WorldWideScience

Sample records for blenny salaria pavo

  1. Environmental modulation of androgen levels and secondary sex characters in two populations of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, João L; Gonçalves, David M; Oliveira, Rui F

    2010-02-01

    Morphology and endocrinology were studied in two populations of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo, with different regimes of sexual selection imposed by differences in nest site availability. The peacock blenny is a small, sexually dimorphic benthic fish that presents exclusive paternal care of the clutch and inhabits rocky shores of the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic areas. In a population from the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic sea) inhabiting rocky shores where nest sites are abundant, male-male competition for nests is low, males court females and a low frequency of alternative reproductive tactics (small, parasitic female-mimicking sneaker males that change tactic into nest holders in subsequent breeding seasons) occurs. Conversely at Ria Formosa, a coastal lagoon in Southern Portugal, where nest sites are scarce and highly aggregated, male-male competition for nests is very high, there is sex-role reversal with female courtship and a high frequency of alternative reproductive tactics is observed. Concomitantly, at Ria Formosa nest holder males are larger and present more developed secondary sex characters and higher levels of 11KT than at the Gulf of Trieste. However, the gonads of nest holders and parasitic males were larger in the Gulf of Trieste population. Competition for nests at Ria Formosa seems to promote more developed secondary sex characters in nest site scarcity conditions, while competition for females at the Gulf of Trieste seems to be spurring sperm competition among males in populations where nest sites are more abundant. 11KT was thus associated with the development and expression of secondary sex characters in contrasting environments. These results exemplify how the modulation of behavioral plasticity and secondary sex characters by the social environment can be mediated by androgens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bourgeois Males of the Peacock Blenny, Salaria pavo, Discriminate Female Mimics from Females?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, David; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Fagundes, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    In a Portuguese population of Salaria pavo, two types of reproductively active males occur: large bourgeois males that defend nests and have fully developed secondary sex characters (SSC) and small sneaker males that mimic the females' morphology and behaviour to approach nests and parasitize...... fertilizations. These two alternative reproductive tactics are sequential, as sneakers develop into bourgeois males. We investigated whether bourgeois males were able to discriminate between sneakers and females of different sizes. In a laboratory experiment bourgeois males were sequentially presented...... with a female and a sneaker matched for size. Complementary field observations were conducted on the interactions between females and sneakers with bourgeois males. If bourgeois males discriminated females from sneakers, we predicted that they should direct more aggressive behaviours towards sneakers and more...

  3. Parasitismo natural por Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Nematoda: Acuariidae) en Pavo real (Pavo cristatus) en cautiverio

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Puerta, Luis A.; Enciso, Marco A.; Rojas, Gianmarco

    2009-01-01

    The nematode Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) Chabaud, 1975 parasiting the proventriculus of two chicks of Common Peafowl (Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity from Lima, Peru is described. En el presente trabajo se describe al nematodo Synhimantus (Dispharynx) nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819) Chabaud, 1975 parasitando el proventrículo de dos polluelos de Pavo real (Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758) en cautiverio provenientes de Lima, Perú.

  4. Behaviour and habitat of the Indian Ocean amphibious blenny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alticus monochrus Bleeker is an amphibious blenny that inhabits exposed and moderately exposed rocky shores of Mauritius and other islands of the southwestern Indian Ocean. It remains above the water line on moist or wet substrata over which it migrates vertically and/or horizontally with the tide. Rapid terrestrial ...

  5. Parasitismo natural por Synhimantus (Dispharynx nasuta (Nematoda: Acuariidae en Pavo real (Pavo cristatus en cautiverio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gómez-Puerta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe al nematodo Synhimantus (Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Chabaud, 1975 parasitando el proventrículo de dos polluelos de Pavo real (Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 en cautiverio provenientes de Lima, Perú.

  6. Ecological Release from Aquatic Predation Is Associated with the Emergence of Marine Blenny Fishes onto Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Terry J; Summers, Thomas C; Noble, Mae M; Fulton, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    An ecological release from competition or predation is a frequent adaptive explanation for the colonization of novel environments, but empirical data are limited. On the island of Rarotonga, several blenny fish species appear to be in the process of colonizing land. Anecdotal observations have implied that aquatic predation is an important factor in prompting such amphibious fish behavior. We provide evidence supporting this hypothesis by demonstrating that amphibious blennies shift their abundance up and down the shoreline to remain above predatory fishes that periodically move into intertidal areas during high tide. A predation experiment using blenny mimics confirmed a high risk of aquatic predation for blennies, significantly higher than predation experienced on land. These data suggest that predation has played an active role in promoting terrestrial activity in amphibious blennies and provide a rare example of how ecological release from predation could drive the colonization of a novel environment.

  7. Genetic relationships among one non-endemic and two endemic Mediterranean Triplefin Blennies (Pisces, Blennioidei)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertjes, G.J; Kamping, A; van Delden, W.; Videler, J.J

    Three triplefin blennies occur sympatrically in the Mediterranean Sea; Tripterygion tripteronotus and T melanurus are endemic, whereas T delaisi is also found in the Eastern Atlantic. Although very similar in morphology, ecology and behaviour, some striking differences exist among reproductive

  8. A new species of the genus Salaria Forsskål, 1775 (Actinopterygii, Blennidae in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahyaoui, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The North African freshwater fish fauna is scarce compared to other regions of the world, probably due to historical and climatic factors. The western part of North Africa is more diverse than central or eastern areas. Populations of freshwater blennids that have been traditionally ascribed to the species Salaria fluviatilis nowadays inhabit the Sebou basin in Morocco. In this study we demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that these Moroccan populations constitute a new species, for which we provide a formal description. The following diagnostic characters distinguish the newly described species from other freshwater blennids: head without diagonal rows of dark dots or blotches on cheeks; supra-ocular tentacle thick and simple (not branched; 13-15 teeth on the upper jaw and 14-16 on the lower jaw; 16-17 soft anal fin rays; short pre-orbital distance (cephalic index: 2.9-3.8; height of the anterior (spiny part of the dorsal fin short (dorsal fin index: 0.8-1.3 and 34 vertebrae. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic distances between the new Salaria species and either S. economidisi or S. fluviatilis are high, especially in the mitochondrial control region (18%, while these genetic distances range from 2 to 3% when the nuclear S7 marker is compared. These morphological and molecular characters differentiate the new species from the remaining freshwater species of the genus (Salaria economidisi and S. fluviatilis. The new species is confined to a small restricted area of the Sebou basin in Morocco and should be considered endangered (EN according to the IUCN Red List.La fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África es escasa comparada con otras regiones del mundo debido fundamentalmente a factores históricos y climáticos. El oeste del norte de África es más diverso que las regiones del centro y del este. En la cuenca del río Sebou habitan actualmente poblaciones de blenios de agua dulce que han sido tradicionalmente adscritas a la

  9. Vision in the peafowl (Aves: Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nathan S

    2002-12-01

    The visual sense of the Indian blue-shouldered peafowl Pavo cristatus was investigated with respect to the spectral absorption characteristics of the retinal photoreceptors, the spectral transmittance of the ocular media and the topographic distribution of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer. Microspectrophotometry revealed a single class of rod, four spectrally distinct types of single cone and a single class of double cone. In the case of the single cone types, which contained visual pigments with wavelengths of maximum absorbance (lambda(max)) at 424, 458, 505 and 567 nm, spectral filtering by the ocular media and the different cone oil droplets with which each visual pigment is associated gives predicted peak spectral sensitivities of 432, 477, 537 and 605 nm, respectively. Topographic analysis of retinal ganglion cell distribution revealed a large central area of increased cell density (at peak, 35,609 cells mm(-2)) with a poorly defined visual streak extending nasally. The peafowl has a calculated maximum spatial resolution (visual acuity) in the lateral visual field of 20.6 cycles degrees(-1). These properties of the peafowl eye are discussed with respect to its visual ecology and are compared with those of other closely related species.

  10. Visceral Marek's disease in white-peafowl (Pavo cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, G.R.; Cardoso, S.P.; Oliveira, M.L.B.; Matiolli, M.P.; Gómez, S.Y.M.; Reis Júnior, J.L.; Sant'Ana, F.J.F.; Martins, N.R.S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder caused by Gallid herpesvirus 2 (MDV) that infects mainly domestic gallinaceous birds although wild birds may occasionally be affected. The current report describes the anatomopathological and molecular findings of a case of MD in a white-peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The signs included apathy, hyporexia, and diarrhea. Grossly, 0.5 to 1.5cm in diameter, yellow, soft nodules were observed in the skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, air sacs,...

  11. Distribution of chewing lice upon the polygynous peacock Pavo cristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, I R; Clark, F; Petrie, M

    1996-04-01

    An opportunistic survey of louse distribution upon the peacock Pavo cristatus was undertaken following a cull of 23 birds from an English zoo. After complete skin and feather dissolution, 2 species of lice were retrieved, Goniodes pavonis and Amyrsidea minuta. The distribution of both louse species could be described by a negative binomial model. The significance of this is discussed in relation to transmission dynamics of lice in the atypical avian mating system found in the peacock, which involves no male parental care.

  12. Visceral Marek's disease in white-peafowl (Pavo cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Blume

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Marek's disease (MD is a lymphoproliferative disorder caused by Gallid herpesvirus 2 (MDV that infects mainly domestic gallinaceous birds although wild birds may occasionally be affected. The current report describes the anatomopathological and molecular findings of a case of MD in a white-peafowl (Pavo cristatus. The signs included apathy, hyporexia, and diarrhea. Grossly, 0.5 to 1.5cm in diameter, yellow, soft nodules were observed in the skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, air sacs, small intestine, heart, ovary, ventriculus, and proventriculus. Microscopically, numerous atypical round neoplastic cells were noted. The molecular detection of MDV DNA was implemented to amplify part of the meq gene and products were sequenced for the phylogenetic analysis. Template DNA was obtained from tissues of the affected bird and from blood of all the gallinaceous birds of the Zoo. The expected amplicon for the partial amplification of MDV meq gene was obtained and the amplicons were sequenced. Sequences obtained enabled grouping the strain (accession no. KT768121 with MDV serotype 1 strains from the GenBank. Based on the anatomopathological and molecular findings, the diagnosis of MD in a white-peafowl was reached, and to the authors' knowledge, no previous report regarding MD was published in Pavo cristatus.

  13. Redescription and range extension of the endangered Paiva's blenny Lupinoblennius paivai (Perciformes: Blenniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, F S; Carvalho-Filho, A; Giarrizzo, T

    2017-06-01

    The Paiva's blenny Lupinoblennius paivai is redescribed and its range redefined along the Brazilian coast. It differs from its congeners by the presence of three cephalic pores between the dorsal-fin base and lateral line, dorsal-fin elements XII, 12, anal-fin elements II, 16, pectoral-fin rays 14 and 10 + 20 vertebrae. It is here reported from Amazon estuaries (Marajó and Mosqueiro islands, Pará State), increasing its range by c. 3000 km. Lupinoblennius paivai is one of the few blenniid species able to tolerate low salinities. New data about its meristics and morphometrics are presented, as well as a new habitat type. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. A multilocus molecular phylogeny of combtooth blennies (Percomorpha: Blennioidei: Blenniidae): Multiple invasions of intertidal habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Hundt, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The combtooth blennies (f. Blenniidae) is a diverse family of primarily marine fishes with approximately 387 species that inhabit subtidal, intertidal, supralittoral habitats in tropical and warm temperate regions throughout the world. The Blenniidae has typically been divided into six groups based on morphological characters: Blenniini, Nemophini, Omobranchini, Phenablenniini, Parablenniini, and Salariini. There is, however, considerable debate over the validity of these groups and their relationships. Since little is known about the relationships in this group, other aspects of their evolutionary history, such as habitat evolution and remain unexplored. Herein, we use Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of four nuclear loci (ENC1, myh6, ptr, and tbr1) from 102 species, representing 41 genera, to resolve the phylogeny of the Blenniidae, determine the validity of the previously recognized groupings, and explore the evolution of habitat association using ancestral state reconstruction. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of the resulting 3100. bp of DNA sequence produced nearly identical topologies, and identified many well-supported clades. Of these clades, Nemophini was the only traditionally recognized group strongly supported as monophyletic. This highly resolved and thoroughly sampled blenniid phylogeny provides strong evidence that the traditional rank-based classification does not adequately delimit monophyletic groups with the Blenniidae. This phylogeny redefines the taxonomy of the group and supports the use of 13 unranked clades for the classification of blenniids. Ancestral state reconstructions identified four independent invasions of intertidal habitats within the Blenniidae, and subsequent invasions into supralittoral and freshwater habitats from these groups. The independent invasions of intertidal habitats are likely to have played an important role in the evolutionary history of blennies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Clinical perspectives of intravenous ketamine anaesthesia in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athar, M; Shakoor, A; Muhammad, G; Sarwar, M N; Chaudhry, N I

    1996-01-01

    A total of 29 peafowl (Pavo cristatus), rectified surgically for infraorbital abscesses (n = 22), lacerated wounds (n = 4), and fractures of tibia (n = 2) and radius (n = 1), were anaesthetized by the intravenous administration of ketamine hydrochloride (Inj. Calypsol, Gedeon Richter, Hungary) in a dose of 15 20 mg/kg body weight. Divided doses (10 mg + 5 mg + 5 mg) were used with an interval of 1-2 min. No premedication was undertaken in any of the birds. Anaesthesia lasted for about 15 min and the birds gained their feet completely after 30 min to 3 hours. The respiration rate was markedly depressed (8-10/min) and the respiratory pattern was deep abdominal. Only a slight increase was observed in the heart rate. Analgesia was incomplete and muscle relaxation was not satisfactory. Mild salivation was also noticed in some of the birds (n = 3). Recovery, although not smooth, was uneventful.

  16. Ontogeny of microhabitat use and two-step recruitment in a specialist reef fish, the Browncheek Blenny (Chaenopsidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, P. A.; Galland, G. R.

    2010-03-01

    Ecological specialization is common on coral reefs and almost certainly contributes to the high diversity of fishes and invertebrates associated with reefs. Here, the recruitment pathway of an endemic Gulf of California fish, the Browncheek Blenny, Acanthemblemaria crockeri (Teleostei: Chaenopsidae), which specializes as an adult on vacant invertebrate tests or tubes, is reported. Like most reef fishes, Browncheek Blennies have a planktonic larval stage that leaves the reef and later settles on suitable habitat as a fully developed juvenile. These blennies follow a clear, “two-step” recruitment pathway, however, and do not reside in invertebrate tests until reaching an adult body size. Individual juveniles and adults were observed for 3 min intervals in order to develop average time budgets for this species. Members of both sexes and all post-settlement life-history stages were included in the analysis. The difference in habitat use by post-settlement juveniles and adults is striking; the average juvenile spends none of its time inside a test, and the average large adult spends all of its time inside a test. Using data on intermediate-sized individuals, the behavioral change associated with invading a test was determined to be size-cued, and it occurs between 20 and 30 mm standard length. Changes in feeding and predator avoidance behaviors are also associated with the ontogenetic shift from life in the open to life in a shelter. Addition of artificial shelters demonstrated the essential role of access to this specialized resource in the population regulation of adults but not juveniles of these blennies.

  17. Taxonomic study of the genus Salinicola: transfer of Halomonas salaria and Chromohalobacter salarius to the genus Salinicola as Salinicola salarius comb. nov. and Salinicola halophilus nom. nov., respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haba, Rafael R; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Márquez, M Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    We have carried out a polyphasic taxonomic characterization of the type strains of the species with the recently validated name Salinicola socius, together with two species that were phylogenetically closely related, Halomonas salaria and Chromohalobacter salarius. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that they constituted a coherent cluster, with sequence similarities between 98.7 and 97.7 %. We have determined the almost complete 23S rRNA gene sequences of these three type strains, and the percentage of similarity between them was 99.2-97.6 %. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene sequences, obtained by using three different algorithms, were consistent and showed that these three species constituted a cluster separated from the other species of the genera of the family Halomonadaceae, supporting their placement in a single genus. All three species have ubiquinone 9 as the major respiratory quinone, and showed similar fatty acid and polar lipid profiles. The level of DNA-DNA hybridization between Salinicola socius DSM 19940(T), Halomonas salaria DSM 18044(T) and Chromohalobacter salarius CECT 5903(T) was 41-21 %, indicating that they are different species of the genus Salinicola. A comparative phenotypic study of these strains following the proposed minimal standards for describing new taxa of the family Halomonadaceae has been carried out. The phenotypic data are consistent with the placement of these three species in a single genus and support their differentiation at the species level. On the basis of these data we have emended the description of the species Salinicola socius and we propose to transfer the species Halomonas salaria and Chromohalobacter salarius to the genus Salinicola, as Salinicola salarius comb. nov. (type strain M27(T) =KCTC 12664(T) =DSM 18044(T)) and Salinicola halophilus nom. nov. (type strain CG4.1(T) =CECT 5903(T) =LMG 23626(T)), respectively.

  18. Hypervariable minisatellite DNA sequences in the Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanotte, O; Burke, T; Armour, J A; Jeffreys, A J

    1991-04-01

    We report here for the first time the large-scale isolation of hypervariable minisatellite DNA sequences from a non-human species, the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus). A size-selected genomic DNA fraction, rich in hypervariable minisatellites, was cloned into Charomid 9-36. This library was screened using two multilocus hypervariable probes, 33.6 and 33.15 and also, in a "probe-walking" approach, with five of the peafowl minisatellites initially isolated. Forty-eight positively hybridizing clones were characterized and found to originate from 30 different loci, 18 of which were polymorphic. Five of these variable minisatellite loci were studied further. They all showed Mendelian inheritance. The heterozygosities of these loci were relatively low (range 22-78%) in comparison with those of previously cloned human loci, as expected in view of inbreeding in our semicaptive study population. No new length allele mutations were observed in families and the mean mutation rate per locus is low (less than 0.004, 95% confidence maximum). These loci were also investigated by cross-species hybridization in related taxa. The ability of the probes to detect hypervariable sequences in other species within the same avian family was found to vary, from those probes that are species-specific to those that are apparently general to the family. We also illustrate the potential usefulness of these probes for paternity analysis in a study of sexual selection, and discuss the general application of specific hypervariable probes in behavioral and evolutionary studies.

  19. Pathologic and molecular characterization of histomoniasis in peafowl ( Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Beckstead, Robert B; Hayes, Jeffrey R; Rissi, Daniel R

    2017-03-01

    Histomonas meleagridis is a flagellate protozoan organism that can cause severe necrotizing typhlitis and hepatitis in gallinaceous birds. Peafowl ( Pavo spp.) have been shown to be susceptible to histomoniasis in experimental settings, but there are few reports of natural histomoniasis in this species. A retrospective study of the archived cases at 2 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States yielded 5 cases of peafowl with gross and histologic findings characteristic of histomoniasis. Lesions included bilateral, transmural fibrinonecrotic typhlitis and multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with associated trophozoites morphologically consistent with H. meleagridis. There was no evidence of Heterakis gallinarum infestation in the studied cases. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver and ceca from all 5 cases and was analyzed using multiple sets of primers with subsequent sequencing and genotyping. Four samples were positive for H. meleagridis, and 1 sample was positive for both H. meleagridis and Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. These results confirm that peafowl develop clinical disease similar to that described previously in other gallinaceous birds infected by H. meleagridis. The role of T. gallinarum remains unknown and further research is necessary to elucidate its role, if any, in the pathogenesis of the observed lesions.

  20. Enteritis hemorrágica por adenovirus en pavos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bustos N.

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe por primera vez en Colombia la enteritis hemorrágica (EH, en pavos de 4 a 11 semanas de edad, mediante estudios macroscópicos, hislológicos y de microscopía electrónica. Se demostró una enteritis hemorrágica severa, y esplenomegalia con inclusiones intranucleares en la mayoría de las células de la pulpa blanca esplénica y en algunos mononucleares en el intestino delgado. Las inclusiones son características; consisten de un centro eosinófilico, rodeado de cromatina densa y condensada sobre la membrana nuclear y de una estructura muy basófila y densa sobre un polo nuclear que parece corresponder a un nucleolo. Al microscopio electrónico se aprecian fases del desarrollo viral, desde un material filamentoso y amorfo hasta la formación de grandes acúmulos de viriones y cápsides de 70-80 nm de diámetro con morfología típica de adenovirus. Los viriones se demostraron fácilmente en macerados de bazo fijado en formol, teñidos negativamente con fosfotungstato de potasio; no se visualizaron en el contenido intestinal hemorrágico estudiado con el mismo método. El estudio de microscopía de luz de bazo e intestino es suficiente para establecer el diagnóstico de esta entidad.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus), with phylogenetic analysis in phasianidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tai-Cheng; Sha, Tao; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Pavo cristatus, known as the Indian peafowl, is endemic to India and Sri Lanka and has been domesticated for its ornamental and food value. However, its phylogenetic status is still debated. Here, to clarify the phylogenetic status of P. cristatus within Phasianidae, we analyzed its mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome was determined using 34 pairs of primers. Our data show that the mtDNA genome of P. cristatus is 16,686 bp in length. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of P. cristatus was performed along with 22 complete mtDNA genomes belonging to other species in Phasianidae using Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods, where Aythya americana and Anas platyrhynchos were used as outgroups. Our results show that P. critatus has its closest genetic affinity with Pavo muticus and belongs to clade that contains Gallus, Bambusicola and Francolinus.

  2. Identification of shed or plucked origin of Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) tail feathers: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahajpal, Vivek; Goyal, S P

    2008-06-01

    Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) tail covert feathers were studied to investigate the difference between shed and plucked feathers in the context of wildlife offence cases involving the killing of the Indian national bird for the purpose of plucking feathers. Plucked feathers were distinguished from shed feathers by examining their roots under low magnification of a stereoscopic microscope. A chemical test to show the presence of blood on the roots of plucked feathers was used to corroborate the plucked origin of feathers.

  3. Incidencia y comportamiento de salmonella y listeria en pechugas de pavo curadas

    OpenAIRE

    Trepat Quílez, Martí

    2002-01-01

    El consumo de jamón curado de pavo en lonchas es elevado en los países de cultura anglosajona. Las industrias que elaboran este producto se encuentran con la situación de que en la Unión Europea no existe una legislación sobre las tolerancias microbiológicas para los productos curados derivados de las carnes de las aves de corral. Esta falta de legislación específica provoca que los países consumidores apliquen sus propias exigencias sanitarias, que pueden ser diferentes según el cliente. Est...

  4. Ascaridiasis in peafowl Pavo cristatus (Phasianidae) due to Ascaridia galli Schrank, 1788.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Catenacci, Lilian Silva; de Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes Azevedo; Sato, Marilia de Carvalho Brasil

    2012-09-01

    Twelve white peafowl (Pavo cristatus) affected by an outbreak of an intestinal disease were referred for more detailed examination at the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz-BA, Brazil. During the course of the disease, peachicks were severely affected, with enteric signs such as diarrhea plus dehydration, decreased feed intake and progressive weight loss. After examination, 8 of 12 samples (66.6%) presented single or mixed nematode infection and Ascarid eggs were the most frequent finding on fecal examination. Adult peafowl did not present clinical signs even when positive after fecal exam. Morphological analysis, clinical signs, fecal and gross examinations resulted in a diagnosis of ascaridiasis caused by Ascaridia galli Schrank (1788).

  5. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 a...

  6. Structures and immunolocalization of Na+, K+ -ATPase, Na+ /H+ exchanger 3 and vacuolar-type H+ -ATPase in the gills of blennies (Teleostei: Blenniidae) inhabiting rocky intertidal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, M; Komiyama, M; Yoshizawa, H; Shimizu, N; Konno, N; Matsuda, K

    2012-05-01

    The structure and immunolocalization of the ion transporters Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase (NKA), Na(+) /H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPase (VHA) were examined in the gills of teleosts of the family Blenniidae, which inhabit rocky shores with vertical zonation in subtropical seas. These features were compared among the following species with different ecologies: the amphibious rockskipper blenny Andamia tetradactylus, the intertidal white-finned blenny Praealticus tanegasimae and the purely marine yaeyama blenny Ecsenius yaeyamaensis. Light and electron microscopic observations indicated that thick gill filaments were arranged close to each other and alternately on two hemibranches of a gill arch in the opercular space of A. tetradactylus. Many mucous cells (MC) and mitochondrion-rich cells (MRC) were present in the interlamellar regions of the gill filament. An immunohistochemical study demonstrated that numerous NKA, NHE3 and some VHA were located predominantly on presumed MRCs of gill filaments and at the base of the lamellae. Analyses using serial (mirror image) sections of the gills indicated that only a few NKA immunoreactive cells (IRC) were colocalized with VHA on some MRCs in the filaments. In the gills of P. tanegasimae, NKA- and NHE3-IRCs were observed in the interlamellar region of the filaments and at the base of the lamellae. VHA-IRCs were located sparsely on the lamellae and filaments. In the gills of E. yaeyamaensis, the lamellae and filaments were thin and straight, respectively. MCs were located at the tip as well as found scattered in the interlamellar region of gill filaments. NKA-, NHE3- and VHA-IRCs were moderately frequently observed in the filaments and rarely on the lamellae. This study shows that the structure and distribution of ion transporters in the gills differ among the three blennid species, presumably reflecting their different ecologies. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the

  7. Hematologic and plasma biochemical reference values in Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Jaime; Naldo, Jesus; Rahman, Habeeb; Sakkir, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from captive, adult, clinically normal Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for hematologic and plasma biochemical analyses. Hematologic parameters investigated were total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, fibrinogen, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, differential white blood cell count, and thrombocyte count. Plasma biochemical parameters investigated were alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, bile acids, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose, iron, phosphorus, and uric acid, as well as plasma protein electrophoresis. Results were compared with values from studies done in houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata), kori bustards (Ardeotis kori), stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus), and taxonomically related species, including ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa), Kashmir native fowl (Kashmirfavorella), and Bangladesh native, Fayoumi, and Assil fowl (Gallus domesticus).

  8. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal’s posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°. Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride and its metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Peter A; Cox, Sherry K; Macek, Michael; Tieber, Anne; Junge, Randall E

    2010-12-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting opiate analgesic that has not been well studied in avian species. Tramadol and its metabolites exert their effects at multiple sites, including opiate (mu, kappa, and delta), adrenergic (alpha-2), and serotonin (5HT) receptors. This multi-receptor mode of action is advantageous for avian patients because the mechanisms for analgesia have not been fully elucidated in all species. The objective of this study was to document the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus). Based on results from a pilot animal, six adult peafowl (three male, three female) judged to be clinically healthy based on physical exam and routine bloodwork were selected for this study. Each bird was anesthetized for placement of a jugular catheter, and 7.5 mg/kg tramadol was administered orally via gavage tube. Blood samples were collected just prior to drug administration; at 30 min; and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, and 34 hr. Plasma levels of tramadol and M1 were measured and the pharmacokinetics for each drug was calculated. Although tramadol was quickly metabolized, plasma levels of M1 remained at or near human analgesic levels for 12-24 hr. Based on these data, tramadol may be a practical option as an orally administered analgesic agent in avian patients. Further studies, including antinociceptive studies, are needed.

  10. Systemic Histomoniasis in a Leucistic Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelazzo, Mariana de Mello Zanim; Sasse, João Pedro; de Souza, Marielen; Marutani, Victor Hugo Brunaldi; Sampaio Baptista, Ana Angelita; Garcia, João Luis; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Headley, Selwyn Arlington

    2017-09-01

    The pathological and molecular findings associated with Histomonas meleagridis are described in a leucistic Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) from Southern Brazil. The most significant gross findings were multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and diphtheric typhlitis. Histopathologic evaluation of the liver, ceca, kidney, spleen, and small intestine revealed systemic histomoniasis (SH) associated with intralesional and intravascular accumulations of histomonad organisms consistent with H. meleagridis. PCR was used to amplify the DNA of H. meleagridis from the liver, ceca, small intestine, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. Direct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the isolate of the flagellated trichomonad identified from this investigation is more phylogenetically related to H. meleagridis than Tetratrichomonas gallinarum, Tritrichomonas foetus, and Dientamoeba fragilis. These results confirmed the occurrence of SH in this peafowl and add to the diagnosis of this disease in birds from Brazil. This report might represent the first complete identification of spontaneous histomoniasis in a peafowl due to pathological and molecular characteristics and one of the few documented cases of SH in non-commercial birds.

  11. The metabolic cost of walking on an incline in the Peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Holly; Thavarajah, Nathan; Codd, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Altering speed and moving on a gradient can affect an animal's posture and gait, which in turn can change the energetic requirements of terrestrial locomotion. Here, the energetic and kinematic effects of locomoting on an incline were investigated in the Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus. The mass-specific metabolic rate of the Indian peacock was elevated on an incline, but this change was not dependent on the angle ascended and the cost of lifting remained similar between the two inclines (+5 and +7°). Interestingly, the Indian peacock had the highest efficiency when compared to any other previously studied avian biped, despite the presence of a large train. Duty factors were higher for birds moving on an incline, but there was no difference between +5 and +7°. Our results highlight the importance of investigating kinematic responses during energetic studies, as these may enable explanation of what is driving the underlying metabolic differences when moving on inclines. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanical processes occurring during incline movement.

  12. Retracted: Molecular Characterization and Biological Activity of Interferon-α in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongjing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Juanjuan; Shao, Yizhi; Li, Jinglun; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-08-07

    DNA and Cell Biology (DNA&CB) is officially retracting the paper by Zhao H, Wang Y, Liu J, Shao Y, Li J, Chai H, Xing M, entitled, "Molecular Characterization and Biological activity of Interferon-α in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus)," [Epub ahead of print]; 2017, DOI: 10.1089/dna.2017.3798. The Editor-in-Chief of DNA&CB, Dr. Carol Shoshkes Reiss, was alerted to a discrepancy between the findings in the article by Zhao et al., and those of others, about the absence of expression of ISG15 in chickens. Dr. Reiss requested from the authors a clarification in their observations and inquired about the failure to include relevant citations in the reference section of the paper. Based on the response from the authors, it appeared that they did not have the confidence in the data as they were not able to repeat the experiments, and were also unsure of the molecular probes that were used in the study. Therefore, the Editor has determined that the paper should be officially retracted from DNA and Cell Biology.

  13. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) Toll-like receptor 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H; Zhang, M; Gao, W; Wu, L; Li, G

    2018-01-01

    In order to clone the peafowl (Pavo cristatus) Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene and study its biological function, the peafowl TLR7 coding sequences (CDS) were amplified by PCR of cDNA from the whole spleen of peafowl. The full-length sequence of the peafowl TLR7 gene CDS is 3,141 bp and encodes a 1,046-amino acid protein with a classic TLR composition of 16 leucine-rich repeats (LRR). Insertions of amino acids were found at position 15 of LRR2, LRR5, LRR7, LRR9, LRR11, LRR12, LRR14, and LRR15; and position 10 of LRR11. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that the peafowl TLR7 gene was highly expressed in lymphoid tissues of the spleen, bursa, bone marrow, lung, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). HEK293T cells were transfected with a peafowl TLR7 plasmid, and functional analysis showed that peafowl TLR7 could respond to R848, leading to activation of NF-κB. Following R848 stimulation or Newcastle disease virus infection of peafowl PBMC, the levels of IL-1β, IFN-γ, CCLi2, and TGF-β4 mRNA, assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, increased significantly. Triggering peafowl TLR7 results in upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that peafowl TLR7 plays an important role in the innate immune response. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Two new species of Eimeria from peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoudi, M A

    1988-11-01

    Fifteen fecal samples from peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in Saudi Arabia contained oocysts of Eimeria riyadhae n. sp. in two peacocks and oocysts of E. arabica n. sp. in one peacock. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria riyadhae are ellipsoidal, 27-30.5 x 20.5-25 (28.8 +/- 1.3 x 22.4 +/- 1.6) micron, with a two-layered wall and bilobed polar body, but without a micropyle or residuum. The sporocysts are ovoid, 11-14.5 x 6.5-8 (13.2 +/- 1.2 x 7.2 +/- 0.6) micron with a thick, knob-like Stieda body and a residuum. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria arabica are spheroidal, 17.5-21.5 x 17.5-21.5 (19.2 +/- 1.6 x 19.2 +/- 1.6) micron, with a two-layered wall and two refractile polar bodies, but without a micropyle or residuum. The sporocyts are elongate ovoid, 9.5-12 x 4-6.5 (11.2 +/- 0.9 x 5.5 +/- 0.88), with a small crescent-shaped Stieda body. The host bird belongs to the order Galliformis.

  15. CHEMOTHERAPY OF GASTRO-INTESTINAL NAMATODES IN COMMON PEAFOWL (PAVO CRISTATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashraf, Faisal Noman Waraich, I.G. Ahmad and K. Pervez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematodes in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus at Lahore Zoo and to evaluate the comparative efficacy of albendazole, levamisole HCI and oxfendazole. Fifty-two faecal samples of the birds were examined in Medicine Laboratory, College of Veterinary Sciences, Lahore, with direct smear method for the identification of nematode ova. Forty two samples out of 52 were found positive (80.77% for single or mixed infection of Capillaria spp., Ascaridia galliand Heterakis gallinae, and the individual percentages being 59.62, 38.46 and 13.46 respectively. Out of 42 infected birds 40 were chosen for medication and divided into four groups, each consisting of 10 birds (A= treated with albendazole, B=treated with levamisole, C = treated with oxfendazole and group D= untreated control. Faecal samples of experimental birds were examined for counting of eggs per gram of faeces on day '0' (pre-medication. Faecal egg counts were again carried out on day 5 and 10 post-medication and percentage reduction of EPG was calculated. Oxfendazole was found to be the most effective (98.88% among the three anthelmintics, followed by levamisole (97.3% and albendazole (95.60%.

  16. Estrategias para incrementar el consumo de carne de pavo en Bogotá como piloto para la masificación en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo Lamprea, Sugey Luz

    2015-01-01

    El presente documento hace una evaluación y propuesta para lograr el aumento del consumo de carne de pavo en Bogotá como piloto para su masificación en Colombia. Para tal fin realiza un análisis del consumo y producción mundial y nacional de las importaciones y exportaciones de este producto, también presenta un análisis del posicionamiento, la producción y el consumo de la carne de pavo en países seleccionados como punto de referencia, con el fin de identificar qué estrategias han sido imple...

  17. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae) from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shahawy,Ismail Saad

    2010-01-01

    Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16) × 12 (10-12.9) μm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3). The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an ooc...

  18. Pathological and parasitological aspects of the peacock (Pavo cristatus infection by Tanaisia(Paratanaisiabragai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C. Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Trematodes belonging to the family Eucotylidae, including Tanaisia(ParatanaisiabragaiSantos, 1934are parasites of the kidney and ureter that affect several species of domestic and wild birds. Tanaisia bragaiis considered a low pathogenic parasite, but high worm burdens may determine clinical complications, including signs of apathy, weight loss, diarrhea and death. This paper describes the first report of infection by T. bragai in peacocks (Pavo cristatus, which constitutes a new host record and offers data on the lesions associated to this parasitism, although the degree of pathogenicity and parasite load may be considered mild. These birds did not exhibit clinical signs of parasitism. The macroscopic exam revealed discreet yellow spots on the liver. In the histological sections of the kidney, specimens of T. bragai were found in the collecting ducts, which were markedly dilated, with a thickened wall. Other findings included a mild inflammatory reaction in the wall of the ducts (but sometimes absent, flattening of lining epithelial cells and small, multifocal points of calcification around the collecting ducts. The microscopic examination of the parasites revealed trematodes with an elongated body, well-developed sub terminal oral sucker, pharynx present, short esophagus, cecum somewhat undulating or not, with blind end, testes symmetrical, equatorial, irregular in shape or slightly lobed, vitelline fields extending in both pre-ovarian and post ovarian fields, uterus very long, intercecal or sometimes overlapping the cecum and containing large quantities of eggs. The present findings suggest the need for further diagnostic studies on the prevalence of this trematode in peacocks as well as pathologic studies for the determination of the potential pathogenicity of this parasite in this species of bird. Moreover, infected peacocks could serve as carriers of T. bragai to be transferred to other bird species, thereby contributing to the

  19. Türkiye'nin 7 akarsu havzasında horozbina, Salaria fluviatilis (Asso,1801, balığına ait boy-ağırlık ilişkisi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İlhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Türkiye‟nin 7 akarsu havzasından toplanmış olan Horozbina Balığı (Salaria fluviatilis‟na ait boy-ağırlık ilişkisinin ortaya çıkarılması amaçlanmıştır. Marmara, Küçük Menderes, Batı Karadeniz, Antalya, Doğu Akdeniz, Seyhan ve Ceyhan havzalarına ait akarsulardan toplanmış olan 652 birey incelenmiştir. Tüm bireyler dikkate alındığında türün Türkiye içsularındaki total boy dağılımı 2.0-12.9 cm, total ağırlık dağılımı 0.10-33.82 g, boy-ağırlık ilişkisi parametreleri a= 0.0135, b= 3.004, r2= 0.986 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ayrıca, büyüme tipi havzaların 5‟inde izometrik, 1 havzada pozitif allometrik ve 1 havzada da negatif allometrik olarak belirlenmiştir

  20. On the current status of Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus (Aves: Galliformes: Phasianidae: keeping the common species common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramesh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available It is ironic that while all efforts to save the Tiger (Panthera tigris are underway, another species of national importance, the Indian Peafowl, (Pavo cristatus is still to receive adequate attention. Illegal trade for train-feathers and mass mortality due to indiscriminate application of pesticides and herbicides in crop-fields are major causes of the recent decline in peafowl numbers. Though there has been increasing concern over the declining peafowl population, it is difficult to arrive at a realistic plan unless the current population size, the rate of decline and the causes of decline are scientifically quantified. Considering the need for conservation initiatives for peafowl, one must look beyond the ‘fire-fighting approach’ towards ‘keeping the common species common’ in order to be efficient with conservation investments and instill greater public participation.

  1. Sudden death of an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) at a zoo due to non-pigmented Serratia marcescens infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Park, Sang-Joon; Kwak, Dongmi; Kim, Kyoo-Tae

    2017-12-22

    A 16-year-old female Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) died two days after recognition of conjunctivitis in the right eye, anorexia and depression. Gross necropsy revealed a thick pseudomembrane under the eyelid and hydropericardium. Histopathological examination revealed hepatocellular necrosis, sinusoidal and vascular congestion and infiltrated inflammatory cells. Infiltration by inflammatory cells was noted in the epicardium. The lungs had mild interstitial pneumonia with the extensive congestion within the capillaries of the air sacs. Tubular interstitial congestion and necrosis was noted in the kidneys. Bacterial culture and nucleotide sequencing of the inflammatory specimens identified the causative agent as Serratia marcescens, an uncommon bacterium in birds. In summary, this study describes the sudden death of an Indian peafowl due to S. marcescens infection, which is rarely seen in animals.

  2. Identification key for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) infesting the Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) with one new country record and new host record for Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    NASSER, Mohamed; AL-AHMED, Azzam; SHOBRAK, Mohammed; ALDRYHIM, Yousif

    2015-01-01

    The amblyceran and ischnoceran lice removed from the Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus L.) collected at the Riyadh bird market, and other specimens available in the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were identified. Amyrsidea minuta Emerson, a new country record, and Goniodes dissimilis Denny were found infesting the Indian Peafowl in Saudi Arabia. Goniodes dissimilis is recorded for the first time from this bird species, along with Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzs...

  3. Interferometric diameters of five evolved intermediate-mass planet-hosting stars measured with PAVO at the CHARA Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T. R.; Huber, D.; Mann, A. W.; Casagrande, L.; Grunblatt, S. K.; Justesen, A. B.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Bedding, T. R.; Ireland, M. J.; Schaefer, G. H.; Tuthill, P. G.

    2018-04-01

    Debate over the planet occurrence rates around intermediate-mass stars has hinged on the accurate determination of masses of evolved stars, and has been exacerbated by a paucity of reliable, directly-measured fundamental properties for these stars. We present long-baseline optical interferometry of five evolved intermediate-mass (˜ 1.5 M⊙) planet-hosting stars using the PAVO beam combiner at the CHARA Array, which we combine with bolometric flux measurements and parallaxes to determine their radii and effective temperatures. We measured the radii and effective temperatures of 6 Lyncis (5.12±0.16 R⊙, 4949±58 K), 24 Sextantis (5.49±0.18 R⊙, 4908±65 K), κ Coronae Borealis (4.77±0.07 R⊙, 4870±47 K), HR 6817 (4.45±0.08 R⊙, 5013±59 K), and HR 8641 (4.91±0.12 R⊙, 4950±68 K). We find disagreements of typically 15 % in angular diameter and ˜ 200 K in temperature compared to interferometric measurements in the literature, yet good agreement with spectroscopic and photometric temperatures, concluding that the previous interferometric measurements may have been affected by systematic errors exceeding their formal uncertainties. Modelling based on BaSTI isochrones using various sets of asteroseismic, spectroscopic, and interferometric constraints tends to favour slightly (˜ 15 %) lower masses than generally reported in the literature.

  4. Isolation and identification of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mahmoud Moussa; Khan, Owais Ahmed; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lu, Huaguang

    2010-03-01

    An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 was first diagnosed in a "backyard" flock of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) raised on palace premises in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in December 3, 2007. The flock consisted of 40 peafowl, and their ages ranged from 3 to 5 years old. Affected birds suffered from depression, anorexia, and white diarrhea. Four dead birds were submitted for HPAI diagnosis at the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Riyadh. Brain and liver tissues and tracheal and cloacal swabs were taken from the dead birds and processed for a real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test and virus isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonating chicken eggs. The H5N1 subtype of avian influenza virus was isolated from the four dead birds and identified by a real-time RT-PCR before and after egg inoculation. The virus isolates were characterized as HPAI H5N1 virus by sequencing analysis. Phylogenetic comparisons revealed that the H5N1 viruses isolated from peafowl belong to the genetic clade 2.2 according to the World Health Organization nomenclature. The peafowl H5N1 virus falls into 2.2.2 sublineage II and clusters with the H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in Saudi Arabia in 2007-08.

  5. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae) from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad

    2010-12-01

    Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16) × 12 (10-12.9) microm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3). The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an oocyst residuum. The oocysts have a distinct two-layered wall, which is ~approximately1.7 microm thick. The outer layer has a smooth texture; it fills ~¾ of the total thickness and appears bicolored. The sporocysts are boat-shaped, of about 10 (9-11) × 4 (4-4.7) microm; their average shape-index is 2.5 microm with a small pointed Stieda body and a smooth, thin single-layered wall. No substieda body is detected. The sporocysts contain numerous, nearly uniform granular residua. The sporozoites are banana-shaped, 6 × 3 microm and each has two different-sized refractile bodies.

  6. Population status, habitat selection and people's perception on Pavo cristatus (Aves: Phasianidae in Sigur Plateau, the Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arockianathan Samson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the population status, habitat utilisation and threats to the Indian peafowl in Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu from November 2016 to March 2017. A total of 1091 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 487 sightings in 1080 km (2.28 ± 0.05 with the encounter rate of 1.01 individuals / km. In Dry Deciduous Forest a total of 570 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 224 sightings in 460 km (2.28 ± 0.05, ER = 1.01 individuals / km. In Dry Thorn Forest a total of 521 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 254 sightings in 620 km (2.05 ± 0.06 ER = 0.84 individuals / km. A total of 19 roosting trees species were identified, all recorded in thorn forest; similarly nine species were recorded in dry deciduous forest. The highest number of roosts were recorded in Tectona grandis (n = 27; the average height of the tree species was 14.46 m and the average Indian peafowl roost height was 11.25. The Indian peafowl has decreased; the reason for invading the human habitation was the loss of food (n = 60. Crop damage by peafowl shows that beans (50% were highly damaged followed by chilly (37%, tomato (5% and ragi (4% and corn (1%. Drivers (n = 25 noted that under some circumstances Pavo cristatus could be killed due to its sudden appearance on the roads.

  7. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Saad El-Shahawy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16 × 12 (10-12.9 μm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3. The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an oocyst residuum. The oocysts have a distinct two-layered wall, which is ~1.7 μm thick. The outer layer has a smooth texture; it fills ~¾ of the total thickness and appears bicolored. The sporocysts are boat-shaped, of about 10 (9-11 × 4 (4-4.7 μm; their average shape-index is 2.5 μm with a small pointed Stieda body and a smooth, thin single-layered wall. No substieda body is detected. The sporocysts contain numerous, nearly uniform granular residua. The sporozoites are banana-shaped, 6 × 3 μm and each has two different-sized refractile bodies.

  8. Desempeño productivo y rendimiento de canal en pavos alimentados con harina de plumas tratadas con NaOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Loyra T.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el desempeño productivo y el rendimiento de la canal en pavos en crecimiento alimentados con dietas elaboradas con harina de plumas (HP. Materiales y métodos. Los tratamientos fueron una dieta control y dos dietas experimentales con harina de plumas tratada con 50 ó 100 g de NaOH/kg. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar. El consumo de alimento y el peso de los animales se registró cada dos semanas. Los datos del desempeño productivo se analizaron con el procedimiento MIXED del programa estadístico SAS. El rendimiento de la canal se analizó con el procedimiento GLM del programa estadístico SAS. Resultados. Los pavos que consumieron la dieta testigo tuvieron mejores ganancias de peso (GP, consumo de alimento (CA, peso de la canal y de sus partes (p<0.05 que aquellas con harina de plumas. Sin embargo, se observó una mayor GP, CA, peso de la canal y del muslo (p<0.05 cuando se trató la harina de plumas con 100 g de NaOH/kg. Conclusiones. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la utilización de harina de plumas disminuyó el comportamiento productivo y el rendimiento de canal en los pavos. Sin embargo, el aumento del tratamiento de la harina de plumas de 50 a 100 g de NaOH/kg mejoró el comportamiento productivo y el rendimiento de canal.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol delivered with an osmotic pump during a seven-day period in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Meredith M; KuKanich, Butch; Sykes, John M

    2015-12-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics of butorphanol delivered via osmotic pumps in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) as a method for analgesic administration to avian species. 14 healthy adult male common peafowl. A preliminary experiment was conducted with 2 birds to establish time point and concentration requirements. Then, the remaining 12 birds were anesthetized, and 2 osmotic pumps containing butorphanol (volume, 2 mL; mean dosage, 247 μg/kg/h) were implanted subcutaneously in each bird for 7 days prior to removal. Blood samples were collected before pump implantation (time 0); 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 hours after pump implantation; and 3 and 6 hours after pump removal. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations peaked (mean, 106.4 μg/L; range, 61.8 to 133.0 μg/L) at a mean of 39.0 hours, with no evidence of sedation in any bird. After pump removal, butorphanol was rapidly eliminated (half-life, 1.45 hours; range, 1.31 to 1.64 hours; n = 5). Mean clearance per fraction of dose absorbed was 2.89 L/kg/h (range, 2.00 to 5.55 L/kg/h). Mean amount of time the plasma butorphanol concentration was ≥ 60 μg/L was 85.6 hours (range, 3.5 to 155.3 hours). Plasma concentrations of butorphanol in common peafowl were maintained at or above reported efficacious analgesic concentrations. This study established a method for administering analgesics to avian patients without the need for frequent handling or injections. Use of these osmotic pumps may provide options for avian analgesia.

  10. Population analysis of the javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus Linnaeus 1758 in Baluran and Alas Purwo National Parks, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JARWADI BUDI HERNOWO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hernowo JB, Alikodra HS, Mardiastuti A, Kusmana C (2011 Population analysis of the javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus Linnaeus 1758 in Baluran and Alas Purwo National Parks, East Java. Biodiversitas 12: 99-106. The javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus have high pressure to the population and the habitat. The distribution of the bird at Java Island is clumped randomly at several types in condition of fragmented and isolated habitat and it has small individual number every unit population. Baluran and Alas Purwo National Parks are one of distribution javan green peafowl; it was chosen for study on the population analysis. The research was aimed to gain data and information on demographic population of javan green peafowl. The individual number of the bird was counted by call count transect method and councentration count. The population demographic parameter (individual number, age structure and sex ratio of javan green peafowl was analyzed. The result shown that individual number of the javan green peafowl at Baluran National Park (BNP was 69.1 birds (in 2006 and 70.5 birds (in 2007 not much differ, but it compared with the observation in1995 approximately was 117.7 birds had significant different. The green peafowl population at BNP declined around 47.50% during 12 years. Meanwhile the population at Alas Purwo National Park (APNP was 80.7 birds (in 2006 and 73.5 birds (in 2007, if compared to observation in 1998 only 43 birds and in 2006 was 80.0 birds, the population grow up 86.05% during 8 years. The age structure of population indicated that both population (BNP and APNP tend to unbalance pyramidal, where adult birds more abundance than sub adult or juvenile. The birds sex ratio at both (APNP and BNP indicated that the peafowl life in polygyny system 1 male: 4 female > 1 male: 2.5 female. Key words: .

  11. Gene flow, population growth and a novel substitution rate estimate in a subtidal rock specialist, the black-faced blennyTripterygion delaisi(Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Steinwender, Bernd; Weiß, Sara; Sefc, Kristina M

    2015-11-01

    Population histories depend on the interplay between exogeneous and endogeneous factors. In marine species, phylogeographic and demographic patterns are often shaped by sea level fluctuations, water currents and dispersal ability. Using mitochondrial control region sequences ( n = 120), we infer phylogeographic structure and historic population size changes of a common littoral fish species, the black-faced blenny Tripterygion delaisi (Perciformes, Blennioidei, Tripterygiidae) from the north-eastern Adriatic Sea. We find that Adriatic T. delaisi are differentiated from conspecific populations in the remaining Mediterranean, but display little phylogeographic structure within the Adriatic basin. The pattern is consistent with passive dispersal of planktonic larvae along cyclonic currents within the Adriatic Sea, but limited active dispersal of adults. Demographic reconstructions are consistent with recent population expansion, probably triggered by rising sea levels after the last glacial maximum (LGM). Placing the onset of population growth between the LGM and the warming of surface waters (18 000-13 000 years BP) and employing a novel expansion dating approach, we inferred a substitution rate of 2.61-3.61% per site per MY. Our study is one of only few existing investigations of the genetic structure of animals within the Adriatic basin and is the first to provide an estimate for mitochondrial control region substitution rates in blennioid fishes.

  12. Behavior Ecology of the Javan Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus Linnaeus 1758 in Baluran and Alas Purwo National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JARWADI BUDI HERNOWO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The javan green peafowl (Pavo muticus muticus is a endangered bird species. They have big pressure to the population and the habitat. The fact that the birds are still exist on their local distribution. Behavior ecology of javan green peafowl is dealing with activities, mechanism and strategies of the birds in relation to their environment. The aimed of the study is to obtain data and information of ecological adaptation strategies through the behavior activities, mechanism and strategies of javan green peafowl in-relation to their habitat types. Ad libitum sampling method was used on continuous recording every peafowl activities in relation with duration, frequencies mechanism and strategy were influenced by habitat type’s condition. Chi-squre test was used for statistical analysis to know different behavior has influenced by habitat types. The result shown that the javan green peafowl habitat typse has significant influenced on duration of the activities but not at the activities pattern. The walking during the feeding, select shading places or luxuriant trees close to feeding site, choosing tall trees or emergent trees close to open area as roost site, open area also road as display or dancing area, open area which grow shrubs as nesting site are javan green peafowl ecological behavior strategies. The mechanism and strategies of javan green peafowl behavior ecology are related to avoid from disturbance and to adapt their habitat type’s conditions.

  13. Molecular characterization, isolation, pathology and pathotyping of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) origin Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from disease outbreaks in three states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desingu, Perumal Arumugam; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Dhama, Kuldeep; Vinodhkumar, Obli Rajendran; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Rajendra; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Disease outbreak investigations were carried out in three states of Northern India namely Haryana (Rewari), Uttar Pradesh (Noida) and Delhi, where a total of 110 Indian peafowls (Pavo cristatus) showed sudden onset of nervous signs and died within a period of two weeks during June, 2012. The F (fusion) gene-based RT-PCR detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in affected tissues confirmed the presence of the virus. Three NDV isolates were selected (one from each area under investigation) and further characterized. They were found to be of virulent pathotype (velogenic NDV) based on both pathogenicity assays (MDT, ICPI and IVPI) and partial F gene sequence analysis. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to the genotype VIIi and XIII of class II avian Paramyxovirus serotype1 (APMV-1) and related closely to new emerging sub-genotypes. This is the first report regarding the presence of the fifth panzootic vNDV genotype VIIi from India. In this scenario, extensive epidemiological studies are suggested for surveillance of NDV genotypes in wild birds and poultry flocks of the country along with adopting suitable prevention and control measures.

  14. Complete genome sequence of a velogenic neurotropic avian paramyxovirus 1 isolated from peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in a wildlife park in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad; Shabbir, Muhammad Z; Yaqub, Tahir; Shabbir, Muhammad A B; Mukhtar, Nadia; Khan, Muhammad R; Berg, Mikael

    2012-12-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) was isolated from an acute and highly contagious outbreak in peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in a wildlife park in Pakistan. A velogenic neurotropic form of APMV-1 caused a 100% case fatality rate and killed 190 peacocks within a week. Biological and serological characterizations showed features of a velogenic strain of APMV-1, and these results were further confirmed by sequence analysis of the cleavage site in the fusion protein. The complete genome of one of the isolates was sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. The analysis showed that this isolate belonged to genotype VII, specifically, to subgenotype VIIa, and clustered closely with isolates characterized from Indonesia in the 1990s. Interestingly, the isolate showed significant differences from previously characterized APMV-1 isolates from commercial and rural chickens in Pakistan. The work presented here is the first complete genome sequence of any APMV-1 isolate from wild birds in the region and therefore highlights the need for increased awareness and surveillance in such bird species.

  15. Estabilidad temporal de las infracomunidades de parásitos en la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces : Blenniidae en la costa central de Chile Temporal stability in parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis(Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces: Blenniidae on the central coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY DÍAZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae de tres muestras tomadas en un lapso de 17 meses, entre 1999 y 2001, desde pozas intermareales vecinas a Las Cruces (33°27' S, 71°37' O, Chile central. El objetivo es averiguar si la riqueza, diversidad, abundancia y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos son persistentes o no en el tiempo ontogenético y cronológico. Se recolectaron 10 taxa parasitarios en cerca del 89 % de los 63 huéspedes examinados, de los cuales ocho eran metazoarios. La búsqueda de protozoos se realizó sólo en los últimos 2 años. El 75 % de los ocho taxa de metazoos ocurrieron en los tres años, uno no estuvo presente en un año, y otro fue encontrado solamente en un año. La mayoría de los huéspedes examinados albergaba protozoos parásitos. La prevalencia de los protozoos Cryptobia sp. fue alta para ambos años, y menor en Trichodina sp. La longitud total de los huéspedes era un predictor relevante de las variaciones en la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y composición infracomunitaria en el conjunto de los tres años. En cambio, el año de muestreo no lo fue, en particular al comparar entre huéspedes de similar longitud total. Estos resultados son similares a los encontrados en infracomunidades de parásitos de otras especies de peces en Chile, en que hay baja variabilidad en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades en el tiempo cronológico. Se discute acerca de la extensión relativa del tiempo ontogenético en contraste al tiempo cronológico al ser probablemente ambos de importancia en las características de las infracomunidades, y se propone que se explore la medida en la cual estos resultados constituyen un patrón.Parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae are compared among three samples taken within a 17-month period during three consecutive years (1999-2001, from intertidal pools at

  16. The combined effect of Parathyroid hormone (1-34) and whole-body Vibration exercise in the treatment of OSteoporosis (PaVOS)- study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Ryg, Jesper; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    treatment for osteoporosis. WBV has been found to stimulate muscle and bone growth. Animal studies have shown a beneficial effect on bone when combining PTH 1-34 with mechanical loading. A combined treatment with PTH 1-34 and WBV may potentially have beneficial effects on bone and muscles, and reduce......Background: PaVOS is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which aims to address the use of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) in combination with parathyroid hormone 1-34 fragment teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment in patients with osteoporosis. PTH 1-34 is an effective but expensive anabolic......-34 treatment (20 μg s.c. daily) for 24 months. After 12 months the WBV group will be re-randomized to stop or continue WBV for an additional 12 months. The primary endpoint, bone mineral density (BMD), will be measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry of the total hip and the lumbar spine. Secondary...

  17. Incidences of mortality of Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus due to pesticide poisoning in India and accumulation pattern of chlorinated pesticides in tissues of the same species collected from Ahmedabad and Coimbatore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambirajan, Kanthan; Muralidharan, Subramanian; Manonmani, Subbian; Kirubhanandhini, Venkatachalam; Ganesan, Kitusamy

    2018-03-23

    Incidences of mortality of Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus, the national bird (Schedule I Indian Wild Life Protection Act 1972), are rampant in India. Between January 2011 and March 2017, around 550 peafowl in 35 incidences were reported dead across the country. Due to the non-availability of fresh carcases, poisoning could not be confirmed. Birds which died due to kite string injuries in Ahmedabad (15) and accidents in Coimbatore (5) were tested for residues of chlorinated pesticides, namely hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan, heptachlor, dicofol, dieldrin and cholipyrifos. The liver, kidney and muscle were the tissues considered to document pesticide load. Total load ranged from BDL to 388.2 ng/g. DDT (95%) and HCH (80%) were detected more frequently. DDT (40%) and endosulfan (26%) contributed maximum to the total pesticide load followed by HCH (21%). Pesticide accumulation pattern among the organs was in the order of liver (123.9 ng/g) > kidney (91.9 ng/g) > muscle (19.5 ng/g) with significant difference (p < 0.05). Peafowl from Ahmedabad had significantly (p < 0.05) higher level of total pesticide (149.0 ng/g) than birds from Coimbatore (47.8 ng/g). Although varying levels of chlorinated pesticide were detected, they were below reported toxic limits. Nevertheless, persistence of chlorinated pesticides and poisoning due to modern pesticides across the entire distribution range of Peafowl in India is a cause for concern.

  18. Life history characteristics of Alticus monochrus , a supratidal blenny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larvae hatched in approximately four days and otolith ring counts showed that settlement occurred 28 days later. Initial post-settlement growth was rapid but growth rate in length declined linearly beyond 50 mm. Length frequency time series showed that the 1991 cohort reproduced at age one, but that none of this cohort ...

  19. Keratin homogeneity in the tail feathers of Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba

    OpenAIRE

    Pabisch, S.; Puchegger, S.; Kirchner, H.O.K.; Weiss, I.M.; Peterlik, H.

    2010-01-01

    The keratin structure in the cortex of peacocks? feathers is studied by X-ray diffraction along the feather, from the calamus to the tip. It changes considerably over the first 5?cm close to the calamus and remains constant for about 1?m along the length of the feather. Close to the tip, the structure loses its high degree of order. We attribute the X-ray patterns to a shrinkage of a cylindrical arrangement of ?-sheets, which is not fully formed initially. In the final structure, the crystall...

  20. Keratin homogeneity in the tail feathers of Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabisch, S; Puchegger, S; Kirchner, H O K; Weiss, I M; Peterlik, H

    2010-12-01

    The keratin structure in the cortex of peacocks' feathers is studied by X-ray diffraction along the feather, from the calamus to the tip. It changes considerably over the first 5 cm close to the calamus and remains constant for about 1m along the length of the feather. Close to the tip, the structure loses its high degree of order. We attribute the X-ray patterns to a shrinkage of a cylindrical arrangement of β-sheets, which is not fully formed initially. In the final structure, the crystalline beta-cores are fixed by the rest of the keratin molecule. The hydrophobic residues of the beta-core are locked into a zip-like arrangement. Structurally there is no difference between the blue and the white bird. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety of fenbendazole in common peafowl (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Sajid; Abbas, Seema; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Nisa, Qamarun; Younus, Muhammad; Aqil, Kiran; Qayyum, Rizwan; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Ali, Asif; Yaseen, Muhammad Asif; Shah, Muhammad Ali

    2018-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out the safety levels of fenbendazole in common peafowl. This bird, raised on aviaries and zoos, can be severely parasitized with Ascaridia galli (enteric worms) and Syngamus trachea (gapeworm) along with other parasitic worms. Fenbendazole is a highly effective benzimidazole-class anthelmintic in animals. The objective of this work was to provide target animal safety data in young peafowl and to demonstrate reproductive safety in adult birds. During the experimental study, diets containing fenbendazole at 0, 100, 200 and 300 ppm were fed for 21 days (three times the normal treatment duration). Data for feed consumption, feed conversion rate, and body weights were recorded for each bird in each group. Drug concentrations in different tissues of birds were determined to correlate concentrations with clinical observations, clinical pathology, and histologic findings. There were no morbidities or mortalities after study day 21. Additionally, there were no statistically significant treatment-related differences among above mentioned parameters. Analysis of fenbendazole concentrations in kidney, liver, leg/thigh, and breast muscle and skin with associated fat revealed that, even at the highest dose level used and with no feed withdrawal, fenbendazole concentrations were relatively low in these tissues. These findings indicate that fenbendazole has a relatively wide margin of safety in young peafowl and that the proposed dose of 100 ppm in the feed for 7 consecutive days is well within the margin of safety. In the reproductive safety study, five breeder peafowl farms fed fendbendazole at 100ppm for 7 days and collected data on hatching percentage of peahen eggs before and after treatment. Reproductive performance in peahen was not adversely affected.

  2. The peacock's train (Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba) II. The molecular parameters of feather keratin plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ingrid M; Schmitt, Karl P; Kirchner, Helmut O K

    2011-06-01

    Thermal activation analysis of plastic deformation of peacock tail feathers, by temperature changes and stress relaxation, gave for the keratin cortex an activation enthalpy of 1.78 ± 0.89 eV and an activation volume of 0.83 ± 0.13 nm³, for both the blue and the white subspecies. These values suggest that breaking of electrostatic bonds is responsible for plasticity in feather keratin. These might be bonds between keratin and nonkeratinous matrix or keratin-keratin cross-links. The mechanical properties of the rachis cortex are surprisingly uniform along the length of the feathers. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  3. The peacock's train (Pavo cristatus and Pavo cristatus mut. alba) I. structure, mechanics, and chemistry of the tail feather coverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ingrid M; Kirchner, Helmut O K

    2010-12-01

    The feathers in the train of the peacock serve not for flying but for sexual display. They are long, slender beams loaded in bending by their own weight. An outer circular conical shell, the cortex, is filled by a closed foam of 7.6% relative density, the medulla, both of feather keratin. Outer diameter and thickness of the cortex decrease linearly from the body toward the tip. This self-similar geometry leads to a division of labor. The cortex (longitudinal Young's modulus 3.3 GPa, transverse modulus 1 GPa) provides 96% of the longitudinal strength and bending rigidity of the feather. The medulla (Young's modulus 10 MPa) provides 96% of the transverse compressive rigidity. Fracture stress of the cortex, both longitudinal and transverse, is 120 MPa. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  4. The Evolution of Fangs, Venom, and Mimicry Systems in Blenny Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casewell, Nicholas R; Visser, Jeroen C; Baumann, Kate; Dobson, James; Han, Han; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Morgan, Michael; Romilio, Anthony; Weisbecker, Vera; Mardon, Karine; Ali, Syed A; Debono, Jordan; Koludarov, Ivan; Que, Ivo; Bird, Gregory C; Cooke, Gavan M; Nouwens, Amanda; Hodgson, Wayne C; Wagstaff, Simon C; Cheney, Karen L; Vetter, Irina; van der Weerd, Louise; Richardson, Michael K; Fry, Bryan G

    2017-04-24

    Venom systems have evolved on multiple occasions across the animal kingdom, and they can act as key adaptations to protect animals from predators [1]. Consequently, venomous animals serve as models for a rich source of mimicry types, as non-venomous species benefit from reductions in predation risk by mimicking the coloration, body shape, and/or movement of toxic counterparts [2-5]. The frequent evolution of such deceitful imitations provides notable examples of phenotypic convergence and are often invoked as classic exemplars of evolution by natural selection. Here, we investigate the evolution of fangs, venom, and mimetic relationships in reef fishes from the tribe Nemophini (fangblennies). Comparative morphological analyses reveal that enlarged canine teeth (fangs) originated at the base of the Nemophini radiation and have enabled a micropredatory feeding strategy in non-venomous Plagiotremus spp. Subsequently, the evolution of deep anterior grooves and their coupling to venom secretory tissue provide Meiacanthus spp. with toxic venom that they effectively employ for defense. We find that fangblenny venom contains a number of toxic components that have been independently recruited into other animal venoms, some of which cause toxicity via interactions with opioid receptors, and result in a multifunctional biochemical phenotype that exerts potent hypotensive effects. The evolution of fangblenny venom has seemingly led to phenotypic convergence via the formation of a diverse array of mimetic relationships that provide protective (Batesian mimicry) and predatory (aggressive mimicry) benefits to other fishes [2, 6]. Our results further our understanding of how novel morphological and biochemical adaptations stimulate ecological interactions in the natural world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New record of Japanese snake blenny Xiphasia matsubarai (Perciformes: Blenniidae) from South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Murong; Zhao, Chunxu; Su, Xin; Tao, Yajin; Yan, Yunrong

    2017-11-01

    Specimens belonging to the family Blenniidae were collected in a fishery resource investigation from the coastal waters of Xisha Islands and Hainan Island, South China Sea in 2016. Combining morphological results with sequence analysis, we identified one specimen as Xiphasia matsubarai Okada & Suzuki, 1952. This represents a new record in the South China Sea. In morphology, the specimen has the following traits: body elongated, eel-like or ribbon-like in shape; flanks medium flat; the head small bluntly rounded anteriorly and without a moustache; eyes is slightly smaller, on upper lateral position of head, which is about equal to 1/5 of the length of the head; body without scales, lateral line has been degraded; both sides of the upper and lower jaws with a canine; gill is opening at the top of the pectoral fin base, approximately equal to the length of eye diameter. Dorsal fin XI, 96; pectoral fin 10; anal fin II, 95. Head and body grey-brown, including 26 dark grey-brown bands; abdomen and lower operculum yellowish grey and colour lighter; and dorsal base long with dark grey. Origin of dorsal is located over the anterior margin of pupil; black blotch on dorsal fin between 8th and 10th dorsal spine; anal and caudal fins dark grey, pectoral and ventral fins pale yellow. Sequence analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) strongly supports the identity of the specimen as X. matsubarai.

  6. Invasion of the Indo-Pacific blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Perciformes: Blenniidae on the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Lasso-Alcalá

    Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.

  7. Uso de Recortes de Pavo y Pollo para el Desarrollo de Productos Cárnicos Funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Indira; Fraguela, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Los productos cárnicos son considerados alimentos que proporcionan proteína, altos contenidos de grasas saturadas, sodio, y muchos de ellos contienen conservantes artificiales como nitritos y nitratos. El desarrollo de embutidos cocidos funcionales abarca productos con características tales como: bajos en sodio, bajos en grasas saturadas, sin conservantes, sin preservantes, libres de gluten, sin azúcar, altos en fibra, con adición de omega 3 y probióticos. El objetivo de esta investigación es...

  8. Pathotyping of a Newcastle disease virus isolated from peacock (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarani, K; Muthusamy, S; Tirumurugaan, K G; Sakthivelan, S M; Kumanan, K

    2010-03-01

    This report describes Newcastle disease in peacock and the isolation and characterization of the virus. The virus had an intracerbral pathogenicity index of 1.71 and mean death time of 47 h. The isolate had multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site sequence ((110)GGRRQRRFIG(119)) with a phenylalanine at residue 117. Biological and molecular characterization revealed that the virus is velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in genotype II.

  9. Characterization of extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolated from a peacock (Pavo cristatus) with colisepticemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Tejkowski, Thiago Moreira; de Oliveira, Aline Luisa; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Horn, Fabiana

    2012-06-01

    Extraintestinal infections by avian pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (APEC) are commonly reported in poultry, but there is little information on infections by APEC in other bird species. Here we report on the characterization of extraintestinal E. coli isolated from a domesticated peacock, from the south of Brazil, that died of colisepticemia. Necropsy examination revealed congested liver, hypertrophied kidneys, peritonitis, severe typhlitis suggestive of coligranuloma, pneumonia, and airsacculitis--typical signs of colisepticemia. The isolates from lungs, kidney, heart, intestine, liver, and bone marrow all harbored the same virulence-associated factors (iucD, colV, iss, mat, fimC, ompA, traT crl, csgA vgrG, and hcp), yielded the same band pattern in amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, and were allocated to the Escherichia coli Reference Collection group B1. The isolates were resistant to bacitracin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline, but displayed slight differences in their resistance to other antimicrobials. The isolates also differed in their virulence in 1-day-old chickens, but none displayed high virulence in vivo. We conclude that the peacock died of colisepticemia after it was infected with an extraintestinal E. coli strain of low virulence that nevertheless harbored virulence factors generally associated with APEC. This study represents the first characterization of an APEC isolated from a nonpoultry bird species.

  10. Pathological and molecular studies of the renal trematode Paratanaisia bragai in Indian peafowls (Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asok Kumar, M; Kumar, Deepak; Palanivelu, Munuswamy; Annamalai, Latchumikanthan; Mathesh, Karikalan; Singh, Rajendra; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2018-03-26

    Endoparasitic diseases are commonly encountered in free-ranging birds. Although not all endoparasites cause disease, persistent infection with large numbers of parasites almost always affects normal physiological functions, leading to deleterious effects on the host. This paper describes the anatomopathological alterations caused by the renal trematode Paratanaisia bragai in Indian peafowl (n = 3) and examines the phylogeny of these and related parasites. Peafowl from forests in and around the Bareilly region, Uttar Pradesh, India, were necropsied, and microscopic and molecular investigations were performed. The peafowl were confirmed to be infected with P. bragai. Significant gross pathological lesions suggested nephrosis, and microscopic findings indicated a mild-to-moderate degree of nephrosis caused by the parasites in the tissue. The parasites were identified as P. bragai by histomorphological analysis of adult and eggs in the ureters, and the identification was confirmed by PCR and phylogenetic analysis. Nucleotide sequencing of the PCR products from the renal trematodes recovered from Indian peafowl revealed a close association with P. bragai from Columbiformes in the United Kingdom and Spain. The pathology and molecular epidemiology of parasitic diseases affecting peafowl is not well understood in India. This is the first report from India and the second report worldwide to document P. bragai infection in peafowl.

  11. Endoparasitic infections in Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus) of Veterinary College Campus, Mathura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Shanker, Daya; Kumar, Pradeep

    2013-04-01

    A survey was made to determine the prevalence of endoparasites in free range blue peacocks living in and around the premises of College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Mathura. Faecal samples of peacocks were collected randomly and brought to the divisional laboratory for faecal sample examination. During the coprological examination, eggs and oocysts of cestodes and coccidia belonging to Eimeria and Isospora species were identified, respectively based on the morphology and micrometry of these parasitic stages. The present study has generated an important data regarding the else while parasitologically neglected national bird of India.

  12. [Foreign-body related esophagus obstruction in a peacock (Pavo cristatus L. 1758)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautwald, M E; Schildger, B

    1986-01-01

    A coil of metal wire was diagnosed by X-ray closely to the heartbasis in an eight-year-old peacock. Described are anesthesia and successful surgical removal of the coiled wire which had partially pierced the wall of the oesophagus. Means of post-surgical drug and dietetic therapy are discussed.

  13. Survey of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) for potential pathogens at three Michigan zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollamby, Simon; Sikarskie, James G; Stuht, John

    2003-12-01

    Blood samples collected from 31 free-roaming peafowl from three zoos in Michigan were tested serologically. Antibody titers were present against avian adenovirus and Bordetella avium in 19.3% and 61.3% of the samples, respectively. Serum plate agglutination tests were positive for Mycoplasma meleagridis and Mycoplasma synoviae in 3.2% and 38.7% of the samples, respectively. All birds were seronegative for avian influenza, Newcastle disease virus, West Nile virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Giardia sp. No parasites were seen in blood smears. Cloacal swabs were cultured for anaerobic, aerobic, and microaerophilic bacteria. Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli were cultured most frequently from 64.5% and 29% of the samples, respectively, whereas Salmonella sp. and Campylobacter sp. were not isolated. Fecal samples contained moderate numbers of ascarid and Capillaria sp. ova and coccidian oocysts. Female biting lice (Goniodes gigas) were identified on three birds.

  14. Detection and molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus in peafowl (Pavo cristatus) in Haryana State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aman; Maan, Sushila; Mahajan, Nand Kishore; Rana, Virender Pratap; Jindal, Naresh; Batra, Kanisht; Ghosh, Arnab; Mishra, Shiv Kumar; Kapoor, Sanjay; Maan, Narender Singh

    2013-12-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the cause of deaths of peafowls in Haryana State. In total, 145 birds were sick and 28 birds were reported dead during July to September 2012. Some of the sick birds were showing signs of shaking of heads, torticollis and paresis. Blood and cloacal swab samples from sick birds along with brain and intestinal tissues from dead birds were collected for further investigation. Although post-mortem examination showed no typical lesions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) yet raised HI tires against NDV in some serum samples and clinical signs indicated the presence of NDV. One of the brain tissues (NDV/IND2012/01) from the field case was processed and adapted to Vero cell line for virus isolation. The fusion (F) gene based nested RT-PCR (RT-nPCR) confirmed the presence of NDV in all field samples and cell culture isolate. Sequencing of the partial F gene amplicons (216 bp) using the PCR primers as sequencing primers confirmed the PCR results. The deduced amino acid sequences of partial F gene were found to have the amino acid motif (111)GRRQKR/F(117) in the fusion protein cleavage site (FPCS). This amino acid motif is indicative of the velogenic nature of these NDVs. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the virus belonged to class II genotype VII very closely related to virus isolates originated from outbreaks in Western Europe, Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan and India. Phylogenetic grouping of the virus and sequence of FPCS is indicative of pathogenic potential of virus strain circulating in peacocks in Haryana.

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Wild Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulape, Sagar A; Gaikwad, Satish S; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Dey, Sohini

    2014-06-05

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a wild peacock. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to genotype II, class II of NDV strains. This study helps to understand the ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host of this geographical region during the outbreak of 2012 in northwest India. Copyright © 2014 Khulape et al.

  16. Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus from domestic peafowl (Pavo cristatus) and teal (Anas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengwang; Chen, Jianfei; Chen, Jinding; Kong, Xiangang; Shao, Yuhao; Han, Zongxi; Feng, Li; Cai, Xuehui; Gu, Shoulin; Liu, Ming

    2005-03-01

    Coronavirus-like viruses, designated peafowl/China/LKQ3/2003 (pf/CH/LKQ3/03) and teal/China/LDT3/2003 (tl/CH/LDT3/03), were isolated from a peafowl and a teal during virological surveillance in Guangdong province, China. Partial genomic sequence analysis showed that these isolates had the S-3-M-5-N gene order that is typical of avian coronaviruses. The spike, membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes of pf/CH/LKQ3/03 had >99 % identity to those of the avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus H120 vaccine strain (Massachusetts serotype) and other Massachusetts serotype isolates. Furthermore, when pf/CH/LKQ3/03 was inoculated experimentally into chickens (specific-pathogen-free), no disease signs were apparent. tl/CH/LDT3/03 had a spike protein gene with 95 % identity to that of a Chinese infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolate, although more extensive sequencing revealed the possibility that this strain may have undergone recombination. When inoculated into chickens, tl/CH/LDT3/03 resulted in the death of birds from nephritis. Taken together, this information suggests that pf/CH/LKQ3/03 might be a revertant, attenuated vaccine IBV strain, whereas tl/CH/LDT3/03 is a nephropathogenic field IBV strain, generated through recombination. The replication and non-pathogenic nature of IBV in domestic peafowl and teal under field conditions raises questions as to the role of these hosts as carriers of IBV and the potential that they may have to transmit virus to susceptible chicken populations.

  17. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks.

  18. Use of Pavo cristatus feather extract for the better management of snakebites: neutralization of inflammatory reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Satish K; Frey, Felix J; Frey, Brigitte M; Gowda, There V; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe S

    2005-06-03

    In Indian traditional medicine, peacock feather in the form of ash (Bhasma) or water extract are used against snakebite and to treat various problems associated with lungs. This study was aimed to evaluate the water extract of peacock feather (PCF) against the local tissue damage caused due to snakebite. PCF water extract showed inhibition towards phospholipase A2 enzyme activity from snake venom (Naja naja and Vipera russelii), inflammatory fluids (synovial, pleural, ascites) and normal serum in a dose-dependent manner. Hyaluronidase and proteases are other major enzymes in snake venoms responsible for local tissue damage. PCF water extract inhibited hyaluronidase and proteolytic enzyme activities from Vipera russelii, Naja naja and Trimeresurus malabaricus venom. The active principle is a hydrophilic molecule easily extractable in water or polar solvents. PCF water extract gave positive results for the presence of protein and secondary metabolites like carotenoids and steroids. Analysis of metal ions revealed that iron is the major ion (> 20-fold). Other metal ions detected in smaller amount are copper, chromium, zinc and nickel. The least amount of ion detected is gold. Co-injection of PCF water extract with snake venom and inflammatory PLA2 enzymes neutralize the edema inducing activity of all the PLA2 enzymes studied. Since it inhibits hyaluronidase and proteases enzyme activity from snake venom PCF water extract is a powerful neutralizing agent, which has therapeutic application against venom toxicity.

  19. A new species of Bothriocephalus Rudolphi, 1808 (Eucestoda: Bothriocephalidea) from the channel bull blenny Cottoperca gobio (Günther) (Perciformes: Bovichtidae) on the Patagonian shelf off Argentina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gil de Pertierra, A.A.; Arredondo, N.J.; Kuchta, Roman; Incorvaia, I.S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2015), s. 247-256 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cestoda * fishes * parasites Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2015

  20. Anatomical Analysis of the Retinal Specializations to a Crypto-Benthic, Micro-Predatory Lifestyle in the Mediterranean Triplefin Blenny Tripterygion delaisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Fritsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The environment and lifestyle of a species are known to exert selective pressure on the visual system, often demonstrating a tight link between visual morphology and ecology. Many studies have predicted the visual requirements of a species by examining the anatomical features of the eye. However, among the vast number of studies on visual specializations in aquatic animals, only a few have focused on small benthic fishes that occupy a heterogeneous and spatially complex visual environment. This study investigates the general retinal anatomy including the topography of both the photoreceptor and ganglion cell populations and estimates the spatial resolving power (SRP of the eye of the Mediterranean triplefin Tripterygion delaisi. Retinal wholemounts were prepared to systematically and quantitatively analyze photoreceptor and retinal ganglion cell (RGC densities using design-based stereology. To further examine the retinal structure, we also used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological examination of retinal cross sections. Observations of the triplefin’s eyes revealed them to be highly mobile, allowing them to view the surroundings without body movements. A rostral aphakic gap and the elliptical shape of the eye extend its visual field rostrally and allow for a rostro-caudal accommodatory axis, enabling this species to focus on prey at close range. Single and twin cones dominate the retina and are consistently arranged in one of two regular patterns, which may enhance motion detection and color vision. The retina features a prominent, dorso-temporal, convexiclivate fovea with an average density of 104,400 double and 30,800 single cones per mm2, and 81,000 RGCs per mm2. Based on photoreceptor spacing, SRP was calculated to be between 6.7 and 9.0 cycles per degree. Location and resolving power of the fovea would benefit the detection and identification of small prey in the lower frontal region of the visual field.

  1. Change in status of green peafowl Pavo muticus (Family Phasianidae in Southcentral Vietnam: A comparison over 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti Sukumal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity declines in Southeast Asia have led to predictions that many vertebrate species will become extinct within 50 years. Examples of quantified deterioration in species status remain scarce, however. The Southeast Asian geographical range of the Endangered Green peafowl is still contracting due to hunting pressure and habitat disturbance. In Vietnam, the main population lies in the southcentral region with a relatively high density reported in 1998. The aim of this study was to assess the species’ current status in Yok Don and Cat Tien National Parks, which are thought to contain the most important Vietnamese populations. We used line and point transects to investigate the density and analyze habitat selection and effects of human activity. The Yok Don population has decreased sharply during the past 15 years, while in Cat Tien, the estimated density was higher. Animals were most numerous close to water sources and lowest where cattle numbers were highest and ground vegetation cover absent. Here we document a significant negative population change in a previously widespread vertebrate species. Although comparisons of population data over long periods are rare, we demonstrate that taking advantage of opportunities to resurvey species can quantify population declines.

  2. Characterization and Sequencing of a Genotype XII Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbe, Ana; Izquierdo-Lara, Ray; Tataje-Lavanda, Luis; Figueroa, Aling; Segovia, Karen; Gonzalez, Rosa; Cribillero, Giovana; Montalvan, Angela; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Icochea, Eliana

    2015-07-30

    Here, we report the first complete sequence and biological characterization of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a peacock in South America (NDV/peacock/Peru/2011). This isolate, classified as genotype XII in class II, highlights the need for increased surveillance of noncommercial avian species. Copyright © 2015 Chumbe et al.

  3. Characterisation of peacock (Pavo cristatus) mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence and its use in differentiation from closely related poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Das, D K; Dhara, A; Swarup, D; Yadav, M P; Gupta, P K

    2007-04-01

    1. Poaching of peacocks, the national bird of India, is illegal. People kill this beautiful pheasant bird for tail feathers and mix the meat with chicken or turkey. Differentiation of the meat of these species is essential in order to address the ambiguity about the origin of the sample. 2. The present study was carried out to investigate the use of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for identification of these species. 3. Peacock mitochondrial 12S rRNA partial gene was amplified using universal primers, cloned and characterised. It was found to be 446 nucleotides long. 4. Sequence analysis revealed 86.8 and 84.1% similarity with reported turkey and chicken sequences, respectively. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the peacock is much closer to the turkey than the chicken. 5. PCR-RFLP of 446 bp amplicon using commonly available restriction enzymes AluI and Sau3AI produced a differential pattern for identifying these poultry species unambiguously.

  4. Salacia hallei, a name for a rare Celastraceae species from western central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, C.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    A new species, Salaria hallei (Celastraceae), from Gabon and Angola is described and illustrated. The species is unique by the combination of glabrous leaves with a transverse tertiary venation, a conspicuous pedunculate inflorescence and glabrous flowers with 3-4 mm wide, almost round, petals and 4

  5. História natural dos amborés e peixes-macaco (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei do Parque Nacional Marinho do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, sob um enfoque comportamental Natural history focus blennies and gobis behaviour (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana de F. Mendes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os amborês e peixes-macaco, como são popularmente conhecidos gobiídeos e bleniídeos, são elementos dominantes da fauna de pequenos peixes bentônicos e litorâneos que habitam recifes tropicais, compondo grande parte da alta diversidade das espécies de pequeno porte encontrada no Atlântico ocidental. O estudo da distribuição e história natural dos gobióides e blenióides de Fernando de Noronha foi desenvolvido através de observações de campo. Além da descrição dos hábitats preferenciais foram abordados aspectos sociais tais como, habitat preferencial, interações intra- e interespecíficas, comportamento domiciliar e territorial, e comportamento reprodutivo. A maioria das espécies em foco apresenta distribuição principalmente litorânea, são gregárias, com áreas domiciliares relativamente pequenas em torno de 2 x 2 m², pouco agressivas, tendo sido ocasionalmente registradas curtas perseguições intra- e interespecíficas. A baixa agressividade registrada, em comparação com outros peixes é provavelmente associada à adaptação à ocupação de pequenas áreas, como é o caso das poças de marés, pois um grande número de interações agressivas representaria um gasto de energia desnecessário. No geral, as espécies possuem coloração críptica, associada à evitação de predadores. Apenas nestas épocas de reprodução foi observada a intensificação da agressividade, com comportamento territorial - defesa de território incluindo mordidas e perseguições.The gobis and blenis (Gobiidae and Bleniidae are the most important group of small benthic littoral fishes in tropical reefs, representing most of the high number of small fish species found in Western Atlantic. The natural history of gobiid and bleniid fish from Fernando de Noronha was assessed by means observation sessions using both snorkelling and scuba diving. Most of these observations were aimed at social behaviour, such as intra and interespecific interactions, territorial and reproductive behaviour. In general, these fish from Fernando de Noronha occurs in intertidal zone, are gregarious, with small home ranges of near 2 x 2 m², and show low agressivity towards other fish. Occasionally, some chasing was recorded between individuals of the same or distinct species. Low agressivity is probably associated to the occupation of small areas (e.g. tide pools, as a high degree of agressivity may represent an unnecessary [excessive] waste of energy. Most of the studied species presents cryptic coloration, associated to the avoidance of predators, but some males showed conspicuous coloration and intense aggressive behaviour, mainly during the reproductive season. It was only during this occasion that territorial behaviour, chasing and bites were recorded.

  6. Notas a la gaviota libertada en el campo, 31 de enero de 1951

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Notas a la Gaviota reidora (Larus ridibundus) libertada en el campo, cerca del Puente Colgante de Valladolid, el 31 de enero de 1951. Incluye observaciones de patos domésticos y Pavos reales (Pavo cristatus), y un pequeño esquema del enclave observado. Notes to the Common Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) released in the field, near the Puente Colgante of Valladolid, the 31st of January of 1951. Observations of domestic ducks and Indian Peafowls (Pavo cristatus) and a little map of the ...

  7. MATE CHOICE IN AIDABLENNIUS-SPHYNX (TELEOSTEI, BLENNIIDAE) - FEMALES PREFER NESTS CONTAINING MORE EGGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; VIDELER, JJ

    1991-01-01

    Criteria for female mate choice were investigated in a natural population of a Mediterranean blenny, Aidablennius sphynx. Removable test tubes in concrete blocks were offered as nests. Each tube was guarded by a male and females laid eggs in the tubes. Nests with larger broods received significantly

  8. Range extensions of blennioid fIShes on the southern African west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 5 October 1982; accepted 18 October 1982. The intertidal zone of the south and west coasts of southern. Africa is notable for the complete dominance of blennioid fishes. Clinids of the subfamily Clininae are the most numerous fishes in the south and south-west, and blennies of the subfamily Blenniinae dominate ...

  9. African Zoology - Vol 37, No 2 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invasion of sandflats in Langebaan Lagoon, South Africa, by the alien mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis: size, composition and decline of the populations · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Behaviour and habitat of the Indian Ocean amphibious blenny, Alticus monochrus · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. African Zoology - Vol 41, No 1 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Life history characteristics of Alticus monochrus , a supratidal blenny of the southern Indian Ocean · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M Bhikajee, J.M. Green, R Dunbrack, 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.3377/1562-7020(2006)41[1:LHCOAM]2.0.CO;2 ...

  11. Lipid Status of the Two High Latitude Fish Species, Leptoclinus maculatus and Lumpenus fabricii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina N. Nemova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the lipid status (i.e., the total lipid and phospholipid concentrations and the percentage of fatty acids of the total lipids of adult specimens of daubed shanny (Leptoclinus maculatus from Svalbard waters (Isfjord and slender eel blenny (Lumpenus fabricii from the White Sea (Onega Bay and Tersky shore was performed to study the metabolism and functions of lipids of these fishes in ontogeny and under various ecological conditions. Slender eel blenny from both areas of the White Sea were distinguished by a high level of sphingomyelin compared with the daubed shanny from Svalbard, and the amount of total phospholipids was higher in slender eel blenny from Onega Bay than in slender eel blenny from the Tersky shore. The extent of saturation and the signature of polyenic fatty acids varied according to the specific species of the Stichaeidae family under study. These results demonstrate the differences in the trophoecological and hydrobiological conditions of habitations of these species and highlighted the importance of considering certain trends in the lipid profiles of these fishes as specific features of the organization of the ecological and biochemical mechanisms of adaptation.

  12. FEMALE PREFERENCE FOR NESTS WITH EGGS IS BASED ON THE PRESENCE OF THE EGGS THEMSELVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; GROOTHUIS, TGG; Kraak, Sarah B.M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1994-01-01

    In many fish species of which males care for eggs in a nest, including Aidablennius sphynx, females prefer to mate with males that already guard eggs. In this paper we present two aquarium experiments with this Mediterranean blenny to determine whether the females actually use the presence of eggs

  13. CONCOMITANT HELMINTHIC AND ENTERO-PROTOZOAL INFESTATION IN INDIAN PEAFOWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dutta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant infestation of Ascaridia spp. along with Raillietina spp. and Emeria spp. has been identified in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus of Ramnabagan Mini Zoo, Burdwan, West Bengal, India.

  14. Tippu pürgivad Eesti sportlased ootavad kaitseväelt suuremat tuge / Andrus Nilk, Deivil Tserp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nilk, Andrus, 1962-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti spordiavalikkus arutleb, kas riigi kaitseväge võiks rohkem rakendada olümpialootuste ettevalmistamiseks. Arvamust avaldavad suusatreener Mati Alaver, EOK asepresident Jüri Tamm ning suusataja Pavo Raudsepp. Lisa: Sõjaväe palgal

  15. Burnham's celestial handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Burnham, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Volume III of this three-part comprehensive guide to the thousands of celestial objects outside our solar system concludes with listings from Pavo through Vulpecula. Objects are grouped according to constellation, and their definitions feature names, coordinates, classifications, and physical descriptions. Additional notes offer fascinating historical information. Hundreds of visual aids. 1977 edition.

  16. Precision Orbit of delta Delphini and Prospects for Astrometric Detection of Exoplanets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Tyler; Monnier, John D.; Fekel, Francis C.

    2018-01-01

    Combining visual and spectroscopic orbits of binary stars leads to a determination of the full 3D orbit, individual masses, and distance to the system. We present a full analysis of the evolved binary system delta Delphini using astrometric data from the MIRC and PAVO instruments on the CHARA lon...

  17. Book review | Fleming | Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chamberlain's Waders: the Definitive Guide to Southern Africa's Shorebirds By Faansie Peacock 2016, Pavo Publishing, South Africa Softcover, colour illustrations, colour maps, 256 pages. ISBN 978-0-620-73552-0. Price R380. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  18. Metapneumovirus aviar: diagnóstico y control (Avian Metapneumovirus: diagnosis and control)

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo Beiras, Ana María.

    2011-01-01

    ResumenEl Metapneumovirus aviar (aMPV) causa una infección aguda, altamente contagiosa del tracto respiratorio superior principalmente en pavos y pollos.SummaryAvian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an acute highly contagious upper respiratory tract infection primarily of turkeys and chickens.

  19. The diets of littoral fish from the Cape Peninsula

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P. pavo. Blennioclinus brachycephalus. Gobiidae. Caffrogobius caffer. C. nudiceps. Gobiesocidae. Chorisochismus den/ex. Congrogadidae. Halidesmus ..... P. cristatus. II. 9. Probaloides rotunda. 26. II. 32. Temnophlias capensis. 14. 9. Isopoda. Cymodoce/la sp. 5. 8. Dynamene/la huttoni. 6. 12. 6. Exosphaeroma sp.

  20. Fatal Syngamus trachea Infection in a Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in a Pea fowl (Pavo cristatus) ZooPrint Journal 18(9):1204. TARELLO, W. (2008). Efficacy of ivermectins against intestinal capillariosis in falcons Parasite 15(2):. 171-174. WELTE, S.C. and KIRKPATRICK, C.E.. (1986) Syngamiasis injuvenile American robins (Turdus migratorius) with a note on prevalence of other faecal ...

  1. Intestinal protozoan parasites with zoonotic potential in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietto-Gonçalves, G A; Fernandes, T M; Silva, R J; Lopes, R S; Andreatti Filho, R L

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of potentially zoonotic intestinal protozoan infections in exotic and wildlife Brazilian birds. Fecal samples from 207 birds of 45 species were examined. Infections by Balantidium sp., Entamoeba sp., and Blastocystis sp. were observed in 17 individuals (8.2%) of Gnorimopsar chopi, Oryzoborus angolensis, Sporophila caerulescens, Ramphastos toco, Aratinga leucophtalmus, and Pavo cristatus.

  2. Evaluation of two feeding programs on productive traits and foot injuries in commercial turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Santos-Ricalde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción : Varios factores afectan la ganacia de peso y el rendimiento de canal en las aves. Entre estos, los programas de alimentación, el se xo y las enfermedades son los má s relevamtes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de dos programas de alimentación, uno alto en proteína (AP y otro bajo en proteína (BP, en pavos de ambos sexos, sobre el peso vivo, rendimiento en canal y lesiones en patas. Méto do : El program a de alimentacion alto en proteí na (AP consistio en diet as con mayor contenido de proteí na que las utilizadas en el programa de alime n ta ció n bajo en proteína (BP, sin embargo, el nivel de energía metabolizable en las dietas fue simil ar en a mbos programas. Se evaluó la gancia diaria de peso, rendimiento de canal y lesiones en patas. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial con 128 repeticiones por tratamiento. El analisis estadístico incluyó los efe ctos del programa de alimentación, sexo y la interacció n. Resultados : Los pavos del programa AP fueron más pesados (P1.5 cm de diá metro fueron más frecuentes (P<0.06 en los pavos alimentados con el programa AP (28.3% vs . BP (18.1% y en los machos (31.9% vs . hembras (14.9%; P<0.05. Adicional mente, conforme los pavos incrementaron de edad las lesiones grado 2 en patas fueron más frecuentes (34.9, 37.8 y 60.2% a las 15, 19 y 23 semanas de edad, respectivamente. Conclusión : Los resultados indican que los pavos criados con un programa AP fueron más pesados, mientras que los pavos machos fueron más pesados y rindieron más en canal que las hembras. La frecuencia y severidad de las lesiones en las patas de las aves fueron mayores en los pavos machos y de mayor edad.

  3. AUDITUL SUBSTITUIT SAU ALTERNATIVĂ A CONTROLULUI

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia CAPRIAN

    2016-01-01

    Necesitatea controlului este determinată în mare măsură de actori cum sunt: asiguraţii, acţionarii, salariaţii, instituţiile statului, partenerii de afaceri şi investitorii, care au nevoie de cunoaşterea fenomenului şi de protecţia intereselor lor. Necesitatea controlului pentru asiguraţi este evidentă. Cineva trebuie să verifice cum şi ce se întâmplă cu fondurile sub­scrise în vederea protejării împotriva unor riscuri generatoare de pagube materiale, vătămări corporale sau pierderi finan­cia...

  4. Endogenous money and induced technical progress in a post Keynesian macrodynamic model

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Luciano Dias de; Oreiro, José Luís da Costa

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar o processo de crescimento econômico e distribuição funcional da renda em uma situação na qual o progresso tecnológico e a taxa básica de juros são endógenos e a moeda, via oferta de crédito, tem um papel preponderante na determinação da dinâmica de longo prazo da economia. Neste contexto, demonstramos diversas combinações onde ocorrem equilíbrios múltiplos e flutuações amortecidas nas principais variáveis econômicas. Além disso, para baixa parcela salaria...

  5. INCIDENCIA DE FACTORES PERSONALES Y LABORALES EN LOS SALARIOS DEL SECTOR HOSTELERO: UNA VISIÓN DE GÉNERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Ons-Cappa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aporta evidencia empírica sobre las diferencias en los rendimientos salaria - les desde una perspectiva de género en el sector hostelero español, comparándolas con otros sectores de la economía española. Mediante la estimación de una función minceriana, los resultados obtenidos revelan una significativa diferencia negativa del rendimiento del capital humano en la hostelería frente al resto de sectores y una mayor penalización salarial asociada al rendimiento educativo para el caso de la mujer en la hostelería, en contraposición a lo que ocurre en el resto de sectores analizados.

  6. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera) on captive birds in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Salete Oliveira da; Oliveira, Heloiza Helena de; Teixeira, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Amorim, Marinete

    2009-01-01

    Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae); Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae); Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae); Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae); Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae);...

  7. Malófagos (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera) em aves cativas no sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Salete Oliveira da; Oliveira,Heloiza Helena de; Teixeira,Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello; Amorim,Marinete

    2009-01-01

    Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae); Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae); Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae); Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae); Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae);...

  8. Area Assessment. Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    the U.S. and O.A.S, Ambassador to the U.N, Angel Eilraondo ^olano Calderon Francisco Morales Hernandez GuillerjTio Sandoval Aguilar Federfco...Perifericos II (Max stay 5 days, simple operations) A. San Vicente de Paul ’ :;; lieredia 82’ 26 B. San Francisco de Asis San Francisco 83 33 C...dorado, Cola de pavo, Campano, Cedro amargo, Gavilan , Jicaro, Pilc5n, Botarrama, plus numerous lower-quality woods for form lumber

  9. El cuento americano: Güeno-mapu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Carvajal

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available Helechos. Susurran como el abanico del pavo real. Ahí están. En grupos o hileras sobre la huella rojiza que va al caserío. Junto a la selva. Lejos, adentro, a donde solo llegan a ramonear los vahuales. En la traba de pellines, ulmos y araucarias, rosal silvestre y zarza levantada en altura de lianas y cañaveral.

  10. The radius and mass of the close solar twin 18 Scorpii derived from asteroseismology and interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazot, M.; Ireland, M.J.; Huber, D.

    2011-01-01

    Sco. We observed the star during 12 nights with HARPS for seismology and used the PAVO beam-combiner at CHARA for interferometry. An average large frequency separation 134.4 ± 0.3 μHz and angular and linear radiuses of 0.6759 ± 0.0062 mas and 1.010 ± 0.009 Rsun were estimated. We used these values...

  11. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    OpenAIRE

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R.; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A.; Gnerlich, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching acce...

  12. Noise pollution has limited effects on nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. Yorzinski; Fredrick S. Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl (Pavo cristatus), that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The...

  13. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans isolated from droppings of captive birds in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irokanulo, E O; Makinde, A A; Akuesgi, C O; Ekwonu, M

    1997-04-01

    The yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans, was found in apparently healthy birds at the Jos Wildlife Park and Zoo in Jos, Nigeria. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans was isolated from feces of four captive bird species. Five isolates belonged to serotype A while two were serotype D. Serotype A of C. neoformans was isolated from a white face duck (Dendrocygna viduata), eagle owl (Bubo africanus cinerascene) and peacock (Pavo cristatus). The other two (serotype D), were isolated from a spotted eagle owl.

  14. Baseline Behavior of Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    the playbacks to half the duration of the playbacks used in the Mediterranean , for a playback duration of 7.5 minutes. While we did not collect...Tíscar, S., Verborgh, P., Esteban-Pavo, R., Pérez, S., Minvielle-Sebastia, L. and Guinet, C. (2008b). Diet of the social groups of long-finned pilot...investigates the social ecology and baseline behavior of pilot whales, and responses to controlled exposures of anthropogenic and natural sounds. The ultimate

  15. Characterization and Biomimcry of Avian Nanostructured Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-19

    chemistry. We use plasmonics to measure refractive index of melanins and synchrotron-based Vacuum Ultraviolet Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry...able to produce a dazzling display of colours with small shifts in viewing geometry, likely due to their periodic nanostructure, flattened barb...species use dazzling displays of changing colours to impress or capture the attention of females (e.g. Parotia lawesii and Pavo cristatus; Stavenga et

  16. [Molecular cloning of activin betaA subunit mature peptide from peafowl and its application in taxonomy and phylogeny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Fang-Dong; Tong, Xin-Xin; Yue, Bi-Song

    2005-03-01

    The sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide have been amplified from white peafowl, blue peafowl (pavo cristatus) and green peafowl (pavo muticus) genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pair of degenerate primers. The target fragments were cloned into the vector pMD18-T and sequenced. The length of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide is 345bp, which encoded a peptide of 115 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptide demonstrated that the identity of nucleotide is 98.0% between blue peaflowl and green peafowl, and the identity of that is 98.8% between blue peaflowl and white peafow. Sequences comparison in NCBI revealed that the sequences of activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides of different species are highly conserved during evolution process. In addition, the restriction enzyme map of activins is high similar between white peafowl and blue peafowl. Phylogenetic tree was constructed with Mega 2 and Clustalxldx software. The result showed that white peafowl has a closer relationship to blue peafowl than to green peafowl. Considered the nucleotide differences of peafowls' activin gene betaA subunit mature peptides, a highly conserved region, we supported that white peafowl was derived from blue peafowl, and it is more possible the hybrid but just the product of color mutation, or maybe as a subspecies of Pavo genus.

  17. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, A W

    2005-05-01

    The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka, spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s, and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Currently, 45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually, with an import value of US$28-44 million. The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines, followed by Brazil, Maldives, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Hawaii. In the tropical Western Atlantic, 16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S. (Florida and Puerto Rico). The U.S. is the world's largest buyer, followed by the European Union and Japan. The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes, of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale. Damselfish, anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50% of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses, blennies, gobies, triggerfish, filcfish, hawkfishes, groupers and basselets account for 31% of the trade, and the remaining 16% is represented by 33 families. The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species), seahorses (two species), royal gramma, jawfish, queen triggerfish, redlip blenny, puddingwife, bluehead wrasse, and blue chromis. The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species, but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries. It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced, and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region.

  18. Effects of season, sex and body size on the feeding ecology of turtle-headed sea snakes ( Emydocephalus annulatus) on IndoPacific inshore coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiran, C.; Dubey, S.; Shine, R.

    2013-06-01

    In terrestrial snakes, many cases of intraspecific shifts in dietary habits as a function of predator sex and body size are driven by gape limitation and hence are most common in species that feed on relatively large prey and exhibit a wide body-size range. Our data on sea snakes reveal an alternative mechanism for intraspecific niche partitioning, based on sex-specific seasonal anorexia induced by reproductive activities. Turtle-headed sea snakes ( Emydocephalus annulatus) on coral reefs in the New Caledonian Lagoon feed entirely on the eggs of demersal-spawning fishes. DNA sequence data (cytochrome b gene) on eggs that we palpated from stomachs of 37 snakes showed that despite this ontogenetic stage specialization, the prey comes from a taxonomically diverse array of species including damselfish (41 % of samples, at least 5 species), blennies (41 %, 4 species) and gobies (19 %, 5 species). The composition of snake diets shifted seasonally (with damselfish dominating in winter but not summer), presumably reflecting seasonality of fish reproduction. That seasonal shift affects male and female snakes differently, because reproduction is incompatible with foraging. Adult female sea snakes ceased feeding when they became heavily distended with developing embryos in late summer, and males ceased feeding while they were mate searching in winter. The sex divergence in foraging habits may be amplified by sexual size dimorphism; females grow larger than males, and larger snakes (of both sexes) feed more on damselfish (which often lay their eggs in exposed sites) than on blennies and gobies (whose eggs are hidden within narrow crevices). Specific features of reproductive biology of coral reef fish (seasonality and nest type) have generated intraspecific niche partitioning in these sea snakes, by mechanisms different from those that apply to terrestrial snakes.

  19. Fundamental properties of stars using asteroseismology from Kepler and CoRoT and interferometry from the CHARA Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, D.; Ireland, M.J.; Bedding, T.R.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of a long-baseline interferometry campaign using the PAVO beam combiner at the CHARA Array to measure the angular sizes of five main-sequence stars, one subgiant and four red giant stars for which solar-like oscillations have been detected by either Kepler or CoRoT. By combining...... interferometric angular diameters, Hipparcos parallaxes, asteroseismic densities, bolometric fluxes, and high-resolution spectroscopy, we derive a full set of near-model-independent fundamental properties for the sample. We first use these properties to test asteroseismic scaling relations for the frequency...

  20. La Naturaleza de Indias en la Plástica de la Edad Moderna

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Gómez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    De las transcendentales consecuencia del Descubrimiento de América, acaso la más relevante sea la revolución ecológica, alimentaria y culinaria; de alcance planetario, que se originó con el intercambio de productos entre el Viejo y el Nuevo Mundo. De Indias a Europa viajaron particularmente vegetales -y un único animal comestible, el pavo- que vinieron a enriquecer la mísera y monótona dieta de los habitantes de esta orilla. Tales productos, tras su aclimatación se difundieron a través del Me...

  1. Piloto de conservación y manejo de recursos genéticos forestales en la zona norte de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo-Gamboa, Olman; Badilla-Valverde, Yorleny; Rojas-Parajeles, Fabiana

    2011-01-01

    Código del proyecto: VIE-5402 1401 9501 Se colectó progenies de 12 árboles de camíbar (Copaifera camibar), 14 de tostado (Sclerolobium costaricense), 8 de titor (Sacoglothis trichogyna), 5 de cola de pavo (Hymenolobium mesoamericanum), 25 de cebo (Vochysia guatemalensis), 29 de almendro (Dipteryx panamensis) y 19 genotipos de pilón (Hyeronima alchorneoides) de poblaciones nativas de los cantones de San Carlos, Los Chiles, Sarapiquí y Guápiles, que se mantienen como colecciones vivas en el ...

  2. Estudio de factibilidad para la introducción del producto Pizza Lista, en el mercado de Quito y Guayaquil, por parte de la Empresa Procesadora Nacional de Alimentos (PRONACA) planta de embutidos y elaborados.

    OpenAIRE

    Tashiguano Andrango, Marco Vinicio

    2007-01-01

    Procesadora Nacional de Alimentos, PRONACA, fue fundada en el año 1979. En la actualidad está constituida por un grupo de empresas agroindustriales, que se dedica a la crianza y procesamiento de aves (pollo, gallina y pavo) y cerdos, y otros negocios que tienen que ver con la producción de alimentos; es una empresa líder en el mercado nacional y genera fuentes de trabajo directo para casi 7.000 personas. La planta de Embutidos y Elaborados es parte de este grupo y tiene a su cargo la pr...

  3. DESARROLLO DE UN PROGRAMA PARA GARANTIZAR LA INOCUIDAD EN CARNES DE AVES Y CERDO, RESPECTO A DIOXINAS Y FURANOS

    OpenAIRE

    VALDOVINOS JELDES, CARLOS

    2007-01-01

    El presente proyecto respondió a la necesidad país de contar con un sistema para garantizar la inocuidad de carnes de aves y cerdos respeto de dioxinas y furanos e identificar factores de riesgo que pueden favorecer la contaminación de dichas carnes. Para lo cual se aplico un sistema de muestreo que abarcó todo el ciclo productivo) (nacimiento, crianza y beneficio) de los animales (pavos, pollos y cerdos) con el fin de desarrollar un programa de mejoramiento y control de la inocuidad...

  4. Normal xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus), with reference to other galliform species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.; Smith, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a reference for xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic anatomy of the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) as a representative of the avian order Galliformes. The heads, bodies, wings, and pelvic limbs of four adult birds were radiographed using xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Nine xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal anatomy of these regions. A xeroradiograph of the tarsometatarsus of the domestic peacock (Pavo cristatus) was also included to demonstrate the metatarsal spur, which is not present in the quail

  5. [Susceptibility of birds other than chickens to infectious laryngotracheitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbink, F W

    1985-06-01

    Susceptibility to infectious laryngotracheitis virus was studied in peafowl (Pavo cristatus), various species of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, Lophura swinhoeii, Lophophorus impejanus), guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris), canaries (Serinus canaria), budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnic japonica). Apart from clinical observations, experiments were evaluated in terms of histopathology, immunofluorescence, serology and recovery of virus. Only peafowl and pheasants were found to be susceptible, pheasants responding more strongly than chickens to ocular vaccination and intratracheal inoculation. The other species were found to be refractory.

  6. A new species of Labidocera (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) collected from Okinawa, southwestern Japan, with establishment of five Indo-West Pacific species groups in the L.detruncata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Labidocerachuraumi sp. n. is described from Okinawa, southwestern Japan. The female of the new species differs from other congeners in genital compound somite with right postero-lateral and left antero-lateral processes. The male is distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the fifth leg. This new species is assigned to a newly proposed species group, the Labidoceramadurae species group, within the Labidoceradetruncata species complex. In this species complex five Indo-West Pacific species groups are recognized (cervi, detruncata, gangetica, madurae, and pavo) and defined on the basis of difference in sexual dimorphism.

  7. Política educativa y ajuste estructural en Rumanía.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Birzea

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available La Constitución rumana de 1991 se constituye en hito de las reformas políticas, económicas y educativas que, desde 1989, se producen en este país. Reduciendo la obligatoriedad escolar a ocho años de duración, esta normativa se sitúa en la línea predominante que intenta eliminar los efectos mas manifiestos de la educaci6ncornunista, fomentando la diversificaci6n estructural y curricular, la descentralización del proceso de toma de decisiones y la liberalizaci6n del mercado de enseñanza, instrumentos liberales puestos en marcha desde los programas de ajuste estructural. Los indudables efectos positivos resultantes de estas medidas -mejor capacidad de gestión, calidad educativa-se yen en parte eclipsados por otros de opuesto carácter, entre los que destacan la reducción de los gastos públicos en educación y en incremento del reparto salaria1 en los presupuestos educativos. 

  8. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Loebmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat. Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native

  9. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebmann, Daniel; Mai, Ana Cecília G; Lee, James T

    2010-09-01

    Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species) were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus) and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii) in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat). Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native redlip blenny

  10. Phylogenetic relationships within the family Halomonadaceae based on comparative 23S and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haba, Rafael R; Arahal, David R; Márquez, M Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    A phylogenetic study of the family Halomonadaceae was carried out based on complete 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA gene sequences. Several 16S rRNA genes of type strains were resequenced, and 28 new sequences of the 23S rRNA gene were obtained. Currently, the family includes nine genera (Carnimonas, Chromohalobacter, Cobetia, Halomonas, Halotalea, Kushneria, Modicisalibacter, Salinicola and Zymobacter). These genera are phylogenetically coherent except Halomonas, which is polyphyletic. This genus comprises two clearly distinguished clusters: group 1 includes Halomonas elongata (the type species) and the species Halomonas eurihalina, H. caseinilytica, H. halmophila, H. sabkhae, H. almeriensis, H. halophila, H. salina, H. organivorans, H. koreensis, H. maura and H. nitroreducens. Group 2 comprises the species Halomonas aquamarina, H. meridiana, H. axialensis, H. magadiensis, H. hydrothermalis, H. alkaliphila, H. venusta, H. boliviensis, H. neptunia, H. variabilis, H. sulfidaeris, H. subterranea, H. janggokensis, H. gomseomensis, H. arcis and H. subglaciescola. Halomonas salaria forms a cluster with Chromohalobacter salarius and the recently described genus Salinicola, and their taxonomic affiliation requires further study. More than 20 Halomonas species are phylogenetically not within the core constituted by the Halomonas sensu stricto cluster (group 1) or group 2 and, since their positions on the different phylogenetic trees are not stable, they cannot be recognized as additional groups either. In general, there is excellent agreement between the phylogenies based on the two rRNA gene sequences, but the 23S rRNA gene showed higher resolution in the differentiation of species of the family Halomonadaceae.

  11. Using mariculture as a breeding site: reproduction of Hypleurochilus fissicornis (Actinopterygii: Blenniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Possamai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture in estuaries provides substrate for colonization by fouling organisms, thus attracting small cryptic fish species hitherto unknown in this environment. The blenny Hypleurochilus fissicornis is one of the species that is associated with this new system and is found in high abundance in bivalve farming. To understand the reproductive strategy that this species uses in this new environment, we collected specimens monthly in a mariculture on the southern coast of Paraná State (Brazil. After obtaining morphometric data, we removed gonads to determine sex and maturity stage. Gonads were weighed and analysed histologically. Oogenesis showed the same pattern as in other teleosts, but spermatogenesis showed a very complex dynamics. The spawning is multiple and synchronous between sexes, lasting eight months (May to December and peaking in winter. Hypleurochilus fissicornis was reproductively successful using the mariculture as a breeding site. The species has a variety of tactics to protect its offspring (e.g. batch spawning, long reproductive period, reduced L50, parental care and a reproductive peak in winter.

  12. Noise pollution has limited effects on nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Fredrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl (Pavo cristatus), that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The vigilance levels of peahens were unaffected by exposure to noise pollution within trials. Furthermore, the peahens exhibited no preference for roosting farther or closer to noise pollution. Interestingly, predators often avoided the experimental area during nights with noise pollution, which could explain why vigilance rates were higher overall during control compared to noise trials. The results suggest that peahens’ perception of risk is not drastically impacted by noise pollution but longer-term studies will be necessary to assess any chronic effects. PMID:27703863

  13. Nuevo titulus pictus y hallazgos recientes de pintura mural romana registrados en Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Salvador, José Luis

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of recently discovered wall paintings of the roman period in the excavations of 6 Cisneros square in Valencia (ancient Valentia. A titulus pictus, decorations with peacokfeathers and a representation of Venus, are the most noteworthy among them.Este artículo se dedica al estudio de los restos de decoración pictórica romana procedentes de la excavación arqueológica realizada en 1998 en el nº 6 de la plaza de Cisneros en Valencia. Destacan las imitaciones de mármoles con la presencia de un interesante titvlvs pictvs, así como decoraciones con plumas de pavo real, además de una posible representación de Venus que probablemente estaría relacionada con la proximidad del puerto fluvial.

  14. El jardín de los Smithson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez García

    2017-07-01

    La investigación profundiza en el análisis del pabellón como parte de un pequeño jardín doméstico y, a su vez, en relación con el paisaje. La casa de fin de semana de los Smithsons es un “cottage garden” con su pavo real topiario, enclavado en el gran jardín paradisiaco que es la finca Fonthill, fruto a su vez de la mejor tradición paisajista inglesa del Pintoresquismo. Representa los tipos de construcciones para el jardín, de larga y profunda tradición en Inglaterra, reinterpretando simultánea e intencionadamente la idea de “folly”, “gazebo”, “pavilion”, “garden room” y “glass room”.

  15. SURGICAL RECTIFICATION OF THREAD-ASSOCIATED GLOSSOPTOSIS IN PEAFOWLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Athar, A. Shakoor, G. Muhammad, M.N. Asi, and M. Saqib

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated and/or caged peafowls (Pavo cristatus and other fancy birds suffer from a variety of disease conditions due to unnatural habitat and suboptimal managemental practices. The present article scribes glossoptosis (downward displacement of tongue in four juvenile peafowls caused by kite-flying read wrapped around the base of tongue and terminating somewhere in the lower gastrointestinal tract. The condition was characterized by difficulty in swallowing, chronic inappetance, gasping and a fading body condition. Severing of the proximal part of thread through crop and then unwinding it from the base .the tongue affected an instant relief. As far as could be ascertained, the condition under reference has not been reported heretofore in birds especially in peafowls.

  16. Plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentrations after whole blood administration via the gastrointestinal tract in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E

    2007-06-01

    To determine if blood administered to pigeons by gavage tube would simulate gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a noncarnivorous avian model, be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequently alter concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid, blood from common peacocks (Pavo cristatus) was administered by gavage tube to 5 healthy domestic pigeons (Columba livia) at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 ml/kg. No significant difference in plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid was seen 4-6 hours after gavage. The findings did not support or rule out the presence of gastrointestinal blood in pigeons as a model for hemorrhage in noncarnivorous avian species.

  17. Plasmodium durae Herman from the introduced common peafowl in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, M

    1978-02-01

    Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) durae Herman was originally described from Kenya, the type host being the common turkey, Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus. There are no field records of this association outside of Africa, where the parasite, herein reported from another introduced and domesticated bird (the common peafowl, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus), was recently listed from 2 native Phasianidae of the genus Francolinus. The justification for the present identification is submitted against background data concerning malaria parasites from turkeys and other Galliformes in Africa and elsewhere, and restraint is urged in describing yet more "new species" of avian Plasmodium belonging to morphologically close taxa within Novyella and Giovannolaia. A near relative of P. durae, Plasmodium dissanaikei de Jong, is transferred from the former subgenus to the latter one.

  18. Comparative efficacy and pathogenicity of keratinophilic soil fungi against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Suman Sundar; Prakash, Soam

    2010-09-01

    Out of seven fungal species belonging to four genera isolated from pond and wallow soils using feathers of Pavo cristatus as bait, four species viz., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium and Trichophyton ajelloi were most frequent. Chrysosporium and Trichophyton spp. were more pathogenic on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae than Aspergillus and Penicillium. The bioefficacy tests conducted as per the protocol of World Health Organization and the LC(50) values calculated by the Probit analysis showed that 3(rd)-instar C. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the conidia of above fungi. Highest mortality was observed in the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus when exposed to T. ajelloi. The density of fungal conidia was greatest on the ventral brush, palmate hair and anal region of the mosquito larvae after exposing for 72 hours. The potentiality of these fungi for use in the control of C. quinquefasciatus is discussed which can be exploited as a suitable biocontrol agent in the tropics.

  19. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).

  20. Noise pollution has limited effects on nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl (Pavo cristatus, that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The vigilance levels of peahens were unaffected by exposure to noise pollution within trials. Furthermore, the peahens exhibited no preference for roosting farther or closer to noise pollution. Interestingly, predators often avoided the experimental area during nights with noise pollution, which could explain why vigilance rates were higher overall during control compared to noise trials. The results suggest that peahens’ perception of risk is not drastically impacted by noise pollution but longer-term studies will be necessary to assess any chronic effects.

  1. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl (Pavo cristatus and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior.

  2. Maynard Smith: amplifying the reasons for signal reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D G C

    2006-03-21

    One of the many questions to which John Maynard Smith contributed was that of why most animal signals are reliable. He initially rejected the "handicap" argument but gradually accepted it, a process I briefly describe. This episode illustrated his preference for mathematical models over verbal ones, and the generosity with which he could change his mind. Even after accepting that some signals are reliable because of their strategic costs, he argued for a pluralistic approach to signal reliability. Signal complexity was a developing interest when he died. Signals usually involve several components, some of which appear to amplify other signal components. The terms "amplifier" and "index" require more thought to reduce the scope for semantic confusion. I conclude by describing Maynard Smith's fascination with peacocks Pavo cristatus.

  3. Thermoregulatory postures limit antipredator responses in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Lam, Jennifer; Schultz, Rachel; Davis, Melissa

    2018-01-05

    Many animals inhabit environments where they experience temperature fluctuations. One way in which animals can adjust to these temperature changes is through behavioral thermoregulation. However, we know little about the thermal benefits of postural changes and the costs they may incur. In this study, we examined the thermoregulatory role of two postures, the head-tuck and leg-tuck posture, in peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ) and evaluated whether the head-tuck posture imposes a predation cost. The heads and legs of peafowl are significantly warmer when the birds exhibit these postures, demonstrating that these postures serve an important thermoregulatory role. In addition, the birds are slower to respond to an approaching threat when they display the head-tuck posture, suggesting that a thermoregulatory posture can limit antipredator behavior. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Noise pollution has limited effects on nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Hermann, Fredrick S

    2016-01-01

    Natural environments are increasingly exposed to high levels of noise pollution. Noise pollution can alter the behavior of animals but we know little about its effects on antipredator behavior. We therefore investigated the impact of noise pollution on vigilance behavior and roost selection in an avian species, peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ), that inhabits urban environments. Captive peahens were exposed to noise pollution at night and their vigilance levels and roost selections were monitored. The vigilance levels of peahens were unaffected by exposure to noise pollution within trials. Furthermore, the peahens exhibited no preference for roosting farther or closer to noise pollution. Interestingly, predators often avoided the experimental area during nights with noise pollution, which could explain why vigilance rates were higher overall during control compared to noise trials. The results suggest that peahens' perception of risk is not drastically impacted by noise pollution but longer-term studies will be necessary to assess any chronic effects.

  5. Eye blinking in an avian species is associated with gaze shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2016-08-30

    Even when animals are actively monitoring their environment, they lose access to visual information whenever they blink. They can strategically time their blinks to minimize information loss and improve visual functioning but we have little understanding of how this process operates in birds. This study therefore examined blinking in freely-moving peacocks (Pavo cristatus) to determine the relationship between their blinks, gaze shifts, and context. Peacocks wearing a telemetric eye-tracker were exposed to a taxidermy predator (Vulpes vulpes) and their blinks and gaze shifts were recorded. Peacocks blinked during the majority of their gaze shifts, especially when gaze shifts were large, thereby timing their blinks to coincide with periods when visual information is already suppressed. They inhibited their blinks the most when they exhibited high rates of gaze shifts and were thus highly alert. Alternative hypotheses explaining the link between blinks and gaze shifts are discussed.

  6. Pox infection among captive peacocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Falluji, M M; Tantawi, H H; Al-Bana, A; Al-Sheikhly, S

    1979-10-01

    An outbreak of avian pox was detected among captive peacocks (Pavo cristatus) at Baghdad Zoological Park during spring, 1978. A total of 45 of the 60 birds in the aviary developed pox lesions around the beaks and eyes. Morbidity was 75% and mortality was 13%. A virus isolated from the skin lesions produced large plaques on the chorioallantoic membrane of developing chicken embryos and induced cytopathic effect characteristic for pox viruses in chicken embryo cell cultures. The virus neither haemagglutinated nor haemadsorbed to chicken erythrocytes. It was ether resistant and chloroform sensitive. Chickens inoculated with the virus by scarification developed localized pox-like lesions, while turkeys had only transient swelling of feather follicles at the site of inoculation. Virus partially purified with Genetron 113 was precipitated by antisera to fowlpox and pigeon pox viruses.

  7. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Methods Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT. Results Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64% peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5. Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74% and the adult birds (6.67% (P > 0.05. The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08% and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91% (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014. Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China’s southwestern Yunnan Province.

  8. Malófagos (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera em aves cativas no sudeste do Brasil Chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera on captive birds in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Oliveira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae e Heptapsogaster sp. em Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus em Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus em Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. em Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae e Colpocephalum pectinatum em Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. As relações parasito hospedeiros em Strigiformes são novas no Brasil.Twelve chewing lice species were identified in Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba and Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. The parasites found were: Ciconiphilus pectiniventris in Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. in Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. in Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. and Goniocotes parviceps in Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis in Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae and Heptapsogaster sp. in Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus in Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus in Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. in Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae and Colpocephalum pectinatum in Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. The host-lice relationships are new in Strigiformes in Brazil.

  9. First report of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in peafowls in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Ming; Dai, Fei-Yan; Huang, Si-Yang; Deng, Zu-Hong; Duan, Gang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Yang, Jian-Fa; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-09-19

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite infecting almost all warm-blooded animals, including birds, with a worldwide distribution. Surveys of T. gondii infection in wild birds have been reported extensively in the world, but little is known of T. gondii infection in peafowls worldwide. This study was performed to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in peafowls in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. Sera from 277 peafowls, including 272 blue peafowls (Pavo cristatus) and 5 green peafowls (Pavo muticus) originated from two geographic areas in Yunnan Province were assayed for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 35 of 277 (12.64%) peafowls (MAT titer ≥ 1:5). Seropositive birds were found in both species, 33 in 272 blue peafowls and 2 in 5 green peafowls. There was no significant difference in T. gondii seroprevalence between the adolescent birds (6.74%) and the adult birds (6.67%) (P > 0.05). The geographical origins of peafowls was found to be highly associated with T. gondii infection in the present study, a statistically significant difference in T. gondii seropositivity was observed between peafowls from Kunming (31.08%) and those from Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture (5.91%) (OR = 10.956, 95% CI = 1.632-73.545, P = 0.014). Statistical analyses showed that there were no significant interactions between ages and geographical origins of peafowls (P > 0.05). The results of the present survey indicated that infection of peafowls with T. gondii is widespread in Yunnan Province, which has significant public health concerns and implications for prevention and control of toxoplamosis in this province. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of T. gondii infection in China's southwestern Yunnan Province.

  10. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Loebmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat. Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native

  11. Understanding the Spatial Scale of Genetic Connectivity at Sea: Unique Insights from a Land Fish and a Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina M Cooke

    Full Text Available Quantifying the spatial scale of population connectivity is important for understanding the evolutionary potential of ecologically divergent populations and for designing conservation strategies to preserve those populations. For marine organisms like fish, the spatial scale of connectivity is generally set by a pelagic larval phase. This has complicated past estimates of connectivity because detailed information on larval movements are difficult to obtain. Genetic approaches provide a tractable alternative and have the added benefit of estimating directly the reproductive isolation of populations. In this study, we leveraged empirical estimates of genetic differentiation among populations with simulations and a meta-analysis to provide a general estimate of the spatial scale of genetic connectivity in marine environments. We used neutral genetic markers to first quantify the genetic differentiation of ecologically-isolated adult populations of a land dwelling fish, the Pacific leaping blenny (Alticus arnoldorum, where marine larval dispersal is the only probable means of connectivity among populations. We then compared these estimates to simulations of a range of marine dispersal scenarios and to collated FST and distance data from the literature for marine fish across diverse spatial scales. We found genetic connectivity at sea was extensive among marine populations and in the case of A. arnoldorum, apparently little affected by the presence of ecological barriers. We estimated that ~5000 km (with broad confidence intervals ranging from 810-11,692 km was the spatial scale at which evolutionarily meaningful barriers to gene flow start to occur at sea, although substantially shorter distances are also possible for some taxa. In general, however, such a large estimate of connectivity has important implications for the evolutionary and conservation potential of many marine fish communities.

  12. A critical assessment of marine aquarist biodiversity data and commercial aquaculture: identifying gaps in culture initiatives to inform local fisheries managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joanna M; Watson, Gordon J

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey) and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives) in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture) for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry "greenwashing" from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns, and, ultimately

  13. Kinship analyses identify fish dispersal events on a temperate coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunter, C; Pascual, M; Garza, J C; Raventos, N; Macpherson, E

    2014-06-22

    Connectivity is crucial for the persistence and resilience of marine species, the establishment of networks of marine protected areas and the delineation of fishery management units. In the marine environment, understanding connectivity is still a major challenge, due to the technical difficulties of tracking larvae. Recently, parentage analysis has provided a means to address this question effectively. To be effective, this method requires limited adult movement and extensive sampling of parents, which is often not possible for marine species. An alternative approach that is less sensitive to constraints in parental movement and sampling could be the reconstruction of sibships. Here, we directly measure connectivity and larval dispersal in a temperate marine ecosystem through both analytical approaches. We use data from 178 single nucleotide polymorphism markers to perform parentage and sibship reconstruction of the black-faced blenny (Tripterygion delaisi) from an open coastline in the Mediterranean Sea. Parentage analysis revealed a decrease in dispersal success in the focal area over 1 km distance and approximately 6.5% of the juveniles were identified as self-recruits. Sibship reconstruction analysis found that, in general, full siblings did not recruit together to the same location, and that the largest distance between recruitment locations was much higher (11.5 km) than found for parent-offspring pairs (1.2 km). Direct measurements of dispersal are essential to understanding connectivity patterns in different marine habitats, and show the degree of self-replenishment and sustainability of populations of marine organisms. We demonstrate that sibship reconstruction allows direct measurements of dispersal and family structure in marine species while being more easily applied in those species for which the collection of the parental population is difficult or unfeasible.

  14. Marine and inland fishes of St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands: an annotated checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Vaniz, William F.; Jelks, Howard L.

    2014-01-01

    An historical account is given for the ichthyological research at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, followed by an annotated list of 544 species of mostly marine shore fishes known or reported from the island to depths of 200 m. Color photographs are included for 103 of these species. Collections made at Buck Island Reef National Monument with the ichthyocide rotenone in 2001 and 2005 increased the known ichthyofauna by about 80 species. The rational for inclusion of each species in the checklist is given, with remarks for those species for which additional documentation or voucher specimens are needed. Reports of species known or presumed to have been based on misidentifications are discussed. Of the total marine fish fauna of the island, 404 species (75%) are restricted to the western Atlantic Ocean, (223 of these species are essentially Caribbean endemics that do not occur south of the Amazon River outflow), and no St. Croix endemic species are known. An additional 17 species (3.2%) also occur at mid-Atlantic islands, 57 species (10.6 %) are limited to both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and 40 species (7.4%) have circumtropical distributions. The four most species-rich families are the Gobiidae (47 species), Serranidae (groupers and sea basses, 41), Labridae (wrasses and parrotfishes, 31), and Labrisomidae (scaly blennies, 27). Literature reports of Mosquitofish, Gambusia sp., from St. Croix apparently were based on misidentifications of a different introduced poeciliid genus. Four species of the amphidromus goby genus Sicydium occur in St. Croix inland waters, together with three established introduced species (one cichlid and two poeciliids). Also included are one catfish (Ictaluridae) and three sunfishes (Centrarchidae) known only from ponds. The Lionfish, Pterois volitans, the only introduced marine species, was first reported from St. Croix in 2008 and is now common despite control efforts.

  15. Gonad morphology, gametogenesis, and reproductive modes in fishes of the tribe Starksiini (Teleostei, Blenniiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishelson, Lev; Baldwin, Carole C; Hastings, Philip A

    2013-05-01

    A comparative study of the reproductive organs in 17 of the 30 species of the tribe Starksiini (Labrisomidae, Blenniiformes) and related labrisomids reveals the major traits of gamete form and production and likely reproductive modes. The testes are of the lobular type and have a testicular gland and sperm ducts. Isodiametric sperm (aquasperm) with a globular head or anisodiametric sperm (introsperm) with an elongate head, or both, were observed in the studied species. Both types have either one or two flagella in the sperm tail. Ovaries of the Starksiini are bilobed and exhibit synchronous or asynchronous egg production. Although viviparity or "ovoviviparity" reportedly characterizes the group, our study revealed evidence of both internal and external fertilization and three modes of reproduction. External fertilization or ovuliparity is suggested for the Starksia atlantica and S. lepicoelia species complexes by the presence in males of a short genital papilla that is not reinforced through adhesion with the first anal-fin spine and by the absence of sperm within the ovaries. Internal fertilization and zygoparity is indicated for most species by the presence of an intromittent papilla in males that is adhered to the first anal-fin spine, "nests" of sperm within the ovaries, absence of embryos within the ovarian lamellae and usually thick egg envelopes bearing dense covers of adhesive filaments. Internal fertilization and embryoparity is indicated for starksia fulva and Xenomedea rhodopyga by an intromittent papilla that is adhered to the first anal-fin spine of males, anisodiametric sperm in males, delicate egg envelopes without adhesive filaments and developing embryos within follicular envelopes or within the follicle in females. Although many of these features are seen in the internally fertilizing clinid blennies, starksiins differ in retaining the testicular gland typical of labrisomids and in lacking sperm packaging typical of other internally fertilizing

  16. A critical assessment of marine aquarist biodiversity data and commercial aquaculture: identifying gaps in culture initiatives to inform local fisheries managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Murray

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that if well managed, the marine aquarium trade could provide socio-economic stability to local communities while incentivising the maintenance of coral reefs. However, the trade has also been implicated as having potentially widespread environmental impacts that has in part driven developments in aquaculture to relieve wild collection pressures. This study investigates the biodiversity in hobbyist aquaria (using an online survey and those species currently available from an aquaculture source (commercial data and hobbyist initiatives in the context of a traffic light system to highlight gaps in aquaculture effort and identify groups that require fisheries assessments. Two hundred and sixty nine species including clown fish, damsels, dotty backs, angelfish, gobies, sea horses and blennies, have reported breeding successes by hobbyists, a pattern mirrored by the European and US commercial organisations. However, there is a mismatch (high demand and low/non-existent aquaculture for a number of groups including tangs, starfish, anemones and hermit crabs, which we recommend are priority candidates for local stock assessments. Hobbyist perception towards the concept of a sustainable aquarium trade is also explored with results demonstrating that only 40% of respondents were in agreement with industry and scientists who believe the trade could be an exemplar of a sustainable use of coral reefs. We believe that a more transparent evidence base, including the publication of the species collected and cultured, will go some way to align the concept of a sustainable trade across industry stakeholders and better inform the hobbyist when purchasing their aquaria stock. We conclude by proposing that a certification scheme established with government support is the most effective way to move towards a self-regulating industry. It would prevent industry "greenwashing" from multiple certification schemes, alleviate conservation concerns

  17. AUDITUL SUBSTITUIT SAU ALTERNATIVĂ A CONTROLULUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia CAPRIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Necesitatea controlului este determinată în mare măsură de actori cum sunt: asiguraţii, acţionarii, salariaţii, instituţiile statului, partenerii de afaceri şi investitorii, care au nevoie de cunoaşterea fenomenului şi de protecţia intereselor lor. Necesitatea controlului pentru asiguraţi este evidentă. Cineva trebuie să verifice cum şi ce se întâmplă cu fondurile sub­scrise în vederea protejării împotriva unor riscuri generatoare de pagube materiale, vătămări corporale sau pierderi finan­ciare. De asemenea, este normal ca o autoritate să vegheze şi să controleze dacă drepturile asiguraţilor au fost respectate, iar aceştia au fost îndestulaţi prin indemnizaţia de despăgubire plătită de asigurător. Protejarea obiectivelor societăţii şi a resurselor investite în societatea de asigurare de către un acţionar nu poate fi realizată decât printr-un control riguros, temeinic şi bine organizat la scara întregii activităţi. Este mult mai uşor să se prevină pierderile financiare generate de erori şi fraude decât să apară ca un fapt împlinit.THE SUBSTITUTED AUDIT OR ALTERNATIVE CONTROL The necessity of control is determined largely by actors such as policyholders, shareholders, employees, state institutions, business partners and investors, who need knowledge of the phenomenon and protection of their interests. The necessity of control for sure is obvious: Someone should check how and what is happening with funds subscribed to protect against risks generating property damage, injury or financial loss. It is also normal that authority watch and control whether the insured rights were respected and they were sated by indemnity compensation paid by the insurer. Protecting company objectives and resources invested in insurance company by a shareholder can not be achieved only through close monitoring, thorough and well organized scale activities. It is much easier to prevent financial losses

  18. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie L Rummer

    Full Text Available The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2 transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb. A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect and carrying capacity (Root effect. This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human. We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2 associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2, Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts.

  19. Precision Orbit of δ Delphini and Prospects for Astrometric Detection of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Tyler; Monnier, John D.; Fekel, Francis C.; Williamson, Mike; Duncan, Douglas K.; White, Timothy R.; Ireland, Michael; Adams, Fred C.; Barman, Travis; Baron, Fabien; ten Brummelaar, Theo; Che, Xiao; Huber, Daniel; Kraus, Stefan; Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Schaefer, Gail; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Swihart, Samuel J.; Zhao, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Combining visual and spectroscopic orbits of binary stars leads to a determination of the full 3D orbit, individual masses, and distance to the system. We present a full analysis of the evolved binary system δ Delphini using astrometric data from the MIRC and PAVO instruments on the CHARA long-baseline interferometer, 97 new spectra from the Fairborn Observatory, and 87 unpublished spectra from the Lick Observatory. We determine the full set of orbital elements for δ Del, along with masses of 1.78 ± 0.07 M ⊙ and 1.62 ± 0.07 M ⊙ for each component, and a distance of 63.61 ± 0.89 pc. These results are important in two contexts: for testing stellar evolution models and for defining the detection capabilities for future planet searches. We find that the evolutionary state of this system is puzzling, as our measured flux ratios, radii, and masses imply a ∼200 Myr age difference between the components, using standard stellar evolution models. Possible explanations for this age discrepancy include mass transfer scenarios with a now-ejected tertiary companion. For individual measurements taken over a span of two years, we achieve 2 M J on orbits >0.75 au around individual components of hot binary stars via differential astrometry.

  20. Accurate effective temperatures of the metal-poor benchmark stars HD 140283, HD 122563, and HD 103095 from CHARA interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovicova, I.; White, T. R.; Nordlander, T.; Lind, K.; Casagrande, L.; Ireland, M. J.; Huber, D.; Creevey, O.; Mourard, D.; Schaefer, G. H.; Gilmore, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Wittkowski, M.; Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Thévenin, F.; Asplund, M.

    2018-03-01

    Large stellar surveys of the Milky Way require validation with reference to a set of `benchmark' stars whose fundamental properties are well determined. For metal-poor benchmark stars, disagreement between spectroscopic and interferometric effective temperatures has called the reliability of the temperature scale into question. We present new interferometric measurements of three metal-poor benchmark stars, HD 140283, HD 122563, and HD 103095, from which we determine their effective temperatures. The angular sizes of all the stars were determined from observations with the PAVO beam combiner at visible wavelengths at the CHARA array, with additional observations of HD 103095 made with the VEGA instrument, also at the CHARA array. Together with photometrically derived bolometric fluxes, the angular diameters give a direct measurement of the effective temperature. For HD 140283, we find θLD = 0.324 ± 0.005 mas, Teff = 5787 ± 48 K; for HD 122563, θLD = 0.926 ± 0.011 mas, Teff = 4636 ± 37 K; and for HD 103095, θLD = 0.595 ± 0.007 mas, Teff = 5140 ± 49 K. Our temperatures for HD 140283 and HD 103095 are hotter than the previous interferometric measurements by 253 and 322 K, respectively. We find good agreement between our temperatures and recent spectroscopic and photometric estimates. We conclude some previous interferometric measurements have been affected by systematic uncertainties larger than their quoted errors.

  1. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R.; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A.; Gnerlich, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences. PMID:26339552

  2. Effect of a dietary antioxidant supplementation on semen quality in pony stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichsel, K; Palm, F; Koblischke, P; Budik, S; Aurich, C

    2008-05-01

    Lipid peroxidation contributes to the damage of the sperm plasma membrane. In different species, dietary supplementation with antioxidants has been shown to improve semen quality. Therefore, we tested effects of dietary supplementation with antioxidants and l-carnitin on semen quality in Shetland pony stallions (n=6). Semen was collected twice a week over a time period of 16 weeks. From weeks 5 to 12, a special diet for stallions containing a variety of antioxidants (STALLION, Pavo Pferdenahrung GmbH, Goch, Germany; tocopherol 300 mg/day; ascorbic acid 300 mg/day; l-carnitin 4000 mg/day; folic acid 12 mg/day) was added to the basal diet (hay, mineral supplements, water). Ejaculates were evaluated for total sperm count, semen motility (percentage of totally and progressively motile spermatozoa, longevity for 24 h at 5 degrees C) and membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI staining): All values given are means+/-S.E.M. No changes in motility, progressive motility and membrane integrity or semen longevity for 24 h were detected. A slight but significant reduction of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa was found (weeks 1-4: 43.7+/-7.1%; weeks 13-16: 39.4+/-7.2%, p<0.05). Results show that a supplementary diet with antioxidants in the given concentration and duration does not result in pronounced effects on semen quality of stallions. It is therefore questionable to support stallions with dietary antioxidants as long as they receive an adequately balanced basal diet.

  3. A mitogenomic perspective on the ancient, rapid radiation in the Galliformes with an emphasis on the Phasianidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yan-Bo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Galliformes is a well-known and widely distributed Order in Aves. The phylogenetic relationships of galliform birds, especially the turkeys, grouse, chickens, quails, and pheasants, have been studied intensively, likely because of their close association with humans. Despite extensive studies, convergent morphological evolution and rapid radiation have resulted in conflicting hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships. Many internal nodes have remained ambiguous. Results We analyzed the complete mitochondrial (mt genomes from 34 galliform species, including 14 new mt genomes and 20 published mt genomes, and obtained a single, robust tree. Most of the internal branches were relatively short and the terminal branches long suggesting an ancient, rapid radiation. The Megapodiidae formed the sister group to all other galliforms, followed in sequence by the Cracidae, Odontophoridae and Numididae. The remaining clade included the Phasianidae, Tetraonidae and Meleagrididae. The genus Arborophila was the sister group of the remaining taxa followed by Polyplectron. This was followed by two major clades: ((((Gallus, Bambusicola Francolinus (Coturnix, Alectoris Pavo and (((((((Chrysolophus, Phasianus Lophura Syrmaticus Perdix Pucrasia (Meleagris, Bonasa ((Lophophorus, Tetraophasis Tragopan. Conclusions The traditional hypothesis of monophyletic lineages of pheasants, partridges, peafowls and tragopans was not supported in this study. Mitogenomic analyses recovered robust phylogenetic relationships and suggested that the Galliformes formed a model group for the study of morphological and behavioral evolution.

  4. Climate Variability Drives Plankton Community Composition Changes: the 2010-2011 El Nino to La Nina Transition Around Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Peter A.; Bonham, Pru; Thomson, Paul; Rochester, Wayne; Doblin, Martina A.; Waite, Anya M.; Richardson, Anthony; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2015-01-01

    The strong La Nina of 2010-2011 provided an opportunity to investigate the ecological impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation on coastal plankton communities using the nine national reference stations around Australia. Based on remote sensing and across the entire Australian region 2011 (La Nina) was only modestly different from 2010 (El Nino) with the average temperature declining 0.2 percent surface chlorophyll a up 3 percent and modelled primary production down 14 percent. Other changes included a poleward shift in Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Along the east coast, there was a reduction in salinity, increase in nutrients, Chlorophytes and Prasinophytes (taxa with chlorophyll b, neoxanthin and prasinoxanthin). The southwest region had a rise in the proportion of 19-hexoyloxyfucoxanthin; possibly coccolithophorids in eddies of the Leeuwin Current and along the sub-tropical front. Pennate diatoms increased, Ceratium spp. decreased and Scrippsiella spp. increased in 2011. Zooplankton biomass declined significantly in 2011. There was a reduction in the abundance of Calocalanus pavo and Temora turbinata and increases in Clausocalanus farrani, Oncaea scottodicarloi and Macrosetella gracilis in 2011. The changes in the plankton community during the strong La Nina of 2011 suggest that this climatic oscillation exacerbates the tropicalization of Australia.

  5. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I. IRAS pointed observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution. 81 refs

  6. Abundance, distribution, diversity and zoogeography of epipelagic copepods off the Egyptian Coast (Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howaida Y. Zakaria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The abundance, distribution and diversity of epipelagic copepods were studied along the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast during April, August, 2008, February, 2009 and 2010. The geographical distribution and ecological affinities of the recorded species are presented in order to follow up the migrant species that recently entered in the study area. Copepoda was the most dominant zooplankton group, representing 74.14% of the total zooplankton counts. The annual averages of copepod abundance in the coastal, shelf and offshore zones were 699.3, 609.7 and 555.7 ind.m−3, respectively. Spring was the most productive and diversified season. 118 copepod species were identified in the study area; among them twelve species are recorded in the Mediterranean Sea for the first time and 41 species are new records in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. The community was dominated by Oithona nana, Calocalanus pavo, Nannocalanus minor, Clausocalanus arcuicornis and Paracalanus parvus. The study area could be considered as a crossroad for migration process from Atlantic Ocean in the west and Indian Ocean via Red Sea and Suez Canal from the south. In addition, the maritime activities in the Mediterranean Sea may have contributed into the change of copepod diversity in the study area where some species could have come to the Egyptian Coast from other water systems via ballast water.

  7. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Alex Akira; Simões, Daniel Castendo; Antunes, Rômulo Godik; da Silva, Deuvânia Carvalho; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos

    2009-12-03

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4.86%) samples. Sequencing of amplified fragments and phylogenetic analyses allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium baileyi in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and a saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola); Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis); Cryptosporidium meleagridis in a domestic chicken (G. g. domesticus); Cryptosporidium parvum in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype I in a canary (S. canaria) and an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype II in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus) and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicolis).

  8. The nanomechanics of feather keratin studied by small-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabisch, Silvia; Puchegger, Stephan; Peterlik, Herwig; Weiss, Ingrid; Kirchner, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Feather keratin is a highly conserved protein of 98 amino acids synthesized intracellularly in aves. In the cortex of the tail covert feathers of the peacock it forms a crystalline structure, held together by disulfide bonds between the nine cysteines of the molecule. Despite the biological importance of the molecule, its spatial structure has not yet been determined. Fraser and Parry proposed a crystallographic arrangement of beta-barrels and relegate the N-terminus and the C-terminus to an amorphous matrix, akin to the situation in silk. Therefore, in-situ tension and compression tests were made to investigate the changes in axial and lateral direction. Nanoscopically a pronounced structural asymmetry between tension and compression rules out a dihedral axis normal to the fibril direction, and indicates a strong clip-like polarization of the molecule. Based on these X-ray diffraction data from Pavo cristatus feathers, a model is presented for the axial and lateral arrangement of the molecule in feather keratin, which integrates biochemical structure and mechanical experiments. (author)

  9. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus. Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  10. The elaborate plumage in peacocks is not such a drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N

    2014-09-15

    One of the classic examples of an exaggerated sexually selected trait is the elaborate plumage that forms the train in male peafowl Pavo cristatus (peacock). Such ornaments are thought to reduce locomotor performance as a result of their weight and aerodynamic drag, but this cost is unknown. Here, the effect that the train has on take-off flight in peacocks was quantified as the sum of the rates of change of the potential and kinetic energies of the body (P(CoM)) in birds with trains and following the train's removal. There was no significant difference between P(CoM) in birds with and without a train. The train incurs drag during take-off; however, while this produces a twofold increase in parasite drag, parasite power only accounts for 0.1% of the total aerodynamic power. The train represented 6.9% of body weight and is expected to increase induced power. The absence of a detectable effect on take-off performance does not necessarily mean that there is no cost associated with possessing such ornate plumage; rather, it suggests that given the variation in take-off performance per se, the magnitude of any effect of the train has little meaningful functional relevance. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Selective attention in peacocks during assessment of rival males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Bykau, Siarhei; Platt, Michael L

    2017-03-15

    Males in many species compete intensely for access to females. In order to minimize costly interactions, they can assess their rivals' competitive abilities by evaluating traits and behaviors. We know little about how males selectively direct their attention to make these assessments. Using Indian peafowl ( Pavo cristatus ) as a model system, we examined how males visually assess their competitors by continuously tracking the gaze of freely moving peacocks during the mating season. When assessing rivals, peacocks selectively gazed toward the lower display regions of their rivals, including the lower eyespot and fishtail feathers, dense feathers, body and wings. Their attention was modified based on the rivals' behavior such that they spent more time looking at rivals when rivals were shaking their wings and moving. The results indicate that peacocks selectively allocate their attention during rival assessment. The gaze patterns of males assessing rivals were largely similar to those of females evaluating mates, suggesting that some male traits serve a dual function in both intra- and intersexual selection. However, males spent more time than females looking at the upper eyespots and this could indicate that the upper eyespots function more in close-up rival assessment than mate choice. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Variation in the peacock's train shows a genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Cotgreave, Peter; Pike, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Female peafowl (Pavo cristatus) show a strong mating preference for males with elaborate trains. This, however, poses something of a paradox because intense directional selection should erode genetic variation in the males' trains, so that females will no longer benefit by discriminating among males on the basis of these traits. This situation is known as the 'lek paradox', and leads to the theoretical expectation of low heritability in the peacock's train. We used two independent breeding experiments, involving a total of 42 sires and 86 of their male offspring, to estimate the narrow sense heritabilities of male ornaments and other morphometric traits. Contrary to expectation, we found significant levels of heritability in a trait known to be used by females during mate choice (train length), while no significant heritabilities were evident for other, non-fitness related morphological traits (tarsus length, body weight or spur length). This study adds to the building body of evidence that high levels of additive genetic variance can exist in secondary sexual traits under directional selection, but further emphasizes the main problem of what maintains this variation.

  13. Anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in Paraíba State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to verify the occurrence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies in captive animals in the Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara, João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 49 animals: 26 mammals of the species Sapajus libidinosus, Cebus flavius, Saimiri sciureu, Coendu sp., Pseudalopex vetulus, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Galactitis vitata, Eira barbara, Nasua nasua, Tayassu tajacu and Ratus norvegicus; 10 birds of the species Penelope jacucaca, Pavo cristatus, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, Ara chlorothpterus, Pionites leucogaster, Polyborus plancus, Geranoaetus melanoleucus and Urubitinga urubitinga; and 13 reptiles of the species Caiman latirostris, Paleosuchus trigonatus, Caiman crocodilus, Tupinabis merinae, Tupinambis teguixin, Boa constrictor, Corallus hortulanus, Python molurus, Bufocephala vanderhaegei, Geochelone denticulata and Geochelone carboraria. Sera were examined by the microscopic agglutination teste (MAT using 24 serovars as antigens and cut-off point of 1:100. One ocelot (Leopardo pardalis presented positive reaction for the Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar with titer of 100, however, it did not show any clinical sign of the infection. Sinantropic rodents are the main reservoirs of this serovar, which suggests the need of maintenance and continuous evaluation of rodent control programs.

  14. Eimeria tenella: host specificity in gallinaceous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterling, J M

    1976-02-01

    Eight species representing 8 genera of gallinaceous birds were used: Alectoris graeca; Colinus virginianus; Coturnix coturnix; Gallus gallus; Meleagris gallopavo; Numidia meleagris; Pavo cristatus; Phasianus colchicus. Three week-old birds were dosed with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella Beltsville strain. At 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144, and 168 hr after inoculation, 1-3 infected birds and uninoculated controls of each species were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Pieces of intestines were fixed and examined for stages of E. tenella as stained paraffin sections or indirect fluorescent antibody preparations. Oocyst counts were made in droppings collected for the first 6 days of the patent period. Sporozoites were found in the lamina propria of some birds of 5 species at 4 hr postinoculation, but no stages were found thereafter except in the breeds of G. gallus and A. gracea. At 144 and 168 hr postinoculation, a few macrogametes were found in the ceca of 2 A. gracea, but no oocysts were found in the feces. No statistical difference was found between the number of oocysts produced/bird in the breeds of G. gallus examined. It is evident from these observations the E. tenella did not complete its life cycle in several close phylogenetic relatives of G. gallus, even though in other studies this parasite was found to complete its life cycle in cell cultures derived from the same birds.

  15. Through their eyes: selective attention in peahens during courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Babcock, Jason S; Pearson, John M; Platt, Michael L

    2013-08-15

    Conspicuous, multicomponent ornamentation in male animals can be favored by female mate choice but we know little about the cognitive processes females use to evaluate these traits. Sexual selection may favor attention mechanisms allowing the choosing females to selectively and efficiently acquire relevant information from complex male display traits and, in turn, may favor male display traits that effectively capture and hold female attention. Using a miniaturized telemetric gaze-tracker, we show that peahens (Pavo cristatus) selectively attend to specific components of peacock courtship displays and virtually ignore other, highly conspicuous components. Females gazed at the lower train but largely ignored the head, crest and upper train. When the lower train was obscured, however, females spent more time gazing at the upper train and approached the upper train from a distance. Our results suggest that peahens mainly evaluate the lower train during close-up courtship but use the upper train as a long-distance attraction signal. Furthermore, we found that behavioral display components (train rattling and wing shaking) captured and maintained female attention, indicating that interactions between display components may promote the evolution of multicomponent displays. Taken together, these findings suggest that selective attention plays a crucial role in sexual selection and likely influences the evolution of male display traits.

  16. Classification of peacock feather reflectance using principal component analysis similarity factors from multispectral imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M; Díaz, José A; Vukusic, Pete

    2015-04-20

    Iridescent structural colors in biology exhibit sophisticated spatially-varying reflectance properties that depend on both the illumination and viewing angles. The classification of such spectral and spatial information in iridescent structurally colored surfaces is important to elucidate the functional role of irregularity and to improve understanding of color pattern formation at different length scales. In this study, we propose a non-invasive method for the spectral classification of spatial reflectance patterns at the micron scale based on the multispectral imaging technique and the principal component analysis similarity factor (PCASF). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach and its component methods by detailing its use in the study of the angle-dependent reflectance properties of Pavo cristatus (the common peacock) feathers, a species of peafowl very well known to exhibit bright and saturated iridescent colors. We show that multispectral reflectance imaging and PCASF approaches can be used as effective tools for spectral recognition of iridescent patterns in the visible spectrum and provide meaningful information for spectral classification of the irregularity of the microstructure in iridescent plumage.

  17. Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

    2005-06-22

    Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds.

  18. Karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes: an examination of the process of karyotypic evolution by comparison of the molecular cytogenetic findings with the molecular phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibusawa, M; Nishibori, M; Nishida-Umehara, C; Tsudzuki, M; Masabanda, J; Griffin, D K; Matsuda, Y

    2004-01-01

    To define the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes on a molecular basis, we conducted genome-wide comparative chromosome painting for eight species, i.e. silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), Western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), Chinese bamboo-partridge (Bambusicola thoracica) and common peafowl (Pavo cristatus) of the Phasianidae, and plain chachalaca (Ortalis vetula) of the Cracidae, with chicken DNA probes of chromosomes 1-9 and Z. Including our previous data from five other species, chicken (Gallus gallus), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and blue-breasted quail (Coturnix chinensis) of the Phasianidae, guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) of the Numididae and California quail (Callipepla californica) of the Odontophoridae, we represented the evolutionary changes of karyotypes in the 13 species of the Galliformes. In addition, we compared the cytogenetic data with the molecular phylogeny of the 13 species constructed with the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, and discussed the process of karyotypic evolution in the Galliformes. Comparative chromosome painting confirmed the previous data on chromosome rearrangements obtained by G-banding analysis, and identified several novel chromosome rearrangements. The process of the evolutionary changes of macrochromosomes in the 13 species was in good accordance with the molecular phylogeny, and the ancestral karyotype of the Galliformes is represented. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Selective attention in peacocks during predator detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Platt, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    Predation can exert strong selective pressure on the evolution of behavioral and morphological traits in birds. Because predator avoidance is key to survival and birds rely heavily on visual perception, predation may have shaped avian visual systems as well. To address this question, we examined the role of visual attention in antipredator behavior in peacocks (Pavo cristatus). Peacocks were exposed to a model predator while their gaze was continuously recorded with a telemetric eye-tracker. We found that peacocks spent more time looking at and made more fixations on the predator compared to the same spatial location before the predator was revealed. The duration of fixations they directed toward conspecifics and environmental features decreased after the predator was revealed, indicating that the peacocks were rapidly scanning their environment with their eyes. Maximum eye movement amplitudes and amplitudes of consecutive saccades were similar before and after the predator was revealed. In cases where conspecifics detected the predator first, peacocks appeared to learn that danger was present by observing conspecifics' antipredator behavior. Peacocks were faster to detect the predator when they were fixating closer to the area where the predator would eventually appear. In addition, pupil size increased after predator exposure, consistent with increased physiological arousal. These findings demonstrate that peacocks selectively direct their attention toward predatory threats and suggest that predation has influenced the evolution of visual orienting systems.

  20. Experimental Inoculation of BFDV-Positive Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus with Two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ledwoń

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV- positive (naturally infected but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus and peafowl (Pavo cristatus. During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group.

  1. Eye and head movements shape gaze shifts in Indian peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Platt, Michael L; Land, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Animals selectively direct their visual attention toward relevant aspects of their environments. They can shift their attention using a combination of eye, head and body movements. While we have a growing understanding of eye and head movements in mammals, we know little about these processes in birds. We therefore measured the eye and head movements of freely behaving Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) using a telemetric eye-tracker. Both eye and head movements contributed to gaze changes in peafowl. When gaze shifts were smaller, eye movements played a larger role than when gaze shifts were larger. The duration and velocity of eye and head movements were positively related to the size of the eye and head movements, respectively. In addition, the coordination of eye and head movements in peafowl differed from that in mammals; peafowl exhibited a near-absence of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which may partly result from the peafowl's ability to move their heads as quickly as their eyes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Experimental inoculation of BFDV-positive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) with two Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwoń, Aleksandra; Sapierzyński, Rafał; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szeleszczuk, Piotr; Kozak, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Beak and feather disease virus- (BFDV-) positive (naturally infected) but clinically healthy budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) were inoculated with two isolates of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolated from naturally infected golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and peafowl (Pavo cristatus). During a period of more than two months after inoculation, samples of cloacal and crop swabs, faeces, and blood were obtained for BFDV and Mycobacterium avium testing with PCR. Birds were euthanized nine weeks after inoculation. All infected budgerigars developed signs typical of mycobacteriosis, but more advanced clinical and pathological changes were visible in the group infected with the pheasant isolate. Only a few cloacal and crop swab samples were positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium despite advanced pathological changes in the internal organs. In the groups infected with mycobacterium isolates the frequency of BFDV-positive samples was higher than in the control group. In the infected groups the frequency of BFDV was substantially higher in the cloacal swabs of birds inoculated with the pheasant isolate than in the peafowl-isolate-infected group.

  3. Correlations between heterozygosity and measures of genetic similarity: implications for understanding mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S C; Hale, M L; Petrie, M

    2006-03-01

    There is currently considerable interest in testing the effects of genetic compatibility and heterozygosity on animal mate preferences. Evidence for either effect is rapidly accumulating, although results are not always clear-cut. However, correlations between mating preferences and either genetic similarity or heterozygosity are usually tested independently, and the possibility that similarity and heterozygosity may be confounded has rarely been taken into account. Here we show that measures of genetic similarity (allele sharing, relatedness) may be correlated with heterozygosity, using data from 441 human individuals genotyped at major loci in the major histocompatibility complex, and 281 peafowl (Pavo cristatus) individuals genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. We show that average levels of allele sharing and relatedness are each significantly associated with heterozygosity in both humans and peafowl, that these relationships are influenced by the level of polymorphism, and that these similarity measures may correlate with heterozygosity in qualitatively different ways. We discuss the implications of these inter-relationships for interpretation of mate choice studies. It has recently become apparent that mating preferences for 'good genes' and 'compatible genes' may introduce discordant choice amongst individuals, since the optimal mate for one trait may not be optimal for the other, and our results are consistent with this idea. The inter-relationship between these measures of genetic quality also carries implications for the way in which mate choice studies are designed and interpreted, and generates predictions that can be tested in future research.

  4. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A; Gnerlich, Amanda C

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences.

  5. Traditional knowledge on zootherapeutic uses by the Saharia tribe of Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Madan Mohan; Jaroli, D P

    2007-06-05

    The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. A total of 15 animal species were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including cough, asthma, tuberculosis, paralysis, earache, herpes, weakness, muscular pain etc. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the peacock (Pavo cristatus,), hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria), sambhar (Cervus unicolor) were also mentioned as medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and also to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.

  6. Traditional knowledge on zootherapeutic uses by the Saharia tribe of Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroli DP

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present zootherapeutic study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the Saharia tribe reside in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district of Rajasthan, India. A field survey was conducted from April to June 2006 by performing interview through structured questionnaire with 21 selected respondents, who provided information regarding use of animals and their products in folk medicine. A total of 15 animal species were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including cough, asthma, tuberculosis, paralysis, earache, herpes, weakness, muscular pain etc. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the peacock (Pavo cristatus,, hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources. Further studies are required for experimental validation to confirm the presence of bioactive compounds in these traditional remedies and also to emphasize more sustainable use of these resources.

  7. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations.

  8. Long-term temporal and spatial changes in the richness and relative abundance of the inshore fish community of the British North Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Peter A.

    2017-09-01

    climate change is causing species loss, although it may be influencing relative species abundance as species at the southern edge of their range such as the viviparous blenny, Zoarces viviparous, have declined in the southern British North Sea. Power station water temperature records do not show a warming trend, in some estuarine locations temperature has declined with reduced thermal pollution; the temperature record cannot explain the observed major changes in fish relative abundance observed since the 1970s.

  9. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.W Bruckner

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka,spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s,and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific,Indian and Atlantic Oceans.Currently,45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually,with an import value of US$28-44 million.The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines,followed by Brazil,Maldives,Vietnam,Sri Lanka and Hawaii.In the tropical Western Atlantic,16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S.(Florida and Puerto Rico.The U.S.is the world ’s largest buyer,followed by the European Union and Japan.The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes,of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale.Damselfish,anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50%of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses,blennies,gobies,triggerfish,file-fish,hawkfishes,groupers and basselets account for 31%of the trade,and the remaining 16%is represented by 33 families.The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species, seahorses (two species, royal gramma, jawfish,queen triggerfish,redlip blenny,puddingwife,bluehead wrasse,and blue chromis.The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species,but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries.It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced,and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region.El comercio de peces marinos ornamentales se inició en la década de 1930 en Sri Lanka y se extendió a Hawai y Las Filipinas en la década de 1950.Posteriormente se convirtió en una industria multimillonaria cuando,en la década de 1970,se

  10. Abundance and Diversity of Crypto- and Necto-Benthic Coastal Fish Are Higher in Marine Forests than in Structurally Less Complex Macroalgal Assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre D Thiriet

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean subtidal rocky reefs, Cystoseira spp. (Phaeophyceae form dense canopies up to 1 m high. Such habitats, called 'Cystoseira forests', are regressing across the entire Mediterranean Sea due to multiple anthropogenic stressors, as are other large brown algae forests worldwide. Cystoseira forests are being replaced by structurally less complex habitats, but little information is available regarding the potential difference in the structure and composition of fish assemblages between these habitats. To fill this void, we compared necto-benthic (NB and crypto-benthic (CB fish assemblage structures between Cystoseira forests and two habitats usually replacing the forests (turf and barren, in two sampling regions (Corsica and Menorca. We sampled NB fish using Underwater Visual Census (UVC and CB fish using Enclosed Anaesthetic Station Vacuuming (EASV, since UVC is known to underestimate the diversity and density of the 'hard to spot' CB fish. We found that both taxonomic diversity and total density of NB and CB fish were highest in Cystoseira forests and lowest in barrens, while turfs, that could be sampled only at Menorca, showed intermediate values. Conversely, total biomass of NB and CB fish did not differ between habitats because the larger average size of fish in barrens (and turfs compensated for their lower densities. The NB families Labridae and Serranidae, and the CB families Blenniidae, Cliniidae, Gobiidae, Trypterigiidae and Scorpaenidae, were more abundant in forests. The NB taxa Diplodus spp. and Thalassoma pavo were more abundant in barrens. Our study highlights the importance of using EASV for sampling CB fish, and shows that Cystoseira forests support rich and diversified fish assemblages. This evidence suggests that the ongoing loss of Cystoseira forests may impair coastal fish assemblages and related goods and services to humans, and stresses the need to implement strategies for the successful conservation and

  11. Waves of genomic hitchhikers shed light on the evolution of gamebirds (Aves: Galliformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosius Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic tree of Galliformes (gamebirds, including megapodes, currassows, guinea fowl, New and Old World quails, chicken, pheasants, grouse, and turkeys has been considerably remodeled over the last decades as new data and analytical methods became available. Analyzing presence/absence patterns of retroposed elements avoids the problems of homoplastic characters inherent in other methodologies. In gamebirds, chicken repeats 1 (CR1 are the most prevalent retroposed elements, but little is known about the activity of their various subtypes over time. Ascertaining the fixation patterns of CR1 elements would help unravel the phylogeny of gamebirds and other poorly resolved avian clades. Results We analyzed 1,978 nested CR1 elements and developed a multidimensional approach taking advantage of their transposition in transposition character (TinT to characterize the fixation patterns of all 22 known chicken CR1 subtypes. The presence/absence patterns of those elements that were active at different periods of gamebird evolution provided evidence for a clade (Cracidae + (Numididae + (Odontophoridae + Phasianidae not including Megapodiidae; and for Rollulus as the sister taxon of the other analyzed Phasianidae. Genomic trace sequences of the turkey genome further demonstrated that the endangered African Congo Peafowl (Afropavo congensis is the sister taxon of the Asian Peafowl (Pavo, rejecting other predominantly morphology-based groupings, and that phasianids are monophyletic, including the sister taxa Tetraoninae and Meleagridinae. Conclusion The TinT information concerning relative fixation times of CR1 subtypes enabled us to efficiently investigate gamebird phylogeny and to reconstruct an unambiguous tree topology. This method should provide a useful tool for investigations in other taxonomic groups as well.

  12. Motivos paganos en mosaicos cristianos y judíos de Oriente : problemática e interpretación (IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Figueras

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Varias representaciones de escenas, personajes y animales de origen pagano fueron utilizadas por cristianos y judíos de Oriente en la decoración de sus iglesias y sinagogas. Sin que fuese considerada una alegoría, la figura de Orfeo inspiró algunas representaciones de Adán, del rey David y de Jesucristo. El ave fénix y los grifones formaban parte del bestiario cristiano, al igual que el águila de Zeus y el pavo real de Hera, ahora símbolos de vida eterna. La convivencia entre animales enemigos evocaba la esperada la paz paradisíaca, y lo mismo hacían las llamadas «vides pobladas» con sus recuerdos dionisíacos. Viejos mitos de maternidad pudieron haber inspirado la figura de una mujer amamantando su hijito, como tradicionales representaciones de filósofos paganos inspiraron las de Cristo y sus acompañantes en la escena de la Transfiguración.Christians and Jews in the East used certain representations of pagan origin to decórate their churches and synagogues. Without being considerad an allegory, Orpheus'figure inspirad soma representations of Adam, king David and Jesús Christ. Phoanix and griffon bacame part of tha Christian bestiary togethar with Zeus' eagle and Hara's paacock, now symbols of everlasting lifa. The axpactad peace of Paradisa was avoked by anamy animáis living togathar, and a similar role played the «populated» vinas with thair Dionisiac ramambrances. Ancient maternity myths might have inspirad the figure of a woman breastfeading har chiid, as tha traditional representation of pagan philosophers inspirad those of Christ and his companions in the scene of the Transfiguration.

  13. Movimientos peculiares de galaxias en el Universo cercano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M. V.

    Se presenta un resumen de los resultados más importantes obtenidos en los últimos años sobre movimientos peculiares en el Universo Cercano. En el escenario de inestabilidad gravitacional, el campo de velocidades peculiares es una herramienta muy útil para estimar las fluctuaciones en la distribución de masa que generan los movimientos observados. Esta aproximación puede, además, ser utilizada para poner restricciones al espectro de potencia de la masa, a la relación entre las distribuciones de galaxias y de materia y al valor del parámetro de densidad cosmológico, Ω, a grandes escalas. Son además presentados una reconstrucción preliminar de los campos de densidad de masa y velocidades peculiares en el universo cercano usando nuevas medidas de distancias obtenidas con la relación Dn - σ, para una muestra de galaxias elípticas y lenticulares. Dos subestructuras prominentes son encontradas en la región del Gran Atractor, que corresponden a los complejos de Centaurus y Pavo--Indus. Estos últimos, junto a los complejos de Perseus--Piscis y Cetus parecen ser importantes estructuras que determinan el flujo global. El patrón obtenido a través de una muestra de galaxias elípticas muestra variaciones con respecto al obtenido por galaxias espirales. Estos nuevos resultados muestran una coherencia menor en el flujo global, cuando son comparados con resultados obtenidos anteriormente.

  14. Genetic Characterization of Continually Evolving Highly Pathogenic H5N6 Influenza Viruses in China, 2012–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhao, Na; Luo, Jing; Li, Yuan; Chen, Lin; Ma, Jiajun; Zhao, Lin; Yuan, Guohui; Wang, Chengmin; Wang, Yutian; Liu, Yanhua; He, Hongxuan

    2017-01-01

    H5N6 is a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and a zoonotic disease that causes recurring endemics in East Asia. At least 155 H5N6 outbreaks, including 15 human infections, have been reported in China. These repeated outbreaks have increased concern that the H5N6 virus may cross over to humans and cause a pandemic. In February, 2016, peafowls in a breeding farm exhibited a highly contagious disease. Post-mortem examinations, including RT-PCR, and virus isolation, confirmed that the highly pathogenic H5N6 influenza virus was the causative agent, and the strain was named A/Pavo Cristatus/Jiangxi/JA1/2016. In animal experiments, it exhibited high pathogenicity in chickens and an estimated median lethal dose in mice of ~104.3 TCID50. A phylogenetic analysis showed that JA1/2016 was clustered in H5 clade 2.3.4.4. FG594-like H5N6 virus from Guangdong Province was the probable predecessor of JA1/2016, and the estimated divergence time was June 2014. Furthermore, we found that H5N6 influenza viruses can be classified into the two following groups: Group 1 and Group 2. Group 2 influenza viruses have not been detected since the end of 2014, whereas Group 1 influenza viruses have continually evolved and reassorted with the “gene pool” circulating in south China, resulting in the rise of novel subtypes of this influenza virus. An increase in the number of its identified hosts, the expanding range of its distribution, and the continual evolution of H5N6 AIVs enhance the risk that an H5N6 virus may spread to other continents and cause a pandemic. PMID:28293218

  15. Multilocus DNA fingerprints in gallinaceous birds: general approach and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanotte, O; Bruford, M W; Burke, T

    1992-06-01

    Multilocus profiles were investigated in five different species of Galliformes (ring-necked pheasant Phasianus colchicus, Indian peafowl Pavo cristatus, Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica, domestic chicken Gallus gallus, and red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus) using two human multilocus probes (33.6 and 33.15) in combination with each of four restriction enzymes (AluI, DdeI, HaeIII or HinfI). All the species show a DNA fingerprint-like pattern using at least one restriction enzyme in combination with each multilocus probe. The number of bands detected and the value of the index of similarity for each species differ significantly between the profiles obtained with each multilocus probe. Some enzyme/probe combinations reveal strong cross-hybridization of the multilocus probes with satellite or satellite-like DNA sequences in pheasant, peacock, quail and chicken, which partially or completely prevented scoring of the profile. The choice of restriction enzyme was found to influence the number of bands, the value of the index of similarity and the probability of obtaining an identical fingerprint between unrelated individuals. The Mendelian inheritance and independent segregation of the fragments detected using AluI was investigated in three species (ring-necked pheasant, Indian peafowl and red grouse). Some bands were shown to be tightly linked. An extreme case was encountered in the red grouse, where 12 of the 15 bands scored in one parent represented only two, apparently allelic, haplotypes and so derived from a single locus. However, fingerprint patterns will often be adequate for use in paternity analyses, such as in behavioural studies, despite the occurrence of haplotypic sets of bands. Identical DNA multilocus profiles were sometimes observed between captive-bred siblings in one species. These results emphasize the desirability of determining, in each new species, the optimal experimental conditions as a preliminary to any behavioural or population

  16. Biomechanics of the Peacock’s Display: How Feather Structure and Resonance Influence Multimodal Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Roslyn; McCrossan, Owen; Hare, James F.; Montgomerie, Robert; Amador Kane, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Courtship displays may serve as signals of the quality of motor performance, but little is known about the underlying biomechanics that determines both their signal content and costs. Peacocks (Pavo cristatus) perform a complex, multimodal “train-rattling” display in which they court females by vibrating the iridescent feathers in their elaborate train ornament. Here we study how feather biomechanics influences the performance of this display using a combination of field recordings and laboratory experiments. Using high-speed video, we find that train-rattling peacocks stridulate their tail feathers against the train at 25.6 Hz, on average, generating a broadband, pulsating mechanical sound at that frequency. Laboratory measurements demonstrate that arrays of peacock tail and train feathers have a broad resonant peak in their vibrational spectra at the range of frequencies used for train-rattling during the display, and the motion of feathers is just as expected for feathers shaking near resonance. This indicates that peacocks are able to drive feather vibrations energetically efficiently over a relatively broad range of frequencies, enabling them to modulate the feather vibration frequency of their displays. Using our field data, we show that peacocks with longer trains use slightly higher vibration frequencies on average, even though longer train feathers are heavier and have lower resonant frequencies. Based on these results, we propose hypotheses for future studies of the function and energetics of this display that ask why its dynamic elements might attract and maintain female attention. Finally, we demonstrate how the mechanical structure of the train feathers affects the peacock’s visual display by allowing the colorful iridescent eyespots–which strongly influence female mate choice–to remain nearly stationary against a dynamic iridescent background. PMID:27119380

  17. Genetic Characterization of Continually Evolving Highly Pathogenic H5N6 Influenza Viruses in China, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhao, Na; Luo, Jing; Li, Yuan; Chen, Lin; Ma, Jiajun; Zhao, Lin; Yuan, Guohui; Wang, Chengmin; Wang, Yutian; Liu, Yanhua; He, Hongxuan

    2017-01-01

    H5N6 is a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and a zoonotic disease that causes recurring endemics in East Asia. At least 155 H5N6 outbreaks, including 15 human infections, have been reported in China. These repeated outbreaks have increased concern that the H5N6 virus may cross over to humans and cause a pandemic. In February, 2016, peafowls in a breeding farm exhibited a highly contagious disease. Post-mortem examinations, including RT-PCR, and virus isolation, confirmed that the highly pathogenic H5N6 influenza virus was the causative agent, and the strain was named A/ Pavo Cristatus /Jiangxi/JA1/2016. In animal experiments, it exhibited high pathogenicity in chickens and an estimated median lethal dose in mice of ~10 4.3 TCID 50 . A phylogenetic analysis showed that JA1/2016 was clustered in H5 clade 2.3.4.4. FG594-like H5N6 virus from Guangdong Province was the probable predecessor of JA1/2016, and the estimated divergence time was June 2014. Furthermore, we found that H5N6 influenza viruses can be classified into the two following groups: Group 1 and Group 2. Group 2 influenza viruses have not been detected since the end of 2014, whereas Group 1 influenza viruses have continually evolved and reassorted with the "gene pool" circulating in south China, resulting in the rise of novel subtypes of this influenza virus. An increase in the number of its identified hosts, the expanding range of its distribution, and the continual evolution of H5N6 AIVs enhance the risk that an H5N6 virus may spread to other continents and cause a pandemic.

  18. Biomechanics of the Peacock's Display: How Feather Structure and Resonance Influence Multimodal Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Dakin

    Full Text Available Courtship displays may serve as signals of the quality of motor performance, but little is known about the underlying biomechanics that determines both their signal content and costs. Peacocks (Pavo cristatus perform a complex, multimodal "train-rattling" display in which they court females by vibrating the iridescent feathers in their elaborate train ornament. Here we study how feather biomechanics influences the performance of this display using a combination of field recordings and laboratory experiments. Using high-speed video, we find that train-rattling peacocks stridulate their tail feathers against the train at 25.6 Hz, on average, generating a broadband, pulsating mechanical sound at that frequency. Laboratory measurements demonstrate that arrays of peacock tail and train feathers have a broad resonant peak in their vibrational spectra at the range of frequencies used for train-rattling during the display, and the motion of feathers is just as expected for feathers shaking near resonance. This indicates that peacocks are able to drive feather vibrations energetically efficiently over a relatively broad range of frequencies, enabling them to modulate the feather vibration frequency of their displays. Using our field data, we show that peacocks with longer trains use slightly higher vibration frequencies on average, even though longer train feathers are heavier and have lower resonant frequencies. Based on these results, we propose hypotheses for future studies of the function and energetics of this display that ask why its dynamic elements might attract and maintain female attention. Finally, we demonstrate how the mechanical structure of the train feathers affects the peacock's visual display by allowing the colorful iridescent eyespots-which strongly influence female mate choice-to remain nearly stationary against a dynamic iridescent background.

  19. Biomechanics of the Peacock's Display: How Feather Structure and Resonance Influence Multimodal Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Roslyn; McCrossan, Owen; Hare, James F; Montgomerie, Robert; Amador Kane, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Courtship displays may serve as signals of the quality of motor performance, but little is known about the underlying biomechanics that determines both their signal content and costs. Peacocks (Pavo cristatus) perform a complex, multimodal "train-rattling" display in which they court females by vibrating the iridescent feathers in their elaborate train ornament. Here we study how feather biomechanics influences the performance of this display using a combination of field recordings and laboratory experiments. Using high-speed video, we find that train-rattling peacocks stridulate their tail feathers against the train at 25.6 Hz, on average, generating a broadband, pulsating mechanical sound at that frequency. Laboratory measurements demonstrate that arrays of peacock tail and train feathers have a broad resonant peak in their vibrational spectra at the range of frequencies used for train-rattling during the display, and the motion of feathers is just as expected for feathers shaking near resonance. This indicates that peacocks are able to drive feather vibrations energetically efficiently over a relatively broad range of frequencies, enabling them to modulate the feather vibration frequency of their displays. Using our field data, we show that peacocks with longer trains use slightly higher vibration frequencies on average, even though longer train feathers are heavier and have lower resonant frequencies. Based on these results, we propose hypotheses for future studies of the function and energetics of this display that ask why its dynamic elements might attract and maintain female attention. Finally, we demonstrate how the mechanical structure of the train feathers affects the peacock's visual display by allowing the colorful iridescent eyespots-which strongly influence female mate choice-to remain nearly stationary against a dynamic iridescent background.

  20. Abundance and Diversity of Crypto- and Necto-Benthic Coastal Fish Are Higher in Marine Forests than in Structurally Less Complex Macroalgal Assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiriet, Pierre D; Di Franco, Antonio; Cheminée, Adrien; Guidetti, Paolo; Bianchimani, Olivier; Basthard-Bogain, Solène; Cottalorda, Jean-Michel; Arceo, Hazel; Moranta, Joan; Lejeune, Pierre; Francour, Patrice; Mangialajo, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    In Mediterranean subtidal rocky reefs, Cystoseira spp. (Phaeophyceae) form dense canopies up to 1 m high. Such habitats, called 'Cystoseira forests', are regressing across the entire Mediterranean Sea due to multiple anthropogenic stressors, as are other large brown algae forests worldwide. Cystoseira forests are being replaced by structurally less complex habitats, but little information is available regarding the potential difference in the structure and composition of fish assemblages between these habitats. To fill this void, we compared necto-benthic (NB) and crypto-benthic (CB) fish assemblage structures between Cystoseira forests and two habitats usually replacing the forests (turf and barren), in two sampling regions (Corsica and Menorca). We sampled NB fish using Underwater Visual Census (UVC) and CB fish using Enclosed Anaesthetic Station Vacuuming (EASV), since UVC is known to underestimate the diversity and density of the 'hard to spot' CB fish. We found that both taxonomic diversity and total density of NB and CB fish were highest in Cystoseira forests and lowest in barrens, while turfs, that could be sampled only at Menorca, showed intermediate values. Conversely, total biomass of NB and CB fish did not differ between habitats because the larger average size of fish in barrens (and turfs) compensated for their lower densities. The NB families Labridae and Serranidae, and the CB families Blenniidae, Cliniidae, Gobiidae, Trypterigiidae and Scorpaenidae, were more abundant in forests. The NB taxa Diplodus spp. and Thalassoma pavo were more abundant in barrens. Our study highlights the importance of using EASV for sampling CB fish, and shows that Cystoseira forests support rich and diversified fish assemblages. This evidence suggests that the ongoing loss of Cystoseira forests may impair coastal fish assemblages and related goods and services to humans, and stresses the need to implement strategies for the successful conservation and/or recovery of marine

  1. HSP90 and pCREB alterations are linked to mancozeb-dependent behavioral and neurodegenerative effects in a marine teleost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zizza, Merylin; Di Lorenzo, Mariana; Laforgia, Vincenza; Furia, Emilia; Sindona, Giovanni; Canonaco, Marcello; Facciolo, Rosa Maria

    2017-01-01

    The pesticide mancozeb (mz) is recognized as a potent inducer of oxidative stress due to its ability to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species plus inhibiting mitochondrial respiration thus becoming an environmental risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Despite numerous toxicological studies on mz have been directed to mammals, attention on marine fish is still lacking. Thus, it was our intention to evaluate neurobehavioral activities of ornate wrasses (Thalassoma pavo) exposed to 0.2 mg/l of mz after a preliminary screening test (0.07–0.3 mg/l). Treated fish exhibited an evident (p < 0.001) latency to reach T-maze arms (> 1000%) while exploratory attitudes (total arm entries) diminished (− 50%; p < 0.05) versus controls during spontaneous exploration tests. Moreover, they showed evident enhancements (+ 111%) of immobility in the cylinder test. Contextually, strong (− 88%; p < 0.01) reductions of permanence in light zone of the Light/Dark apparatus along with diminished crossings (− 65%) were also detected. Conversely, wrasses displayed evident enhancements (160%) of risk assessment consisting of fast entries in the dark side of this apparatus. From a molecular point of view, a notable activation (p < 0.005) of the brain transcription factor pCREB occurred during mz-exposure. Similarly, in situ hybridization supplied increased HSP90 mRNAs in most brain areas such as the lateral part of the dorsal telencephalon (Dl; + 68%) and valvula of the cerebellum (VCe; + 35%) that also revealed evident argyrophilic signals. Overall, these first indications suggest a possible protective role of the early biomarkers pCREB and HSP90 against fish toxicity. - Highlights: • Fish exposed to mancozeb exhibited an evident latency to reach T-maze arms. • Mancozeb caused immobility and reduction of explorative attitudes. • Fish exposed to mancozeb showed anxiogenic performances in the Light/Dark apparatus. • The brain of fish exposed to mancozeb supplied p

  2. Los virus Influenza y la nueva pandemia A/H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Talledo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Los virus Influenza pertenecen a la familia Orthomyxoviridae, virus con genoma RNA de sentido negativo segmentado. Los virus influenza tipo A infectan a humanos y otros organismos, y son los agentes causantes de influenza en humanos. Resaltan entre sus principales proteínas la Hemaglutinina y la Neuraminidasa, que son utilizadas en la clasificación de los miembros de este grupo. Estos virus mutan continuamente, exhibiendo patrones muy estudiados, como el cambio y la deriva antigénica, siendo uno de los principales eventos de recombinación el reordenamiento. Todos los subtipos se encuentran en aves acuáticas silvestres, aunque se han encontrado otros hospederos, como equinos, visones, ballenas, focas, cerdos, gallinas y pavos, entre otros. Tanto las aves salvajes, las aves domésticas y el cerdo juegan un rol fundamental en la adaptación progresiva del virus al hospedero humano. Aunque los subtipos H2N2 y H3N2 han sido muy comunes, el subtipo H1N1 ha reemergido con mutaciones que le han permitido alcanzar el estado de pandemia en 2009. Este nuevo virus surge de un virus generado por triple reordenamiento con el virus humano, porcino norteamericano y aviar, conteniendo a su vez segmentos génicos de virus influenza porcina euroasiática. Esto ha hecho que el virus presente una enfermedad humana moderada y solamente severa y hasta letal en casos de individuos con condiciones médicas previas. A nivel mundial ha causado más de 134,510 casos y en el Perú alcanza cerca de 3,700 casos. El estado actual indica que la pandemia está por llegar a su pico máximo en el Perú, debido a la alta morbilidad del virus coincidente con la estación más fría del año. Es importante contener al máximo la dispersión del virus, ya que cuanto mayor sea el número de personas que infecte, el mismo estará sometido a un mayor número de eventos de recombinación genética por reordenamiento con virus influenza humanos previos y esto puede condicionar a la

  3. Implementación del análisis de riesgo en la industria alimentaria mediante la metodología AMEF: enfoque práctico y conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cartín-Rojas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de riesgo mediante el Análisis Modal de Efectos y Fallas (AMEF se aplicó y se incorporó en conjunto con el Análisis de Peligros y Puntos Críticos de Control (HACCP para establecer la evaluación de riesgos en una maquiladora de pavo deshuesado. En este trabajo se calculó y se predijo, por medio de la significancia del riesgo, la importancia de establecer medidas preventivas en las etapas de proceso más vulnerables. El cálculo de la significancia se realizó obteniendo el Índice de Criticidad (IC. Los puntos críticos de control se establecieron con la metodología del árbol de decisiones, que se enfocó en aquellas etapas que mostraron tener los valores más altos relativos al IC. Las principales causas posibles que generan una desviación de los puntos críticos de control fueron enlistadas y analizadas a través de un análisis causa-raíz, con el uso del diagrama de Ishikawa. La integración del análisis de riesgo dentro de un plan HACCP demostró proveer amplias ventajas que facilitan el control de los procesos de manufactura y el aseguramiento de la salud pública a los consumidores finales, al generar alimentos inocuos y de alta calidad, al tiempo que mejora el desempeño operacional del ciclo productivo. Se identificaron las etapas de almacenamiento y descongelación como los principales segmentos con tendencia a mostrar altos valores de IC. Las acciones correctivas sugeridas bajaron notablemente los valores del IC por debajo del límite aceptable. Los resultados del presente estudio muestran claramente la importancia de la incorporación de un buen sistema de control sistemático para la gestión de riesgos en la industria avícola.

  4. Vertebrate host specificity and experimental vectors of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from the eastern wild turkey in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B M; Barnes, H J; Rowley, W A

    1983-07-01

    Vertebrate host specificity, experimental laboratory vectors, and a description of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris Vieillot) in Iowa are presented. Plasmodium kempi is infective for domestic turkeys, bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), chukars (Alectoris graeca), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), peacocks (Pavo cristatus), and canaries (Serinus canaria), produces a transient infection in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and domestic geese (Anser anser), but will not infect ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), pigeons (Columba livia), Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix), leghorn white chickens (Gallus gallus), or starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Oocysts and (or) sporozoites were recovered from 68% (84/124) and 98% (60/61) of the Culex pipiens pipiens and C. tarsalis examined, respectively. Oocysts developed faster and sporozoites invaded the salivary glands sooner in C. tarsalis (6 days) than in C. p. pipiens (7 days). Culex tarsalis transmitted P. kempi more effectively than C. p. pipiens, although both species were capable of transmitting the parasite by natural feeding. Oocysts developed and sporozoites also were produced in C. restuans, but its ability to transmit the parasite was not determined. Aedes aegypti (Rockefeller strain) and A. triseriatus were refractive to P. kempi. Plasmodium kempi produces trophozoites with large refractile globules and fine cytoplasmic extensions, mature schizonts in the form of a condensed fan containing four to eight nuclei (usually 5), and elongate gametocytes with irregular borders. All stages are confined almost exclusively to mature erythrocytes, with no effect on host cell size or position of host cell nucleus. Plasmodium kempi is most similar morphologically to P. (Novyella) hexamerium and P. (Novyella) vaughani. It differs from P. hexamerium in having large refractile globules in trophozoites and immature schizonts, an inability to infect starlings, an absence of

  5. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) mitochondrial genome and a phylogenetic analysis with related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, M; Tsudzuki, M; Hayashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yasue, H

    2002-01-01

    Coturnix chinensis (blue-breasted quail) has been classically grouped in Galliformes Phasianidae Coturnix, based on morphologic features and biochemical evidence. Since the blue-breasted quail has the smallest body size among the species of Galliformes, in addition to a short generation time and an excellent reproductive performance, it is a possible model fowl for breeding and physiological studies of the Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) and Gallus gallus domesticus (chicken), which are classified in the same family as blue-breasted quail. However, since its phylogenetic position in the family Phasianidae has not been determined conclusively, the sequence of the entire blue-breasted quail mitochondria (mt) genome was obtained to provide genetic information for phylogenetic analysis in the present study. The blue-breasted quail mtDNA was found to be a circular DNA of 16,687 base pairs (bp) with the same genomic structure as the mtDNAs of Japanese quail and chicken, though it is smaller than Japanese quail and chicken mtDNAs by 10 bp and 88 bp, respectively. The sequence identity of all mitochondrial genes, including those for 12S and 16S ribosomal RNAs, between blue-breasted quail and Japanese quail ranged from 84.5% to 93.5%; between blue-breasted quail and chicken, sequence identity ranged from 78.0% to 89.6%. In order to obtain information on the phylogenetic position of blue-breasted quail in Galliformes Phasianidae, the 2,184 bp sequence comprising NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome b genes available for eight species in Galliformes [Japanese quail, chicken, Gallus varius (green junglefowl), Bambusicola thoracica (Chinese bamboo partridge), Pavo cristatus (Indian peafowl), Perdix perdix (gray partridge), Phasianus colchicus (ring-neck pheasant), and Tympanchus phasianellus (sharp-tailed grouse)] together with that of Aythya americana (redhead) were examined using a maximum likelihood (ML) method. The ML analyses on the first/second codon positions

  6. Las corridas de toros en los pueblos mayas orientales. Una aproximación etnográfica Bullfights at Eastern Maya Towns. An Etnographic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Medina Hernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo realizamos una descripción de las corridas de toros en los pueblos mayas del oriente de Yucatán; la intención principal es situar esta expresión festiva en el contexto de los rituales que configuran las fiestas patronales, de tal manera que se destaque un hecho central: la profunda transformación de una fiesta de claros orígenes ibéricos en una manifestación profundamente entramada con una visión del mundo de raíz mesoamericana. Un eje de análisis es el que corresponde a las nociones de sacrificio que articulan los acontecimientos en el coso taurino con los más discretos que suceden en el interior de las casas de los dirigentes de los gremios, donde el sacrificio de puercos y pavos constituye la base de una gastronomía ritual. Otro más es el reconocimiento de referentes simbólicos espaciales y temporales de raíz mesoamericana que subyacen en todo el conjunto ritual que compone estas celebraciones de los mayas peninsulares.In this essay we describe bullfighting among the Maya peoples in eastern Yucatan. The fundamental aim is to situate this festive expression in the context of the rituals that shape the patron feasts, so as to stress a central fact: the transformation of a feast of clear Iberian origin into a manifestation that is deeply intertwined with a world vision of Mesoamerican ancestry. An analytical axis corresponds to the notions of sacrifice that articulate the events inside the bullring with those more discrete, that take place within the homes of the leaders of the guilds. Here, sacrifice of turkeys and pigs constitute the basis of a ritual gastronomy. Another axis is the acknowledgement of symbolic space and time referents of Mesoamerican origin underlying, as a whole, the ritual compound in these peninsular Mayan celebrations.

  7. ARQUEOFAUNA DEL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO EL PIÑÓN, CULTURA BOLAÑOS, JALISCO, MÉXICO/Archaeofauna of the archaeological site “El Piñón”, Cultura Bolaños, Jalisco, México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodríguez Galicia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La cultura Bolaños comprende diversas comunidades humanas que se asentaron en uno de los cañones que forman la Sierra Madre Occidental y se ubica, cronológicamente, entre el año 100 a.C. y llega al 1260 de nuestra era, extendiéndose desde el sur de Zacatecas hasta llegar a la desembocadura del río Grande de Santiago, en el centro de Jalisco, México. La base de su desarrollo fue el intercambio de artefactos por productos y materias primas que no existían en la región del occidente mexicano. Aquí el estudio arqueozoológico realizado con las colecciones de restos óseos obtenidos de las excavaciones efectuadas en el sitio arqueológico “El Piñón”, y su correspondiente interpretación, permitió reconstruir tanto el ambiente natural como el cultural suscitado en el pasado. La fauna identificada consistió, en un primer análisis preliminar, en poco más de 3333 especímenes óseos, entre huesos y dientes no modificados, y alterados por cocción, cremación o trabajados, los cuales correspondieron a más de 250 individuos, entre los que se pueden mencionar: conejos, liebres, ardillas, tuzas (topos, perros, pumas, linces, pecaríes, venados, guajolotes (pavos, patos, codornices y guacamayas verdes, entre otros vertebrados que son comunes al ambiente semiseco-templado que prevalece en la región de Zacatecas-Jalisco.   Abstract   The Bolaños culture is made up of many human communities that established in one of the western Sierra Madre canyons, Mexico. Their occupations are chronologically dated between 100 years BC and 1260 years AD, and extended from southern Zacatecas to the mouth of the Rio Grande of Santiago, in the center of Jalisco, Mexico. The basis of their development was the exchange of artifacts for products and raw material that didn’t exist in the western Mexican region. Here, the archaeozoological study performed with the bone remains recovered in excavations from the “El Piñon” archaeological site is

  8. Escola e Pomitafro: uma festa como uma identidade de uma cidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Teixeira de Souza

    2017-06-01

    identidad de uma ciudad RESUMEN La ciudad de Vila Pavão, situada a unos 276 km de la capital Vitória, y situado en el noroeste del Espírito Santo, tiene desde 1989 una fi esta interétnica llamada Pomitafro. Inicialmente fue la Pomitafro una fi esta de la escuela, pero a partir de 1993 se convierte en una fi esta municipal. En general, celebrada en agosto de cada año, com el objetivo la integración de los principales colonizadores “grupos étnicos” de la ciudad: pomeranios, las personas de ascendencia italiana y africana (de ahí la palabra Pomitafro. Este artículo aborda el Partido Pomitafro, a la luz de algunos datos secundarios (obtenidos en el Cuestionario de Prueba Brasil 2011, con respecto a las preguntas 02, 26, 31 42 y 43, respondida por noveno grado de dos escuelas públicas e importantes aldea del pavo real. Los resultados muestran que el municipio cumple con las condiciones socioculturales que conduzcan al logro y el mantenimiento de Pomitafro en la localidad. Palabras clave: Vila Pavão. Pomitafro. Escuela.

  9. Knowledge of the Yucatec Maya in seasonal tropical forest management: the forage plants El conocimiento de los mayas yucatecos en el manejo del bosque tropical estacional: las plantas forrajeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Salvador Flores

    2012-06-01

    plantas forrajeras se tomaron con información florística y etnobotánica. Los datos se manejaron mediante tablas dinámicas en Excel y fueron agrupados por familia florística, geoforma, forma de vida y por los animales que las consumen. Las comunidades mayas utilizan 196 especies de plantas para alimentar a los animales: 139 herbáceas, 17 arbustos, 35 árboles y dos palmeras. Las plantas forrajeras nativas son utilizadas para alimentar vacas, cerdos, caballos, corderos, pavos, pollos, patos y palomas. Las plantas forrajeras nativas pueden ser una opción de mejoramiento de la agricultura de temporal y también para la producción animal intensiva en sistemas silvopastoriles en los paisajes kársticos tropicales de la península de Yucatán.

  10. Cosmic Ballet or Devil's Mask?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Stars like our Sun are members of galaxies, and most galaxies are themselves members of clusters of galaxies. In these, they move around among each other in a mostly slow and graceful ballet. But every now and then, two or more of the members may get too close for comfort - the movements become hectic, sometimes indeed dramatic, as when galaxies end up colliding. ESO PR Photo 12/04 shows an example of such a cosmic tango. This is the superb triple system NGC 6769-71, located in the southern Pavo constellation (the Peacock) at a distance of 190 million light-years. This composite image was obtained on April 1, 2004, the day of the Fifth Anniversary of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It was taken in the imaging mode of the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on Melipal, one of the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the VLT at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). The two upper galaxies, NGC 6769 (upper right) and NGC 6770 (upper left), are of equal brightness and size, while NGC 6771 (below) is about half as bright and slightly smaller. All three galaxies possess a central bulge of similar brightness. They consist of elderly, reddish stars and that of NGC 6771 is remarkable for its "boxy" shape, a rare occurrence among galaxies. Gravitational interaction in a small galaxy group NGC 6769 is a spiral galaxy with very tightly wound spiral arms, while NGC 6770 has two major spiral arms, one of which is rather straight and points towards the outer disc of NGC 6769. NGC 6770 is also peculiar in that it presents two comparatively straight dark lanes and a fainter arc that curves towards the third galaxy, NGC 6771 (below). It is also obvious from this new VLT photo that stars and gas have been stripped off NGC 6769 and NGC 6770, starting to form a common envelope around them, in the shape of a Devil's Mask. There is also a weak hint of a tenuous bridge between NGC 6769 and NGC 6771. All of these features testify to strong gravitational interaction between the three galaxies

  11. Discovery of Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    : PR Photo 03d/03 shows the southern constellation Indus (The Indian) and its surroundings, as drawn in the famous Uranographia published 1801 of German astronomer Johann Elert Bode. This reproduction was made from original printing plates held by the library of the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (Germany). The binary stellar system Epsilon Indi is associated with one of the arrows in the Indian's hand. However, because of its proximity, only 12 light-years away, it is moving so fast across the sky that it is now located someway below the arrows. In only a few thousand years, it will have moved out of the Indus constellation and into the neighbouring constellation Tucana (The Toucan). The constellation Indus lies deep in the southern sky, nestled between three birds, Grus (The Crane), Tucana (The Toucan) and Pavo (The Peacock), cf. PR Photo 03d/03. First catalogued in 1595-1597 by the Dutch navigators Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser and Frederick de Houtman, this constellation was added to the southern sky by Johann Bayer in his book 'Uranometria' (1603) to honour the Native Americans that European explorers had encountered on their travels. In particular, it has been suggested that it is specifically the native peoples of Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia that are represented in Indus, just over two thousand kilometres south of La Silla where the first spectroscopic observations of Epsilon Indi B were made some 400 years later. In the later drawing by Bode shown here, Epsilon Indi, the fifth brightest star in Indus, is associated with one of the arrows in the Indian's hand. More information The information in this press release is based on a paper ("Epsilon Indi B: a new benchmark T dwarf" by Ralf-Dieter Scholz and co-authors), soon to be published in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics (Letters). It is available on the web in preprint form at http://babbage.sissa.it/abs/astro-ph/0212487.