Sergio

    2014-09-19

    Red eye and relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis are among the most common ocular disease in elderly patients. In these cases the search for causes is difficult and frustrating. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with a long history of red eye and relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis caused by ocular rosacea. In this patient the proper diagnosis was performed after 10 years of ocular disease, and repeated evaluations by general practitioners and clinical specialists, only after the appearance of facial signs of erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. Adequate therapy with oral doxycycline led to the improvement of the clinical picture that previously had shown a poor response to several topical treatments. The possibility of ocular rosacea should be considered in evaluating an elderly patient with persistent red eye and relapsing conjunctivitis-blepharitis. Making the proper diagnosis is crucial because ocular rosacea does not respond as expected to topical therapy and may lead to severe corneal involvement.

  10. Azithromycin 1.5% ophthalmic solution: efficacy and treatment modalities in chronic blepharitis

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    Ali Fadlallah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of topical 1.5% azithromycin in the treatment of moderate to severe chronic blepharitis and to compare the efficacy of two different treatment modalities. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial included 67 patients with chronic anterior and/or posterior blepharitis, followed-up for 3 months. Signs and symptoms were graded according to severity. Patients were randomized into two groups: 33 patients in group I and 34 patients in group II. Group I patients were treated with topical 1.5% azithromycin twice a day for three days, and Group II patients were treated with topical 1.5% azithromycin twice a day for three days then at bedtime for the rest of the month. All patients were instructed to apply warm compresses and an eye-friendly soap twice daily. RESULTS: Patients in both groups tolerated the treatment with minimal irritation. A significant improvement in signs and symptoms was noted at the one week follow-up visit. Group II showed a more pronounced and longer-lasting improvement that persisted after three months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: Topical 1.5% azithromycin ophthalmic solution is an effective treatment option for chronic blepharitis. In moderate to severe blepharitis, a one month treatment is safe and shows better improvement than the three-day protocol with no significant relapse until three months of follow-up.

  11. Clinical research on blepharitis%睑缘炎的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza Besharati; Abolghaseme Rastegar; Naeimeh Tayebi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate clinical presentation, classification,diagnosis, pathogenesis, complication and treatment of blepharitis.METHODS: In this study, 300 patients referred to general eye clinic have been chosen with diagnosis of blepharitis by Haag-streit slit-lamp examination. A questionnaire was filled in for patient with blepharitis. Then, the treatment of out-patient cases based on the causes of the condition was started.Patients were followed up and evaluated with respect to the results and complications of the treatment.RESULTS: The most common form of lesion in seborrheic dermatitis was squamous (62.5%) but ulcerative lesions was the most common in infectious and mixed types (P <0.001).Also, Seborrheic blepharitis mostly had chronic clinical course but infectious type commonly was acute (P <0.001). A significant difference was found between the cause of blepharitis and incidence of complications including hordeolum, chalazia, epithelial keratitis, conjunctivitis, dry eye (P <0.05). Moreover, There was a significant difference between clinical course of disease and complications such as dry eye and epithelial keratitis (P <0.05). There was a close relationship between the underlying diseases including seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, diabetes mellitus,allergy, acne rosacea and the cause of blepharitis(P <0.05).CONCLUSION: The blepharitis is one of the most common problems in general ophthalmology and needs attention to prevent the complications.%目的:讨论睑缘炎的临床表现、分型、诊断、发病机制、并发症以及治疗.方法:本研究包括在眼科门诊通过裂隙灯检查确诊为睑缘炎的患者300例,针对每位患者完成一份调查问卷,在了解患者患病原因的基础上给予治疗.通过随访评价患者的治疗效果和并发症.结果:本研究中,脂溢性睑缘炎多表现为鳞屑样病变(62.5%),但感染型或混合型睑缘炎多表现为溃疡样病变(P<0.001).此外,脂溢性睑缘炎

  12. The Role of Omega-3 Dietary Supplementation in Blepharitis and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (An AOS Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsai, Marian S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Blepharitis and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) are common sources of complaints from patients. To evaluate the effect on ocular symptoms, ocular findings, and serum and meibomian gland contents, patients with blepharitis and MGD were prospectively evaluated to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. Methods In a prospective randomized placebo-controlled masked trial, patients with simple obstructive MGD and blepharitis, who had discontinued all topical medications and tetracyclines, received oral omega-3 dietary supplementation consisting of two 1000-mg capsules 3 times a day. Patients were examined every 3 months for 1 year with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) objective clinical measures, including tear production and stability, ocular surface and meibomian gland health, and biochemical plasma, red blood cell (RBC), and meibum evaluation. Primary outcome measures were change in tear breakup time (TBUT), meibum score, and overall OSDI score at 1 year. Results At 1 year, the omega-3 group had a 36% and 31% reduction in their omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios in RBCs and plasma, respectively (P = .3), whereas the placebo group demonstrated no change. At 12 months, the omega-3 group had an improvement in TBUT, OSDI score, and meibum score. Changes in meibum content were observed in the omega-3 group (P = .21); the level of meibum saturated fatty acids decreased. Conclusions This trial demonstrated a decrease in the RBC and plasma ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 in patients taking omega-3 dietary supplementation, as compared to controls, and improvements in their overall OSDI score, TBUT, and meibum score. This is the first demonstration of an induced change in the fatty acid saturation content in meibum as a result of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19277245

  13. DEBS – a unification theory for dry eye and blepharitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynerson JM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available James M Rynerson,1 Henry D Perry2 1BlephEx, LLC, Alvaton, KY, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nassau University Medical Center, Hofstra University School of Medicine, East Meadow, NY, USA Abstract: For many years, blepharitis and dry eye disease have been thought to be two distinct diseases, and evaporative dry eye distinct from aqueous insufficiency. In this treatise, we propose a new way of looking at dry eye, both evaporative and insufficiency, as the natural sequelae of decades of chronic blepharitis. Dry eye is simply the late form and late manifestation of one disease, blepharitis. We suggest the use of a new term in describing this one chronic disease, namely dry eye blepharitis syndrome (DEBS. Bacteria colonize the lid margin within a structure known as a biofilm. The biofilm allows for population densities that initiate quorum-sensing gene activation. These newly activated gene products consist of inflammatory virulence factors, such as exotoxins, cytolytic toxins, and super-antigens, which are then present for the rest of the patient’s life. The biofilm never goes away; it only thickens with age, producing increasing quantities of bacterial virulence factors, and thus, increasing inflammation. These virulence factors are likely the culprits that first cause follicular inflammation, then meibomian gland dysfunction, aqueous insufficiency, and finally, after many decades, lid destruction. We suggest that there are four stages of DEBS which correlate with the clinical manifestations of folliculitis, meibomitis, lacrimalitis, and finally lid structure damage evidenced by entropion, ectropion, and floppy eyelid syndrome. When one fully understands the structure and location of the glands within the lid, it becomes easy to understand this staged disease process. The longer a gland can resist the relentless encroachment of the invading biofilm, the longer it can maintain normal function. The stages depend purely on anatomy and years of

  14. Utilisation of a Novel Test to Measure Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Posterior Blepharitis

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    Steven T. H. Yun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study evaluated the effectiveness of managing posterior blepharitis (PB using a novel Posterior Blepharitis Management Protocol (PBMP. Design. Prospective, consecutive case series with 100% followup to one month. Participants. 27 patients (54 eyes with PB from an Ophthalmology practice in Sydney, Australia. Methods. Each patient’s PB was assessed by grading the nature and expressibility of the central lower lid tarsal gland secretions on Compression Of The Eyelid (COTE. Patients were then instructed in detail to undertake daily PB management sessions at home using our modified PBMP. Main Outcome Measures. On a subjective scale, patients compared their symptoms at one month with baseline. COTE scores were reevaluated to assess the objective effectiveness of each individual’s PBMP. COTE scoring was described as grades 1 (clear oil, 2 (pus, liquid, 3 (toothpaste-like secretions, and 4 (complete tarsal gland obstruction. Results. Patients reported a mean 77.8% ± 13.5% subjective improvement in symptoms. There was a trend towards improvement in COTE grading at one month compared with baseline: grades 1 (0 to 7.4%, 2a (22.2 to 16.6%, 2b (7.4 to 3.7%, 3 (18.5 to 27.7%, and 4 (51.8 to 44%. Conclusions. PBMP provided a rapid, inexpensive, simple, effective, and safe method of treating PB.

  15. Clinical-Laboratory Parallels in Patients with Demodectic Blepharitis at Cosmecevtic’s Use

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    I. B. Medvedev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the influence of the new cosmecevtic — cream «Demazol» on the dynamics of clinical and laboratory parameters (akarogramms with Demodex blepharitis.Patients and methods. There were 56 patients with Demodex blepharitis with symptoms of blepharitis or blepharoconjunctivitis in the study. In all cases, the clinical diagnoses were confirmed by laboratory investigations of epilated lashes. The akarogramms indicated the number of adult mite larvae and eggs of parasites separately for each eye. The cream was applied topically on the eyelids 2 times a day following our instructions, and before this, we provided pretreatment alcohol eucalyptus or sage tincture. The course of treatment was 1.5 months. Alongside this, we conducted drug correction of the status of the tear film via artificial tears eyedrops and therapy of blepharitis or blepharoconjunctivitis withantibiotics, steroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A controlled laboratory testing for the presence of the mite Demodex folliculorum was undertaken after the course of treatment with cream. Evaluation of the efficacy of the cream was undertaken in accordance with the age of patients (up to 70 groups of patients 70 years and older, and the amount of mites.Results. The cosmetic cream «Demazol» had eliminated all forms of the mite Demodex — adults, larvae and eggs of parasites after 45 days of application. The number of mites after the course was significantly reduced: 5.7 times (by the number of adults; 3.7 times (the number of larvae and 12 times (the number of parasite eggs. Reduction the number of ticks was noted in general by 95% of patients; full or substantial reduction by 62.5%, proving the specific efficacy of «Demazol.» The clinical effect of varying degrees (excluding akarogramm was noted in 49 of 56 patients (87.5%. The percentage of patients with a moderate pronounced effect from the cream was 78.6%. The combination of a pronounced

  16. 蠕形螨睑缘炎的研究进展%Progress of study on the demodex blepharitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓玉; 孙旭光

    2016-01-01

    Demodex blepharitis is an infectious ocular disease which is common, but always to be neglected.There were a few related reports about this disease in China.The pathogenic mechanism of demodex blepharitis is not clear at present.Literatures held different ideas about its diagnosis, therapeutic methods and curative effect.This review will summarize the new development of demodex blepharitis in order to provide references for its basic and clinical researches.%蠕形螨睑缘炎是一种常见但易被临床忽视的传染性眼表疾病,国内学者对此病的系统性研究报道较少.目前蠕形螨睑缘炎的致病机制尚不明确,国内外文献中对其诊断、治疗方法及疗效等的报道结论也不一致.本文对蠕形螨睑缘炎的最新研究进展加以综述,以期为开展蠕形螨睑缘炎的基础与临床研究提供借鉴.

  17. 重视蠕形螨感染与睑缘炎%Discussion on Demodex infection and blepharitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭光; 张晓玉

    2016-01-01

    蠕形螨作为引起睑缘炎可能的病原之一,正逐渐被眼科医生所认识.蠕形螨是人体毛囊和皮脂腺中的一种永久性小型寄生螨,人群体表感染率很高.寄居于人眼睑的蠕形螨分为2种:毛囊蠕形螨和皮脂蠕形螨.蠕形螨生活周期约为14.5d.目前对于蠕形螨感染是否为睑缘炎的病因存在不同的看法.眼科临床医师应深入了解蠕形螨的病原学特征、其与睑缘炎发生的关系、蠕形螨的临床检测方法和阳性结果判定标准,以提高对蠕形螨睑缘炎的临床认识,为该疾病的预防和治疗提供有用线索.%As a possible pathogen of blepharitis,Demodex is gradually known by ophthalmologists.Demodex is one of the permanent small parasitic mites in human hair follicle and sebaceous glands,with high infective rate in human body.There are two kinds of Demodex that colonized in human eyelid:Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis.The life cycle of Demodex is about 14.5 days.There have been different views on Demodex as the cause of blepharitis.We performed a deep research on the pathogenic characteristics of Demodex and explored the relationship between blepharitis and Demodex.The clinical diagnose methods and diagnose criteria were also summarized to improve the clinical understanding of Demodex blepharitis,which provides a useful clue for the prevention and management of this disease.

  18. Ocular surface discomfort and Demodex: effect of tea tree oil eyelid scrub in Demodex blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Wee, Sung Wook; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between ocular discomfort and ocular Demodex infestation, and therapeutic effects of tea tree oil (TTO) in Demodex blepharitis patients. Three hundred and thirty-five patients with ocular discomfort were evaluated for ocular Demodex infestation and subjective symptoms with ocular surface discomfort index (OSDI) score. Among them, Demodex-infested patients were randomized to receive either eyelid scrubbing with TTO (TTO group,106 patients) or without TTO (Control group, 54 patients) for 1 month. Demodex were found in 84% of patients with ocular discomfort. The number of Demodex was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.04) and OSDI score (P = 0.024). After eyelid scrub treatment, Demodex count was reduced from 4.0 ± 2.5 to 3.2 ± 2.3 in the TTO group (P = 0.004) and from 4.3 ± 2.7 to 4.2 ± 2.5 in the control group (P = 0.27). Also, OSDI score was reduced from 34.5 ± 10.7 to 24.1 ± 11.9 in the TTO group (P = 0.001) and from 35.3 ± 11.6 to 27.5 ± 12.8 in the control group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, Demodex number showed a significant positive correlation with age and subjective ocular discomfort. The tea tree oil eyelid scrub treatment is effective for eliminating ocular Demodex and improving subjective ocular symptoms.

  19. 复发性儿童睑缘炎导致干眼的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Dry Eye Induced by Recurrent Children Blepharitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚茜; 李冰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the changes in tear film function after treatment in relevant dry eye induced by childhood recurrent blepharitis. Methods Thirty-six cases(55 eyes)in Clinical Cornea De-partment of Shanxi Eye Hospital were selected for observation from April 2013 to January 2014. Before and after treatment,the slit-lamp examination,meibomian gland function,tear film break-up time( BUT)exami-nation,Schirmer I test( SIt)and corneal fluorescein staining test( FL)were performed. Results The tear film function was abnormal to different extents in children. The meibomian gland function score,BUT test and FL score changed apparently in comparison before and after treatment. The difference in SIt was not significant( P﹥0. 05). The meibomian gland function score was negatively correlated with SIt(r= -0. 108,P=0. 457). Conclusion In clinic,blepharitis leads to evaporative-type dry eye disease in children. If blepharitis is treated well in combination with the application of artificial tears and topical herbal medicine,the subjective symptoms can be relieved apparently and tear film stability be improved. Moreover the recurrence of blephari-tis can be prevented.%目的:探讨儿童期反复发作的睑缘炎导致相关性干眼治疗后泪膜功能的变化。方法选取2013年4月~2014年1月就诊于山西省眼科医院门诊角膜科的患儿36例(55只眼)进行观察,治疗前后分别行眼前节检查,对比睑板腺功能评分、泪膜破裂时间( trar break-up time,BUT)检查、泪液分泌试验( Schirmer I test,SIt)及角膜荧光素染色试验( fluorescein,FL)。结果患儿的泪膜功能均有不同程度的异常。患者治疗前后的睑板腺功能评分、BUT试验和FL评分有明显变化;SIt差异无统计学意义( P﹥0.05);睑板腺功能评分与BUT呈负相关( r=-0.667,P=0.000),与FL呈正相关( r=0.722,P=0.000),与SIt无明显相关性( r=-0.108,P=0.457)。结论

  20. Assessment of the tolerability profile of an ophthalmic solution of 5% glycyrrhizin and copolymer PEG/PPG on healthy volunteers and evaluation of its efficacy in the treatment of moderate to severe blepharitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mencucci R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rita Mencucci, Eleonora Favuzza, Ugo MenchiniDepartment of Surgery and Translational Medicine – Eye Clinic, University of Florence, Florence, ItalyPurpose: To evaluate the tolerability on healthy volunteers and the efficacy on subjects affected by chronic moderate/severe blepharitis of a 5% glycyrrhizin and copolymer poly(ethylene glycol/poly(propylene glycol(PEG/PPG ophthalmic solution.Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, open label, intra-patient monocentric study. It consisted of two different phases, the assessment of tolerability phase on 20 healthy volunteers, and the evaluation of the efficacy on 21 subjects affected by chronic moderate/severe blepharitis; the treatment period was 2 weeks, followed by 1-week of follow-up. In the efficacy phase, in both eyes, eyelid hygiene was also performed. At day 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 a complete ophthalmological examination was performed. In the tolerability phase, signs of clinical toxicity were recorded and subject-reported symptoms were collected using a questionnaire. In the efficacy phase, global signs and symptoms of blepharitis scores were collected using standardized photographic scales and questionnaire. The statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: No ocular signs of drug toxicity were reported. During the treatment period for tolerability phase, there were statistically significant higher scores of tearing and ocular discomfort in the tolerability study group versus the tolerability control group. In the efficacy phase, differences between global scores of the two groups were statistically significant at day 0 (score of the efficacy study group was higher than the efficacy control group; P = 0.005 and at day 21 (score of the efficacy study group was lower than the efficacy control group (P ≤ 0.001.The difference of global scores at day 3, 7, 14, and 21 versus day 0 was statistically significant in both groups. No serious adverse events

  1. The prevalence of Demodex folliculorum in blepharitis padents%顽固性睑缘炎患者眼睑蠕形螨感染调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宝涛; 郭萍; 邹仲良; 潘裕锦

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解顽固性睑缘炎患者眼睑人体蠕形螨感染情况,为睑缘炎患者的诊治提供帮助.方法 选取2012年6月至2014年1月在深圳市眼科医院门诊确诊为顽固性睑缘炎患者44例作为试验组,无睑缘炎但以眼痒、异物感为主要症状的患者37例作为对照组.通过裂隙灯下睫毛根部形态观察及活体共聚焦显微镜检查,了解眼睑蠕形螨感染情况.结果 蠕形螨性睑缘炎患者睫毛根部多有圆柱状鳞屑或袖套状鳞屑,非睑缘炎患者鳞屑常呈片状.共聚焦显微镜下,睑缘炎患者蠕形螨感染率为93.1% (41/44),显著高于对照组29.7% (11/37).结论 顽固性睑缘炎患者眼睑蠕形螨感染率较高,眼科医生在作顽固性睑缘炎诊治时,可以通过睫毛形态观察结合眼睑蠕形螨检查确诊蠕形螨感染,必要时予以抑菌联合抗螨治疗.%Objective To investigate the infection of Demodex folliculomm in intractable blepharitis patients,and provide help for the diagnosis and treatment.Methods Forty-four outpatients diagnosed with intractable blepharitis in the Department of Ophthalmology were selected,37 patients with itchy and foreign body sensation as controls.The morphology of eyelash roots through the slit lamp and the infection of Demodex folliculomm of eyelid with confocal microscopy were observed.Results Scales located in the root of eyelashes in Demodex infected blepharitis patients was cylindrical or cuff-like,scales of non-blepharitis patients was flaky.With the observation of confocal microscope,the infection rate of Demodex in blepharitis patients was 93.1% (41/44),which was significantly higher than 29.7% (11/37) of the control group.Conclusions The infection rate of Demodex in intractable blepharitis patients is high,ophthalmologists can diagnose the infection of demodex via observing the morphology of eyelashes and examining the demodex of eyelid when diagnose and treat the intractable blepharitis,combine the

  2. 0.03%他克莫司软膏治疗眼睑皮炎临床疗效观察%Clinial efficacy of 0.03% tacrolimus ointment for atopic blepharitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 彭建梅; 伍健华; 刁仕华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of 0.03%tacrolimus ointment in patients with atopic blepharitis .Methods Twentysix patients were treated with 0.03%tacrolimus ointment twice a day for 2 weeks,and the clinical symptom and sign scores were recorded before and after treatment .Results The clinical cured rate was 57.69%,76.94%,92.30%and 73.08%at the 3th day,7th day,14th day and 30th day after treatment respectively .Among a varicty of skin lesions ,the therapeutic effect was better for erythema and inching than for xerosis cutis and chickening.Four cases (15.38%)were reported to have local burning ,which all happened in the first 3 day of teatment .There are 7(26.92%)patients who recurrent after withdraw of the treatment .Conclusion 0.03%tacrolimus ointment is an effective treatment option for the jpatients with atopic blepharitis .Long-term efficacy and safety of the medicine have to be evaluatcd by long -term follow-up studies.%目的 探讨0.03%他克莫司软膏治疗眼睑部皮炎的疗效.方法 26例患者外用0.03%他克莫司软膏,2次/d,共2周.于治疗前及治疗后第3天,第1、2周和停约后1月各随访1次.结果 26例患者治疗后3天、1周、2周及停药1个月后临床痊愈率分别为57.69%,76.94%,92.30%,73.08%.对红斑、瘙痒的控制起效迅速,而脱屑及肥厚改变较缓.4例(15138%)患者局部有灼热感,均发生在治疗初3大.停药1个月后共有7例(26.92%)患者复发.结论 0.03%他克莫司软膏治疗眼睑部皮炎起效快,疗效明显,长期使用的安全性需大样本观察研究.

  3. 5%茶树油眼膏治疗蠕形螨相关鳞屑性睑缘炎%The use of 5% tea oil ointment in the treatment of scaly blepharitis associated with ocular demodicosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莹莹; 黄丽娟; 董雪青; 赵华轩; 许锻炼

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical efficacy of 5% tea tree oil ointment in treating scaly blepharitis, which is associated with demodex.Methods In this prospective clinical study, a total of 240 outpatients diagnosed with scaly blepharitis in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University between June 2007 and June 2013 were included in the study.The mean age was 48.7±13.7 years.Demodex was positive in every eyelash sample.The degree of ocular discomfort was judged by an ocular discomfort score.The method of treatment: Lid scrub with 5% tea tree oil ointment bilaterally once every night.Patients returned for evaluations every two weeks, and the success of the treatment was evaluated at the end of four weeks.Total follow-up time was 3 months.The final assessment included an evaluation of changes in the ocular discomfort score, demodex count, eyelid hygiene conditions and side effects.A paired t-test was used for comparison of data before and after the treatment.Results One hundred eighty of 240 patients (75.0%) had complete relief of symptoms after treatment, and 38(15.8%) had significant improvement.The mean ocular discomfort score was 8.2±3.2 before treatment, which dropped to 0.3±0.8 after treatment (t=12.28, P<0.01).The eyelids of 212 patients (88.3%) became free of dandruff.The demodex count was 6.2±4.8 for every four eyelashes before treatment and declined to 0.7±0.6 for every four eyelashes after treatment (t=6.96, P<0.01).None of the patients experienced an allergic reaction or had adverse reactions during or after the treatment.Conclusion Lid scrub with 5% tea tree oil ointment can effectively relieve the symptoms of scaly blepharitis, which is associated with demodex infestation and greatly diminishes the number of demodex mites.This shows that the treatment is safe and effective.%目的 探讨5%茶树油眼膏治疗蠕形螨相关鳞屑性睑缘炎的临床疗效.方法 前瞻性临床研究.选择2007年6月至2013年6

  4. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment (Posterior Blepharitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ...

  5. Comparison of tear film tests, ocular staining, impression cytool gy for three conditions:dry eye, anterior blepharitis, season al allergic conjunctivitis%干眼症和前睑缘炎及季节性过敏性结膜炎中三种检测方法结果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mutlu Acar; Volkan Yaylalı; Ahmet çevik Tufan; Cem Yıldırım

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To compare three clinically similar patient groups and a control group in terms of tear function tests, ocular surface staining and conjunctival impression cytology. METHODS: This was a single-centre, prospective, double-blind, randomised and controlled trial.The study includes 20 dry eye patients with Schirmer 1 scores less than 10mm and a tear film break-up time ( TBUT) less than 10s, 20 anterior blepharitis patients with drying and crusting of the eyelashes, 20 seasonal allergic conjunctivitis patients with papillary hypertrophy of the upper eyelid tarsal conjunctiva and 20 control group patients. The Schirmer scores, TBUT scores, ocular surface staini ng ( as graded by the Oxford scheme scale) , goblet cell density ( as observed using impression cytology and metaplasia scores for all patients evaluated by the Nelson grading scheme) were compa red. RESULTS: Significant differences were identified between these patient groups and the control group in terms of tear functions tests, ocular surface-staining scores, goblet cell density and metaplasia scores (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Inflammatory response against these three diseases was demonstrated to cause damage in parallel to the severity of the local inflammation they generate on the ocular surface.We confirmed that this damage has very serious effects, especially on conjunctival goblet cell density and metaplasia. We believe that the degree of this loss in goblet cells is correlated with clinical findings.%目的:比较三组临床患者和对照组患者的泪液功能测试,眼表染色以及结膜印象细胞学检测的结果。方法:这是一个单中心,前瞻性,双盲,随机对照试验。研究包括泪液分泌分数小于10 mm和泪膜破裂时间( TBUT )小于10 s的20例干眼症患者,有干燥和结痂睫毛的20例前睑缘炎患者,上眼睑睑板结膜乳头肥大的20例季节性过敏性结膜炎患者和20例对照组患者。比较泪液分泌的分数,泪膜破裂

  6. Contact lenses and associated anterior segment disorders: dry eye disease, blepharitis, and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemp, Michael A; Bielory, Leonard

    2008-02-01

    This article discusses the use of contact lenses in patients suffering from dry eye and ocular allergy. The diagnosis of dry eye is outlined along with the relationship between contact lenses, the tear film, and the ocular surface. A practical approach to the recognition and management of the dry eye patient wishing to wear contact lenses is presented. In addition, a consideration of a careful strategy to identify patients with ocular allergy and manage the use of contact lenses in these patients is developed with an emphasis on the avoidance of complications.

  7. 液氮冷冻治疗鳞屑性睑缘炎的疗效观察%Observation on Therapeutic Effect of Squamous Blepharitis Treated with Liquefacient Nitrogen Cryotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志洪

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察液氮冷冻治疗鳞屑性睑缘炎的临床疗效.方法:选取近几年在我院就诊的鳞屑性睑缘炎患者126例234眼,随机分为液氮冷冻治疗观察组65例120眼,每周2~3次治疗,6~10次为一疗程,同时滴用抗生素眼液及眼膏;药物治疗对照组61例114眼,采用滴抗生素眼液及眼膏和2%黄降汞眼膏,20~25 d为一疗程,经治疗二疗程后进行疗效比较.结果:观察组治愈64眼,有效30眼,无效26眼.有效、无效者继续治疗一疗程后治愈32眼,总治愈率80%,对照组治愈48眼,有效30眼,无效36眼,总治愈率42.11%,经统计学处理(X2=35.47,P<0.01),差异有显著性.结论:液氮冷冻治疗鳞屑性睑缘炎有明显的疗效.

  8. Meibomianitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes during adolescence, or skin conditions such as rosacea and acne. Meibomianitis is often associated with blepharitis , ... may be particularly useful in people who have rosacea. You may also need treatment for general skin ...

  9. Therapeutic eyelids hygiene in the algorithms of prevention and treatment of ocular surface diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When acute inflammation in anterior eye segment of a forward piece of an eye was stopped, ophthalmologists face a problem of absence of acute inflammation signs and at the same time complaints to the remain discomfort feelings. It causes dissatisfaction from the treatment. The complaints are typically caused by disturbance of tears productions. No accidental that the new group of diseases was allocated — the diseases of the ocular surface. Ocular surface is a difficult biologic system, including epithelium of the conjunctiva, cornea and limb, as well as the area costal margin eyelid and meibomian gland ducts. Pathological processes in conjunctiva, cornea and eyelids are linked with tears production. Ophthalmologists prescribes tears substitutions, providing short-term relief to patients. However, in respect that the lipid component of the tear film plays the key role in the preservation of its stability, eyelids hygiene is the basis for the treatment of dry eye associated with ocular surface diseases. Eyelids hygiene provides normal functioning of glands, restores the metabolic processes in skin and ensures the formation of a complete tear film. Protection of eyelids, especially the marginal edge from aggressive environmental agents, infections and parasites and is the basis for the prevention and treatment of blepharitis and dry eye syndrome. The most common clinical situations and algorithms of their treatment and prevention of dysfunction of the meibomian glands; demodectic blepharitis; seborrheic blepharitis; staphylococcal blepharitis; allergic blepharitis; barley and chalazion are discussed in the article. The prevention keratoconjunctival xerosis (before and postoperative period, caused by contact lenses, computer vision syndrome, remission after acute conjunctiva and cornea inflammation is also presented. The first part of the article presents the treatment and prevention algorithms for dysfunction of the meibomian glands, as well as

  10. A History of Computer-Assisted Medical Diagnosis at Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Table 2. Diagnoses considered by Eye Module Acute angle closure glaucoma Dislocation of the lens Acute iritis Hash burn Allergic conjunctivitis...Gonococcal conjunctivitis Bacterial conjunctivitis Herpes simplex keratitis Blepharitis Hordeolum Chalazion Hyphema Chronic iritis Inclusion conjunctivitis...the globe Corneal abrasion Subconjunctival hemorrhage Corneal foreign body Traumatic iritis Viral conjunctivitis 11 cal Practice Support System). MEPSS

  11. Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda) infection in a European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Katie M; Harris, Eileen; Pocknell, Ann M; John, Shinto K; Macgregor, Shaheed K; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2014-10-01

    A European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) found dead in England had marked blepharitis and periocular alopecia associated with Aprocta cylindrica (Nematoda: Aproctidae) and concurrent mixed fungal infections. Aprocta cylindrica should be considered a differential diagnosis in periocular abnormalities of robins and other insectivorous, migratory passerines in Western Europe.

  12. Bilateral Severe Ectropion and Mature Cataract in Lamellar Ichthyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyaz A. Lone, Reyaz A. Untoo, Sheikh S. Ahmad

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Lamellar ichthyosis is a rare, autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous skin disorder causedby mutations in the transglutaminase-1 gene. Eye abnormalities include bilateral ectropion of lowerlids, chronic blepharitis and rarely cataract. A case of lamellar ichthyosis with bilateral lower lidectropion and bilateral mature cataract is hereby presented for its rarity.

  13. The correlation between facial and eyelid demodicosis. Complex therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Maychuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the correlation between eyelid and facial demodicosis and to develop an optimal anti-parasitic treatment schedule for posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis. Materials and methods. 100 patients with posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on Demodex count. Demodex count less than 4 mites was considered normal while Demodex count more than 4 mites was considered pathological. 60 patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites were subdivided into 2 groups. Study group patients (n = 30 received anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage. Control group patients (n = 30 received antiparasitic therapy only. Patients with verified facial demodicosis received dermatological treatment as well. In all patients, integral indices of subjective discomfort and objective signs of posterior blepharitis were measured, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests were performed, functional state of meibomian glands was evaluated (compressive test. Results. Eyelid demodicosis was associated with facial demodicosis in 48% of patients. In 10%, Demodex count was less than 4 mites. In 38%, Demodex count was more than 4 mites. Skin lesions were revealed in 1% of patients with Demodex count less than 4 mites and in 20% of patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites. Anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage improved functional state of meibomian glands and objective signs of posterior meibomian blepharitis. In 1.5 months after the treatment, Demodex was absent in 80% of study group patients and 56.6% of controls. Conclusion. Stepwise treatment of posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis (anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic therapy, eyelid hygiene is effective and provides prolonged remission. 

  14. The correlation between facial and eyelid demodicosis. Complex therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Maychuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the correlation between eyelid and facial demodicosis and to develop an optimal anti-parasitic treatment schedule for posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis. Materials and methods. 100 patients with posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on Demodex count. Demodex count less than 4 mites was considered normal while Demodex count more than 4 mites was considered pathological. 60 patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites were subdivided into 2 groups. Study group patients (n = 30 received anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage. Control group patients (n = 30 received antiparasitic therapy only. Patients with verified facial demodicosis received dermatological treatment as well. In all patients, integral indices of subjective discomfort and objective signs of posterior blepharitis were measured, Schirmer’s and Norn’s tests were performed, functional state of meibomian glands was evaluated (compressive test. Results. Eyelid demodicosis was associated with facial demodicosis in 48% of patients. In 10%, Demodex count was less than 4 mites. In 38%, Demodex count was more than 4 mites. Skin lesions were revealed in 1% of patients with Demodex count less than 4 mites and in 20% of patients with Demodex count more than 4 mites. Anti-parasitic therapy with preceding anti-inflammatory treatment, eyelid hygiene and massage improved functional state of meibomian glands and objective signs of posterior meibomian blepharitis. In 1.5 months after the treatment, Demodex was absent in 80% of study group patients and 56.6% of controls. Conclusion. Stepwise treatment of posterior blepharitis associated with eyelid demodicosis (anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic therapy, eyelid hygiene is effective and provides prolonged remission. 

  15. Demodex spp. Infestation Associated with Treatment-Resistant Chalazia and Folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçınar, Ulviye Güvendi; Ünal, Emine; Akpınar, Metin

    2016-12-01

    Demodecidosis is an ectoparasitosis of pilosebaceous unit caused by demodex mites. The disease may be a primary skin disease or a secondary disease to inflammatory dermatoses such as folliculitis and rosacea. Demodex spp. blepharitis is an infectious ocular disease that is common but always neglected. These mites contain lipase enzymes that help carry bacteria on the surface. The infestation of Demodex spp. has increasingly become a public health concern. A 29-year-old male patient was admitted to our dermatology clinic with a complaint of papules and pustules on his face, which started 4 years ago. A standardized skin biopsy specimen was evaluated in our microbiology laboratory, and we detected Demodex folliculorum mites on his face (3+). There was pruritus of his eyes. A total of four eyelashes were epilated and were then examined under a light microscope for the presence of Demodex infestation. In this study, we discussed the association between acne rocacea, blepharitis, and demodex mites.

  16. Demodex - an old pathogen or a new one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiecka-Ziółkowska, Jolanta; Nokiel, Marta; Fleischer, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Demodex was first identified over 150 years ago, but only recently has it attracted wider interest as a contributor to chronic diseases such as acne rosacea or marginal blepharitis. Demodex is commonly found in the human population, in skin sebaceous glands or follicles. The frequency of Demodex infection increases with age, as it is mainly diagnosed after the age of seventy; however, it can sometimes be found in children and teenagers. Demodex is supposed to contribute to the development of marginal blepharitis or acne rosacea, but the pathogenic mechanisms have not yet been explained in detail. These diseases are chronic and the long-term treatment effects are not satisfactory. This paper presents the characteristics of Demodex as well as its prevalence in the pathogenesis of eye and skin diseases, and describes the diagnostics and treatment of these disorders.

  17. Visual Status of Children with Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Robert H. Duckman, OD, MA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS) are known to have a high prevalence of visual anomalies including strabismus, high refractive errors, Brushfield spots, nystagmus, keratoconus, and external pathologies such as blepharitis and conjunctivitis. These anomalies can impair children with DS from maximum functional capabilities. Methods: This study looks at 42 children from Stepping Stone Day School between the ages of 2.33 years and 5.17 years. All 42 children received a co...

  18. Tolerability and acceptability of Blephagel: a novel eyelid hygiene aqueous gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doan S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Serge DoanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Bichat Hospital and Foundation, Paris, FranceAbstract: Commonly associated with dry eye, blepharitis is the most commonly encountered disorder in general ophthalmologic practice. Although anti-infective and anti-inflammatory therapies are available, eyelid hygiene is the cornerstone of effective management. A variety of products have been used to assist and encourage eyelid cleansing and massage. The present study examines the ocular and periocular tolerability and acceptability of Blephagel, a cosmetic, poloxamer-containing gel designed specifically for cleansing the eyelid in subjects with sensitive skin or eyes or contact lens users. Subjects with blepharitis and sensitive skin or eyes, a history of atopy, or who use contact lenses applied Blephagel twice daily at home. Clinical ophthalmologic examinations were conducted before and 21 days after aqueous gel application, and subjects completed a questionnaire on the acceptability of the preparation. Thirty-three predominantly female subjects entered and completed the study. A total of 36% of the subjects had used similar products in the past, 21% regularly. Upon questioning by the ophthalmologist, 85% of the subjects reported acceptability of the preparation as good to very good, and 73% rated the efficacy as good to very good. There were minor but statistically nonsignificant changes in fluorescein tear breakup time and visual acuity before and after 21 days of aqueous gel application. The questionnaire results indicated that the subjects found the product to be effective for cleansing the eyelids of mucus and squama around eyelash roots. Moreover, cosmetic qualities, sensation in use, and acceptability were also appreciated. No subject reported any adverse event considered to be related to the aqueous gel. Although the safety of Blephagel has already been established in standard tests, the current results suggest that it is also pleasant to use and

  19. Ocular Complications in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus: A Systematic Review with a Meta-Analysis of Reported Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Arrico, L; A. Abbouda; I. Abicca; Malagola, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ocular complications associated with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) are less studied compared with those ones associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The main ocular sites involved in patients affected by discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) are eyelids followed by orbit and periorbit, the least being cornea. The most common complications are blepharitis usually affecting the lower lid and associated with some type of lid lesion such as plaque or erythematosus patches and madaro...

  20. [Some aspects of the skin infestation by Demodex folliculorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raszeja-Kotelba, Barbara; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Izdebska, Joanna N; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Tomczak, Małgorzata; Dembińska, Magdalena

    2004-01-01

    The importance of demodicids (Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis) infestation and their effect on skin lesions has been described based on literature data and our own clinical and parasitological investigations. Hair follicle mites have been detected in 45% of patients with rosacea, 27% of patients with perioral dermatitis, 28% of patients suffering from seborrhoeic dermatitis and in 3 out of 7 patients with chronic blepharitis. Clinical picture of demodecosis included erythemato-papulous and pustulous (rosacea-like) skin lesions together with erythemato-desquamative changes of the face.

  1. Conjunctival geographic ulcer: an overlooked sign of herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Chu, Chang-Yao; Lee, Chaw-Ning; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chang, Kung-Chao; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) ocular infection causes significant visual burden worldwide. Despite the fact that dendritic or geographic corneal ulcers are typical findings in HSV epithelial keratitis, conjunctival ulcer as a sign of HSV infection has rarely been reported. Although easily overlooked, this important sign could be enhanced by fluorescein staining. We report two cases of conjunctival geographic ulcers proven to be HSV infection by viral isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One patient had bilateral disease and blepharitis, and the other had unilateral involvement without skin lesions. With timely diagnosis and proper management, excellent visual outcome can be expected.

  2. Ultrasound biomicroscopy as a tool for conjunctiva and eyelids evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM is the only diagnostic method that uses a 50‑100 MHz transducer with a depth of penetration of 4 mm. This provides greater sensitivity and resolution.Aim. To visualize meibomian glands and to evaluate their morphological and functional status using UBM.Methods. UBM was performed in 14 patients aged 29‑81 with obvious meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD and healthy meibomian glands. 6 patients had no biomicroscopic signs of blepharitis while 8 patients had biomicroscopic signs of blepharitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, and MGD.Results. UBM provides detailed information on meibomian glands and eyelid margins and their pathological conditions, i.e., eyelid margin thickening due to inflammation, meibomian gland orifice obstruction, increase in distance between meibomian glands due to their atrophy, and cartilaginous tissue destruction. UBM findings may depend on patient age as well as on disease stage and severity. When re-positioning UBM transducer, bullous conjunctiva and subconjunctival cysts can be visualized. This provides differential diagnosis between opaque cysts and tumors.Conclusion. UBM combined with standard exams increases information value, reliability, and accuracy of the diagnostics of anterior segment disorders and facilitates the development of targeted therapeutic approaches. Further studies on diagnostic value of conjunctiva and eyelids UBM are required.

  3. Palpebral involvement as a presenting and sole manifestation of discoid lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Reza; Feily, Amir; Behrooz, Bahar; Yaghoobi, Elena; Mokhtarzadeh, Shabnam

    2010-11-04

    A 28-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of idiopathic, chronic blepharitis unresponsive to several courses treatment of corticosteroid eye drops. Physical examination was notable for edematous, erythematous plaques of the lower eyelids with madarosis in the absence of preceding skin scarring. Biopsy specimen was obtained and diagnosis of discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) was made. DLE is a chronic, cutaneous disease that is clinically characterized by a malar rash, acute erythema, and discoid lesions. Localized DLE occurs when the head and neck only are affected, while widespread DLE occurs when other areas are affected, regardless of whether disease of the head and neck is seen. Patients with widespread involvement often have hematologic and serologic abnormalities, are more likely to develop systemic lupus erythematosus, and are more difficult to treat. A number of skin diseases may be confused with DLE, such as psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, rosacea, lupus vulgaris, sarcoidosis, Bowen's disease, polymorphous light eruption, lichen planopilaris, dermatomyositis, granuloma annulare, and granuloma faciale. Palpebral lesions may rarely be the presenting or sole manifestation of the disease and lower eyelid involvement is seen in 6% of patients with chronic, cutaneous lupus erythematosus. DLE should therefore be considered as a differential diagnosis in chronic blepharitis or madarosis that persists despite usual medical management and eyelid hygiene. The patient was treated successfully with hydroxychloroquine. The skin lesions resolved with minimal scarring.

  4. Updates in the treatment of ocular allergies

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    Osmo Kari

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Osmo Kari1, K Matti Saari21Department of Allergology, Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Turku, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Allergic diseases have greatly increased in industrialized countries. About 30% of people suffer from allergic symptoms and 40%–80% of them have symptoms in the eyes. Atopic conjunctivitis can be divided into seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC. The treatment of SAC is simple; antihistamines, anti-inflammatory agents, or chromoglycate. In severe cases of SAC, subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy is helpful. PAC needs longer therapy, often year round, with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, and sometimes local steroids. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a more severe disease showing chronic blepharitis often connected with severe keratitis. It needs, in many cases, continuous treatment of the lid eczema and keratoconjunctivitis. Blepharitis is treated with tacrolimus or pimecrolimus ointment. Conjunctivitis additionally needs corticosteroids and, if needed, cyclosporine A (CsA drops are administered for longer periods. Basic conjunctival treatment is with mast cell-stabilizing agents and in addition, antihistamines are administered. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is another chronic and serious allergic disease that mainly affects children and young people. It is a long-lasting disease which commonly subsides in puberty. It demands intensive therapy often for many years to avoid serious complicating corneal ulcers. Treatment is mast cell-stabilizing drops and additionally antihistamines. In relapses, corticosteroids are needed. When the use of corticosteroids is continuous, CsA drops should be used, and in relapses, corticosteroids should be used additionally. Nonallergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC is a less known, but rather common, ocular disease. It affects mostly middle-aged and

  5. The causes and preventive measures of post-operative exposure keratitis%预防全麻手术过程中暴露性角膜炎的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周力; 王英丽

    2010-01-01

    暴露性角膜炎是全麻病人术后较易发生的并发症,本文对全麻手术过程中可能引起暴露性角膜炎的原因进行分析,如眼睑闭合不全、麻醉药物的肌松作用、机械性损伤、医用生物胶的使用及温湿度的控制等,并对其针对性预防措施进行了综述.%Exposure keratitis is one of the common complications after General Anesthesia. This article analyzed the causes of exposure keratitis during operation, such as blepharal dysraphism, muscle-relaxing effects of anesthetics, mechanical injury, using of medical biological glue, temperature and humidity, and reviewed the pertinence preventive measures.

  6. Frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic pathology

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    Biswas Jyotirmay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Frozen section diagnosis is extensively used in various branches of pathology, but its application in ophthalmic pathology was recognised only in the 1970s. We studied 10 sections of ocular and adenexal lesions by frozen section diagnosis, which included orbital lesions (4 cases, lid lesions (3 cases, and intraocular tissue (1 case. The time taken for processing ranged between 10 to 15 minutes. Diagnoses based on frozen section evaluation included lymphoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, solar keratosis, compound naevus, silicone oil globules in cataractous lens, neurofibromatosis, pseudotumour, retinoblastoma, and chronic blepharitis. Although further histopathologic examination correlated well with the frozen section (100% observations, the diagnosis was deferred in the case of naevus and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Our study shows that frozen section diagnosis in ophthalmic surgery is quite reliable and is particularly useful in ocular adenexal lesions

  7. Clinical and immunological responses in ocular demodecosis.

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    Kim, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and immunological responses to Demodex on the ocular surface. Thirteen eyes in 10 patients with Demodex blepharitis and chronic ocular surface disorders were included in this study and treated by lid scrubbing with tea tree oil for the eradication of Demodex. We evaluated ocular surface manifestations and Demodex counts, and analyzed IL-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β in tear samples before and after the treatment. All patients exhibited ocular surface manifestations including corneal nodular opacity, peripheral corneal vascularization, refractory corneal erosion and infiltration, or chronic conjunctival inflammatory signs before treatment. After treatment, Demodex was nearly eradicated, tear concentrations of IL-1β and IL-17 were significantly reduced and substantial clinical improvement was observed in all patients. In conclusion, we believe that Demodex plays an aggravating role in inflammatory ocular surface disorders.

  8. Ocular Complications in Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus: A Systematic Review with a Meta-Analysis of Reported Cases

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    L. Arrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular complications associated with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE are less studied compared with those ones associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. The main ocular sites involved in patients affected by discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE are eyelids followed by orbit and periorbit, the least being cornea. The most common complications are blepharitis usually affecting the lower lid and associated with some type of lid lesion such as plaque or erythematosus patches and madarosis. Few cases with LE profundus (LEP and ocular complications are reported, but they are associated with orbital inflammatory syndrome and severe complications. The main treatment prescribed is hydroxychloroquine with a dose of 200 mg twice a day for 6 to 8 weeks. Corticosteroids are also used. Intervals between the correct diagnosis and the beginning of the ocular symptoms are commonly delayed. Ophthalmologist should be aware of the ocular manifestation of this autoimmune disease.

  9. Bilateral ectropion in a 3 months old baby with lamellar ichthyosis: a rare case report

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    Sweta S. Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ichthyosiform dermatoses are a group of hereditary disorders characterized by dryness and roughness of the skin with excessive accumulation of epidermal scales. Four main types of Ichthyosis are Ichthyosis vulgaris, x-linked recessive, lamellar ichthyosis and epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Lamellar ichthyosis is the rarest form with an incidence of 1 in 3, 00,000. It has autosomal recessive inheritance. Ocular manifestations include exposure keratitis secondary to ectropion, unilateral megalocornea, and enlarged corneal nerve, and blepharitis, absence of the meibomian gland, trichiasis, madarosis and absence of lacrimal puncta. Ectropion of both upper and lower lids have been documented. We are reporting a rare case of lamellar ichthyosis with bilateral upper eyelid ectropion in a child. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2443-2445

  10. Risk factors and prevalence of Demodex mites in young adults.

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    Horváth, Andrea; Neubrandt, Dóra Maja; Ghidán, Á; Nagy, K

    2011-06-01

    Demodex mites are ectoparasites often found in follicles of facial skin. Their role in human diseases is under investigation, and a growing number of studies indicated that they contribute to chronic inflammatory conditions of the skin, such as rosacea, blepharitis, otitis externa, alopecia and folliculitis. In our study we tested 96 healthy adults for the presence of Demodex mites. Risk factors influencing presence of mites and skin types of the tested individuals were evaluated. We found Demodex folliculorum or Demodex brevis in 17.7% of the samples, more frequently in males (21.9%) and in older adults (20%). Use of make-up seems to reduce the likelihood of Demodex carriage, while pet ownership, use of shared items and living in close contact with older adults had no significant influence of presence of mites. Demodex positive individuals described their skin to be drier, more prone to erythema, but less for folliculitis compared to Demodex negative subjects.

  11. Demodex treatment in external ocular disease: the outcomes of a Tasmanian case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stephen G; Oakley, Carmen L; Tan, Andrea; Vote, Brendan J

    2016-10-01

    Demodex species (spp.) have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of blepharitis. This study aims to correlate improvement in symptoms of external ocular disease with treatment of underlying Demodex spp. This is a prospective, observational case series of patients with chronic external ocular disease. Demodicosis was confirmed by microscopic examination of epilated eyelashes. The main outcome measure was response to the treatment (5 % tee tree oil) in regard to change in subjective symptoms utilising a symptom-based patient questionnaire assessment. Overall patients had a good response to the treatment in terms of improvement or resolution of symptoms, with 91 % of patients reporting at least some improvement in symptoms. The treatment of underlying Demodex spp. appears to result in improvement of symptoms in patients with long standing external ocular disease and underlying Demodex spp. infestation.

  12. Phthiriasis palpebrarum

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    Sujatha Vijayalekshmi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Phthiriasis palpebrarum of the eyelashes is not an uncommon condition when hygienic condition are inadequate. The lice occupy, chiefly, the roots of the eyelashes, to which they cling tenaciously, while the shafts of the cilia are covered with their brown nits. The patients with the symptom of pruritus of the eyelids and with clinical findings resembling exfoliation on the surface of lid skin and seborrhea accumulation on eyelashes must carefully be examined by slit lamp in order to avoid misdiagnosis. In the cases diagnosed as having lid eczema and seborrheic blepharitis, lice and nits might easily be overlooked and treatment might remain ineffective. Various treatment options are available from medical; mechanical removal of nits and lice, cryotherapy. In this short review we are describing in details about the organism, clinical features, mode of transmission, treatment about Phthiriasis palpebrarum.

  13. Ocular rosacea

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    Đaković Zorana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of ocular rosacea (one male and four females are reported in this paper. Two of the patients were with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, one with conjunctivitis chronica and blepharitis, one with conjunctivitis chronica and meibomitis, and one with reccurent corneal erosions with meibomitis and chordeloum. In four patients ocular symptoms preceded the occurence of skin lesions. The treatment with oral tetracyclines significantly improved the state of ocular rosacea in four patients, while in one case the changes of the anterior eye segment progressed in more severe state of ulcerative keratitis. It is considered that in almost 20% of the patients with rosacea ocular lesions may precede the skin changes, representing a diagnostic problem. Thus, in those cases multidisciplinary approach is suggested. Such approach is particularly important because of the decrease of morbidity and the prevention of the onset of the eye complications such as drastic worsening of visual acuity, i.e., the blindness.

  14. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff (vhs) activity alters periocular disease in mice.

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    Smith, T J; Ackland-Berglund, C E; Leib, D A

    2000-04-01

    During lytic infection, the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein of herpes simplex virus (HSV) mediates the rapid degradation of RNA and shutoff of host protein synthesis. In mice, HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants lacking vhs activity are profoundly attenuated. HSV-2 has significantly higher vhs activity than HSV-1, eliciting a faster and more complete shutoff. To examine further the role of vhs activity in pathogenesis, we generated an intertypic recombinant virus (KOSV2) in which the vhs open reading frame of HSV-1 strain KOS was replaced with that of HSV-2 strain 333. KOSV2 and a marker-rescued virus, KOSV2R, were characterized in cell culture and tested in an in vivo mouse eye model of latency and pathogenesis. The RNA degradation kinetics of KOSV2 was identical to that of HSV-2 333, and both showed vhs activity significantly higher than that of KOS. This demonstrated that the fast vhs-mediated degradation phenotype of 333 had been conferred upon KOS. The growth of KOSV2 was comparable to that of KOS, 333, and KOSV2R in cell culture, murine corneas, and trigeminal ganglia and had a reactivation frequency similar to those of KOS and KOSV2R from explanted latently infected trigeminal ganglia. There was, however, significantly reduced blepharitis and viral replication within the periocular skin of KOSV2-infected mice compared to mice infected with either KOS or KOSV2R. Taken together, these data demonstrate that heightened vhs activity, in the context of HSV-1 infection, leads to increased viral clearance from the skin of mice and that the replication of virus in the skin is a determining factor for blepharitis. These data also suggest a role for vhs in modulating host responses to HSV infection.

  15. Etiology and antibacterial susceptibility pattern of community-acquired bacterial ocular infections in a tertiary eye care hospital in south India

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    Bharathi M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To identify the etiology, incidence and prevalence of ocular bacterial infections, and to assess the in vitro susceptibility of these ocular bacterial isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of consecutive samples submitted for microbiological evaluation from patients who were clinically diagnosed with ocular infections and were treated at a tertiary eye care referral center in South India between January 2002 and December 2007. Results: A total of 4417 ocular samples was submitted for microbiological evaluation, of which 2599 (58.8% had bacterial growth, 456 (10.3% had fungal growth, 15 (0.34% had acanthamoebic growth, 14 (0.32% had mixed microbial growth and the remaining 1333 (30.2% had negative growth. The rate of culture-positivity was found to be 88% (P < 0.001 in eyelids′ infection, 70% in conjunctival, 69% in lacrimal apparatus, 67.4% in corneal, 51.6% in intraocular tissues, 42.9% in orbital and 39.2% in scleral infections. The most common bacterial species isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (26.69% followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.14%. Sta. aureus was more prevalent more in eyelid infections (51.22%; P = 0.001 coagulase-negative staphylococci in endophthalmitis (53.1%; P = 0.001, Str. pneumoniae in lacrimal apparatus and corneal infections (64.19%; P = 0.001, Corynebacterium species in blepharitis and conjunctivitis (71%; P = 0.001, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in keratitis and dacryocystitis (66.5%; P = 0.001, Haemophilus species in dacryocystitis and conjunctivitis (66.7%; P = 0.001, Moraxella lacunata in blepharitis (54.17%; P = 0.001 and Moraxella catarrhalis in dacryocystitis (63.83%; P = 0.001. The largest number of gram-positive isolates was susceptible to moxifloxacin (98.7% and vancomycin (97.9%, and gram-negative isolates to amikacin (93.5% and gatifloxacin (92.7%. Conclusions: Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent bacteria isolated from ocular infections and were

  16. Microbial keratitis in Kingdom of Bahrain: Clinical and microbiology study

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    Al-Yousuf Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial keratitis is a potentially vision threatening condition worldwide . Knowing the predisposing factors and etiologic microorganism can help control and prevent this problem. This is the first study of its kind in Kingdom of Bahrain. Objective: To study the profile of microbial keratitis in Bahrain with special focus on risk factors, clinical outcome and microbilogical results. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients admitted in Salmaniya Medical Complex over a period of three years from January 2005 to January 2007 was performed. A total of 285 patients with keratitis were analysed. Non infectious corneal ulceration were excluded. Data collected from medical records were demographic features, predisposing factors, history of corneal trauma, associated ocular conditions, visual acuity at the time of presentation and the clinical course. Predisposing risk factors measured were contact lens use, presence of blepharitis, diabetes, lid abnormalities, dry eyes, keratoplasty and refractive surgery. For contact lens wearers any contact lens related risk factors that can lead to keratitis were measured . Pearson′s chi-square test was used to carry out statistical analysis wherever required. Results: Contact lens wear, as a risk factor for microbial keratitis, formed 40% of the total study population. Other risk factors identified were dry eyes 24 cases (8%, 10 blepharitis (3%, 22 trauma (8%, abnormal lid position 14 cases (5%. 6 patients keratitis in a graft (2%, 3 had refractive surgery (1%. The most common causative organism isolated was pseudomonas aeroginosa (54% followed by streptococcus 12%, staph 10%, other organisms 6%. 95% of contact lens wearers had pseudomonas Aeroginosa. This was statistically significant (p< 0.0001. The vast majority, 92% healed with scarring. 1% needed therapeutic keratoplasty and 7% lost to follow up. Risk factors in contact lens wearers were; 41 patients (36% slept with the contact lenses

  17. Etiology and epidemiological analysis of glaucoma-filtering bleb infections in a tertiary eye care hospital in south India

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    R Ramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the microbial etiology and associated risk factors among patients with blebitis following trabeculectomy. Materials and Methods : A retrospective analysis of all culture-proven blebitis was performed in patients who underwent trabeculectomy between January 2004 and December 2008. A standardized form was filled out for each patient, documenting sociodemographic features and information pertaining to risk factors. Swabbing of the infected bleb surface was performed for all suspected cases and further subjected to microbiological analysis. Results : A total of 23 patients with culture-proven blebitis were treated during the study period, with a mean age of 59.2 years (59.2 ± SD: 12.8; range, 30-81 years. Duration of onset was early (≤36 months in six (26% cases and late (> 36 months in 17 (74% cases with a range between 15 and 144 months (mean, 82.91 months; SD: 41.89. All 23 blebs were located superiorly and of which, 21 (91% were microcystic avascular, 1 (4% diffuse avascular, and 1 (4% vascular flattened. The predominant risk factor identified was bleb leak (35%; 8 of 23 followed by thin bleb (22%; 5 of 23 and blepharitis (17%; 4 of 23. Bleb leaks (100% were recorded only in patients with late onset (≥ 9 years of infection (P< 0.001, while the incidence of ocular surface disease (100% occurred early (≤3 years (P< 0.001. Use of topical steroids was associated frequently with cases of thin blebs (80%; 4 of 5 (P< 0.001, while topical antibiotics showed bleb leaks (88%; 7 of 8 (P< 0.001. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were frequently recovered from blebitis with thin blebs (71%; 5 of 7 (P = 0.001, Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS with bleb leak (100%; 8 of 8 (P< 0.001, Corynebacterium with blepharitis (100%; 3 of 3 (P = 0.001, and Streptococci with releasable sutures (75%; 3 of 4 (P = 0.001. Conclusion : Bleb leak is the principal risk factor responsible for late-onset blebitis, while early-onset blebitis could

  18. Meibomian orifices and Marx's line. Studied by triple vital staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, M

    1985-12-01

    The ciliary margins of the lower lids have been vital stained by the lipid-specific Sudan III powder, fluorescein 0.1% and the bottom of the lacrimal river (Marx's line) by lissamine green 1% in 100 cases. The Meibomian orifices are situated in a straight row just in front of the Marx's line in the lipid phase. With increasing age (greater than 50 years) the orifices are more often displaced and also discharge their lipid in the depth of the aqueous phase. The number averaged 21.5 in the lipid phase and 1.7 in the aqueous phase. Active orifices staining with lipid were found in 45% of all orifices in normals, independent of age, and were increased in conjunctivitis in the lipid phase. Lissamine green-stained orifices were independent of age, phase and diagnosis. The anterior edge of Marx's line may run an irregular course in elderly normals (greater than 50 years), significantly more often in conjunctivitis and blepharitis.

  19. Visual Status of Children with Down Syndrome

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    Robert H. Duckman, OD, MA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS are known to have a high prevalence of visual anomalies including strabismus, high refractive errors, Brushfield spots, nystagmus, keratoconus, and external pathologies such as blepharitis and conjunctivitis. These anomalies can impair children with DS from maximum functional capabilities. Methods: This study looks at 42 children from Stepping Stone Day School between the ages of 2.33 years and 5.17 years. All 42 children received a comprehensive visual evaluation. Testing included visual acuity (either forced preferential looking (FPL or Lea Picture Cards, ocular motor status (motilities and cover test/Hirschberg test, dry and damp retinoscopy, and ocular health examination with dilation. Results: DS children showed a significantly higher prevalence than normal children of strabismus (43%, ocular-motor deficiencies (100%, decrease in visual acuity (31; 74% of the children had uncorrected visual acuity between 20/60 and +1.50, 23.81% had myopia > -1.00, and 28.57% had astigmatism > 1.00 diopter; one third had no significant refractive error. Conclusion: It is clear that children with DS should have a comprehensive visual evaluation as early as possible and annually thereafter.

  20. Analysis of meibum and tear lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucker, Andrew D; Nichols, Jason J

    2012-10-01

    The meibum is a lipid-rich secretion that is the primary component of the external layer of the tear film. The meibomian glands produce the meibum, and meibomian gland dysfunction can lead to degradation of the tear film. Such dysfunction can result in ocular irritation, inflammation, and clinical disease. Understanding this relationship is critical to preventing ocular disease; therefore, a search of peer-reviewed literature focusing on the collection, quantification, and analysis of normal and abnormal meibum and tear lipids was conducted. Numerous collection and quantification techniques are described, including their advantages and disadvantages. Studies indicate that the meibum and tear lipids consist of a large array of polar and nonpolar lipids; individual lipids or their classes can be correlated to pathology. Significant amounts of lipids are deposited on contact lenses, depending on the nature of their polymer chemistry. These findings taken together indicate that normal meibum and tear lipids are essential for normal ocular health. Additional studies are required to provide a better understanding of the meibum and tear film biomolecules so that more effective treatments for blepharitis, dry eye disease, and tear film-related contact lens complications can be devised.

  1. Keratitis–ichthyosis–deafness syndrome: first affected family reported in the Middle East

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    Al Fahaad H

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hamad Al FahaadDepartment of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Najran University, Najran, Saudi ArabiaIntroduction: Keratitis–ichthyosis–deafness (KID syndrome is a rare congenital multisystem disorder affecting certain tissues of ectodermal origin such as epidermis, cochlea, and cornea, leading mainly to palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, ichthyosiform scaling, deafness, and blindness. The author reports for the first time in the Middle East three family members suffering from KID syndrome in the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia.Case presentation: Three patients from one family (ages 26, 16, and 14 years of apparently normal parents, with the two eldest being females and the youngest being male. All three patients were referred from a peripheral hospital to our dermatology clinic due to recurrent cutaneous fungal infections on their trunk, forearms, legs, and nails. On full assessment, they also found to have nearly similar cutaneous problems manifested by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, generalized ichthyosiform scaling, subungual hyperkeratosis, and nail dystrophies. All patients suffered from total hearing loss in both ears since childhood as confirmed by pure tune audiometry. However, there was no blindness in any case; blepharitis with marked photophobia was the only ocular complaint. All these features are classically suggestive of KID syndrome.Keywords: connexin 26, GJB2, ichthyosis, KID syndrome, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis

  2. Dysfunctional tear syndrome: dry eye disease and associated tear film disorders – new strategies for diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Mark S.; Beckman, Kenneth A.; Luchs, Jodi I.; Allen, Quentin B.; Awdeh, Richard M.; Berdahl, John; Boland, Thomas S.; Buznego, Carlos; Gira, Joseph P.; Goldberg, Damien F.; Goldman, David; Goyal, Raj K.; Jackson, Mitchell A.; Katz, James; Kim, Terry; Majmudar, Parag A.; Malhotra, Ranjan P.; McDonald, Marguerite B.; Rajpal, Rajesh K.; Raviv, Tal; Rowen, Sheri; Shamie, Neda; Solomon, Jonathan D.; Stonecipher, Karl; Tauber, Shachar; Trattler, William; Walter, Keith A.; Waring, George O.; Weinstock, Robert J.; Wiley, William F.; Yeu, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) is a common and complex condition affecting the ocular surface. The health and normal functioning of the ocular surface is dependent on a stable and sufficient tear film. Clinician awareness of conditions affecting the ocular surface has increased in recent years because of expanded research and the publication of diagnosis and treatment guidelines pertaining to disorders resulting in DTS, including the Delphi panel treatment recommendations for DTS (2006), the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) (2007), the Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) Workshop (2011), and the updated Preferred Practice Pattern guidelines from the American Academy of Ophthalmology pertaining to dry eye and blepharitis (2013). Since the publication of the existing guidelines, new diagnostic techniques and treatment options that provide an opportunity for better management of patients have become available. Clinicians are now able to access a wealth of information that can help them obtain a differential diagnosis and treatment approach for patients presenting with DTS. This review provides a practical and directed approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DTS, emphasizing treatment that is tailored to the specific disease subtype as well as the severity of the condition. PMID:27653608

  3. OPHTHALMOLOGIC ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH IMPAIRED HEARING

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    Inderjit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the nature of ophthalmologic abnormalities in severe and profound grades of hearing impaired children and to treat visual impairment if any at the earliest . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted on100 children in the age group of 5 - 14 years with severe and profound hearing loss visiting outpatient department of Ram Lal Eye and ENT hospital Govt. Medical College Amritsar and subjected to detailed ophthalmological examination. RESULTS: 100 children in the age group 5 - 14 years with hearing impairment were enrolled for t he study , 68 had profound and 32 had severe hearing loss . Visual disorders were found to be as high as 71%. Highest percentage was seen in children aged 7 years. Majority of them (50% had refractive error. Out of these 50 children , 28(56% had myopia , 10 (20% hypermetropia and 12(24% had astigmatism . The other ophthalmic abnormalities in our study were conjunctivitis 14(19.71% , fundus abnormalities and squint 11(15.49% , blepharitis 5 (7.04% , vitamin A deficiency 6 (8.04% , amblyopia 8 (11.26% , pupil disorder 3 (4.22% , cataract 3 (4.22% and heterochromia iridis 7 (9.85%. CONCLUSION : The high prevalence of ophthalmic abnormalities in deaf children mandate screening them for possible ophthalmic abnormalities. Early diagnosis and correction of visual d isturbances would go a long way in social and professional performance of these children.

  4. Detection of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface in a Spanish population using the Schirmer strip test: pathogenic potential, molecular classification and evaluation of the sensitivity to chlorhexidine and voriconazole of the isolated Acanthamoeba strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Cabrera, Pedro; Reyes-Batlle, María; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Martín-Barrera, Fernando; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-08-01

    Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a sight-threatening infection of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis, which is often associated with the misuse of contact lenses. However, there is still a question remaining to be answered, which is whether these micro-organisms are present on the ocular surface of healthy individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface in healthy patients and also in those with other ocular surface infections. Sterile Schirmer test strips were used to collect samples from a group of patients who attended an ophthalmology consultation at the Hospital del Norte, Icod de los Vinos, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Most of the patients (46 individuals, 79.31  %) presented ocular surface pathologies such as blepharitis or conjunctivitis; the rest did not present any pathology. None of the patients included in the study wore contact lenses. The collected samples were cultured in 2  % non-nutrient agar plates and positive plates were then cultured in axenic conditions for further analyses. Molecular analysis classified all isolated strains as belonging to Acanthamoeba genotype tbl4, and osmotolerance and thermotolerance assays revealed that all strains were potentially pathogenic. Furthermore, all strains were assayed for sensitivity against voriconazole and chlorhexidine. Assays showed that both drugs were active against the tested strains. In conclusion, the Schirmer strip test is proposed as an effective tool for the detection of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface.

  5. Pathology and first report of natural eye infection with the trematode Philophthalmus gralli (Digenea, Philophthalmidae) in Tinamus major (Tinamiformes, Tinamidae), Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Diana; Soto, Carmen; Rojas, Alicia

    2013-12-01

    The eye-fluke Philophthalmus gralli (Philophthalmidae Looss, 1899) was found in six birds known as great tinamous (Tinamus major) reared in a wild animal shelter located in Alajuela, Costa Rica. The birds presented conjunctival hyperemia, blepharitis, anorexia and weakness. Some of them suffered from unilateral blindness and ocular loss. After morphometric analysis, the specimens showed characteristics compatible with the digenean trematode P. gralli. The clinical signs of infection were resolved by manual removal of the adults, treatment with praziquantel and relocation into an environment without a natural water source. In order to determine if an ongoing cycle of this pathogen was present in the shelter, the habitat of the birds was inspected for the presence of infected intermediate hosts and contaminated water and objects. It was found that the snails Melanoides tuberculata acted as the intermediate host, and reared the infectious stages toward other animals, as shown by the reproduction of ocular philophthalmiasis in chickens artificially infected with excysted metacercaria. Moreover, three out of every ten snails found in the place were infected with rediae of P. gralli, raising the possibility of the dispersion of the parasite into new environments as well as the imminent zoonotic risk. The finding of P. gralli in Costa Rica is the first official report in Central America.

  6. Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with Down syndrome.

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    Creavin, Alexandra L; Brown, Ray D

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed to determine the common ophthalmic disorders in children aged 0 to 16 years with Down syndrome. The UK National Library for Health interface was used to search seven electronic databases, including MEDLINE and EMBASE. Terms related to Down syndrome, ophthalmology, and pediatrics were combined in the search strategy, which yielded 230 articles. Application of exclusion criteria left 23 articles to include in the review. Literature synthesis demonstrated that children with Down syndrome are at risk for several ocular disorders. Refractive error was a common finding, particularly hyperopia. Strabismus was also reported regularly, particularly esodeviation. Other frequent findings included poor visual acuity, nystagmus, and blepharitis, whereas cataract and glaucoma were less common but had potentially serious implications for future vision. Only one study compared routine pediatric examination to that of a pediatric ophthalmologist. The findings of this review confirm the need for an ophthalmic screening program for children with Down syndrome. Additional work should investigate how such a program could be best implemented and ascertain how to involve different professionals in such a service.

  7. Over 25 Years of Clinical Experience With Ivermectin: An Overview of Safety for an Increasing Number of Indications.

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    Kircik, Leon H; Del Rosso, James Q; Layton, Alison M; Schauber, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Although the broad-spectrum anti-parasitic effects of the avermectin derivative ivermectin are well documented, its anti-inflammatory activity has only recently been demonstrated. For over 25 years, ivermectin has been used to treat parasitic infections in mammals, with a good safety profile that may be attributed to its high affinity to invertebrate neuronal ion channels and its inability to cross the blood-brain barrier in humans and other mammals. Numerous studies report low rates of adverse events, as an oral treatment for parasitic infections, scabies and head lice. Ivermectin has been used off-label to treat diseases associated with Demodex mites, such as blepharitis and demodicidosis. New evidence has linked Demodex mites to rosacea, a chronic inflammatory disease. Ivermectin has recently received FDA and EU approval for the treatment of adult patients with inflammatory lesions of rosacea, a disease in which this agent has been shown to be well tolerated. After more than 25 years of use, ivermectin continues to provide a high margin of safety for a growing number of indications based on its anti-parasitic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  8. Prevalence of eye disease in Brazilian patients with psoriatic arthritis

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    Fernanda B. F. de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the type and frequency of ocular manifestations in Brazilian psoriatic arthritis patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a Brazilian tertiary hospital. The test group included 40 patients who had psoriatic arthritis according to the Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis. A control group of 40 individuals was matched for age and gender. All of the patients underwent ophthalmic evaluation, which included best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp and fundus examinations, and dry eye diagnostic tests (Schirmer I, tear breakup time and rose bengal. Demographic parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 53.9±13.1 years; the mean disease duration was 8±10.5 years. Most of the patients were women (60%, and the majority had polyarticular disease (57.5%. Several ocular abnormalities were found, including punctate keratitis, pinguecula, blepharitis, pterygium, cataract, glaucoma, uveitis, and retinal microvascular abnormalities. There were no significant differences in the rates of these abnormalities compared with the control group, however. The Keratoconjunctivitis sicca and dry eye diagnostic tests were more often positive in the patients with psoriatic arthritis than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, keratoconjunctivitis sicca was the most common ocular finding related to psoriatic arthritis. Therefore, we recommend early ophthalmologic evaluations for all psoriatic arthritis patients who complain of eye symptoms.

  9. Ocular signs, diagnosis and long-term treatment with allopurinol in a cat with leishmaniasis.

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    Richter; Schaarschmidt-Kiener; Krudewig

    2014-06-01

    A case of leishmaniasis with predominantly ocular signs in a cat living in Switzerland and it's treatment is reported. The cat was imported from Spain 4 years earlier and was initially presented with chronic uveitis. Laboratory test results were negative for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and Toxoplasma gondii, as well as for Bartonella haenselae and Leishmania spp. Twenty-one months later the cat was presented again because of development of keratitis and granulomatous blepharitis. Blood cell count revealed severe Pancytopenia; Cytology of fine needle aspirates of granulomatous lesions on both upper eyelids and of a corneal smear revealed intracytoplasmatic microorganisms. A preliminary diagnosis of leishmaniasis was supported by positive polymerase chain reaction from bone marrow and eyelid samples for Leishmania infantum DNA and by a high serum antibody titer for Leishmania spp. Treatment with Allopurinol (10 mg/kg, BID) orally led to rapid improvement of ocular signs, general condition and blood cell count with complete remission of lid and corneal lesions within 2 months of treatment.

  10. The rate of symptomatic improvement of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in Japanese infants treated with conservative management during the 1st year of age

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    Hirohiko Kakizaki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hirohiko Kakizaki1, Yasuhiro Takahashi2, Shinsuke Kinoshita1, Kunihiko Shiraki2, Masayoshi Iwaki11Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, JapanAbstract: This study aimed to examine the rate of symptomatic improvement of congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO in Japanese infants treated with conservative management within the 1st year of age. Thirty-five lacrimal ducts in 27 patients diagnosed with CNLDO were included in the study. During the observational period, lacrimal ducts were massaged. As well, antibiotic eye drops, to be administered 4 times a day, were sometimes prescribed for obvious conjunctivitis. Two lacrimal ducts in 2 patients were probed before the 1st year of age because of dacryocystitis or severe blepharitis; these patients were included in the unimproved group. Twenty-nine lacrimal ducts in 21 patients resolved during the period (82.9%; with 16 lacrimal ducts resolving before six months of age. Therefore, a comparatively high percentage of resolution for CNLDO (82.9% following conservative management was shown before the 1st year of age in Japanese infants.Keywords: congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction, symptomatic improvement, conservative management, massage, probing

  11. Contact lens wear and dry eyes: challenges and solutions

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    Markoulli M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Markoulli, Sailesh Kolanu School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The number of contact lens wearers worldwide has remained relatively stable over the past decade, despite the investment that has gone into contact lens technology. This is largely because 10%–50% of wearers dropout of contact lens wear within 3 years of commencement; the most common reason cited being contact lens discomfort (CLD. Of the symptoms reported, sensation of dry eye is the most common. Given the outcome of reduced wearing time, increased chair time, and ultimate contact lens discontinuation, the challenge is to identify the warning signs of CLD early on. Clinically detectable changes such as conjunctival staining, conjunctival indentation, conjunctival epithelial flap formation, lid wiper epitheliopathy, Demodex blepharitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction have been linked to CLD, highlighting the need to perform regular aftercare visits to identify these changes. At a cellular level, conjunctival metaplasia and reduced goblet cell density have been linked to CLD, leading to a downstream effect on the tear film breakup time of contact lens wearers. These factors suggest a strong link between CLD and friction, raising the need to target this as a means of minimizing CLD. The purpose of this review is to identify the clinical signs that relate to CLD as a means of earlier detection and management in order to combat contact lens dropout. Keywords: contact lens discomfort, dry eye disease, lid wiper epitheliopathy, tear film biomarkers, meibomian gland dysfunction

  12. Impact of antibiotic resistance in the management of ocular infections: the role of current and future antibiotics

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    Joseph S Bertino Jr

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph S Bertino Jr1,21College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, N Y, USA; 2Principal, Bertino Consulting, Schenectady, NY, USAPurpose: This article reviews the effects of the increase in bacterial resistance on the treatment of ocular infections.Design: Interpretive assessment.Methods: Literature review and interpretation.Results: Ocular bacterial infections include conjunctivitis, keratitis, endophthalmitis, blepharitis, orbital cellulitis, and dacryocystitis. Treatment for most ocular bacterial infections is primarily empiric with broad-spectrum antibiotics, which are effective against the most common bacteria associated with these ocular infections. However, the widespread use of broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics has resulted in a global increase in resistance among both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to a number of the older antibiotics as well as some of the newer fluoroquinolones used to treat ophthalmic infections. Strategies for the prevention of the increase in ocular pathogen resistance should be developed and implemented. In addition, new antimicrobial agents with optimized pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties that have low toxicity, high efficacy, and reduced potential for the development of resistance are needed.Conclusions: New antimicrobial agents that treat ocular infections effectively and have a low potential for the development of resistance could be a part of strategies to prevent the global increase in ocular pathogen resistance.Keywords: ocular infections, emerging pathogen drug resistance, fluoroquinolones, besifloxacin

  13. Therapeutical Management for Ocular Rosacea

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    Gloria López-Valverde

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe a case of ocular rosacea with a very complex evolution. Rosacea is a chronic dermatological disease that may affect the ocular structures up to 6-72% of all cases. This form is often misdiagnosed, which may lead to long inflammatory processes with important visual consequences for affected patients. Therefore, an early diagnosis and an adequate treatment are important. Methods: We report the case of a 43-year-old patient who had several relapses of what seemed an episode of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Two weeks later, he developed a corneal ulcer with a torpid evolution including abundant intrastromal infiltrators and calcium deposits. He was diagnosed with ocular rosacea and treated with systemic doxycycline and topical protopic. Results: A coating with amniotic membrane was placed in order to heal the ulcer, but a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty to restore the patient’s vision because of the corneal transparency loss was necessary. Conclusions: Ocular rosacea includes multiple ophthalmic manifestations ranging from inflammation of the eyelid margin and blepharitis to serious corneal affectations. A delayed diagnosis can result in chronic inflammatory conditions including keratinization and loss of corneal transparency, which lead to important visual sequelae for affected patients.

  14. PREVALANCE OF OCULAR MORBIDITY AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN OF PERUMKADAVILA BLOCK, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM, SOUTH KERALA

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    Vasantha Mallika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of National Programme for Control of Blindness with its control strategies revised from time to time to provide comprehensive health care to the community, blindness and other conditions of ocular morbidity continue to be problems of much Public Health importance. Considering the fact that one-third of India’s blind lose their eyesight before the age of 20 years and many of them are under fifteen years when they become blind, early detection and treatment of ocular morbidity among children is important. In Kerala, only some hospital based data are available based on the studies conducted in Regional Institute of Ophthalmology and Medical College Hospitals. Only piece meal data on field based studies are existing. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children of age group 9-15 years. 2. To find the socio demographic factors associated with ocular morbidity in children. METHODOLOGY Across sectional study was conducted among a sample of 3130 students of the age group 9-15 years from Government, Private and Aided schools of Perumkadavila Block Panchayat for three months from November 2013. Children were subjected to measurement of height and weight, general examination of the eyes, torch light examination of anterior segment and fundus examination, visual acuity for distant vision and for near vision. Colour blindness was checked using Ishihara’s chart. Sociodemographic details were collected using the pretested Performa. RESULTS 28.9% of the study group was having one or more form of ocular morbidity. Majority of the children studied were of 12 years age. Most of the ocular morbidities were either preventable or curable. Among the children having ocular morbidity the leading cause was refractive error (17.9% followed by Vitamin A deficiency (9.6%, Conjunctivitis (0.9%, Blepharitis (0.3%, Squint (0.1%, Colour blindness (0.1% and Ptosis (0.01%. The presence of ocular morbidity showed significant

  15. Use of preservative-free hyaluronic acid (Hylabak® for a range of patients with dry eye syndrome: experience in Russia

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    Brzhesky VV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Vsevolodovich Brjesky,1 Yury Fedorovich Maychuk,2 Alexey Vladimirovich Petrayevsky,3 Peter Gerrievich Nagorsky41Department of Ophthalmology, Pediatric State Medical Academy, Saint Petersburg, 2Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Moscow, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd, 4Novosibirsk Branch of the Federal State Institute MNTK Eye Microsurgery, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation, RussiaAbstract: Artificial tear preparations are important in the management of dry eye syndrome. We present the findings from four recently published studies conducted in Russia assessing Hylabak® (marketed as Hyabak® in Europe, a preservative-free hyaluronic acid preparation, for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. All studies had an open, noncomparative design, but one compared the findings with those from 25 patients treated with Tear Naturale® in previous studies. A total of 134 children and adults were enrolled, and the etiologies of dry eye syndrome included contact lens use, intensive office work, adenovirus eye infection, postmenopausal status, persistent meibomian blepharitis, Sjögren's syndrome, phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, and refractive surgery. The patients were treated with Hylabak for 2 weeks to 2 months. All studies showed that Hylabak resulted in marked improvement as assessed by subjective sensations/complaints, Schirmer's test, Norn’s test, impression cytology and biomicroscopy, staining, and tear osmolarity. Greater benefits were also reported compared with Tear Naturale, including a faster onset of action. Hylabak was well tolerated. In conclusion, Hylabak provided rapid and safe relief from the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome, as well as improvement in objective measures, in a wide range of patients.Keywords: dry eye, eye drops, artificial tears, hyaluronic acid, Hylabak®, preservative-free

  16. A comparison of the ability of three common contact lens solutions with different constituents to inhibit growth of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Marsha Oberholzer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common commensal on skin and mucosal surfaces; its contact with the eye may cause a variety of ocular inflammations and infections such as blepharitis, conjunctivitis and keratitis, amongst others. Soft contact lenses provide perfect conditions for the breeding of certain pathogens, and disinfecting solutions for contact lenses are therefore of utmost importance. These solutions should be effective in inhibiting the growth of a variety of pathogens to protect the user from ocular infections.Aim: To highlight the need for clinicians to be aware of the effects of various recommended disinfecting contact lens solutions.Method: Three popular disinfecting contact lens solutions readily available in South Africa were chosen. These and a control solution (saline were prepared and inoculated with S. aureus to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of each solution. The primary stand-alone test was used to evaluate the solutions according to the ISO standard specifically for this purpose.Results: The test results indicated that two of the solutions met the ISO standards; the third failed. Of the two that passed the test, only one showed the required 3-log reduction after 30 minutes, as per the ISO standard, although this solution is marketed as a ’10 minute system’.Conclusion: It is important for clinicians to be aware of the complications that may be caused by contaminated solutions, and patients should be warned about the effects thereof. To ensure healthy eyes for our patients, sufficient knowledge regarding the efficacy of recommended multipurpose solutions is necessary. Solutions that meet ISO standards promote good ocular health and ensure sufficient cleaning and disinfecting of contact lenses.

  17. Scoring clinical signs can help diagnose canine visceral leishmaniasis in a highly endemic area in Brazil

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    da Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro; de Mendonça, Vitor Rosa Ramos; Silva, Kellen Matuzzy; do Nascimento, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; de Pinho, Flaviane Alves; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina Maria Prado; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires e

    2017-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83.93%), muzzle/ear lesions (55.36%), nutritional status (51.79%), bristle condition (57.14%), pale mucosal colour (48.21%), onychogryphosis (58.93%), skin lesion (39.28%), bleeding (12.50%), muzzle depigmentation (41.07%), alopecia (39.29%), blepharitis (21.43%), and keratoconjunctivitis (42.86%) were more frequent in dogs with CVL than in dogs with ehrlichiosis or without CVL. Moreover, the clinical score increased according to the positivity of all diagnostic tests (ELISA, p < 0.001; parasite culture, p = 0.0021; and smear, p = 0.0003). Onychogryphosis (long nails) [odds ratio (OR): 3.529; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.832-6.796; p < 0.001], muzzle depigmentation (OR: 4.651; 95% CI: 2.218-9.750; p < 0.001), and keratoconjunctivitis (OR: 5.400; 95% CI: 2.549-11.441; p < 0.001) were highly associated with CVL. Interestingly, a score cut-off value ≥ 6 had an area under the curve of 0.717 (p < 0.0001), sensitivity of 60.71%, and specificity of 73.64% for CVL diagnosis. The clinical sign-based score for CVL diagnosis suggested herein can help veterinarians reliably identify dogs with CVL in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. PMID:28076469

  18. 重视白内障术后角膜上皮细胞功能障碍%Pay attention to the corneal epithelial cell dysfunction after cataract surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭光; 王森

    2015-01-01

    Corneal epithelial dysfunction (CED) is the abnormality of the regeneration,conjunction,adhesion and immigration of the corneal epithelium cells without the decompensation of the corneal limbal cells.Due to the affection resulting from the systemic problems of patients and the management in the preoperative period,some of the patients at one to two weeks after cataraci surgery will present the edema and fluorescein staining of the corneal epithelium.Without correct therapy,the defect of the epithelium,or even persisting ulceration of the cornea will occur.The key points of the management for CED are the early diagnosis and reasonable therapy.We suggest paying special attention to CED in the patients with metabolism diseases,abnormality of the tear film and long-term blepharitis.%角膜上皮细胞功能障碍是指在无角膜缘细胞功能失代偿的条件下,角膜上皮细胞再生、连接、黏附及移行功能异常.由于患者自身及围手术期各种因素的影响,少数白内障患者在术后1~2周,开始出现角膜上皮水肿及角膜点状染色等,在处理不正确时,角膜上皮会发生缺损,甚至发展为迁延性溃疡.治疗的关键在于早期发现与及时正确地处理.对于有全身代谢性疾病、术前泪液异常及长期睑缘炎等情况的患者,应特别注意术后角膜上皮细胞功能障碍.

  19. The Use of Cyclosporine A in the Treatment of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis; Case Report and Review of Literature

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    Yakup Canıtez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a serious and life-threatening acute mucocutaneous disease that is often triggered by drugs, can affect skin, eyes, mucous membranes and multiple organs. While an eleven-year-old female patient with epilepsy had been using valproic acid for three years, lamotrigine was added to the treatment one month ago. The patient was admitted complaints such as fever, malaise, sores in the mouth, eye redness, watering of eyes, rashes and many bullous lesions in the skin that had started just 2 days earlier. On the physical examination, whose overall situation was bad, that were common maculopapular rash, purpuric macules on the whole body, atypical target-like skin lesions, and many bullae that affected more than 30% of the body in different stages and whose largest one was 6-10 cm in diameter were detected. There were ulcerated lesions in the oral mucosa and keratitis, blepharitis and conjunctival hyperemia in both eyes. The patient was diagnosed with TEN through the existing findings. The lamotrigine treatment was discontinued; the supportive treatment, methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, necessary care for skin and eye lesions and the necessary topical treatment were applied. As no improvement was observed in clinical picture and skin lesions in the follow-up period, cyclosporine A was added to the treatment. Significant improvement was observed in the clinical picture and skin lesions of the patient who responded well to the treatment of cyclosporine A. The basis of the treatment of TEN is composed of discontinuation of the suspicious drug and the supportive therapy. The immunosuppressive agents such as systemic corticosteroids and IVIG therapy may be used in the treatment of TEN. Cyclosporine can positively contribute to the treatment in cases who are resistant to treatment and with a severe TEN condition. There is a need for in-depth studies to investigate the place and impact of cyclosporine in the

  20. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied sparfloxacin in rabbits

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    Satia Milan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents that have a broad spectrum of activity and are widely used against many of the ocular pathogens, responsible for conjunctivitis, blepharitis, corneal ulcers etc. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ocular pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin (0.3% w/v in the aqueous humour of rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of topically administered sparfloxacin were determined after a single application of 50 µl topically. The aqueous humour samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 hours after instillation. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic method was used to analyse the drug concentration in the aqueous humour samples. RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after the instillation of 50 µl of sparfloxacin 0.3% solution, the mean concentration in aqueous humour was found to be 1.4 µg/ml, which reaches the peak level of 3.7 µg/ml after 1.3 hours. At 6 hours, the sparfloxacin aqueous levels were 0.562 µg/ml. The clinical efficacy was predicted based on the Maximum Concentration (Cmax: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Area Under the Concentration-time curve (AUC:MIC ratios. CONCLUSION: The sparfloxacin levels in aqueous humour of rabbits are sufficiently high up to the 6 hours after instillation in the conjunctival sac to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Both Cmax:MIC and AUC:MIC ratios are high enough to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Sparfloxacin (0.3% ophthalmic preparation has excellent penetration through cornea.

  1. AN OPHTHALMIC HEALTH SURVEY IN NORTHERN IRAN

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    Kh. Moradpour

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Rudsar is located in the Caspian littoral zone of Iran. In 1970 an ophthalmic health survey was carried out in 25 units, which were selected by random sampling in these areas. A total of 2,165 persons were examined and the results of this evaluation have been prepared in 6 parts, consisting of ophthalmic conditions and health customs, infectious eye diseases, visual status and diseases, blindness and its causes, eye complications of malnutrition, and other eye disease. The prevalence of trachoma is 24% and of conjunctivitis 11.2%, but infectious eye diseases are mild in these areas and their complications are very rare, and trachoma is deviated mainly to inclusion conjunctivitis. Visual defect are important problem in the Rudsar area; 17.8% of the persons examined of 10 years of age and over, had visual defects. The most important causes of visual defects are refraction abnor­malities, especially myopic astigmatism and contact. Visual defects are more prevalent in females than in males. Of the total number of persons examined, 2.63% had infectious eye diseases, 2.77% had blindness in at least one eye and 56.7% of the blindness was caused by cataracts. The eye complications of avitaminosis A and ariboflavinosis were observed, especially in rural areas. The establish­ment of an ophthalmic clinic, the use of a mobile dispensary unit for diagnosis, procedures for introducing patients to the ophthalmic clinic, and special procedures for the health of school children would be beneficial and are recommended for the control of ophthalmic disease. It is also necessary to have a special survey on toxoplasmosis, an investigation for clarification of the causes of differences in visual defects in males and females, and a survey on the causes of blepharitis.

  2. Clinical Findings, Follow-up and Treatment Results in Patients with Ocular Rosacea

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    İlkay Kılıç Müftüoğlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the clinical features, treatment options and complications in patients with ocular rosacea. Materials and Methods: The records of 48 eyes of 24 patients with ocular rosacea were retrospectively reviewed. Patients’ ocular signs and symptoms were scored between 1 and 4 points according to disease severity; tear film break-up time (BUT and Schirmer’s test results were recorded before and after the treatment. Preservative-free artificial tears, topical antibiotic eye drops/ointments, short-term topical corticosteroids, topical 0.05% cyclosporine and oral doxycycline treatment were applied as a standard therapy to all patients. Additional treatments were given as needed. Complications were recorded. Results: Twenty-four patients with a mean age of 48.5±35.4 (32-54 years were followed for a mean 15±9.4 (8-36 months. Ocular findings included meibomitis in 100% of cases, anterior blepharitis in 83% (40 eyes, punctate keratopathy in 67% (32 eyes, chalazia in 50% (24 eyes, corneal neovascularization in 50% (24 eyes and subepithelial infiltrates in 16.6% (8 eyes. Significant improvement of symptoms and clinical findings were achieved in all patients with treatment. The increases in Schirmer’s test and BUT were 3.3±1.5 and 4.5±2.8, respectively (p<0.05. Descemetocele and small corneal perforation occurred in 2 eyes; re-epithelialization was achieved in both eyes with tissue adhesive application (1 eye and additional amniotic membrane transplantation (1 eye. Four eyes of three patients showed significant regression of corneal neovascularization with topical bevacizumab therapy. Conclusion: Ocular rosacea may present with a variety of ophthalmic signs. It is possible to control the ophthalmic disease with appropriate therapeutic modalities including topical corticosteroids, topical cyclosporine and systemic doxycycline.

  3. Dermatoceratoconjuntivite atópica em pacientes do Ambulatório de Dermatologia Infanto-Juvenil em centro de referência Atopic keratoconjunctivitis in patients of the pediatric dermatology ambulatory in a reference center

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    Bernardo Kaplan Moscovici

    2009-12-01

    ção oftalmológica de rotina desses pacientes, visto que nenhum dos pacientes de nosso estudo estavam em acompanhamento oftalmológico prévio.PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency of atopic keratoconjunctivitis, its symptoms and changes in patients of Pediatric Dermatology Service of "Santa Casa de Misericordia de São Paulo" Hospital with a previous diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with atopic dermatitis under 16 years old (mean age 8.9 ± 4.1 between 2 and 16 years old were evaluated through a protocol of questions and assessment of signs and symptoms. The signs and symptoms were graded from 0 (absent to 4 (highest intensity, and in some cases only as present or not. The analysis was descriptive and statistical, with a 5% significance level. RESULTS: The frequency of atopic keratoconjunctivitis was 76.9% among the 52 patients with atopic dermatitis, including atopic conjunctivitis (26.7% and atopic blepharitis (50.2%. Atopic dermatitis is more frequent in female patients and atopic conjunctivitis in male. Age was practically the same in both groups. The most frequent symptoms were red eye and itching, especially in the atopic conjunctivitis group. Itching was the most intense symptom and was present in all patients of the atopic conjunctivitis group. Blepharitis and papillae were the most common signs. Other signs were less frequent. The tear break-up time was changed in most patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic keratoconjunctivitis was 76.9% in patients with atopic dermatitis. Itching was the most frequent symptom, followed by red eye, in patients with atopic conjunctivitis. Blepharitis and papillae were the most frequent signs in patients with atopic conjunctivitis. Due to the increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis in children, it would be prudent to perform a routine ophthalmologic evaluation of these patients. From the patients evaluated in this study, none had been previously monitored with ophthalmological exams.

  4. PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS AND OTHER OCULAR DISORDERS IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN OF SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT ANDHRAPRADESH

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    Suryachandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: assessment of the prevalence of refractive errors and other ocular disorders in school going children of Srikakulam D istrict, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : Aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of Refractive errors and ocular disorders in school going children between the ages 5 – 15 years. D ifferent randomly selected 56 schools were taken into study which were situated in both Urban and Rural areas of Srikakulam D istrict , Andhra P radesh. Multistage cluster sampling was used to identify the sample population of School going students in the age range 5 - 15 years.5296 students were examined in the school which included assessment of visual acuity and refraction. Identi fied cases of refractive errors were recommended spectacles and some other cases which needed further evaluation were referred to Rajiv Gandhi institute of Health sciences , Srikakulam. OBSERVATION : Total 5296 students were screened in this study where 2543 were from schools situated in Urban Srikakulam and 2753 students were from the schools situated in Rural parts of Srikakulam District. Among 5296 students screened , 276 ( 5.2% students from Urban areas had eye problems and 373 ( 7.04% from the Rural areas h ad eye problems. In this 77 ( 1.45% students from Urban areas had Refractive errors and 101 ( 1.9% from Rural areas had Refractive errors which needed Spectacle correction. Commonest found eye problem was Refractive errors ( 3.32% followed by Vernal/Allergic conjunctivitis ( 3.06% . Corneal Opacity , a condition which causes childhood blindness was present in 0.04% of students. C olour Blindness was present ( 0.02% . Some other eye disorders were also detected during this study which needed medical attention so r eferred to Tertiary centre RIMS , Srikakulam for further evaluation. These conditions were Stye ( 0.096% , and others like blepharitis , dacryocystitis , and developmental cataract were 0.51%. CONCLUSION : Eye disorders

  5. Orbicularis oculi muscle shorten turn a surgical treatment of Senile lower eyelid turn inward%眼轮匝肌缩短转位术治疗老年性下睑内翻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何维铭

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe orbicularis oculi muscle shorten inversion surgical treatment of senile lower eyelid turn inward and the clinical curative effect. Methods 70 cases 80 eyes the senile lower eyelid turn inward and are asymmetrical board before orbicularis oculi muscle shorten inversion technique, including 15 cases had done the asymmetrical the vault skin suture postoperative recurrence. Results Among 70 cases 80 eyes one correction success. Under the postoperative lower eyelid blepharitis position back to normal, without straightening, owe pose phenomenon. 9 cases of corneal epithelium loss, 1~2 days epithelial fully recovered, follow-up of 3 months to 6 years, the success rate of 100%,without any complications. Conclusion Orbicularis oculi muscle shorten inversion art is for Senile lower eyelid turn inward in a new effective operation, apply to many kinds of causes of Senile lower eyelid turn inward, the operation is simple.%目的:观察眼轮匝肌缩短转位术治疗老年性下睑内翻的临床疗效.方法:本组70例80眼老年性下睑内翻均施行下睑板前眼轮匝肌缩短转位术,其中15例曾行下睑穹窿皮肤缝线术后复发.结果:本组70例80眼1次矫正成功.术后下睑缘位置恢复正常,无过矫、欠矫现象.9例角膜上皮部分脱落者1~2天上皮完全恢复,随访3个月~6年,手术成功率达100%,无任何并发症.结论:眼轮匝肌缩短转位术是治疗老年性下睑内翻的一种新的有效术式,适用于多种致病原因的老年性下睑内翻,手术操作简单易行.

  6. Chronic epiphora secondary to ocular meibomianitis%继发于睑板腺炎的慢性流泪

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    马晓萍; John D.Ng

    2014-01-01

      结论:Casey 眼科研究所流泪患者中20.6%患有睑板腺炎,通过治疗73.78%患者流泪症状改善。我们认为:流泪患者需注意其睑板腺情况,一旦诊断为睑板腺炎则应积极治疗;其次通过各种手术治疗仍然流泪的患者,眼科医生需注意其睑板腺的情况。%AIM: To investigate the relationship between chronic epiphora and meibomianitis, and to explore the efficacy of the meibomianitis treatment to improve chronic tearing. METHODS: One thousand chronic epiphora patients chart review in Casey eye institute during 2000-2009. Review of 206 ( 20.6%) chronic epiphora patients who underwent slit lamp examination were diagnosed meibomianitis.Diagnostic criteria were meibomian gland dysfunction, blepharitis, lid margin telangiectasia and hyperaemia punctuate superficial keratopathy.Treatment included maintenance of lid hygene, use of artificial tears, systemic and topical antibiotics, warm and moist compresses, topical corticosteroid and diet supplementation with Omega-3 fatty acids. RESULTS: Among all the patients, 206 ( 20.6%) meibomianitis patients ( average age 65.8 years, average tearing time 2.78 years).White patients 196 ( 95%);female 106 (51.5%), male 100 (48.5%).Average follow up time was 5.07mo.152 (73.79%) of 206 meibomianitis patients with tearing got improved through treatments.43 ( 20.87%) patients were treated without improvement. The failure reasons cannot be found in 14 (6.81%) of 43 patients. 29 ( 14.08%) of 43 pateients with chronic epiphora do not want to treat for a long time, which cause the treatm ent failure. 11 ( 5.34%) of 206 meibomianitis patients lost to follow up. CONCLUSION:The patients who presented to our office for the tearing 20.6% had meibomianitis. Through treatment of meibomianitis, tearing improved 73.78%.So patients with meibomianitis should treat it actively.Some tearing patients after the surgery still tearing should pay attention to treat meibomianitis.

  7. Prevalence, type, and prognosis of ocular lesions in shelter and ownedclient dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum

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    Simona Di Pietro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The point prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis was evaluated in 127 dogs living in a municipal shelter placed in a highly endemic area (Sicily, Italy. Moreover, the period prevalence, the type, and prognosis of lesions due to leishmaniasis were evaluated in 132 dogs with ocular pathologies referred to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH in the same endemic area over a 3-year period. Materials and Methods: All the dogs were submitted to ophthalmological examination. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was made by cytological, serological (immune-fluorescent antibody test, and molecular (quantitative polymerase chain reaction tests. Results: The point prevalence of ocular lesions in 45 shelter dogs with leishmaniasis was 71.11% (45/127 dogs. The most frequent ocular lesion was blepharitis (50% while anterior uveitis was observed in only 9.37% of cases. The period prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis in the VTH group was 36.36% (48/132 dogs. In both groups, most of the lesions were bilateral and involved the anterior segment. Anterior uveitis was the most frequent ophthalmic finding in client-owned dogs (37.50%, but it occurred in only 9.37% of the shelter dogs. Keratouveitis often occurred during or after antiprotozoal treatment (14.58%; 7/48. In this study, the healing of eye injury following systemic antiprotozoal treatment was recorded in about half of cases (48%; 12/25 dogs, in which follow-up was possible. In more than 1/3 of cases (36%; 9/25, there was an improvement, but it was necessary to associate a long-term topical treatment; most of them, as well as those who had not responded to systemic therapy (16%; 4/25, had anterior uveitis or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Conclusions: Ocular manifestations involve up to 2/3 of animals affected by canine leishmaniasis and lesions account for over 1/3 of ophthalmic pathologies observed at a referral clinic in an endemic area. The occurrence of anterior uveitis is more

  8. Prevalence, type, and prognosis of ocular lesions in shelter and owned-client dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro, Simona Di; Bosco, Valentina Rita Francesca; Crinò, Chiara; Francaviglia, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The point prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis was evaluated in 127 dogs living in a municipal shelter placed in a highly endemic area (Sicily, Italy). Moreover, the period prevalence, the type, and prognosis of lesions due to leishmaniasis were evaluated in 132 dogs with ocular pathologies referred to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) in the same endemic area over a 3-year period. Materials and Methods: All the dogs were submitted to ophthalmological examination. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was made by cytological, serological (immune-fluorescent antibody test), and molecular (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) tests. Results: The point prevalence of ocular lesions in 45 shelter dogs with leishmaniasis was 71.11% (45/127 dogs). The most frequent ocular lesion was blepharitis (50%) while anterior uveitis was observed in only 9.37% of cases. The period prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis in the VTH group was 36.36% (48/132 dogs). In both groups, most of the lesions were bilateral and involved the anterior segment. Anterior uveitis was the most frequent ophthalmic finding in client-owned dogs (37.50%), but it occurred in only 9.37% of the shelter dogs. Keratouveitis often occurred during or after antiprotozoal treatment (14.58%; 7/48). In this study, the healing of eye injury following systemic antiprotozoal treatment was recorded in about half of cases (48%; 12/25 dogs), in which follow-up was possible. In more than 1/3 of cases (36%; 9/25), there was an improvement, but it was necessary to associate a long-term topical treatment; most of them, as well as those who had not responded to systemic therapy (16%; 4/25), had anterior uveitis or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Conclusions: Ocular manifestations involve up to 2/3 of animals affected by canine leishmaniasis and lesions account for over 1/3 of ophthalmic pathologies observed at a referral clinic in an endemic area. The occurrence of anterior uveitis is more frequent in

  9. A randomized, double-masked study to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in meibomian gland dysfunction

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    Oleñik A

    2013-08-01

    day, may be beneficial in the treatment of MGD, mainly by improving tear stability. Keywords: blepharitis, dry eye, ocular inflammation, eye discomfort, surface disease

  10. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice

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    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13tm), BALB/c-Il13/Il4tm, and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm index mice. However, only Il13tm and Il13/Il4tm mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2tm1.1Flv Il2rgtm1.1Flv/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  11. Research progress on chalazion%睑板腺囊肿的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵柳宁; 邓娟

    2015-01-01

    睑板腺囊肿因睑板腺排泄口阻塞导致,是常见的眼睑疾病.目前有些设备可以行活体睑板腺结构显像观察:如高分辨率相干光断层扫描仪、非接触性笔式睑板腺红外线显像仪及角膜地形图仪等.睑板腺囊肿的病因较多,包括病毒感染、睑缘炎、幽门螺旋杆菌感染、酒渣鼻、蠕形短螨、低维生素A水平、雄激素水平、抽烟及紧张等.蠕形短螨是睑板腺囊肿形成与复发的一个危险因素,低维生素A水平是儿童睑板腺囊肿形成的重要诱因.对睑板腺囊肿可行保守治疗、病灶局部注射曲安奈德以及手术治疗.初次诊断的睑板腺囊肿病灶局部注射曲安奈德与手术治疗效果相当,对于明确的睑板腺囊肿病灶局部注射可作为一线治疗.%Meibomian gland cysts (chalazion) is a common disease of the eyelid,caused by retention of tarsal gland secretions.There are many in vivo imaging techniques for observing the tissue morphology changes of the meibomian glands.There are many reasons for developing chalazion,which including viral infection,blepharitis,helicobacter pylori,rosacea,Demodex brevis,low vitamin A level,androgen level,smoking and tension.Demodex brevis is a risk factor for both development and recurrence of chalazion,while low serum vitamin A is associated with a chalazion in young children.The treatment options of chalazion include conservative treatment,intralesional steroid injections and incision and curettage.Intralesional triamcinolone (TA) injection is as effective as incision and curettage in primary chalazion.TA injection may be considerd as an alternative first-line treatment in case where diagnosis is straightforward.

  12. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits.

  13. Prevalence of bacterial pathogens causing ocular infections in South India

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    Ramesh S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / Aims: The eye may be infected from external sources or through intra-ocular invasion of micro-organisms carried by the blood stream. This study was undertaken to isolate and identify the specific bacterial pathogens causing ocular infections and to determine their in-vitro antibacterial susceptibilities to commonly used antibacterial agents. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all patients with clinically diagnosed bacterial ocular infections such as blepharitis, conjunctivitis, internal and external hordeolum, suppurative scleritis, canaliculitis, keratitis, dacryocystitis, preseptal cellulitis, endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis presenting between January 2005 and December 2005 was performed. Extra-ocular and intra-ocular specimens were collected and were subjected to direct microscopy and culture. Results: A total of 756 patients with bacterial ocular infections were analyzed, of which 462(61% eyes had adnexal bacterial infection, 217(28.7% had corneal infection, 6 (0.8% had scleral involvement and the remaining 71(9.39% eyes had infection of the intra-ocular tissues. The predominant bacterial species isolated was S. aureus (195 of 776; 25% followed by S. pneumoniae (169 of 776; 21.78% and coagulase negative staphylococci (142 of 776; 18.3%. The largest number of gram-positive isolates were susceptible to cefazolin (545 of 624; 87.34%, chloramphenicol (522 of 624; 83.65% and gatifloxacin (511 of 624; 81.89% and gram-negative isolates were to amikacin (127 of 136; 93.38%, gatifloxacin (125 of 136; 91.91% and ofloxacin (119 of 136; 87.5%, while aerobic actinomycetes were to amikacin (100%, gatifloxacin (14 of 16; 87.5%, chloramphenicol (14 of 16; 87.5% and ofloxacin (13 of 16; 81.25%. Conclusions: S. aureus frequently causes infections of eyelids and conjunctiva, S. pneumoniae of lacrimal apparatus and cornea and coagulase negative staphylococci causes intra-ocular infections. Of all routinely used antibacterials

  14. Prevalence of drug resistance and culture-positive rate among microorganisms isolated from patients with ocular infections over a 4-year period

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    Shimizu Y

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Shimizu,1 Hiroshi Toshida,1 Rio Honda,1 Asaki Matsui,1 Toshihiko Ohta,1 Yousuke Asada,2 Akira Murakami2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To investigate the microbial isolates from patients with ocular infections and the trend in the emergence of levofloxacin-resistant strains over the past four years from 2006 to 2009 retrospectively. Patients and methods: The subjects were 242 patients with ocular infections or traumas treated in our hospital including outpatients, inpatients, and emergency room patients. Most of them needed urgent care presenting with eye complaints, traumas, or decreased vision. Clinical samples were obtained from discharges, corneal, conjunctival tissues or vitreous fluid or aqueous humor, and cultured. Items for assessment included the patient’s age, the diagnosis, the prevalence of isolated bacteria, and the results of susceptibility tests for levofloxacin (LVFX cefamezin (CEZ, gentamicin (GM and vancomycin. This information was obtained from the patients’ medical records. Results: There were 156 male patients and 86 female patients who were aged from 2 months old to 94 years old and mean age was 56.8 ± 24.2 years. Of the 242 patients, 78 (32.2% had positive cultures. The culture-positive rate was significantly higher in male patients than female in total (P = 0.002 and in patients with corneal perforation (P = 0.005. Corneal perforation was the highest culture-positive rate (60.0%, followed by orbital cellulitis (56.5%, blepharitis (50.0%, dacryoadenitis (45.5%, conjunctivitis (38.2%, infectious corneal ulcer (28.5% and endophthalmitis (24.7%. LVFX-resistant strains accounted for 40 out of a total of 122 strains (32.8%, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was significantly higher in LVFX and GM compared with the other antibiotics. There were no vancomycin

  15. Is Demodex really non-pathogenic? O Demodex é realmente não patogênico?

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    Gil Patrus PENA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although usually considered a non-pathogenic parasite in parasitological textbooks, Demodex folliculorum has been implicated as a causative agent for some dermatological conditions, such as rosacea-like eruptions and some types of blepharitis. Several anecdotal reports have demonstrated unequivocal tissue damage directly related to the presence of the parasite. However, this seems to be exceedingly rare, in contrast with the marked prevalence of this infestation. We have had the opportunity to observe one of such cases. A 38-year-old woman presented with rosacea-like papular lesions in her right cheek. Histopathological examination revealed granulomatous dermal inflammation with a well-preserved mite phagocytized by a multinucleated giant cell. This finding may be taken as an evidence for the pathogenicity of the parasite, inasmuch as it does not explain how such a common parasite is able to produce such a rare disease.Embora geralmente considerado um parasita não patogênico nos livros-texto de parasitologia, Demodex folliculorum tem sido implicado como agente causal de algumas condições dermatológicas, como erupções tipo rosácea e alguns tipos de blefarite. Vários relatos isolados têm demonstrado alterações teciduais sem dúvida relacionadas diretamente à presença do parasita. Entretanto, esses achados são extremamente raros, ao contrário da enorme prevalência da infestação. Tivemos a oportunidade de observar um destes casos. Paciente do sexo feminino, com 38 anos, apresentou lesões papulosas rosaceiformes, na região zigomática direita. O exame histopatológico revelou inflamação dérmica granulomatosa, com um ácaro bem preservado, fagocitado por uma célula gigante. Esse achado pode ser considerado como evidência a favor da patogenicidade do parasita, embora não explique como um parasita tão comum pode ser capaz de produzir alteração tão rara.

  16. 角膜伤口缝合术后迟发性角膜溃疡的临床分析%Clinical analysis of delayed corneal ulcer after corneal wound suture surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳滨; 马林

    2016-01-01

    ulcers were around the loosened corneal sutures .Three patients experienced 2 to 3 times of eye surgeries .One patient suffered from blepharitis .Two patients received long time eye dropping with glucocorticoids .Bacterial culture of the corneal ulcers showed positive in 3 cases and negative in 3 cases.Fungal culture showed that one was positive and the other five were negative .In the 6 bacterial culture at the initial traumatic time , one was positive , two were negative and the other three were unknown . For the positive one , the pathogens cultured in corneal ulcer were not the same as that cultured at initial traumatic time .Conclusion Patients who received corneal wound suture surgery should be closely followed up.Blepharitis and loosened sutures should be treated timely .Rational eyedrops using and proper controlling of multiple eye surgeries should be considered . It’ s also important to avoid deteriorating the ocular microenvironment which could induce the infection of cornea .

  17. Effects of ethyl-cyanoacrylate and octyl-cyanoacrylate on experimental corneal lesions in rabbits Efeitos do etil-cianoacrilato ou do octil-cianoacrilato sobre lesões corneais experimentais em coelhos

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    V.T. Barbosa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of ethyl-cyanoacrylate and octyl-cyanoacrylate were clinically and histopathologically compared on the corneas of 36 rabbits after lamellar keratectomy (standardized diameter and depth. The animals were distributed into two groups, one for each type of adhesive. From each group, six subgroups were histopathologically evaluated on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 30th, and 60th day post-operative. General (daily and ophthalmic (days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 30, 44, and 60 evaluations clinically indicated that there were significant differences for the variables water intake, attitude, blepharitis, corneal edema, and fluorescein test. The adhesive permanence time for octyl-cyanoacrylate (17.22 days was greater than that for ethyl-cyanoacrylate (7.66 days. With respect to the histopathological evaluation, corneal epithelization and collagen organization occurred without severe complications. However, treatment with ethyl-cyanoacrylate led to a moderate inflammatory reaction in the initial phases. With octyl-cyanoacrylate, re-epithelization and collagen organization proceeded more slowly with a discrete inflammatory reaction in the initial phases. From clinical and histopathologic points of view, octyl-cyanoacrylate showed advantages over ethyl-cyanoacrylate, whereas wound healing was achieved in both groups without major complications.Comparou-se o uso do etil-cianoacrilato e do octil-cianoacrilato em córneas de 36 coelhos após ceratectomia lamelar (diâmetro e profundidade padronizados. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos, segundo o tipo de adesivo, e redistribuídos em seis subgrupos com três animais cada, para as avaliações histológicas aos 3, 7, 14, 21, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório. As avaliações clínicas gerais (diárias e as oftálmicas (dias 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 30, 44 e 60, indicaram diferença entre os dois grupos, quanto ao consumo de água, atitude, blefarite, edema da córnea e teste da fluoresceína. O Tempo de

  18. Blefaroplastia inferior: poderia a cirurgia proporcionar satisfação aos pacientes? Lower blepharoplasty: would the surgery provide satisfaction to the patient?

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    Giovanni André Pires Viana

    2012-12-01

    was composed of 25 patients who were submitted to conservatively standard fat-resection lower eyelid blepharoplasty, and routine lateral canthal support. The Surgical Group 2 (experimental group was represented by 25 patients submitted to lower eyelid blepharoplasty with periorbital fat mobilization and arcus marginalis redrape, and routine lateral canthal support. The self-esteem of all patients was compared with those in 25 age-matched volunteers from the general population. The parameters of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were determined preoperatively and at 6-month interval postoperatively. Standardized photographs obtained before and after surgery were evaluated by three independent observers. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 395 days (range 364 to 547 days. The mean age was 48.8 years, the population's gender was predominantly female (96%. Analysis of preoperative and postoperative photographs showed that 96% patients achieved significant improvement. Self-esteem scores improved from baseline preoperative mean levels of 5.1 (Standard Deviation = 4.1 to a mean level of 3.6 (Standard Deviation = 3.5 at 6 months post-surgery (p=0.001. No patients had orbital hematoma, blepharitis, lagophthalmos or ectropion. CONCLUSIONS: The authors concluded that both procedures are safe and effective with low complication rates, and marked improvement in self-esteem was observed in patients at 6-month follow-up.

  19. Manifestações oculares do paciente infectado pelo HIV atendido no Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo Ocular manifestations of the HIV infected Patients at the Ophthalmology Department of São Paulo Federal University

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    K. T. F. Matos

    1999-12-01

    hazy, 64 (5.82% with ocular pain, 186 (16.9% with inespecific complaints, and 235 (21.36% with no complains. The most frequent ocular manifestations were: CMV retinitis in 246 (22.36%, cotton wool spots in 110 (10%, blepharitis in 51 (4.64%, and toxoplasmosis in 48 (4.36%. CONCLUSION: The increase of disease ratio was observed among heterossexual and females in this specific population. Patients with ocular complains were 79.42% . The most frequent ocular manifestations was CMV retinitis, in 246 (22.36%. We found also 10% of cotton wool spots.

  20. Proposta de um novo modelo experimental de indução de doença inflamatória intestinal Proposal of a new experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease induction

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    João Carlos Domingues Repka

    2004-10-01

    and histologic evaluation of colon samples. Challenge by intraperitoneal route with antigenic solution and clinical observation. The animals were sacrificed and had collected colon samples for histologic evaluation. RESULTS: The antigenic suspension presented eight protein with molecular weight between 80 and 420 kD. After six days of the intraperitoneal challenge they had presented: blepharitis, diarrhea, alopecia, apathy and hematochezia. Histological evaluation of this immunological IBD animal model showed ulceration of distal colon, mucosa leucocyte infiltration, edema in submucosa layer and significant crypts degeneration. Anti-intestinal antibodies were present in all of animals. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that was possible to reproduce IBD in rats, as well as the presence of anti-intestinal antibodies was related to histologic features of colon in immunizated rats.

  1. Análise do custo-benefício da avaliação ocular de pacientes portadores de rosácea Cost-benefit analysis of ocular examination of patients with rosacea

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    Keila Barbosa de Oliveira Lima

    2005-02-01

    examination and tested with Schirmer I, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining, impression cytology and conjunctival scrub. The costs of these examinations were abstracted from the Public Health System's values (SUS, Brazilian Medical Association values (AMB and values charged by a private service. RESULTS: Twenty patients were enrollet initially in the study, but only 16 completed it. Eleven patients were female (55%, 19 were white (95% and the average age was 56 years. All patients had at least one complaint related to rosacea. The most common symptoms were itching (40%, tearing (35%, foreign body sensation (30%. The most common signs were telangiectasis of lid margins (70%, hyperemia of lid margins (70%, meibomitis (65% and blepharitis (50%. Most subsidiary examination showed normal results. There was difference of costs between the different paying sources. CONCLUSIONS: The main ocular manifestations in rosacea were related with meibomian gland disease. Considering the subsidiary examination costs and their results, the ophthalmologic check-up presents the best cost-benefit for the patient with rosacea.

  2. Análise das causas de atendimento e prevalência das doenças oculares no serviço de urgência The causes and prevalence of medical attendance for ocular diseases in an emergency

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    Maria Nice Araujo Moraes Rocha

    2012-12-01

    (CEROF, Federal University of Goiás,Goiânia (GO Brazil, between april, 2009 to march, 2010. Age, gender, origin, ocular and associated systemic diseases were identified. RESULTS: 2105 charts were analyzed. The age of patients ranged between 15-29 years-old (30.2%, 30-39 years-old (20.9% and 40-49 years-old (14.9%, with a 34.3 years-old on average. Male gender were more frequent than females (64.8% vs 35.2%. The majority of patients live in Goiania (80.7% and the remaining (19.3 came from other cities in the county area or from other states in Brazil. Ocular dust was the leading cause for medical attendance, followed by infectious conjunctivitis (23.6%, keratitis and cornea ulcer (11.3%, tumors of the eyelids or the orbit (7.2%, dry eyes (4.7%, and blepharitis (3.8%. Ocular trauma occurred in a 6.3% of patients. CONCLUSION: Ocular diseases in patients presenting at the emergency department of an ophthalmic reference center in the Center-Western area have a similar prevalence as in other centers in Brazil. Most of them can be treated in common health facilities and don't need to be referred to specialized centers. These centers should deal with more complex problems, saving costs and time.