WorldWideScience

Sample records for blending transportation marketing

  1. Diluent and bitumen, an uneasy mix : considerations for treating, blending, transportation, marketing and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation evaluated several issues regarding the use of diluent as a blending agent with Canadian bitumen. Heavy and viscous crude oils are commonly diluted with condensates and gasolines. This improves field processing, transportability in pipelines and acceptability in markets and refineries. The demand for such diluent is increasing because of the large amounts of heavy oil and bitumen currently produced in Canada. The current tenable price of diluents has meant that a wide range of diluent sources and components are finding their way into the Canadian diluent supply stream. This has raised concerns regarding diluent performance and the affect on blended crude oils. The cost of diluent is among the most controllable expense associated with most bitumen production projects. Market factors were considered in this presentation, such as supply demand; price and infrastructure; operational processing and blending issues; diluent quality and component variability; and downstream issues such as refinery processing and production. tabs., figs

  2. Blending traditional and digital marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is a matter of fact that we are in the digital era and internet marketing and social media have a significant impact on the way consumers behave, companies do business and it is a must for companies to adapt to the new reality. Due to the fast evolution of the technology, the continuous increase in demand and supply, the supply chain elongation and the big amount of date, the only solution to face the major changes is the automation of all the processes. But even though the new era of communication is here, specialist suggest that companies should not ignore traditional methods, and to try to blend digital marketing with traditional campaigns in order to achieve their goals.

  3. Transport through track etched polymeric blend membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamlendra Awasthi; Vaibhav Kulshreshtha; B Tripathi; N K Acharya; M Singh; Y K Vijay

    2006-06-01

    Polymer blends of polycarbonate (PC) and polysulphone (PSF) having thickness, 27 m, are prepared by solution cast method. The transport properties of pores in a blend membrane are examined. The pores were produced in this membrane by a track etching technique. For this purpose, a thin polymer membrane was penetrated by a single heavy ion of Ni7+ of 100 MeV, followed by preferential chemical etching of the ion track. Ion permeation measurements show that pores in polymeric membrane are charged or neutralized, which depends upon the variation in concentration of the solvent. The – curve at concentration, N/10, shows that the pores are negatively charged, whereas at concentration, N/20, the linear nature of – curve indicates that the pores approach towards neutralized state and on further concentration, N/40, the pores become fully neutralized, consequently the rectifier behaviour of pores has been omitted. The gas permeability of hydrogen and carbon dioxide of this membrane was measured with increasing etching time. The permeability was measured from both the sides. Permeability at the front was larger than the permeability at the back which shows asymmetric behaviour of membranes.

  4. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners

  5. Bringing biofuels on the market. Options to increase EU biofuels volumes beyond the current blending limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Van Mensch, P.; Patuleia, A. [TNO, Delft, (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This handbook on biofuels provides a comprehensive overview of different types of biofuels, and the technical options that exist to market the biofuels volumes expected to be consumed in the EU Member States in 2020. The study concludes that by fully utilizing the current blending limits of biodiesel (FAME) in diesel (B7) and bioethanol in petrol (E10) up to 7.9% share of biofuels in the EU transport sector can be technically reached by 2020. Increasing use of advanced biofuels, particularly blending of fungible fuels into diesel (eg. HVO and BTL) and the use of higher ethanol blends in compatible vehicles (e.g. E20), can play an important role. Also, the increased use of biomethane (in particular bio-CNG) and higher blends of biodiesel (FAME) can contribute. However, it is essential for both governments and industry to decide within 1 or 2 years on the way ahead and take necessary actions covering both, the fuels and the vehicles, to ensure their effective and timely implementation. Even though a range of technical options exist, many of these require considerable time and effort to implement and reach their potential. Large scale implementation of the options beyond current blending limits requires new, targeted policy measures, in many cases complemented by new fuel and vehicle standards, adaptation of engines and fuel distribution, etc. Marketing policies for these vehicles, fuels and blends are also likely to become much more important than in the current situation. Each Member State may develop its own strategy tailored to its market and policy objectives, but the EU should play a crucial facilitating role in these developments.

  6. MARKETING AND LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRANSPORT SERVICES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kopytko

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the modern trends of world economy development, the opportunities of increasing the competitiveness of the Ukrainian transport system on the base of marketing-logistical providing the development of infrastructure of transport services market are presented. The analysis of marketing-logistical approaches of estimation of the efficiency of operation of transport infrastructure objects is performed. The condition of theoretical and practical aspects of the transport services market is elucidated, the examples of logistical concepts are given, considering the work experience of transport enterprises, the ways of formation of regional transport-logistical associations are offered.

  7. Social marketing of alternative transportation modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    Researchers and practitioners working with travel demand management (TDM) seem to be increasingly interested in social marketing as a means for promoting non-car modes of transportation. However, as is true for social marketing in general, there is little clarity of the social marketing approach...... associated with TDM. Hence, it is not surprising that the effectiveness of this means is subject to considerable uncertainty. This chapter outlines the field and definition of social marketing and reviews practical experience and research on social marketing in TDM as a basis for evaluating the usefulness...... of social marketing in this area....

  8. Aerodynamic Design Methodology for Blended Wing Body Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Peifeng; ZHANG Binqian; CHEN Yingchun; YUAN Changsheng; LIN Yu

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forward a design idea for blended wing body (BWB).The idea is described as that cruise point,maximum lift to drag point and pitch trim point are in the same flight attitude.According to this design idea,design objectives and constraints are defined.By applying low and high fidelity aerodynamic analysis tools,BWB aerodynamic design methodology is established by the combination of optimization design and inverse design methods.High lift to drag ratio,pitch trim and acceptable buffet margin can be achieved by this design methodology.For 300-passenger BWB configuration based on static stability design,as compared with initial configuration,the maximum lift to drag ratio and pitch trim are achieved at cruise condition,zero lift pitching moment is positive,and buffet characteristics is well.Fuel burn of 300-passenger BWB configuration is also significantly reduced as compared with conventional civil transports.Because aerodynamic design is carried out under the constraints of BWB design requirements,the design configuration fulfills the demands for interior layout and provides a solid foundation for continuous work.

  9. Honduras - Transport and Farm to Market

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the Transport Project and Farm to Market Roads Activity aimed to answer whether or not improved conditions throughout the road network: • Lowered...

  10. Marketing: MSc in logistics and transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Mark

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this course is to introduce the basic concepts of marketing to students undertaking an MSc in Transportation and Logistics. This module will take a strategic view of marketing in that it will develop ideas for achieving sustainable competitive advantage.

  11. Action Research: Effective Marketing Strategies for a Blended University Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…

  12. A charge carrier transport model for donor-acceptor blend layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly efficient organic solar cells typically comprise donor-acceptor blend layers facilitating effective splitting of excitons. However, the charge carrier mobility in the blends can be substantially smaller than in neat materials, hampering the device performance. Currently, available mobility models do not describe the transport in blend layers entirely. Here, we investigate hole transport in a model blend system consisting of the small molecule donor zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and the acceptor fullerene C60 in different mixing ratios. The blend layer is sandwiched between p-doped organic injection layers, which prevent minority charge carrier injection and enable exploiting diffusion currents for the characterization of exponential tail states from a thickness variation of the blend layer using numerical drift-diffusion simulations. Trap-assisted recombination must be considered to correctly model the conductivity behavior of the devices, which are influenced by local electron currents in the active layer, even though the active layer is sandwiched in between p-doped contacts. We find that the density of deep tail states is largest in the devices with 1:1 mixing ratio (Et = 0.14 eV, Nt = 1.2 × 1018 cm−3) directing towards lattice disorder as the transport limiting process. A combined field and charge carrier density dependent mobility model are developed for this blend layer

  13. Evaluation of ternary blended cements for use in transportation concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Amanda Louise

    This thesis investigates the use of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures for transportation structures. The study documents technical properties of three concrete mixtures used in federally funded transportation projects in Utah, Kansas, and Michigan that used ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. Data were also collected from laboratory trial batches of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures with mixture designs similar to those of the field projects. The study presents the technical, economic, and environmental advantages of ternary blended cement mixtures. Different barriers of implementation for using ternary blended cement concrete mixtures in transportation projects are addressed. It was concluded that there are no technical, economic, or environmental barriers that exist when using most ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. The technical performance of the ternary blended concrete mixtures that were studied was always better than ordinary portland cement concrete mixtures. The ternary blended cements showed increased durability against chloride ion penetration, alkali silica reaction, and reaction to sulfates. These blends also had less linear shrinkage than ordinary portland cement concrete and met all strength requirements. The increased durability would likely reduce life cycle costs associated with concrete pavement and concrete bridge decks. The initial cost of ternary mixtures can be higher or lower than ordinary portland cement, depending on the supplementary cementitious materials used. Ternary blended cement concrete mixtures produce less carbon dioxide emissions than ordinary portland cement mixtures. This reduces the carbon footprint of construction projects. The barriers associated with implementing ternary blended cement concrete for transportation projects are not significant. Supplying fly ash returns any investment costs for the ready mix plant, including silos and other associated equipment. State specifications can make

  14. Ternary blend cements concrete. Part II: Transport mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Irassar, E. F.; Bonavetti, V. L.; Menéndez, G.

    2007-01-01

    With today’s extensive use of cements containing two or more additions (blended cements), predicting concrete durability on the grounds of its strength alone leads to errors that may affect the service life of the resulting structures. Indeed, concrete of a given strength class can be made from different materials and proportions of widely varying durability. The present study evaluated water absorption, sorptivity and initial surface absorption in concrete made with unadditi...

  15. Ternary blend cements concrete. Part II: Transport mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available With today’s extensive use of cements containing two or more additions (blended cements, predicting concrete durability on the grounds of its strength alone leads to errors that may affect the service life of the resulting structures. Indeed, concrete of a given strength class can be made from different materials and proportions of widely varying durability. The present study evaluated water absorption, sorptivity and initial surface absorption in concrete made with unadditioned Portland, binary (limestone and ternary (limestone and granulated slag blend cement.En la actualidad con la utilización de cementos con dos o más adiciones (cementos compuestos predecir la durabilidad del hormigón a partir sólo de su resistencia conduce a cometer errores que pueden afectar la vida útil de las construcciones de hormigón. Pues es bien conocido que se pueden elaborar hormigones de una misma clase resistente con distintos materiales y proporciones, que podrán presentar un comportamiento durable totalmente diferente. En este trabajo se evalúa la absorción de agua, la capacidad de absorción, la absorción inicial superficial de hormigones elaborados con cemento Portland sin adición, cementos compuestos binario (caliza y ternario (escoria granulada y caliza.

  16. Distributed Propulsion featuring Boundary Layer Ingestion Engines for the Blended Wing Body Subsonic Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H.J.M.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The blended wing body aircraft is one of the promising contenders for the next generation large transport aircraft. This aircraft is particularly suitable for the use of boundary layer ingestion engines. Results published in literature suggest that it might be beneficial to have a large number of th

  17. Implementation of Gravity Model to Estimation of Transportation Market Shares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krata, Przemysław

    2010-03-01

    The theoretical consideration presented in the paper is inspired by market gravity models, as an interesting attitude towards operations research on a market. The transportation market issues are emphasized. The mathematical model of relations, taking place between transportation companies and their customers on the market, which is applied in the course of the research is based on continuous functions characteristics. This attitude enables the use of the field theory notions. The resultant vector-type utility function facilitates obtaining of competitive advantage areas for all transportation companies located on the considered transportation market.

  18. Charge Carrier Transport and Photogeneration in P3HT:PCBM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Laquai, Frederic

    2015-05-03

    This article reviews the charge transport and photogeneration in bulk-heterojunction solar cells made from blend films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) and methano­fullerene (PCBM). The charge transport, specifically the hole mobility in the RR-P3HT phase of the polymer:fullerene photovoltaic blend, is dramatically affected by thermal annealing. The hole mobility increases more than three orders of magnitude and reaches a value of up to 2 × 10−4 cm2 V−1 s−1 after the thermal annealing process as a result of an improved semi-crystallinity of the film. This significant increase of the hole mobility balances the electron and hole mobilities in a photovoltaic blend in turn reducing space-charge formation, and this is the most important factor for the strong enhancement of the photovoltaic efficiency compared to an as cast, that is, non-annealed device. In fact, the balanced charge carrier mobility in RR-P3HT:PCBM blends in combination with a field- and temperature-independent charge carrier generation and greatly reduced non-geminate recombination explains the large quantum efficiencies mea­sured in P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic devices.

  19. Aluminium in the rail transportation market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, J. [Alcan Alesa Engineering Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland). Alcan Mass Transportation Systems

    2002-07-01

    Rail-transportation is not, as one might expect, a homogeneous market but extremely fragmented and even with huge differences from continent to continent, i.e. in North America freight transport is dominating whereas in Europe passenger transport prevails. A first segmentation splits infrastructure from vehicles. In a second layer of segmentation we distinguish between light rail vehicles, heavy metros, regional trains, intercity trains, high speed trains with and without tilting, maglev trains, freight vehicles and locomotives. Finally, we find aluminium applications in wheels, suspension parts, brake equipment, traction equipment, body structure, hang on parts and interior trim. On the infrastructure side best use of aluminium is in the field of power supply. In order to have the best solution for each application, all forms of products such as castings, forgings, flat rolled products and extrusions are needed and the engineers are using a broad choice or different alloys for all the requirements such as structural strength, decorative aspect, electrical conductivity, wear resistance, weldability, corrosion resistance etc. Innovation cycles in rail transportation are very slow, mainly because the expected life of vehicles is over 30 years and so no fleet owner will run the risk of getting vehicles with non-proven components, i.e. where a safe life of over 30 years cannot be shown. In the following the most important aluminium applications are shown and discussed. (orig.)

  20. Regional features of the transport market development in Ukraine, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Kopytko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional peculiarities of the transport services market are considered as one of the largest and important subsystems of the regional economy. Market of transport services at the regional level should be considered as a complex spatial social-economic system, which can be divided into three parts. The most perspective instrument of strategic measures realization to innovative upgrading the subjects of transport services regional market is a mechanism for public-private partnership. For its introduction should be created additional conditions for investment attractiveness increasing of the transport services regional market. At the modern stage of the transport services regional markets development should be provided the market integration of the different subjects into a common transport area for their effective cooperation by providing economic needs in transport services.

  1. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation of Canadian oil sands to future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sands transportation diversification is important for preventing discounted crude pricing. Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models that assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil transportation are linearly-scale and fail to account for project specific details. This research sets out to develop a detailed LCA model to compare the energy inputs and GHG emissions of pipeline and rail transportation for oil sands products. The model is applied to several proposed oils sands transportation routes that may serve as future markets. Comparison between transportation projects suggest that energy inputs and GHG emissions show a high degree of variation. For both rail and pipeline transportation, the distance over which the product is transported has a large impact on total emissions. The regional electricity grid and pump efficiency have the largest impact on pipeline emissions, while train engine efficiency and bitumen blending ratios have the largest impact on rail transportation emissions. LCA-based GHG regulations should refine models to account for the range of product pathways and focus efforts on cost-effective emission reductions. As the climate-change impacts of new oil sands transportation projects are considered, GHG emission boundaries should be defined according to operation control. -- Highlights: •A life cycle model is developed to compare transportation of oil sands products. •The model is applied to several potential future oil sands markets. •Energy inputs and GHG emissions are compared. •Model inputs are explored using sensitivity analysis. •Policy recommendations are provided

  2. Distributed Propulsion featuring Boundary Layer Ingestion Engines for the Blended Wing Body Subsonic Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, H.J.M.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The blended wing body aircraft is one of the promising contenders for the next generation large transport aircraft. This aircraft is particularly suitable for the use of boundary layer ingestion engines. Results published in literature suggest that it might be beneficial to have a large number of these engines (distributed propulsion). A conceptual design study is therefore performed to determine the potential benefits of boundary layer ingestion engines for a conventional number of engines i...

  3. Entering Russian Market of Passenger Transportation : Case of Veolia Transdev

    OpenAIRE

    Niklyaev, Ilya; Samuseva, Yuliya; Bayar, Tulga

    2013-01-01

    Each day more and more companies choose to become international and to expand to new markets looking for bigger profits. However, many of them end up carrying big losses only because they lack a deep and detailed analysis of a new market they have chosen to expand to. Therefore, the authors of this thesis decided to conduct a deep and profound analysis of Russian public transportation market. Russia presents a fast developing economy which shows very positive development signs. Russian market...

  4. Flying and handling qualities of a fly-by-wire blended-wing-body civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2003-01-01

    The blended-wing-body (BWB) configuration appears as a promising contender for the next generation of large transport aircraft. The idea of blending the wing with the fuselage and eliminating the tail is not new, it has long been known that tailless aircraft can suffer from stability and control problems that must be addressed early in the design. This thesis is concerned with identifying and then evaluating the flight dynamics, stability, flight controls and handling qualities of a generic B...

  5. Market Innovation in the Transport and Heavy Vehicle Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Agndal, Henrik; Cui, Lianguang;

    must be negotiated and cannot be planned by a single actor. The paper considers the development of new business models and implications on the market from the point of view of the firms actually using the business models. This shows how different business models can co-exist and involve different types...

  6. Solution-printed organic semiconductor blends exhibiting transport properties on par with single crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Muhammad R; Li, Ruipeng; Qiang Li, Er; Kirmani, Ahmad R; Abdelsamie, Maged; Wang, Qingxiao; Pan, Wenyang; Payne, Marcia M; Anthony, John E; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Giannelis, Emmanuel P; Amassian, Aram

    2015-01-01

    Solution-printed organic semiconductors have emerged in recent years as promising contenders for roll-to-roll manufacturing of electronic and optoelectronic circuits. The stringent performance requirements for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) in terms of carrier mobility, switching speed, turn-on voltage and uniformity over large areas require performance currently achieved by organic single-crystal devices, but these suffer from scale-up challenges. Here we present a new method based on blade coating of a blend of conjugated small molecules and amorphous insulating polymers to produce OTFTs with consistently excellent performance characteristics (carrier mobility as high as 6.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), low threshold voltages ofsemiconductor films with transport properties and other figures of merit on par with their single-crystal counterparts.

  7. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Nijkamp, P.; Masurel, E.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels with combined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport in Europe. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical framework as a starting point for the analysis of the performance -in terms of quality- of intermodal freight terminals. Much of the current research on transport is based on a comparison of features ...

  8. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical framework as a starting point for the analysis of the performance -in terms of quality-of intermodal freight terminals. Much of the current research on transport is based on a comparison of features of ...

  9. Green maritime transportation: Market based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions from ships, and review several distinct MBM proposals that have been under consideration by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The chapter discusses...

  10. Cost-effective blended elemental powder metallurgy of titanium alloys for transportation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivasishin, O.M.; Demidik, A.N.; Savvakin, D.G. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fiziki Metallov; Anokhin, V.M. [State Research and Design Titanium Inst., Zaporozhie (Ukraine)

    2000-07-01

    Transportation industry is one of the perspective areas of application for lightweight advanced materials, including titanium alloys. However, despite the excellent mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of titanium alloys, automobile and other transportation industries cannot afford titanium unless its cost is significantly reduced. Near-net-shape processings, amongst which are powder metallurgy (PM) techniques, look the most appealing ways of cost reduction. Economic potentiality of titanium PM processes depends on the availability of low-cost powder and particular consolidation technology used. In this paper the blended elemental technology by a simple press-and-sinter method has been investigated using various titanium powders, in order to find if this technology can be applied to production of parts from titanium alloys for transportation industry. Main part of work was done on Ti-6Al-4V (wt.%) composition although some other compositions were tried. Chemical and dimensional characteristics of initial powders, cold-compaction pressure, temperature and time of sintering were main variables of the study. It was shown that at proper choice of elemental constituents and consolidation parameters high density of the final product (98% of theoretical) could be obtained. For this case, microstructural investigations showed a phase and structural homogeneity of the synthesized material. This can give rise to the mechanical properties to be comparable with those of cast and wrought material. (orig.)

  11. 29 CFR 780.155 - Delivery “to carriers for transportation to market.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., rail, water, etc.) for transportation by such carrier to market. The market referred to is the farmer's... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery âto carriers for transportation to market.â 780... “to carriers for transportation to market.” The term “delivery * * * to carriers for transportation...

  12. Market Integration and Transport Costs in France 1825-1903

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Mette; Persson, Karl Gunnar

    2000-01-01

    This article argues that the appropriate standard for the analysis of commodity market integration is the transport cost adjusted law of one price. A threshold error correction model that incorporates that property is developed and applied to French wheat prices in the 19th century. This type of ...... to equilibrium price differentials between markets. Unlike previous studies this article shows that French wheat markets were well integrated by the middle of the 19th century......This article argues that the appropriate standard for the analysis of commodity market integration is the transport cost adjusted law of one price. A threshold error correction model that incorporates that property is developed and applied to French wheat prices in the 19th century. This type...... of modeling acknowledges the fact that error corrections only take place when price differentials between markets exceed transport costs. The method used produces estimates of implied transport costs, which are quite close to observed costs, and generates more accurate estimates of the adjustment speed...

  13. Facilitating Cooperative Learning in Online and Blended Courses: An Example from an Integrated Marketing Communications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katryna

    2013-01-01

    Employers today expect that students will be able to work in teams. Cooperative learning theory addresses how skills such as decision making, problem solving and communication can be learned by individuals in group settings. This paper discusses how cooperative learning can be used in an online and blended environment to increase active learning…

  14. Solution-printed organic semiconductor blends exhibiting transport properties on par with single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Niazi, Muhammad R.

    2015-11-23

    Solution-printed organic semiconductors have emerged in recent years as promising contenders for roll-to-roll manufacturing of electronic and optoelectronic circuits. The stringent performance requirements for organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) in terms of carrier mobility, switching speed, turn-on voltage and uniformity over large areas require performance currently achieved by organic single-crystal devices, but these suffer from scale-up challenges. Here we present a new method based on blade coating of a blend of conjugated small molecules and amorphous insulating polymers to produce OTFTs with consistently excellent performance characteristics (carrier mobility as high as 6.7 cm2 V−1 s−1, low threshold voltages of<1 V and low subthreshold swings <0.5 V dec−1). Our findings demonstrate that careful control over phase separation and crystallization can yield solution-printed polycrystalline organic semiconductor films with transport properties and other figures of merit on par with their single-crystal counterparts.

  15. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES OF TRANSPORT LOGISTICS OF THE REGIONAL GRAIN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov V. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the place of transport logistics in the system of specialization of the region, territorial labor division and the grain business export potential. It examines the competitive advantages in relation to territorial and environmental factors, production, business, and grain market, the role of these factors in raising the economic efficiency of grain business, taking into account rapidly changing conditions in domestic and global markets. It gives details of the competitive advantages of the port transit segment of the Krasnodar region on the grain major sea carriers example. Effective use of the strong sides of land and sea components of the grain transit will help to further successful integration of the region grain business into the global economics system, it will increase the regional grain production competitiveness. The grain transit schemes improving process should be built taking into account optimization of the delivery channels, excluding parasitic mediators, motivate all participants on the final result according to the criterion of profit which is received not due to the increase in tariff rates, but by providing diverse services, enhancing productivity, introducing of specialization and specific transport costs reducing. It is also proposed to reduce transport costs during the grain transit to domestic and foreign markets due to the capabilities of specialized logistical centers, to organize transport corridors for the grain delivery on their base

  16. Introduction of a New Transport Service on the Finnish Market

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Dejie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to identify whether there would be a market for new personal transport service in the Capital region of Finland (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen). The service is a driver-rental service that resembles taxi service with the difference being that the customer is driven to his destination in his own car. Research questions were: is the service feasible in Finland and is there a market for it in the Capital region of Finland? To answer these questions the author u...

  17. Information systems and technology in the marketing of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Zharska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to improve the system of theoretical, methodological and methodic background for the implementation of information technology in the marketing system of the railway undertaking. The article identifies the necessity of marketing use in companies which are natural monopolies. Besides the general system of railway transport is described and its place in the marketing system is defined. The existing deficiencies of marketing system have been detected.The results of the analysis. The main computerized control systems, which have been introduced into the system of marketing services in the field of railway transport, were given full consideration in recent years. In particular it has been examined the integration of the automated control system into the system of services associated with freight and the transition from paper to electronic transport documents. Such advantages of system for consumers were determined: time reduction, the possibility of clearance from any station and information received in the automatic mode concerning the freight traffic. The organizational transformation that took place on the railway transport as a result of the specified system integration was considered. The need to create such system for freight crossing the border was defined.System of passenger train tickets sale online in Ukraine has been considered the and its basic shortcomings, including the inability to print previously reserved ticket and the complexity and incomprehensibility of ticket purchase technology online for the consumers was found. The experience of sales system delivering of the passenger railway services has been examined in different European countries and it has been found out that in many countries for tickets sales is used modern information technology: the Internet, via mobile communications, with start-card, etc.Moreover a comparative analysis of web-sites of the Ukrainian and foreign

  18. Transportation Cost and Market Power of Middlemen: A Spatial Analysis of Agricultural Commodity Markets in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Aya; Sexton, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    While high transportation cost and market power are long-recognized sources of market inefficiency, their analytical relation has not been established in a developing country context. In this paper, we analyze the mechanism by which lower transportation costs increase farm prices and profits by reducing marketing costs and marketing firms' exercise of oligopsony power. We utilize a two-stage game framework to demonstrate use of an endogenous financing mechanism to generate funds to improve tr...

  19. Unusual charge transport and reduced bimolecular recombination in PDTSiTzTz:PC71BM bulk heterojunction blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar cells with bulk heterojunction active layers containing donor-acceptor copolymer PDTSiTzTz exhibit persistent high fill factors with thicknesses up to 400 nm. Transport and recombination in a blend of PDTSiTzTz and fullerene derivative PC71BM is studied using lateral organic photovoltaic structures. This material system is characterized by carrier-concentration-dependent charge carrier mobilities, a strongly reduced bimolecular recombination factor, and a negative Poole–Frenkel coefficient. The analysis provides an explanation for the relatively thickness-independent fill factor behaviour seen in solar cells using the copolymer PDTSiTzTz. Cumulative insights from this copolymer can be employed for future organic photovoltaic material development, study of existing high performance bulk heterojunciton blends, and improved solar cell design. (paper)

  20. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  1. Biofuels for transportation. From R and D to market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilo, C. [comp.

    1996-11-01

    The aim of the Workshop was to bring together stakeholders in industry, government and science to identify technical, economic and institutional opportunities and/or barriers to the market penetration of biofuels and to tackle these issues jointly in an international environment. The Workshop was to cover the role of biofuels in replacing fossil fuels and achieving sustainable transportation. It was to be more oriented towards policy issues than towards analyses of scientific and technical details. The Workshop was focused on the conditions in Northern Europe and North America. Three main themes were chosen: THEME 1. Biomass Feedstocks. How do we produce them cost-effectively and for what purpose? THEME 2. Biofuels for Transportation. What will make them technically and economically competitive? THEME 3. Market Penetration of Biofuels. How do we remove barriers? The following biofuels were considered during the Workshop: Alcohols, such as ethanol and methanol. Ethers, such as MTBE (methyl-tertio-butyl-ether) and ETBE (ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). Vegetable oils and esters, such as VME (vegetable-oil-methylester), RME (rape-oil-methyl-ester) and REE (rape-oil-ethyl-ester)

  2. Can Traditional Markets be improved through transportation service: (The case of Asesewa and Agormanya Traditional Markets, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel N. Angmor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional markets have played significant function as the main source of livelihood and development of rural space. The attractions of population and economic activities to markets centres have enhanced the growth of localities into high order functions. Traditional markets focus mainly on agriculture produce. In spite of the considerable effort of traditional market towards rural development, it’s faced with numerous challenges. The study examined the nexus existing between road transportation and traditional markets. The study focused on two traditional markets the Agormanya and Asesewa markets in Ghana. The study adopted the case study approach and using data from one hundred and seventy-eight (178 respondents it was observed that the two markets exhibited characteristics of traditional markets for the reason that they trade mainly in agriculture produce. It is also conspicuous from the study that there is a strong linkage between road transportation and traditional markets but has not been managed effectively for the past decades for the realisation of optimal benefit for rural welfare. It was found out that due to the poor nature of roads in the study area, travel time is very long as a result traders pay high prices for the transportation of goods from the production centres to the markets.Although these two markets have existed and contributed to rural development for decades, lip-service has been paid to physical infrastructure improvement and maintenance. In Agormanya, the market is deficient of a proper drainage system, a school, potable water, storage facilities, and electricity service for evening transactions and poor linkages for transport service to and from the market. The situation in Asesewa market is not far from Agormanya market. The study recommends among others the constructions of roads from highly dominant agriculture production centres to traditional markets and the maintenance of major roads linking communities and

  3. MARKETING RESEARCHES IN THE SYSTEM OF UPGRADING OF PASSENGER SERVICE ON A RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Naumova, O.; Golovan, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article is sanctified to determination of role of marketing researches in the system of upgrading of passenger service on a railway transport. The necessity of regular realization of marketing researches is reasonable. Results over of marketing research are brought in relation to the exposure of relation of passengers to present services and possibility of introduction of new services.

  4. Bicycle transport as an object of ecological marketing and innovations in urban transportations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Teletov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. In the modern world society is faced with problems of growing population, increasing environmental problems, lack of minerals and social-economic globalization when necessity of both individual and humanity survival is becoming extremely important. By next few years 80% of the world’s population will live in the cities. This is the main reason which force us to think about the more effective usage of urban space and transport people in cities. Nowadays ecological pollution and increased costs on transport service highlight the importance of seeking alternative types of transport. The youth of many European countries prefer bikes as main transport. Usage of bicycles in Europe is constantly growing due to European and local urban and mobility policies. Therefore, we may consider an opportunity to promote bicycle transport in Ukraine, that requires complex investigation of this question. The purpose of the article is to define features and the ways of bicycle transport implementation in Ukrainian cities as a priority for youth; it includes the best world practices of bicycle transport implementation into urban space and searching for possible ways to apply the European experience in Ukraine. The results of the analysis. As a part of our research we considered investigating international experience of cycling in Europe as an alternative to the public transport and as an example of ecological marketing. The best methods of usage cycling in the urban space were described and analysed. Moreover, we identified the main problems (and the potential solutions with implementation of cycling infrastructure in urban space based on international and national experience (special signs, traffic lights etc.. In the article different opportunities for realization in city Sumy were proposed. Our focus was on atomized network of bike rental services and we confirmed the effectiveness of such program in this city. The bicycle infrastructure

  5. Gas Release and Transport Capacity Investment as Instruments to Foster Competition in Gas Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chaton, Corinne; Gasmi, Farid; Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Oviedo, Juan Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent policy events experienced by the European natural gas industry, this paper develops a simple model for analyzing the interaction between gas release and capacity investment programs as tools to improve the performance of imperfectly competitive markets. We consider a regional market in which a measure that has an incumbent release part of its gas to a marketer complements a program of investment in transport capacity dedicated to imports by the marketer, at a regulated tra...

  6. 7 CFR 989.16 - Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blend. 989.16 Section 989.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.16 Blend. Blend means to mix or commingle raisins....

  7. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Divita, Vincent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  8. Effect of the molecular chain orientation on carrier transport and optical properties of polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kažukauskas, V.; Čyras, V.; Pranaitis, M.; Apostoluk, A.; Rocha, L.; Sicot, L.; Raimond, P.; Sentein, C.

    2007-03-01

    We have investigated properties of poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) doped with 30% wt 4-dibutylamino-4'-nitrostilbene (DBANS), depending on the orientation of the polar DBANS molecules. Appearance of the orientation-induced built-in electrical field was proven optically by the Solid Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic Generation and electrically by Current-Voltage characterization. Modification of optical properties was evidenced by the spectral dependencies of absorption coefficient. The Thermally Stimulated Currents spectra demonstrated that carrier transport and trapping are affected, too. This paper has been presented at “ECHOS06”, Paris, 28 30 juin 2006.

  9. Transportation of Western Canadian oil production to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil sands production is expected to increase from 43 per cent of Western Canadian production in 2003 to 61 per cent in 2010. Twenty-eight billion dollars have been invested to date, with a forecast of $36 billion over the next 10 years. There are 174 billion barrels of established oil. This paper provided details of Enbridge core infrastructure businesses in relation to Western Canadian production of oil sands. A chart of production forecast by crude type was presented, as well as a light to heavy crude differential. Details of North American refining oil pipelines and existing markets were provided, along with maps of market access solutions. Mid-continent, eastern and phased southern access details were presented. A regional oil sands pipeline infrastructure was also presented. West coast access was reviewed, with details of gateway pipelines and export pipeline alternatives. Target markets were also examined in relation to Canadian access to new markets. tabs., figs

  10. UV-vis and Transport Characterization of Degradation in Polymer Blend Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Emilee; Peel, Justin; Nathan, Shreya; Wesenberg, Devin; Wallis, Marianne; Adalsteinsson, Thorsteinn; McNelis, Brian; Barber, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Organic photovoltaic cells are prepared using an active layer containing a functionalized C60 molecule, [6-6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid octadecyl ester (PCBOD); and a conjugated polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). PCBOD functions as an electron acceptor in conjunction with P3HT, the electron donor. Both current-voltage (IV) transport data of solar cells and spectroscopic absorption data of the corresponding active layer are collected at regular time intervals for periods up to several days. IV data show changes in power conversion efficiency which are strongly dependent on device preparation (stoichiometry, annealing, etc.). Ultraviolet and visible light absorption exhibits similar time dependence. Recent results show that annealing the active layer up to 200rC substantially improves device performance. Further spectroscopic studies, such as Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy, are ongoing. Supported by a Santa Clara University Science, Technology and Society Grant, a grant from IntelliVision and the SCU BIN-REU: funded in part by the UC Santa Cruz BIN-RDI, NASA Grant NNX09AQ44A.

  11. An Analysis of the Market Potential for Distance Learning Opportunities in Transportation Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkop, Brooke R.; Jasek, Debbie; Kuhn, Beverly T.

    The feasibility and sustainability of a distance learning program at the Texas Transportation Institute, which is part of the Texas A&M University system, was investigated. A literature review and online survey of current transportation professionals were conducted to examine the market potential for a distance learning program and to identify…

  12. Market Basket Analysis as a Support Tool for The Management of Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokołowska Dorota

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to characterize a non-standard use of the method of market basket analysis in one of the areas of economy, i.e. public transport. Generally, one of the aims of the market basket analysis method is associating the consumer's market basket – in the case of public transport this being the choice of bus stops in the city area made by passengers. Owing to a new, practical use of this method, it was possible to build an efficient model characterizing the movement of flows of public transport passengers, and assess the degree of transferring (changing lines, thus making it possible to adapt the routes of buses to the needs of people using this particular means of transport, as well as to plot new communication lines.

  13. Development of the stakeholder marketing at the enterprises in transportation and logistic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Popova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to form conceptual model of the stakeholders marketing development and its implementation mechanism at the enterprises in transportation and logistic system in cluster network. The results of the analysis. The stakeholders marketing development problem at the enterprises of transportation and logistic system (TLSin Ukraine is connected with necessity to satisfy consumers’ needs more widely, because the interested sides impact the efficiency to give service in transport and logistics sphere. It is especially seen in cluster organizations, where stakeholders’ networks cooperate with each other. In order to see relation to stakeholders marketing and stakeholders approach in management, one carried out research of enterprises, transport and logistic organizations in Kharkiv region, which showed that enterprises have no information about stakeholders marketing, but most of them wish to understand and use it. Development of the stakeholders marketing at the transport and logistic system enterprises, which cooperate in the cluster, has its peculiarities, based on the fact that enterprises, consumers, partners and other stakeholders are connected with continual network. Their interests are observed as those ones, interconnected by the common aim. Interests conflict, appearing in the process of functioning, is solved through the dialogue. Enterprises are work in complicated system, which includes interconnection between subjects in cluster and outside it, based on trusting relations. All sides of the process to give and get transportation and logistic service, take part in creation of valuable. TLS enterprises make democratic marketing decisions,which are controlled by all stakeholders. Taking into account stakeholders marketing peculiarities, one suggested conceptual model of its development at the transportation and logistic system enterprises in cluster network. It includes formation of relations with all stakeholders

  14. Blended Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Baaren, John

    2009-01-01

    Van der Baaren, J. (2009). Blended Learning. Presentation given at the Mini symposium 'Blended Learning the way to go?'. November, 5, 2009, The Hague, The Netherlands: Netherlands Defence Academy (NDLA).

  15. Transportation in the future : blind side of the oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first oil embargo of 1974 and the oil crisis of 1979/1980 demonstrated that of all sectors, the transportation sector is the most threatened by abrupt changes in fuel prices. For that reason, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and member countries have strived to develop a good set of analytical tools for forecasting future energy demand in transportation. This presentation addressed issues regarding oil demand and explained why it may never be the same. Oil demand has been changed by the imposition of fuel economy standards in North America, voluntary agreements to limit fuel consumption in Europe, and the freight related component. Motor vehicle ownership is growing significantly in developing countries. Neither oil problems nor carbon dioxide emissions will slow that growth for a long time to come. Traffic congestion and pollution are major problems in most of the developing world. Therefore, policies to save oil or reduce carbon dioxide emissions should be integrated with strategies to improve transportation and clean the air in developing countries. New incentives may include clean vehicles, fuel efficiency, clean and low carbon fuels, and transportation planning. The paper also described how information technology, such as use of the Internet, is a low energy product that can boost economic activity and which in the future, may have a broader impact on transportation. It was concluded that while transportation energy is driven by economic growth, it can be impacted by higher prices and by energy policies. 16 figs

  16. Blended Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bauerová, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is focused on a new approach of education called blended learning. The history and developement of Blended Learning is described in the first part. Then the methods and tools of Blended Learning are evaluated and compared to the traditional methods of education. At the final part an efficient developement of the educational programs is emphasized.

  17. Tailored electrical conductivity, electromagnetic shielding and thermal transport in polymeric blends with graphene sheets decorated with nickel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Shital Patangrao; Stephen, Samuel; Bose, Suryasarathi; Mittal, Vikas

    2015-06-14

    Electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI) materials were designed using PC (polycarbonate)/SAN [poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)] blends containing few-layered graphene nanosheets decorated with nickel nanoparticles (G-Ni). The graphene nanosheets were decorated with nickel nanoparticles via the uniform nucleation of the metal salt precursor on graphene sheets as the substrate. In order to localize the nanoparticles in the PC phase of the PC/SAN blends, a two-step mixing protocol was adopted. In the first step, graphene sheets were mixed with PC in solution and casted into a film, followed by dilution of these PC master batch films with SAN in the subsequent melt extrusion step. The dynamic mechanical properties, ac electrical conductivity, EMI shielding effectiveness and thermal conductivity of the composites were evaluated. The G-Ni nanoparticles significantly improved the electrical and thermal conductivity in the blends. In addition, a total shielding effectiveness (SET) of -29.4 dB at 18 GHz was achieved with G-Ni nanoparticles. Moreover, the blends with G-Ni exhibited an impressive 276% higher thermal conductivity and 29.2% higher elastic modulus with respect to the neat blends. PMID:25981455

  18. Formation of the Cycle of Business Processes of Management of Marketing Activity of a Transport Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Horielov Dmytro O.; Lavrova Yuliia V.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to problems of organisation of the process of management of marketing activity of an enterprise. It specifies the model of services of a transport enterprise and provides levels of services and their structure: basic, real, expanded, expected and prospective. The article offers to differentiate planning and realisation of the transportation service by its levels, each of which would correspond with a separate business process of management. It reveals specific features ...

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  1. In the wake of liberalisation: long-term developments in the EU air transport market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Burghouwt; J.G. de Wit

    2015-01-01

    Using a 24-year analysis period (1990-2013), a new perspective is offered on long-term first- and second-order developments following liberalisation of the intra-EU air transport market. The focus of the analysis is on supply-side issues, such as airline output, structure of supply, yields, business

  2. The Transportation Logistics of Manufactured Products in the Colombian Internal Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisson Castro Escobar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tracks the transport logistics of the Colombian manufacturing industry in the domestic market, analyzing the direction and the volume of the cargo moved by road. The study is intended to identify some sectorial and regional enclaves of the industry that could be strategic for market diversification and to facilitate production chains. Estimates of land freight movements are made based on the origin-destination survey carried out by the Ministry of Transportation in 2008. The different regional and sectorial flows are projected through a geodetic network model. The results indicate that regional differences in product specialization explain the movement of cargo from specific industries, while in other cases there are no significant flows because the industries largely serve local markets.

  3. Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  4. Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

  5. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid.......Forsøg på at indkredse begrebet blended learning i forbindelse med forberedelsen af projekt FlexVid....

  6. STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE (ANS) TO MARKETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwin A. Chukwu, Ph.D., P.E.

    2002-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the US where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundance resource. The throughput of oil through the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) has been on decline and is expected to continue to decline in future. It is projected that by the year 2015, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level that there will be a critical need for pumping additional liquid from GTL process to provide an adequate volume for economic operation of TAPS. The pumping of GTL products through TAPS will significantly increase its economic life. Transporting GTL products from the North Slope of Alaska down to the Marine terminal at Valdez is no doubt the great challenge facing the Gas to Liquids options of utilizing the abundant natural gas resource of the North Slope. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the economic feasibility of transporting GTL products through the TAPS. Material testing program for GTL and GTL/Crude oil blends was designed and implemented for measurement of physical properties of GTL products. The measurement and evaluation of the properties of these materials were necessary so as to access the feasibility of transporting such materials through TAPS under cold arctic conditions. Results of the tests indicated a trend of increasing yield strength with increasing wax content. GTL samples exhibited high gel strengths at temperatures as high as 20 F, which makes it difficult for cold restart following winter shutdowns. Simplified

  7. Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gynther, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen giver en grundlæggende introduktion til begrebet blended learning og sætter fokus på didaktiske spørgsmål som: Hvad er blended learning? Hvilke forskellige former ser vi i dag i danske uddannelser? Hvorfor udbydes uddannelser i stigende grad i et blended learning format? Hvilke didaktiske...... principper kan man som underviser tage i brug, når man skal designe et blended learning forløb? Hvad er den grundlæggende didaktiske forskel på tilstedeværelsesundervisning og netbaseret undervisning? Og hvilke kritiske perspektiver er det vigtigt at have med, når en uddannelsesinstitution beslutter sig...... for at re-designe traditionel tilstedeværelsesundervisning til blended learning?...

  8. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Blended Learning has been implemented, evaluated and researched for the last decades within different educational areas and levels. Blended learning has been coupled with different epistemological understandings and learning theories, but the fundamental character and dimensions of learning...... in blended learning are still insufficient. Moreover, blended learning is a misleading concept described as learning, despite the fact that it fundamentally is an instructional and didactic approach (Oliver & Trigwell, 2005) addressing the learning environment (Inglis, Palipoana, Trenhom & Ward, 2011......) instead of the learning processes behind. Much of the existing research within the field seems to miss this perspective. The consequence is a lack of acknowledgement of the driven forces behind the context and the instructional design limiting the knowledge foundation of learning in blended learning. Thus...

  9. Blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    in blended learning are still insufficient. Moreover, blended learning is a misleading concept described as learning, despite the fact that it fundamentally is an instructional and didactic approach (Oliver & Trigwell, 2005) addressing the learning environment (Inglis, Palipoana, Trenhom & Ward, 2011......Blended Learning has been implemented, evaluated and researched for the last decades within different educational areas and levels. Blended learning has been coupled with different epistemological understandings and learning theories, but the fundamental character and dimensions of learning......) instead of the learning processes behind. Much of the existing research within the field seems to miss this perspective. The consequence is a lack of acknowledgement of the driven forces behind the context and the instructional design limiting the knowledge foundation of learning in blended learning. Thus...

  10. Interpreting concentration indices in the secondary market for natural gas transportation: The implication of pipeline residual rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission created a secondary market for natural gas transportation whereby shippers holding firm transportation capacity on interstate natural gas pipelines can compete with the pipeline in the provision of transportation services. However, if a shipper does not use some of its contracted firm transportation capacity, the pipeline can resell that capacity as interruptible transportation. That is, the pipeline has residual rights with respect to firm transportation capacity contracted for by shippers. We demonstrate that these residual rights can have a significant effect on the competitiveness of the secondary market for natural gas transportation. A consequence of these residual rights is that the secondary market for natural gas transportation may be considerably more competitive than indicated by measures of concentration like the widely used Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. (author)

  11. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  12. Effects of methods of confinement during transportation of market pigs on their behavior, stress and injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchan Na-Lampang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of transport market pigs in individual crates vs. in groups ontheir behavior, stress and injury. The pigs were transported for 1 h on a distance of 70 km. The stocking densities were 0.35m2/pig and 0.48 m2 for groups and individual crates treatment, respectively. During loading, the group pigs had higher frequencies of climbing, slipping and turning around than the crate pigs. During transport, the group pigs engaged in fightingand agonistic interactions. There were no differences (P>0.05 between the two treatments in rectal temperature, respiratoryrate and saliva cortisol level. Pigs kept in crates had lower (P<0.05 skin bruise scores but higher proportion of nonambulatorypigs than those kept in groups. In conclusion, transport in crates caused less agitation behaviors and injuries than transportin groups, but there was no differences in stress indicators.

  13. About Some Aspects of Development of the Domestic Market of Services of the Waterway Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Kogan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of fundamental factors of development of national economy in modern conditions is a transport complex of the country. The analysis shows, historically raising of many developed countries in many respects was provided with concentration of the state transport policy on optimization of conditions for creation of mass, large-scale transportations that is caused by the acceleration of technical progress involving the growing need of economy for increase in speed of transportations, the tonnage of vehicles, etc. Territorial reserves of Russia demand harmonious development of all transport complex, including, railway, automobile, air, water. Shows world experiment, in the countries with such abundance of the rivers, waterways as in Russia one of decisive factors of growth of volumes of transportation of goods and passengers, increase of efficiency of deliveries in scales of all national economy, is the maximum use of a water transport which, other things being equal, manages to the state tens times cheaper than the contents automobile and the railroads. Currently time for the domestic market of transport services, unlike world, lack of close integration and interrelations in the form of commodity transport complexes with presence of managing directors of the transport centers influencing formation of tariff policy is characteristic. At the same time the analysis of productivity of a package of measures of tax support of navigation in the Russian Federation, implementation of the FTP "Development of transport system of Russia (2010 - 2020gody" according to the Concept of long-term social and economic development of the country till 2020 shows their efficiency that is confirmed by positive dynamics of indicators of economic activity of shipping companies, revival of ship-building branch, existence of multiplicative effect due to development of allied industries, revival of business, creation of additional workplaces.

  14. Stockyard blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, C.; Grattarola, G.C. (Italimpianti S.p.A., Genoa (Italy). Bulk Materials Handling Division)

    1991-03-01

    Six computer calculation programs have been developed to simulate the blending process. The integrated system, known as ASPO, has been implemented by Italimpianti for statistical analysis of the blending processes in stockyards. Programs are written in FORTRAN 77 and require a short processing time. The OLOMON program analyzes the content percentages; RAILON analyses the ratio indices; the TRAGEO and TRAMIX programs allow the building of the transverse section of the pipe and create data for subsequent analysis of reclaiming the front; TRATAM and TRARUA enable analysis of the reclaiming of the pile with a barrel and a wheel reclaimer respectively. Results of the application of the blending technique in the iron and steel industry in an iron ore plant and in a coal blending plant in the USSR are given. 1 ref., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Blended learning

    OpenAIRE

    Басава, Ганна Іванаўна; Салаўёў, Павел Леанідавіч

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the training initiatives in blended learning increased enormously as a result of the different demands to integrate the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in educational systems. In Higher Education, the blend approach is highly pursued because of its unique flexibility that allows the teacher to propose, in every situation, more advantageous train- ing solutions for their students, contrary to mandatory classroom in Basic and Secondary schools. It seems that th...

  16. Internet-marketing v mezhdunarodnoi torgovle i na transporte = Internet marketing in the international trade and transport international transport corridors / Vladimir Zaitsev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zaitsev, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne 3.-4. detsembrini 2003 Tallinnas toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverents-näitusel "Logistics and transport in international trade" käsitleb Interneti rolli ja võimalusi rahvusvaheliste transporditeenuste turunduses

  17. Theoretical aspects of innovative trends and features of the transport services on the modern transport market

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterine Tavberidze

    2014-01-01

    The article provides views of various authors on the definition of innovation in the field of transport services, as well as the author's understanding of this issue. It introduces the term innovation in the legal turnover, says about the state impact on innovation, encouragement and tries to identify a possible approach to the development of the desired definition. In the second part of the paper, the tendencies of development logistics services in the modern world are mentioned, statistical...

  18. Screening of tank-to-wheel efficiencies for CNG, DME and methanol-ethanol fuel blends in road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappel, J.; Vad Mathiesen, B.

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the fuel efficiency of selected alternative fuels based on vehicle performance in a standardised drive cycle test. All studies reviewed are either based on computer modelling of current or future vehicles or tests of just one alternative fuel, under different conditions and concentrations against either petrol or diesel. No studies were found testing more than one type of alternative fuel in the same setup. Due to this one should be careful when comparing results on several alternative fuels. Only few studies have been focused on vehicle energy efficiency. This screening indicates methanol, methanol-ethanol blends and CNG to be readily availability, economic feasible and with the introduction of the DISI engine not technologically challenging compared to traditional fuels. Studies across fuel types indicate a marginally better fuel utilization for methanol-ethanol fuel mixes. (Author)

  19. High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode based on blend of hole- and electron-transporting materials as a co-host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonghua; Chen, Jiangshan; Zhao, Yongbiao; Ma, Dongge

    2012-05-01

    Highly efficient blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) were achieved by blending the same hole- and electron-transporting layer materials in device as the host in the emissive layer. The design of this kind of device structure not only decreases the amount of used organic materials but also greatly reduces the structural heterogeneities and effectively facilitates the charge injection into the emissive layer. The resulting blue PHOLEDs exhibit higher electroluminescent efficiency. The maximum external quantum efficiency and power efficiency reach 20.4% and 55.4 lm W-1, respectively, yet keep 19.5% and 49.9 lm W-1, 18.3% and 40.9 lm W-1, respectively, at a luminance of 100 and 1000 cd m-2, showing a low efficiency roll-off property. The mechanism studies fully demonstrate that the bipolar co-host system extends the lifetime of excitons, broadens the recombination zone, and improves the charge carrier injection and transport balance, which are of greatly critical to get the improved efficiency and efficiency roll-off at high luminance in the blue PHOLEDs.

  20. ACTIVE MEASURES AS PART OF DIALOGUE MARKETING PROMOTING THE USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman KLEMENTSCHITZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The SmartMove project is working to advance innovative marketing and mobility solutions in eight rural and peripheral European regions and is co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union. Through tailor-made strategies, it aims to provide information and encourage people to use public transport in their region. Sparsely populated rural areas in Europe are facing tremendous social changes due to shrinking and ageing populations. Because of the scattered settlement structure in these areas, the public transport network density is low and service frequency is often poor. The problems are exacerbated by increasing private car use, which, in a vicious circle, leads to further reductions in services. However, simple tools such as dialogue marketing and minor adjustments to scheduling can help change people’s perceptions. Dialogue marketing techniques have already been shown to increase passenger numbers by as much as 10 to 15 percent. Greater demand leads to higher revenues, making it possible to improve the system and attract even more passengers, turning the vicious circle into a positive loop.

  1. Competence and Capacity-Building Requirements in Transport and Logistics Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaras Darius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses theoretical aspects of the qualitative assessment of logistics and transport specialists’ potential, as well as provides research results on competence and capacity-building process in preparation of logistics and transport specialists. The results enabled to identify problematic areas of graduate integration in the labour market and foresee the possible requirements for professional development. In some cases, internal motivation is related to problematic points or negative view from the environment, as well as poor understanding of knowledge benefits in the person’s practical life. Training and education is objectively at the meeting point between research, technological and organisational systems. In such conditions the objective of the education on logistics is to offer the customers the best possible service in the field of the transfer of knowledge in harmony with the trend in logistics programme development. The main problems and perspectives of logistics education and training process are discussed in this article.

  2. 油运之“结”%Market Mottoof Oil Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    作为“黑金”运输的战略要地,国际油轮运输市场早已是狼烟四起,围绕话语权的争夺.高手间你来我往,一招一式.刀光剑影。在这样的环境中,中国油运市场也难以独善其身。%Kissinger, Rockefeller's favorite student, has once pointed out that if you control the oil, .you will control all the countries. The greatwealth brought about by the "black gold" of oil is like the forbidden fruit tempting Eve that makes interest pursuers find it difficult to resist. As the strategic battlefield for "black gold" transport, the international tanker transportation market has become a place filled with flames of war where all countries are sparing no effort to fight for the power of decision.

  3. A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on the Air Transport Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfeddine, Souhir; DeColigny, Marc; Camino, Felix Mora; Cosenza, Carlos Alberto Nunes

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to study with a new scope the conditions of the equilibrium in an air transport market where two competitive airlines are operating. Each airline is supposed to adopt a strategy maximizing its profit while its estimation of the demand has a fuzzy nature. This leads each company to optimize a program of its proposed services (frequency of the flights and ticket prices) characterized by some fuzzy parameters. The case of monopoly is being taken as a benchmark. Classical convex optimization can be used to solve this decision problem. This approach provides the airline with a new decision tool where uncertainty can be taken into account explicitly. The confrontation of the strategies of the companies, in the ease of duopoly, leads to the definition of a fuzzy equilibrium. This concept of fuzzy equilibrium is more general and can be applied to several other domains. The formulation of the optimization problem and the methodological consideration adopted for its resolution are presented in their general theoretical aspect. In the case of air transportation, where the conditions of management of operations are critical, this approach should offer to the manager elements needed to the consolidation of its decisions depending on the circumstances (ordinary, exceptional events,..) and to be prepared to face all possibilities. Keywords: air transportation, competition equilibrium, convex optimization , fuzzy modeling,

  4. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

  5. Handbook for Handling, Storing, and Dispensing E85 and Other Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-02

    This document provides information on ethanol fuel properties, standards, codes, best practices, and equipment information for those who blend, distribute, store, sell, or use E15 (gasoline blended with 10.5 percent - 15 percent ethanol), E85 (marketing term for ethanol-gasoline blends containing 51 percent - 83 percent ethanol, depending on geography and season), and other ethanol blends.

  6. Biofuel supply chain, market, and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei

    Renewable fuel is receiving an increasing attention as a substitute for fossil based energy. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has employed increasing effort on promoting the advanced biofuel productions. Although the advanced biofuel remains at its early stage, it is expected to play an important role in climate policy in the future in the transportation sector. This dissertation studies the emerging biofuel supply chain and markets by analyzing the production cost, and the outcomes of the biofuel market, including blended fuel market price and quantity, biofuel contract price and quantity, profitability of each stakeholder (farmers, biofuel producers, biofuel blenders) in the market. I also address government policy impacts on the emerging biofuel market. The dissertation is composed with three parts, each in a paper format. The first part studies the supply chain of emerging biofuel industry. Two optimization-based models are built to determine the number of facilities to deploy, facility locations, facility capacities, and operational planning within facilities. Cost analyses have been conducted under a variety of biofuel demand scenarios. It is my intention that this model will shed light on biofuel supply chain design considering operational planning under uncertain demand situations. The second part of the dissertation work focuses on analyzing the interaction between the key stakeholders along the supply chain. A bottom-up equilibrium model is built for the emerging biofuel market to study the competition in the advanced biofuel market, explicitly formulating the interactions between farmers, biofuel producers, blenders, and consumers. The model simulates the profit maximization of multiple market entities by incorporating their competitive decisions in farmers' land allocation, biomass transportation, biofuel production, and biofuel blending. As such, the equilibrium model is capable of and appropriate for policy analysis, especially for those policies

  7. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority-DTe-has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise-Gas Transport Services, or GTS-to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. This policy, in general, is in line with European legislation on the liberalization of the gas market. We model and simulate the (domestic) welfare effects of a 5 percent transport price reduction. From this, we conclude that at least three observations complicate matters substantially. First, GTS is government-owned, and the dominant shipper-Gasunie Trade and Supply (or GasTerra, as it was recoined recently)-is partly so (50%). Second, shippers enter into the competitive game to make profits. Third, not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but also foreign owners have a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other. Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the end-consumers. Third, it is unavoidable that a substantial part of the rents are transferred abroad. A general conclusion for policy-makers is that market liberalization might not bring ex post what they expected ex ante

  8. Welfare distribution effect of a price reduction in the Dutch gas transport market: A scenario analysis of regulatory policy, market form and rent allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority - DTe - has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise - Gas Transport Services, or GTS - to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. This policy, in general, is in line with European legislation on the liberalization of the gas market. We model and simulate the (domestic) welfare effects of a 5 percent transport price reduction. From this, we conclude that at least three observations complicate matters substantially. First, GTS is government-owned, and the dominant shipper - Gasunie Trade and Supply (or GasTerra, as it was recoined recently) - is partly so (50%). Second, shippers enter into the competitive game to make profits. Third, not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but also foreign owners have a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other. Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the end-consumers. Third, it is unavoidable that a substantial part of the rents are transferred abroad. A general conclusion for policy-makers is that market liberalization might not bring ex post what they expected ex ante. (author)

  9. Blending of polyethylene materials for pipe applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Wayne Clifton Augustus

    1989-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Melt blending of polyethylene, in particularly HDPE and LLDPE, have been shown to be a major success, especially in the film markets. In this thesis studies are reported on the stress rupture performance of pipes produced from selected polyethylene materials blended to a chosen MDPE pipe grade. The pipes were tested, notched or unnotched, at a single temperature of 80oC and at internal pressu...

  10. 翼身融合布局客机的客舱设计%Design of cabin layout for blended wing body passenger transports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖慧君; 张曙光

    2009-01-01

    The blended wing body (BWB) commercial aircraft configuration has become a hot topic and has been widely studied around the world. As a new configuration, its cabin design is very different from the conventional, so it's necessary to study the new problems with the BWB cabin design. Focused on the marked traits, some basic cabin-relative issues were studied. The cabin layout must meet the CCAR-25 criteria, as well as the passengers' comfort need, so the cabin related airworthiness and comfort items were firstly abstracted. A cabin layout solution and the accompanying parameterization method were followed. The 250 seating BWB transport was then taken as example for the details of layout design. The results show that the parameterization method of the cabin layout is feasible for the need of a BWB family. However, such requirements as e-mergent evacuation within 90 seconds must be further highlighted and verified by experiments.%翼身融合作为一种新型民机布局,其客舱设计较常规布局有很大不同.以翼身融合布局客机客舱为研究对象,结合其自身特性,确定了与客舱设计相关的适航条例和舒适性要求;确定基本布局方案和客舱参数化设计方法;以250座三级布置为例,对客舱区座椅和设施等进行了详细布置.结果表明,翼身融合布局客舱的参数化方法是可行的,能够满足飞机系列化发展对客舱灵活布置的需要.但应急撤离设计方案是否满足90 s撤离适航要求的应急疏散问题还有待进一步的实验验证.

  11. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. (Rowland (P.) Associates (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ( OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  12. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (''OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws

  13. Capitalizing on new opportunities in Canada's emerging midstream : processing, transportation, marketing, NGL, storage : proceedings of a Canadian Institute conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Text or speaking notes used at a conference to examine the challenges and opportunities facing Canada's midstream petroleum and natural gas industry are contained in this volume. A total of eight 8 papers were presented, focusing on the wide range of business opportunities that do not fit into the core functions of the upstream business (exploration and production), or into the core functions of the downstream business (distribution and retail marketing). One of the biggest opportunities lies in the development of storage facilities for the natural gas industry. Other aspects of the midstream business addressed included processing, transportation, marketing, and natural gas liquids. tabs., figs

  14. Benchmarking passenger air transport marketing activities in Vietnam : case company: Etihad Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Nga Nguyen, Thi

    2015-01-01

    Marketing strategy is crucial for businesses operating in highly competitive environments. Especially with the intense competition over international flights in the Vietnamese air travel market, it is important for airlines to adopt superior strategy, in order to incorporate brand presence in the market. Hence, performing benchmarking on marketing strategy for Etihad Airways is timely and necessary. The thesis adopts the combination of inductive and deductive approaches, with the assistan...

  15. Identification and Quantification of Processes Affecting the Fate of Ethanol-Blended Fuel in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, J. M.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    At present, the oil and gas industry distributes gasoline with an ethanol content of up to 10% (E10) to the consumer. However, ethanol advocates are promoting gasoline blends with higher ethanol content to be introduced into the market (e.g., E20, corresponding to an ethanol content of 20%). The likelihood of unintended fuel releases with elevated ethanol concentrations through surficial spills or from underground storage systems will therefore increase. A particular concern is the increased rate of CH4 and CO2 production as the spill biodegrades, which is believed to be associated with the increased ethanol content in the fuel. Consequently, high gas generation rates associated with ethanol-blended fuels may amplify the risk of vapor intrusion of CH4 and BTEX into basements or other subsurface structures that may be nearby. A comprehensive and comparative study on the fate of higher concentration ethanol-blended fuels in the subsurface has not been conducted to date. The present study focuses on determining the fate of ethanol blended fuels in the subsurface through a series of controlled and instrumented laboratory column experiments. The experiments compare the behavior of pure gasoline with that of ethanol-blended fuels for different soil types (sand and silt) in columns 2 meters tall and 30cm in diameter. The column experiments focus on the quantification of gas generation by volatilization and biodegradation and 1-D vertical fate and transport of CO2, CH4, benzene and toluene through the vadose zone. The fuel blends have been injected into the lower third of the columns and gas composition and fluxes within the column are being monitored over time. The goal of this study is to contribute to the scientific foundation that will allow gauging the level of risk and the need for remediation at fuel spill sites with higher ethanol blends.

  16. Going below the line: creating transportable brands for Australia's dark market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate non-point-of-sale cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents. Results: The tobacco industry has continued to market their products despite severe restrictions on legal marketing activity. They made careful plans to circumvent regulation well in advance. In preparation for bans, they chose and strengthened existing brands to enable their continued success in a dark market and prepared the consumer for bans by increasing their spending on below the line activities. Bans reduced the industry's effectiveness and efficiency. After bans new brand launches stopped: instead key existing brands were strengthened via alterations to the product, line extensions, and stretching loopholes in the legislation as far as possible. In line with the general trend towards integrated marketing, a range of activities have been used in combination, including guerrilla marketing, advertising in imported international magazines, altering the pack, sponsorships, brand stretching, event promotions, lifestyle premiums, and the development of corporate websites. Conclusions: The tobacco industry acknowledges that marketing restrictions have an impact, validating their continued use in tobacco control. The industry is extremely creative in circumventing these marketing restrictions, requiring tobacco marketing regulations to be informed by marketing expertise, regularly updated, and to adopt the broadest possible scope. Tobacco control advocates, particularly those communicating with young people, could learn from the creativity of the tobacco industry. PMID:14645953

  17. Assessment of Mexico's program to use ethanol as transportation fuel: impact of 6% ethanol-blended fuel on emissions of light-duty gasoline vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifter, Isaac; Díaz, Luis; Rodríguez, Rene; Salazar, Lucia

    2011-02-01

    Recently, the Mexican government launched a national program encouraging the blending of renewable fuels in engine fuel. To aid the assessment of the environmental consequences of this move, the effect of gasoline fuel additives, ethanol and methyl tert-butyl ether, on the tailpipe and the evaporative emissions of Mexico sold cars was investigated. Regulated exhaust and evaporative emissions, such as carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, and 15 unregulated emissions were measured under various conditions on a set of 2005-2008 model light-duty vehicles selected based on sales statistics for the Mexico City metropolitan area provided by car manufacturers. The selected car brands are also frequent in Canada, the USA, and other parts of the world. This paper provides details and results of the experiment that are essential for evaluation of changes in the emission inventory, originating in the low-blend ethanol addition in light vehicle fuel.

  18. Assessing the current Brazilian sugar cane industry and directing developments for maximum fossil fuel mitigation for the international petrochemical market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The EU proposes that 5.75% of the transportation fuels market consist of biofuels by 2010 and the USA proposes that all gasoline be blended with 10% bioethanol by 2012. While these targets have not yet been reached, an aura of critique is emerging, arguing that biofuel mandates are not sustainable.

  19. The use of the natural-gas pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen transport in a changing market structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the transport and distribution aspects of hydrogen during the transition period towards a possible full-blown hydrogen economy are carefully looked at. Firstly, the energetic and material aspects of hydrogen transport through the existing natural-gas (NG) pipeline infrastructure is discussed. Hereby, only the use of centrifugal compressors and the short-term security of supply seem to constitute a problem for the NG to hydrogen transition. Subsequently, the possibility of percentwise mixing of hydrogen into the NG bulk is dealt with. Mixtures containing up to 17 vol% of hydrogen should not cause difficulties. As soon as more hydrogen is injected, replacement of end-use applications and some pipelines will be necessary. Finally, the transition towards full-blown hydrogen transport in (previously carrying) NG pipelines is treated. Some policy guidelines are offered, both in a regulated and a liberalised energy (gas) market. As a conclusion, it can be stated that the use of hydrogen-natural gas mixtures seems well suited for the transition from natural gas to hydrogen on a distribution (low pressure) level. However, getting the hydrogen gas to the distribution grid, by means of the transport grid, remains a major issue. In the end, the structure of the market, regulated or liberalised, turns out not to be important. (author)

  20. Effective Blended Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Blended learning is becoming more prevalent in higher education courses. Reasons for blending range from accommodating more students to improving the quality of courses offered. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to discuss student attitudes towards blended courses versus face-to-face versus completely online courses, and (2) to consider…

  1. 76 FR 49832 - Notice of Market Assessment and Public Meeting for Digital Transportation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... ideation and crowd sourcing from citizens, industry, operators, businesses, experts and academics... innovative digital transportation strategies and plans for funding. Funding and Financing: Attract attention... transportation business plans for funding. Stimulate solution development through innovative funding...

  2. Blended learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    `Blended learning` во изучувањето на странските јазици нуди голема предност во споредба со другите методи и пристапи. Како концепт тој вклучува обработка на оригинален текст и негова актуeлизација во процесот на учење во комбинација со интернет или напредната технологија во наставата, но користи и аудио и видео снимки од изворни говорници. Во својата наставна дејност анализирам и обработувам видео и аудио текстови од германски изворни говорители преземени од различни веб страници. На овој нач...

  3. Ambipolar charge carrier transport in organic semiconductor blends of C{sub 60} and CuPc; Ambipolarer Ladungstransport in organischen Halbleiter-Mischschichten bestehend aus C{sub 60} und CuPc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronner, Markus

    2008-06-20

    In this work ambipolar charge carrier transport is realised in organic field effect transistors using mixtures of p-conductive copper phthalocyanine and n-conductive buckminster fullerene as active layer. These blends are known from research on organic solar cells and can be considered as a model system for ambipolar transport. The field effect mobilities for electrons and holes can be adjusted by the variation of the mixing ratio. Thereby balanced mobilities for both charge carrier types are possible. In this work the variation of mobility, threshold voltage and electronic energy levels with the mixing ratio is discussed. The charge carrier mobilities are strongly reduced upon dilution of the respective conducting phase by the other species. This shows that transport of each carrier species occurs by percolation through the respective phase in the blend. A strong correlation between contact resistance and mobility indicates that carrier injection is diffusion limited. A charge redistribution in the copper phthalocyanine causes a hole accumulation at the organic/organic interface and affects thereby the threshold voltage for holes. The electronic structure was investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that there is no chemical reaction between the different materials. The common work function of these blends changes linearly between the work functions of the neat materials. Moreover, a constant ionisation potential for the highest occupied molecular orbitals of the two materials and the core levels is obtained. Furthermore ambipolar inverters using mixed organic semiconductor layers were made and compared to complementary inverters consisting of discrete p- and n-channel transistors. The experimental findings and concomitant simulations demonstrate the need for balanced electron and hole mobilities in order to achieve symmetric inverter characteristics. However, they also reveal the superior performance of true complementary logic inverters towards

  4. Challenges of global markets: The role of transportation in supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Temjanovski, Riste

    2015-01-01

    International business world has been undergoing a period of rapid transformation. Trends towards globalization, supported with multimodal transport and supply chain facilities are all reshaping the world’s trading patterns and consequently physical trade flows. The supply chain has become one of the main globalization forces today. Transportation occupies one-third of the amount in the logistics costs and transportation systems influence the performance of supply chain management. Only a goo...

  5. Transportation scenario of Black Bengal goats in Gabtoli and Sirajganj markets of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nazmus sakib

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: From this study it is concluded that Black Bengal goats became physically unfit during long time transportation although majority of the farmers took proper management practices. Therefore, changes in behavioral responses might be alleviated through creating awareness to animal raiser as well transporter. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 38-44

  6. 以市场为导向强化铁路运输企业的营销机制%Strengthening the Marketing Mechanism of Railway Transportation Enterprise Based on Market-oriented

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史柱文

    2014-01-01

    This essay begins from the situation analysis faced of railway freight market and draws up the marketing strategy based on issue of the market. The main point is to strengthen marketing concept and construction of marketing team, improve marketing mechanism, set up the assessment and incentive mechanism, increase railway freight transportation benefit.%本文从铁路货运市场面临的形势分析出发,围绕市场做文章,强化市场营销观念,加强市场营销队伍建设,完善市场营销机制,建立考核激励机制,提高铁路货物运输效益。

  7. Microstructural blending of coal to enhance flowability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Chakra, H.; Tuezuen, U. [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering

    2000-09-11

    Coal-fired power stations for electricity generation are well known to suffer from chronic problems in coal handling and flow affecting the operation of pulverisation mills and combustors. The economic impact of coal handling facilities can be significant, resulting in total shutdown of the power generating plant in some extreme cases. In coal-fired power generation, optimal operation of the combustors requires the ash content of pulverised coal not exceed 20%. Excessive ash content would result in lower calorific value. Therefore, the overall profitability of the market coal tends to be strongly effected by the ash content of the raw coal. However, the flowability of coal tends to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the constituent particles, as well as the presence of high fines fraction. The experimental work described in this paper aims to illustrate how flowability can be enhanced by optimising particle size distribution and particle surface moisture in blends of raw and washed coals. The results of the flowability tests obtained with ''microstructurally'' blended samples indicate that to ensure flowability in process vessels, it is necessary to blend according to important microstructural criteria as well as minimising ash content. Microstructural blending is not included in current industrial practice, which only blends washed and raw coals to produce high calorific value and low ash content. The work presented here establishes methodology for microstructural blending to enhance bulk flowability. (orig.)

  8. FAME as blend component for diesel fuel and heating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Juergen [AGQM Biodiesel e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    For more than a decade, biofuels have been both added to fossil fuels or used as their alternative. At first biofuels were primarily used as pure fuel; nowadays European filling stations predominantly offer fuel blends and despite the fact that the so-called 'second generation' is favoured, today Bioethanol and Biodiesel are (still) the only biofuels available in large amounts and when it comes to supplying the transport sector with Diesel fuel, Biodiesel renders an important contribution. There is an increasing discussion whether its use as heating oil component would also be both expedient and technically possible. Apart from a historical detour and information concerning today's Biodiesel market, this presentation first and foremost illustrates the most important properties of FAME and also goes into application opportunities and issues. (orig.)

  9. Posibilities Of Appliing Integrated Marketing Logistic In The Harbour-Transportation Services

    OpenAIRE

    Mimo Draskovic

    2007-01-01

    Logistics as a relatively new science with its methodology of optimization and organization of rational movement of tangible (cargo) and accompanying flows, such as informational, financial and service, enables the increase in efficiency of these flows, decrease of expenses, greater number of satisfied clients and creation of added value as the basis of competitive advantage. Due to the mentioned characteristics, the integrated marketing logistics has great possibilities of being applied in r...

  10. Strategija marketing-miksa u obezbeđivanju kadrova saobraćajne službe vojske / The marketing mix strategy within army transportation service personnel providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Ljubojević

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aktuelni reformski procesi u Vojsci Srbije prilika su za postavljanje novih principa, kada je u pitanju spoj marketinga i vojne organizacije. U ovom radu prikazan je mogući izgled instrumenata marketing-miksa u funkciji obezbeđivanja kadrovskih resursa saobraćajne službe Vojske Srbije, sa namerom da se definiše opšti izgled instrumenata u marketing-aktivnostima. / The presently relevant reform processes in the Military of Serbia are an opportunity for setting new principles when we are talking about marketing - military organization joint. In this work a possible look of marketing mix instruments is presented which purpose is to provide meaning resources of transportation service in the Military of Serbia, with intention to define a general look of the instruments in marketing activities.

  11. Marketing marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede branding en onderscheidende zichtbaarheid juist van belang. Met de groei van big data en het belang van onbewust gedrag, zullen vooral die marketeers in de toekomst succesvol zijn die de consument het b...

  12. A Blended Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecer, Aynur; Dag, Funda

    2012-01-01

    Blended (hybrid) learning is one of the approaches that is utilized to help students for meaningful learning via information and communication technologies in educational settings. In this study, Computer II Course which is taught in faculties of education was planned and implemented in the form of a blended learning environment. The data were…

  13. Establishing Sprinkling Requirements on Trailers Transporting Market Weight Pigs in Warm and Hot Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kephart

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted July of 2012 in Iowa, in WARM (<26.7 °C and HOT (≥26.7 °C weather. Four sprinkling methods were compared, with one treatment being randomly assigned to each load: control- no sprinkling (not applied in HOT weather, pigs only, bedding only, or pigs and bedding. Experiment 1 used 51 loads in WARM- and 86 loads in HOT weather to determine sprinkling effects on pig measures (surface temperature, vocalizations, slips and falls, and stress signs. Experiment 2 used 82 loads in WARM- and 54 loads in HOT weather to determine the sprinkling effects on transport losses (non-ambulatory, dead, and total transport losses. Experiment 1 found that, in WARM weather, there were no differences between sprinkling treatments for surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p ≥ 0.18. However, stress signs were 2% greater when sprinkling pigs- or bedding only- compared to control (p = 0.03. Experiment 2 found that, in WARM and HOT weather, sprinkling did not affect non-ambulatory, dead, or total transport losses (p ≥ 0.18. Although the current study did not find any observed sprinkling effects for pig measures or transport losses it is extremely important to note that the inference space of this study is relatively small, so further studies should be conducted to see if these results are applicable to other geographical regions and seasons.

  14. Blended Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise

    2015-01-01

    and Learning Resources (EILR) was asked to develop and support the blended learning implementation strategy. EILR is an inter-faculty unit in UCL, which develops and supports digitization and learning approaches in the professional bachelor programme. The paper addresses the potentials and the pitfalls...... in the blended learning implementation strategy. The blended learning implementation strategy contains phases for preparation, development, implementation and evaluation. The preparation phase addresses the importance of goal-setting and includes the winnings and the purpose. The developmental phase looks......University College Lillebaelt has decided that 30 percent of all educational elements must be generated as blended learning by the end of the year 2015 as part of a modernization addressing following educational needs: 1. Blended learning can help match the expectations of the future students who...

  15. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation

  16. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede brand

  17. Point-to-point people with purpose—Exploring the possibility of a commercial traveler market for point-to-point suborbital space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Derek

    2013-12-01

    An argument was made at the First Arcachon Conference on Private Human Access to Space in 2008 [1] that some systematic market research should be conducted into potential market segments for point-to-point suborbital space transportation (PtP), in order to understand whether a commercial market exists which might augment possible government use for such a vehicle. The cargo market potential was subsequently addressed via desk research, and the results, which resulted in a pessimistic business case outlook, were presented in [2]. The same desk research approach is now used in this paper to address the potential business and wealthy individual passenger traveler market segment ("point-to-point people with purpose"). The results, with the assumed ticket pricing, are not encouraging.

  18. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report looks at the impact of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the developing State oil spill regulations on the tanker and coastal barge markets, and at the implications for the future of the U.S. seaborne petroleum trades. The analysis relied on a dual approach. Because much of the legislation, both State and Federal, is still evolving--particularly with respect to implementing regulations--as yet there can be no definitive assessment of its impact. Consequently a quantitative analysis of fleets, trades, and vessel movements, was complemented by extensive interviews. Discussions have been held with oil companies large and small, shipowners, charterers, insurance companies, classification societies, and a variety of public and private institutions active in the maritime industry. All interviews were conducted in confidence: no individual views are identified in the report. (AT)

  19. Blended Learning Environments and Suggesstions for Blended Learning Design

    OpenAIRE

    Dağ, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The number of studies in blended learning field, which has gained importance by being reinterpreted with the effect of the developments in information and communication technologies, has been increasing recently. There have been many diverse approaches in these studies on the point of defining blended learning and on the point of which components of blended learning environments need blending and how they are blended. The aim of this study is to examine national and international studies in b...

  20. MOOC Blended learning ontwikkelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verjans, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Presentatie over het ontwerpen van leeractiviteiten (learning design) tijdens de zesde live sessie van de MOOC Blended learning ontwikkelen. Met gebruikmaking van presentatiematerialen van Diana Laurillard, Grainne Conole, Helen Beetham, Jos Fransen, Pieter Swager, Helen Keegan, Corinne Weisgerber.

  1. Storage, transportation, test marketing and consumer acceptance of irradiated potatoes, onions, garlic and fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shanghai Irradiation Center irradiated 830 tonnes of garlic 395 tonnes of potatoes 620 tonnes of onions and 50 tonnes of apples from 1990 to 1993 for test marketing. A consumer trial on irradiated apples was conducted. The results showed that 90% of consumers liked irradiated fruit and would be willing to buy them again. SIC established technological standards for the irradiation of garlic, potatoes and onions based on the codes of good irradiation practices recommended by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation. These standards were followed during the conduct of the research studies reported in this paper. A cost-benefit analysis of irradiated apples and garlic was performed. It was observed that irradiated apples would provide a profit of 52% and irradiated garlic 100% compared to unirradiated products. Data from an economic benefits study showed that products requiring a low absorbed dose have a higher profit margin. Therefore, the irradiation of garlic, potatoes and apples would be more profitable than radiation treatment of medical supplies and industrial products. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  2. Myths and Realities of Academic Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather, James S.

    1995-01-01

    Examines national data on 4,481 full-time college and university faculty to develop a pay model derived from competing propositions (market segmentation, single national market, and incentive-based perspectives) concerning salary's role in faculty rewards. Findings suggest a blend of market segmentation with a national market perspective rewarding…

  3. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:China’s financial markets remained stable in 2007, the central bank said,but the stock market stumbled on the heels of international market fluctuations.Food supplies were in short- age as the blizzard in southern provinces blocked transportation and destroyed farm produce.China Minmetals moved abroad to Canada for gold and copper,while the South Korean Lotte Shopping looked to China for the supermarket boom.

  4. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, P.J. [Rowland (P.) Associates (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA``) and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy`s Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry`s behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  5. The characterization of novel biodegradable blends based on polyhydroxybutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Pankova, Yulia; Shchegolikhin, Alexandr; lordanskii, Alexey; Zhulkina, Anna; Ol'khov, Anatoliy; Zaikov, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the study of novel blends based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and polymers with different hydrophilicity (LDPE and PA). Polymer blends were produced from five ratios of PHB/LDPE in order to regulate the resistance to hydrolysis or (bio)degradation through the control of water permeability. The relation between the water transport and morphology (TEM data) shows the impact of polymer component ratio on the regulating water flux in a hydrophobic matrix. To elucid...

  6. Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang (and others) 1997; Wang (and others) 1999; Levelton Engineering (and others) 1999; Shapouri (and others) 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative

  7. AKRO/SF: Blend System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Blend was the system used by the NMFS Alaska Regional Office to monitor groundfish catch from 1991 until 2002. The Blend system combined data from industry...

  8. Methanol gasoline blend from petroleum coke sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, David [Consulting Chemical Engineer (United States); Wallsgrove, Chris [Process Engineering Manager (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta, a large amount of petroleum coke is produced as a byproduct from processes relating to bitumen upgrading and refining. Unfortunately, there is little to no market for this product in the province. This presentation addresses concerns relating to the concept of converting the otherwise wasted petcoke into methanol and using it as a blending component in gasoline. The presentation tackles issues relating to environmental impact, economics, renewability, toxicity, safety, and vehicle design by analyzing and comparing the proposed methanol/gasoline (M-10) to that of an ethanol/gasoline (E-10). The presentation covers analysis of the CO2 emissions, an analysis of the finances, and a number of scenarios involving the improper use or accidental spillage of M-10. Through the comparison of methanol/gasoline and ethanol/gasoline, the presentation demonstrated that converting the petcoke byproduct into methanol for use as a gasoline blend is a viable option.

  9. 铁路白货运输市场业务拓展分析%Analysis of White-goods Transportation Market Business Development in Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申光; 周起; 吕昊东; 姜广君

    2015-01-01

    在铁路运输市场占有率持续走低,产品、服务需求滞后,管理机制失调的严峻形势下,为扩大市场份额、拓展服务范围,通过分析白货物流市场发展现状和市场制约因素,提出了拓展白货市场增值业务的方向并针对运输受理业务流程、运输车辆分组流程、运输计划组织流程、“接取送达”服务流程、业务交付流程等具体的增值业务流程进行了探究和优化。最后以白货运输市场体制为导向,提出了调整产品结构、提高服务质量和建立管理机制的拓展策略,同时发展大客户战略,满足不同层次客户的业务需求。%To expand the market share and the scope of services,in the serious situation with the railway transportation market share continuing to decline,the product and service needs lagging,and the management mechanism being imbalance,by analyzing the development present situation and market factors of white -goods transportation market,put forward the value -added services direction of the white -goods market.Following explore and optimize the specific business processes such as transportation business accepting process,transportation vehicle grouping process,plan process,the "access to"service process and service delivery processes.Finally to white-goods transportation market system as the guidance,put forward the expansion strategy with adjustingthe product structure,improving the quality of service and establishing a management mechanism. Meanwhile,it is necessary to develop the strategy of big clients to meet the business needs of the customers in different levels.

  10. The Use of a Consumer Survey to Determine the Relevant Market – Case Study for public transport between Prague and Most

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinová Eliška

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define a relevant market in the passenger transportation industry for the route between Prague and Most. A rising number of bus companies operating on this particular market suggests competition pressures. On the basis of European Commission legislation and its common practice we apply a demand-side substitution analysis in the form of the so called SSNIP test. Data for the empirical analysis were collected by means of a customer survey, which captured reactions to a 10% increase in the price of purchased tickets. The survey outcomes were then used to calculate an own price elasticity of demand and to carry out a critical loss analysis in order to define the relevant market.

  11. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: → Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. → How to combine ambitious CO2 reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. → Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. → Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  12. Blending biodiesel in fishing boat fuels for improved fuel characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherng-Yuan eLin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable, clean, alternative energy source with advantages such as excellent lubricity, superior biodegradability and high combustion efficiency. Biodiesel is considered for mixing with fishing boat fuels to adjust their fuel characteristics so that toxic pollutants and greenhouse-effect gas emissions from such shipping might be reduced. The effects of blending fishing boat fuels A and B with various weight proportions of biodiesel are experimentally investigated in this study. The results show that biodiesel blending can significantly improve the inferior fuel properties of both fishing boat fuels and particularly fuel B. The flash points of both of these fuels increases significantly with the addition of biodiesel and thus enhances the safety of transporting and storing these blended fuels. The flash point of fishing boat fuel B even increases by 16% with 25 wt% biodiesel blending. The blending of biodiesel with no sulfur content is found to be one of the most effective ways to reduce the high sulfur content of fishing boat fuel, resulting in a reduction in the emission of sulfur oxides. The addition of only 25 wt% biodiesel decreased the sulfur content of the fishing boat fuel by 37%. The high kinematic viscosity of fishing boat fuel B was also observed to be reduced by 63% with the blending of just 25 wt% biodiesel. However, biodiesel blending caused a slight decrease in heating value around 1% to 4.5%.

  13. MARKETING APPROACH TO PRICING OF RAIL FREIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Savitska, G.

    2015-01-01

    Price the is essence of the economic interests the participants of the transport market, which manifests itself in maintaining or increasing of the main price component - revenue. Pricing for transportation of cargoes railway transport in a market economy is the most important management decisions affecting traffic volumes, profitability and competitiveness in the transport market. The market pricing for transportation of cargoes railway transport is a concentrated expression of market condit...

  14. Consequences of Market-Based Measures CO2-emission Reduction Maritime Transport for the Netherlands; Gevolgen Market Based Measures CO2-emissiereductie zeevaart voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortelboer-van Donselaar, P.; Kansen, M.; Moorman, S. [Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid KiM, Den Haag (Netherlands); Faber, J.; Koopman, M.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    The introduction of Market Based Measures (MBMs) to reduce the CO2 emissions of international sea shipping will have relatively limited economic effects for the Netherlands. Moreover, these effects are largely in line with those in other countries. For the Netherlands, however, the manner in which MBMS are organised and enforced is likely to be particularly important, given the importance of ports to the Dutch economy, the country's relatively large bunker sector, and the fact that Dutch shipowners operate relatively small vessels and on a relatively small scale. MBMs include pricing measures in the form of tax or trade systems, as well as other market-related proposals. In this research study, the consequences are analysed of four international MBM proposals for the Netherlands [Dutch] Om de CO2-uitstoot van de internationale zeevaartsector terug te dringen worden momenteel zogeheten Market Based Measures (MBMs), zoals bijvoorbeeld het veilen van emissierechten of het invoeren van een heffing, overwogen. De invoering van de MBMs zal voor Nederland relatief beperkte economische effecten hebben. Deze effecten wijken bovendien niet bijzonder af van die voor andere landen. De wijze waarop de MBMs worden georganiseerd en gehandhaafd, is voor Nederland mogelijk wel van onderscheidend belang. Dit gezien het belang van de havens voor de Nederlandse economie, de relatief grote bunkersector, en de relatief kleine schepen en kleinschaligheid van de Nederlandse reders.

  15. Theory of polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently developed a new theoretical approach to the study of polymer liquids. The theory is based on the ''reference interaction site model'' (RISM theory) of Chandler and Andersen, which has been successful in describing the structure of small molecule liquids. We have recently extended our polymer RISM theory to the case of polymer blends. In the present investigation we have applied this theory to two special binary blends: (1) the athermal mixture where we isolate structural effects, and (2) the isotopic mixture in which structurally identical polymer chains interact with dissimilar attractive interactions. By studying these two special cases we are able to obtain insights into the molecular factors which control the miscibility in polymer mixtures. 18 refs., 2 figs

  16. Multi-model blending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Hwang, Youngdeok; van Kessel, Theodore G.; Khabibrakhmanov, Ildar K.; Muralidhar, Ramachandran

    2016-10-18

    A method and a system to perform multi-model blending are described. The method includes obtaining one or more sets of predictions of historical conditions, the historical conditions corresponding with a time T that is historical in reference to current time, and the one or more sets of predictions of the historical conditions being output by one or more models. The method also includes obtaining actual historical conditions, the actual historical conditions being measured conditions at the time T, assembling a training data set including designating the two or more set of predictions of historical conditions as predictor variables and the actual historical conditions as response variables, and training a machine learning algorithm based on the training data set. The method further includes obtaining a blended model based on the machine learning algorithm.

  17. Blending Canal Surfaces Based on PH Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Dong Xu; Fa-Lai Chen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for blending two canal surfaces is proposed. The blending surface is itself a generalized canal surface, the spine curve of which is a PH (Pythagorean-Hodograph) curve. The blending surface possesses an attractive property - its representation is rational. The method is extensible to blend general surfaces as long as the blending boundaries are well-defined.

  18. Novel bio-based and biodegradable polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengzhe

    Most plastic materials, including high performance thermoplastics and thermosets are produced entirely from petroleum-based products. The volatility of the natural oil markets and the increasing cost of petroleum have led to a push to reduce the dependence on petroleum products. Together with an increase in environmental awareness, this has promoted the use of alternative, biorenewable, environmentally-friendly products, such as biomass. The growing interest in replacing petroleum-based products by inexpensive, renewable, natural materials is important for sustainable development into the future and will have a significant impact on the polymer industry and the environment. This thesis involved characterization and development of two series of novel bio-based polymer blends, namely polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)/polyamide (PA) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/soy protein. Blends with different concentrations and compatible microstructures were prepared using twin-screw extruder. For PHA/PA blends, the poor mechanical properties of PHA improved significantly with an excellent combination of strength, stiffness and toughness by adding PA. Furthermore, the effect of blending on the viscoelastic properties has been investigated using small-amplitude oscillatory shear flow experiments as a function of blend composition and angular frequency. The elastic shear modulus (G‧) and complex viscosity of the blends increased significantly with increasing the concentration of PHA. Blending PLA with soy protein aims at reducing production cost, as well as accelerating the biodegradation rate in soil medium. In this work, the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the blends were investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and tensile tests.

  19. Blended Learning in English Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Haugestad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Blended Learning This study investigates blended learning used in a course of English Literature and Culture in upper secondary school. It raises the question how the use of blended learning may promote and encourage learning in a course of English literature and culture. The study also compares traditional face-to-face classroom communication with communication mediated by digital artefacts. It has been important to go beyond the strictly technical issues ...

  20. Natural gas marketing II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing

  1. A lógica financeira e o espaço do transporte aéreo comercial Brasileiro Financial logics and the Brazilian aviation market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mundo Neto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo focou a dinâmica das forças em um espaço particular: o espaço do transporte aéreo comercial brasileiro. Utilizando-se dos conceitos propostos pela análise institucional das organizações e pela sociologia econômica, foram analisadas as estratégias das empresas que dominam este mercado - a TAM Linhas Aéreas e a GOL Linhas Aéreas - e algumas implicações para a estruturação atual. A partir das informações institucionais das empresas que dominam o mercado do transporte aéreo comercial brasileiro, de órgãos governamentais responsáveis pelo controle das atividades e daquelas veiculadas na imprensa de negócios, o estudo procurou indicar os atores responsáveis pela estruturação das empresas dominantes. As duas empresas operam tanto no espaço industrial original, transporte aéreo, como em mercado de capitais. O modelo de negócio da empresa GOL, notadamente a adesão aos investimentos de private equities, seria um dos fatores determinantes para a nova configuração deste espaço industrial. A TAM, no âmbito financeiro, adota estratégia semelhante à GOL. A recente crise aérea e a crise financeira impactaram fortemente as duas empresas, sobretudo no valor de suas ações.This study focuses on the power dynamic of a particular space: Brazilian Airlines Companies. Applying the concepts of Organizational Theory and Economic Sociology, it was possible to analyze the strategies of TAM and GOL airlines, which are companies that dominate the aviation market. Gathering institutional information from those companies, from government entities which control those companies' activities, and also from the business media, this study focused on indicating the social actors responsible for structuring these dominant companies. Both companies operate in the aviation market , but they also operate in the stock market. GOL business model, particularly the use of private equities tools, can be considered a determinant factor for the

  2. Blended-Learning-Projekte im Unternehmen

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Miriam; Back, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Der Arbeitsbericht Blended-Learning-Projekte im Unternehmen liefert einen Beitrag zur Bearbeitung des Themas Blended Learning und liefert dem Leser einen Überblick und erste Anregungen zur Planung, Integration und Gestaltung von Blended-Learning-Konzepten im Unternehmen.

  3. Blended Learning on Campus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon; Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of a large-scale project implementing information and communication technology at Roskilde University, Denmark, this paper discusses ways of introducing technology-based blended learning in academic life. We examine some examples of use of systems for computer-mediated collabora......-tive learning and work in Danish Open University education as well as in courses on campus. We further suggest some possi-bilities for using technology in innovative ways, arguing that innovation is to be found, not in isolated instantiations of sys-tems, but in the form of a deliberate integration of all...... relevant ICT-features as a whole into the learning environment....

  4. Blended Learning Improves Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Brent R; Stockwell, Melissa S; Cennamo, Michael; Jiang, Elise

    2015-08-27

    Blended learning is an emerging paradigm for science education but has not been rigorously assessed. We performed a randomized controlled trial of blended learning. We found that in-class problem solving improved exam performance, and video assignments increased attendance and satisfaction. This validates a new model for science communication and education. PMID:26317458

  5. Blended Learning: A Dangerous Idea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Patsy; Dziuban, Charles; Hartman, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The authors make the case that implementation of a successful blended learning program requires alignment of institutional, faculty, and student goals. Reliable and robust infrastructure must be in place to support students and faculty. Continuous evaluation can effectively track the impact of blended learning on students, faculty, and the…

  6. Classifying K-12 Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staker, Heather; Horn, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of online learning in the K-12 sector is occurring both remotely through virtual schools and on campuses through blended learning. In emerging fields, definitions are important because they create a shared language that enables people to talk about the new phenomena. The blended-learning taxonomy and definitions presented in this paper…

  7. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  8. Viscoelastic Properties of Polymer Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J.; Soong, D.

    1982-01-01

    Viscosity, shear modulus and other viscoelastic properties of multicomponent polymer blends are predicted from behavior of individual components, using a mathematical model. Model is extension of two-component-blend model based on Rouse-Bueche-Zimm theory of polymer viscoelasticity. Extension assumes that probabilities of forming various possible intracomponent and intercomponent entanglements among polymer molecules are proportional to relative abundances of components.

  9. Challenges of blended-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lugovtsova, Y. D.; Mylnikova, Tatyana Stepanovna

    2014-01-01

    Creation of the virtual environment as an educational resource to increase motivation and inquisition of the students is a great challenge for Russian educational system. The paper considers some issues of blended-learning. Some elements of blended-learning are analyzed through the ways they are implemented in Tomsk Polytechnic University.

  10. Short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchev, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates the potential of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends, a combination of an immiscible polymer blend and a short fiber reinforced composite, to integrate the easy processing solutions available for short fiber reinforced composites with the high mechanical perfo

  11. Blended Learning Improves Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Brent R; Stockwell, Melissa S; Cennamo, Michael; Jiang, Elise

    2015-08-27

    Blended learning is an emerging paradigm for science education but has not been rigorously assessed. We performed a randomized controlled trial of blended learning. We found that in-class problem solving improved exam performance, and video assignments increased attendance and satisfaction. This validates a new model for science communication and education.

  12. Air transport and climate change: emissions market to demand management; Transporte aereo y cambio climatico: del mercado de emisiones a la gestion de la demanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Perez, D.

    2012-11-01

    improvements in air traffic management, the efficiency gain in the search engines and alternative fuels to kerosene are the basic pillars of the strategy to address the environmental consequences of air transport. however the technological innovations that aim by themselves can hardly reduce sector emissions to the numbers required for an effective fight against climate change. (Author) 32 refs.

  13. Journal of Air Transportation, Volume 9, No. 2. Volume 9, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar (Editor); Scarpellini, Nanette (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The following articles from the "Journal of Air Transportation" were processed: Future Requirements and Concepts for Cabins of Blended Wing Body Configurations:A Scenario Approach; Future Scenarios for the European Airline Industry: A Marketing-Based Perspective; An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of the Air Transport System; Modeling the Effect of Enlarged Seating Room on Passenger Preferences of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan; Developing a Fleet Standardization Index for Airline Pricing; and Future Airport Capacity Utilization in Germany: Peaked Congestion and/or Idle Capacity).

  14. New electric transport concepts in the Netherlands. An outline of market initiatives; Nieuwe elektrische vervoersconcepten in Nederland. Een verkenning van enkele marktinitiatieven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pol, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Hoen, A. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    This report describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study of electric vehicles (EV) market concepts that have been brought onto the market. An electric vehicle is defined as any means of transport with a battery pack that can be recharged. The purpose of the study is to increase the knowledge about new EV concepts and identifying strong arguments by means of which the governmental policy in the Netherlands can improve the position for EV in the market. For this purpose, among other things, interviews were held in the second half of 2012 with six commercial initiators in the field of electric vehicles. Due to the limited number of interviews, it is important to take care in not generalizing too much the findings in this report [Dutch] In dit rapport worden de resultaten beschreven van een verkennende kwalitatieve studie naar elektrisch vervoer (EV) concepten die marktpartijen op de markt hebben gebracht. Onder een elektrisch voertuig verstaan we alle vervoermiddelen met een accupakket die met een stekker kunnen worden opgeladen. Het doel van de studie is het vergroten van de kennis over nieuwe EV-concepten en het identificeren van aangrijpingspunten waarmee het beleid EV een steviger plaats in de markt kan laten innemen. Hiertoe zijn onder andere interviews gevoerd in de tweede helft van 2012 met zes commerciele initiatiefnemers op het gebied van elektrisch rijden. Vanwege het beperkte aantal interviews is het van belang voorzichtig te zijn met het generaliseren van de bevindingen in dit rapport.

  15. Blend or not to blend: a study investigating faculty members perceptions of blended teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet A Ocak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined faculty members’ perceptions of blended teaching from several perspectives. A total of 73 faculty members in Turkish Higher Education context participated in the study by completing an online survey that combined quantitative and qualitative approaches. Based on a data analysis, the faculty members’ perceptions were sorted into six categories: (a satisfaction with blended teaching, (b perceived impact on the role of the faculty, (c perceived impact on student learning, (d perceived impact on student motivation, (e advantages of blended teaching, and (f disadvantages of blended teaching. Findings indicated that faculty members were likely to agree that blended teaching provides a high degree of satisfaction and that it requires more time and commitment from the faculty. The faculty members perceived that blended teaching improves student learning and, to some extent, improves motivation. The faculty members also emphasized the importance of institutional support and the use of technology to mitigate student problems. This study presents these faculty members’ perceptions, which are helpful for those planning to implement a blended teaching approach, and makes suggestions for trouble-shooting and taking advantage of the opportunities in a blended environment successfully.

  16. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  17. Notice on the 3 National Compulsory Standards Stipulated by AQSIQ and SAC,including the General Technical Regulations for Infant Blended Milk Powder and Infant Complete Grain Flour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to meet the needs of the current milk powder market and to lead enterprises to abide by the 3 national compulsory standards, i.e., the General Technical Regulations for Infant Blended Milk Powder and Infant Completed Grain Flour,GB10767-1997, the Infant Blended Milk Powder I(Blended Power Ⅰ), GB10765-1997 and the Infant Blended Milk Powder Ⅱ and Ⅲ (Blended Power Ⅱ and Ⅲ), GB10766-1997, General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China (AQSIQ) and Standardization Administration of China (SAC) issued the following notice, explaining requirements in detail.

  18. 昆明国际航空运输市场分析%Analysis on Kunming International Air Transport Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培文; 廖群; 王晓东

    2013-01-01

      通过对近两年昆明机场各国际航线的日均客流量、日均座位数投放水平、平均客座率、班均人数、班均座位数等生产数据的统计分析,按地理区域对昆明国际航线市场进行了细分,研究了各国际航线细分市场的结构特征和发展趋势。分析表明传统的“新马泰”东南亚航线仍是市场的主体,以深度度假游为特征的旅游航线极具增长潜力,但存在航线平均客座率水平不高,机型座级与市场需求不匹配等问题。%Through collecting and analyzing the statistics data of each international airline of Kunming international airport, such as, daily passengers volume, daily seats being provided, daily seats being taken, the average number of passengers of each flight, and the average number of seats offered by each flight in recent two years, Kunming international airline market is segmented according to the geographic area. The structural characteristics and developing trends of each segmented markets were investigated. According to the investigation, the traditional the Southeast Asia airlines to Singapore, Malaysia and Thai are still the mainstream of the market. While having great potentials for development, tourism flights are facing the problems such as low average rate of demand for seats and the asymmetry between the aircraft capacity and market demand.

  19. Orchestration of the Marketing Strategy under Competitive Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal

    2010-01-01

    Constructing suitable marketing strategy and implementing it effectively is an art and science both like orchestration of a symphony. The discussion in this paper blends this analogy with the science of marketing demonstrating the levels of strategy development in a competitive marketplace. The paper presents the marketing-mix in contemporary context and argues that performance of a marketing firm can be maximized, when a firm develops a creative marketing strategy and achieves marketing stra...

  20. The Moderating Effects of Internal Orientation and Market Orientation on the Relationships between Commitment and Transportation Service: An Approach to International Freight Forwarders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-sung Bae

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to develop the variables which moderate the relationship between commitment and transportation services and to analyze the moderating effects of the variables. The conceptual and operational definitions of the variables were ascertained from prior research. The reliability and validity of collected data were tested by various methods and hypotheses are tested by a moderated regression analysis. The results are as follows. First, the moderating variables on the relationship between commitment and transportation services are identified as internal orientation and market orientation. The former has three sub-dimensions such as collaboration between departments, work standardization and process improving and the latter has three sub-dimensions such as intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness. Second, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and trust. Third, process improving is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Fourth, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Fifth, intelligence generation is identified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Sixth, intelligence generation is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Therefore, forwarders can supply superior transportation services for customers when they achieve commitment and orientation such as work standardization, improvement of their service processes, and activities concerned with intelligence generation.

  1. Blends of zein and nylon-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blends of zein and nylon-6(55k)were used to produce solution cast films and electrospun fibers. Zein was blended with nylon-6 in formic acid solution. When the amount of nylon-6 was 8% or less a compatible blend formed. The blend was determined to be compatible based on physical property measurement...

  2. Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Mobin Siddique, Bazlul; Ahmad, Anees; Hakimi Ibrahim, Mohamad; Hena, Sufia; Rafatullah, Mohd; Omar A. K, Mohd

    2010-01-01

    Palm oil (olein) was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV), saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting p...

  3. Polyamide blend-based nanocomposites: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Chow

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymer blend nanocomposites have been considered as a stimulating route for creating a new type of high performance material that combines the advantages of polymer blends and the merits of polymer nanocomposites. In nanocomposites with multiphase matrices, the concept of using nanofillers to improve select properties (e.g., mechanical, thermal, chemical, etc of a polymer blend, as well as to modify and stabilize the blend morphology has received a great deal of interest. This review reports recent advances in the field of polyamide (PA blend-based nanocomposites. Emphasis is placed on the PA-rich blends produced by blending with other thermoplastics in the presence of nanofillers. The processing and properties of PA blend-based nanocomposites with nanofillers are discussed. In addition, the mechanical properties and morphology changes of PA blends with the incorporation of nanofillers are described. The issues of compatibility and toughening of PA blend nanocomposites are discussed, and current challenges are highlighted.

  4. Contracting in the energy market. The connection and transport agreement; Contracteren in de energiemarkt. De aansluit- en transportovereenkomst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, M.E. [Stek, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    The ever-changing regulatory framework of the energy market turns out to be an unruly climate for contracting. Private law agreements are sometimes difficult to fit in the framework of laws and regulations: it is usually a matter of bend or break. The connection and distribution agreement is a clear example. This article uses a number of thematically grouped, illustrative disputes to discuss the field of tension between private law connection and distribution agreements on the one hand and public laws and regulations in the Dutch energy market on the other hand. Specific attention is paid to the civil law solutions and bottlenecks and the lessons learned based on jurisprudence [Dutch] Het altijd veranderende regulatoire kader van de energiemarkt blijkt een weerbarstig klimaat om in te contracteren. Privaatrechtelijke overeenkomsten passen soms lastig in het stramien van de wet- en regelgeving: het blijkt veelal een kwestie van bend or break. De aansluit- en transportovereenkomst is daar een duidelijk voorbeeld van. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van een aantal thematisch gegroepeerde illustratieve geschillen het spanningsveld besproken tussen privaatrechtelijke aansluit- en transportovereenkomsten enerzijds en de publiekrechtelijke wet- en regelgeving in de Nederlandse energiemarkt anderzijds. Daarbij wordt specifiek aandacht besteed aan de civielrechtelijke oplossingen en knelpunten en de lessons learned op grond van de jurisprudentie.

  5. Market penetration analysis of the use of hydrogen in the road transport sector of the Madrid region, using MARKAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, A.; Guervos, E. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Posso, F. [Science Department, ULA - Tachira, San Cristobal 5001 (Venezuela)

    2009-01-15

    Nobody can doubt today that hydrogen will, in the not-too-distant future, represent a very significant percentage of the total energy used by the transport sector. This study therefore consists of the modelling and simulation of energy consumption, by type of vehicle and fuel or energetic vector, in the road transport sector of the Madrid Region, during the period 2010-2050, using the MARKAL model. It has been necessary to complete this model by adding numerous specifications in order to determine the features of the Madrid Region, the richest Region in Spain. For the purpose of the study, three growth scenarios, based on short-term energy forecasts made by different official organizations, have been proposed for the energy consumption of the road transport sector in the Region. The results show a profound change in the current situation as there is a significant decrease in the consumption of fossil fuels and an increase in that of alternative non-fossil fuels and hydrogen. The latter, in particular, will rise from 0.1% in the year 2010, to around 50% in the year 2050, which will mean a drastic drop in the sector's CO{sub 2} and atmospheric pollutant emissions. (author)

  6. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  7. A deterministic model for deteriorating items with displayed inventory level dependent demand rate incorporating marketing decisions with transportation cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Bhunia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an inventory model, which considers the impact of marketing strategies such as pricing and advertising as well as the displayed inventory level on the demand rate of the system. In addition, the demand rate during the stock-out period differs from that during the stock-in period by a function varied on the waiting time up to the beginning of the next cycle. Shortage are allowed and partially backlogged. Here, the deterioration rate is assumed to follow the Weibull distribution. Considering all these factors with others, different scenarios of the system are investigated. To obtain the solutions of these cases and to illustrate the model, an example is considered. Finally, to study the effects of changes of different parameters of the system, sensitivity analyses have been carried out with respect to the different parameters of the system.

  8. Open access to natural gas pipeline transportation in North America: Lessons for the European internal energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North American natural gas industry's experience with deregulation is described, with emphasis on the transition to competition and the conditions for viability under open access. Lessons learned from the North American experience are then examined for relevance to the European situation, which is emphasizing greater access to transmission systems. It is found likely that the European proposal will frequently operate only to facilitate negotiations among players already active in the gas market, and is less likely to introduce a large number of independent transactions or new merchants. Challenges for the system will include: government assurance of reliability to domestic gas users who have made arrangements with foreign suppliers; administration of pipeline grids; resolution of competing claims on available transmission services; planning for future suppliers; and impact on investment. 8 refs., 1 fig

  9. Blend or not to blend: a study investigating faculty members perceptions of blended teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet A Ocak

    2010-01-01

    This study examined faculty members’ perceptions of blended teaching from several perspectives. A total of 73 faculty members in Turkish Higher Education context participated in the study by completing an online survey that combined quantitative and qualitative approaches. Based on a data analysis, the faculty members’ perceptions were sorted into six categories: (a) satisfaction with blended teaching, (b) perceived impact on the role of the faculty, (c) perceived impact on student learning, ...

  10. Feature Analysis and Evaluation of Air Transportation Market Structure in China%中国航空运输市场结构特征分析及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天睿; 胡荣; 李东亚; 江超

    2015-01-01

    At present, civil aviation industry in China has been developing fast. In order to investigate current air transportation market structure in China more exactly, this study adopts data statistics to calculate passenger trans⁃port volume, fleet and share holdings status of each domestic airline after getting the absolute concentration of mar⁃ket CRn and Herfindahl--Hirschman Index (HHI), researching the type of domestic air transportation market struc⁃ture and evolution trends of recent years from different perspectives. On the basis of features of air transportation market, it compares and analyzes the results of CRn and HHI index, maintaining the results of HHI index for the analysis of the domestic air transportation market structure more appropriate. According to oligopoly market theo⁃ry, it discusses the features and natures of domestic air transport market and finds out that the domestic air trans⁃portation market is a multi-oligopoly competitive market. It suggests that game theory can be applied in research⁃ing air transport market.%当前中国民用航空运输业发展迅速,为深入研究中国航空运输市场结构特征,运用市场绝对集中度CRn和赫芬达尔—赫希曼HHI指数,对国内各航空公司的旅客运输量、机队规模和相互持股、参股状况等情况进行计算分析,从不同角度研究了中国航空运输市场结构类型及近年来演化趋势;并根据航空运输市场特征,对比分析了CRn和HHI指数的计算结果,认为HHI指数更适用于我国航空运输市场结构分析。同时根据寡头市场理论分析我国航空运输市场的特点和性质,研究结论表明中国航空运输市场结构具有多寡头竞争性垄断特征,分析并证实了博弈理论应用于航空运输市场竞争研究的可行性。

  11. Performance of Blended Learning in University Teaching:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Reiss

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning as a combination of classroom teaching and e-learning has become a widely represented standard in employee and management development of companies. The exploratory survey “Blended Learning@University” conducted in 2008 investigated the integration of blended learning in higher education. The results of the survey show that the majority of participating academic teachers use blended learning in single courses, but not as a program of study and thus do not exploit the core performance potential of blended learning. According to the study, the main driver of blended learning performance is its embeddedness in higher education. Integrated blended programs of study deliver the best results. In blended learning, learning infrastructure (in terms of software, culture, skills, funding, content providing, etc. does not play the role of a performance driver but serves as an enabler for blended learning.

  12. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  13. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  14. Thermal response of polystyrene/poly methyl methacrylate (PS/PMMA) polymeric blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Vishal; Sharma, Kananbala

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports the investigationsto evaluate thermal behavior of polystyrene/poly methyl methacrylate (PS/PMMA) polymeric blends, prepared at different compositions through solution casting method. The glass transition temperatures have been obtained using dynamic mechanical analyzer. Simultaneous measurements of temperature dependentthermal transport properties (thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity) have been made using Hot Disk Thermal Constants Analyzer based on transient plane source. The study reveals that blending of PS with PMMA leads to different phase morphologies corresponding to different composition range which further affects the thermal performance of respective blends.

  15. Nanoscopic studies of conjugated polymer blends by (electric) scanning probe microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, L

    2010-01-01

    Conjugated polymers and conjugated polymer blends have attracted great interest due to their potential applications in biosensors and organic electronics. The sub-100 nm morphology of these materials is known to heavily influence their electromechanical properties and the performance of devices they are part of. Electromechanical properties include charge injection, transport, recombination, and trapping, the phase behavior and the mechanical robustness of polymers and blends. Electrical scan...

  16. Blended Learning for Lifelong Learning: An Innovation for College Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ava Clare Marie O. Robles

    2012-01-01

    With the fast developing and changing transport of technology, new trends and learning opportunities were ushered in the field of Education. This transformation restructures the teaching-learning operation. As a result, educators encounter different learning preferences of students due to the emerging learning needs brought by technology. Although many universities here and abroad recognize the potential of blended learning, there is still lack of implementation on how blended learning be pla...

  17. NURBS curve blending using extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-jin LIU; Rong-qi QIU; Xiao-hui LIANG

    2009-01-01

    Curve and surface blending is an important operation in CAD systems, in which a non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) has been used as the de facto standard. In local comer blending, two curves intersecting at that comer are first made disjoint, and then the third blending curve is added-in to smoothly join the two curves with G1-or G2-continuity. In this paper we present a study to solve the joint problem based on curve extension. The following nice properties of this extension algorithm are exploited in depth: (1) The parameterization of the original shapes does not change; (2) No additional fragments are created.Various examples are presented to demonstrate that our solution is simple and efficient.

  18. Assessment of transesterified palm olein and Moringa oleifera oil blends as vanaspati substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Rahman, Fazal

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the suitability of Moringa oleifera oil and palm olein blends as vanaspati substitutes on the basis of physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Blends were prepared either by blending Moringa oleifera oil or palm olein at 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100 ratios, transesterified by Rhizopus miehei, compared with market vanaspati, designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The blends were filled in 3-layer polyethylene pouch packs, stored at ambient temperature, sampled at every at 0, 90 and 180-days for the assessment of storage stability. The melting point and iodine value of T2 and control were 36.8, 37.2 °C and 62.2, 51.8, with no effect on free fatty acids content, peroxide, anisidine values and color of the deodorized stuffs. C18:1 content of T2 was 59.7 % with no trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acid content of the market vanaspati was 22.9 %. The addition of Moringa oleifera oil improved the induction period of the blends strongly inhibited the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. The overall acceptability score of French fries prepared in T2 was 81 % of the total score (9). Blend containing 50 % palm olein and 50 % Moringa oleifera oil can be used in the formulation of a functional shelf stable fat that can be used as a vanaspati substitute.

  19. Blended Learning as Transformational Institutional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerLinden, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews institutional approaches to blended learning and the ways in which institutions support faculty in the intentional redesign of courses to produce optimal learning. The chapter positions blended learning as a strategic opportunity to engage in organizational learning.

  20. NESDIS Blended Rain Rate (RR) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Rain Rate (RR) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The blended products were merged from polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite...

  1. Production of Silk & Wool Blended Worsted Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段亚峰; 许琳

    2004-01-01

    Wool & silk blended fancy suiting is desinged. Through trial-production with silk sliver and Australian wool top, the spinning technology is investigated, and the relationship of spinning technology, blending ratio and yam construction is discussed.

  2. Radiation effect on PVC/ENR blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation on the physical properties of Polyvinyl Chloride / Epoxidised Natural Rubber Blends (PVC/ENR blends) were investigated. The enhancement in tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness and aging properties of the blends have confirmed the positive effect of irradiation on the blends. It is evident from gel fraction and infra red spectroscopic studies that the blends of PVC and ENR cross-linked upon irradiation. The results also revealed that at any blend composition, the enhancement in properties depend on irradiation dose which controls the degree of radiation induced cross-linking. In an attempt to maximize the constructive effect of irradiation, the influence of various additives such as stabilizers, radiation sensitizers, fillers and processing aids on the blend properties were studied. The changes in blend properties upon irradiation with the presents of above additives were also presented in this paper

  3. Blended Identities: Identity Work, Equity and Marginalization in Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikoop, Will

    2013-01-01

    This article is a theoretical study of the self-presentation strategies employed by higher education students online; it examines student identity work via profile information and avatars in a blended learning environment delivered through social networking sites and virtual worlds. It argues that students are faced with difficult choices when…

  4. Laboratory optimization of continuous blend asphalt rubber

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Trichês, Glicério; Pais, Jorge C.; Luzia, Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Asphalt rubber from wet process requires batching blending and reaction time associated to blending rubber and conventional asphalt to produce asphalt rubber. The ideal blending of these materials depends on the combination of very important variables, such as the amount of rubber, reaction time and temperature reaction. This paper intends to optimize the laboratory production of asphalt rubber using the continuous blend process. The rubber from waste tyres was reduced by ambient grinding and...

  5. Binary blend nanoparticles with defined morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazy, Omayma

    2008-01-01

    In this study polymer blends of polystyrene and poly(propylene carbonate) were prepared using the miniemulsion process as model systems for the nanoparticles consisting of semiconducting polymers for optical applications. The blends were prepared by mixing nanoparticles of pure polymers or by fabricating blend nanoparticles including both the two polymers in each particle. The development of controlled hemispherical phase separated morphology (Janus morphology) within the blend nanoparticles ...

  6. Performance of Blended Learning in University Teaching:

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Reiss; Dirk Steffens

    2010-01-01

    Blended learning as a combination of classroom teaching and e-learning has become a widely represented standard in employee and management development of companies. The exploratory survey “Blended Learning@University” conducted in 2008 investigated the integration of blended learning in higher education. The results of the survey show that the majority of participating academic teachers use blended learning in single courses, but not as a program of study and thus do not exploit the core perf...

  7. Towards generating novel games using conceptual blending

    OpenAIRE

    Gow, Jeremy; Corneli, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We sketch the process of creating a novel video game by blending two video games specified in the Video Game Description Language (VGDL), following the COINVENT computational model of conceptual blending. We highlight the choices that need to be made in this process, and discuss the prospects for a computational game designer based on blending.

  8. Netbaserede uddannelser og blended learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Jesper Vedel; Vognsgaard Hjernø, Henriette; Jensen, Michael Peter

    2016-01-01

    Denne håndbog er tænkt som inspiration til uddannelsesfaglige medarbejdere, som er eller skal i gang med at undervise på en netbaseret uddannelse i UCL. Håndbogen giver et teoretisk overblik i forhold til netbaserede uddannelser, online- og blended learning samt en indførsel i hvilke didaktiske...

  9. Building a Blended Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLester, Susan

    2011-01-01

    "Online learning" often serves as an umbrella term that includes the subcategory of blended learning, which might also be referred to as hybrid learning, and comprises some combination of online and face-to-face time. Spurred in part by a 2009 U.S. Department of Education study, "Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning," which…

  10. Canada's gasoline production, sales and marketing : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet provides a variety of useful facts as general public information about gasoline, the most widely used transportation fuel in Canada. Issues such as price, quality, availability, safety and the environmental impact of gasoline are discussed. Like any unregulated commodity, gasoline prices are determined by the market forces of supply and demand. Prices can vary from place to place because of taxes, the number of service stations, delivery costs, labour costs and land costs. Taxes play the biggest role in price differences between countries. In Canada, there are 18 gasoline-producing refineries and about 13,500 service station which are owned by 30 major retail gasoline marketing companies. Currently, propane is the most common alternative to gasoline. Alcohol fuels such as ethanol and methanol are also being used more and more frequently. Refiners are working with vehicle manufacturers to find cost-effective ways to reduce emissions from cars and trucks. Blends of gasoline with ethanol or methanol reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions, but may increase nitrogen oxides and other emissions. Refiners are also working to define a new national standard for sulphur levels in gasoline. refs., figs

  11. Effect of dopant ions on piezo-response of polyaniline-poly(vinylidine flouride) blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, S.; Kar, Swarendu B.

    2002-11-01

    Electromechanical sensors and actuators are important for robotic and aerospace applications. Among various material, poly(vinylidene fluoride) ir its co-polymers are known to exhibit high piezosensitivity. However, due to their higher electrical resistivity the input impedance of subsequent signal processign circuits is required to be very high. A novel technique to decrease the impedance would be blending PVDF with conducting polyaniline (PANI) but without affecting the piezosensitivyt of PVDF. Polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by well known standard chemical route using dopants HCl and dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid. These PANI powder were blended with PVDF which was first dissolved in DMAc at 50 degrees C to which were added requisite amounts of two types of PANI ranging from 2 to 25 wt percent, stirred for 24 hours to form a homogeneous mixture which was cast in glass petri-dish, followed by complete solvent evaporation at 50 degrees C and then drying under vacuum for 24 hours to give films of PANI-PVDF blends. The piezo-sensitivity of these blends was measured before and after poling in electrical field. The sensitivity factor was dependent on the composition, type of dopant as well as the electric polarization of the blend. The HCl doped PANI blends in PVDF were highly piezo-sensitive than other blend compositions. These various results have been explained on the basis of compatibility, discrete domain formation, nonlinear conduction process for charge transport, orientation of dipoles, and trapping of space charge at inter-domain sites.

  12. Characteristics of Successful Local Blended Programs in the Context of the Sloan-C Pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Jacqueline F.; Hickey, Charmaine P.; Bergin, Amy L.; Boccia, Judith; Polley, Kathleen; Riley, Jeannette E.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the University of Massachusetts experience in developing successful blended local programs, this paper suggests guiding principles that include mission-driven responsiveness to local contexts and partnerships; using low-cost marketing strategies available through local relationships and brand; attending to students' preferences for…

  13. Carbonaceous Aerosols Emitted from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Ethanol Fuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is among the many environmental and public health concerns associated with increased ethanol use in vehicles. Jacobson [2007] showed for the U.S. market that full conversion to e85 ([85% ethanol, 15% gasoline]—the maximum standard blend used in modern dual fuel veh...

  14. SCATTERING FUNCTION OF POLYMER BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-ping Ke; Mei-li Guo; De-lu Zhao

    2004-01-01

    For a system of flexible polymer molecules, the concepts of two concentrations, namely the segmental and the molecular concentrations, have been proposed in this paper. The former is equivalent to the volume fraction. The latter can be defined as the number of the gravity centers of macromolecules in a unit volume. The two concentrations should be correlated with each other by the conformational function of the polymer chain and should be discussed in different thermodynamic equations. On the basis of these concepts it has been proved that the Flory-Huggins entropy of mixing should be the result of the mixing "ideal gases of the gravity centers of macromolecules". The general correlation between the free energy of mixing and the scattering function (structural factor) of polymer blends has been studied based on the general fluctuation theory. When the Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing is adopted, the de Gennes scattering function of a polymer blend can be derived.

  15. A Mine-Based Uranium Market Clearing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Aris Auzans; Erich A. Schneider; Robert Flanagan; Tkaczyk, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Economic analysis and market simulation tools are used to evaluate uranium (U) supply shocks, sale or purchase of uranium stockpiles, or market effects of new uranium mines or enrichment technologies. This work expands on an existing U market model that couples the market for primary U from uranium mines with those of secondary uranium, e.g., depleted uranium (DU) upgrading or highly enriched uranium (HEU) down blending, and enrichment services. This model accounts for the interdependence bet...

  16. Innovation of Marketing System of Logistics Enterprises Based on Relationship between Transportation & Sales%基于运销营关系的物流企业市场营销体系创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素花

    2014-01-01

    首先分析了运销营关系下的物流企业市场营销体系,对运销营一体型和分离型运作模式的优缺点进行了归纳,在此基础上提出了运销营分离模式下的营销体系在组织体系、流程体系和营销管理方式上的创新模式。%In this paper, we first analyzed the marketing system of the logistics enterprises from the angle of the relationship between transportation and sales, then summarized the strengths and weaknesses of the integrated and disconnected operation modes, and on such basis, proposed the innovation mode of the disconnected marketing system in terms of organizational structure, process system and marketing management practice.

  17. Confined flow of polymer blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufano, C; Peters, G W M; Meijer, H E H

    2008-05-01

    The influence of confinement on the steady-state morphology of two different emulsions is investigated. The blends, made from polybutene (PB) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polybutadiene (PBD) in PDMS, are sheared between two parallel plates, mostly with a standard gap spacing of 40 microm, in the range of shear rates at which the transition from "bulk" behavior toward "confined" behavior is observed. For both cases, the influence of the concentration was systematically investigated, as well as the shear rate effects on the final steady-state morphology. By decreasing the shear rate, for each blend, the increasing droplets, i.e., increasing confinement for a fixed gap spacing, arrange themselves first into two layers, and when the degree of confinement reaches an even higher value, a single layer of droplets is formed. The ratio between the drop diameters and the gap spacing at which this transition occurs is always lower than 0.5. While decreasing the shear rate, the degree of confinement increases due to drop coalescence. Droplets arrange themselves in superstructures like ordered pearl necklaces and, at the lower shear rates, strings. The aspect ratio and the width of the droplet obtained from optical micrographs are compared to predictions of the single droplet Maffettone-Minale model (MM model(1)). It is found that the theory, meant for unconfined shear flow, is not able to predict the drop deformation when the degree of confinement is above a critical value that depends on the blends considered and the shear rate applied. A recently developed extension of the MM model is reported by Minale (M model(2)) where the effect of the confinement is included by using the Shapira-Haber correction.3 Further extending this M model, by incorporating an effective viscosity as originally proposed by Choi and Showalter,4 we arrive at the mM model that accurately describes the experiments of blends in confined flow. PMID:18348582

  18. Blending Behavior of Polysulfone, Polyvinyl Acetate and Amines in Dimethyl Acetamide Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, research will be carried out to classify the blending behavior of glassy and rubbery polymer in solvent with amines. Commercially preface of a polymer prepared from a new monomer is uncertain and enormously expensive. A strategy to introduce new products into the market without a large investment is to take dissimilar polymers, amines and blend them together to make a new product with unique properties. The blending of polyvinyl acetate, polysulfone and diethanol amine, methyl diethanol amine, mono ethanol amine are examined with dimethyl acetamide solvent, which gives the results of appearance, pH and viscosity values by using measuring device viscometer and general pH testing technique. Through getting these results, the intrinsic miscibility of the mixture was finally established which shows that the homogenous or heterogeneous blends are depending on the blend preparation method and percentage of polymers and amines. The achievement of this advance has been restricted, because the mechanical properties of the blend with amines are classically worse than a simple mixing law would predict.

  19. On Transport Cost and the Definition of Relevant Geographic Market%论运输成本与反垄断相关地域市场的界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡甲庆

    2012-01-01

    Given production cost and demand, transport cost determines degree of geographic demand substitu- tion and geographic supply substitution. Therefore,it is an important factor in defining relevant geographic market. However, we do not directly apply transport cost to define relevant geographic market in practice. Only if we combine transport cost with production cost and production capacity of firms in different areas, the distribution of customers and their size, price difference among different areas and sale patterns can we correctly define relevant geographic market.%在生产成本和需求一定的情况下,运输成本决定着地域需求替代性和地域供给替代性的大小,因而是界定相关地域市场的重要因素。但是,实践上并不能直接运用运输成本界定相关地域市场,而是必须要结合不同地区厂商的生产成本和生产能力尧消费者分布及规模状况尧地区差价水平尧具体的销售方式才能正确界定相关地域市场。

  20. Game innovation through conceptual blending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möring, Sebastian Martin

    In  this  paper  I  wish  to  apply implications of  the  Conceptual  Blending  Theory  to  computer  games.  I  will  analyze  chosen  examples  and  discuss  them  as  a  result  of  video  game  innovation  made  possible  through  "conceptual  blending."  Conceptual  blending  links  at  least......  integration  network  consisting  of  at  least  two  input  spaces,  a  generic  space  and  a  blended  space  as  well  as  its  governing  principles  consisting  of  composition,  completion,  and  elaboration.  With  the  help  of  these  instruments  I  analyze computer  games like  Tuper  Tario  Tros.......,  Hell.  The  purpose  of  my  approach  is  not  so  much  to  validate  the  ideas  of  conceptual  blending  theory  through  another  field  of  examples  (computer  games)  but  to  name  and analyze characteristics of the mentioned games with the  help of a given method....

  1. Correspondence Theory and Phonological Blending in French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Scott

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Though less productive than rival word-formation processes like compounding and affixation, blending is still a rich source of neologisms in French. Despite this productivity, however, blends are often seen by scholars as unpredictable, uninteresting, or both. This analysis picks up where recent studies of blending have left off, using Correspondence Theory and a bundle of segmental constraints to deal with this phenomenon as it pertains to French. More specifically, it shows that blending is the result of a single output standing in correspondence with two or more other outputs, and that we do not need to refer to prosodic information, which is crucial in accounts of blending in languages with lexical stress like English, to account for the process in French. The analysis also differs from previous studies in that it locates blending exclusively within the phonology, leaving its morphological and semantic characteristics to be handled by other processes in the grammar.

  2. Miscibility evolution of polycarbonate/polystyrene blends during compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chuai, Chengzhi; Almdal, Kristoffer; Johannsen, Ib;

    2002-01-01

    The miscibility evolution of polycarbonate/polystyrene (PC/PS) blends during the compounding process in three blending methods of industrial relevance, namely melt blending, remelt blending in a twin-screw extruder and third melt blending in an injection molding machine, was investigated by...

  3. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  4. Rheological properties of olefinic thermoplastic elastomer blends

    OpenAIRE

    Sengers, W.G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) are a class of materials that have rubber-like properties and can be processed like thermoplastic polymers. In this thesis, the rheological properties of two TPE blends are correlated to their morphology. The thermoplastic vulcanisates (TPV) consist of micron-sized, cured elastomer particles while the blends of PP and the triblock copolymer SEBS show co-continuous structures. Both blends also contain considerable amount of paraffinic oil. The difference between ...

  5. A Time Based Blended Learning Model

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Anders; Dziuban, Charles D; Moskal, Patsy M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to outline a time-based strategy for blended learning that illustrates course design and delivery by framing students' learning opportunities in synchronous and asynchronous modalities. Design/methodology/approach – This paper deconstructs the evolving components of blended learning in order to identify changes induced by digital technologies for enhancing teaching and learning environments. Findings – This paper hypothesizes that blended learning may be traced back...

  6. Constructivism Based Blended Learning in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mhammad Al-Huneidi; Jeanne Schreurs

    2012-01-01

    This paper explain how to apply Constructivism and Conversation theories in Blended Learning environment in order to increase learning outcomes and quality. Some scenarios of Constructivism based blended learning activities are presented in this paper. In addition, a Constructivism Based Blended Learning model for “ICT Management†course, a compulsory course in Master of Management Information Systems program at Hasselt University, is proposed. The proposed model applies and combines Const...

  7. ASP, Amalgamation and the Conceptual Blending Workflow

    OpenAIRE

    Eppe, Manfred; Maclean, Ewen; Confalonieri, Roberto; Kutz, Oliver; Schorlemmer, Marco; Plaza, Enric

    2015-01-01

    We present an amalgamation technique used for conceptual blending – a concept invention method that is advocated in cognitive science as a fundamental, and uniquely human engine for creative thinking. Herein, we employ the search capabilities of ASP to find commonalities among input concepts as part of the blending process, and we show how our approach fits within a generalised conceptual blending workflow. Specifically, we orchestrate ASP with imperative programming languages like Python, to...

  8. THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGNITE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Cao Xinyu; Cen Kefa

    2000-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of lignite blends were studied with a thermogravimetric analyzer (t.g.a.), at constant heating rate.The characteristic temperatures were determined from the burning profiles.It was found that the characteristic times of combustion reaction moved forward, the ignition temperature dropped and the burnout efficiency slightly changed when blending lignites.The characteristic parameters of blends could not be predicted as a linear function of the average values of the individual lignites.when blending with less reactive coal, the ignition and burnout characteristics of lignite turned worse.

  9. 基于寡头垄断市场结构的集装箱班轮运输定价%Container liner transportation pricing based on oligopoly structure market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金海; 余思勤; 任烨

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize the maximum profit for container liner transportation companies on the oligopoly structure market, the Cournot and Bertrand model are used for liner transportation pricing. According to the Cournot model, container liner transportation companies maximize profits by determining volume; however, they always try to increase returns by price-cut, which leads to the price dropping to Bertrand equilibrium point at last. There is no equilibrium price when volume restriction is considered, and the price rises to Cournot equilibrium point when container liner transportation companies are rational. The conclusion from the analysis of the optimized model is that the sealing up transportation, joint operation and carrying out the price hike plan can stabilize and improve the market transportation price effectively.%为使集装箱班轮运输公司在寡头垄断市场结构下实现利润最大化,运用古诺模型和伯特兰模型进行班轮定价.根据古诺模型,班轮公司通过确定运量来实现利润最大化;试图通过降价来增加利润,导致运价最终趋向伯特兰均衡点.引入运能限制后,不存在伯特兰均衡运价;引入理性预期后,运价趋向于古诺均衡运价,运用优化后的模型分析,得出封存运力、联合经营和提价计划能够有效稳定和提高市场运价的结论.

  10. Trends of shipping markets development

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-01-01

    Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increa...

  11. Trends of shipping markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  12. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-10-04

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material.

  13. STUDENTS’ OPINIONS ON BLENDED LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    BALCI, Meric; SORAN, HALUK

    2009-01-01

    E-learning was acknowledged by most educators and researchers as a savior, even an only alternative in education field, especially in the following years of its emergence. However, with the rise of its limitations, the idea of bringing face-to-face learning and e-learning together to complete each other has occured. Blended learning is a method emerged as a result of this sentiment. The new education alternatives which have been discovered as a consequence of the researches and the studies ma...

  14. Custom blending of lamp phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Spectral output of fluorescent lamps can be precisely adjusted by using computer-assisted analysis for custom blending lamp phosphors. With technique, spectrum of main bank of lamps is measured and stored in computer memory along with emission characteristics of commonly available phosphors. Computer then calculates ratio of green and blue intensities for each phosphor according to manufacturer's specifications and plots them as coordinates on graph. Same ratios are calculated for measured spectrum. Once proper mix is determined, it is applied as coating to fluorescent tubing.

  15. Acute aqueous toxicities of diesel-biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Ho, N.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environmental Science and Technology Centre; Harrison, S. [Science Applications International Corp., SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2008-07-01

    The renewed interest in biodiesels as a new transportation fuel was discussed. Although there are several advantages to using biodiesels, their environmental behaviours and effects need to be evaluated along with the risks associated with their use, such as accidental releases of these biodiesels to the environment. The wide variability of biodiesels may result in different toxicological impacts, depending on the fuel feedstock. This study evaluated the aqueous effects of biodiesels from several commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesel. Since most of the commercial uses of these products are currently focused on road-use, this study focused on the effects of these fuels in fresh-water. Biodiesels derived from soy, canola and waste restaurant oil feedstocks were used in the study. The acute toxicities of these biodiesels and biodiesel/petroleum diesel fuel blends were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, notably rainbow trout, the water flea, and a luminescent bacterium. The correlations between acute toxicity, water accommodated fractions (WAF) concentrations and fuel property data were examined. The study revealed that biodiesel is significantly less acutely toxic than petroleum diesels in potential ecological impacts. However, the biodiesel-diesel blends were found to be more acutely toxic than a linear dilution model predicts. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Oil product blending optimization system; Sistema de otimizacao de misturas de derivados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, F.L.P.; Sousa, L.C.F.; Joly, M.; Takahashi, M.T.; Magalhaes, M.V.O.; Mendonca, P.N. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current scenario of the world refining industry demands significant investment in the improvement of its products and production processes quality, either due to a competitive market or strict environmental restrictions, requiring deep changes in the oil companies. In this environment, blending optimization has been receiving increasing attention in both academic and industrial sectors resulting in the development and improvement of tools for decision support and realtime control. The main objective of these tools is to optimize, according to either an economic or an operational criterion, the fuel blending recipe, guaranteeing the product specification with minimum giveaway in the critical properties and avoiding the reblending process. This work presents a blending optimization system of oil products named OTIMIST and instances of its application in PETROBRAS' Recap refinery. (author)

  17. 物联网技术在煤炭运销集团化管控中的应用研究∗%Research and application of internet of things in group management and control on coal transportation and marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘屹; 谭章禄

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at difficulty in management,low efficiency and high risk of management on coal transportation and marketing in coal mines,the internet of things,together with radio fre-quency identification and sensing technique,was put forward for the management of transporta-tion and marketing. Moreover,the necessity of group management on coal transportation and marketing was analyzed,the application of the internet of things in the management and control on coal transportation and marketing was introduced,and its realization pattern was expounded. The application of the internet of things can fundamentally solve the vehicle cheating,the theft during transportation and coal displacement. Thereby,the internet of things is in line with the current trend of technological development and the actual demands of coal enterprises in China.%针对煤炭企业集团在煤炭运销中面临的管理难度大、处理效率低以及管理风险高等问题,提出将RFID技术和传感技术等物联网技术应用于煤炭企业运销业务管控,分析了煤炭运销集团化管控的必要性,介绍了物联网技术在煤炭运销管控中的应用,详细阐述了物联网管控技术的实现方式。应用物联网技术改进煤炭企业运销管理能够从根本上解决煤炭公路运输中的车辆作弊、途中窃换和煤种置换等问题,符合当前技术发展趋势和我国煤炭企业的现实需求,具有广阔的应用前景。

  18. Storage studies on mustard oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Bhawna; Dhawan, Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions of all these blends were studied using GLC. The developed blends were found to obey the ideal fatty acid ratio as laid down by health agencies i.e. 1:2:1:: SFA:MUFA:PUFA. The oxidative stability of blends was studied by measuring peroxide value (PV), Kries and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Blends MPSu (mustard oil, palm oil and sunflower oil), MPT (mustard oil, palm oil and sesame oil) and MPGr (mustard oil, palm oil and groundnut oil) were more stable than other blends during storage. The presence of mustard oil in all blends might make them a healthier option for many consumers as it is a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and has anti-carcinogenic properties.

  19. Introducing blended e-learning course design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyamfi, Samuel Adu; Ryberg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the face of diminishing education budgets in higher education, blended learning has been found to be a viable and effective approach to deliver high-quality, up-to-date, on-demand solutions to developing cross-curricular skills of undergraduates. However, research has also shown that blended...

  20. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending

  1. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  2. Enhancing Students' Language Skills through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banditvilai, Choosri

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of using blended learning to enhance students' language skills and learner autonomy in an Asian university environment. Blended learning represents an educational environment for much of the world where computers and the Internet are readily available. It combines self-study with valuable face-to-face interaction…

  3. A Review on Conceptual Blending Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2010-01-01

    The CBT(Conceptual Blending Theory)is rapidly emerging as a major force in cognitive science and provides a unifying umbrella framework for a range of cognitive phenomena.The present paper is to have a general review of the conceptual blending theory through illustrating its four-space theory in order to have a better comprehension of its nature.

  4. Preparing Teachers for Emerging Blended Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kevin M.; Stallings, Dallas T.

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning environments that merge learning strategies, resources, and modes have been implemented in higher education settings for nearly two decades, and research has identified many positive effects. More recently, K-12 traditional and charter schools have begun to experiment with blended learning, but to date, research on the effects of…

  5. Perspectives on Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, N.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of blended learning in higher education from the perspective of students, faculty, and administration that have had direct experience with this form of course delivery. Students indicate that a blended learning model provides them with greater time flexibility and improved learning outcomes but…

  6. Dynamic Heterogeneity in Interacting Miscible Polymer Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Ashish; Lodge, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    Dynamic heterogeneity leading to time-temperature superposition (tTS) failure has been widely reported in non-interacting/weakly interacting miscible polymer blends. However, coupling of the component dynamic response in blends, even with a huge dynamic asymmetry in the pure components, is possible with H-bonding interactions. This study is focused on finding the minimum level of interaction necessary for thermo-rheological simplicity in blends. Blends of styrene-co-vinylphenol (PSVPh) and poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) were chosen. Incorporation of styrene provides an effective way to modulate H-bonding interactions in the system. Linear viscoelastic data indicate that tTS fails for PS/PVME blends, whereas data obtained for different PVPh/PVME blends showed that tTS was obeyed a over wide temperature range. For PSVPh/PVME blends with low PSVPh content, tTS was successful. This suggests that the presence of alternating styrene and vinyl phenol units was insufficient for dynamic response decoupling. Further studies are in progress, with varying vinyl phenol content in PSVPh, to explore the influence of H-bonding on dynamic heterogeneity and blend dynamics.

  7. Structuring of Interface-Modified Polymer Blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The paper treats the case where blends of polystyrene (PS), poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and a diblock copolymer of PS and PDMS are used as model materials. This modelsystem is predicted to be "stable" in discrete blends in simple shear flow. Stable in the sence that the block copolymer can not...

  8. Green emitting phosphors and blends thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Siclovan, Oltea Puica; Nammalwar, Prasanth Kumar; Sathyanarayan, Ramesh Rao; Porob, Digamber G.; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Heward, William Jordan; Radkov, Emil Vergilov; Briel, Linda Jane Valyou

    2010-12-28

    Phosphor compositions, blends thereof and light emitting devices including white light emitting LED based devices, and backlights, based on such phosphor compositions. The devices include a light source and a phosphor material as described. Also disclosed are phosphor blends including such a phosphor and devices made therefrom.

  9. Frequency dependent conductivity of the thin film blend of electroluminescent poly(p-phenylene vinylene) with waterborne polyurethane as ionomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency dependent conductivity, σ(ω), of the blend containing two different charge carrying material, a conjugated polymer, poly(p-phenylene vinylene), PPV and an ionomer, waterborne polyurethane ionomer, WPUI, was investigated in the frequency (ω) range from 0.1 to 1000 kHz by impedance spectroscopy and compared with the individual materials, PPV and WPUI, respectively. Clear differences could be seen in the dependence of ω on both real and imaginary parts of impedance between WPUI, PPV and the blend film. At high frequencies (>200 kHz), all the three materials, exhibit a power law dependence between σ(ω) and ω as σ(ω)∝ωs. Simulation of s value through theoretical fitting reveals that the s value of the blend (1.108) is in between PPV (1.289) and WPUI (1.035) and signifies the mixed contribution of carrier transport of PPV and WPUI in the blend. The morphology of the blend as observed from atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging reveals that WPUI connects the islanded parts of PPV and provides a path for carrier conduction. Results observed indicate that carrier transport operates through barrier hopping in these materials and the difference in the dependence of ω on σ in the blend is attributed from the influence of SO3- group in WPUI on the carrier transport of PPV

  10. Systematic Methodology for Design of Tailor-Made Blended Products: Fuels and Other Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti

    A tailor-made blended liquid product is defined as a formulation of various chemicals in the liquid state to obtain a liquid mixture with a specific set of desired characteristics and qualities. Examples of blended liquid products are synthetic fuels and lubricants. This type of products is very...... important in daily life, since they not only keep people moving around, but also guarantee that machines and equipment work smoothly. The objective of this work is to tackle the blending problems using computer-aided tools for the initial stage of the product design. A systematic methodology for design...... library. Thirdly, a mixture/blend design algorithm is applied to obtain the mixtures/blends that match the design targets. The result is a set of blends that match the constraints, the composition of the chemicals present in the blend, and the values of the target properties. Finally, the mixture target...

  11. Study on combustion characteristics of blended coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yonghua; WANG Chunbo; CHEN Hongwei

    2007-01-01

    Power plants in China have to burn blended coal instead of one specific coal for a variety of reasons.So it is of great necessity to investigate the combustion of blended coals.Using a test rig with a capacity of 640 MJ/h with an absolute milling system and flue gas online analysis system,characteristics such as burnout,slag,and pollution of some blended coals were investigated.The ratio of coke and slag as a method of distinguishing coal slagging characteristic was introduced.The results show that the blending of coal has some effect on NOx but there is no obvious rule.SOx emission can be reduced by blending low sulfur coal.

  12. The Impact Analysis of Social Marketing Mix on the Intention of Replacing Single-Occupant Vehicles with Urban Public Transport Case Study: Staff Working at State Universities of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezaie Dolatabadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the growing use of private cars in cities has led to air pollution; hence, breathing clean air as a basic human right has become drastically difficult. Isfahan as the second industrial city of Iran has struggled for years with this problem. In order to reduce the intensity of air pollution, there are many suggestions amongst which replacing Single-Occupant Vehicles (SOVs with Urban Public Transport (UPT can be noted. In this study, by using the principles of social marketing and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB a conceptual model has been presented to evaluate the impact analysis of social marketing mix on the intention of staff working at the State Universities of Isfahan City in order to replace SOVs with UPT. Data were collected using a closed questionnaire and the model was evaluated by using Amos Graphic Software. The results show that social marketing mix has a significant positive effect on behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs, but a negative effect on the control beliefs of the staff. The effects of behavioral beliefs on attitude, normative beliefs on subjective norms, and control beliefs on perceived behavioral control are significant positive. Also the effects of three variables: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on the intention of the staff are significant positive. Finally, a significant positive effect of social marketing mix on the intention of staff was approved.

  13. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Price hikes in cooking oil fuel worries over inflation and the dominance of foreign gurus over the country’s grain markets. With an explosion of box office successes, leading Chinese movie studios gear up for share floats to support expansion. Exports in November showed signs of bottoming out as the sector prepares for a more prosperous year in 2010. Despite its reputation as a nation of savers, China’s online consumption is burning hot as consumers enjoy the comfort of shopping from home. The aviation industry basks in the glow of the strong economic recovery as airlines transport a soaring number of passengers. Chinese companies press ahead with outbound mergers and acquisitions while overseas strategic investors remained relatively inactive in China.

  14. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  15. The art of designing markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alvin E

    2007-10-01

    Traditionally, markets have been viewed as simply the confluence of supply and demand. But to function properly, they must be able to attract a sufficient number of buyers and sellers, induce participants to make their preferences clear, and overcome congestion by providing both enough time to make choices and a speedy means of registering them. Solutions to these challenges are the province of market design--a blend of game theory and experimental economics. Roth, a professor of both business and economics at Harvard, is a leading market designer. He and his colleagues have rescued failing markets by, for example, designing labor clearinghouses through which U.S. doctors get their first jobs and auctions through which the Federal Communications Commission sells licenses for parts of the radio broadcast spectrum. They have also created marketlike allocation procedures that involve neither prices nor an exchange of money; these include systems for assigning children to schools in Boston and New York and for facilitating exchanges of kidneys. Computers enable the design of "smart markets" that combine the inputs of users in complex ways: In kidney exchange, they run through every possible match of donors and recipients to arrange the greatest possible number of transplants. In the future, computers may make it possible to auction bundled goods, such as airport takeoff and landing slots. As online markets--like those for jobs and dating--proliferate, a growing understanding of markets in general will provide virtually limitless opportunities for market design.

  16. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAILROAD ACQUISITION, CONTROL, MERGER, CONSOLIDATION PROJECT, TRACKAGE RIGHTS, AND LEASE PROCEDURES General Acquisition Procedures § 1180.7 Market analyses. (a) For... company's marketing plan and existing and potential competitive alternatives (inter- as well as...

  17. Blended Learning in the Vocational Education and Training System in Tanzania: Understanding Vocational Educators’ Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruni J. Machumu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In a constructivist world of teaching and learning, opportunities to acquire and develop the knowledge and practical skills necessary to design, establish, and deploy blended learning in vocational education and training (VET programs delivery is a labour-market-driven. The paper examines VET educator’s pleas about the need for the design, adoption and deployment of blended learning in VET programs delivery in Tanzania. A single case study design with an in-depth interview and focus group discussion was conducted with 15 VET educators in three VET colleges in both Morogoro and Dar es Salaam regions. Snowball and purposive sampling were used to obtain sample respondents. For the data analysis, content analysis was employed to condense data obtained from interviews and focus group discussion. It was found that continuous professional development, institutional arrangements, and support should be provided online to facilitate the design, adoption and use of blended learning in VET. We recommend that locally designed blended learning should be relevant to the environment of both students and teachers. In reality, the interplay between blended learning, imparting knowledge and practical skills remain the key focus of future research.

  18. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  19. Overview of the U.S. northeast market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this presentation was the natural gas market in the northeastern United States. Topics addressed included: gas market requirements, gas transportation proposals, and market pricing dynamics. figs

  20. THE EFFECT OF BLENDING SEQUENCE ON PHASE MORPHOLOGY OF NYLON 6/ABS/SMA BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The preparation process-dependent phase morphology of blends composed of nylon 6 and acryionitrile-butadienestyrene(ABS)over a composition range of 30-70 wt% using a styrene-maleic anhydride(SMA)copolymer as the compatibilizing agent with a constant content(5phr)was investigated.The results of the scanning electron microscope (SEM)observation revealed that compared with the binary blends of nylon 6 and ABS,the existence of SMA caused a composition shift of phase inversion to a higher weight fraction of nylon 6 when ABS was blended with the preblended nylon 6/SMA blend,while the co-continuous structures could be observed over a considerably narrower composition range when nylon 6 was blended with the pre-blended ABS/SMA blend.An examination through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA)tests confirmed the results obtained with SEM.It is found that near the phase inversion region a remarkable change in the dynamic storage modulus(G')and the loss tangent(tanδ)appears.Moreover,the influence of blending sequence on the size of dispersed particles has been probed for uncompatibilized and compatibilized blends of nylon 6 and ABS over a wide range of compositions below or beyond the phase inversion points.For the blends of ABS dispersed in a nylon 6 matrix,little discernible effects of blending sequence on particle size could be observed.Furthermore,there exists a significant difference in morphologies of the blends prepared by nylon 6 particles dispersing in a ABS matrix in cases of different blending sequences used.Some possible factors responsible for the above asymmetric behaviors have been proposed.

  1. Marketing Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Svatoňová, Michala

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis touches the concept of marketing in the general, then is specially focused on the marketing communication and finally evaluates the situation of a selected international company Raytheon Professional Services with regard to implementation of marketing communication plan. Thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part is concerned about the theoretical background of marketing and marketing communication, marketing mix in order to gain the knowledge needed for set...

  2. Inbound Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hesoun, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  3. Sustainable Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    I assume we’ll want to sustain any mode of transport only if we judge it to be effective and desirable, and of course, only if we think we can afford to sustain it. Over time, we’ve abandoned any number of modes that failed those tests — horsecars, trolleycars, and pullmancars, among others; and we’ve kept those that passed the tests — most notably motorcars, airplanes, and ships. In retrospect, it seems we’ve been pretty draconian in rejecting transport modes that have failed in the market p...

  4. Segmentation and Representation of Consonant Blends in Kindergarten Children's Spellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the growth of children's segmentation and representation of consonant blends in the kindergarten year and to evaluate the extent to which linguistic features influence segmentation and representation of consonant blends. Specifically, the roles of word position (initial blends, final blends),…

  5. 27 CFR 24.213 - Heavy bodied blending wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heavy bodied blending wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.213 Heavy bodied blending wine. Heavy bodied blending wine is wine made for blending purposes from grapes or other fruit...

  6. Introduction to market power issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an initial introduction to market power issues in wholesale electric power markets. Market power was described as the ability of sellers to act together to profitably maintain prices above competitive levels for a significant period of time. The two general forms of market power, vertical and horizontal market power, were described with reference to how they may be exercised. The factors that should be considered when evaluating the competitiveness of a market include: (1) market share of suppliers, (2) overall market concentration, (3) elasticity of demand, (4) shape of the industry supply curve, (5) the amount and distribution of excess supply, (6) typical contractual arrangements and the process for establishing prices, and (7) the relative ease to enter the market. It was noted that a narrow market scope allows only wholesale market sector (such as municipal utilities) to access competitive electricity supplies, however, a more expansive definition of market scope would consider the sale of electricity to industrial customers. This would allow more players to enter the Nova Scotia market. The barriers to entry for wholesale electric power markets are: (1) access to the transmission grids and services, (2) sites for new capacity development, (3) major inputs to power generation, (4) transportation of major inputs to generation, and (5) lack of liquidity

  7. Morphology Evolution of Polycarbonate-Polystyrene Blends During Compounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chuai, Chengzhi; Almdal, Kristoffer; Johannsen, Ib;

    2001-01-01

    The morphology evolution of polycarbonate-polystyrene (PC/PS) blends during the compounding process in three blending methods of industrial relevance, namely melt blending, re-melt blending in a twin-screw extruder and tri-melt blending in an injection-moulding machine, was investigated using......-empirical model. The results show that the formation of co-continuous morphology strongly depends on blend composition and melt blending method, whereas the model prediction for phase inversion deviates from the experimental values. Further, we found that the initial mechanism of morphology evolution involves...

  8. An Overview of Starch-Based Plastic Blends from Reactive Extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kalambur, Sathya; Rizvi, Syed S. H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The North American market for biodegradable plastics in 2005 was estimated to be around 60 million pounds (27 kt). Starch-based polymer blends were expected to account for 30 million pounds (14 kt) with significantly lower growth rates than other biodegradable polymers such as polyesters. The main hurdle in the growth of starch-based products is the thermodynamic immiscibility and non-wetting of st...

  9. Enhancing the phase segregation and connectivity of hydrophilic channels by blending highly sulfonated graft copolymers with fluorous homopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Ching-Ching Yang, Ami; Jankova Atanasova, Katja;

    2013-01-01

    The influence of tuning the ionic content of membranes by blending, as opposed to varying the degree of sulfonation, is evaluated. Membranes of fully sulfonated poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene)-g-poly(styrene sulfonic acid) blended with PVDF were prepared and investigated for...... morphology, water sorption, and proton transport properties. The blend membranes exhibit conductivities superior to pure graft copolymers under fully humidified conditions despite their lower water uptake. Transmission electron microscopy images of the blends reveal that the membranes comprise a combination...... of macro-phase segregated regions of ion-rich and PVDF-rich domains, and, at higher PVDF contents, ion-rich nano-scale domains within fluorine-rich domains. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  10. Blending Parametric Patches with Subdivision Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂清; 李华

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the problem of blending parametric surfaces using subdivision patches is discussed. A new approach, named removing-boundary, is presented to generate piecewise-smooth subdivision surfaces through discarding the outmost quadrilaterals of the open meshes derived by each subdivision step. Then the approach is employed both to blend parametric bicubic B-spline surfaces and to fill n-sided holes. It is easy to produce piecewisesmooth subdivision surfaces with both convex and concave corners on the boundary, and limit surfaces are guaranteed to be C2 continuous on the boundaries except for a few singular points by the removing-boundary approach. Thus the blending method is very efficient and the blending surface generated is of good effect.

  11. Blended Course with Flipped Classroom Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timcenko, Olga; Purwins, Hendrik; Triantafyllou, Evangelia;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses design decisions and development process of producing teaching materials for a blended course with flipped classroom approach at bachelor level at Aalborg University in Copenhagen, Denmark. Our experiences, as well as students’ reactions and opinions...

  12. Hyperspectral imaging of polymer/fullerene blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, Armida; Tinti, Francesca; Savoini, Alberto; Melchiorre, Michele; Po, Riccardo; Camaioni, Nadia

    2014-10-01

    The effectiveness of a hyperspectral imaging system integrated on an enhanced dark-field microscope for probing the microscale morphology of model poly(3- hexylthiopene): [6,6]-phenyl-C61- butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blends is demonstrated. This non-contact technique provides both spectral and spatial information in one measurement, providing an effective mapping of the presence and location of the component materials in the investigated P3HT:PCBM blends spincoated over different substrates (zinc oxide, poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate). The hyperspectral analysis accounts for the micro-scale morphology of P3HT:PCBM blends, even in case of high film roughness, and the quantitative determination of blend components reveals a preferential accumulation of the lowenergy material (P3HT) at the interface with air, confirming the findings reported with other mapping techniques

  13. Enzymatic degradation of polycaprolactone-gelatin blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-04-01

    Blends of polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer and gelatin, natural polymer offer a optimal combination of strength, water wettability and cytocompatibility for use as a resorbable biomaterial. The enzymatic degradation of PCL, gelatin and PCL-gelatin blended films was studied in the presence of lipase (Novozym 435, immobilized) and lysozyme. Novozym 435 degraded the PCL films whereas lysozyme degraded the gelatin. Though Novozym 435 and lysozyme individually could degrade PCL-gelatin blended films, the combination of these enzymes showed the highest degradation of these blended films. Moreover, the enzymatic degradation was much faster when fresh enzymes were added at regular intervals. The changes in physico-chemical properties of polymer films due to degradation were studied by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. These results have important implications for designing resorbable biomedical implants.

  14. NESDIS Blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Total Precipitable Water (TPW) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The Percentage of TPW normal (PCT), or TPW anomaly, shows the...

  15. Prospects of Blended Learning Implementation at Technical University

    OpenAIRE

    Buran, Anna Leonidovna; Evseeva, Arina Mikhailovna

    2015-01-01

    The present paper explores the integration of a blended learning course in the process of learning English as a second language at the technical university. We overview the difference between traditional, web facilitated, blended learning and online course; the implementation of the blended learning course in the process of learning English at the technical university. The article also investigates the benefits and drawbacks of blended learning and the possibilities of a blended learning cour...

  16. Blended Learning-A Focus Study on Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kwong Onn Tham; ChoiKit Tham

    2011-01-01

    Blended learning is gaining popularity in Asia. This paper examines the current stage of development of blended learning in higher education in China, Korea, Japan, and Singapore and the challenges encountered. While blended learning is well-received in western culture, it has met with varying degrees of success in Asia due in part to the different perceptions of instructors and students towards blended learning approaches. In China, for example, while blended learning was well-received, the ...

  17. Blended Learning for Lifelong Learning: An Innovation for College Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Clare Marie O. Robles

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the fast developing and changing transport of technology, new trends and learning opportunities were ushered in the field of Education. This transformation restructures the teaching-learning operation. As a result, educators encounter different learning preferences of students due to the emerging learning needs brought by technology. Although many universities here and abroad recognize the potential of blended learning, there is still lack of implementation on how blended learning be planned, designed and applied. In response to this need, an empirical study on the use of blended learning approach was conducted, which involved the mixing of face-to-face and online delivery methods. Thus, the main purpose of this paper was to find out the effect of blended learning (BL approach on the students’ performance in education subjects.Additionally, this work presents instructional strategies on how to effectively integrate content, pedagogy and technology to enhance the teaching and learning of education courses. This provided the most effective and efficient learning experiences on both teachers and learners with its practical applications against retailed software which often burden many universities. Finally, some implications on how to effectively blend pedagogy and technology, which inevitably lead to significant enhancement of the curriculum, were also discussed.

  18. Film formation from latex blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiansheng

    2000-10-01

    Film formation from hard/soft (i.e., high Tg/low Tg) latex blends consisting of hard polystyrene (PS) and soft poly(n-butyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate) [P(BMA/BA)] latex particles were studied with an emphasis on the influence of the carboxyl groups present on the latex particles. A theoretical model was developed to calculate the optimal surfactant and monomer feed rates for a semicontinuous polymerization process to synthesize monodisperse carboxylated latex particles and independently control the particle size and degree of carboxylation. An important finding obtained from the drying studies is that the drying rate from the edge zone is much faster than the rate obtained from the latex pool. It was also found that the presence of carboxyl groups on the latex particles retarded the drying rate. Utilizing PS particles with a low density of carboxyl groups present on the particle surfaces (e.g., 10% surface coverage) resulted in an even distribution of these particles in the soft copolymer matrix, and thus, good film gloss was achieved. However, the use of hard particles with a high density of carboxyl groups present (e.g., 65% coverage) resulted in a less even distribution of PS particles and poor gloss. A cluster model and a hydrogen bonding mechanism were proposed to explain these phenomena. The presence of the carboxyl groups on the PS particles significantly enhanced the Young's modulus and the yield strength, but did not influence the ultimate mechanical properties. A quantitative model was proposed to predict the Young's modus of the latex blend films as a function of the carboxyl group coverage on the hard particles. There was a good fit between model and the experimental data. The stability of the precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) particles in the P(BMA/BA) latexes was determined by the charge on pigment surface which, in turn, was influenced by the presence of sodium polyacrylate stabilizer. It was found that the wetting ability of the soft

  19. Blended Learning in International Nuclear Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spread of nuclear power ambitions beyond the few early-adopter nations requires more globalized education. Two of the learning problems specific to international education are the need for a common instructional language and different cultural styles of learning. Blended learning, a mix of personal interaction between teacher and impersonal computer-based learning, can solve these problems. The new KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School outside Ulsan, Korea is investing heavily in blended learning

  20. Constructivism Based Blended Learning in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Huneidi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Blended Learning, which is a mix of online and face-to-face learning, can combine the benefits of both, traditional classroom learning and e-learning environments.3 The aim of this thesis is to explore how to design and implement Blended Learning environment based on Constructivism theory, which focuses on students’ experience to construct the knowledge, in order to increase learning outcomes, performance, and quality in academic institutions. An affective and successful learni...

  1. Surface segregation of conformationally asymmetric polymer blends

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanow, Semjon; Fedorenko, Andrei A.

    2005-01-01

    We have generalized the Edwards' method of collective description of dense polymer systems in terms of effective potentials to polymer blends in the presence of a surface. With this method we have studied conformationally asymmetric athermic polymer blends in the presence of a hard wall to the first order in effective potentials. For polymers with the same gyration radius $R_g$ but different statistical segment lengths $l_{A}$ and $l_{B}$ the excess concentration of stiffer polymers at the su...

  2. Physical Aging of Miscible Polymer Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Physical aging measurements were performed on various polymeric glasses with the overriding goal of developing a better molecular picture of the nonequilibrium glassy state. To this end, aging-induced changes in mechanical properties and in the thermodynamic state (volume and enthalpy) were assessed for two different miscible polymer blends as a function of both composition and aging temperature. This investigation considered the physical aging behavior of blends containing atactic polystyr...

  3. Interfacial Slip in Sheared Polymer Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Tak Shing; Mihajlovic, Maja; Shnidman, Yitzhak; Li, Wentao; Gersappe, Dilip

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a dynamic self-consistent field theory, without any adjustable parameters, for unentangled polymer blends under shear. Our model accounts for the interaction between polymers, and enables one to compute the evolution of the local rheology, microstructure and the conformations of the polymer chains under shear self-consistently. We use this model to study the interfacial dynamics in sheared polymer blends and make a quantitative comparison between this model and Molecular Dyn...

  4. Blended Interaction Spaces for Collaborative Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    During the past five years, we have explored the use, potentials and challenges of Blended Interaction spaces. In addition, we have a long background in developing and exploring methods for collaborative design. In this workshop paper, we give an overview of our work and present our visions and o...... and ongoing research in developing Blended Interaction spaces for collaborative design. We then identify key themes and challenges pertinent for the workshop....

  5. Blended learning approaches enhance student academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, NP

    2010-01-01

    Blended learning, or technology enhanced learning, is increasingly becoming an expectation for higher education students. Blended learning allows for the enhancement of face-to-face interaction between tutors and students, using internet or computer based tools. In this paper, a range of case studies are described which illustrate methods to engage students with technology enhanced learning and improve academic performance and student satisfaction. In the first case study, first year undergra...

  6. Redesigning A Course For Blended Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan, Feza

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article describes a collaborative study of the blended learning approach, designed to pave the way for higher education students to integrate online and face-to-face learning environments in an “Instructional Technology and Material Development” course at the University of Yildiz Technic in Turkey. The purpose of this study is to investigate the students’ perceptions of the blended learning environment and to trace the integration between online and face-to-face learning environ...

  7. Internet Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Trofymchuk, Dmytro

    2011-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  8. Marketing research

    OpenAIRE

    Wienerová, Alžběta

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis deals with marketing research of fair trade coffee market. Theoretical part is applied types of marketing research and characterization of theirs. It’s explained single steps of marketing research and activities which are practised in these. Final is chapter explained fiction of social responsible marketing. In practical part are information about fair trade certificate, about Starbucks and about purchase of coffee this corporate. After was maked research in on...

  9. Strategic Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Ned

    2012-01-01

    This chapter from The Library Marketing Toolkit focuses on marketing strategy. Marketing is more successful when it happens as part of a constantly-renewing cycle. The aim of this chapter is to demystify the process of strategic marketing, simplifying it into seven key stages with advice on how to implement each one. Particular emphasis is put on dividing your audience and potential audience into segments, and marketing different messages to each group. It includes case studies from Terr...

  10. Personnel marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Taubenhanslová, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis on Personnel Marketing deals with personnel marketing in the company Československá obchodní banka, a. s. (hereinafter ČSOB). The thesis is divided into two main parts theoretical and practical. The theoretical part of this thesis deals with characteristics of concepts especially from the field of human resources management, which are clearly divided according to personnel marketing point of view to external personnel marketing and internal personnel marketing. The pract...

  11. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  12. MARKET SEGMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Munaga Ramakrishna Mohan Rao

    2015-01-01

    Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that involves dividing a broad target market into subsets of consumers, businesses, or countries who have common needs and priorities, and then designing and implementing strategies to target them. Market segmentation strategies may be used to identify the target customers, and provide supporting data for positioning to achieve a marketing plan objective. Businesses may develop product differentiation strategies, or an undifferentiated approach, inv...

  13. Internal marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Ned

    2012-01-01

    This chapter from The Library Marketing Toolkit focuses on Internal stakeholders. They often hold the purse-strings to our libraries, so marketing successfully to them is absolutely essential. The first part of this chapter covers language, telling stories, using statistics, marketing upwards and communicating your message well. The second part covers marketing with internal stakeholders, such as a parent company within whose branding guidelines you must promote the library, or marketing as p...

  14. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Hejňáková, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's work is an exemplification applicability individual aspects of marketing planning Y company in the conclusion is drown a marketing plan up with advising action programs for year 2014. The theoretical part is defined by marketing and stadium of marketing planning using descriptive models and comparison technical literature. At the conclusion is drown a marketing plan up. The practical part is made on the base of gained information by semistructured interview with a m...

  15. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office's (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  16. Opening of Maritime Transport Service Market and Liberalization of Maritime Transport Service Trade in China%我国海运服务市场开放与海运服务贸易自由化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐颖峰; 寇宁; 朱冰冰

    2011-01-01

    海运服务贸易是国际服务贸易的重要部分之一。加入世界贸易组织之后,我国逐步落实在国际海运服务、海运辅助服务、集装箱服务、海运代理服务和国内航行权等方面做出的承诺。为促进海运服务贸易自由化的发展,我国的海运服务市场应当遵循适度开放的原则,在未来海运服务贸易的双边、多边谈判中争取更大的话语权。%Maritime transport service trade is the important part of intemational service trade. Since China's accession to the WTO, the government has been making efforts in the fulfillment of commitments in the field of international maritime transport service, supplementary service of maritime transport, container service, agency services of maritime transport, and cabotage right. To promote the liberalization of maritime transport service trade, we should keep the profile of moderate fashion and master the initiative in the bilateral and multilateral negotiation of maritime transport service trade.

  17. Gas suppliers meeting market opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas, with its environmental advantages, will increase its development in the residential, professional and transportation markets. It will ensure the transition during the progressive implementation of more sustainable energy sources. This paper discusses some possible impacts of the deregulation on the future gas market (investments, risk management, competition, contracts). It is followed by a round table about the expectations of some gas producers (Qatar, Sweden) in front of the development of the European gas market (LNG projects, financing, contracts). (J.S.)

  18. Sulfur meter speeds coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sulfur content has become the most important criterion that industry looks at when purchasing coal. The exact amount of sulfur in coal being processed by a preparation plant must be known and, if possible, controlled by blending coal streams of various sulfur contents. Present techniques, however, of measuring the sulfur in coal involve laborious and time-consuming sampling and chemical analysis (12 to 24 hr), and the results usually are not available until the following day. By then, the coal barges or trains are already on the way to their destinations. A new nuclear sulfur meter is expected to overcome these difficulties and help lead to true automation in coal preparation plants. Initially developed by the Bureau of Mines' Morgantown Energy Research Center (MERC) at Morgantown, W. Va., and completed after reorganization of the center by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the meter can scan coal to produce a reading within 2 min to an accuracy of 0.04 percent sulfur. The meter is expected to soon result in an element-ash-moisture-Btu meter that would rapidly detect the sulfur, sodium, potassium, and overall mineral content of the coal, as well as its ash and Btu content

  19. INNOVATIVE MODEL OF PRODUCT CERTIFICATION WITHIN THE ENERGY DEREGULATED MARKET. EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION TO A SMART ENERGY AREA IN THE SECTOR OF LOCAL TRANSPORT SERVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Di Florio, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Certification services are widely expanding with the growing request of process and product validation on the part of the organizations, organized communities, municipalities, institutions, as well as production and services companies. Certification is required in order to safeguard markets, mainly users, buyers and consumers during purchase of products and services, and of performances. More and more interesting is the growth potential of certification services in the field of ener...

  20. THE EFFECT OF BIODIESEL AND BIOETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF A DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Venkata Subbaiah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available History has seen fuel innovations being driven majorly by transportation needs rather than the overall need to revolutionize the energy needs of the society. Biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol are now receiving the impetus required for becoming a fuel source for the future. One of the ways to reduce the dependence on fossil diesel is the blending of bioethanol with conventional diesel. However, an emulsifier or a co-solvent is required to stabilize the blend. The ricebran oil biodiesel offers an alternative application as an emulsifier for diesel-ethanol blends to form diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. In the present study the rice bran oil biodiesel was used in different ways such as pure biodiesel, blending with diesel and diesel- ethanol blends. The performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection (DI diesel engine when fuelled with conventional diesel fuel, pure biodiesel, a blend of diesel and biodiesel and three blends of diesel-biodiesel-ethanol were studied over the entire range of load on the engine. The experimental results showed that the highest brake thermal efficiency was observed with 30% ethanol in diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. The exhaust gas temperature and sound reduced with the increase of ethanol percentage in diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. The Carbon monoxide, smoke, exhaust gas temperature and sound reduced with the increase of ethanol percentage in diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. The minimum values of Carbon monoxides, smoke, exhaust gas temperature and sound intensity were observed with the blend BE30 and were respectively 41.23%, 14.5%, 0.57% and 11.53% lower than that of the diesel fuel. The Oxides of nitrogen and carbon dioxide emissions increased with the increased percentage of ethanol in diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. The hydrocarbon emissions increased with ethanol but lower than that of the diesel fuel by a maximum of 35.35% with 10% ethanol in diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blend. The

  1. Blended Learning: How Teachers Balance the Blend of Online and Classroom Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Lynn M.; Milne, John; Suddaby, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Despite teacher resistance to the use of technology in education, blended learning has increased rapidly, driven by evidence of its advantages over either online or classroom teaching alone. However, blended learning courses still fail to maximize the benefits this format offers. Much research has been conducted on various aspects of this problem,…

  2. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  3. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  4. Cost/benefit tradeoffs for reducing the energy consumption of the commercial air transportation system. Volume 2: Market and economic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanabkoude, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the most promising fuel conserving options on fuel consumption, passenger demand, operating costs, and airline profits when implemented into the U.S. domestic and international airline fleets is assessed. The potential fuel savings achievable in the U.S. scheduled air transportation system over the forecast period, 1973-1990, are estimated.

  5. Optimal Pricing in an Asymmetric Transportation Market with Empty Equipment Repositioning%存在空箱调运的非对称运输市场定价策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 张盛浩; 王维娜

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how to price transportation service between two locations in monopoly and duopoly markets, respectively.Because equipment is necessary in facilitating the transportation service, the cost of empty equipment repositioning is inevitable when the realized demands along opposite directions are unbalanced.In case of a monopoly market, we derive the optimal pricing strategy and identify the range of unbalanced potential demands under which the firm achieves balanced realized demands.In case of a duopoly market, we assume that two competing firms have different potential demands along the same transportation direction.The Bertrand com-petition is analyzed and the optimal pricing strategy is derived.We find that profit may be higher when firms reposition some empty equipment, which implies it is unnecessary to achieve balanced realized demands on pur-pose.Furthermore, profit decreases with unit loaded equipment movement cost and competition intensity, and increases with unit empty equipment repositioning cost, price sensitivity and the asymmetric degree of two firms’ potential demands.%考虑空箱调运成本,本文对垄断和双寡头市场分别研究运输企业在两条相向路径上的定价问题。对于垄断市场,建立了运输企业最优定价策略,并刻画出无空箱调运的潜在需求不平衡区间。对于双寡头市场,考虑同一路径上不同企业潜在运输需求不等的现实情境,求解了非对称企业的伯川德纳什均衡,给出最优定价策略。研究发现,无空箱调运并不意味着较高利润,运输企业没有必要刻意消除空箱调运现象。另外,增加单位载货运输成本和竞争强度会降低企业利润,而提升单位空箱重置成本、价格敏感度和市场不对称程度都会增大企业利润。

  6. Blended Training for Combat Medics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlkes, Jennifer; Dickinson, Sandra; Lazarus, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Bleeding from extremity wounds is the number one cause of preventable death on the battlefield and current research stresses the importance of training in preparing every Soldier to use tourniquets. HapMed is designed to provide tourniquet application training to combat medics and Soldiers using a blended training solution encompassing information, demonstration, practice, and feedback. The system combines an instrumented manikin arm, PDA, and computer. The manikin arm provides several training options including stand-alone, hands-on skills training in which soldiers can experience the actual torque required to staunch bleeding from an extremity wound and be timed on tourniquet application. This is more realistic than using a block of wood to act as a limb, which is often how training is conducted today. Combining the manikin arm with the PDA allows instructors to provide scenario based training. In a classroom or field setting, an instructor can specify wound variables such as location, casualty size, and whether the wound is a tough bleed. The PDA also allows more detailed feedback to be provided. Finally, combining the manikin arm with game-based technologies, the third component, provides opportunities to build knowledge and to practice battlefield decision making. Not only do soldiers learn how to apply a tourniquet, but when to apply a tourniquet in combat. The purpose of the paper is to describe the learning science underlying the design of HapMed, illustrate the training system and ways it is being expanded to encompass other critical life-saving tasks, and report on feedback received from instructors and trainees at military training and simulation centers.

  7. Market Watch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, it’s 10.7 percent! All estimations, guesses and doubts came to a close after the National Bureau of Statistics issued the 2006 GDP growth rate.Backed by the booming domestic market, China Mobile has been fearless, determined even to buy a loss-generating Pakistani telecommunications company. Well, all our blessings.As domestic giants spare no effort to “go out,” foreign tycoons show their keen interest in “coming in.” Swiss company UBS AG has seen its dream come true in that it finally won approval from the government to provide comprehensive brokerage services to Chinese customers. Similarly, New York-based insurance company Marsh & McLennan Companies happily announced that it will become the first wholly foreign-owned insurance company operating in China.Meanwhile, there are a lot of mergers in China, but some messy divorces too. Look at this one. The seemingly happy merger ofChangjiang Securities and BNP Paribas broke up soon after their not-so-sweet honeymoon ended.In the transportation sector, Delta Air Lines Inc. is applying for adirect flight between Shanghai and Atlanta in an effort to tap into the vast potential of air services between the two countries.

  8. Marketing San Juan Basin gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marketing natural gas produced in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico and Colorado principally involves four gas pipeline companies with significant facilities in the basin. The system capacity, transportation rates, regulatory status, and market access of each of these companies is evaluated. Because of excess gas supplies available to these pipeline companies, producers can expect improved take levels and prices by selling gas directly to end users and utilities as opposed to selling gas to the pipelines for system supply. The complexities of transporting gas today suggest that the services of an independent gas marketing company may be beneficial to smaller producers with gas supplies in the San Juan Basin

  9. Market development in the natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Options for the liberalization of the Dutch natural gas market have been investigated. Three models are compared and assessed for the impacts on the economic performance, the national interests and the so-called public tasks. The results of the report can be used to base the proposals for a new Natural Gas Act, which is expected to be sent to the Dutch parliament in the spring of 1999. The three liberalization models are specified according to the different phases in the industrial column of natural gas. Except for transport (limited possibilities) and distribution (monopolistic character and thus not suitable for market development), market development is possible in all the phases of the column. The models are the cooperation model (equal position for the natural gas trade company Gasunie and the natural gas distribution companies, and management of the natural gas infrastructure and the Dutch gas reserves by means of mutual tuning, cooperation and coordination), the EZ-model (price mechanism for the tariffs for natural gas, and access to the natural gas network through negotiated third party access (TPA) with indicative prices and conditions), and the market model (optimal use of market development options to stimulate the economic performance, introduction of price mechanism options, access through regulated TPA with tariffs, based on long-term marginal costs, role of the government limited to a favorable policy with respect to access to the network, competition and security of the interests which arise from the exploitation of the Dutch natural gas fields). 26 refs

  10. Social marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson-Maynard, Audrey

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the impact and sustainability of relationships and exchanges that have been established between marketers and target audiences, in social marketing campaign activities designed to produce behavioural changes.

  11. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ There was no sign of recovery from the downturn of rare earth market.The overall rare earth market still presented slipping trend.There was no sufficient replenishment from NdFeB and phosphor producers.

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese stock market showed signs of recovery and the new stock investors have been rushing in. Many people withdrew their insurance to invest in the stock market, as insurance watchdog statistics showed. Meanwhile, the Chinese trade surplus grew to

  13. Jatropha-Palm biodiesel blends: An optimum mix for Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakesh Sarin; Meeta Sharma; S. Sinharay; R.K. Malhotra [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Faridabad (India). R& amp; D Centre

    2007-07-15

    Biodiesel, an alternative renewable fuel made from transesterification of vegetable oil with alcohol, is becoming more readily available for use in blends with conventional diesel fuel for transportation applications. Soybean and Rapeseed are common feedstocks for Biodiesel production in USA and Europe, respectively. However, Asian countries are not self sufficient in edible oil and exploring non-edible seed oils, like Jatropha and Pongamia as biodiesel raw materials. However there is a gestation period of few years before these crops start yielding seeds and oil. On the other hand, South Eastern countries like Malaysia and Thailand have surplus Palm crops. But due to substantial amount of saturated fats in Palm, the Palm biodiesel has poor low temperature properties. In order to exploit the proximity of South Asian and South-East Asian countries, blends of Jatropha and Palm biodiesel have been examined to study their physico-chemical properties and to get an optimum mix of them to achieve better low temperature properties, with improved oxidation stability. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2t abs.

  14. Marketing divadla

    OpenAIRE

    MARŠÍKOVÁ, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the theatre marketing. It is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part of the thesis focuses on knowledge in the field of theatre marketing, marketing mix, types of theatres and financing theatres. The practical part focuses on the amateur theatre association Comica Economica. The aim of the thesis is to analyse the theatre association Comica Economica from the point of marketing mix and, based on this analysis, questionnaire research and SWOT an...

  15. Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Spieglerová, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis titled “Marketing Research” is made up of two parts. The first being the theoretical part, which covers the basic knowledge about a market and how it can be marketed. It also focuses on the identification for the need for marketing research, whilst providing the information about targets and about the ways of implementing the research and its overall progress (preparation, analysis and interpretation of results). In this part there is also a description of the various types of...

  16. Postmoderne marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Urquizu, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This thesis will challenge the traditional marketing perspective by adding a post-modern approach to marketing. Secondary an analysis of the post-modern consumer as well as the importance of neo tribalism in marketing will be described. Additionally the necessity of including countercultural segments and the importance of countercultures will be argued. Finally this thesis will examine which marketing method is the most useful when working with countercultures.

  17. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  18. Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorná, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with issues of marketing strategy of a company in chosen retail business. Its main aim is to suggest new advertising strategy of a company for the purpose of increasing awareness customers and marketability of products. On the grounds of consultations with the management of the company, analysis of current marketing strategy and results of market research I have fulfiled this task. In the theoretical part of this diploma thesis I deal with introduction to strat...

  19. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS’ VIEWS ON BLENDED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Umit YAPICI,

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to determine the high school students’ views on blended learning. The study was carried out in biology course for the lesson unit of “Classification of Living Things and Biodiversity” with 47 9th grade students attending Nevzat Ayaz Anatolian High School in the second term of the academic year of 2009-2010. The lessons were taught in a way appropriate to the blended learning model both via the Internet and on face-to-face basis. As the online dimension of the blended learning model, Moodle, a Learning Management System (LMS, was used. The application lasted 10 weeks. The scale of learners’ views on blended learning was applied and interviews were held to determine the views. As a result of the analysis of the scale, it was seen that their views were “highly” positive. The interviews held with the students revealed that the blended learning model provided students with various opportunities such as getting prepared for the lessons, reviewing the lessons as many times as wanted, reaching the subject-related materials without being dependent on time and place, testing oneself and communicating with the teacher and other students out of the school. The interviews also revealed that there were various problems though such as lack of Internet connection at home and problems experienced while playing the videos.

  20. Shopper marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Klímová, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    The "Shopper marketing" thesis measures and evaluates the effectiveness of shopper marketing activities during the Sochi 2014 Olympic Games. This thesis includes empirical research conducted in an FMCG environment. The research implemented in this work investigates the shopper marketing practises and their effectiveness in selected Czech stores. The conclusions and recommendations within this diploma thesis are based on the analysis of research results.

  1. Stock Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亚玲

    2005-01-01

    There are stock markets in large cities in many countries. Stock markets in Paris, London, Tokyo, Shanghai and New York are among the largest and most well-known. The stock market, also called stock exchange, is a place where people can buy or sell shares of a factory or company. And each share means certain ownership of a factory or company.

  2. Marketing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  3. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hottest financial market topic of the moment could be the subprime loan crisis in the United States. The crisis has stormed the U.S. stock market, dragging it to its biggest falls in a single trading day. Other markets, such as Japan’s, were also vul

  4. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    BLÁHOVÁ, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the viral marketing and to analyze selected viral campaigns. There is a description of advantages and disadvantages of this marketing tool. In the end I suggest for which companies viral marketing is an appropriate form of the promotion.

  5. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...

  6. Marketization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this introduction article to the IJPSM special issue on marketization is to clarify the conceptual foundations of marketization as a phenomenon within the public sector and to gauge current marketization trends on the basis of the seven articles in the special issue. Desig...

  7. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  8. Marketing and Distributive Education Curriculum Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb. Dept. of Business Education and Administration Services.

    This planning guide in marketing and distributive education is designed to provide the curriculum coordinator and instructor with a basis for planning a comprehensive program in the career field of marketing. Such programs require competencies in sales, sales promotion, buying, transporting, storing, financing, marketing research, and management.…

  9. BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

    2011-05-26

    the sludge level was shown to remain constant. To experimentally model the sludge layer, a very thin, pourable, sludge simulant was conservatively used for all testing. To experimentally model the liquid, supernate layer above the sludge in waste tanks, two salt solution simulants were used, which provided a bounding range of supernate properties. One solution was water (H{sub 2}O + NaOH), and the other was an inhibited, more viscous salt solution. The research performed and data obtained significantly advances the understanding of fluid mechanics, mixing theory and CFD modeling for nuclear waste tanks by benchmarking CFD results to actual experimental data. This research significantly bridges the gap between previous CFD models and actual field experiences in real waste tanks. A finding of the 2009, DOE, Slurry Retrieval, Pipeline Transport and Plugging, and Mixing Workshop was that CFD models were inadequate to assess blending processes in nuclear waste tanks. One recommendation from that Workshop was that a validation, or bench marking program be performed for CFD modeling versus experiment. This research provided experimental data to validate and correct CFD models as they apply to mixing and blending in nuclear waste tanks. Extensive SDI research was a significant step toward bench marking and applying CFD modeling. This research showed that CFD models not only agreed with experiment, but demonstrated that the large variance in actual experimental data accounts for misunderstood discrepancies between CFD models and experiments. Having documented this finding, SRNL was able to provide correction factors to be used with CFD models to statistically bound full scale CFD results. Through the use of pilot scale tests performed for both types of pumps and available engineering literature, SRNL demonstrated how to effectively apply CFD results to salt batch mixing in full scale waste tanks. In other words, CFD models were in error prior to development of experimental

  10. Mercado para produtos reciclados à base de PET/HDPE/Ionômero Market for PET/HDPE/Ionomer recycled products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen B. Pacheco

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão do mercado de poli(tereftalato de etileno (PET, considerada um fenômeno mundial, está acontecendo no Brasil. Hoje, o principal mercado para o PET é o de bebidas carbonatadas. O uso de PET em lugar do vidro vem trazendo inúmeras vantagens, incluindo menor peso, maior resistência ao impacto e menores custos de transporte. Foram estudados possíveis mercados para a mistura PET/HDPE, na proporção de 75/25, acrescida de uma pequena quantidade de compatibilizante. Os resultados do estudo indicam que possíveis mercados para o mistura poderá incluir o de embalagens para usos especiais e partes de automóvel.The expansion of the market for polyethylene terephthalate (pet, considered a world phenomenon, is happening in brazil. The main market for pet is the soft drink bottles. The use of pet instead of glass brings several advantages, including lighter weight, better impact resistance, and lower transportation costs. Possible markets were studied for pet/hdpe blends in proportion 75/25 with small amounts of a compatibilizer. The results of the study indicate that possible markets would be containers for special uses and car parts.

  11. Guerilla marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Burkoňová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Thesis on the topic of „Guerilla Marketing“ deals with modern trends in the field of Marketing. The theoretical section of this thesis is focused on a literature review of Guerilla Marketing, where Guerilla Marketing trend is explained in detail and modern trends of Guerilla Marketing are described, inclusive practical examples. The practical section of the thesis deals with a company called RobZone Int. s.r.o. and the analysis of their corporate marketing mix. In order to acquire relev...

  12. Marketing maloobchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  13. Designed blending for near infrared calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibelhofer, Otto; Grabner, Bianca; Bondi, Robert W; Igne, Benoît; Sacher, Stephan; Khinast, Johannes G

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopic methods are increasingly used for monitoring pharmaceutical manufacturing unit operations that involve powder handling and processing. With that regard, chemometric models are required to interpret the obtained spectra. There are many ways to prepare artificial powder blend samples used in a chemometric model for predicting the chemical content. Basically, an infinite number of possible concentration levels exist in terms of the individual components. In our study, design of experiments for ternary mixtures was used to establish a suitable number of blend compositions that represents the entire mixture region of interest for a three component blend. Various experimental designs and their effect on the predictive power of a chemometric model for near infrared spectra were investigated. It was determined that a particular choice of experimental design could change the predictive power of a model, even with the same number of calibration experiments. PMID:25980978

  14. Miscibility of polymer blends with engineering models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassilis, Harismiadis; van Bergen, A. R. D.; Goncalves, Ana Saraiva;

    1996-01-01

    The miscibility behavior of polymer blends that do not exhibit strong specific interactions is examined. Phase equilibrium calculations are presented with the van der Waals equation of state and three group-contribution models (UNIFAC, Entropic-FV, and GC-Flory). Performance of these models is also...... compared. The van der Waals equation of state was recently shown to accurately correlate and predict vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria for binary polymer/solvent solutions. In this work, it is demonstrated that it correlates the upper critical solution behavior of polymer blends with excellent......, the upper critical solution temperature can be predicted with an average error of less than 45 degrees C. The van der Waals equation of state can correlate the lower critical solution behavior of polymer blends, using an interaction parameter that is a linear function of temperature. The UNIFAC and Entropic...

  15. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Bonnie; Hitchcock, Adam; Brash, John; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew

    2010-06-09

    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vacuum annealing. For most of the blends examined, PS is the continuous phase with PLA existing in discrete domains or segregated to the air?polymer interface. Phase segregation was improved with further annealing. A phase inversion occurred when films of a 40:60 PS:PLA blend (0.7 wt percent loading) were annealed above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PLA.

  16. Learning Design Development for Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janne Saltoft

    Learning design development for blended learning We started implementing Blackboard at Aarhus University in 2013. At the Health Faculty Blackboard replaced AULA which was a LMS with functionality for file distribution and only a vague focus on learning tools. Most teachers therefore had...... no experiences with blended leaning and technology supported out-of-class activities. At the pedagogical unit at the Health faculty we wanted to follow the Blackboard implementation with pedagogical tools for learning design to evolve the pedagogical use of the system. We needed to make development of blended...... learning courses easier for the teachers and also ensure quality in the courses. This poster describes the process from development of the learning design to implementation of the learning design at the faculty: 1. How to place demands on a learning design-model and how to develop and use such a model. 2...

  17. REVERSE MODELING FOR CONIC BLENDING FEATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Shuqian; Ke Yinglin

    2005-01-01

    A novel method to extract conic blending feature in reverse engineering is presented.Different from the methods to recover constant and variable radius blends from unorganized points, it contains not only novel segmentation and feature recognition techniques, but also bias corrected technique to capture more reliable distribution of feature parameters along the spine curve. The segmentation depending on point classification separates the points in the conic blend region from the input point cloud. The available feature parameters of the cross-sectional curves are extracted with the processes of slicing point clouds with planes, conic curve fitting, and parameters estimation and compensation. The extracted parameters and its distribution laws are refined according to statistic theory such as regression analysis and hypothesis test. The proposed method can accurately capture the original design intentions and conveniently guide the reverse modeling process. Application examples are presented to verify the high precision and stability of the proposed method.

  18. Improvements of fill factor in solar cells based on blends of polyfluorene copolymers as electron donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photovoltaic characteristics of solar cells based on alternating polyfluorene copolymers, poly(2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3' -benzothia diazole)) (APFO-3), and poly(2,7-(9,9-didodecyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3' -benzothiadiazole)) (APFO-4), blended with an electron acceptor fullerene molecule [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), have been investigated and compared. The two copolymers have the same aromatic backbone structure but differ by the length of their alkyl side chain. The overall photovoltaic performance of the solar cells is comparable irrespective of the copolymer used in the active layer. However, the fill factor (FF) values of the devices are strongly affected by the copolymer type. Higher FF values were realized in solar cells with APFO-4 (with longer alkyl side chain)/PCBM bulk heterojunction active layer. On the other hand, devices with blends of APFO-3/APFO-4/PCBM were found to render fill factor values that are intermediate between the values obtained in solar cells with APFO-3/PCBM and APFO-4/PCBM active film. Upon using APFO-3/APFO-4 blends as electron donors, the cell efficiency can be enhanced by about 16% as compared to cells with either APFO-3 or APFO-4. The transport of holes in each polymer obeys the model of hopping transport in disordered media. However, the degree of energetic barrier against hopping was found to be larger in APFO-3. The tuning of the photovoltaic parameters will be discussed based on studies of hole transport in the pure polymer films, and morphology of blend layers. The effect of bipolar transport in PCBM will also be discussed

  19. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  20. Statistical methods for assessment of blend homogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Camilla

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the use of various statistical methods to address some of the problems related to assessment of the homogeneity of powder blends in tablet production is discussed. It is not straight forward to assess the homogeneity of a powder blend. The reason is partly that in bulk materials......, it is shown how to set up parametric acceptance criteria for the batch that gives a high confidence that future samples with a probability larger than a specified value will pass the USP threeclass criteria. Properties and robustness of proposed changes to the USP test for content uniformity are investigated...

  1. Composites and blends from biobased materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, S.S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The program is focused on the development of composites and blends from biobased materials to use as membranes, high value plastics, and lightweight composites. Biobased materials include: cellulose derivative microporous materials, cellulose derivative copolymers, and cellulose derivative blends. This year`s research focused on developing an improved understanding of the molecular features that cellulose based materials with improved properties for gas separation applications. Novel cellulose ester membrane composites have been developed and are being evaluated under a collaborative research agreement with Dow Chemicals Company.

  2. Blended Learning or E-learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Tayebinik, Maryam; Puteh, Marlia

    2013-01-01

    ICT or Information and Communication Technology has pervaded the fields of education.In recent years the term e-learning has emerged as a result of the integration of ICT in the education fields. Following the application this technology into teaching, some pitfalls have been identified and this have led to the Blended learning phenomenon.However the preference on this new method has been debated quite extensively.The aim of this paper is to investigate the advantages of blended learning over...

  3. COMPUTATION OF VECTOR VALUED BLENDING RATIONAL INTERPOLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    檀结庆

    2003-01-01

    As we know, Newton's interpolation polynomial is based on divided differ-ences which can be calculated recursively by the divided-difference scheme while Thiele'sinterpolating continued fractions are geared towards determining a rational functionwhich can also be calculated recursively by so-called inverse differences. In this paper,both Newton's interpolation polynomial and Thiele's interpolating continued fractionsare incorporated to yield a kind of bivariate vector valued blending rational interpolantsby means of the Samelson inverse. Blending differences are introduced to calculate theblending rational interpolants recursively, algorithm and matrix-valued case are dis-cussed and a numerical example is given to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.

  4. Model for blended learning i de tekniske uddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringtved, Ulla Lunde; Leth, Lilli-Ann Thomsen; Olsen, Frank;

    2012-01-01

    Anvendelse af blended learning i de tekniske uddannelser i UCN med udgangspunkt i bygningskonstruktøruddannelsen......Anvendelse af blended learning i de tekniske uddannelser i UCN med udgangspunkt i bygningskonstruktøruddannelsen...

  5. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  6. To blend or not to blend?! That’s the e-learning question!

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Henrique

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss and reflect about the importance of blended learning. Today blended learning became very popular but it is important find the best ways and the best types to deliver and ”consume ”it. It is common recognize blended learning as a mix of media and delivery. However there is very important to find out the “right mix” because it is known that different problems need different solutions. When we talk about higher education we deal with adults and we assume that students ...

  7. Effect of Blending Ratio on the Properties of Ramie/Polyester Blended Yarn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Wen

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the blending ratio on the properties of Ramie/Polyester blended yarns are discussed in this paper. The experimental results show that the elongation of the yarn with the polyester content more than 40% is better than that of others. There is a lowest tenacity of the yarn corresponding to the blending ratio of 50/50 or so. The other properties of the yarn, such as the evenness and hairiness, will be improved with the increasing of the polyester content.

  8. Market Is A Dinner An exclusive interview with Zhang Bin, President of China National Foreign Trade Transportation (Group) Corporation(Sinotrans)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian; Bai; Yifeng

    2005-01-01

      2005 is the last year of China's No. 10 Five-year Plan. With China 's booming economic development, domestic enterprises are facing up with not only quite a lot of opportunities, but also some potential challenges, for instance, with the upgoing oil prices, the energy and the raw materials are no longer in efficient supply, this is a problem that domestic enterprises, especially state-owned enterprises have to face. How to deal with the situation, Zhang Bin, President of China National Foreign Trade Transportation (Group) Corporation (Sinotrans) gives his comments when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.……

  9. Market Is A Dinner An exclusive interview with Zhang Bin, President of China National Foreign Trade Transportation (Group) Corporation(Sinotrans)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Bai Yifeng

    2005-01-01

    @@ 2005 is the last year of China's No. 10 Five-year Plan. With China 's booming economic development, domestic enterprises are facing up with not only quite a lot of opportunities, but also some potential challenges, for instance, with the upgoing oil prices, the energy and the raw materials are no longer in efficient supply, this is a problem that domestic enterprises, especially state-owned enterprises have to face. How to deal with the situation, Zhang Bin, President of China National Foreign Trade Transportation (Group) Corporation (Sinotrans) gives his comments when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.

  10. Structure and Property of Silk Fibroin / Cellulose Blend Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-qiang; XING Tie-ling

    2004-01-01

    Silk fibroin/cellulose blend films were prepared using N-methylmorpholine -N-oxide (NMMO) as solvent. The effects of different proportions and solid contents on properties of blend films were discussed. The mechanical properties showed that the blend films had preferable moisture permeability and a high strength. The structures of the blend films were investigated by infrared spectrum and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated the occurrence of hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl groups of cellulose and amido groups of fibroin.

  11. THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOTROPIC HYDROXYETHYL CELLULOSE ACETATE/POLYETHYLENE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hailin; CHEN Jinming; HUANG Yong; SHEN Jiarui

    1997-01-01

    The thermal behavior of thermotropic hydroxyethyl cellulose acetate (HECA)/polyethylene (PE) blends has been studied by DSC. It is found that the blends of HECA and PE are immiscible but the crystallization of PE is affected by HECA chains in the blends with more than 50% HECA, which results in the subordinate crystallization of PE and the formation of imperfect structures in the PE crystals. The imperfection of PE crystals in the blends can be eliminated after annealing at 393K.

  12. Blended learning in Saudi universities: challenges and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended learning in Saudi higher education are addressed. One major challenge to be considered in the implementation of blended learning in Saudi universitie...

  13. Rare Social Marketing for Sustainable Fishing in Cortes, Surigao Del Sur, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Brian A.; DeWan, Amielle; Cadiz, Fel Ceasar; Jakosalem-Balane, Joy; Dueñas, Vincent; Trinidad, Pedro M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Rare's approach to promoting sustainable fishing through social marketing in the Philippines is exemplified in the Cortes Pride campaign. The Cortes Pride campaign is a social marketing behavior change program that was part of a cohort of 12 similar sustainable fishing campaigns in the Philippines, all of which used a unique blend of social…

  14. Promoting Physical Activity among Youth through Community-Based Prevention Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; McDermott, Robert J.; Alfonso, Moya L.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nickelson, Jen; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; DeBate, Rita D.; Phillips, Leah M.; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang

    2010-01-01

    Background: Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age)…

  15. Creating a super market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) Order 636 changed gas marketing procedures in October 1993 by disengaging the remaining linkages between producers, pipeline companies and LDCs. By erasing the pipelines' already disappearing role as gas suppliers, Order 636 made LDCs entirely responsible for obtaining their own gas supply, transportation and storage. So, many LDCs turned to gas marketing companies -- not only for more gas, but also for many of the services that the pipelines and gas suppliers used to provide. The process is giving the gas marketing companies a whole new role in life -- perhaps even a whole new life. Unlike LDCs and the pipelines, gas marketers are largely unregulated and, as such, are moving into or looking at a host of new areas: Helping customers manage and economize their energy use, not only with natural gas but with other fuels as well; Marketing electricity and fuel oil in addition to natural gas; Laying pipelines and serving local industrial customers the LDCs haven't been able to serve economically; and Selling natural gas to individual residential customers, the last remaining exclusive domain of the LDCs. The paper discusses the new roles for gas marketing companies and what is left for LDCs

  16. Innovation in transport storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'TN international' has developed a capacity to envision and realize innovative products and services for the transport and storage of radioactive materials. This is our innovation policy, whose aim is managing change by design. The paper describes a new concept, internally known as ID school. It is a unique combination of innovation tools and methods. It blends an all-round technological watch, a idea management system, an extensive research/development program, state-of-the-art research and problem-solving software, a network of experts, an array of innovation methods and facilities that promote an innovative spirit. These tools apply to engineering, freight forwarding, organization... and favour both individual initiative and teamwork. For instance, AREVA has developed a special method for an innovation called the EFICA method. This method alternates diverging and converging phases to conclude with a set of innovative ideas and an action plan to develop them. In this method, brainstorming is stimulated by facilitators. These are engineers who receive a specific training. More than twenty EFICA projects have been carried out very successfully by TN International, allowing many new ideas to emerge. These ideas are patented and implemented in cask designs. Examples are shown of success coming from innovation challenges: more capacious packaging, accommodation of hotter materials, reduction of dose rates, quicker approvals. The expected benefits are: -) shorter time-to-market, -) cheaper products, -) differentiated products, and -) safer products. Moreover, our experience of innovation initiatives show that the challenges from Safety Authorities can also be met: increased safety, thorough justifications, implementation of good existing ideas to new problems. Therefore, innovation can be looked upon favourably by competent authorities

  17. Blended Learning within an Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Steven J.; Carter, Kathryn R.; Armga, Austin J.; Carter, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    In physiological education, blended course formats (integration of face-to-face and online instruction) can facilitate increased student learning, performance, and satisfaction in classroom settings. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of using blending course formats in laboratory settings. We evaluated the impact of blended learning…

  18. Transitioning to Blended Learning: Understanding Student and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Nannette P.; Dekhane, Sonal; Smith, Stella

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion of an introductory computing course to the blended learning model at a small, public liberal arts college. Blended learning significantly reduces face-to-face instruction by incorporating rich, online learning experiences. To assess the impact of blended learning on students, survey data was collected at the…

  19. Blended Course Design: A Synthesis of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Patricia; Reis, Abby

    2012-01-01

    Blended or hybrid course offerings in higher education are commonplace and much has been written about how to design a blended course effectively. This study examines publically available guides, documents, and books that espouse best or effective practices in blended course design to determine commonalities among such practices. A qualitative…

  20. THE RADIATION CROSSLINKING OF EPR/SBR BLEND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wanxi; L(U) Yingtao; SUN Jiazhen

    1990-01-01

    The radiation crosslinking of EPR/SBR blend has been studied. A relationship between sol fraction and radiation dose for the different weight ratio polymer blends and the method to calculate βb value of EPR/SBR blend system have been established.

  1. AGRICULTURAL DIRECT MARKETING AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    RADULY ISTVAN; PARTENIE DUMBRAVA

    2009-01-01

    AAgricultural direct marketing implies the selling of agricultural, mainly horticultural products directly to the public either through on-farm markets (farm-shops), community-based farmers’ markets, or post, electronic mail and internet web order. These types of distribution channels can supply customers with fresh, ripen and healthy produce without the physical and social costs of transportation. In our view direct marketing alone is not competitive enough, as it should combine innovation w...

  2. The Relationship Between Self-Regulation and Online Learning in a Blended Learning Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lynch

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed the distance education and self-regulation literatures to identify learner self-regulation skills predictive of academic success in a blended education context. Five self-regulatory attributes were judged likely to be predictive of academic performance: intrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy for learning and performance, time and study environment management, help seeking, and Internet self-efficacy. Verbal ability was used as a control measure. Performance was operationalized as final course grades. Data were collected from 94 students in a blended undergraduate marketing course at a west coast American research university (tier one. Regression analysis revealed that verbal ability and self-efficacy related significantly to performance, together explaining 12 percent of the variance in course grades. Self-efficacy for learning and performance alone accounted for 7 percent of the variance.

  3. From E-learning to Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Skov; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    . The project uses a ?capacity building strategy where new practice and skills are built through pedagogical interventions mostly designed as courses based on blended learning with a dialogue oriented and practice related team-work as an important part. Through this work the team learns how to use a specific...

  4. Chitosan films and blends for packaging material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den L.A.M.; Knoop, J.R.I.; Kappen, F.H.J.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    An increased interest for hygiene in everyday life as well as in food, feed and medical issues lead to a strong interest in films and blends to prevent the growth and accumulation of harmful bacteria. A growing trend is to use synthetic and natural antimicrobial polymers, to provide non-migratory an

  5. Blended learning pedagogy: the time is now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Pedagogy is rapidly changing. To develop best practice in academia, it is important that we change with the changing needs of students. This article suggests that blended learning is one of the most important pedagogical formats that can enhance student learning, optimize the use of active learning strategies, and potentially improve student learning outcomes.

  6. High School Students' Views on Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, Ibrahim Umit; Akbayin, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the high school students' views on blended learning. The study was carried out in biology course for the lesson unit of "Classification of Living Things and Biodiversity" with 47 9[superscript th] grade students attending Nevzat Ayaz Anatolian High School in the second term of the academic year of 2009-2010.…

  7. CEDS Addresses: Virtual and Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) common data vocabulary supports the collection and use of information about virtual and blended learning. The data element "Virtual Indicator", introduced in version 3 of CEDS, supports a range of virtual learning-related use cases. The Virtual Indicator element may be related to a Course…

  8. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    The object of this experimental study is to measure the effectiveness of a blended learning environment which is laid out on the basis of features for face to face and online environments. The study was applied to 110 students who attend to Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey and take Introduction to Computers Course. During the application,…

  9. Blending zone determination for aerial orthimage mosaicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Chen, Bo-Heng; Lin, Bo-Yi; Chou, Han-Szu

    2016-09-01

    Creating a composed image from a set of aerial images is a fundamental step in orthomosaic generation. One of the processes involved in this technique is determining an optimal seamline in an overlapping region to stitch image patches seamlessly. Most previous studies have solved this optimization problem by searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline with an objective function. This strategy significantly reduced pixel mismatches on the seamline caused by geometric distortions of images but did not fully consider color discontinuity and mismatch problems that occur around the seamline, which sometimes cause mosaicking artifacts. This study proposes a blending zone determination scheme with a novel path finding algorithm to reduce the occurrence of unwanted artifacts. Instead of searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline, a blending zone, which is a k-pixel-wide seamline that passes through high-similarity pixels in the overlapping region, is determined using a hierarchical structure. This strategy allows for not only seamless stitching but also smooth color blending of neighboring image patches. Moreover, the proposed method searches for a blending zone without the pre-process of highly mismatched pixel removal and additional geographic data of road vectors and digital surface/elevation models, which increases the usability of the approach. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of aerial images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to related methods in terms of avoidance of passing highly mismatched pixels.

  10. Rheological properties of olefinic thermoplastic elastomer blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengers, W.G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPE) are a class of materials that have rubber-like properties and can be processed like thermoplastic polymers. In this thesis, the rheological properties of two TPE blends are correlated to their morphology. The thermoplastic vulcanisates (TPV) consist of micron-sized, cu

  11. Comparative Blended Learning Practices and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Eugenia M. W., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of new technologies, more convenient and effective ways of learning are being adopted. However, despite the growing advancements there remains a lack of literature in applications of using these technology teaching approaches. This book offers in-depth analysis of new technologies in blended learning that promote creativity,…

  12. Evaluating What Works in Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Blended learning--the mix of virtual education and face-to-face instruction--is evolving quickly in schools across the country, generating a variety of different models. This special report, the second in a three-part 2012-13 series on virtual education, examines several of those approaches and aims to identify what is working and where…

  13. Scientific Writing: A Blended Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, MaryAnn; Olson, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Scientific writing is composed of a unique skill set and corresponding instructional strategies are critical to foster learning. In an age of technology, the blended instructional model provides the instrumental format for student mastery of the scientific writing competencies. In addition, the course management program affords opportunities for…

  14. Blended learning tools for teaching and training

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Offers a holistic blended learning approach, combining the best of traditional approaches to learning and teaching to make best use of the advantages of each while minimizing the disadvantages. It provides information professionals with a practical guide to the design and delivery of such training programmes.

  15. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  16. Compatibilizing Bulk Polymer Blends by Using Organoclays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Mayu; Gersappe, Dilip; Zhang, Wenhua; Ade, Harald; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Rudomen, Gregory; Schwartz, Bradley; Fisher, Robert

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the compatiblizing performance of organoclays on melt mixed binary and tertiary polymer blends, such as, PS/PMMA, PC/SAN, PS/PMMA/PVC and PS/PMMA/PE. These polymer blends were characterized by TEM, STXM, DSC and DMA. TEM and STXM photographs show that the addition of organoclays into polymer blends drastically reduces the average domain size of the component phases. And the organoclay goes to the interfacial region between the different polymers and effectively slows down the domain size increasing during high temperature annealing. DMA and DSC results show the effect of organoclays on the mechanical properties and glass transitions temperature, which indicates the compatibilization on the molecular level. The generalized compatibilization induced by the nanoscale fillers for blends can be explained in terms of mean field models where the reduction of interfacial tension induced by in-situ grafting is counterbalanced by the increased bending energy due to the rigidity of the filler. This in turn can be shown to be a function of the degree of exfoliation, aspect ratio, and polymer filler interactions. Supported by NSF funded MRSEC at Stony Brook

  17. Trade marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Khodl, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to define the term "trade marketing" and evaluate its role within the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company. With the use of internal resources and relevant literature, I will describe the use of trade marketing from both theoretical and practical point of view. I will also introduce the Coca-Cola HBC and its position on the carbonated soft drinks market in the Czech republic.

  18. Event marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Quynh Trang

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to analyze event-marketing activities of the small firm and propose new events. At first the theoretical part describes marketing and communication mix and then especially planning and development of event marketing campaign. Research data were collected by the method of survey to propose the new events. Randomly selected customers were asked to fill the questionnaire. Its results were integrated into the proposal of the new events. The interview was realized with the owner of...

  19. Theatre marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hajtol, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with problems of the marketing strategy in the theater sector. The main aim is to analyze, how theatres, which are very specific segment, access to the marketing and mainly to the communication mix. I deal with this issue in the theoretical part. In the practical part I analyze the concrete theater Comica Economica, which acts as an amateur student theater at the University of Economics. In this section I analyze the marketing and especially communication mix, of the theater....

  20. Power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry

  1. Online marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zrůst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate pay per click marketing as suitable marketing tool for promotion and distribution of a given product. The paper describes basic vocabulary related to PPC advertising, common metrics, tools used by online marketers, and logic of running PPC campaigns. The paper also tries to quantify impact of Internet on economies. The second part applies the theory to analysis of consumers' conversion path while searching online in common search engines where PPC marketi...

  2. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ridvan EKMEKCI; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  3. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Duc

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  4. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  5. Affiliate marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Žlábek, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis focuses on the topic of online affiliate marketing from the perspective of an internet entrepreneur. In the first, theoretical part, it characterizes the affiliate marketing, describes different, significant affiliate solutions in the Czech market and opportunities for their implementations. In the second, practical part, it concentrates mainly on an affiliate program of a company called GameLeader, s.r.o. It analyses expectations of the business from the implementation...

  6. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The country was faced with heavy inflationary pressure as the CPI and PPI numbers both continued to run at a high growth rate.The government decided to enforce a tightened monetary policy and stock investors rushed to pull money out of the stock market and stash it in the banks.To save the stumbling stock market,QFIIs were allowed to triple their investments in China’s financial markets.

  7. Marketing Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Rigerová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Marketing communications is the main theme of this dissertation. Aim of dissertation is to describe and to analysis marketing and also communication instruments of company Berger Huck, s.r.o. Output of practical part will be used for advertising campaign project. In the first part is processed of theoretical solutions. Technical literature is source of materials for this part of dissertation. In the theoretic parts is briefly described history and progress of marketing, main substance, d...

  8. Marketing Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kozáková, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Marketing communication plays an important role in every competitive organization. It is an integral part of a successful sales and create a long-term relationships with customers and other public. This thesis consists of two parts. The theoretical part and a practical part. The theoretical part describes the concept of marketing mix and its components, there is also clarified the concept of communication, marketing communication and the five main components of the communication mix. An in...

  9. The Optimum Blend: Affordances and Challenges of Blended Learning For Students

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray Gedik; Ercan Kiraz; M.Yaşar ÖZDEN

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elicit students’ perceptions regarding the most facilitative and most challenging features (affordances and barriers) in a blended course design. Following the phenomenological approach of qualitative inquiry, data were collected from ten undergraduate students who had experiences in a blended learning environment. Data were collected from the students’ weekly reflection papers, interviews with students, and documents, and analyzed by structurally and textural...

  10. Services Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jägerová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to verify the category of stars and their informational value for customers at the Four Season Hotel in Pankrác. The theoretical part describes a comparison with the literature, solutions marketing with a focus on the specifics of marketing mix and marketing services. It is then investigated using the marketing mix in practice in the above subjects in the form of structured observation in the natural environment of the hotel without the knowledge of the monitored perso...

  11. A randomized, investigator-masked clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo and tar blend 1% shampoo in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Christopher E M; Finlay, Andrew Y; Fleming, Colin J; Barker, Jonathan N W N; Mizzi, Fabienne; Arsonnaud, Stéphanie

    2006-01-01

    The clinical benefit of currently available tar blend shampoos for the treatment of scalp psoriasis is restricted due to their limited efficacy, low cosmetic appeal and potential for carcinogenicity. This 4-week multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, investigator-masked study included 162 subjects and aimed to compare the efficacy, safety and cosmetic acceptability of clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo versus a currently marketed tar blend 1% shampoo in subjects with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis. Clobetasol propionate shampoo was superior to tar blend shampoo with respect to all efficacy variables tested (pshampoo was more cosmetically acceptable than tar blend shampoo. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo is a good alternative to tar blend shampoo in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  12. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  13. China's Electric Vehicle Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan; Yu Chuan Hwang

    2011-01-01

    @@ Currently global transportation accounts for sixty percent of global oil consumption and thirty percent of global carbon emissions.Projected market studies also show that the oil demand will increase one percent every year until 2030[4].Throughout the world, many countries have begun programs to stimulate the alternative fuel car marker.Many of these countries have set future dates mandating a reduction of pollution and CO2 emission from their city's air.

  14. Style: A Computational and Conceptual Blending-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguen, Joseph A.; Harrell, D. Fox

    This chapter proposes a new approach to style, arising from our work on computational media using structural blending, which enriches the conceptual blending of cognitive linguistics with structure building operations in order to encompass syntax and narrative as well as metaphor. We have implemented both conceptual and structural blending, and conducted initial experiments with poetry, including interactive multimedia poetry, although the approach generalizes to other media. The central idea is to generate multimedia content and analyze style in terms of blending principles, based on our finding that different principles from those of common sense blending are often needed for some contemporary poetic metaphors.

  15. Blended food for enteral feeding via a gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Suzanne

    2014-11-01

    A blended diet for enteral nutrition is defined as home-made everyday food blended to a smooth 'single cream' consistency. At present, blended food is not recommended as a first choice. However, the wishes of parents who prefer to use blended food for their child need to be respected, and hospice policy for Children's Hospice South West is to replicate home conditions as far as possible. Therefore guidelines have been created for use of a blended diet. However, benefits in physical and emotional health need to be balanced against risks of tube blockage, contamination and digestive upsets.

  16. Study on mathematical model of steam coal blending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洪阁; 李白英; 刘泽常; 尹增德

    2002-01-01

    It is necessary to set up a new mathematical model of steam coal blending instead of the old model. Indexes such as moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, sulfur content and heating value in the new mathematical model have linear relation. The new mathematical model can also predict ash-fusion temperature precisely by considering coal ash ratio in steam coal blending, therefore it is possible to obtain linear relation of ash-fusion temperature between single coal and steam coal blending. The new mathematical model can improve precision of steam coal blending and perfect the old mathematical model of steam coal blending.

  17. Deposit formation by 5 % FAME blends in premix burner systems; Ablagerungsbildung durch 5 % FAME Blends in Vormischbrennersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rheinberg, Oliver van; Dirks, Helma; Lucka, Klaus; Koehne, Heinrich [Oel-Waerme-Institut gGmbH (OWI), Aachen-Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Modern burnersystems for Domestic Heating Oil (DHO), with low emissions use an extensive mixing preparation, which is an important criterion for the quality of the combustion. Changes on the fuel may lead to higher emissions and deposit formation and can furthermore affect the storage stability. Analogous to the fuel sector, a further development of DHO concerning the admixture or substitution by alternative fuels is pursued at the moment. The DIN V 51603-6 ''alternative Domestic Heating Oil'' defines the requirements of blends of mineral oil based low sulphur Domestic Heating Oil with biogenic and other alternative compounds such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Vegetable Oil (VO) or Gas to Liquid (GtL) and Biomass to Liquid (BtL). The utilization of burners which are available in the market right now with minor technical modifications is desired. The project aim was to research the practical usage of DHO with an admixture of 5 % (V/V) FAME and 5 % (V/V) VO in oil heating systems. The project was divided into three parts: first the deposit formation and the emissions of stationary oil firing systems were determined in the lab. This was conducted on three different types of burners (blue burner, yellow burner, and rotation evaporator), that are supposedly relevant for today's stock. Secondly, the effect of the fuel matrix on the deposit forming of idealized droplet evaporation in a crucible furnace was qualified and quantified, to make temperature ranges and layout criterions for burner components available. Thirdly, a practical storage of the blends used was conducted which was attended by suitable fuel analysis. Besides the documentation of the ageing state and the correlation to the experiments, the validation of a measuring method for the determination of the oxidation stability as emphasized. (orig.)

  18. TIME-DEPENDENT MORPHOLOGY OF POLYETHYLENE-POLYPROPYLENE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Li; Robert A.Shanks; Long Yu

    2002-01-01

    The effect of time-temperature treatment on morphology of polyethylene-polypropylene (PE-PP) blends wasstudied to establish a relationship between thermal history, morphology and mechanical properties. Polypropylene (PP)homopolymers were used to blend with various polyethylenes (PE), including high density polyethylene (HDPE), lowdensity polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), and very and ultra low density polyethylene(VLDPE and ULDPE). The majority of the blends were prepared at a ratio ofPE:PP = 80:20, while blends of PP and LLDPEwere prepared at various compositions. Thermal treatment was carried out at temperatures between the crystallizationtemperatures of PP and PEs to allow PP to crystallize first from the blends. On cooling further, PE crystallized too. A verydiffuse PP spherulite morphology in the PE matrix was formed in some partially miscible blends when PP was less than 20%by mass. Droplet-matrix structures were developed in other blends with either PP or PE as dispersed domains in a continuousmatrix, depending on the composition ratio. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images displayed a fibrillar structureof PP spherulite in the LLDPE-PP (80:20) and large droplets of PP in the HDPE-PP (80:20) blend, providing larger surfacearea and better bonding in the LLDPE-PP (80:20) blends. This explains why the blends with diffuse spherulite morphologyshowed greater improvement in tensile properties than droplet-matrix morphology blends after time-temperature treatment.

  19. Radiation disinfestation of dried salted mackerel found on packaging, transporting and marketing. Part of a coordinated programme for radiation preservation of dried fish indigenous to Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were made on different types of packaging materials used for packing dried fish in the Philippines with a view to finding a suitable packaging material for irradiated dried fish. Among these packaging materials (polyethylene, cello/polyethylene, polyester/polyethylene, Kraft paper, polypropylene and interwoven polypropylene sacks), polyester/polyethylene laminate was the most resistant material against penetration by Dermestes carnivorous. No insect damage occurred on the dried fish packed in interwoven polypropylene lined with polyester/polyethylene laminate. The cost per sack of such packaging material having a capacity of 50-80 kg is US$ 0.50. The sack lined with polyester/polyethylene proved to be durable for surface transportation from Bacolod City to Manila (approx. 360 miles). Radiation treatment at 225 krad was effective against bacterial contamination but not effective in inhibiting mould growth. Raw fish soaked in 25% salt for 2 hours before drying obtained the highest scores in most of the organoleptic attributes. Dried fish which contains approx. 50% moisture and residual salt content of 6% would spoil within 2 weeks at ambient conditions. Treatment with 2% potassium sorbate and 225 krad showed that samples can be stored under commercial practice and at ambient conditions for up to 62 days

  20. Blended Learning-A Focus Study on Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwong Onn Tham

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning is gaining popularity in Asia. This paper examines the current stage of development of blended learning in higher education in China, Korea, Japan, and Singapore and the challenges encountered. While blended learning is well-received in western culture, it has met with varying degrees of success in Asia due in part to the different perceptions of instructors and students towards blended learning approaches. In China, for example, while blended learning was well-received, the dominance of traditional teaching methods goes against the conditions required for mainstream blended learning. A review of existing literature showed that there are a host of key issues and challenges which prevent Asian countries from harnessing the full potential of blended learning in higher education.

  1. Engaging with blended learning to improve students' learning outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Rebecca; Shannon, Susan J.

    2013-08-01

    When blended learning is embraced to enhance learning in engineering (architectural), design and architecture, we argue it is a best-practice instructional mode. Blended learning is the seamless amalgamation of carefully selected online modules with face-to-face instruction. This paper evaluates case studies of the introduction of blended learning in these disciplines. It demonstrates that students who do not engage with blended learning are academically disadvantaged. Alignment of the blended mode of delivery and the mode of assessment is next considered. Two case studies of the introduction of blended modes of assessment, for improved student satisfaction with feedback, are evaluated. Finally, the reliance upon non-faculty to provide both blended learning and assessment is evaluated using qualitative research methods to establish the barriers to adoption of what is now considered best educational practice.

  2. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  3. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT:Along with the Chinese Government’s determination to crack down on insider trading, the mainland stock market has experienced more volatility recently with sharp ups and downs. Overall, however, the market is on a rising track. A sea change

  4. Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines cl

  5. Developing markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet;

    2015-01-01

    , and social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross...

  6. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market Oct. 10~20 Price of Eu-rich and Yt-medium RE concentrate in domestic market rose to RMB $ 74,000/ton from RMB $72,000/ton. It was still on rising. Price of RE carbonate in Baotou was over RMB$10,000/ton due to the strict volume control of rare earth concentrate.

  7. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market Dec. 10-20 Price of Pr-Nd oxide and Pr-Nd mischrnetal kept on rising in domestic market recently due to the tight supply of RE carbonate. Short supply of ion adsorption clay in southern China did not affect the prices of dysprosium and terbium obviously.

  8. Market review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ RE Market June 10-20 Driven by price rising of Nd and Pr, domestic RE market was very active recently. It was thought that the price rising was led by the large demand of NdFeB magnet industry and tight supply of RE raw materials.

  9. MARKET WAICH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bullish Chinese stock market defied the fou r th interest rate hike of the year to reapa total market value of over 22 trillion yuan ($2.9 tril -lion) by August 22—its highest mark ever . Chineseindividual investors were allowed to buy over seas shar

  10. Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  11. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market May 10-20 Learned from Inner Mongolia Rare Earth Association,domestic rare earth market was in good situation driven by high demand. Price of neodymium rose strongly. Dysprosium oxide and terbium oxide still hovered at the higher price level. Price of europia remained stable.

  12. Nutrition marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  13. Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  14. 2012 Vehicle Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-03-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Center for Transportation Analysis developed and published the first Vehicle Technologies Market Report in 2008. Three editions of the report have been published since that time. This 2012 report details the major trends in U.S. light vehicle and medium/heavy truck markets as well as the underlying trends that caused them. The opening section on Energy and Economics discusses the role of transportation energy and vehicle markets on a national scale. The following section examines light-duty vehicle use, markets, manufacture, and supply chains. The discussion of medium and heavy trucks offers information on truck sales and fuel use. The technology section offers information on alternative fuel vehicles and infrastructure, and the policy section concludes with information on recent, current, and near-future Federal policies like the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards.

  15. RELIGIOUS MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presented to the society’s actual characteristics. This can be achieved by using appropriate marketing tools and methods; however, the particularities of religion must be taken into account in order not to alter its religious values.

  16. Markets in New England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bay State Gas Company is a large American natural gas local distribution company which provides unbundled services and unbundled gas transportation service to about 306,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers in Massachusetts, Maine and New Hampshire. They operate as Northern Utilities Inc. in Maine and New Hampshire. Bay State Gas Company recently announced a strategic merger with NIPSCO Industries. The merger will allow the company to take advantage of opportunities that stem from their location in a high growth potential region, and the growth potential associated with retail unbundling. New England is a small natural gas market with an annual consumption of about 600 BCF, but the market is greatly under saturated. Only 31 per cent of New England homes heat with natural gas compared to 54 per cent of the U.S. as a whole. Three important changes in the New England energy market have been identified that will help the natural gas industry grow in the region: (1) unbundling of retail natural gas markets, (2) deregulation of electric markets, and (3) development of a new pipeline infrastructure. 7 figs

  17. Marketing is Dead! Long Live Marketing!

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the lectures included: Why marketing? Citizen, Consumer, Customer (Behavior) Who is the Father of Marketing? Some Antecedents of Marketing When Did Marketing Start? The Contributors of Marketing Where Did Marketing Start? Job Positions in Today’s Marketing Organization The Role of the Chief Marketing Officer Four Different CEO Views of Marketing Reality – Truth – Challenge (Why Can’t We Make It?) The Strong and Steady Progress of Marketi...

  18. Study of a ternary blend system for bulk heterojunction thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zubair; Touati, Farid; Shakoor, R. A.; Al-Thani, N. J.

    2016-08-01

    In this research, we report a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell consisting of a ternary blend system. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) P3HT is used as a donor and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methylester (PCBM) plays the role of acceptor whereas vanadyl 2,9,16,23-tetraphenoxy-29H, 31H-phthalocyanine (VOPcPhO) is selected as an ambipolar transport material. The materials are selected and assembled in such a fashion that the generated charge carriers could efficiently be transported rightwards within the blend. The organic BHJ solar cells consist of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ternary BHJ blend/Al structure. The power conversion efficiencies of the ITO/ PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ P3HT:PCBM:VOPcPhO/Al solar cells are found to be 2.3% and 3.4%, respectively. This publication was made possible by PDRA (Grant No. PDRA1-0117-14109) from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of Qatar Foundation). The findings achieved herein are solely the responsibility of the authors.

  19. Density of states determination in organic donor-acceptor blend layers enabled by molecular doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Janine; Ray, Debdutta; Kleemann, Hans; Pahner, Paul; Schwarze, Martin; Koerner, Christian; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport is a key parameter determining the efficiency of organic solar cells, and is closely related to the density of free and trapped states. For trap characterization, impedance spectroscopy is a suitable, non-invasive method, applicable to complete organic semiconductor devices. In order to contribute to the capacitive signal, the traps must be filled with charge carriers. Typically, trap filling is achieved by illuminating the device or by injecting charge carriers through application of a forward bias voltage. However, in both cases, the exact number of charge carriers in the device is not known and depends strongly on the measurement conditions. Here, hole trap states of the model blend layer ZnPc:C60 are filled by weak p-doping, enabling trap characterization in a blend layer at a controlled hole density. We evaluate impedance spectra at different temperatures in order to determine the density of occupied states (DOOS) directly from the capacitance-frequency spectra by assuming a simple energy diagram. The reconstructed DOOS distribution is analyzed at different doping concentrations and device thicknesses and compared to thermally stimulated current measurements performed on the same devices. In both methods, a pronounced Gaussian peak at about 0.4 eV below the transport level is found as well as deep, exponential tail states, providing a deeper insight into the density of states distribution of this donor-acceptor blend layer. Additionally, the effect of doping-induced trap filling on the solar cell characteristics is studied in these devices.

  20. How to Control Component Ratio of Conducting Polymer Blend for Organic Photovoltaic Devices by Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobins Augustine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various conducting polymer blends which are used as hole transporting layers (HTL in organic photovoltaic devices (OPV. The electrical performance of these conducting polymer blends depends crucially on its surface compositions and morphology. In this paper, we studied poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly(styrenesulfonate or PEDOT:PSS as an example of the HTL conducting polymer blends used in OPV. We have investigated the effect of annealing PEDOT:PSS in different atmospheres such as vacuum, N2, and air at different temperatures. It was found that the component ratio of the polymer blend is changing with annealing temperature and atmosphere. PSS/PEDOT ratio was found to have clear influence on the electrical performance of the material. In practice, we found that annealing can be used as a method to control component ratio of the HTL conducting polymer blend to achieve better electrical performance in OPV devices. The component ratio changes of the polymer with annealing were understood by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Annealing in N2 atmosphere at 220°C for 1 hour gave best electrical performance for the polymer and the PSS/PEDOT ratio at that condition was close to 1.1, while the initial ratio was 2.5. Optimizing HTL layer by simple conductivity measurement does not guarantee best performance in OPV since surface property changes during annealing might affect the deposition of successive active layers on top and thus final device. Thus we have optimized annealing condition of the HTL layer according to the OPV performance itself.

  1. Experimental investigation of engine emissions with marine gas oil-oxygenate blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates the diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil-alternative fuel additive. Marine gas oil (MGO) was selected as base fuel for the engine experiments. An oxygenate, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM), and a biodiesel (BD) jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) with a volume of 10% were blended with the MGO fuel. JOME was derived from inedible jatropha oil. Lower emissions with diesel-BD blends (soybean methyl ester, rapeseed methyl ester etc.) have been established so far, but the effect of MGO-BD (JOME) blends on engine performance and emissions has been a growing interest as JOME (BD) is derived from inedible oil and MGO is frequently used in maritime transports. No phase separation between MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends was found. The neat MGO, MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends are termed as MGO, Ox10 and B10 respectively. The experiments were conducted with a six-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged, direct-injection Scania DC 1102 (DI) diesel engine. The experimental results showed significant reductions in fine particle number and mass emissions, PM and smoke emissions with Ox10 and B10 fuels compared to the MGO fuel. Other emissions including total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and engine noise were also reduced with the Ox10 and B10 fuels, while maintaining similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and thermal efficiency with MGO fuel. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, on the other hand, were slightly higher with the Ox10 and B10 fuels at high engine load conditions. PMID:20452651

  2. Correlating emissive non-geminate charge recombination with photocurrent generation efficiency in polymer/perylene diimide organic photovoltaic blend films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keivanidis, Panagiotis E.; Bradley, Donal D.C.; Nelson, Jenny [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Kamm, Valentin; Laquai, Frederic [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Max Planck Research Group for Organic Optoelectronics, Ackermannweg 10, 55128, Mainz (Germany); Zhang, Weimin; McCulloch, Iain [Centre for Plastic Electronics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Floudas, George [Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 451 10 Ioannina, Greece, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH-BRI) (Greece)

    2012-06-06

    Evidence for a correlation between the dynamics of emissive non-geminate charge recombination within organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend films and the photocurrent generation efficiency of the corresponding blend-based solar cells is presented. Two model OPV systems that consist of binary blends of electron acceptor N'-bis(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxy diimide (PDI) with either poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) or poly(9,9-dioctylindenofluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (PIF8BT) as electron donor are studied. For the F8BT:PDI and PIF8BT:PDI devices photocurrent generation efficiency is shown to be related to the PDI crystallinity. In contrast to the F8BT:PDI system, thermal annealing of the PIF8BT:PDI layer at 90 C has a positive impact on the photocurrent generation efficiency and yields a corresponding increase in PL quenching. The devices of both blends have a strongly reduced photocurrent on higher temperature annealing at 120 C. Delayed luminescence spectroscopy suggests that the improved efficiency of photocurrent generation for the 90 C annealed PIF8BT:PDI layer is a result of optimized transport of the photogenerated charge-carriers as well as of enhanced PL quenching due to the maintenance of optimized polymer/PDI interfaces. The studies propose that charge transport in the blend films can be indirectly monitored from the recombination dynamics of free carriers that cause the delayed luminescence. For the F8BT:PDI and PIF8BT:PDI blend films these dynamics are best described by a power-law decay function and are found to be temperature dependent. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Review of evolving trends in blended wing body aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Paul; Smith, Howard

    2016-04-01

    The desire to produce environmentally friendly aircraft that is aerodynamically efficient and capable of conveying large number of passengers over long ranges at reduced direct operating cost led aircraft designers to develop the Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft concept. The BWB aircraft represents a paradigm shift in the design of aircraft. The design provides aerodynamics and environmental benefits and is suitable for the integration of advanced systems and concepts like laminar flow technology, jet flaps and distributed propulsion. However, despite these benefits, the BWB is yet to be developed for commercial air transport due to several challenges. This paper reviews emerging trends in BWB aircraft design highlighting design challenges that have hindered the development of a BWB passenger transport aircraft. The study finds that in order to harness the advantages and reduce the deficiencies of a tightly coupled configuration like the BWB, a multidisciplinary design synthesis optimisation should be conducted with good handling and ride quality as objective functions within acceptable direct operating cost and noise bounds.

  4. Guidelines for handling and blending FAME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-15

    This report provides guidance on the handling and blending of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), as a neat product and at concentrations up to 10% v/v in diesel fuel. The major challenges associated with diesel fuels containing FAME are discussed as they relate to the conformity of the finished fuel to typical specifications, especially those in the European standard for automotive diesel (EN 590). This report focuses on the production, blending, distribution, and supply of diesel containing up to 10% v/v FAME as well as the storage and handling of neat FAME but does not address vehicle-related issues with the use of diesel fuels containing FAME. The potential future production and use of Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE) in diesel fuel is also discussed.

  5. Genistein Modified Polymer Blends for Hemodialysis Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Teng; Kyu, Thein; Define, Linda; Alexander, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    A soybean-derived phytochemical called genistein was used as a modifying agent to polyether sulfone/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PES/PVP) blends to produce multi-functional hemodialysis membranes. With the aid of phase diagrams of PES/PVP/genistein blends, asymmetric porous membranes were fabricated by coagulating in non-solvent. Both unmodified and genistein modified PES/PVP membranes were shown to be non-cytotoxic to the blood cells. Unmodified PES/PVP membranes were found to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, whereas the genistein modified membranes exhibited suppression for ˜60% of the ROS levels. Also, the genistein modified membranes revealed significant suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. Moreover, addition of PVP to PES showed the reduced trend of platelet adhesion and then leveled off. However, the modified membranes exhibited suppression of platelet adhesion at low genistein loading, but beyond 15 wt%, the platelet adhesion level rised up.

  6. Polymer blend compositions and methods of preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K.

    2016-09-27

    A polymer blend material comprising: (i) a first polymer containing hydrogen bond donating groups having at least one hydrogen atom bound to a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur, or an anionic version of said first polymer wherein at least a portion of hydrogen atoms bound to a heteroatom is absent and replaced with at least one electron pair; (ii) a second polymer containing hydrogen bond accepting groups selected from nitrile, halogen, and ether functional groups; and (iii) at least one modifying agent selected from carbon particles, ether-containing polymers, and Lewis acid compounds; wherein, if said second polymer contains ether functional groups, then said at least one modifying agent is selected from carbon particles and Lewis acid compounds. Methods for producing the polymer blend, molded forms thereof, and articles thereof, are also described.

  7. Morphological analysis of Polyethersulfone/polyvinyl Acetate blend membrane synthesized at various polymer concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, S. H. A. A.; Mannan, H. A.; Mukhtar, H.; Shaharun, M. S.; Murugesan, T.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the effect of varying polymer concentration i.e. solvent/polymer ratio on the morphology and gas transport behaviour of polyethersulfone/polyvinyl acetate blend membrane. The solvent used was dimethylformamide, while the manipulated variable was polymer concentration. The concentrations were varied from 75-90 weight % solvent. A homogeneous surface with dense cross-section structure membranes were successfully developed as deduced from FESEM images. The permeability of CO2 and CH4 gases increased with increasing polymer concentration and an improved CO2/CH4 selectivity was observed. These observation made from the characterization justified the applicability of the blend to be synthesized as membrane for gas separation.

  8. Full Load Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Gasoline-Isobutanol Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Irimescu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available With fossil fuels reserves coming ever closer to depletion and the issue of air pollution caused by automotive transport becoming more and more important, mankind has looked for various solutions in the field of internal combustion engines. One of these solutions is using biofuels, and while the internal combustion engine will most likely disappear along with the last fossil fuel source, studying biofuels and their impact on automotive power-trains is a necessity even if only on a the short term basis. While engines built to run on alcohol-gasoline blends offer good performance levels even at high concentrations of alcohol, unmodified engines fueled with blends of biofuels and fossil fuels can exhibit a drop in power. The object of this study is evaluating such phenomena when a spark ignition engine is operated at full load.

  9. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on Viral marketing, as a part of internet marketing communication i.e. iPromotion. It’s presented as a „niche” in the way of reaching the target group (audience) that rejects traditional forms of promotion. There’s an explanation of differences between various types of viral marketing as well as proposed possibilities of it’s applying into a practice including the rules of campaign execution. The primary data sources, necessary for the solution of investigated issue...

  10. VIRAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    OLENTSOVA Y. A

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This project seeks to investigate how the company Gitz can create awareness towards their brand by using viral marketing. To do this we analyze which elements of viral marketing the company can use, to reach their goal. In order to utilize the selected tools of viral marketing best possible, we need to figure out the company’s customer segment and figure out how to reach that segment. This has been done with the use of Henrik Dahl’s Minerva-model that divides the population into f...

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The government vows to control the real estate market after a year of robust growth.To diversify financial investment tools,the regulatory authorities approved the launch of stock index futures,and short selling and margin trading to allow investors to hedge against risks.China overtakes the United States to become the world’s biggest auto market in2009.The country is also expected to become the largest consumer market in the world by2020.Google threatens to halt its China operations if it cannot reach a censorship agreement with the government.

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s state-owned enterprises are focusing on the stalwarts of the domestic economy, including the oil, telecommunications and power industries. Although auto sales have seen a period of sluggish demand, luxury car imports have been increasing. Steel mills will drop their prices in the fourth quarter because of excessive sup- ply. China’s stock markets, once taking the global lead in share price increases, have become the worst performing markets in the world. Along with the declining stock markets, mainland-listed companies also saw their profits drop in the first half of this year.

  13. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ RE Market Mar.20~30 Affected by slight price falling of didymium oxide and didymium mischmetal,rare earth market was smooth recently.Price of most rare earth products was stable. Price of mixed rare earth carbonate increased from RMB$15,000~15,500/ton to RMB$16,000-16,500/ton in Baotou due to restriction of the product sales in spot market by main producers.Dealings are mostly done among long-term clients.Supply of rare earth carbonate was very tight.

  14. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese economy regains a solid footing as evidenced in August figures, though exports fail to deliver a needed turnaround. As one of the major driving forces, investments continued to pick up steam. When the stock and real estate markets become increasingly volatile, the gold market gains a chance to shine as a safe haven. Automakers are experiencing skyrocketing sales, but a few risks put their long-term prospects at stake. Chinese PC makers make a push into rural markets to gain an edge over foreign competitors.

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China vows to keep a stringent handle on the industrial overcapacity that is draining life from the economic revival. China Mobile pushes forward OPhone and its operating system in an aggressive push into the 3G market. As its tight grip over the market slips, the wireless titan cannot wait to regain lost ground. China’s manufacturing sector continues to pick up steam as evidenced by the climbing PMI. Soaring prices of pork and eggs reignite fears over inflation. The buoyant real estate market appears to be nearing a turning point as sales cool down.

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT:Beijing has set a new mission to become an inter- nationally recognized financial center.The mainland stock market rally slowed down and met with heavy selling pressure from those who gained a big profit from the previous market slump.In accordance with market performance,listed companies readjusted their refinanc- ing schemes and cut refinancing prices.Agricultural Bank of China marched toward listing,though problems still exist.China Eastern Airlines denied rumors of recent negotiations with Singapore Airlines and vowed to concentrate on securing sound travel conditions before the Beijing Olympic Games.China Customs strengthened efforts to block illegal grain exports.

  17. Electric power and gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These two days organized by EFE in Paris, dealt with the european market of the gas and the electrical power. The first day developed the actual situation and the tendencies. The french market deregulation, the possibility of a united market and the energy transportation sector are discussed. The second day dealt with the new commercial technologies, the convergence of Gas and Electricity and the competing in a change world, the opportunities of the NTIC (new technologies of the information and communication). (A.L.B.)

  18. A Multimodal Interaction Framework for Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidakis, Nikolaos; Kalafatis, Konstantinos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    of communication with an application, which will be more natural than the traditional “windows, icons, menus, pointer” (WIMP) style. Despite the great amount of devices in existence, most applications make use of a very limited set of modalities, most notably speech and touch. This paper describes a multimodal...... framework enabling deployment of a vast variety of modalities, tailored appropriately for use in blended learning environment....

  19. Engineers Create Bone that Blends into Tendons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Engineers at Georgia Tech have used skin cells to create artificial bones that mimic the ability of natural bone to blend into other tissues such as tendons or ligaments. The artificial bones display a gradual change from bone to softer tissue rather than the sudden shift of previously developed artificial tissue, providing better integration with the body and allowing them to handle weight more successfully.

  20. Characterization of polymer-liquid crystal blends

    OpenAIRE

    DOINA MACOCINSCHI; CRISTOFOR I. SIMIONESCU; DANIELA FILIP

    2001-01-01

    Blends of semi-crystalline polymers (polyethylene adipate and two poly(ester-urethane) s) with liquid crystal cholesteryl palmitate with different compositions were prepared by solution casting. One of the poly(ester-urethane)s was based on 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) and the other one on 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The miscibility and phase transition were investigated over the whole range of concentration by differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy.

  1. Phase Segregation in Polystyrene?Polylactide Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Spun-cast films of polystyrene (PS) blended with polylactide (PLA) were visualized and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotron-based X-ray photoemission electron microscopy (X-PEEM). The composition of the two polymers in these systems was determined by quantitative chemical analysis of near-edge X-ray absorption signals recorded with X-PEEM. The surface morphology depends on the ratio of the two components, the total polymer concentration, and the temperature of vac...

  2. Accommodating and promoting multilingualism through blended learning

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, Jak

    2011-01-01

    Multilingualism is a reality in South African classrooms. The Constitution of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996) and the national language policy recognize language rights and aims at supporting, promoting and developing the official languages. However, despite the advantages of mother tongue education, English is often chosen as language of learning and teaching at the cost of the African official languages. This study proposes the accommodation and promotion of multilingualism through blended l...

  3. DISCOURSE OF EDUCATION: ONLINE AND BLENDED LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    PENKOV B.V.

    2015-01-01

    The study examines some features of educational discourse, including the concepts of online and blended learning within the context of high school. The object of research is high school, especially senior high school. The author looks into discourse markers for the use of concepts in the discourse of education. The features differentiate texts, which belong to the educational discourse and its genres as well as show the markers of contemporary discourse within the context. They study analyzes...

  4. Blended learning course to teach word processing

    OpenAIRE

    HAVELKA, Zbyněk

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the problem of teaching computer science and various approaches to the teaching of the application environment. The work provides a comparison of available textbooks on the issue. Furthermore, in the theoretical part of the bachelor work is design a modern approach to teaching of the application environment. As a practical output of this work is, as its name suggests, the blended learning course to teach word processing, which is designed as a modern approach p...

  5. Facebook: A Versatile Platform for Blended Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Ling Shing; Betty Voon Wan Niu

    2013-01-01

    Facebook is a popular networking tool among the young learners. This paper reports a practical usage of Facebook to engage learners in blended learning. The practical usage of Facebook in hosting online forums, sharing media files in vodcast, building collaborative content through Facebook Doc, and using Facebook as repository for articles and lecture notes has been described. Recent survey on 55 students revealed that a strong majority of the students agreed that Facebook has positive impact...

  6. Phase morphological study on SEBS compatibilized PS/LDPE blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai Kunyawut

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The co-continuous phase morphology of polystyrene (PS/low density polyethylene (LDPE blends compatibilized with poly(styrene-block-ethylene/butylene-block-styrene triblock copolymers (SEBS with varying molecular weights has been investigated. The blend samples were prepared in a mini-twin screw extruder. The barrel length and diameter are 224 and 16 mm, respectively. The diameter of the capillary die is 1 mm. The concentration of the blends was 70/30 wt% of PS/LDPE while that of the SEBS used was 5 wt% of the blend. The mixing temperatures used were 180, 250, and 280o C, and a screw speed of 60 rpm. The morphology of the blends was investigated using an AFM technique. Average droplet diameters of the blend samples were determined using an OM technique. The co-continuous morphology has not been obtained in all the blends, although the mixing temperature used is as high as 280o C. The experimental results indicated that the model prediction of the co-continuous morphology proposed by Willemse and co-worker was not applicable to the blend systems studied. Only droplet-type dispersion was observed. This is considered to arise from the processing conditions and the mixing device used. The blend compatibilized with the high molecular weight SEBS had higher dispersed phase size than that of the blend compatibilized with the medium and low molecular weight SEBSs. This behaviour is likely to arise from coalescence during melt processing.

  7. Simulated Ethanol Transportation Patterns and Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Wyatt; Seth D. Meyer

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol production booms in the Midwest in 2007. Regulations require ethanol be included as a fuel additive in many areas as of 2006, though consumer willingness to adopt ethanol blends voluntarily is uncertain and benchmark ethanol and oil prices fluctuate. In this context, we jointly simulate consumer demand for ethanol and ethanol transportation costs. Results demonstrate a non-linear relationship between benchmark prices and transportation costs that depends critically on (1) the prevalen...

  8. Modelling market diffusion of electric vehicles with real world driving data: German market and policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Gnann, Till; Plötz, Patrick; Kühn, André; Wietschel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) have the potential to reduce green house gas emissions from the transport sector. However, the limited electric range of EVs could impede their market introduction. Still some potential users are willing to pay more for EVs. The combined effect of these and other influencing factors as well as the resulting future market evolution are unclear. Here, we study the market evolution of EVs in Germany until 2020. Our results reveal a great deal of uncertainty in the market ...

  9. Recovery of blended product pipeline slops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, A.W. [Process Consulting Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Both product pipeline operation and terminal blending often generate slops consisting of mixed hydrocarbon streams. Typical slops dispositions include local burning of the fuel for heat or power generation or reshipment to a refinery in a crude stream. Both of these dispositions can incur significant economic penalties. An alternative is the use of a small local plant for the separation of the streams back into pipeline products. This is achievable as long as blend stocks rather then final products containing performance additives are being separated. Final products (gasoline, diesel) contain additives and blending components difficult to handle within the constraints of a small process unit. A proposed multi-product separation unit is presented. The case investigated shows the process configuration required for a unit to process a range of mixtures containing material from LPG to atmospheric gas oil. The material presented includes the plant flow scheme, identification of major equipment, and overall sizing of major equipment. The study results summarize the investment and operating costs of the unit compared to the values of the recoverable products.

  10. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A. (UMM)

    2012-10-10

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  11. Blended learning. Conceptos básicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bartolomé Pina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos dos años ha aparecido un nuevo concepto que surge con fuerza en el ámbito de la formación: «Blended Learning». Literalmente podríamos traducirlo como «aprendizaje mezclado» y la novedad del término no se corresponde con la tradición de las prácticas que encierra. Otras denominaciones se han utilizado antes para la misma idea. Y a veces otras ideas se están utilizando para esta misma denominación. ¿Estamos ante un simple recurso de propaganda y venta? ¿Aporta algo a nuestras acción formativa? Este artículo trata de ayudar a comprender que se entiende por «Blended Learning» y a entresacar algunas de las aportaciones que nos pueden enriquecer. Tras estudiar el blended learning como respuesta a los problemas que encuentra el elearning y la enseñanza tradicional, se analizan sus posibilidades y sus características. El artículo termina con una reflexión sobre la razón de la necesidad de este modelo más allá de los motivos economicistas o didácticos.

  12. Tough blends of polylactide and castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Megan L; Paxton, Jessica M; Hillmyer, Marc A

    2011-09-01

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized-an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  13. Fuel briquettes from biomass-lignite blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Haykiri-Acma, H.; Sesen, K.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Chemical Engineering Department, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 80626 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2001-08-01

    In this study, a western Turkish lignite (Kuetahya-Seyitoemer) was blended with some biomass samples such as molasses, pine cone, olive refuse, sawdust, paper mill waste, and cotton refuse, and these blends was used in the production of fuel briquettes. Blends were subjected to briquetting pressures between 50 and 250 MPa; the ratio of biomass to lignite was changed between 0 and 30 wt.%. The mechanical strength of obtained briquettes was investigated considering shatter index and compressive strength. Effects of the ratio of biomass to lignite and applied pressure on the strength of the briquettes were examined. This study indicated that the mechanical strength of the briquettes produced from Kuetahya-Seyitoemer lignite can be improved by adding some biomass samples. For example, the presence of paper mill waste increased the shatter index of the briquettes obtained. Similarly, sawdust and paper mill waste increased compressive strength of the briquettes. Water resistance of the briquettes can be augmented by adding olive refuse, cotton refuse, pine cone or paper mill waste.

  14. Engineering Polymer Blends for Impact Damage Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L.; Smith, Russell W.; Working, Dennis C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Structures containing polymers such as DuPont's Surlyn® 8940, demonstrate puncture healing when impacted by a 9 millimeter projectile traveling from speeds near 300 meters per second (1,100 feet per second) to hypervelocity impacts in the micrometeoroid velocity range of 5 kilometers per second (16,000 feet per second). Surlyn® 8940 puncture heals over a temperature range of minus 30 degrees Centigrade to plus 70 degrees Centigrade and shows potential for use in pressurized vessels subject to impact damage. However, such polymers are difficult to process and limited in applicability due to their low thermal stability, poor chemical resistance and overall poor mechanical properties. In this work, several puncture healing engineered melt formulations were developed. Moldings of melt blend formulations were impacted with a 5.56 millimeter projectile with a nominal velocity of 945 meters per second (3,100 feet per second) at about 25 degrees Centigrade, 50 degrees Centigrade and 100 degrees Centigrade, depending upon the specific blend being investigated. Self-healing tendencies were determined using surface vacuum pressure tests and tensile tests after penetration using tensile dog-bone specimens (ASTM D 638-10). For the characterization of tensile properties both pristine and impacted specimens were tested to obtain tensile modulus, yield stress and tensile strength, where possible. Experimental results demonstrate a range of new puncture healing blends which mitigate damage in the ballistic velocity regime.

  15. A systematic review of animal based indicators of sheep welfare on farm, at market and during transport, and qualitative appraisal of their validity and feasibility for use in UK abattoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, P; King, E M; Clarke, K A; Downes, J M; Green, L E

    2015-12-01

    In the UK, it has been suggested that abattoirs are ideal locations to assess the welfare of sheep as most are slaughtered at abattoirs either as finished lambs or cull ewes. Data from abattoirs could provide benchmarks for welfare indicators at a national level, as well as demonstrating how these change over time. Additionally, feedback could be provided to farmers and regulatory authorities to help improve welfare and identify high or low standards for quality assurance or risk-based inspections. A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted, which identified 48 animal-based indicators of sheep welfare that were categorised by the Five Freedoms. Their validity as measures of welfare and feasibility for use in abattoirs were evaluated as potential measures of prior sheep welfare on the farm of origin, at market, or during transportation to the abattoir. A total of 19 indicators were considered valid, of which nine were considered theoretically feasible for assessing sheep welfare at abattoirs; these were body cleanliness, carcass bruising, diarrhoea, skin lesions, skin irritation, castration, ear notching, tail docking and animals recorded as 'obviously sick'. Further investigation of these indicators is required to test their reliability and repeatability in abattoirs. Novel welfare indicators are needed to assess short-term hunger and thirst, prior normal behaviour and long-term fear and distress. PMID:26598787

  16. A systematic review of animal based indicators of sheep welfare on farm, at market and during transport, and qualitative appraisal of their validity and feasibility for use in UK abattoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, P; King, E M; Clarke, K A; Downes, J M; Green, L E

    2015-12-01

    In the UK, it has been suggested that abattoirs are ideal locations to assess the welfare of sheep as most are slaughtered at abattoirs either as finished lambs or cull ewes. Data from abattoirs could provide benchmarks for welfare indicators at a national level, as well as demonstrating how these change over time. Additionally, feedback could be provided to farmers and regulatory authorities to help improve welfare and identify high or low standards for quality assurance or risk-based inspections. A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted, which identified 48 animal-based indicators of sheep welfare that were categorised by the Five Freedoms. Their validity as measures of welfare and feasibility for use in abattoirs were evaluated as potential measures of prior sheep welfare on the farm of origin, at market, or during transportation to the abattoir. A total of 19 indicators were considered valid, of which nine were considered theoretically feasible for assessing sheep welfare at abattoirs; these were body cleanliness, carcass bruising, diarrhoea, skin lesions, skin irritation, castration, ear notching, tail docking and animals recorded as 'obviously sick'. Further investigation of these indicators is required to test their reliability and repeatability in abattoirs. Novel welfare indicators are needed to assess short-term hunger and thirst, prior normal behaviour and long-term fear and distress.

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Starting July 1, the Chinese currency renminbi can be used as the settlement currency for cross-border trade, with pilot programs launched in some neighboring countries and regions. The global economic recession hasn’t dampened Chinese enthusiasm for luxury products, and the country is expected to be the second largest market for luxuries. Venezuela plans to ink another $4-billion oil-for-loan agreement with China, a win-win scenario that both sides would like to see. The automobile market is full of complexities. China has emerged as the largest auto market in the world, luring more foreign automakers to tap this vast territory. Coming in, Italian auto giant Fiat will partner with Guangdong Automobile to shrug off its misfortunes in the Chinese market in the past decade. Going out, Beijing Automobile is seeking to acquire the unwanted Opel brand from General Motors, but has come under harsh criticism from analysts.

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese stock market is maturing more than ever before amid stricter supervision from supervisory agencies. China’s banking regulator will punish eight Chinese banks for negligence in overseeing several companies charged with the illicit use of bank

  19. Market Watch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    TO THE POINT:China’s yuan exchange rate regime reform has produced mixed results for the economy.House prices hold up in most Chinese cities,though clouds are already gathering over the markets.Thermal power genera

  20. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ TO THE POINT: Chinese fund management companies spilled red ink in the first half of 2010 as the stock market turned bearish. The shipbuilding industry regains its lost ground but unsteady seas could capsize hopes for continued success.

  1. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s manufacturing activities keep slowing down.The"big four"state-owned commercial banks have reaped juicy profits,though capital adequacy remains a concern.In striking contrast,the steelmakers are struggling to make ends meet as costs inflation erodes profit margins.The consumer market booms as usual during the May Day holiday.The search engine Baidu benefits from torrid traffic growth and a diversified market strategy.

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    TO THE POINT: China raised its retail gasoline and diesel prices in re-sponse to surges in international crude oil prices. China Investment Corp.raised its stake in Morgan Stanley. China Eastern Airlines Corp. teamedup with Yunnan Province to reclaim its dominant position in the local mar-ket. The government provided details on its programs to replace autosand home appliances. The Shanghai A-share market hit a 10-month high,but with a muddy picture ahead.

  3. Entrepreneurial Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the youngest disciplines in the area of business administration. Hence, there is a special need for literature that can be used in teaching and that can serve as a basis for research. This article reviews five textbooks and three research-oriented books on entrepreneurial marketing, which is regarded as one of the key areas of entrepreneurship. As the review shows, there is no textbook that covers all relevant aspects of entrepreneurial marketing in sufficient bread...

  4. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ RE Market February 20-29 RE market became active recently.Price of most RE products began to rise promoted by tight supply of mixed RE carbonates and insufficient stockpile of spot merchandise in southern China.It was thought NdFeB producers would continue to replenish their stock in the following few weeks,which would consequently drive continuous price rise of partial RE products in March.

  5. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Inflation continues to stretch policymakers’ nerves as consumer prices continue running high. Import growth has outpaced export,a reflection of China’s trade rebalancing.Consumption and investments are holding up, putting a solid floor under the slowing economy.Woes of the U.S. economy have sent a shiver throughout the globe, including China’s stock markets. The gloomy auto market has shown signs of recovery.

  6. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    State-owned enterprises dominate the 2011 China top 500 list, igniting worries about the strength of private businesses. Chinese companies are accelerating the pace of global expansion. Initial public offerings of Chinese companies have shrunk as clouds gather over the outlook of global stock markets. Liang Wengen, a heavy machinery tycoon, tops the 2011 Hurun Rich List. The Boston Consulting Group expects China’s consumer lending market to triple by 2015.

  7. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing industry shows signs of recovery as reflected by a rebounding PMI. The initial public offerings market withers due to less than favorable stock markets. Chinese shipbuilders reel from decreasing orders as external demands falter. The mobile payment industry bursts with vitality, though the security issue remains an acute concern. Foreign banks in China lag behind their local competitors in terms of profitability owing to limited ability to attract deposits.

  8. Market scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova Scotia's Energy Strategy is aimed at opening the electricity market to wholesale competition, allowing eligible wholesale customers (such as municipal distribution utilities) to buy their electricity from competitive sources. The Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC) is concerned that this will not promote long-term competition because these eligible customers form only a very small fraction (1.6 per cent) of the total electricity demand in the province. This report examines the possible extensions of competition beyond the minimum specified in the Energy Strategy. It also identifies approaches that the EMGC may consider, including other potential levels of competition and their associated issues. The report discussed the issue of implementing wholesale competition as it relates to unbundling of the transmission tariff from the cost of energy supply and from the cost of distribution in retail marketing. The stages of expanding the market scope were also described with reference to large industrial customers, medium industrial and large commercial customers, and small commercial and residential customers. The report states that it is unlikely that the transition to an open access transmission market will need to be reversed, as it is likely to be an essential component of any further development. The EMGC feels it could minimize future transition costs and promote future evolution of competition by recommending for an institutional and market structure that is compatible with a broader competitive market

  9. An Summarization on Blended Learning%Blended Learning初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田世生; 傅钢善

    2004-01-01

    混合式学习(Blended Learning)的核心目的就是要将传统的课堂式学习和e-Learning的优势相结合.从2001年国外e-Learning开始进入低潮后,国外教育技术界和企业培训界便试图用混合式学习来辅助和改造传统的e-Learning.现在混合式学习已成为教育技术界高度关注的热点.本文拟从Blended Learning的基本问题、设计一个Blended Learning课程的方法以及其对教育技术学带来的反思等方面作一个综述.

  10. The Optimum Blend: Affordances and Challenges of Blended Learning For Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Gedik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to elicit students’ perceptions regarding the most facilitative and most challenging features (affordances and barriers in a blended course design. Following the phenomenological approach of qualitative inquiry, data were collected from ten undergraduate students who had experiences in a blended learning environment. Data were collected from the students’ weekly reflection papers, interviews with students, and documents, and analyzed by structurally and texturally describing the resulting experiences and perceptions. The findings of the study indicate that used together, online and face-to-face course structures offer several opportunities and challenges for students. The participating students mentioned interaction and communication opportunities, increased motivation, increased opportunities to voice their opinions, and reinforcement of learning as the affordances in the blended learning environment. The barriers included increased workload, cultural and technical barriers, and the inter-dependence of the two environments. Implications and suggestions are offered for instructors in higher education settings.

  11. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  12. The challenge of technology diversification and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tecnatom is developing since several years ago the diversification of technologies and markets given its enterprise vocation of technological leadership in the services and products supplied in both the national and international nuclear market. In this paper, a description of the historical development of these technologies is made, and how the diversification is initiated in the global market, as well as the identification of the segments of the industrial market where services and products of high technology can be provided. A description of the diversification strategy is included and several results of this policy are presented for the aircraft and space market, the transport market, the industrial processes market, etc. Finally, examples of developments of new technologies of virtual reality and augmented reality are explained and how these new capabilities feedback in the nuclear market. (Author)

  13. Market Development of Video Games : Video game markets and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This diploma work focus on analysing the markets and marketing of video game industry. After the research of this study, I found out that console game markets are growing dramatically in the recent years. On the other hand, PC game markets (excluding online game markets) are growing slowly due to the problem of illegal copies. So my study will then focus on the development of console game markets and marketing. A new concept called Three Parties is introduced in chapter 5 to help ...

  14. Cocontinuous polymer blends: The role of block copolymer in blend morphology evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Joel Richard

    Cocontinuous morphologies are distinguished by the mutual interpenetration of two polymer phases and allow for enhanced mechanical properties, static charge dissipation, and barrier properties. Cocontinuous morphologies form over a range of compositions, depending largely on mixing history and the relative polymer viscosities, elasticities, and interfacial tension. Because cocontinuous morphologies are thermodynamically unstable, they will coarsen when held above their glass or melt transition temperature. Since the unique properties of these blends depend directly on the continuous nature of the microstructure and its phase size, stabilization of the cocontinuous morphology is extremely important. To address this challenge, compatibilizers, e.g. block copolymers (bcp), are often added to hinder phase coarsening in blends of immiscible polymers and can improve bonding at interfaces. The effects of bcp on the cocontinuous morphology of polystyrene (PS)/polyethylene (PE) and PS/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with image analysis, 3D imaging, mercury porosimetry, solvent extraction, and rheology. It was shown that diblock copolymers were able to suppress coarsening during annealing in cocontinuous PS/PE and PS/PMMA blends. Bcp effectiveness was dependent on molecular weight, concentration, and architecture. Self consistent mean field theory and bending elasticity theory were used to estimate the proper bcp architecture for maximum reduction in interfacial tension; experimental results agreed well with the theory. In addition to slowing coarsening, bcp was shown to widen the range of cocontinuity for both the PS/PE and PS/PMMA systems. To aid determination of the range of cocontinuity, a new technique for analyzing SEM micrographs was developed. The new technique classifies blend morphology according to the normalized fraction of drops present in the 2D microstructure. It was found that a blend becomes

  15. Preparation and characterization of chitosan - polystyrene polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, N. P.; Gonsalves, R. A.; Goveas, J. J.; Shetty, T. C. S.; Crasta, V.

    2016-05-01

    To enhance the physical and mechanical properties of Chitosan (CS) and to improve the functionality of CS towards some specific applications, we have blended CS with polystyrene (PS) to form blended films. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been performed on the prepared films to confirm functional groups and formation of the blends. Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) is carried out to study thermal stability of the blended films. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, the material reveals amorphous nature and hence it may be used for adsorption process. The versatility of the blends, such as film-forming ability, hydrophilicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility are comparable with the existing blends.

  16. Blending effects on coal burnout and NO emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Arias; R. Backreedy; A. Arenillas; J.M. Jones; F. Rubiera; M. Pourkashanian; A. Williams; J.J. Pis [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC Oviedo (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the combustion behaviour of individual coals of different rank and their blends was evaluated. The study was focused on burnout and NO emissions during blend combustion. Preliminary combustion tests of the coals and their blends were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Some characteristic temperatures were obtained to evaluate the combustibility of the samples. These temperatures indicate an improvement in the combustibility of the less reactive coal when it is blended. An entrained flow reactor (EFR) was employed to study the behaviour of the samples at high heating rates and short residence times. Burnout and NO emissions were measured during EFR combustion tests. In some blends the results can be predicted from the weighted average of the values of the individual coals. However, other blends show an increase, from the averaged values, in burnout and especially in NO emissions. 14 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Blending in Gravitational Microlensing Experiments: Source Confusion And Related Systematics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Martin C; Mao, Shude; Sumi, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing surveys target very dense stellar fields in the local group. As a consequence the microlensed source stars are often blended with nearby unresolved stars. The presence of `blending' is a cause of major uncertainty when determining the lensing properties of events towards the Galactic centre. After demonstrating empirical cases of blending we utilize Monte Carlo simulations to probe the effects of blending. We generate artificial microlensing events using an HST luminosity function convolved to typical ground-based seeing, adopting a range of values for the stellar density and seeing. We find that a significant fraction of bright events are blended, contrary to the oft-quoted assumption that bright events should be free from blending. We probe the effect that this erroneous assumption has on both the observed event timescale distribution and the optical depth, using realistic detection criteria relevent to the different surveys. Importantly, under this assumption the latter quantity ...

  18. FTIR Study of Enhanced Polymeric Blend Membrane with Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, research will be carried out to identify the functional group behavior of glassy and rubbery polymeric blend membrane with amines. Polymeric blend membranes with different blending ratios were prepared and the developed membranes were characterized by FTIR to see the effect of blend ratio on different functional groups. The developed membranes are flat dense sheet membrane of 20% wt/wt. The pure and blend membrane polysulfone, polyethersulfone, polyvinyl acetate with different composition, with 10% methyl diethanol amine, mono ethanol amine, diethanol amine are developed with dimethyl acetamide solvent. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was utilized to study the interaction between two polymers and to analyze the type of bonding present. To observed frequencies were assigned to various mode of vibration in terms of fundamentals and combination. These spectral changes indicated the existence of molecular interaction among the enhanced polymeric blends; highlight the compatible nature among each other.

  19. Studies on poly (hydroxy alkanoates)/(ethylcellulose) blends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaishali Suthar; Arun Pratap; Heta Raval

    2000-06-01

    Biodegradable polymers represent one of the most significant area of research today. Among these polymers, poly (-hydroxy butyrate co '-hydroxy valerate) i.e. PHBV have received special attention because of their unique combination of properties. They are perfectly biocompatible, biodegradable polymers and can be processed by any conventional technique. In the present study an attempt has been made to develop the biodegradable blends of PHBV by blending them with ethyl cellulose (EC). Ethyl cellulose has been selected to monitor the biodegradation rate of PHBV and also for making the blends cost effective. The blends are thoroughly characterized for their compatibility, by the measurement of viscosity of blends and through FT-IR. Various applications of PHBV/EC blend in agriculture and pharmaceutical industries are being explored.

  20. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  1. METHOD TO EXTRACT BLEND SURFACE FEATURE IN REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Zhen; Ke Yinglin; Sun Qing; Kelvin W; Huang Xiaoping

    2003-01-01

    A new method of extraction of blend surface feature is presented. It contains two steps: segmentation and recovery of parametric representation of the blend. The segmentation separates the points in the blend region from the rest of the input point cloud with the processes of sampling point data, estimation of local surface curvature properties and comparison of maximum curvature values. The recovery of parametric representation generates a set of profile curves by marching throughout the blend and fitting cylinders. Compared with the existing approaches of blend surface feature extraction, the proposed method reduces the requirement of user interaction and is capable of extracting blend surface with either constant radius or variable radius. Application examples are presented to verify the proposed method.

  2. Structuring polymer blends with bicontinuous phase morphology. Part II. Tailoring blends with ultralow critical volume fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaae-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Utracki, Leszek

    2003-01-01

    A hypothesis providing a guideline for the development of immiscible polymer blends with co-continuous phase structure at very low critical volume fraction of one component is. postulated and experimentally verified. Based on a number of simplifying assumptions the following relation was derived......: phi(cr) = k(lambdagamma)(1-z)/(theta(b)(*))(z) where lambdagamma is a Deborah number and theta(b)(*) is a dimensionless break-up time. The equation parameters, k and z are constant that depend on the flow field hence on the blending equipment. For the studies an internal mixer with Walzenkneter...

  3. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  4. Blending Learning与创新人才培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石小云; 肖伟

    2006-01-01

    Blending Learning这一新概念的提出和被广泛认同,真正深化了学校教学改革,达到培养创新人才的目标.本文从Blending Learning和创新人才的涵义及关系探讨了Blending Learning对培养创新人才的重要意义.

  5. Performance of wet process method alternatives : terminal or continuous blend

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.; Trichês, Glicério

    2006-01-01

    This study presents the results of the research to investigate asphalt rubber mixtures produced with asphalt rubber binder obtained from two different processes; (i) terminal blend (produced in refinery); (ii) continuous blend (produced in laboratory). The experiment included the evaluation of fatigue and permanent deformation resistance of two gap graded mixtures (Caltrans ARHM -GG; ADOT AR-A C) and a dense gradation Asphalt Institute (AI) mix type IV) Two asphalt rubbers from terminal blend...

  6. Miscibility Phase Diagram of Ring Polymer Blends: A Topological Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaue, Takahiro; Nakajima, Chihiro H.

    2016-01-01

    The miscibility of polymer blends, a classical problem in polymer science, may be altered, if one or both of the component do not have chain ends. Based on the idea of {\\it topological volume}, we propose a mean-field theory to clarify how the topological constraints in ring polymers affect the phase behavior of the blends. While the large enhancement of the miscibility is expected for ring-linear polymer blends, the opposite trend toward demixing, albeit comparatively weak, is predicted for ...

  7. Comparison of Hybrid Blends for Solar Cell Application

    OpenAIRE

    Maria C. Lechmann; Dominik Koll; Daniel Kessler; Patrick Theato; Wolfgang Tremel; Gutmann, Jochen S.

    2010-01-01

    In blended hybrid systems distinct micro- or nanostructured materials can be formed by phase separation. Network structures of particles or rods in a polymer matrix can be developed via self-assembly. We use this blending approach to compare active materials for application in solar cell devices. Blends were fabricated from either poly(hexylthiophene) P3HT or poly(triphenylamine) PTPA mixed with nanocrystalline TiO 2 rods. In this manner, we compare two different hole conducting polymers in t...

  8. Miscibility and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Blends with LCP'S

    OpenAIRE

    Gabellini, G.; Suman Bretas, R.

    1996-01-01

    The main advantage of the "in situ" production of blends of thermoplastics with liquid crystalline polymers (LCP's) is viscosity reduction. In this work the phase behavior of blends of poly p-phenylene sulphide (PPS) with two different LCP's is presented. The LCP's are HX1000 (amorphous) and HX4000, crystalline, both from DuPont. The samples were prepared by injection molding and its dynamic mechanical properties were tested after annealing. It was observed that before annealing the blends we...

  9. Enhancing the blended learning experience of Calculus I students

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ghassani, A; H. Al Shamsi; Islam, M.; N. Al-Salti; I. Al-Hasni

    2015-01-01

    Blended Learning showed in the last two decades to be one of the effective ways in education and training. We illustrate our initiative experience with blended learning in the course Calculus I. The main goals we want to achieve are improving students understanding of the course concepts, increasing the level of uniformity in this multi-sections course and enhancing students blended learning experience online and offline. Consequently, this affects positively students' academic performance. W...

  10. Design and evaluation of two blended learning approaches: Lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, WS; Hew, KF

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we share two blended learning approaches used at the National Institute of Education in Singapore. We have been using these two approaches in the last twelve years in many courses ranging from the diploma to graduate programs. For the first blended learning approach, we integrated one asynchronous communication tool with face to face tutorials, classroom discussions, and a reflection session. For the second blended learning approach, we integrated two asynchronous tools with fa...

  11. Blended learning as an effective pedagogical paradigm for biomedical science

    OpenAIRE

    Hartfield, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Blended learning combines face-to-face class based and online teaching and learning delivery in order to increase flexibility in how, when, and where students study and learn. The development, integration, and promotion of blended learning in frameworks of curriculum design can optimize the opportunities afforded by information and communication technologies and, concomitantly, accommodate a broad range of student learning styles. This study critically reviews the potential benefits of blende...

  12. READINESS FOR BLENDED LEARNING: UNDERSTANDING ATTITUDE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Meng Tang; Lee Yen Chaw

    2013-01-01

    Information technology (IT) has provided new means for learning delivery outside of conventional classrooms. Leveraging on IT, blended learning is an approach which takes advantage of the best that both the classroom and online learning can provide. To help institutions of higher learning (IHLs) improve their understanding of how students view blended learning and formulate a strategy to successfully implement blended learning, the main objective of this paper is to examine how the attitude o...

  13. COMBLE: European Community of Integrative Blended Learning Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Niemczik, Christian; Brenstein, Elke; Scholl, Margit

    2008-01-01

    The COMBLE project defines new and innovative models for the use of Blended learning in different educational backgrounds (vocational training, enterprises, universities, public bodies). To use the potentials of Blended learning a European wiki-based community called Methopedia will be established. By contributing to the development of Blended learning COMBLE supports ICT relevant methods that are indispensable for lifelong learning in Europe. Moreover, COMBLE will address to management-level...

  14. Blended learning in health education: three case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, Nynke de; Savin-Baden, Maggi; Cunningham, Anne Marie; Verstegen, Daniëlle M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning in which online education is combined with face-to-face education is especially useful for (future) health care professionals who need to keep up-to-date. Blended learning can make learning more efficient, for instance by removing barriers of time and distance. In the past distance-based learning activities have often been associated with traditional delivery-based methods, individual learning and limited contact. The central question in this paper is: can blended learning be...

  15. Blend for visual studio 2012 by example beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at developers and designers who are new to Blend and looking to learn Blend, not just practically, but also conceptually. This book does not assume any knowledge about Blend on the part of developers; however, some experience in design or development might be useful in understanding the concepts faster, but this book explains everything very simply so that you are able to understand everything with little or no effort.

  16. Direct screening of herbal blends for new synthetic cannabinoids by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, Rossella; Chiarini, Anna; Dal Prà, Ilaria; Seri, Catia; Rimondo, Claudia; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Armato, Ubaldo; Tagliaro, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, a number of herbal blends containing different synthetic compounds mimicking the pharmacological activity of cannabinoids and displaying a high toxicological potential have appeared in the market. Their availability is mainly based on the so-called "e-commerce", being sold as legal alternatives to cannabis and cannabis derivatives. Although highly selective, sensitive, accurate, and quantitative methods based on GC-MS and LC-MS are available, they lack simplicity, rapidity, versatility and throughput, which are required for product monitoring. In this context, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) offers a simple and rapid operation with high throughput. Thus, the aim of the present work was to develop a MALDI-TOF MS method for the rapid qualitative direct analysis of herbal blend preparations for synthetic cannabinoids to be used as front screening of confiscated clandestine preparations. The sample preparation was limited to herbal blend leaves finely grinding in a mortar and loading onto the MALDI plate followed by addition of 2 µl of the matrix/surfactant mixture [α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)]. After drying, the sample plate was introduced into the ion source for analysis. MALDI-TOF conditions were as follows: mass spectra were analyzed in the range m/z 150-550 by averaging the data from 50 laser shots and using an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The described method was successfully applied to the screening of 31 commercial herbal blends, previously analyzed by GC-MS. Among the samples analyzed, 21 contained synthetic cannabinoids (namely JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-081, JWH-250, JWH-210, JWH-019, and AM-694). All the results were in agreement with GC-MS, which was used as the reference technique. PMID:22282100

  17. Container terminals in Europe : their position in marketing channel flows

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows) and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and inter-modal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter’s theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive ...

  18. Blended working: for whom it may (not work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico W Van Yperen

    Full Text Available Similarly to related developments such as blended learning and blended care, blended working is a pervasive and booming trend in modern societies. Blended working combines on-site and off-site working in an optimal way to improve workers' and organizations' outcomes. In this paper, we examine the degree to which workers feel that the two defining features of blended working (i.e., time-independent working and location-independent working enhance their own functioning in their jobs. Blended working, enabled through the continuing advance and improvement of high-tech ICT software, devices, and infrastructure, may be considered beneficial for workers' perceived effectiveness because it increases their job autonomy. However, because blended working may have downsides as well, it is important to know for whom blended working may (not work. As hypothesized, in a sample of 348 workers (51.7% women, representing a wide range of occupations and organizations, we found that the perceived personal effectiveness of blended working was contingent upon workers' psychological need strength. Specifically, the perceived effectiveness of both time-independent working and location-independent working was positively related to individuals' need for autonomy at work, and negatively related to their need for relatedness and need for structure at work.

  19. Blended working: for whom it may (not) work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yperen, Nico W; Rietzschel, Eric F; De Jonge, Kiki M M

    2014-01-01

    Similarly to related developments such as blended learning and blended care, blended working is a pervasive and booming trend in modern societies. Blended working combines on-site and off-site working in an optimal way to improve workers' and organizations' outcomes. In this paper, we examine the degree to which workers feel that the two defining features of blended working (i.e., time-independent working and location-independent working) enhance their own functioning in their jobs. Blended working, enabled through the continuing advance and improvement of high-tech ICT software, devices, and infrastructure, may be considered beneficial for workers' perceived effectiveness because it increases their job autonomy. However, because blended working may have downsides as well, it is important to know for whom blended working may (not) work. As hypothesized, in a sample of 348 workers (51.7% women), representing a wide range of occupations and organizations, we found that the perceived personal effectiveness of blended working was contingent upon workers' psychological need strength. Specifically, the perceived effectiveness of both time-independent working and location-independent working was positively related to individuals' need for autonomy at work, and negatively related to their need for relatedness and need for structure at work. PMID:25033202

  20. A BLENDED LEARNING MODEL FOR TEACHING PRACTICE COURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa CANER

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to introduce a blended learning environment and a model for pre-service teaching practice course in English Language Teacher Training Program at Anadolu University. It is supposed that providing a blended learning environment for teaching practice course would improve the practice and contribute to the professional growth of pre-service teachers. Since it will increase the contact hours among students and university supervisors and facilitate peer feedback among pre-service teachers, which in turn, create a productive learning environment for them. Thus, the present paper aimed at providing a blended learning model for teaching practice courses at teacher training institutions and give impetus for the researchers or instructors who would like to implement blended learning in their own teaching environments. Additionally, the present study intends to contribute expanded understanding to the way blending the learning environments, and contribute additional understanding to the knowledge base about the implementation of blended learning for a teaching practice course. Finally, through illustrating a blended learning environment for teaching practice course, it is hoped that this study might contribute to the growing body of knowledge of blended delivery and blended learning in higher education.

  1. REVIEW: The Handbook Of Blended Learning: Global Perspectives, Local Designs

    OpenAIRE

    ATES, Reviewed By Alev

    2009-01-01

    Blended learning or blended e-learning sounds like a confusing term at first since it is relatively a new term for today’s instructors. However, Moore reports that it can be traced as far back as the 1920s which was called “supervised correspondence study”. For clarification of the term “blended learning” and informing the instructors about its common practices worldwide, the book provides readers a comprehensive resource about blended learning. It aims to raise awareness of adopting BL from ...

  2. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emission Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Ethanol Blending: Phase II Analysis with Refinery Investment Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; DiVita, Vincent [Jacobs Consultancy Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Higher-octane gasoline can enable increases in an internal combustion engine’s energy efficiency and a vehicle’s fuel economy by allowing an increase in the engine compression ratio and/or by enabling downspeeding and downsizing. Producing high-octane fuel (HOF) with the current level of ethanol blending (E10) could increase the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of the fuel product from refinery operations. Alternatively, increasing the ethanol blending level in final gasoline products could be a promising solution to HOF production because of the high octane rating and potentially low blended Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of ethanol at 25% and higher of the ethanol blending level by volume. In our previous HOF well-to-wheels (WTW) report (the so-called phase I report of the HOF WTW analysis), we conducted WTW analysis of HOF with different ethanol blending levels (i.e., E10, E25, and E40) and a range of vehicle efficiency gains with detailed petroleum refinery linear programming (LP) modeling by Jacobs Consultancy and showed that the overall WTW GHG emission changes associated with HOFVs were dominated by the positive impact associated with vehicle efficiency gains and ethanol blending levels, while the refining operations to produce gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) for various HOF blend levels had a much smaller impact on WTW GHG emissions (Han et al. 2015). The scope of the previous phase I study, however, was limited to evaluating PADDs 2 and 3 operation changes with various HOF market share scenarios and ethanol blending levels. Also, the study used three typical configuration models of refineries (cracking, light coking, and heavy coking) in each PADD, which may not be representative of the aggregate response of all refineries in each PADD to various ethanol blending levels and HOF market scenarios. Lastly, the phase I study assumed no new refinery expansion in the existing refineries, which limited E10 HOF production to the

  3. Marketing of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substituting electric vehicles for traditional ones could reduce local pollution and greenhouse emissions from the transportation system. However, these societal benefits come at high costs to the owner of the EV in terms of price, driving range, availability, loading capacity, speed and acceleration. In addition, the usability of an EV is hampered by the lack of an infrastructure for recharging. Such a product hardly sells itself to potential customers. Besides supportive national policies, skillful marketing is needed to get it accepted and diffused throughout society. This paper outlines a two-phase strategy for the marketing of EVs based on a discussion of current and expected future characteristics of EVs and on a review of research on early adopters. (author)

  4. Service to industrial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagara Mohawk supports efforts to deregulate the natural gas industry. Competition has existed in the gas industry for some time and it is here to stay. While increased competition can benefit all customers, transition to more fully deregulated markets will create winners and losers. Niagara Mohawk intends to focus on the opportunities and be a winner. Unbundled transportation service has been offered for about seven years and a form of no notice services for two and one half years. Last year we were the first to introduce capacity brokering service in New York. We plan to work with the NYS Public Service Commission to offer an expanded menu of additional gas services to industrial customers. We're looking at doing this within the regulatory framework thereby capturing benefits for the firm ratepayer while avoiding the duplication and added expense of an independent marketing entity. The services that Niagara Mohawk plans to offer its customers are described

  5. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  6. China Gradually Deregulates Aviation Fuels Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ China will gradually deregulate the aviation fuels market to allow the oil and petrochemical enterprises to become shareholders of China Aviation Fuels Corporation (CAFC) so that the aviation fuels suppliers can operate at a lower cost. Deregulation of the air fuels market aims at reduction of aviation fuels price to spur development of China's air transportation industry.

  7. Pricing road safety into the market.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The author considers the opportunities offered by marketing in the field of road safety. Marketing is defined as an approach which takes into account social, cultural, economic, political and legal developments and offers a solution. Examples are given in the transport field where the needs of the u

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    While the stock markets regain their momentum this year,China’s securities regulators have issued new rules for public list-ings of start-up enterprises.Chinese fund management firms had their most difficult year on record in 2008,losing a total of 1.5 trillion yuan($219 billion) because of the meltdowns in the domestic stock markets.The country’s central bank is sticking to its appropriately accommoda-tive monetary policy by refraining from withdrawing cash from the open market and issuing fewer central bank bills.The Export-Import Bank of China and the Inter-American Development Bank signed a trade financing agreement to boost bilateral trade.Wuhan Iron and Steel secured a deal to purchase a 19.9-percent stake in a Canadian miner.Chinese financial institutions now are allowed to borrow more foreign money to finance their trading activities.

  9. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Chinese food prices, especially those of vegetables,have dropped for the eighth week in a row due to abundant supply inthe summer season. The inflation expectation was diminished slight-ly. The house market was caught in a predicament, in which the high prices were maintained,but with a limited number of buyers. Morgan Stanley planned to sell its property in Shanghai for the first time in five years,indicating its short position in the mainland property market.China Unicorn was also suffering a hard time, as its share prices in the New York, Hong Kong and the mainland stock markets plummeted after a major restructuring took place in the mainland telecom industry. China Merchants Bank was downgraded after it bought Hong Kona’s Wina Luna Bank for overseas expansion.

  10. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s pledge to further reform the renminbi(yuan)exchange rate regime recently delivered a boost to Asian currencies and global stock markets.The central bank expanded its pilot program involving yuan settlement in foreign trade to include trade centers the world over.The National Audit Office revealed details about local government debts,raising concerns over a financial black hole.By setting up a stringent entrance threshold,China aims to clear up the crowded third-party payment industry.Financial pressure mounts on real estate developers,due to the recent housing market gloom. China will overtake Japan as the world’s second largest advertising market within five years.

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    TO THE POINT: China’s power consumption in the first half of 2009 fell 2.24 percent year on year. The National Bureau of Statistics explained the drop was due to power efficiency improvement in many energy-depleting sectors. The real estate market continues to burn hot, but a number of un- certainties lingered to quench the fire. Newly approved funds in July flew into markets to catch fading glows of the stock euphoria. The Aluminum Corp. of China Ltd. raised spot alumina prices by 4.35 percent, in a re- flection of the healing markets. Apple Inc. agreed with China Unicom to officially launch the iPhone handset on the Chinese mainland this autumn. By HU YUE

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese stock market showed signs of cooling down after repeated warnings from the supervisory departments over mounting risks.But the market was expected to rebound as excessive liquidity remains a problem.The inflow of foreign direct investment and the large trade surplus pushed foreign exchange reserves to the highest in history by the end of September.In turn,the reserves added more pressure to liquidity.The Central Bank raised the reserve requirement ratio to its highest mark in history,but the latest move was defied by the market. There is good news for qualified foreign institutional investors (QFIIs): the securities watchdog said that the QFII quota might be tripled by the end of this year,which is long awaited by the QFIIs. By LIU YUNYUN

  13. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    After four days of breathtaking plunges, the Chinese stock market recovered to a period of steady growth thanks to encouragement from various government departments. The Chinese central bank will probably raise the interest rate in June after food prices increased dramatically in May. More good news for foreign banks. Early this month, the central bank allowed foreign banks to trade gold on the Chinese gold market and they are now able to issue bankcards in the country. Lenovo Group, China’s leading PC producer, is dedicated to exploring the rural market to boost its competitiveness. China Mobile will seek bidders to offer cell-phone handsets, a package worth 4-6 billion yuan.

  14. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The global financial market turmoil has claimed a handful of financial giants and taken its toll on emerging markets,in-cluding China.The country’s sovereign wealth fund management company has been ill-fated since its establishment a year ago and has lost billions of dollars because of the U.S.financial institution de-bacle.Domestic mutual funds have lost about one third of their value since early this year and show no signs of recovery.The government asked state-owned enterprises to reduce their investments in vola-tile capital markets to avoid further losses at a time when financing is tight.The country’s trade surplus unexpectedly jumped in September,largely thanks to shrinking imports,although the level of exports re-mained stable from the previous month.By LIU YUNYUN

  15. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  16. Teaching European Studies: A Blended Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Christova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be looking into the teaching method developed by the Institute for European Studies in Brussels, combining an e-learning tool- the E-modules- with face-to-face training sessions and webinars. The main aim is to analyse the three different components of this “blended learning” pedagogical approach, as well as the way they complement each other and to address a few of the challenges that have emerged from the experience of working with them so far. The E-modules are an e-learning platform that has been designed with the purpose of offering a structured and interactive way of learning how the European Union functions. The face-to-face training component currently takes the form of three days in-house seminars, covering in an intensive manner the most important areas of the curriculum. The lectures are held by a mix of academics and practitioners, hereby ensuring a balanced approach, in which theory and practice come together to facilitate the learning experience. The third element of the “blended learning” method is placed in-between online and face-to-face learning: interactive seminars and debates are held online, giving the participants the chance to deepen their knowledge in certain fields of interest and to discuss the content of the course with specialists and among themselves. The mixture of delivery and interaction methods was chosen in order to accommodate a large variety of target groups, ranging from students to professionals working with EU-related issues, with different backgrounds and geographical origins. One of the main challenges is to use each medium for the functionalities it is best designed for and to ensure that the various pieces of the pedagogical puzzle fit together perfectly, while allowing the learners the flexibility that had initially directed them towards “blended learning” instead of a classical classroom approach.

  17. Self-Determined Blended Learning: A Case Study of Blended Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    De George-Walker, Linda; Keeffe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Higher education has been actively encouraged to find more effective and flexible delivery models to provide all students with access to quality learning experiences yet also meet institutional imperatives for efficiency and accountability. Blended learning, commonly defined as an integration of traditional face-to-face and online approaches to…

  18. Blending toward Competency. Early Patterns of Blended Learning and Competency-Based Education in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Julia

    2014-01-01

    As the education field strives to differentiate and personalize learning to cater to each student, two related movements are gaining attention: competency-based education and blended learning. In competency-based models, students advance on the basis of mastery, rather than according to the traditional methods of counting progress in terms of time…

  19. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China widens the tax rebate program for Hainan Provinceto stimulate the island’s tourism industry.The banking sector fares well with profits surging last year.By imposing a higher resource tax on rare earth exploration,China tries to streamline the fragmented industry.The shipping giantCOSCO jumps back into the black thanks to buoyant market demands.The international consulting firm McKinsey&Co.expects China to replace Japan as the world’s top luxury goods market by 2015.

  20. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Foreign companies doing business in China are now seeing an end of an era, as favorable tax policies are dropped and they will compete against domestic companies on an equal footing. Chinese property developers loaded with money are making a drop in housing prices less likely in the short term. Analysts expect the sizzling auto market in China to cool in 2011 due to a matured market and the exit of stimulus measures. A batch of genetically modified corn imported from the United States was sent back to its origin after forbidden ingredients were found. China is speeding up its mapping business by setting up a geographic information industrial park in Beijing.