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Sample records for bleiers gints linis

  1. Hansapanga tänavuse kunstipreemia sai Gints Gabrans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Gints Gabrans õpib Läti Kunstiakadeemias stsenograafiat. Esile tõsteti tema projekti "Starix". Rahvusvahelisse žüriisse kuulusid Eestist Sirje Helme ja Riin Õng. Teised finalistid: leedu kunstnik Egle Rakauskaite, eesti kunstnikud Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets

  2. Hansapanga tänavuse kunstipreemia sai Gints Gabrans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Gints Gabrans õpib Läti Kunstiakadeemias stsenograafiat. Esile tõsteti tema projekti "Starix". Rahvusvahelisse žüriisse kuulusid Eestist Sirje Helme ja Riin Õng. Teised finalistid: leedu kunstnik Egle Rakauskaite, eesti kunstnikud Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets

  3. GintAMT3 – a Low-Affinity Ammonium Transporter of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Silvia; Pérez-Tienda, Jacob; Ellerbeck, Matthias; Arnould, Christine; Chatagnier, Odile; Boller, Thomas; Schüßler, Arthur; Brachmann, Andreas; Wipf, Daniel; Ferrol, Nuria; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient acquisition and transfer are essential steps in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which is formed by the majority of land plants. Mineral nutrients are taken up by AM fungi from the soil and transferred to the plant partner. Within the cortical plant root cells the fungal hyphae form tree-like structures (arbuscules) where the nutrients are released to the plant-fungal interface, i.e., to the periarbuscular space, before being taken up by the plant. In exchange, the AM fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant host. Besides the well-studied uptake of phosphorus (P), the uptake and transfer of nitrogen (N) plays a crucial role in this mutualistic interaction. In the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly called Glomus intraradices), two ammonium transporters (AMT) were previously described, namely GintAMT1 and GintAMT2. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a newly identified R. irregularis AMT, GintAMT3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high sequence similarity to previously identified AM fungal AMTs and a clear separation from other fungal AMTs. Topological analysis indicated GintAMT3 to be a membrane bound pore forming protein, and GFP tagging showed it to be highly expressed in the intraradical mycelium of a fully established AM symbiosis. Expression of GintAMT3 in yeast successfully complemented the yeast AMT triple deletion mutant (MATa ura3 mep1Δ mep2Δ::LEU2 mep3Δ::KanMX2). GintAMT3 is characterized as a low affinity transport system with an apparent Km of 1.8 mM and a Vmax of 240 nmol-1 min-1 108 cells-1, which is regulated by substrate concentration and carbon supply. PMID:27252708

  4. GintAMT3 – a low-affinity ammonium transporter of the arbuscular mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eCalabrese

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient acquisition and transfer are essential steps in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, which is formed by the majority of land plants. Mineral nutrients are taken up by AM fungi from the soil and transferred to the plant partner. Within the cortical plant root cells the fungal hyphae form tree-like structures (arbuscules where the nutrients are released to the plant-fungal interface, i.e. to the periarbuscular space, before being taken up by the plant. In exchange, the AM fungi receive valuable carbohydrates from the plant host. Besides the well-studied uptake of phosphorus (P, the uptake and transfer of nitrogen (N plays a crucial role in this mutualistic interaction. In the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (formerly called Glomus intraradices, two ammonium transporters (AMT were previously described, namely GintAMT1 and GintAMT2. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a newly identified R. irregularis AMT, GintAMT3. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high sequence similarity to previously identified AM fungal AMTs and a clear separation from other fungal AMTs. Topological analysis indicated GintAMT3 to be a membrane bound pore forming protein, and GFP tagging showed it to be highly expressed in the intraradical mycelium (IRM of a fully established AM symbiosis. Expression of GintAMT3 in yeast successfully complemented the yeast AMT triple deletion mutant (MATa ura3 mep1Δ mep2Δ::LEU2 mep3Δ::KanMX2. GintAMT3 is characterized as a low affinity transport system with an apparent Km of 1.8 mM and a Vmax of 240 nmol-1 min-1 108 cells-1, which is regulated by substrate concentration and carbon supply.

  5. Konturen der Hα-Linie

    OpenAIRE

    Bräuhofer, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Konturen der H-alpha Linie: Ordinaten der Photosphäre, des Fackelgebietes, der Filamente, der Protuberanzen und einer Eruption. Quelle: Max Waldmeier (* 18. April 1912 in Olten; † 26. September 2000 in Küsnacht), Schweizer Astronom und Sonnenforscher, Handbuch für Astrophysik, S. 189, Abb. 74 Signatur: Astr.-HGD-A-49.1

  6. Papel de ginA y ginB en la movilidad de la isla genómica GInt

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverría Ancín, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    La transferencia horizontal de genes, mediada por elementos genéticos móviles tales como las islas genómicas, es uno de los principales mecanismos de generación de variabilidad genética en bacterias, permitiendo su adaptación a nuevos nichos ecológicos. En el grupo de Patología Vegetal de la UPNA se ha descrito, en especies de Pseudomonas, una nueva familia de islas genómicas, denominadas GInt. Éstas se caracterizan por contener en su extremo 5’ el operón gin, constituido ...

  7. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane eNemri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  8. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J.; Jones, David A.; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  9. Aspects of resistance of flax and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, G.M.L.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the thesis aspects have been described of the flax and linseed interaction to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lini, the causal agent of flax wilt. Two in vitro tests were established to screen for resistance, to investigate race specificity and to study infection and colonization patterns in a resistant

  10. Optimum Preparation Conditions of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and LiNi0.95Ce0.05O2 as Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆志河; 张廷安; 侯闯

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 was discussed by the multiply sintering method for solid reaction,in which the sintered material was smashed,ground and pelletted between two successive sintering steps.The optimum technological condition was obtained through orthogonal experiments by L9(34) and DTA analysis.The result indicates that the factors of effecting the electrochemical properties of synthesized LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 are molar ratio of Li/Ni/Co,oxygen pressure,homothermal time,the final sintering temperature in turn according to its importance.The oxygen pressure is reviewed independently and the technological condition is further optimized.With the same method,rare earth element Ce was studied as substitute element of Co and the cathode material of LiNi0.95Ce0.05O2 with excellent electrochemical properties was prepared.The electrochemical testing results of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and LiNi0.95Ce0.05O2 experimental batteries show that discharge capacities of them reach 165 and 148 mAh·g-1 respectively and the persistence is more than 9 h at 3.7 V.

  11. Rhoporhynchus lini N. G. N. Sp. (Bucephalidae: Bucephalinae) from the swim bladder of yellow catfish, Pseudobagrus fulvidraco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Tang; Wang, Wei-Jun

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes and discusses a new bucephalid species, Rhoporhynchus lini, from the swim bladder of yellow catfish, Pseudobagrus fulvidraco, from Nanhai County of Guangdong Province in China. It is characterized mainly by its wide flat foliate body, large size, degenerated rhynchus, voluminous saccular intestine, dendritic vitellaria, short uterus, limited locality of the reproductive organs and site of infection in fish swim bladder. It is certainly allocated to the subfamily Bucephalinae according to its relative locality of ovary and testes (ovary pretesticular). But it differs evidently from the species in all other genera of the subfamily. Therefore, a new genus, Rhoporhynchus, is erected with R. lini as the type species.

  12. Vergleichende morphologische Untersuchung der Morgan-Linie mittels Röntgen, Computertomographie (CT) und Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT)

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Nannette Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Die hier vorgelegte Studie untersucht 88 Hüftgelenke mit Morgan-Linie von Hunden der HD-Grade A1, A2, B1 und B2 mittels Röntgen, CT und MRT. Die Morgan-Linien werden in 5 verschiedene Morphologie-Gruppen eingeteilt. Es werden verschiedene Parameter im Röntgen (HD-Grad, Subluxationsindex, Norberg-Winkel), in der CT (vorhandenen Arthrosen, Dorsolaterale Subluxation, Dichte des Femurkopf und-hals) und der MRT (Synovial Fluid Index, Kapsel- und Knorpeldicke, Signal des Femurhalses) bestimmt. Ziel...

  13. Preparation, Characterization and Magnetic Properties of PANI/La-substituted LiNi Ferrite Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG, Jing; LI, Liang-Chao; XU, Feng

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic nanocomposites containing polyaniline (PANI)-coated La-substituted LiNi ferrite (LiNi0.5La0.02Fe1.98O4)were synthesized by in situ polymerization in aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid. The nanocomposites exhibited the magnetic hysteresis nature under applied magnetic field. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc)varied with the ferrite content. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Visible spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). TEM and SEM studies showed that the nanocomposites present the core-shell structure. The results of XRD patterns, FT-IR and UV-Visible spectra indicated the formation of PANI-LiNi0.5La0.02Fe1.98O4 nanocomposites and showed that the interaction existed between PANI backbone and ferrite particles in the nanocomposites. The bonding mechanism in the nanocomposites has been proposed.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of LiNi0.45Co0.10Mn0.45O2 cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua-jun; ZHANG Ming; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Xin-ming; WANG Zhi-xing; PENG Wen-jie; HU Min

    2005-01-01

    LiNi0.45 Co0. 10 Mn0.45 O2 was prepared from Li2CO3 and a triple oxide of nickel, cobalt and manganese at 950 C in air. The structure and characteristics of LiNi0.45Co0.10Mn0.45O2 were determined by XRD, SEM and electrochemical measurements. The compound LiNi0. 45 Co0. 10 Mn0. 45 O2 has layered structure with hexagonal lattice. The individual particles are agglomeration of many little primary particles whose size ranges from 100 mm to 200 nm. The LiNi0.45 Co0.10 Mn0.45 O2 cathode has excellent electrochemical performances with large reversible specific capacity of h/g is obtained when the charge voltage limit is fixed at 4. 45 V.

  15. Preparation of spherical and dense LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 lithium-ion battery particles by spray pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-rong; DENG Xin-rong; PENG Zhong-dong; CAO Yan-bin; LIU Zhi-min; LIU Ye-xiang

    2008-01-01

    With citric acid as a polymeric agent layered LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 materials were synthesized by a spray pyrolysis method. TheLiNi0.8Co0.2O2 particles were characterized by means of XRD, SEM and TEM. The electrochemical performances of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2particles were studied in a voltage window of 3.00-4.35 V and at a current density of 30 mA/g. The results show that in the pilot-scale spray pyrolysis process, the morphology of particles is dependent upon the precursor concentration and flux of carrier gas. excellent cycleability after 30 cycles. The LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 samples synthesized under the optimized conditions by the spray pyrolysis method shows a good electrochemical performance.

  16. Research on preparation of layered LiNi0.5 Mn0.5O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An O2-type layered LiNi0. 5 Mn0. 5 O2 was prepared by rapidly-quenched method, and the structural feature was studied by X-Ray Diffraction. The material synthesized at 950℃ was with a single O2-type structure. Charge and discharge in a voltage range of 2.0-4.35V, the discharge specific capacity of material at the 1st cycle is 143.1 mAh/g in a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 , and the plot of discharge was with two voltage plat at 3.6 V and 2.8V.

  17. Facile synthesis of a novel structured Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2 cathode material with improved cycle life and thermal stability via ion diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongheng; Shi, Hua; Song, Dawei; Zhang, Hongzhou; Shi, Xixi; Zhang, Lianqi

    2016-09-01

    In order to combine the advantages of core-shell and concentration-gradient Li[Ni1-xMx]O2 materials, a novel structured Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2 (NSsbnd Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2) cathode material is facilely synthesized from core-shell precursor [(Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1)0.6(Ni0.45Co0.1Mn0.45)0.4](OH)2 via ion diffusion during high temperature calcination. NSsbnd Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2 is constructed by core layer, concentration-gradient layer and shell layer. From the detailed comparative investigations, it is found that NSsbnd Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2 delivers remarkably improved cycle life and thermal stability compared with normal Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2 (Nsbnd Li[Ni0.66Co0.1Mn0.24]O2).

  18. Pseudomonas lini Strain ZBG1 Revealed Carboxylic Acid Utilization and Copper Resistance Features Required for Adaptation to Vineyard Soil Environment: A Draft Genome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Chong, Teik-Min; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Kher, Heng Leong; Grandclément, Catherine; Faure, Denis; Yin, Wai-Fong; Dessaux, Yves; Hong, Kar-Wai

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas lini strain ZBG1 was isolated from the soil of vineyard in Zellenberg, France and the draft genome was reported in this study. Bioinformatics analyses of the genome revealed presence of genes encoding tartaric and malic acid utilization as well as copper resistance that correspond to the adaptation this strain in vineyard soil environment. PMID:27512520

  19. In Situ Carbon Coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Material Prepared by Prepolymer of Melamine Formaldehyde Resin Assisted Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon coated spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were prepared by spray-drying using prepolymer of melamine formaldehyde resin (PMF as carbon source of carbon coating layer. The PMF carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was characterized by XRD, SEM, and other electrochemical measurements. The as-prepared lithium nickel manganese oxide has the cubic face-centered spinel structure with a space group of Fd3m. It showed good electrochemical performance as a cathode material for lithium ion battery. After 100 discharge and charge cycles at 0.5 C rate, the specific discharge capacity of carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was 130 mAh·g−1, and the corresponding capacity retention was 98.8%. The 100th cycle specific discharge capacity at 10 C rate of carbon coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was 105.4 mAh·g−1, and even the corresponding capacity retention was 95.2%.

  20. Nitrates–melt synthesized LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 and its performance as cathode in Li-ion cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sathiya; K Hemalatha; K Ramesha; A K Shukla; A S Prakash

    2011-12-01

    Layered LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 crystallizing in $\\bar{3}$ space group is synthesized by decomposing the constituent metal–nitrate precursors. Oxidizing nature of metal nitrates stabilizes nickel in +3 oxidation state, enabling a high degree of cation ordering in the layered LiNi0.8Co0.2O2. The powder sample characterized by XRD Rietveld refinement reveals < 2% Li–Ni site exchange in the layers. Scanning electron microscopic studies on the as-synthesized LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 sample reflect well defined particles of cubic morphology with particle size ranging between 200 and 250 nm. Cyclic voltammograms suggest that LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 undergoes phase transformation on first charge with resultant phase being completely reversible in subsequent cycles. The first-charge-cycle phase transition is further supported by impedance spectroscopy that shows substantial reduction in resistance during initial de-intercalation. Galvanostatic charge–discharge cycles reflect a firstdischarge capacity of 184 mAh g-1 which is stabilized at 170 mAh g-1 over 50 cycles.

  1. Part I: Electronic and ionic transport properties of the ordered and disordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Belharouk, Ilias

    2017-04-01

    Here, we report on the electronic and ionic conductivity and diffusivity of the ordered (P4332) and disordered (Fd 3 bar m) LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel material, which have been determined by using ion and electron blocking cell configurations as a function of lithium concentration and temperature. The disordered phase exhibits about fifteen-time higher electronic conductivity than the ordered phase at room temperature in the lithiated state. Upon delithiation, the electronic conductivity of the ordered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 phase increases and reaches the same levels observed for the disordered phase. The ionic conductivity and diffusivity of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, in the ordered and disordered forms, are in the range of ∼1 × 10-9 S/cm and ∼5 × 10-9 cm2/s, respectively. Both phases exhibit similar activation energies for the ionic conductivity and diffusivity, i.e. 0.70 ± 0.2eV and 0.74 ± 0.2eV, respectively. It can be concluded from the obtained results that the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, whether ordered or disordered, is limited by lithium transport, but is fast enough to allow charge/discharge of micron-scale particles at practical C-rates.

  2. Quercetin as electrolyte additive for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode for lithium-ion secondary battery at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkyung; Kim, Myeongho; Choi, Insoo; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2016-12-01

    In an attempt to ameliorate the poor cyclability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at elevated temperature, quercetin is applied as an additive. The irreversible oxidative behavior of quercetin is thoroughly investigated by electrochemical method. The improved cyclability of the quercetin-containing cell at high temperature implies that by forming robust and less-resistive SEI, quercetin is preferentially oxidized and passivates the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode. EIS result coherently suggests that the quercetin-added electrolyte forms a more compact and Li-ion conducting interface. The surface sensitive XPS analysis confirms that the presence of quercetin restrains the formation of LiF, suppresses the reaction of PF5, and alleviates Mn dissolution. Meanwhile, ICP-MS analysis affirms the effectiveness of quercetin against Mn dissolution. The self-discharge experiment which exhibits the retained charged state of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at high temperature, gives convincing evidence of the effect of quercetin. Intensive analyses confirm that quercetin can effectively prolong the cycle-life of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at elevated temperature. We envision its potential and practical usage as an electrolyte additive for high-voltage cathode.

  3. An Artificial SEI Enables the Use of A LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 5 V Cathode with Conventional Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juchuan [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Martha, Surendra K [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel is considered one of the most promising cathodes for advanced lithium ion batteries. However, the operation potential of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, ~4.75 V, is beyond the high voltage limit of the state-of-art electrolyte, ~4.3 V. Here, using thin films of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a model material, we show evidence that an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) enables the use of this 5 V cathode with conventional carbonate electrolytes. A thin coating of Lipon (lithium phosphorus oxynitride) as an artificial SEI on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 could remedy the decomposition of the electrolyte. The thickness of the Lipon artificial SEI is optimized by balancing the protection and additional resistance. The strategy of artificial SEI on cathodes is expected to enable the wide application of other high voltage cathodes for lithium ion batteries.

  4. Synthesis of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 in Air Atmosphere and its Characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾大明; 史鹏飞; 顾健

    2004-01-01

    The commercialized lithium secondary cells need the electrode materials with high specific capacity,lower pollution and lower price. Certain industrial materials (NiSO4, CoSO4 ,LiOH · H2O) were used to synthesize Ni0. 8 Co0.2 (OH)2of a stratified structure, when various synthesis conditions such as pH, reaction temperature et al. were controlled strictly. After LiOH · H2O and Ni0. 8 Co0. 2 (OH)2were calcinated in air atmosphere,LiNi0.8Co0. 2O2 positive electrode materials with good layered crystal structure was obtained. Tests showed that the optimal calcination temperature in air atmosphere was about at 720 ℃ and LiNi0. 8 Co0. 2 O2 synthesized in the above conditions had good electrochemical properties and a low cost. The first specific discharge capacity of the material was 186 mAh/g, and the specific discharge capacity was 175 mAh/g after 50 cycles at a 0. 2C rate,between 3.0 ~ 4.2 V with a discharge deterioration ratio of 0.22% each cycle. Tests showed that LiNi0. 8 Co0. 2 O2 positive electrode materials was a promising candidate to replace the commercialized LiCoO2 for lithium secondary batteries.

  5. LiNi0.8Co0.2O2/CNTs Composite used as the Materials for Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-xin; Yuan Rong-zhong; Chen Li; Zhang Bai-lan; Yu Zuo-long

    2004-01-01

    Stupercapacitors or electrochemical capacitors(ECs) have attracted considerable attentionas an intermediate power source between conventional capacitors and batteries since they possesshigh power density and energy density, exhibit excellent reversibility, and have long cycle life1.Conductive polymers2, electrically conductive metal oxide3,4, activated carbon5 and carbonnanotubes(CNTs) 6-9 have been used as supercapacitor electrode materials. LiNi0.sCo0.2O2 is apromising lithium battery material because it has some advantages of both LiNiO2 and LiCoO2besides its low cost and high power10.In this paper, the electrochemical properties of supercapacitors based on LiNi0.8Co0.2O2/carbonnanotubes composite and LiNi0.8Co0.2O2/acetylene black composite and CNTs in 1 mol/LLiClO4/EC+DEC [V(EC):V(DEC)=1:1] electrolyte have been investigated by means of constantcharge/discharge current tests. The experiment results show that the LiNi0.8Co0.2O2/carbon nanotubescomposite has better properties than others, and the maximun specific capacitance of thesupercapacitor can reach 284.88F/g, while the energy density is up to 158.27Wh/Kg.That discharge capacities, coulombic efficiencies and energy densities at the first cycle and themaximum value and capacity retention at the 100th cycle for supercapacitors using differentelectrode materials (A) LiNi0.8Co0.2O2/acetylene black, (B) LiNi0. 8Co0.2O2/CNTs, (C) CNTs is listedin table 1*Capacity retention rate obtained by dividing the discharge capacity at the 100th cycle by themaximum valueFrom above, the LiNi0. 8Co0.2O2/carbon nanotubes composite should be a good candidatesupercapacitor electrode material.

  6. Enhanced rate performance of molybdenum-doped spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode materials for lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Chen, Bin; Zhu, Yan-Rong; Li, Xiao-Ya; Zhu, Rong-Sun

    2014-02-01

    The Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes are successfully synthesized by citric acid-assisted sol-gel method. The result demonstrates that the Mo-doped LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 cathodes present the improved electrochemical performance over pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. At the 2 C rate after 80 cycles, the discharge capacities are 68.5 mAh g-1 for the pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material (53.9% of the capacity at 0.1 C), 107.4 mAh g-1 for the LiMn1.425Ni0.5Mo0.05O4 material (82.1% at 0.1 C), and 122.7 mAh g-1 for the LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 material (90.5% at 0.1 C). Mo-doping is favorable for reducing the electrode polarization, suggesting that Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes have faster lithium insertion/extraction kinetics during cycling. Mo-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes show lower charge-transfer resistance and higher lithium diffusion coefficients. In addition, LiMn1.4Ni0.55Mo0.05O4 cathode exhibits the smallest particle size, the lowest charge-transfer resistance and the highest lithium diffusion coefficient among all samples, indicating that it has a high reversibility and good rate capability.

  7. Structural and thermal stabilities of layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials in 18650 high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Bing; Ning, Feng; Yang, Quan-Hong; Song, Quan-Sheng; Li, Baohua; Su, Fangyuan; Du, Hongda; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Kang, Feiyu

    The structural and thermal stabilities of the layered Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode materials under high rate cycling and abusive conditions are investigated using the commercial 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries. The Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 materials maintain their layered structure even when the power batteries are subjected to 200 cycles with 10 C discharge rate at temperatures of 25 and 50 °C, whereas their microstructure undergoes obvious distortion, which leads to the relatively poor cycling performance of power batteries at high charge/discharge rates and working temperature. Under abusive conditions, the increase in the battery temperature during overcharge is attributed to both the reactions of electrolyte solvents with overcharged graphite anode and Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathode and the Joule heat that results from the great increase in the total resistance (R cell) of batteries. The reactions of fully charged Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2 cathodes and graphite anodes with electrolyte cannot be activated during short current test in the fully charged batteries. However, these reactions occur at around 140 °C in the fully charged batteries during oven test, which is much lower than the temperature of about 240 °C required for the reactions outside batteries.

  8. High potential durability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes studied by surface sensitive X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Hiroyuki; Takamatsu, Daiko; Mori, Shinichiro; Orikasa, Yuki; Sugaya, Hidetaka; Murayama, Haruno; Nakanishi, Kouji; Tanida, Hajime; Koyama, Yukinori; Arai, Hajime; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2014-01-01

    Phenomena at electrode/electrolyte interface of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 are studied by in situ total-reflection fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TRF-XAS), ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical tests. Flat and well-defined thin films of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are used as model electrodes to facilitate the observation of the interface. The thin-film LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode showed good cycling characteristics at around 4.7 V vs. Li/Li+. The TRF-XAS measurements reveal that nickel and manganese species at the surface have almost the same chemical states and local environments as those in the bulk when in contact with organic electrolyte solutions (1 mol dm-3 LiClO4 in a 1:1 volumetric mixture of ethylene carbonate and diethyl carbonate). This is in sharp contrast to the behavior of a LiCoO2 electrode, in which the surface cobalt species is irreversibly reduced by soaking to the organic electrolyte solutions, leading to gradual material deterioration during the delithiation/lithiation cycling (D. Takamatsu et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Edit., 51 (2012) 11597). It is suggested that the electrolyte decomposition products detected by XPS form a protective layer to restrict the reduction of the surface species of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, leading to good cycling characteristics of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 in spite of its high operating potential.

  9. Combustion synthesis and electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Col/3Mnl/3BrxO2-x and LiNi1/3Col/3Mnl/3BrxO2-x/graphene cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3BrxO2-x (0≤x≤0.09 cathode materials were prepared by a combustion method. The XRD results indicate that the Br-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 has the same layered structure as the pristine LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. FE-SEM results indicate that the particle size distribution of samples is uniform. Electrochemical tests reveal that Br-doped samples exhibit higher discharge capacity and rate capability compared with the pristine, especially the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3Br0.05O1.95 sample shows initial discharge capacity, which can reach to 175.4 and 166.4mAh/g at 0.5 and 1.0C, respectively. Finally, an electronically conducting 2D network of graphene was introduced into LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3Br0.05O1.95 cathode material. The electrochemical properties of the materials were investigated by charge-discharge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The charge-discharge tests demonstrate that this sample has better cycle stability than LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3Br0.05O1.95 which can be attributed to the excellent electronic conductivity and stable chemical properties of graphene. The EIS results reveal that the graphene coated greatly decreases the resistance of lithium batteries, especially the charge transfer resistance which can be attributed to the significantly improved electronic conductivity.

  10. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3C01/3O2 cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Shengkui; WANG You; LIU Jiequn; WAN Kang; L(U) Fan

    2011-01-01

    The layered material of Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 with α-NaFeO2 was synthesized by a co-precipitation method.X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 had the same layered structure as the undoped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2.The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images exhibited that the particle size of Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 was smaller than that of the undoped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2.The Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 samples were investigated on the Li extraction/insertion performances through charge/discharge,cyclic voltammogram (CV),and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS).The optimal doping content of Ce was x=0.02 in the LiNi1/3-xMn1/3Co1/3CexO2 samples to achieve high discharge capacity and good cyclic stability.The electrode reaction reversibility was enhanced,and the charge transfer resistance was decreased through Ce-doping.The improved electrochemical performances of the Ce-doped LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode materials were attributed to the addition ofCe4+ ion by stabilizing the layer structure.

  11. Iodine Anions beyond -1: Formation of LinI (n = 2-5) and Its Interaction with Quasiatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botana, Jorge; Brgoch, Jakoah; Hou, Chunju; Miao, Maosheng

    2016-09-19

    Novel phases of LinI (n = 2, 3, 4, 5) compounds are predicted to form under high pressure using first-principles density functional theory and an unbiased crystal structure search algorithm. All of the phases identified are thermodynamically stable with respect to decomposition into elemental Li and the binary LiI at a relatively low pressure (≈20 GPa). Increasing the pressure to 100 GPa yields the formation of a high pressure electride where electrons occupy interstitial quasiatom (ISQ) orbitals. Under these extreme pressures, the calculated charge on iodine suggests the oxidation state goes beyond the conventional and expected -1 charge for the halogens. This strange oxidative behavior stems from an electron transfer going from the ISQ to I(-) and Li(+) ions as high pressure collapses the void space. The resulting interplay between chemical bonding and the quantum chemical nature of enclosed interstitial space allows this first report of a halogen anion beyond a -1 oxidation state.

  12. Influence of Co substitution for Ni and Mn on the structural and electrochemical characteristics of LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Atsushi; Li, Decheng; Lee, Yunsung; Kobayakawa, Koichi; Sato, Yuichi

    LiNi 0.5- xCo 2 xMn 1.5- xO 4 (0 ≤ 2 x ≤ 0.2) was prepared by spray drying, then re-annealing in O 2. Their structural and electrochemical properties were studied by ex-situ XRD, GITT, and charge-discharge testing. The substitution of cobalt for Ni and Mn in the LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 resulted in significant structural and electrochemical variations, such as the change in structural transformation with lithium extraction, the increase in the lithium diffusion coefficient and the decrease in the area specific impedance. Moreover, the improved kinetic properties caused by the Co substitution for Ni and Mn result in an improved cyclic performance at a high rate and at elevated temperature as well as the rate capability.

  13. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrodes with improved properties prepared by a slurry spray deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ran; Sun, Yi; Zou, Bang-Kun; Deng, Miao-Miao; Xie, Jing-Ying; Chen, Chun-Hua

    2017-02-01

    A slurry spray deposition (SSD) process is utilized to prepare a LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrode supported on an aluminum foil. The spray deposition process is performed at room temperature through the atomization and deposition of the composite electrode slurry. A comparative LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-based composite electrode is also prepared by the traditional blade coating method. The surface morphology and elements mapping of the electrodes are measured by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The adhesion between the composite electrode layers and the aluminum foil is also tested. A parallel evaluation on the mechanical and electrochemical performances of the two kinds of electrodes is conducted. The SSD electrode exhibits improved adhesion, cycling stability and rate capability. Therefore, the SSD process is an effective way to fabricate advanced electrodes for high performance lithium ion cells.

  14. Structural and impedance studies of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 synthesized by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Laurel Simon; Rubankumar, A.; Kalainathan, S.

    2016-05-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is synthesized by sol-gel method by using succinic acid as chelating agent. X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the material is spinel cubic structure with Fd3m space group. Impedance spectroscopy analysis of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was performed under a wide frequency and temperature range of 50 Hz to 5 MHz and 303 K to 783 K respectively. The hopping of the electrons, ionic conductivity and activation energy were analyzed from the relaxation frequency of the imaginary impedance (Z"). The activation energy Ea is calculated from the Arrhenius plots and it is found to be 0.3713 eV, which indicates the existence of oxygen vacancy in the material. Nyquist plot indicates the presence of grain effect in the material and suppression in the grain effect is observed with increasing temperature.

  15. Enhanced electrochemical performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by surface modification with Cu nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 5V spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is prepared by traditional solid-state method and nano-Cu particles were derived from a chemical reduction process. The effect of Cu-coating on the electrochemical performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cells, in a wide operation temperature range (-10°C, 25°C, 60°C, is investigated systematically by the charge/discharge testing, cyclic voltammograms and impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The results demonstrate that the modified material exhibits remarkably enhanced electrochemical reversibility and stability. Cu-coated material has much lower surface and charge transfer resistances and shows a higher lithium diffusion rate. The Cu coating layer as a highly efficient lithium ion conductor, acted as a highly efficient protector to restrain the contact loss.

  16. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of 5V spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 prepared by solid-state reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Qiang; LI Xin-hai; WANG Zhi-xing; JI Yong

    2009-01-01

    Spinel compound LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 with high capacity and high rate capability was synthesized by solid-state reaction. At first, MnCl2·4H2O and NiCl2·6H2O were reacted with (NH4)2C2O4·H2O to produce a precursor via a low-temperature solid-state route, then the precursor was reacted with Li2CO3 to synthesize LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. The effects of calcination temperature and time on the physical properties and electrochemical performance of the products were investigated. Samples were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray diffractometry(XRD), charge-discharge tests and cyclic voltammetry measurements. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) image shows that as calcination temperature and time increase, the crystallinity of the samples is improved, and their grain sizes are obviously increased. It is found that LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 calcined at 800 ℃ for 6 h exhibits a typical cubic spinel structure with a space group of Fd3m. Electrochemical tests demonstrate that the sample obtained possesses high capacity and excellent rate capability. When being discharged at a rate as high as 5C after 30 cycles, the as-prepared LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders can still deliver a capacity of 101 mA-h/g, which shows to be a potential cathode material for high power batteries.

  17. Electrochemical characteristics of layered LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 and with different synthesis conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Wang, Haoran; Qi, Lu; Osaka, Tetsuya

    LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 had been successfully prepared from spherical composite carbonate via a simple uniform-phase precipitation method [P. He, H. Wang, L. Qi, T. Osaka, J. Power Sources, in press] at normal pressure, using nickel, cobalt and manganese sulfate and ammonia bicarbonate as reactants. The preparation of spherical composite carbonate was significantly dependant on synthetic condition, such as the reaction temperature, feed rate, molar ratio of these reactants, etc. The optimized condition resulted in spherical composite carbonate of which the particle size distribution was uniform, as observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Calcination of the uniform composite carbonate with lithium carbonate at high temperature led to a well-ordered layer structured LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), without obvious change in shape. Due to the homogeneity of the composite carbonate, the final product, LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2, was also significantly uniform, i.e., the average particle size was of about 10 μm in diameter and the distribution was relatively narrow. As a result, the corresponding tap density was also high, approximately 2.32 g cm -3, of which the value is very near to that of commercialized LiCoO 2. In the voltage range of 2.8-4.2, 2.8-4.35 and 2.8-4.5 V, the discharge capacities of LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 electrode were 159, 168 and 179 mAh g -1, respectively, with good cyclability.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of LiNi0.95-xCoxAl0.05O2 for lithium-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xianjun; ZHAN Hui; LIU Hanxing; ZHOU Yunhong

    2006-01-01

    Samples of LiNi0.95-xCoxAl0.05O2 (x = 0.10 and 0.15) and LiNiO2, synthesized by the solid-state reaction at 725℃ for 24 h from LiOH·H2O, Ni2O3, Co2O3, and Al(OH)3 under an oxygen stream, were characterized by TG-DTA,XRD, SEM, and electrochemical tests. Simultaneous doping of cobalt and aluminum at the Ni-site in LiNiO2 was tried to improve the cathode performance for lithium-ion batteries. The results showed that co-doping (especially, 5 at.% Al and 10at.% Co) definitely had a large beneficial effect in increasing the capacity (186.2 Ma·h/g of the first discharge capacity for LiNi0.85Co0.10Al0.05O2) and cycling behavior (180.1 Ma·h/g after 10 cycles for LiNi0.85Co0.10Al0.05O2) compared with 180.7mA·h/g of the first discharge capacity and 157.7 Ma·h/g of the tenth discharge capacity for LiNiO2, respectively. Differential capacity versus voltage curves showed that the co-doped LiNi0.95-xCoxAl0.05O2 had less intensity of the phase transitions than the pristine LiNiO2.

  19. Improving the rate capability of high voltage lithium-ion battery cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by ruthenium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltas-Yavuz, Nilüfer; Bhaskar, Aiswarya; Dixon, Ditty; Yavuz, Murat; Nikolowski, Kristian; Lu, Li; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2014-12-01

    The citric acid-assisted sol-gel method was used to produce the high-voltage cathodes LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and LiNi0.4Ru0.05Mn1.5O4 at 800 °C and 1000 °C final calcination temperatures. High resolution powder diffraction using synchrotron radiation, inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses were carried out to characterize the structure, chemical composition and morphology. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies were conducted to confirm Ru doping inside the spinel as well as to compare the oxidation states of transition metals. The formation of an impurity LixNi1-xO in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders annealed at high temperatures (T ≥ 800 °C) can be suppressed by partial substitution of Ni2+ by Ru4+ ion. The LiNi0.4Ru0.05Mn1.5O4 powder synthesized at 1000 °C shows the highest performance regarding the rate capability and cycling stability. It has an initial capacity of ∼139 mAh g-1 and capacity retention of 84% after 300 cycles at C/2 charging-discharging rate between 3.5 and 5.0 V. The achievable discharge capacity at 20 C for a charging rate of C/2 is ∼136 mAh g-1 (∼98% of the capacity delivered at C/2). Since the electrode preparation plays a crucial role on parameters like the rate capability, the influence of the mass loading of active materials in the cathode mixture is discussed.

  20. Synthesis of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode material via oxalate precursor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chuan-fu; YANG Ping; DAI Xi; XIONG Xuan; ZHAN Jing; ZHANG Yin-liang

    2009-01-01

    Using oxalic acid and stoichiometrically mixed solution of NiCl2, CoCl2, and MnCl2 as starting materials, the triple oxalate precursor of nickel, cobalt, and manganese was synthesized by liquid-phase co-precipitation method. And then the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode materials for Li-ion battery were prepared from the precursor and LiOH-H2O by solid-state reaction. The precursor and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 were characterized by chemical analysis, XRD, EDX, SEM and TG-DTA. The results show that the composition of precursor is Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3C2O4·2H2O. The product LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, in which nickel, cobalt and manganese are uniformly distributed, is well crystallized with a-NaFeO2 layered structure. Sintering temperature has a remarkable influence on the electrochemical performance of obtained samples. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized at 900 ℃ has the best electrochemical properties. At 0.1C rate, its first specific discharge capacity is 159.7 mA·h/g in the voltage range of 2.75-4.30 V and 196.9 mA·h/g in the voltage range of 2.75-4.50 V; at 2C rate, its specific discharge capacity is 121.8 mA·h/g and still 119.7 mA·h/g after 40 cycles. The capacity retention ratio is 98.27%.

  1. Characteristics of LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.45Co0.1Mn0.45O2 as cathodes of lithium ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua-jun; LI Xin-hai; ZHANG Xin-ming; ZENG Su-ming; WANG Zhi-xing; PENG Wen-jie

    2005-01-01

    LiNi0. 45 Co0. 10 Mn0. 4sO2 was synthesized from Li2CO3 and a triple oxide of nickel, cobalt and manganese at 950 ℃ in air. The structures and characteristics of LiNi0. 45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2, LiCoO2 and LiMn2 O4 were investigated by XRD, SEM and electrochemical measurements. The results show that LiNi0.4s Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 has a layered structure with hexagonal lattice. The commercial LicoO2 has sphere-like appearance and smooth surfaces, while the LiMn2 O4 and LiNi0.45 Co0. 10 Mn0. 45 O2 consist of cornered and uneven particles. LiNi0. 45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 has a large disLiMn2 O4 and LiCoO2, respectively. LiCoO2 and LiMn2 O4 have higher discharge voltage and better rate-capability than LiNi0. 45Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2. All the three cathodes have excellent cycling performance with capacity retention of above 89.3 % at the 250th cycle. Batteries with LiMn2 O4 or LiNi0.45 Co0.10 Mn0. 45 O2 cathodes show better safety performance under abusive conditions than those with LiCoO2 cathodes.

  2. Degradation effects on the surface of commercial LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, M.; Horsthemke, F.; Kollmer, F.; Haseloff, S.; Friesen, A.; Niehoff, P.; Nowak, S.; Winter, M.; Schappacher, F. M.

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the degradation mechanisms on the surface of commercial LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 electrodes is presented. Irregularly distributed particle cracking and the formation of a cathode electrolyte interphase on the surface of the active material were identified to be the main degradation mechanisms. The particle cracking originates from inhomogeneity of the composite electrode, leading to deviations in the local current density and the state of charge which results in overcharge conditions for particular LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 particles. Therein, the highly delithiated structure suffers from anisotropic stress due to repulsive interactions between adjacent layers and the formation of new phases which eventually cause particle cracking. The structural changes were confirmed by the presence of a spinel phase on the surface of the cracked particles. Furthermore, the migration of transition metal ions in the highly delithiated structure can facilitate their dissolution into the electrolyte. The investigation of the re-deposited transition metals reveals a predominant dissolution of manganese from the overcharged particles. In addition, electrochemical cycling of the LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 electrodes in laboratory cells show an increasing severity of the particle cracking at higher C-rates which can influence the thermal stability of the active material. Moreover, an increased electrolyte decomposition was observed for higher cut-off potentials.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of layered Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 cathode materials by spray-drying method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-min; HU Guo-rong; PENG Zhong-dong; DENG Xin-rong; LIU Ye-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Spherical Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 was prepared via the homogenous precursors produced by solution spray-drying method. The precursors were sintered at different temperatures between 600 and 1 000 ℃ for 10 h. The impacts of different sintering temperatures on the structure and electrochemical performances of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 were compared by means of X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and charge/discharge test as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. The experimental results show that the spherical morphology of the spray-dried powers maintains during the subsequent heat treatment and the specific capacity increases with rising sintering temperature. When the sintering temperature rises up to 900 ℃, Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 attains a reversible capacity of 153 mA·h/g between 3.00 and 4.35 V at 0.2C rate with excellent cyclability.

  4. Effect of Various Synthesis methods on the Electrochemical Properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xue-shan; LIU Xing-quan

    2004-01-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 has the isostructure of α-NaFeO2 and shows high rate capacity with stable cycleability. Furthermore, the thermal behavior of this material is milder than that of lithium nickel oxide and lithium cobalt oxide. In addition, it is expected to be stable at elevated temperatures. Therefore LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 may be the most promising cathode materials of lithium-ion secondary battery.In this research, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was prepared by solid-state reaction, sol-gel method and mixed hydroxide method. The influences of synthesis method on the physical and electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), charge/discharge cycling cyclic voltammetry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). XPS studies show that the predominant oxidation states of Ni, Co and Mn in the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 compound are 2+, 3+ and 4+. From the voltage profile and cyclic voltammetry, the redox processes occurring at ~3.8V and ~4.5V are assigned to the Ni2+/Ni3+ and Co3+/Co4+ couples, respectively. Different preparation methods result in the difference in morphology (shape, particle size and specific surface area) and electrochemical behaviors. A sample prepared by solid-state reaction has the worst electrochemical performance among these three methods. Sample synthesized by mixed hydroxide method displays the better rate capacity than that prepared by sol-gel method, while the capacity retention of sample prepared by sol-gel method is superior to that synthesized by mixed hydroxide method.

  5. GITT studies on oxide cathode LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 synthesized by citric acid assisted high-energy ball milling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Weidong Zheng; Miao Shui; Jie Shu; Shan Gao; Dan Xu; Liangliang Chen; Lin Feng; Yuanlong Ren

    2013-06-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was synthesized by a citric acid assisted solid-state method. The structure and electrochemical properties of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 materials were investigated. XRD analysis indicated the as-synthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was with the layered -NaFeO2 structure. The discharge capacity was about 154 m.Ahg-1 at 0.1 °C rate in the range of 2.0–4.5 V. The kinetics of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 materials was investigated by the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) method. The lithium ion diffusion coefficient of the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was determined in the range of 10-8−10-9 cm2.s-1 as a function of voltage of 3.7−4.5 V.

  6. Enhanced rate performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 fibers synthesized by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Rui; Zhang, Xiaofeng; chamoun, rita; Shui, Jianglan; Li, James; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, IB

    2015-05-29

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) provides a high working potential as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. Yet there is a phase transition from cubic to tetragonal structure in LNMO during the ~3 V charge/discharge region. To suppress the large volume change and capacity fade inherent with bulk-sized LNMO particles when discharged to below 3.0 V, one-dimensional nano-structured LNMO was prepared by an electrospinning method and a subsequent heat treatment. The well-separated nanofiber precursors combat the growth and aggregation of LNMO particles during the heating procedure and lead to improved capacity, better cycling stability, and improved rate capability of the final LMNO nanofibers. The as-prepared LMNO nanofibers have a diameter as thin as 50–100 nm, which is the thinnest of this kind of complex compounds that contain multi-transition metal elements produced through the electrospinning method. In coin cell tests of this material at a current density of 27 mA g-1, the initial discharge capacity was 130 mAh g-1 over a voltage range of 3.5–4.8 V and 300 mAh g-1 over a voltage range of 2.0–4.8 V.

  7. Zn-Doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Composite as Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Battery: Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 composite, Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/31–xZnxO2 (x = 0.02; 0.05; 0.08, is synthesized by the sol-gel method. The crystal structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance are investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV, and constant current charge/discharge experiment. The result reveals that Zn-doping cathode material can reach the initial charge/discharge capacity of 188.8/162.9 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 and 179.0/154.1 mAh·g−1 for Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.95Zn0.05O2 with the high voltage of 4.4 V at 0.1 C. Furthermore, the capacity retention of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/30.98Zn0.02O2 is 95.1% at 0.5 C after 50 cycles at room temperature. The improved electrochemical properties of Zn-doped LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are attributed to reduced electrode polarization, enhanced capacity reversibility, and excellent cyclic performance.

  8. Efficient plasma-enhanced method for layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathodes with sulfur atom-scale modification for superior-performance Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qianqian; Chen, Ning; Liu, Dongdong; Wang, Shuangyin; Zhang, Han

    2016-06-01

    In order to improve the electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a lithium insertion positive electrode material, atom-scale modification was realized to obtain the layered oxysulfide LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx using a novel plasma-enhanced doping strategy. The structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx are investigated systematically, which confirms that the S doping can make the structure stable and benefit the electrochemical performance. The phys-chemical characterizations indicate that oxygen atoms in the initial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 have been partially replaced by S atoms. It should be pointed out that the atom-scale modification does not significantly alter the intrinsic structure of the cathode. Compared to the pristine material, the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-xSx shows a superior performance with a higher capacity (200.4 mA h g(-1)) and a significantly improved cycling stability (maintaining 94.46% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles). Moreover, it has an excellent rate performance especially at elevated performance, which is probably due to the faster Li(+) transportation after S doping into the layered structure. All the results show that the atom-scale modification with sulfur atoms on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, which significantly improved the electrochemical performance, offers a novel anionic doping strategy to realize the atom-scale modification of electrode materials to improve their electrochemical performance.

  9. Morphology controlled Si-modified LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres as high performance high voltage cathode materials in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswaran, Shubha; Keppeler, Miriam; Kim, Sung-Jin; Srinivasan, Madhavi

    2017-04-01

    Well-crystallized, microspherical LiNi0.5Mn1.5-nSinO4 (0.05 microspheres is achieved, which is superior compared to 93.1% capacity retention of the pristine LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 microspheres. Since the Sisbnd O bond exhibits higher dissociation energy compared to the dissociation energies of the Mnsbnd O or Nisbnd O bonds, the excellent electrochemical performance might be associated with an increased structural and chemical stability caused by incorporation of silicon into the oxygen rich crystal lattice.

  10. Effects of additional multiwall carbon nanotubes on impact behaviors of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh V.; Wang, Meng; Shi, Yang; Noelle, Daniel; Qiao, Yu; Lu, Weiyi

    2015-08-01

    This work introduces a new mechanically triggered thermal runaway mitigation mechanism. The homogenizer of electrode failure (HEF), multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT), was added into LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC532) battery electrodes. We have studied the effect of the HEF additive on the internal electrical resistance and the mechanical impact resistance of the electrodes. The additional MWCNTs reduced the internal electrical resistance of electrodes before mechanical abuse. Upon mechanical abuse, they could mitigate internal shorting and thermal runaway at normal battery working temperature.

  11. Electrochemical properties of LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles prepared by spray pyrolysis from the spray solutions with and without organic additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, S. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kang, Y. C.

    2010-04-01

    Fine-sized LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles were prepared by spray pyrolysis from the spray solutions with and without organic additives. Citric acid, ethylene glycol, and Drying Control Chemical Additive (DCCA) were used as organic additives and improved the morphologies and electrochemical properties of the cathode particles. The LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles obtained from the spray solutions with organic additives were of micro size and had slightly aggregated morphologies. The initial discharge capacities of the LiNi0.8Co0.2-xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.1) cathode particles obtained from the spray solutions without organic additive changed from 169 mAhg-1 to 190 mAhg-1 when the x changed from 0 to 0.1. However, the initial discharge capacities of the cathode particles obtained from the spray solutions with organic additives changed from 196 mAhg-1 to 218 mAhg-1. The initial discharge capacity of the LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathode particles obtained from the spray solution with organic additives was maintained after the 20th cycle at a current density of 0.1 C.

  12. PEDOT modified LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xizheng; Li, Huiqiao; Li, De; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2013-12-01

    Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was modified by poly(3,4-dioxyethylenethiophene) PEDOT via a facile method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). PEDOT modified samples exhibited both improved rate and cycle performance compared with the pristine LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. At a charge/discharge current of 1500 mA g-1, the discharge capacity was improved from 44.3 to 73.9 mAh g-1. The sample with 2 wt% and heat treated at 300 °C showed the optimized electrochemical performance. Galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) results indicated that the battery polarization of coated samples have been suppressed obviously because the PEDOT layer facilitated the electron transfer at the interface of electrode and electrolyte.

  13. Unexpected high power performance of atomic layer deposition coated Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Woo; Travis, Jonathan J.; Hu, Enyuan; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Kim, Seul Cham; Kang, Chan Soon; Woo, Jae-Ha; Yang, Xiao-Qing; George, Steven M.; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Cho, Sung-Jin; Lee, Se-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Electric-powered transportation requires an efficient, low-cost, and safe energy storage system with high energy density and power capability. Despite its high specific capacity, the current commercially available cathode material for today's state-of-art Li-ion batteries, lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide Li[Ni1/3 Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 (NMC), suffers from poor cycle life for high temperature operation and marginal rate capability resulting from irreversible degradation of the cathode material upon cycling. Using an atomic-scale surface engineering, the performance of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 in terms of rate capability and high temperature cycle-life is significantly improved. The Al2O3 coating deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) dramatically reduces the degradation in cell conductivity and reaction kinetics. This durable ultra-thin Al2O3-ALD coating layer also improves stability for the NMC at an elevated temperature (55 °C). The experimental results suggest that a highly durable and safe cathode material enabled by atomic-scale surface modification could meet the demanding performance and safety requirements of next-generation electric vehicles.

  14. Calendering effects on the physical and electrochemical properties of Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Honghe; Tan, Li; Liu, Gao; Song, Xiangyun; Battaglia, Vincent S.

    2012-06-01

    Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode laminate containing 8% PVDF and 7% acetylene black is fabricated and calendered to different porosities. Calendering effects on the physical and electrochemical properties of the Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2 cathode are investigated. It is found that mechanical properties of the composite laminate strongly depend on the electrode porosity whereas the electronic conductivity is not significantly affected by calendering. Electrochemical performances including the specific capacity, the first coulombic efficiency, cycling performance and rate capability for the cathode at different porosities are compared. An optimized porosity of around 30-40% is identified. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies illustrate that calendering improves the electronic conductivity between active particles at relatively high porosities, but increases charge transfer resistance at electrode/electrolyte interface at relatively low porosities. An increase of activation energy of Li interfacial transfer for the electrode at 0% porosity indicates a relatively high barrier of activation at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which accounts for the poor rate capability of the electrode at extremely low porosity.

  15. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin

    2017-06-01

    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  16. Enhanced electrochemical performance and storage property of LiNi0.815Co0.15Al0.035O2 via Al gradient doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianguo; Hu, Guorong; Cao, Yanbing; Tan, Chaopu; Wu, Ceng; Du, Ke; Peng, Zhongdong

    2016-09-01

    LiNi1-x-yCoxAlyO2 is a commonly used Ni-rich cathode material because of its relatively low cost, excellent rate capability and high gravimetric energy density. Surface modification is an efficient way to overcome the shortcomings of Ni-rich cathodes such as poor cycling stability and poor thermal stability. A high-powered concentration-gradient cathode material with an average composition of LiNi0.815Co0.15Al0.035O2 (LGNCAO) has been successfully synthesized by using spherical concentration-gradient Ni0.815Co0.15Al0.035(OH)2 (GNCA)as the starting material. An efficient design of the Al3+ precipitation method is developed, which enables obtaining spherical GNCA with ∼10 μm particle size and high tap density. In LGNCAO, the nickel and cobalt concentration decreases gradually whereas the aluminum concentration increases from the centre to the outer layer of each particle. Electrochemical performance and storage properties of LGNCAO have been investigated comparatively. The LGNCAO displays better electrochemical performance and improved storage stability than LNCAO.

  17. Processing of water-based LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 pastes for manufacturing lithium ion battery cathodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatih A Çetinel; Werner Bauer

    2014-12-01

    In order to meet the demand for more ecological and economic fabrication of lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, water is considered as an alternative solvent for electrode paste preparation. In this study, we report on the feasibility of water-based processing of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2-based pastes for manufacturing cathode electrodes. The influence of the total solid content, the amount of conductive agent and binder materials on paste rheology and the final electrode properties was investigated. Suitable paste formulations which enable favourable paste flow behaviour, appropriate electrode properties and good electrochemical performance have been found. Results show that a substitution of the conventional organic solvent-based manufacturing route for LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes by water-based processing exhibits a promising way to realise Li-ion batteries with comparable electrochemical behaviour, while avoiding toxic processing aids and reducing overall manufacturing costs.

  18. Improved electrochemical performance of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material synthesized by citric acid assisted sol-gel method for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Hyungsub; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Youn, Hee-Chang; Kang, Kisuk; Cho, Byung-Won; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2016-05-01

    A citric acid assisted sol-gel method is employed for synthesizing LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 for use as a cathode material in lithium-ion batteries. The effects of heat-treatment temperature and oxygen atmosphere on the structural and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 are investigated, in order to determine optimal conditions for the synthesis of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 via the citric acid assisted sol-gel method. In particular, the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere effectively leads to a decrease in the degree of cation mixing and the formation of LiOH and Li2CO3 on the surface of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2. Furthermore, heat-treatment in an oxygen atmosphere improves the uniformity of oxidation state of Ni ions between the surface and bulk. LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 synthesized by heat-treatment at 850 °C under an oxygen atmosphere shows a discharge capacity of 174 mA h g-1 and 89% capacity retention after 100 cycles. In addition, it shows high rate capability (i.e., 41% capacity retention at 10 C), which is an improved rate performance over a previous report. The results of this study should provide useful information for the synthesis of Ni-rich layered oxides for lithium ion batteries.

  19. Electrochemical performance and 7Li NMR studies on an inverse spinel LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, George Ting-Kuo; Muralidharan, P.; Cho, Yung-Da; Chang, Pai-Ching; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    A new inverse spinel LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 cathode material was synthesized through a citric acid assisted polyethylene glycol (CA:PEG; 3:1, 3:0.5 and 3:0) polymeric method, followed by calcination at 723 K for 5 h in air. The synthesized compound was characterized by TG/DTGA, XRD, FTIR, TEM, and 7Li NMR techniques. TG/DTGA curves showed that the formation of LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 occurred between 523 and 673 K and the phase pure crystalline formed at 723 K, as also confirmed by XRD analysis which showed that the crystalline phase peaks formed when heated at 723 K for 5 h in air. TEM images revealed that nanosized particles ranged ∼170-190 nm. FTIR spectra showed that all organic residues were removed and LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 formed. The 7Li MAS NMR spectrum of the LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 sample revealed that the paramagnetic effect is small and small side band manifolds were observed. The galvanostatic cycling study suggests that the cycle stability and capacity retention were enhanced for LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3VO 4 prepared with a CA:PEG molar ratio of 3:1 when it was cycled between 2.8 and 4.9 V (versus Li) at a 0.15 C rate. The electrochemical impedance behavior suggested that a passive layer was formed on the surface of the cathode materials during continuous cycling.

  20. Self-discharge suppression of 4.9 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode by using tris(trimethylsilyl)borate as an electrolyte additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaolin; Huang, Qiming; Mai, Shaowei; Wang, Xianshu; Xu, Mengqing; Xing, Lidan; Liao, Youhao; Li, Weishan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, tris(trimethylsilyl)borate (TMSB) is evaluated as an electrolyte additive for the self-discharge suppression of 4.9 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode for lithium ion battery. The effect of TMSB on the surface properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is investigated via linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), charge-discharge test, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It is found that the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode charged to 4.9 V (vs. Li/Li+) suffers a serious self-discharge in 1 mol L-1 LiPF6-EC/DMC (1:2, in weight), which can be suppressed effectively by adding 1 wt.% TMSB into the electrolyte. After storage for 20 days, the voltage of the charged cathode decreases from 4.7 to 0.5 V (vs. Li/Li+) in the additive-free electrolyte, while that remains almost unchanged in the TMSB-containing electrolyte. The self-discharge suppression of the charged LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode results from the preferential oxidation of TMSB and the subsequent formation of a protective solid electrolyte interphase film, which prevents electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 from destruction.

  1. RNA-seq Transcriptome Response of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) to the Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-González, Leonardo; Deyholos, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes wilt in flax. Along with rust, fusarium wilt has become an important factor in flax production worldwide. Resistant flax cultivars have been used to manage the disease, but the resistance varies, depending on the interactions between specific cultivars and isolates of the pathogen. This interaction has a strong molecular basis, but no genomic information is available on how the plant responds to attempted infection, to inform breeding programs on potential candidate genes to evaluate or improve resistance across cultivars. In the current study, disease progression in two flax cultivars [Crop Development Center (CDC) Bethune and Lutea], showed earlier disease symptoms and higher susceptibility in the later cultivar. Chitinase gene expression was also divergent and demonstrated and earlier molecular response in Lutea. The most resistant cultivar (CDC Bethune) was used for a full RNA-seq transcriptome study through a time course at 2, 4, 8, and 18 days post-inoculation (DPI). While over 100 genes were significantly differentially expressed at both 4 and 8 DPI, the broadest deployment of plant defense responses was evident at 18 DPI with transcripts of more than 1,000 genes responding to the treatment. These genes evidenced a reception and transduction of pathogen signals, a large transcriptional reprogramming, induction of hormone signaling, activation of pathogenesis-related genes, and changes in secondary metabolism. Among these, several key genes that consistently appear in studies of plant-pathogen interactions, had increased transcript abundance in our study, and constitute suitable candidates for resistance breeding programs. These included: an induced RPMI-induced protein kinase; transcription factors WRKY3, WRKY70, WRKY75, MYB113, and MYB108; the ethylene response factors ERF1 and ERF14; two genes involved in auxin/glucosinolate precursor synthesis (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3); the flavonoid

  2. Enhanced Li storage performance of LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O(4)-coated 0.4Li(2)MnO(3)·0.6LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O(2) cathode materials for li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yufang; Xie, Kai; Zheng, Chunman; Ma, Zhongyun; Chen, Zhongxue

    2014-10-08

    In this study, Li-rich cathode, 0.4Li2MnO3·0.6LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 was synthesized by a resorcinol formaldehyde assisted sol-gel method for the first time. Then, the surface of the as-prepared Li-rich cathode was modified with different amounts of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (5, 10, and 20 wt %) through a simple dip-dry approach. The structural and electrochemical characterizations revealed that the spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 coating not only can prevent electrolytes from eroding the Li-rich core but also can facilitate fast lithium ion transportation. As a result, the 20 wt % coated sample delivered an initial discharge capacity of 298.6 mAh g(-1) with a Coulombic efficiency of 84.8%, compared to 281.1 mAh g(-1) and 70.2%, respectively, for the bare sample. Particularly, the coated sample demonstrates a Li storage capacity of 170.7 mAh g(-1) and capacity retention of 94.4% after 100 cycles at a high rate of 5 C (1250 mA g(-1)), showing a prospect for practical lithium battery applications. More significantly, the synthetic method proposed in this work is facile and low-cost and possibly could be adopted for large-scale production of surface-modified cathode materials.

  3. Copper Impurity Effects on LiNi(1/3)Mn(1/3)Co(1/3)O2 Cathode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Qina; Heelan, Joseph A; Lu, Yuan; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2015-09-23

    The crystal structure and electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) synthesized from a lithium ion battery recovery stream have been studied previously. In this report, we study the Cu impurity effects on NMC in detail. The difference in crystal structures and electrochemical properties were examined for pure and copper impurity included products. Scanning electron microscopy figures show that the precursor particles of NMC are slightly bigger than that of NMC with copper impurity. After undergoing 150 cycles at 2C, X-ray diffraction refinements results show that the lattice parameters for impurity containing NMC and pure NMC change to different extents. Furthermore, due to the minor change of lattice parameters, copper-containing NMC offers a more stable capacity retention compared to pure NMC.

  4. Influence of thermal history on the electrochemical properties of Li[Ni0.5Mn1.5]O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Park, Kyu-Sung; Song, Jie; Goodenough, John B.

    2013-12-01

    The oxygen-stoichiometric spinel Li[Ni0.5Mn1.5]O4 is an insulator with ordered Ni(II) and Mn(IV). Although it delivers 4.7 V versus Li, the ordered phase gives poor performance as the cathode of a Li-ion battery. Here we demonstrate control of the degree of cation order by adjusting the oxygen stoichiometry with thermal history of the synthesis rather than by doping 2M(III) for Ni(II) + Mn(IV) (M = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Al, Ga). We report retention of capacity near 100 mAh g-1 at room temperature at 10C/10C charge/discharge rate with little capacity fade; at 55 °C, a capacity fade occurs as a result of reaction with the electrolyte, but it is reduced to a level comparable to that obtained by doping.

  5. The influence of preparation conditions on structural evolution and electrochemical properties of sputtered LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 thin film electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shasha; Li, Zhengcao; Luo, Xinyi

    2017-10-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, followed by thermal annealing in ambient atmosphere. The growth of the films has been studied as a function of deposition temperature, atmosphere, and annealing temperature. Electrochemical properties of LNMO thin-film cathodes were investigated using galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry against a lithium anode. The initial capacity and capacity retention of the films are highly dependent on the crystallinity and morphology of the films. LNMO thin film grown at 400 °C in an Ar/O2 atmosphere and annealed at 550 °C exhibits good crystallinity and well-defined grain structure. Also it exhibits larger capacity and higher cyclic stability under a high cutoff voltage of 4.9 V.

  6. Biotransformation of anabolic compound methasterone with Macrophomina phaseolina, Cunninghamella blakesleeana, and Fusarium lini, and TNF-α inhibitory effect of transformed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; SammerYousuf; Atia-Tul-Wahab; Jabeen, Almas; Atta-Ur-Rahman; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2017-04-09

    Microbial transformation of methasterone (1) was investigated with Macrophomina phaseolina, Cunninghamella blakesleeana, and Fusarium lini. Biotransformation of 1 with M. phaseolina yielded metabolite 2, while metabolites 3-7 were obtained from the incubation of 1 with C. blakesleeana. Metabolites 8-13 were obtained through biotransformation with F. lini. All metabolites, except 13, were found to be new. Methasterone (1) and its metabolites 2-6, 9, 10, and 13 were then evaluated for their immunomodulatory effects against TNF-α, NO , and ROS production. Among all tested compounds, metabolite 6 showed a potent inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α (IC50 = 8.1 ± 0.9 µg/mL), as compared to pentoxifylline used as a standard (IC50 = 94.8± 2.1 µg/mL). All metabolites were also evaluated for the inhibition of NO production at concentration of 25 µg/mL. Metabolites 6 (86.7 ± 2.3%) and 13 (62.5 ± 1.5%) were found to be the most potent inhibitors of NO as compared to the standard N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (65.6 ± 1.1%). All metabolites were found to be non-toxic against PC3, HeLa, and 3T3 cell lines. Observed inhibitory potential of metabolites 6 and 13 against pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, as well as NO production makes them interesting leads for further studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Microwave-enhanced electrochemical cycling performance of the LiNi0.2Mn1.8O4 spinel cathode material at elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Kumar; Nkosi, Funeka P; Viswanathan, Elumalai; Mathe, Mkhulu K; Damodaran, Krishnan; Ozoemena, Kenneth I

    2016-05-14

    The well-established poor electrochemical cycling performance of the LiMn2O4 (LMO) spinel cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at elevated temperature stems from the instability of the Mn(3+) concentration. In this work, a microwave-assisted solid-state reaction has been used to dope LMO with a very low amount of nickel (i.e., LiNi0.2Mn1.8O4, herein abbreviated as LMNO) for lithium-ion batteries from Mn3O4 which is prepared from electrolytic manganese oxide (EMD, γ-MnO2). To establish the impact of microwave irradiation on the electrochemical cycling performance at an elevated temperature (60 °C), the Mn(3+) concentration in the pristine and microwave-treated LMNO samples was independently confirmed by XRD, XPS, (6)LiMAS-NMR and electrochemical studies including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The microwave-treated sample (LMNOmic) allowed for the clear exposure of the {111} facets of the spinel, optimized the Mn(3+) content, promoting structural and cycle stability at elevated temperature. At room temperature, both the pristine (LMNO) and microwave-treated (LMNOmic) samples gave comparable cycling performance (>96% capacity retention and ca. 100% coulombic efficiency after 100 consecutive cycling). However, at an elevated temperature (60 °C), the LMNOmic gave an improved cycling stability (>80% capacity retention and ca. 90% coulombic efficiency after 100 consecutive cycling) compared to the LMNO. For the first time, the impact of microwave irradiation on tuning the average manganese redox state of the spinel material to enhance the cycling performance of the LiNi0.2Mn1.8O4 at elevated temperature and lithium-ion diffusion kinetics has been clearly demonstrated.

  8. Obstacles toward unity efficiency of LiNi1-2xCoxMnxO2 (x = 0 ∼ 1/3) (NCM) cathode materials: Insights from ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoping; Longo, Roberto C.; Kong, Fantai; Zhang, Chenxi; Nie, Yifan; Zheng, Yongping; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Jeon, Sanghoon; Choi, SuAn; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we perform a comprehensive study of five phenomena of LiNi1-2xCoxMnxO2 (NCM) (x = 0-1/3) cathodes at the end of charge (phase reaction, crack propagation, Li-Ni exchange, phase transition, and oxygen evolution), using first-principle calculations within the DFT + U framework. Based on our results, we have located the obstacles toward unity efficiency and revealed that the degradation strongly depends on the Ni concentration and the depth of charge. The threshold capacities for degradation of LiyNi1-2xCoxMnxO2 are 130-140 mA·hg-1 (y design NCM cathode materials with high-energy density, also providing possible solution mechanisms to the degradation factors, such as doping, coating or novel nanostructures, like core-shell or concentration gradient cathodes.

  9. High Tap Density Spherical Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 Cathode Material Synthesized via Continuous Hydroxide Coprecipitation Method for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunyi Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherical [Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2](OH2 precursor with narrow size distribution and high tap density has been successfully synthesized by a continuous hydroxide coprecipitation, and Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 is then prepared by mixing the precursor with 6% excess Li2CO3 followed by calcinations. The tap density of the obtained Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 powder is as high as 2.61 g cm−3. The powders are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscope (SEM, particle size distribution (PSD, and charge/discharge cycling. The XRD studies show that the prepared Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 has a well-ordered layered structure without any impurity phases. Good packing properties of spherical secondary particles (about 12 μm consisted of a large number of tiny-thin plate-shape primary particles (less than 1 μm, which can be identified from the SEM observations. In the voltage range of 3.0–4.3 V and 2.5–4.6 V, Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 delivers the initial discharge capacity of approximately 175 and 214 mAh g−1 at a current density of 32 mA g−1, and the capacity retention after 50 cycles reaches 98.8% and 90.2%, respectively. Besides, it displays good high-temperature characteristics and excellent rate capability.

  10. A novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps intended for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xihua; Xie, Yongbing; Cao, Hongbin; Nawaz, Faheem; Zhang, Yi

    2014-09-01

    To solve the recycling challenge for aqueous binder based lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), a novel process for recycling and resynthesizing LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 from the cathode scraps generated during manufacturing process is proposed in this study. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is employed to separate the cathode material from the aluminum foil. The effects of TFA concentration, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, reaction temperature and time on the separation efficiencies of the cathode material and aluminum foil are investigated systematically. The cathode material can be separated completely under the optimal experimental condition of 15vol.% TFA solution, L/S ratio of 8.0 mL g(-1), reacting at 40°C for 180 min along with appropriate agitation. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is successfully resynthesized from the separated cathode material by solid state reaction method. Several kinds of characterizations are performed to verify the typical properties of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 powder. Electrochemical tests show that the initial charge and discharge capacities of the resynthesized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are 201 mAh g(-)(1) and 155.4 mAh g(-1) (2.8-4.5 V, 0.1C), respectively. The discharge capacity remains at 129 mAh g(-1) even after 30 cycles with a capacity retention ratio of 83.01%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fine-sized LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders prepared by combined process of gas-phase reaction and solid-state reaction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    The Ni-rich precursor powders with spherical shape and filled morphologies were prepared by spray pyrolysis from the spray solution with citric acid, ethylene glycol and a drying control chemical additive. The precursor powders with controlled morphologies formed the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders with spherical shape and fine size by solid-state reaction with lithium hydroxide. However, the cathode powders prepared from the spray solution without additives had irregular morphologies and were large in size. The precursor powders with hollow and porous morphologies formed cathode powders with irregular and aggregated morphologies. The composition ratios of the nickel, cobalt and manganese components were maintained in the as-prepared, precursor and cathode powders. The initial discharge capacity of the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders with spherical shape and fine size tested at a temperature of 55 °C under a constant current density of 0.5 C was 215 mAh g -1. The discharge capacity of the LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Mn 0.05O 2 cathode powders decreased to 81% of the initial value after 30 cycles.

  12. Stannum doping of layered LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8O 2 cathode materials with high rate capability for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangang; He, Xiangming; Zhao, Rusong; Wan, Chunrong; Jiang, Changyin; Xia, Dingguo; Zhang, Shichao

    Sn doped lithium nickel cobalt manganese composite oxide of LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8- xSn xO 2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) was synthesized by stannum substitute of manganese to enhance its rate capability at first time. Its structure and electrochemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) and charge/discharge tests. LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8- xSn xO 2 had stable layered structure with α-NaFeO 2 type as x up to 0.05, meanwhile, its chemical diffusion coefficient D Li of Li-ion was enhanced by almost one order of magnitude, leading to notable improvement of the rate capability of LiNi 3/8Co 2/8Mn 3/8O 2. The compound of x = 0.10 showed the best rate capability among Sn doped samples, but its discharge capacity reduced markedly due to secondary phase Li 2SnO 3 and increase of cation-disorder. The compound with x = 0.05 showed high rate capability with initial discharge capacity in excess of 156 mAh g -1. It is a promising alternative cathode material for EV application of Li-ion batteries.

  13. Post mortem analysis of fatigue mechanisms in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 - LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 - LiMn2O4/graphite lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael; Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Kleiner, Karin; Riekehr, Lars; Mereacre, Liuda; Ávila Pérez, Marta; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The fatigue of commercial lithium ion batteries after long-term cycling at two different temperatures and cycling rates is investigated. The cells are opened after cycling and post-mortem analysis are conducted. Two main contributions to the capacity loss of the batteries are revealed. The loss of active lithium leads to a relative shift between anodes and cathodes potentials. A growth of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the anode is determined as well as the formation of lithium fluoride species as an electrolyte decomposition product. Those effects are reinforced by increasing cycling rates from 1C/2C (charge/discharge) to 2C/3C as well as by increasing cycling temperatures from 25 °C to 40 °C. The other contribution to the capacity loss originates from a fatigue of the blended cathodes consisting of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM), LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiMn2O4 (LMO). Phase-specific capacity losses and fatigue mechanisms are identified. The layered oxides tend to form microcracks and reveal changes of the surface structure leading to a worsening of the lithium kinetics. The cathode exhibits a loss of manganese at 40 °C cycling temperature. Cycling at 40 °C instead of 25 °C has the major impact on cathodes capacity loss, while cycling at 2C/3C rates barely influences it.

  14. Tuning the Activity of Oxygen in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 Battery Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Khim; Huang, Yiqing; Hwang, Sooyeon; Gamalski, Andrew D; Whittingham, M Stanley; Zhou, Guangwen; Stach, Eric A

    2016-10-06

    Layered transition metal oxides such as LiNi0.8Co 0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) are highly desirable battery electrodes. However, these materials suffer from thermal runaway caused by deleterious oxygen loss and surface phase transitions when in highly overcharged and overheated conditions, prompting serious safety concerns. Using in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy techniques, we demonstrate that surface oxygen loss and structural changes in the highly overcharged NCA particles are suppressed by exposing them to an oxygen-rich environment. The onset temperature for the loss of oxygen from the electrode particle is delayed to 350 °C at oxygen gas overpressure of 400 mTorr. Similar heating of the particles in a reducing hydrogen gas demonstrated a quick onset of oxygen loss at 150 °C and rapid surface degradation of the particles. The results reported here illustrate the fundamental mechanism governing the failure processes of electrode particles and highlight possible strategies to circumvent such issues.

  15. Preparation and characterization of 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Bing; Tang, Zhi-Yuan; Song, Quan-Sheng; Xie, Hui; Yang, Quan-Hong; Liu, Yuan-Gang; Ling, Guo-Wei

    The commercial 18650 Li(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3)O 2/graphite high power batteries were prepared and their electrochemical performance at temperatures of 25 and 50 °C was extensively investigated. The results showed that the charge-transfer resistance (R ct) and solid electrolyte interface resistance (R sei) of the high power batteries at 25 °C decreased as states of charge (SOC) increased from 0 to 60%, whereas R ct and R sei increased as SOC increased from 60 to 100%. The discharge plateau voltage of batteries reduced greatly with the increase in discharge rate at both 25 and 50 °C. The high power batteries could be discharged at a very wide current range to deliver most of their capacity and also showed excellent power cycling performance with discharge rate of as high as 10 C at 25 °C. The elevated working temperature did not influence the battery discharge capacity and cycling performance at lower discharge rates (e.g. 0.5, 1, and 5 C), while it resulted in lower discharge capacity at higher discharge rates (e.g. 10 and 15 C) and bad cycling performance at discharge rate of 10 C. The batteries also exhibited excellent cycle performance at charge rate of as high as 8 C and discharge rate of 10 C.

  16. Crystallographic origin of cycle decay of the high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 spinel lithium-ion battery electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Wei Kong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liu, Chia-Erh; Peterson, Vanessa K; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-06-29

    High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively.

  17. Structural, dielectric and conductivity studies of LiNi0.75Mg0.25-xCuxPO4 synthesized by solid state reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamalige Anand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The olivine structured LiNi0.75Mg0.25-xCuxPO4 (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1 cathode materials were synthesized by solid state reaction method. The XRD, FTIR and FESEM studies were conducted to investigate the phase purity, crystal structure, lattice parameters and morphology, respectively. The powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the single phase formation of the pure and doped compounds which are found to be orthorhombic with the parent LiNiPO4. Morphology and grain sizes of the materials were investigated through FESEM. The FTIR technique was used to characterize the stretching and bending vibrational modes of different functional groups existing in the materials. The cathode properties were analysed through impedance spectroscopy and indicated on improved electrical properties of the doped samples as compared to the pure LiNiPO4. The conductivity and modulus analyses of the samples were carried out at different temperatures and frequencies using the complex impedance spectroscopy technique.

  18. Synthesis and Characteristics of LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 Cathode Materials by Particulate Sol-Gel Method for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xian-Jun; CHEN Hong-Hao; ZHAN Hui; LIU Han-Xing; YANG Dai-Ling; ZHOU Yun-Hong

    2005-01-01

    A particulate sol-gel (PSG) method has been successfully used to prepare LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 cathode materials,utilizing the reaction of LiOH·H2O with Ni(CH3COO)2·4H2O and Co(CH3COO)2·4H2O in water-ethanol system.The thermal history of the as-prepared xerogel was established by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of layered α-NaFeO2 structure at temperature of 700℃ under flowing oxygen. Scanning electron microscope exhibited that the crystalline powder prepared by PSG method had relatively smaller particle size with narrow distribution than the one prepared by solid state reaction.The first discharge capacity of the material by PSG method was 196.4 mAh/g, and the 10th discharge capacity was 189.1 mAh/g at the current density of 18 mA/g between 3.0 and 4.3 V. Its cycling reversibility was observed to be much better than that by solid state reaction, which had 187.3 mAh/g of the first discharge capacity and 167.1mAh/g of the 10th discharge capacity.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical studies of LiNi0.8M0.2O2 cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Sathiyamoorthi; P Manisankar; P Shakkthivel; Mu Sang Lee; T Vasudevan

    2008-06-01

    LiNiO2 and substituted nickel oxides, LiNi0.8M0.2O2 and LiCo0.8M0.2O2 (M = Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+), have been synthesized using simple solid state technique and used as cathode active materials for lithium rechargeable cells. Physical properties of the synthesized products are discussed in the structural (XRD, TEM, SEM with EDAX) and spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. XRD results show that the compounds are similar to LiNiO2 in structure. TEM and SEM analyses were used to examine the particle size, nature and morphological aspects of the synthesized oxides. The composition of the materials was explored by EDAX analysis. Electrochemical studies were carried out in the range 3–4.5 V (vs Li metal) using 1 M LiBF4 in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. The doping involving 20% Mg resulted in a discharge capacity of 185 mAhg-1 at 0.1 mA/cm2 and remained stable even after 25 cycles. Discharge capacity retention for Mg doped lithium nickelate at 25th cycle was noted to be nearly 7% higher than for the undoped material.

  20. Effect of Transition Metal Ordering on the Electronic Properties of LiNi1 - y - xCoyMnxO2 Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Roberto; Kong, Fantai; Kc, Santosh; Yeon, Dong-Hee; Yoon, Jaegu; Park, Jin-Hwan; Doo, Seok-Kwang; Cho, Kyeongjae; MSL Team; SAIT Team

    2015-03-01

    Current Li-ion batteries use layered oxides as cathode materials, specially LiCoO2 or LiNi1 - y - xCoyMnxO2(NCM), and graphite as anode. Co layered oxides suffer from the high cost and toxicity of cobalt, together with certain instability at high operational temperatures. To overcome these difficulties, the synthesis of novel materials composed of layered oxides with different sets of Transition Metals (TM) has become the most successful way to solve the particular drawbacks of every single-oxide family. Although layered materials can deliver larger capacity than other families of cathode materials, the energy density has yet to be increased in order to match the expectations deposited on the NCM oxides. To acquire a high capacity, they need to be cycled at high operational voltages, resulting in voltage and capacity fading over a large number of cycles. In this work, we examine the phase diagram of the Li-Ni-Co-Mn-O system and the effect of TM ordering on the electronic properties of NCM cathode materials, using density-functional theory. Our findings will provide conceptual guidance in the experimental search for the mechanisms driving the voltage and capacity fading of the NCM family of cathode materials, in an attempt to solve such structural instability problems and, thus, improving the performance of the NCM cathode materials. This work was supported by Samsung GRO project.

  1. Lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate and LiBF4 blend salts electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongming; Xiao, Kaiwen; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiODFB) and LiBF4 blend salts in ethylene carbonate + dimethyl carbonate + ethyl(methyl) carbonate (EC + DMC + EMC, 1:1:1, by wt.) have been investigated for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in lithium-ion batteries. The electric conductivity tests are utilized to examine the relationship among solution conductivity, the electrolyte composition and temperature. Through cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge test and AC impedance measurements, we compare the capacity and cycling efficiency of LNMO cathode in different electrolyte systems at different temperatures and discharge current rates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are served to analyze the surface nature of LNMO cathode after cycles at elevated temperature. These results demonstrate that LNMO cathode can exert excellent electrochemical performance with the increase of LiODFB concentration at room temperature and elevated temperature and it is found that just slight LiBF4, mixed with LiODFB as blend salts, can strikingly improve the cyclability at -20 °C, especially in high-rate cycling. Grouped together, the optimum LiODFB/LiBF4 molar ratio is around 4:1, which can present an excellent affinity to LNMO cathode in a wide electrochemical window.

  2. Reaction heterogeneity in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 induced by surface layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, Antonin; Liu, Hao; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Lebens-Higgins, Zachary W.; Borkiewicz, Olaf J.; Piper, Louis F. J.; Chupas, Peter J.; Chapman, Karena W.

    2017-08-14

    Through operando synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of layered transition metal oxide electrodes of composition LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA), we decouple the intrinsic bulk reaction mechanism from surface-induced effects. For identically prepared and cycled electrodes stored in different environments, we demonstrate that the intrinsic bulk reaction for pristine NCA follows solid-solution mechanism, not a two-phase as suggested previously. By combining high resolution powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we demonstrate that adventitious Li2CO3 forms on the electrode particle surface during exposure to air, through reaction with atmospheric CO2. This surface impedes ionic and electronic transport to the underlying electrode, with progressive erosion of this layer during cycling giving rise to different reaction states in particles with an intact vs an eroded Li2CO3 surface-coating. This reaction heterogeneity, with a bimodal distribution of reaction states, has previously been interpreted as a “two-phase” reaction mechanism for NCA, as an activation step that only occurs during the first cycle. Similar surface layers may impact the reaction mechanism observed in other electrode materials using bulk probes such as operando powder XRD.

  3. Improvement of the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2 cathode material by chromium doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    LiNi0.33Mn0.33-xCo0.33CrxO2 (x=0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05) materials were synthesized by Cr3+ substitute of Mn4+ to enhance their electrochemical properties. The structure and electrochemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and charge/dis charge tests. The materials maintained the α-NaFeO2 type layered structure and the discharge capacities were also increase by doping appropriate amount of Cr3+. The sample with x= 0.025 exhibited the highest discharge capability of 181.6 mAh g?1 and the best cycle performance. EIS measurement showed that the Cr-doped electrode had the lower resistance impedance increase during cycling. The chemical diffusion coefficient of Li+ ion (DLi) was measured by potentiostatic intermittent titration technique (PITT). The result showed that DLi in Cr-doped electrode was faster than that of the un-doped one.

  4. Structural, spectral, dielectric and magnetic properties of Tb-Dy doped Li-Ni nano-ferrites synthesized via micro-emulsion route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Iqbal, F.; Murtaza, Ghulam; Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Shakir, Imran; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq

    2016-12-01

    Terbium (Tb) and dysprosium (Dy) doped lithium-nickel nano-sized ferrites (Li0.2Ni0.8Tb0.5xDy0.5xFe2-xO4 where x=0.00-0.08) were prepared by micro-emulsion technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the single phase cubic spinel structure. The lattice constant was increased due to larger ionic radii of Tb3+ and Dy3+ cations. The crystallite size was found in the range 30-42 nm. The FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) spectra revealed two significant absorption bands (~400-600 cm-1) which indicate the formation of cubic spinel structure. The peaking behavior of dielectric parameters was observed beyond 1.5 GHz. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were found to decrease by the increase of Tb-Dy contents and frequency. The doping of Tb and Dy in Li-Ni ferrites led to increase the coercive field (120-156 Oe). The smaller magnetic and dielectric parameters suggested the possible utility of these nano-materials in switching and microwave devices applications.

  5. Impact of morphological changes of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 on lithium-ion cathode performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Etienne, Cabelguen; David, Peralta; Mikael, Cugnet; Pascal, Maillet

    2017-04-01

    Major advances in Li-ion battery technology rely on the nanostructuration of active materials to overcome the severe kinetics limitations of new - cheaper and safer - chemistries. However, opening porosities results in the decrease of volumetric performances, closing the door to significant applications such as portable electronics, electromobility, and grid storage. In this study, we analyze the link between morphologies and performances of model LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 materials. By quantifying exhaustively their microstructures using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and helium pycnometry, we can discuss how porosities and surface areas are linked to the electrochemical behavior. There is no geometrical parameters that can predict the performances of all our materials. The shape of agglomeration dictates the electrochemical behavior. A huge drop in volumetric performances is measured when microstructure is considered. We show that gravimetric and volumetric power performances are contrary to each other. Highly dense materials exhibit, by far, the best power performances in terms of volumetric figures, so that opening porosities might not be the best strategy, even in non-nanosized materials, for Li-ion battery technology.

  6. Morphological Evolution of High-Voltage Spinel LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries: The Critical Effects of Surface Orientations and Particle Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haidong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaofei; Zhou, Dong; Qi, Xin; Qiu, Bao; Fang, Jianhui; Kloepsch, Richard; Schumacher, Gerhard; Liu, Zhaoping; Li, Jie

    2016-02-01

    An evolution panorama of morphology and surface orientation of high-voltage spinel LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 cathode materials synthesized by the combination of the microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique and a postcalcination process is presented. Nanoparticles, octahedral and truncated octahedral particles with different preferential growth of surface orientations are obtained. The structures of different materials are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of various morphologies (including surface orientations and particle size) on kinetic parameters, such as electronic conductivity and Li(+) diffusion coefficients, are investigated as well. Moreover, electrochemical measurements indicate that the morphological differences result in divergent rate capabilities and cycling performances. They reveal that appropriate surface-tailoring can satisfy simultaneously the compatibility of power capability and long cycle life. The morphology design for optimizing Li(+) transport and interfacial stability is very important for high-voltage spinel material. Overall, the crystal chemistry, kinetics and electrochemical performance of the present study on various morphologies of LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 spinel materials have implications for understanding the complex impacts of electrode interface and electrolyte and rational design of rechargeable electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. The outstanding performance of our truncated octahedral LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 materials makes them promising as cathode materials to develop long-life, high energy and high power lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Electrochemical performance of a nickel-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries under different cut-off voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-lin; Mu, Dao-bin; Wu, Bo-rong; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Rui

    2017-03-01

    A spherical-like Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 precursor was tuned homogeneously to synthesize LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The effects of calcination temperature on the crystal structure, morphology, and the electrochemical performance of the as-prepared LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 were investigated in detail. The as-prepared material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, laser particle size analysis, charge-discharge tests, and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The results show that the spherical-like LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 material obtained by calcination at 900°C displayed the most significant layered structure among samples calcined at various temperatures, with a particle size of approximately 10 μm. It delivered an initial discharge capacity of 189.2 mAh•g-1 at 0.2C with a capacity retention of 94.0% after 100 cycles between 2.7 and 4.3 V. The as-prepared cathode material also exhibited good rate performance, with a discharge capacity of 119.6 mAh•g-1 at 5C. Furthermore, within the cut-off voltage ranges from 2.7 to 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5 V, the initial discharge capacities of the calcined samples were 170.7, 180.9, and 192.8 mAh•g-1, respectively, at a rate of 1C. The corresponding retentions were 86.8%, 80.3%, and 74.4% after 200 cycles, respectively.

  8. Synthesis and performance of Li[(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)(1-x)Mgx]O2 prepared from spent lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yaqing; Xu, Shengming; Huang, Guoyong; Jiang, Changyin

    2013-02-15

    To reduce cost and secondary pollution of spent lithium ion battery (LIB) recycling caused by complicated separation and purification, a novel simplified recycling process is investigated in this paper. Removal of magnesium is a common issue in hydrometallurgy process. Considering magnesium as an important additive in LIB modification, tolerant level of magnesium in leachate is explored as well. Based on the novel recycling technology, Li[(Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3))(1-x)Mg(x)]O(2) (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05) cathode materials are achieved from spent LIB. Tests of XRD, SEM, TG-DTA and so on are carried out to evaluate material properties. Electrochemical test shows an initial charge and discharge capacity of the regenerated LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O(2) to be 175.4 mAh g(-1) and 152.7 mAh g(-1) (2.7-4.3 V, 0.2C), respectively. The capacity remains 94% of the original value after 50 cycles (2.7-4.3 V, 1C). Results indicate that presence of magnesium up to x=0.01 has no significant impact on overall performance of Li[(Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3))(1-x)Mg(x)]O(2). As a result, magnesium level as high as 360 mg L(-1) in leachate remains tolerable. Compared with conventional limitation of magnesium content, the elimination level of magnesium exceeded general impurity-removal requirement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel imidazole-based electrolyte additive for improved electrochemical performance at elevated temperature of high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Haibo; Xu, Mengqing; Xie, Boyuan; Lin, Haibin; Zhu, Yunmin; Zheng, Xiongwen; Huang, Weizhao; Liao, Youhao; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2016-10-01

    A novel electrolyte additive, 1,1‧-sulfonyldiimidazole (SDM), is firstly reported to improve the cycling performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at high voltage and elevated temperature (55 °C). Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), initial differential capacity vs. voltage, and computation results indicate that SDM is oxidized at a lower potential than the solvents of the electrolyte. Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention of a Li/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cell can be significantly enhanced in the presence of SDM, and moreover cells with SDM deliver lower impedance after 100 cycles at elevated temperature. To better understand the functional mechanism of the enhanced performance with incorporation of SDM in the electrolyte, ex-situ analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are employed to gain insight into the reaction mechanism of SDM on the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode at high voltage and elevated temperature (55 °C). Surface analysis reveals that the improved electrochemical performance of the cells can be ascribed to the highly stable surface layer generated by SDM, which thus mitigates the detrimental decomposition of the electrolyte occurring and stabilizes the interphase of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode while cycling at high voltage and elevated temperature.

  10. Leaching process for recovering valuable metals from the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode of lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Po; Sun, Shu-Ying; Song, Xing-Fu; Yu, Jian-Guo

    2017-06-01

    In view of the importance of environmental protection and resource recovery, recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and electrode scraps generated during manufacturing processes is quite necessary. An environmentally sound leaching process for the recovery of Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from spent LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-based LIBs and cathode scraps was investigated in this study. Eh-pH diagrams were used to determine suitable leaching conditions. Operating variables affecting the leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn from LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, such as the H2SO4 concentration, temperature, H2O2 concentration, stirring speed, and pulp density, were investigated to determine the most efficient conditions for leaching. The leaching efficiencies for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn reached 99.7% under the optimized conditions of 1M H2SO4, 1vol% H2O2, 400rpm stirring speed, 40g/L pulp density, and 60min leaching time at 40°C. The leaching kinetics of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 were found to be significantly faster than those of LiCoO2. Based on the variation in the weight fraction of the metal in the residue, the "cubic rate law" was revised as follows: θ(1-f)(1/3)=(1-kt/r0ρ), which could characterize the leaching kinetics optimally. The activation energies were determined to be 64.98, 65.16, 66.12, and 66.04kJ/mol for Li, Ni, Co, and Mn, respectively, indicating that the leaching process was controlled by the rate of surface chemical reactions. Finally, a simple process was proposed for the recovery of valuable metals from spent LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-based LIBs and cathode scraps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PENGUKURAN NILAI OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS SEBAGAI DASAR USAHA PERBAIKAN PROSES MANUFAKTUR PADA LINI PRODUKSI (Studi Kasus pada Stamping Production Division Sebuah Industri Otomotif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Suhendra

    2005-01-01

    satu lini produksi dalam satu periode dan melalui analisis pareto terhadap hasil pengukuran tersebut diperoleh akar permasalahan dan faktor penyebabnya yang secara jelas ditampilkan pada sebuah diagram sebab-akibat. Kata kunci: pengukuran kinerja peralatan, regresi berganda dan analisa korelasi, industri otomotif, peralatan pabrik.

  12. Effect of Surface Modification on Nano-Structured LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 Spinel Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung-Man; Chen, Michael Vincent; MacRae, Alex C; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2015-08-05

    Fine-tuning of particle size and morphology has been shown to result in differential material performance in the area of secondary lithium-ion batteries. For instance, reduction of particle size to the nanoregime typically leads to better transport of electrochemically active species by increasing the amount of reaction sites as a result of higher electrode surface area. The spinel-phase oxide LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO), was prepared using a sol-gel based template synthesis to yield nanowire morphology without any additional binders or electronic conducting agents. Therefore, proper experimentation of the nanosize effect can be achieved in this study. The spinel phase LMNO is a high energy electrode material currently being explored for use in lithium-ion batteries, with a specific capacity of 146 mAh/g and high-voltage plateau at ∼4.7 V (vs Li/Li(+)). However, research has shown that extensive electrolyte decomposition and the formation of a surface passivation layer results when LMNO is implemented as a cathode in electrochemical cells. As a result of the high surface area associated with nanosized particles, manganese ion dissolution results in capacity fading over prolonged cycling. In order to prevent these detrimental effects without compromising electrochemical performance, various coating methods have been explored. In this work, TiO2 and Al2O3 thin films were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on the surface of LNMO particles. This resulted in effective surface protection by prevention of electrolyte side reactions and a sharp reduction in resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface region.

  13. Design optimization of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2/graphite lithium-ion cells based on simulation and experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Williams Agyei; Park, Joonam; Song, Seonghyun; Byun, Seoungwoo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Yong Min

    2016-07-01

    LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathodes of different thicknesses and porosities are prepared and tested, in order to optimize the design of lithium-ion cells. A mathematical model for simulating multiple types of particles with different contact resistances in a single electrode is adopted to study the effects of the different cathode thicknesses and porosities on lithium-ion transport using the nonlinear least squares technique. The model is used to optimize the design of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2/graphite lithium-ion cells by employing it to generate a number of Ragone plots. The cells are optimized for cathode porosity and thickness, while the anode porosity, anode-to-cathode capacity ratio, thickness and porosity of separator, and electrolyte salt concentration are held constant. Optimization is performed for discharge times ranging from 10 h to 5 min. Using the Levenberg-Marquardt method as a fitting technique, accounting for multiple particles with different contact resistances, and employing a rate-dependent solid-phase diffusion coefficient results in there being good agreement between the simulated and experimentally determined discharge curves. The optimized parameters obtained from this study should serve as a guide for the battery industry as well as for researchers for determining the optimal cell design for different applications.

  14. The Impact of Aluminum and Iron Substitution on the Structure and Electrochemistry of Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIlcox, James D.; Rodriguez, Efrain E.; Doeff, Marca M.

    2009-07-23

    Li[Ni0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4]O2 (0<_y<_0.2) (M=Al) and Li[Ni0.4Co0.15Fe0.05Mn0.4]O2 compounds were prepared in order to investigate the effect of replacement of all or part of the cobalt on the structural and electrochemical properties. The impact of substitution on the structure has been examined by both x-ray and neutron diffraction experiments. The incorporation of aluminum has minimal effect on the anti-site defect concentration, but leads to structural changes that affect electrochemical performance. The most important effect is an opening of the lithium slab dimension upon substitution, which results in improved rate performance compared to the parent compound. In contrast, the lithium slab dimension is not affected by iron substitution and no rate enhancement effect is observed. The cycling stability of aluminum containing materials is superior to both the parent material and iron-substituted materials.

  15. Exceptional performance of a high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode in all one dimensional architectures with an anatase TiO2 anode by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Nagasubramanian; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Shubha, Nageswaran; Ling, Wong Chui; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2014-07-01

    We report for the first time the synthesis and extraordinary performance of a high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 fiber cathode in all one dimensional (1D) architecture. Structural and morphological features are analyzed by various characterization techniques. Li-insertion/extraction properties are evaluated in a half-cell assembly (Li/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) and subsequently in full-cell configuration with an anatase TiO2 fiber anode. In both half- and full-cell assemblies, gelled polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP) is used as the separator-cum-electrolyte. All the one dimensional components used for fabricating Li-ion cells are prepared by a simple and scalable electrospinning technique. The full-cell, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/gelled PVdF-HFP/TiO2 delivered the reversible capacity of ~102 mA h g-1 at 0.1 C rate with an operating potential of ~2.8 V. Excellent rate capability and stable cycling profiles are noted for such a full-cell assembly with a capacity retention of ~86% after 400 cycles.

  16. Quantitative Characterization of the Surface Evolution for LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2/Graphite Cell during Long-Term Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiyuan; Qu, Qunting; Zhu, Guobin; Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2017-03-29

    Many factors have been brought forward to explain the capacity degradation mechanisms of LiNixCoyMnzO2 (NCM)/graphite cells at extreme conditions such as under high temperature or with high cutoff voltage. However, the main factors dominating the long-term cycling performance under normal operations remain elusive. Quantitative analyses of the electrode surface evolution for a commercial 18650 LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523)/graphite cell during ca. 3000 cycles under normal operation are presented. Electrochemical analyses and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) confirm lithium inventory loss makes up for ca. 60% of the cell's capacity loss. Electrochemical deterioration of the NCM523 cathode is identified to be another important factor, which accounts for more than 30% of the capacity decay. Irregular primary particle cracking due to the mechanical stress and the phase change aroused from Li-Ni mixing during repetitive cycles are identified to be the main contributors for the NCM cathode deterioration. The amount of transition metal dissolved into electrolyte is determined to be quite low, and the resulting impedance rise after about 3000 cycles is obtained to be twice that of the reference cell, which are not very significant affecting the long-term cycling performance under normal operations.

  17. Structural and dielectric studies of LiNiPO4 and LiNi0.5Co0.5PO4 cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijaya Babu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Olivine-type LiNiPO4 has been considered as a most competitive positive electrode active material for lithium-ion batteries. In the present paper, the LiNiPO4 and Co-doped LiNi0.5Co0.5PO4 are synthesized by solid-state reaction method under air atmosphere. All the X-ray diffraction peaks of both the compounds are indexed and it is found that the samples are well crystallized in orthorhombic olivine structure belonging to the space group Pnma. The crystallite size is calculated from the Scherrer formula and it is found to be 6.918 and 4.818 nm for pure and doped samples, respectively. The surface morphology and grain sizes of the materials are investigated through scanning electron microscope. Presence of preferred local cation environment is understood from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies. The conductivity and dielectric analysis of the samples are carried out at different temperatures and frequencies using the complex impedance spectroscopy technique. The electrical conductivity of LiNi0.5Co0.5PO4 is higher than that of pure LiNiPO4.

  18. Structural, electrical and electrochemical studies of LiNi$_{0.4}M_{0.1}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ ($M$ = Co, Mg) solid solutions for lithium ion battery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P NAYAKA; K V PAI; J MANJANNA; K C ANJANEYA; P PERIASAMY; V S TRIPATHI

    2016-09-01

    The LiNi$_{0.4}M_{0.1}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ ($M$ = Co, Mg) solid solutions are synthesized by citric acid assisted sol–gel method and characterized by using TG/DTA, XRD, FTIR, EPR and SEM. The electrochemical characterization is carried out using CR-2032 coin type cell configuration. The cyclic voltammogram shows two pairs of redox current peaks, 4.35/3.80 V and 4.90/4.37 V vs. Li in a typical case of Co-doped sample, ascribed to two-step reversible intercalation of Li. A.c.-impedance (Nyquist plot) shows high frequency semicircle and a sloping line in the low frequency region. The semicircle is ascribed to Li-ion migration through interface from the surface layer of the particlesto electrolyte. The LiNi$_{0.4}Co_{0.1}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ shows reasonably good capacity retention in 20 cycles of galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling.

  19. Structure and Electrochemistry of LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Ti, Al, Fe) Positive Electrode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, James; Patoux, Sebastien; Doeff, Marca

    2009-01-14

    A series of materials based on the LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M = Ti,Al,Fe) system has been synthesized and examined structurally and electrochemically. It is found that the changes in electrochemical performance depend highly on the nature of the substituting atom and its effect on the crystal structure. Substitution with small amounts of Ti4+ (y = 1/12) leads to the formation of a high-capacity and high-rate positive electrode material. Iron substituted materials suffer from an increased antisite defect concentration and exhibit lower capacities and poor rate capabilities. Single-phase materials are found for LiNi1/3Co1/3-yAlyMn1/3O2 when y<_ 1/4 and all exhibit decreased capacities when cycled to 4.3 V. However, an increase in rate performance and cycle stability upon aluminum substitution is correlated with an improved lamellar structure.

  20. Tailoring the surface properties of LiNi(0.4)Mn(0.4)Co(0.2)O2 by titanium substitution for improved high voltage cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff-Goodrich, Silas; Lin, Feng; Markus, Isaac M; Nordlund, Dennis; Xin, Huolin L; Asta, Mark; Doeff, Marca M

    2015-09-14

    The present study aims to provide insights into the behavior of LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.18Ti0.02O2 (NMC442-Ti02) cathode materials under galvanostatic cycling to high potentials, in the context of previous work which predicted that Ti-substituted variants should deliver higher capacities and exhibit better cycling stability than the unsubstituted compounds. It is found that NMC cathodes containing Ti show equivalent capacity fading but greater specific capacity than those without Ti in the same potential range. When repeatedly charged to the same degree of delithiation, NMC cathodes containing Ti showed better capacity retention. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra for Mn and Co indicated increased reduction in these elements for NMC cathodes without Ti, indicating that the substitution of Ti for Co acts to suppress the formation of a high impedance rock salt phase at the surface of NMC cathode particles. The results of this study validate the adoption of a facile change to existing NMC chemistries to improve cathode capacity retention under high voltage cycling conditions.

  1. Structure and electrochemical properties of Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)1-xTixO2 prepared by one-step solid state reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Si-hai; WANG Zhi-xing; LI Xin-hai; GUO Hua-jun; PENG Wen-jie; YIN Zhou-lan

    2006-01-01

    The layered compound Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)1-xTixO2 powders were prepared with Ni(OH)2, MnCO3, Li2CO3 and TiO2 by one-step solid state reaction. The effect of doping Ti on the structure and electrochemical properties was studied. The XRD results indicate that the powders with 0≤x≤0.05 have good layered structure and trace of impurity appears in the samples with x≥0.1. The SEM photographs show that the particle size distributes homogeneously and the sample with x=0.15 has larger particle size than other samples. The charge-discharge tests show that Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)0.95Ti0.05O2 synthesized at 800 ℃ for 36 h exhibits good electrochemical properties. It firstly delivers 173 mA.h/g and maintains 90% of the initial discharge capacity after 30 cycles. The cyclic voltammetry and differential capacity vs voltage curves show that the major oxidation and reduction peaks are around 3.95 V and 3.75 V, respectively, assigned to Ni2+/Ni4+ oxidation-reduction process. A weak peak around 4.5 V is found during the oxidation process in the first cycle, which can be regarded as the main reason of the large drop of discharge capacity in the initial cycle.

  2. Electrochemical Performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 by Sol-gel Self-combustion Reaction Method in Different Kinds of Electrolyte for High-voltage Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinghua; Shi, Lin; Liu, Yusi; Zeng, Shuaibo; Ye, Chaochao

    2015-07-01

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material was synthesized through sol-gel self-combustion reaction method. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders were subsequently characterized as cathode materials in a Li-ion coin cell comprising a Li anode with electrolyte A or electrolyte B. 1.0 mol/L Lithium Hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in volume ration of ethylene carbonate (EC) to ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) to diethyl carbonate (DEC) corresponded to 4:3:3as electrolyte A, 1.0 mol/L LiPF6 dissolved in volume ration of EC to EMC to DEC corresponded to 4:2:4 as electrolyte B. Electrochemical performance of lithium cells was evaluated. These tests showed that no matter the cells with electrolyte A or electrolyte B has good discharge platform in 4.7V range (3.5V-4.75V) at the rate of 0.1C, the initial discharge capacity of cell with electrolyte B was higher than that with electrolyte A.

  3. Poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) terpolymer based gel electrolyte for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Liao, Youhao; Xie, Huili; Chen, Tingting; Rao, Mumin; Li, Weishan

    2014-12-01

    A novel gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), based on poly(methyl methacrylate-acrylonitrile-ethyl acrylate) (P(MMA-AN-EA)) terpolymer, is designed to match LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of 5 V lithium ion battery. The performances of the synthesized P(MMA-AN-EA) terpolymer and the corresponding membrane and GPE are investigated by scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analyzer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, and charge/discharge test. It is found that the pore structure of P(MMA-AN-EA) membrane is affected by the dose of pore forming agent, polyethylene glycol (PEG400). The membrane with 3 wt% PEG400 presents the best pore structure, in which pores are dispersed uniformly and interconnected, and exhibits the largest electrolyte uptake, resulting in the highest ionic conductivity of 3.82 × 10-3 S cm-1 for the corresponding GPE at room temperature. The GPE has improved compatibility with lithium anode and is electrochemically stable up to 5.2 V (vs. Li/Li+). The high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode using the resulting GPE exhibits excellent cyclic stability, maintaining 97.9% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles compared to that of 79.7% for the liquid electrolyte at 0.5 C.

  4. Li(Ni0.4Co0.2Mn0.4)O2包覆Al2O3对隔膜形貌及结构的影响%Effect of Al2O3 coated Li(Ni0.4Co0.2Mn0.4)O2 on morphology and structure of separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浩涵; 张建; 娄豫皖; 夏保佳

    2012-01-01

    以Al2O3包覆前后的Li(Ni0.4Co0.2Mn0.4)O2为正极活性物质,中间相炭微球(MCMB)为负极活性物质,与聚丙烯(PP)-聚乙烯(PE)-PP三层隔膜组装成18650型锂离子电池,在循环不同次数后,用SEM观察隔膜形貌,XRD分析其精细结构.在电池的循环过程中,隔膜出现微孔闭合及微观结构改变;包覆抑制了隔膜中微孔的闭合,同时提高了结构稳定性.%18650 type Li-ion battery was assembled with PP-PE-PP three-layer separator using Li(Ni0.4Co0.2Mno0.4)O2 before and after AI2O3 coating as cathode active material, MCMB as anode active material. The morphology of the separator was observed by SEM and the fine structure was tested by XRD after different cycle number. The partial holes of separators were closed during cycle process and the fine structure was changed.The coating suppressed the closing of holes of separators,at the same time,improved the structure stability.

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of core-shell structured Li[(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3) 0.8(Ni 1/2Mn 1/2) 0.2]O 2 cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Soo; Myung, Seung-Taek; Sun, Yang-Kook

    Micro-scale core-shell structured Li[(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3) 0.8(Ni 1/2Mn 1/2) 0.2]O 2 powders for use as cathode material are synthesized by a co-precipitation method. To protect the core material Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 from structural instability at high voltage, a Li[Ni 1/2Mn 1/2]O 2 shell, which provides structural and thermal stability, is used to encapsulate the core. A mixture of the prepared core-shell precursor and lithium hydroxide is calcined at 770 °C for 12 h in air. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the prepared material has a typical layered structure with an R 3 bar m space group. Spherical morphologies with mono-dispersed powders are observed in the cross-sectional images obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The core-shell Li[(Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3) 0.8(Ni 1/2Mn 1/2) 0.2]O 2 electrode has an excellent capacity retention at 30 °C, maintaining 99% of its initial discharge capacity after 100 cycles in the voltage range of 3-4.5 V. Furthermore, the thermal stability of the core-shell material in the highly delithiated state is improved compared to that of the core material. The resulting exothermic onset temperature appear at approximately 272 °C, which is higher than that of the highly delithiated Li[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3]O 2 (261 °C).

  6. High Voltage LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2/Graphite Cell Cycled at 4.6 V with A FEC/HFDEC-Based Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Feng, Zhenxing; Zeng, Li; Wu, Tianpin; Bedzyk, Michael J.; Fenter, Paul; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2017-08-09

    A high voltage LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2/graphite cell with a fluorinated electrolyte formulation 1.0 m LiPF6 fluoroethylene carbonate/bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) carbonate is reported and its electrochemical performance is evaluated at cell voltage of 4.6 V. Comparing with its nonfluorinated electrolyte counterpart, the reported fluorinated one shows much improved Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention when a higher cut-off voltage (4.6 V) is applied. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data clearly demonstrate the superior oxidative stability of the new electrolyte. The structural stability of the bulk cathode materials cycled with different electrolytes is extensively studied by X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction.

  7. Influence of electrode preparation on the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 composite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Yen; Greco, Giorgia; Täubert, Corina; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Haselrieder, Wolfgang; Kwade, Arno

    2012-07-01

    The electrode manufacturing for lithium-ion batteries is based on a complex process chain with several influencing factors. A proper tailoring of the electrodes can greatly improve both the electrochemical performances and the energy density of the battery. In the present work, some significant parameters during the preparation of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2-based cathodes were investigated. The active material was mixed with a PVDF-binder and two conductive additives in different ratios. The electrode thickness, the degree of compacting and the conductive agent type and mixing ratio have proven to have a strong impact on the electrochemical performances of the composite electrodes, especially on their behaviour at high C-rates. Further it has been shown that the compacting has an essential influence on the mechanical properties of NCA coatings, according to their total, ductile and elastic deformation behaviour.

  8. Research Progress in Improving the Cycling Stability of High-Voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode in Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, XiaoLong; Deng, SiXu; Wang, Hao; Liu, JingBing; Yan, Hui

    2017-04-01

    High-voltage lithium-ion batteries (HVLIBs) are considered as promising devices of energy storage for electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, and other high-power equipment. HVLIBs require their own platform voltages to be higher than 4.5 V on charge. Lithium nickel manganese spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode is the most promising candidate among the 5 V cathode materials for HVLIBs due to its flat plateau at 4.7 V. However, the degradation of cyclic performance is very serious when LNMO cathode operates over 4.2 V. In this review, we summarize some methods for enhancing the cycling stability of LNMO cathodes in lithium-ion batteries, including doping, cathode surface coating, electrolyte modifying, and other methods. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different methods.

  9. Imaging the surface morphology, chemistry and conductivity of LiNi1/3Fe1/3Mn4/3O4 crystalline facets using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Cutler, Jeffrey; Hu, Enyuan; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2016-08-17

    Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) using the X-ray fluorescence mode has been employed to elucidate the chemical structures at Ni, Fe, Mn and O sites from the (111) and (100) facets of micron-sized LiNi1/3Fe1/3Mn4/3O4 energy material particles. Furthermore, STXM imaging using electron yield mode has mapped out the surface conductivity of the crystalline particles. This study presents a novel approach that visualizes local element segregation, chemistry and conductivity variation among different crystal facets, which will assist further tailoring of the morphology and surface structure of this high voltage spinel lithium ion battery cathode material.

  10. Storage Characteristics of LiNi_(0.8)Co_(0.1+X)Mn_(0.1-X)O_2 (X=0,0.03,0.06) Cathode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junho; Eom; Min; Gyu; Kim; Jaephil; Cho

    2007-01-01

    1 Results LiNi0.8Co0.1+xMn0.1-xO2 cathodes with x=0,0.03 and 0.06 were prepared by firing a mixture of stoichiometric amounts of LiOH·H2O and coprecipitated Ni0.8Co0.1+xMn0.1-x(OH)2 at 800 ℃ for 15 h.Using these powders,their storage characteristics upon exposure to air and electrolytes at 90 ℃ were compared before charging and after charging to 4.3 V with a variation of the storage time.As the Co content (x) increased in the cathode,both the Ni2+ content in the lithium 3a sites,and the contents of the ...

  11. Intrinsic Origins of Crack Generation in Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 Layered Oxide Cathode Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin-Myoung; Hwang, Taesoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Min-Sik; Cho, Kyeongjae; Cho, Maenghyo

    2017-01-01

    Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 layered oxide cathodes have been highlighted for large-scale energy applications due to their high energy density. Although its specific capacity is enhanced at higher voltages as Ni ratio increases, its structural degradation due to phase transformations and lattice distortions during cycling becomes severe. For these reasons, we focused on the origins of crack generation from phase transformations and structural distortions in Ni-rich LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 using multiscale approaches, from first-principles to meso-scale phase-field model. Atomic-scale structure analysis demonstrated that opposite changes in the lattice parameters are observed until the inverse Li content x = 0.75 then, structure collapses due to complete extraction of Li from between transition metal layers. Combined-phase investigations represent the highest phase barrier and steepest chemical potential after x = 0.75, leading to phase transformations to highly Li-deficient phases with an inactive character. Abrupt phase transformations with heterogeneous structural collapse after x = 0.81 (~220 mAh g‑1) were identified in the nanodomain. Further, meso-scale strain distributions show around 5% of anisotropic contraction with lower critical energy release rates, which cause not only micro-crack generations of secondary particles on the interfaces between the contracted primary particles, but also mechanical instability of primary particles from heterogeneous strain changes.

  12. Production of 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA from dehydroepiandrosterone by Colletotrichum lini ST-1 through integrating glucose-feeding with multi-step substrate addition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Li, Hui; Sun, Jin; Zhang, XinYue; Shi, Jinsong; Xu, Zhenghong

    2016-08-01

    Hydroxylation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to 3β,7α,15α-trihydroxy-5-androstene-17-one (7α,15α-diOH-DHEA) by Colletotrichum lini ST-1 is an essential step in the synthesis of many steroidal drugs, while low DHEA concentration and 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA production are tough problems to be solved urgently in industry. In this study, the significant improvement of 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield in 5-L stirred fermenter with 15 g/L DHEA was achieved. To maintain a sufficient quantity of glucose for the bioconversion, glucose of 15 g/L was fed at 18 h, the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield and dry cell weight were increased by 17.7 and 30.9 %, respectively. Moreover, multi-step DHEA addition strategy was established to diminish DHEA toxicity to C. lini, and the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield raised to 53.0 %. Further, a novel strategy integrating glucose-feeding with multi-step addition of DHEA was carried out and the product yield increased to 66.6 %, which was the highest reported 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA production in 5-L stirred fermenter. Meanwhile, the conversion course was shortened to 44 h. This strategy would provide a possible way in enhancing the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA yield in pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Study on electrochemical behavior and structural stability of 0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2%0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2的电化学行为及结构稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟卓洪; 叶乃清; 马真; 吴保明

    2013-01-01

    The charger/discharge performance of the Li-rich Mn-based cathode material 0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 synthesized via low temperature combustion process,the valence change of Mn ions,the change of electrochemical impedance and structure of the cathode material during charge/discharge cycle process was systematically studied.The results show that the discharge capacity of the 0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 increases with cycle number in the first several cycles,after a dozen cycles can reach a very high level,its cycle performance is excellent.Its 0.1 C discharge specific capacity is up to 244 mAh/g and still retains 233 mAh/g at 50th cycle when charged/discharged between 2.5-4.6 V.The Mn4+ ions in the lattice partly transformed into Mn3+ and participated in the following electrochemical reaction,which is the reason why discharge capacity increases with cycle number.The microstructure and crystal structure remains stable and the electrochemical impedance decrease during charge/discharge process,which is the reason why the cathode has excellent cycle performance.%对低温燃烧法合成的富锂锰基正极材料0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2的充放电性能、充放电循环过程中Mn离子的价态变化、电化学阻抗变化以及正极材料的结构变化进行了系统的研究.研究结果表明,在开头的若干次充放电循环中,富锂锰基正极材料0.5Li2MnO3-LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2的放电比容量随循环次数的增加而增加,经过若干次循环后可以达到一个相当高的水平,其循环性能良好.以0.1C在2.5~4.6V之间充放电,放电比容量可达244 mAh/g,第50次循环,仍保有233 mAh/g.充放电过程中晶格中的Mn4+离子部分转变为Mn3+并参与电化学反应,这是造成放电比容量随循环次数增加而增加的原因,而显微结构和晶体结构保持稳定及电化学阻抗的降低是材料具有良好循环性能的原因.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of LiNi0.7–xMgxCo0.3O2 (0≤x≤0.1 Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Prepared by a Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prospective cathode materials LiNi0.7–xMgxCo0.3O2 (0≤x≤0.1 for a lithium-ion secondary battery were synthesized using a sol-gel method. The structural and electrochemical properties were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cyclic voltammetry(CV, and charge-discharge tests. The results show that the LiNi0.7–xMgxCo0.3O2 maintains the α-NaFeO2 type layered structure regardless of the magnesium content in the range x⩽0.1. On the other hand, Mg-doping improves the capacity retention well. Besides, the Mg-doping promotes the diffusion of Li+ in LiNi0.7Co0.3O2. Moreover, Mg-doping suppresses the phase transitions that usually occur in LiNiO2 during cycling and improves the charge-discharge reversibility of Li/LiNi0.7Co0.3O2. High temperature cycling performance of the cathode at 55.5°C is also improved by Mg-doping, which is possibly attributed to the total stronger metal-oxygen bonding and the enhanced structure stability of those delithiated Mg-doped cathodes during cycling.

  15. Improved electrochemical properties of Li(Ni0.6Mn0.2Co0.2)O2 by surface coating with Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji-won; Lee, Jae-won

    2016-03-01

    LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (C622) is one of the Ni-rich layer-structured cathode materials with a high capacity, but it suffers from a poor cycling stability and rate capability. In this study, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP), a NASICON-type lithium-conductor, is coated on C622 by a sol-gel process to overcome the shortcomings of C622. We find that a 0.5 wt% coating of LATP on C622 significantly improves the cell performance including the discharge capacity, rate capability, and cycling stability. The pristine and LATP-coated samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In addition, various electrochemical analyses such as cyclic-voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are conducted to determine the reason for the improvement of the cell performance. The cell performance of C622 is enhanced by a coating amount of less than 1.0 wt% and the overall performance degrades with the increase of the coating amount. The electrochemical analyses reveal that a high lithium-ion diffusion coefficient and a low interfacial resistance are the reasons for the improved cell performance; however, our study demonstrates that an excessive coating may degrade the cell performance, thereby acting as a barrier against the movement of lithium ions.

  16. Mechanical Composite of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/Carbon Nanotubes with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Fu, Ju; Zhang, Chuhong

    2017-12-01

    LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/carbon nanotube (NCA/CNT) composite cathode materials are prepared by a facile mechanical grinding method, without damage to the crystal structure and morphology of the bulk. The NCA/CNT composite exhibits enhanced cycling and rate performance compared with pristine NCA. After 60 cycles at a current rate of 0.25 C, the reversible capacity of NCA/CNT composite cathode is 181 mAh/g with a discharge retention rate of 96%, considerably higher than the value of pristine NCA (153 mAh/g with a retention rate of 90%). At a high current rate of 5 C, it also can deliver a reversible capacity of 160 mAh/g, while only 140 mAh/g is maintained for the unmodified NCA. Highly electrical conductive CNTs rather than common inert insulating materials are for the first time employed as surface modifiers for NCA, which are dispersed homogenously on the surface of NCA particles, not only improving the electrical conductivity but also providing effective protection to the side reactions with liquid electrolyte of the battery.

  17. Highly textured Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 thin films on stainless steel as cathode for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Clement; Lynch, Tommy; Chen, Aiping; Jian, Jie; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-11-01

    Epitaxial and highly textured Li(NixMnyCo1-x-y)O2 thin film cathodes are deposited by a one-step, high temperature pulsed laser deposition technique. Structural characterization using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) reveals highly textured film along (003). The best film quality has been achieved at high temperature, with temperature as high as 750 °C. Different substrates and buffer layers have been investigated and Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 (NMC) on stainless steel with a thin Au-buffer layer gives the best film quality. The NMC thin film cathodes give a high capacity of 167 mAh g-1 and 125 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 0.5 C, respectively. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry and charge discharge curves obtained after different cycles indicate good electrochemical stability with capacity retention of 89% after 100 cycles at 0.5 C. The electrochemical characteristics are correlated to the microstructure of the film and the effects of texture, grain size and density are discussed.

  18. Direct Observation of Lattice Aluminum Environments in Li Ion Cathodes LiNi1-y-zCoyAlzO2 and Al-Doped LiNixMnyCozO2 via (27)Al MAS NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Fulya; Vaughey, John T; Iddir, Hakim; Key, Baris

    2016-07-06

    Direct observations of local lattice aluminum environments have been a major challenge for aluminum-bearing Li ion battery materials, such as LiNi1-y-zCoyAlzO2 (NCA) and aluminum-doped LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC). (27)Al magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the only structural probe currently available that can qualitatively and quantitatively characterize lattice and nonlattice (i.e., surface, coatings, segregation, secondary phase etc.) aluminum coordination and provide information that helps discern its effect in the lattice. In the present study, we use NMR to gain new insights into transition metal (TM)-O-Al coordination and evolution of lattice aluminum sites upon cycling. With the aid of first-principles DFT calculations, we show direct evidence of lattice Al sites, nonpreferential Ni/Co-O-Al ordering in NCA, and the lack of bulk lattice aluminum in aluminum-"doped" NMC. Aluminum coordination of the paramagnetic (lattice) and diamagnetic (nonlattice) nature is investigated for Al-doped NMC and NCA. For the latter, the evolution of the lattice site(s) upon cycling is also studied. A clear reordering of lattice aluminum environments due to nickel migration is observed in NCA upon extended cycling.

  19. Preparation of thick-film LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 electrodes by aerosol deposition and its application to all-solid-state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shinya; Hamanaka, Tadashi; Yamakawa, Tomohiro; West, William C.; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Motoyama, Munekazu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2014-12-01

    We prepared thick and dense-crystalline LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) composite films at room temperature that can work well as cathodes in all-solid-state battery cells. The thick films were fabricated by aerosol deposition using NMC powder (D50 = 10.61 μm) as a source material. Commercially-obtained NMC powder did not form films at all on silicon wafer substrates, and cracking of the substrates was observed. However, a few tens of nanometer coating with amorphous niobium oxide resulted in the deposition of 7 μm-thick crystalline dense composite films. The films were successfully fabricated also on Li+-conductive glass-ceramic sheets with 150 μm in thickness, and all-solid-state batteries were fabricated. The solid-state battery provided a cathode-basis discharge capacity of 152 mAh g-1 (3.0-4.2 V, 0.025 C, 333 K) and repeated charge-discharge cycles for 20 cycles.

  20. The effect of different binders on electrochemical properties of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode material in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chou, Shu-Lei; Gu, Qin-fen; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2013-03-01

    LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries has been synthesized by the sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement results indicated that single-phase NMC with hexagonal layered structure was obtained. Scanning electron microscope images revealed well crystallized NMC with uniform particle size in the range of 100-200 nm. The performance of the NMC electrodes with sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and alginate from brown algae as binders was compared. Constant current charge-discharge test results demonstrated that the NMC electrode using CMC as binder had the highest rate capability, followed by those using alginate and PVDF binders, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test results showed that the electrode using CMC as the binder had lower charge transfer resistance and lower apparent activation energy than the electrodes using alginate and PVDF as the binders. The apparent activation energies of NMC electrodes using CMC, alginate, and PVDF as binders were calculated to be 27.4 kJ mol-1, 33.7 kJ mol-1, and 36 kJ mol-1, respectively.

  1. Layer-structured LiNi0.8Co0.2O2: A new triple (H+/O2-/e-) conducting cathode for low temperature proton conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangdong; Su, Pei-Chen

    2016-02-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells with proton conducting electrolytes (H-SOFCs) show great potential for more efficient energy conversion over their oxygen ionic conducting counterparts at temperatures below 650 °C, providing a comparably high performance cathode material can be available. A brief review of current development of cathode materials shows that materials with triple (oxygen ionic, protonic, and electronic) conducting properties are most promising for H-SOFCs. In this work, a triple-conducting LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 (LNCO) with layered structure, allowing simultaneous conduction of intrinsic oxygen ion and electron as well as the extrinsic proton, is proposed as a cathode material for H-SOFC. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis of LNCO shows the good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity with a considerably low activation energy of 0.88 eV, and an evident water uptake capability those facilitate the cathode reaction process. Fuel cells using LNCO cathode on a BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3 proton-conducting electrolyte render a peak power density of 410 mW cm-2 at 650 °C under H2/air condition, which is higher than most of the typical cathode materials reported with similar cell configurations. This work also demonstrated a new series of simple and low cost cathode materials simultaneously possessing interesting triple-conduction and good ORR activities for low temperature H-SOFCs.

  2. 新疆伊犁地区胡麻白粉病发生与消长规律研究%Occurrence, Growth and Decline of Flax Powdery Mildew (Oidium Lini Skoric) in Yili

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence , growth and decline of flax powdery mildew ( Oidium Lini Skoric) were investigated during 2010-2012 in Yili, Xinjiang, the results showed that the first time of occurrence of flax powdery mildew was the late of June , and the peak time was the middle of July , the disease spread speedily and shortly.The occurrence and epidemic of flax powdery mildew had a close relationship with the local meteorological factors.%  2010-2012年在新疆伊宁市对胡麻白粉病田间发生时期、发生与消长规律进行了系统研究,结果表明:新疆伊宁市胡麻白粉病始发期为6月下旬,盛发期为7月中旬,胡麻白粉病呈现发病时间短,流行速度快的特点。胡麻白粉病发生流行跟当地的气象因素有密切的关系。

  3. The impact of calendar aging on the thermal stability of a LiMn2O4-Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2/graphite lithium-ion cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Patrick; Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Baba, Nilüfer; Lagaly, Paul; Wiemhöfer, Hans-Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Aging of lithium-ion cells is an inevitable phenomenon limiting the lifetime. Undesirable side reactions during cycle or calendar aging may affect the performance of all components of the lithium-ion cell. This results in a decreased capacity and an increase in the overall cell impedance. Based on electrochemical and physical characterization methods, the aging behavior during calendar aging of a 18650-cell, containing a blend of LiMn2O4 and Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC) as cathode material and graphite as anode material was systematically investigated. To understand how the safety behavior of a lithium-ion cell changes with aging, accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied. With these methods the thermal stability behavior of the complete lithium-ion cell and its respective cathode and anode material were investigated. The focus of this work was it to generate first cause-effect relations between the aging under one exemplary aging condition and the thermal stability of a lithium-ion battery both on cell and material level.

  4. The high-temperature and high-humidity storage behaviors and electrochemical degradation mechanism of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jing; Huang, Jingxin; Fu, Tao; Sun, Guiyan; Lai, Shaobo; Zhou, Rong; Li, Kun; Zhao, Jinbao

    2017-09-01

    The high-temperature and high-humidity storage behaviors and electrochemical degradation mechanism of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material are investigated systematically. After stored at 55 °C and 80% relative humidity, three kinds of changes are observed compared to the fresh materials. The first change is adsorbed species on the surface of the materials caused by atmospheric H2O and CO2. The second is a layer of impurities consisting of LiOH and Li2CO3 coated on the surface of the materials non-uniformly. The third is a delithiation layer directly contacting with the bulk materials in the near-surface region, which is believed to be formed by lithium-ions migrating out from the lattice accompanied by the generation of the impurities. A different combination of heating temperature, heating time and heating atmosphere is performed to achieve the separation of the adsorbed species and the delithiation layer (together with the impurities) and study the role of different part in electrochemical degradation, respectively. For the first and the following cycles, the effect of the adsorbed species on the electrochemical properties takes a larger proportion than that of the delithiation layer and impurities.

  5. Significant improvement in performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through surface modification with high ordered Al-doped ZnO electro-conductive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongdan; Xia, Bingbo; Liu, Weiwei; Fang, Guoqing; Wu, Jingjing; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Ruixue; Kaneko, Shingo; Zheng, Junwei; Wang, Hongyu; Li, Decheng

    2015-03-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) was prepared by sol-gel method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicates that AZO layer grown on the surface of LNMO is high ordered. The results of electrochemical performance measurements reveal that the AZO-coated LNMO electrode displays the best rate capability compared with the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, even at a high rate of 10 C. The discharge capacity of the AZO-coated LNMO electrode can still reach 114.3 mAh g-1, about 89% of its discharge capacity at 0.1 C. Moreover, AZO-coated LNMO electrode shows a remarkable improvement in the cyclic performance at a high rate at elevated temperature due to the protective effect of AZO coating layer. The electrode delivers a capacity of 120.3 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 95% at 5 C in 50 cycles at 50 °C. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) indicates that AZO-coated LNMO possesses the lowest charge transfer resistance compared to the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, which may be responsible for improved rate capability.

  6. Structural, electrical and electrochemical behaviours of LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi) as cathode material for Li-ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Nayaka; J Manjanna; K C Anjaneya; P Manikandan; P Periasamy; V S Tripathi

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the cycling performance of LiMn2O4 based cathode materials, we have synthesized a new composition, LiNi0.4M0.1Mn1.5O4 ( = Al, Bi), by the sol–gel method. The formation of solid solutions is confirmed by structural characterization using TG/DTA, XRD, FT–IR, EPR, SEM and EPR. A.c.-impedance (Nyquist plot) showed a high frequency semicircle and a sloping line in the low-frequency region. The semicircle is ascribed to the Li-ion migration through the interface from the surface layer of the particles to the electrolyte. Cyclic voltammogram (between 3.5 and 4.9 V) for these materials using CR2032 coin-type cell shows two pairs of redox peaks corresponding to two-step reversible intercalation process, wherein Li-ions occupy two different tetragonal 8a sites in spinel LiMn2O4 ( < 1) lattice. The galvanostatic charge/discharge curves for = Al (77 mAh g-1) showed reasonably good capacity retention than that of = Bi (11 mAh g-1) at the end of 17th cycle.

  7. Composite coating of Li2O-2B2O3 and carbon as multi-conductive electron/Li-ion channel on the surface of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kanghyeon; Yang, Gene Jaehyoung; Kim, Hackyeon; Kim, Taejoong; Lee, Sun Sook; Choi, Si-Young; Choi, Sungho; Kim, Yongseon

    2017-10-01

    The coating effects of electronically and ionically conductive materials on the surface of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathodes for Li-ion batteries are examined. In order for the coating layers to promote facile electrochemical reactions, in addition to their protective functions of blocking side reactions between the LNMO surface and the electrolyte, carbon and Li2O-2B2O3 (LBO), which conduct electrons and Li ions, respectively, are chosen as coating materials. The properties of the LBO-carbon composite coating are examined in comparison with those of carbon- or LBO-only coatings. Electrochemical metrics, such as discharge capacity, rate performance, and cyclability, are improved with the addition of the thin-film coatings. The LBO-carbon coating shows the best overall properties, particularly greatly improved capacity retention under elevated-temperature (60 °C) cycling. The multi-conductive feature of LBO-carbon for both electrons and Li ions provides stable electrochemical kinetics under conditions of severe side reactions at elevated temperatures. The proposed simple one-step aqueous process for forming and applying the composite electrode coating may be extended to other materials and the mass production thereof.

  8. Simultaneous fluorination of active material and conductive agent for improving the electrochemical performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Sang; Kim, Dae Sik; Park, Eunjun; Choi, Jae Man; Kim, Hansu

    2016-09-01

    High-voltage cathode materials have gained much attention as one of the promising electrode materials to increase power density of lithium ion batteries by raising the working voltage. However, the use of such high-voltage cathode materials is still challenging, because their working voltage is close to the electrochemical oxidation potential of organic electrolyte used in lithium ion batteries. In this work, we demonstrated that simultaneous fluorination of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) particles as well as conductive agent in the electrode could significantly improve the electrochemical stability of LNMO cathode. The resulting electrode showed better cycle performance both at room temperature and elevated temperature compared to both bare LNMO electrode and the electrode with only LNMO fluorinated. These results showed that direct fluorination of high voltage cathode can reduce the side reaction of high voltage cathode electrode with the electrolyte, thereby stabilizing the surface of carbon black as well as that of high voltage cathode material.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposites based on poly(3-hexylthiophene)-graft-carbon nanotubes with LiNi$_{0.5}$Mn$_{1.5}O$_4$ and its application as potential cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THANG VAN LE; THU ANH NGUYEN; NGUYET MINH THI NGUYEN; ANH TUAN LUU; LE-THU T NGUYEN; HA TRAN NGUYEN

    2016-09-01

    The P3HT grafted on CNTs to form the P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites was synthesized and their morphologies, structure have been characterized via the sedimentation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-raydiffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the P3HT-$g$-CNTs has a better thermal stability than that of the P3HT/CNTs blend. The nanocomposite based on P3HT-g-CNTs and doped spinel LiNi$_{0.5}$Mn$_{1.5}$O$_4$ (LNMO) have been fabricated via mixing process. The structure and morphologies of LNMO/P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites have also been performed by SEM, XRD and TEM. The electrochemical performance of LNMO/P3HT-$g$-CNTs nanocomposites as cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and exhibited the high diffusion of lithium ions in the charge–discharge process.

  10. Studies on stability and capacity for long-life cycle performance of Li(Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)O2 by Mo modification for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Yu, Fu-Da; Que, Lan-Fang; Wang, Min-Jun; Xia, Yun-Fei; Xue, Yuan; Wu, Jin

    2017-08-01

    Long-life property is one of the key factors for wide applications of lithium-ion batteries. Here, Mo-modified Ni-rich cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM) is synthesized successfully via a solvent evaporating way followed with a calcination method. This strategy delivers two kinds of effects including Mo-doping and Mo-coating. Mo not only intercalates into the crystal lattice of NCM, but also forms a film-like coating layer on the surface to impede side reactions between electrode and electrolyte. Thus, its specific capacity, rate capability and cycle performance are improved simultaneously, especially in terms of long cycling life property. A series of physical and electrochemical characterizations are used to study the modified performance, and the sample with 1.0 wt% Mo modifying presents the best property with an approximate 3.5 nm coating layer surrounding the surface. Besides, the capacity retention ratio reaches to 89.7% even after 500 cycles between 3.0 and 4.3 V. However, Mo-modified samples have an obvious attenuation in the later period after charging to a higher voltage of 4.6 V although they have preferable cycle performance at the preliminary stage. The results indicate that the reaction mechanisms are diverse at different voltage ranges, which may guide subsequent researches.

  11. Solvent-free dry powder coating process for low-cost manufacturing of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shroofy, Mohanad; Zhang, Qinglin; Xu, Jiagang; Chen, Tao; Kaur, Aman Preet; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2017-06-01

    We report a solvent-free dry powder coating process for making LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. This process eliminates volatile organic compound emission and reduces thermal curing time from hours to minutes. A mixture of NMC, carbon black, and poly(vinylidene difluoride) was electrostatically sprayed onto an aluminum current collector, forming a uniformly distributed electrode with controllable thickness and porosity. Charge/discharge cycling of the dry-powder-coated electrodes in lithium-ion half cells yielded a discharge specific capacity of 155 mAh g-1 and capacity retention of 80% for more than 300 cycles when the electrodes were tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V at a rate of C/5. The long-term cycling performance and durability of dry-powder coated electrodes are similar to those made by the conventional wet slurry-based method. This solvent-free dry powder coating process is a potentially lower-cost, higher-throughput, and more environmentally friendly manufacturing process compared with the conventional wet slurry-based electrode manufacturing method.

  12. Optimized structure stability and electrochemical performance of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 by sputtering nanoscale ZnO film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yan-Qing; Xu, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-An; Gao, Chun-Hui; Wang, Peng; Yu, Zi-Yang

    2016-03-01

    LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) is one of the most promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in electric vehicles, which is successfully adopted in Tesla. However, the dissolution of the cation into the electrolyte is still a one of the major challenges (fading capacity and poor cyclability, etc.) presented in pristine NCA. Herein, a homogeneous nanoscale ZnO film is directly sputtered on the surface of NCA electrode via the magnetron sputtering (MS). This ZnO film is evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results clearly demonstrate that ZnO film is fully and uniformly covered on the NCA electrodes. After 90 cycles at 1.0C, the optimized MS-2min coated NCA electrode delivers much higher discharge capacity with 169 mAh g-1 than that of the pristine NCA electrode with 127 mAh g-1. In addition, the discharge capacity also reaches 166 mAh g-1 at 3.0C, as compared to that of 125 mAh g-1 for the pristine electrode. The improved electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the superiority of the MS ZnO film that reduce charge transfer resistance and protect the NCA electrode from cation dissolution.

  13. A study of surface film formation on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes u sing attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, S.-W.; Zhuang, G.V.; Ross Jr., P.N.

    2004-01-19

    The surface films formed on commercial LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes (ATD Gen2) charged from 3.75V to 4.2V vs. Li/Li+ in EC:DEC - 1M LiPF6 were analyzed using ex-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with the attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique. A surface layer of Li2CO3 is present on the virgin cathode, probably from reaction of the active material with air during the cathode preparation procedure. The Li2CO3 layer disappeared even after soaking in the electrolyte, indicating that the layer dissolved into the electrolyte possibly even before potential cycling of the electrode. IR features only from the binder (PVdF) and a trace of polyamide from the Al current collector were observed on the surfaces of cathodes charged to below 4.2 V, i.e., no surface species from electrolyte oxidation. Some new IR features were, however, found on the cathode charged to 4.2 V and higher. An electrolyte oxidation product was observed that appeared to contain dicarbonyl anhydride and (poly)ester functionalities. The reaction appears to be an indirect electrochemical oxidation with overcharging (removal of > 0.6 Li ions) destabilizing oxygen in the oxide lattice resulting in oxygen transfer to the solvent molecules.

  14. Key strategies for enhancing the cycling stability and rate capacity of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high-voltage cathode materials for high power lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Feng; Mei, Jie; Zhu, Yan-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is one of the most promising high voltage cathode materials for future application due to its advantages of large reversible capacity, high thermal stability, low cost, environmental friendliness, and high energy density. LNMO can provide 20% and 30% higher energy density than traditional cathode materials LiCoO2 and LiFePO4, respectively. Unfortunately, LNMO-based batteries with LiPF6-based carbonate electrolytes always suffer from severe capacity deterioration and poor thermostability because of the oxidization of organic carbonate solvents and decomposition of LiPF6, especially at elevated temperatures and water-containing environment. Hence, it is necessary to systematically and comprehensively summarize the progress in understanding and modifying LNMO cathode from various aspects. In this review, the structure, transport properties and different reported possible fading mechanisms of LNMO cathode are first discussed detailedly. And then, the major goal of this review is to highlight new progress in using proposed strategies to improve the cycling stability and rate capacity of LNMO-based batteries, including synthesis, control of special morphologies, element doping and surface coating etc., especially at elevated temperatures. Finally, an insight into the future research and further development of LNMO cathode is discussed.

  15. Stabilizing interface layer of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode materials under high voltage using p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate as film forming additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Peng; Wang, Ding; Yao, Yao; Li, Xue; Zhang, Yingjie; Ru, Juanjian; Ren, Ting

    2017-03-01

    p-Toluenesulfonyl isocyanate (PTSI) is introduced as electrolyte additive in a bid to enhance the electrochemical performances of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode materials under high voltage. A less resistive and stable film on the cathode surface derived from PTSI oxidation which taken place prior to the carbonate solvents is formed. As a result, the discharge capacity retention of Li/LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cell is elevated from 71.4% to 86.2% after 100 cycles at room temperature, and from 32.3% to 54.5% after 100 cycles at 55 °C. In addition, the Li/LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 half cell with PTSI exhibits superior rate capability compared to that in baseline electrolyte. The improved performance is not only ascribed to the thin protective layer originated from PTSI decomposition which prevent the successive breakdown of the electrolyte on cathode surface, but it is also attributed to the sbnd Sdbnd O group in PTSI serves as the weak base site to restrain the reactivity of PF5, resulting in the suppression of LiF formation and HF generation.

  16. Cycle deterioration analysis of 0.6 Ah-class lithium-ion cells with cell chemistry of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2-based/graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Naoki; Seki, Eiji; Konishi, Hiroaki; Hirano, Tatsumi; Takahashi, Shin; Ueda, Atsushi; Horiba, Tatsuo

    2016-11-01

    We applied a thermally stabilized LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2-based cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries, which we had developed by partial substitution of molybdenum for the transition metal, to 0.6 Ah-class single cells. Cycling test of the cell unexpectedly showed capacity retention of 87% after 3000 cycles, which is better than a cell using cathode active material without molybdenum-substitution. Disassembled analyses of the cells cycled for 3000 times definitely demonstrated that no degradation in both the cathodes and anodes of the molybdenum-substituted and non-substituted. However, there was definite potential slippage in both the cells; that of the non-substituted cell was larger than the molybdenum-substituted cell. Analysis showed that very small amount of molybdenum, in the molybdenum-substituted cell, eluted from the cathode and deposited on the surface of the anode. It is speculated that the deposition might suppress the SEI growth on the anode, and restrain the slippage of the operating potentials for the cathode and anode.

  17. Thermal Synergy Effect between LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 and LiMn2O4 Enhances the Safety of Blended Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Yu, Yangyang; Li, Bing; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Jianxin; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Shiyong; Gan, Chaolun; Zhao, Jinbao

    2016-08-10

    The layer-structured LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (L523) with high specific capacity and the spinel LiMn2O4 (LMO) with excellent thermostability complement each other in a blended cathode for better heat stability and electrochemical performance. The delithiated LMO starts to react with electrolyte at 160-200 °C to cause structural instability, and the delithiated L523 generates massive heat when its temperature is raised above 275 °C with the electrolyte present, but we found that the blended cathode shows a remarkable improvement in thermal stability since the reaction at 160-200 °C between LMO and the electrolyte disappears, and the total heat generated from the reaction between L523 and the electrolyte is drastically reduced. The reaction between LMO and the electrolyte at 160-200 °C causes structural instability of LMO as a self-accelerating attack from HF. With L523 present, this reaction is eliminated because the H(+) from HF and Li(+) in L523 undergo exchange reaction to prevent further generation of HF. The presence of LMO, however, reduces the total heat generated by L523 reacting with the electrolyte at high temperature. This thermal synergy between LMO and L523 not only improves the thermal safety of the blended cathode but also preserves their structures for better electrochemical performance.

  18. Core/Double-Shell Type Gradient Ni-Rich LiNi0.76Co0.10Mn0.14O2 with High Capacity and Long Cycle Life for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jin-Yun; Oh, Seung-Min; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2016-09-21

    A concentration-gradient Ni-rich LiNi0.76Co0.1Mn0.14O2 layered oxide cathode has been developed by firing a core/double-shell [Ni0.9Co0.1]0.4[Ni0.7Co0.1Mn0.2]0.5[Ni0.5Co0.1Mn0.4]0.1(OH)2 hydroxide precursor with LiOH·H2O, where the Ni-rich interior (core) delivers high capacity and the Mn-rich exterior (shells) provides a protection layer to improve the cyclability and thermal stability for the Ni-rich oxide cathodes. The content of nickel and manganese, respectively, decreases and increases gradually from the center to the surface of each gradient sample particle, offering a high capacity with enhanced surface/structural stability and cyclability. The obtained concentration-gradient oxide cathode exhibits high-energy density with long cycle life in both half and full cells. With high-loading electrode half cells, the concentration-gradient sample delivers 3.3 mA h cm(-2) with 99% retention after 100 cycles. The material morphology, phase, and gradient structure are also maintained after cycling. The pouch-type full cells fabricated with a graphite anode delivers high capacity with 89% capacity retention after 500 cycles at C/3 rate.

  19. Sustainable and Superior Heat-Resistant Alginate Nonwoven Separator of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li Batteries Operated at 55 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Huijie; Zhang, Jianjun; Chai, Jingchao; Ma, Jun; Yue, Liping; Dong, Tiantian; Zang, Xiao; Liu, Zhihong; Zhang, Botao; Cui, Guanglei

    2017-02-01

    High-voltage lithium-ion batteries have become a major research focus. As a major part of lithium batteries, the separator plays a critical role in the development of high-voltage lithium batteries. Herein, we demonstrated a sustainable and superior heat-resistant alginate nonwoven separator for high-voltage (5 V) lithium batteries. It was demonstrated that the resultant alginate nonwoven separator exhibited better mechanical property (37 MPa), superior thermal stability (up to 150 °C), and higher ionic conductivity (1.4 × 10(-3) S/cm) as compared to commercially available polyolefin (PP) separator. More impressively, the 5 V class LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO)/Li cell with this alginate nonwoven separator delivered much better cycling stability (maintaining 79.6% of its initial discharge capacity) than that (69.3%) of PP separator after 200 cycles at an elevated temperature of 55 °C. In addition, the LiFePO4/Li cell assembled with such alginate nonwoven separator could still charge and discharge normally even at an elevated temperature of 150 °C. The above-mentioned fascinating characteristics of alginate separator provide great probability for its application for high-voltage (5 V) lithium batteries at elevated temperatures.

  20. Study on the deterioration mechanism of layered rock-salt electrodes using epitaxial thin films - Li(Ni, Co, Mn)O2 and their Zr-O surface modified electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Machiko; Iba, Hideaki; Suzuki, Kota; Minamishima, Hiroaki; Hirayama, Masaaki; Tamura, Kazuhisa; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro; Saito, Tomohiro; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kanno, Ryoji

    2017-03-01

    Deterioration mechanism of Li(Ni, Co, Mn)O2 and Zr-O surface modified electrodes has been elucidated using epitaxial thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition. The electrodes comprise a mixture of layered rock-salt and spinel phases. The deterioration mechanism is analyzed using cyclic voltammetry, in situ X-ray diffraction measurements, and in situ neutron reflectometry. The spinel phase in the electrodes has low electrochemical activity and is not involved in Li insertion/extraction. The amount of Li participating in the charge-discharge reactions in the layered rock-salt phase increases with cycling, inducing a phase change at the electrode surface, lowering the reversibility. In contrast, in the Zr-O surface modified electrode, the spinel phase does not increase on charging/discharging. Thus, the Zr-O modification stabilizes the surface of layered rock-salt structure, thereby improving the cycling characteristics. Also, after the Zr-O modification, the Li concentration in the liquid electrolyte near the electrode/electrolyte interface increases during charging/discharging. The Zr-O surface modification not only stabilizes the electrode surface but also causes changes on the electrolyte side. Using the mixed model electrodes, we elucidate the mechanism of electrode deterioration and the origin of the improvement in cycling characteristics occurring on surface modification.

  1. A Multi-Component Additive to Improve the Thermal Stability of Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2-Based Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the safety of lithium ion batteries, a multi-component (MC additive (consisting of vinylene carbonate (VC, 1,3-propylene sulfite (PS and dimethylacetamide (DMAC is used in the baseline electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6/ethylene carbonate (EC + diethyl carbonate (DEC. The electrolyte with the MC additive is named safety electrolyte. The thermal stabilities of fully charged Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM mixed with the baseline electrolyte and safety electrolyte, respectively, are investigated using a C80 micro-calorimeter. The electrochemical performances of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li and NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are evaluated using galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and alternating current (AC impedance. The experimental results demonstrate that the fully charged NCM-safety electrolyte system releases less heat and reduces the main sharp exothermic peak value to a great extent, with a reduction of 40.6%. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of NCM/safety electrolyte/Li half cells are not worse, and are almost as good as that of the NCM/baseline electrolyte/Li half cells.

  2. Li(Ni0.40Mn0.40Co0.15Al0.05)O2: A promising positive electrode material for high-power and safe lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, J.; Croguennec, L.; Bréger, J.; Castaing, F.; Levasseur, S.; Delmas, C.; Biensan, Ph.

    2011-10-01

    Li1.11(Ni0.40Mn0.39Co0.16Al0.05)0.89O2 was synthesized through coprecipitation of a mixed hydroxide followed by calcination with LiOH·H2O during 10 h at 500 °C and 950 °C. Electrochemical tests and their comparison with those obtained for an industrial Li(Ni1-y-zCoyAlz)O2 material reveal that Li1.11(Ni0.40Mn0.39Co0.16Al0.05)0.89O2 shows good charge-discharge performance, even at high rate according to a protocol well established by car-makers for testing power abilities of batteries for electric and hybrid electric vehicles. In addition, this material shows a significant improvement in thermal stability in the highly deintercalated state (charged state of the battery) over the industrial material. Equivalent (or higher) energy and power densities with a significantly greater thermal stability make of Li1.11(Ni0.40Mn0.39Co0.16Al0.05)0.89O2 an interesting candidate as positive electrode material for large lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Mechanistic Insight in the Function of Phosphite Additives for Protection of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 Cathode in High Voltage Li-Ion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Peebles, Cameron; Feng, Zhenxing; Connell, Justin G; Liao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Shkrob, Ilya A; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-05-11

    Triethlylphosphite (TEP) and tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) have been evaluated as electrolyte additives for high-voltage Li-ion battery cells using a Ni-rich layered cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and the conventional carbonate electrolyte. The repeated charge/discharge cycling for cells containing 1 wt % of these additives was performed using an NCM523/graphite full cell operated at the voltage window from 3.0-4.6 V. During the initial charge process, these additives decompose on the cathode surface at a lower oxidation potential than the baseline electrolyte. Impedance spectroscopy and post-test analyses indicate the formation of protective coatings by both additives on the cathode surface that prevent oxidative breakdown of the electrolyte. However, only TTFP containing cells demonstrate the improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. For TEP, the protective coating is also formed, but low Li(+) ion mobility through the interphase layer results in inferior performance. These observations are rationalized through the inhibition of electrocatalytic centers present on the cathode surface and the formation of organophosphate deposits isolating the cathode surface from the electrolyte. The difference between the two phosphites clearly originates in the different properties of the resulting phosphate coatings, which may be in Li(+) ion conductivity through such materials.

  4. Electrochemical effects of annealing on atomic layer deposited Al2O3 coatings on LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David H. K.; Kuech, Thomas F.

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the annealing of atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 coated onto Li-ion battery cathodes to enhance their electrochemical properties. LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC) cathode powders were coated with 5 ALD cycles at 100 °C, annealed between 300 and 700 °C, cast into electrode sheets and assembled into coin cells. Cells were characterized using charge-discharge cycling, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, pre-casting and postmortem X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and charge endpoint slippage measurement. Diffusion of Al into bulk NMC was observable at ≥500 °C, and extent of diffusion increased with increasing temperature. Un-annealed ALD-coated cathodes showed exceptional capacity retention at high charge-discharge rates, while annealed cells showed recovery of initial charge capacity lost upon ALD coating. High quantities of LiF forming surface species were detected in cells annealed at 500 °C. This study approaches post-deposition annealing as a parameter that may be used to explore the electrochemical properties of ALD-coated battery cathodes.

  5. Preparation of Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 powders for cathode material in secondary battery by solid-state method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Sook Hee; KANG Chan Hyoung

    2006-01-01

    Employing Li2CO3, NiO, Co3O4, and MnCO3 powders as starting materials, Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 was synthesized by solid-state reaction method.Various grinding aids were applied during milling in order to optimize the synthesis process.After successive heat treatments at 650 and 950 ℃, the prepared powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy.The powders prepared by adding salt (NaCl) as grinding aid exhibit a clear R3m layer structure.The powders by other grinding aids like heptane show some impurity peaks in the XRD pattern.The former powders show a uniform particle size distribution of less than 1 μm average size while the latter shows a wide distribution ranging from 1 to 10 μm.Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysiss show that the ratio of Ni, Co, and Mn content in the powder is approximately 1/3, 1/3, and 1/3, respecively.The EDX data indicate no incorporation of sodium or chlorine into the powders.Charge-discharge tests gave an initial discharge capacity of 160 mAh·g-1 for the powders with NaCl addition while 70 mAh·g-1 for the powders with heptane.

  6. Direct Observation of Lattice Aluminum Environments in Li Ion Cathodes LiNi 1–yz Co y Al z O 2 and Al-Doped LiNi x Mn y Co z O 2 via 27 Al MAS NMR Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Fulya; Vaughey, John T.; Iddir, Hakim; Key, Baris

    2016-07-06

    Direct observations of local lattice aluminum environments have been a major challenge for aluminum -bearing Li ion battery materials, such as LiNi1-y-zCoyAlzO2 Al(NCA) and aluminum-doped LiNixMnyCozO2 (NMC). Al-27 magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the only structural probe currently available that can qualitatively and quantitatively characterize lattice and nonlattice (i.e., surface, coatings, segregation, secondary phase etc.) aluminum coordination and provide information that helps discern its effect in the lattice. In the present study, we use NMR to gain new insights into transition metal (TM)-O-Al coordination and evolution of lattice aluminum sites upon cycling. With the aid of first-principles DFT calculations, we show direct evidence of lattice Al sites, nonpreferential Ni/Co-O-Al ordering in NCA, and the lack of bulk lattice aluminum in aluminum -"doped" NMC. Aluminum coordination of the paramagnetic (lattice) and diamagnetic (nonlattice) nature is investigated for Al-doped NMC and NCA. For the latter, the evolution of the lattice site(s) upon cycling is also studied. A clear reordering of lattice aluminum environments due to nickel migration is observed in NCA upon extended cycling.

  7. 合成温度对LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2结构和电化学性能的影响%Effects of temperature on structure and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙学义; 卢世刚; 张向军; 庄卫东

    2012-01-01

    采用高温固相法合成了层状LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2锂离子正极材料,研究了合成温度及合成时间对材料结构(包括Li-Ni阳离子混排)以及电化学性能的影响.实验结果表明975℃7h合成的样品具有最好的电化学性能,在0.1 C时2.5~4.3 V间,其首次充放电比容量分别为173.7、149 mAh/g,前10周容量保持95%.精修结果表明所得材料存在Li-Ni阳离子混排,Li层中有5%的位置被Ni所占据.%The layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3A, cathode material for Li-ion batteries was synthesized by high temperature solid-state method. The effects of temperature on the structure and electrochemical performances of LiNi1/3CO1/3Mn1/3O2 were investigated. The results show that the sample synthesized at 975 ℃ for 7 h exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. The initial charge specific capacity is 173.7 mAh/g and the initial discharge specific capacity is 149 mAh/g at a current density of 0.1 C between 2.5-4.3 V. The discharge capacity retention is 95% after 10 cycles. Rietveld analysis of the XRD pattern shows that there is Li-Ni cation mixing in the LiNi1/3CO1/3Mn1/3O2 and 5% sites in the Li plane occupied by Ni2+ ions.

  8. On the Research Status of Anode Material of Lithium Ion Battery like LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Lithium-ion battery%锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晋; 廖莉玲

    2012-01-01

    本文综述了近几年来锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的研究进展,重点讨论了LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2正极材料的结构,制备方法和改性研究状况。%The progress in recent research on cathode materiall LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 lithium -ion battery have been reviewed in this paper, the strueture, prepation methods and modification status of cathode matexial LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 are discussed in detail.

  9. Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode Materials with Cr3+ and F- Composite Doping for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Shaofang; Xu, Shuaijun; Huang, Si; Zhu, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    A Cr3+ and F- composite-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode material was synthesized by the solid-state method, and the influence of the doping amount on the material's physical and electrochemical properties was investigated. The structure and morphology of the cathode material were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and HRTEM, and the results revealed that the sample exhibited clear spinel features. No Cr3+ and F- impurity phases were found, and the spinel structure became more stable. The results of the charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test results suggested that LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 in which the Cr3+ and F- doping amounts were both 0.05, had the optimal electrochemical properties, with discharge rates of 0.1, 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 C and specific capacities of 134.18, 128.70, 123.62, 119.63, and 97.68 mAh g-1 , respectively. After 50 cycles at a rate of 2 C, LiCr0.05Ni0.475Mn1.475O3.95F0.05 showed extremely good cycling performance, with a discharge specific capacity of 121.02 mAh g-1 and a capacity retention rate of 97.9%. EIS test revealed that the doping clearly decreased the charge-transfer resistance.

  10. Fatigue in 0.5Li2MnO3:0.5Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 positive electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekehr, Lars; Liu, Jinlong; Schwarz, Björn; Sigel, Florian; Kerkamm, Ingo; Xia, Yongyao; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    Two different Li-rich nickel-cobalt-manganese-oxide (Li-rich NCM) active materials with the same nominal composition 0.5Li2MnO3:0.5Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 but different pristine nano structure have been analyzed structurally and electrochemically in different cycling states. For structural characterization, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction (S-XRD) experiments were conducted. The changes in structure with increasing cycle number are correlated with characteristic features in the corresponding electrochemical dQ/dV-profiles that were obtained by galvanostatically cycling the two different active materials. The presented data demonstrates that structural changes upon cycling, e.g. LiMnO2 and spinel formation, strongly depend on the degree oxygen is involved in the reversible charge compensation for delithiation/lithiation. According to our data, firstly a twin-like environment with nanometer dimensions is formed within the R-3m matrix during the initial cycle, which then gradually transforms into a spinel-like structure with increasing cycle number. As another result, we can show that Li2MnO3 to LiMnO2 transformation is not directly dependent in the irreversible oxygen loss in the first cycle but more importantly on transition metal migration. A model is presented explaining the dependency of LiMnO2 and spinel formation on the ability of Li-rich active materials to include oxygen in the charge compensation process.

  11. Li2ZrO3-coated 0.4Li2MnO3·0.6LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for high performance cathode material in lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiaowei; Ni, Huan; Zhang, Han; Wang, Chunguang; Fang, Jianhui; Yang, Gang

    2014-10-01

    To improve the high-rate capacity and cycle ability, minor Li2ZrO3 successfully coat the nanoparticles of 0.4Li2MnO3·0.6LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (LMO) via sol-gel method. The crystal structure and electrochemical properties of the bare and coated material are studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), and charge-discharge tests. The lithium diffusion coefficient of LMO increases one to two orders of magnitude after Li2ZrO3 coating. Li2ZrO3 coating improves the rate capability and cycling stability of LMO. Within the cut-off voltage of 2.5-4.8 V, the initial discharge capacity of Li2ZrO3-coated 0.4Li2MnO3·0.6LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (LZO-LMO) reaches to 264 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C rate, and the capacity remains 235 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. At the current rates of 1, 2, 5 and 10 C, the maximum discharge capacities of LZO-LMO are 205.6, 161, 153.8 and 106 mAh g-1, respectively. Minor Li2ZrO3 modification plays an important role to enhance the high-rate capability and cycle ability of LMO.

  12. Systematic Optimization of Battery Materials: Key Parameter Optimization for the Scalable Synthesis of Uniform, High-Energy, and High Stability LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dong; Shen, Yun; Yang, Yao; Shen, Luxi; Levin, Barnaby D A; Yu, Yingchao; Muller, David A; Abruña, Héctor D

    2017-10-06

    Ni-rich LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (x > 0.5) (NMC) materials have attracted a great deal of interest as promising cathode candidates for Li-ion batteries due to their low cost and high energy density. However, several issues, including sensitivity to moisture, difficulty in reproducibly preparing well-controlled morphology particles and, poor cyclability, have hindered their large scale deployment; especially for electric vehicle (EV) applications. In this work, we have developed a uniform, highly stable, high-energy density, Ni-rich LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 cathode material by systematically optimizing synthesis parameters, including pH, stirring rate, and calcination temperature. The particles exhibit a spherical morphology and uniform size distribution, with a well-defined structure and homogeneous transition-metal distribution, owing to the well-controlled synthesis parameters. The material exhibited superior electrochemical properties, when compared to a commercial sample, with an initial discharge capacity of 205 mAh/g at 0.1 C. It also exhibited a remarkable rate capability with discharge capacities of 157 mAh/g and 137 mAh/g at 10 and 20 C, respectively, as well as high tolerance to air and moisture. In order to demonstrate incorporation into a commercial scale EV, a large-scale 4.7 Ah LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 Al-full pouch cell with a high cathode loading of 21.6 mg/cm(2), paired with a graphite anode, was fabricated. It exhibited exceptional cyclability with a capacity retention of 96% after 500 cycles at room temperature. This material, which was obtained by a fully optimized scalable synthesis, delivered combined performance metrics that are among the best for NMC materials reported to date.

  13. Synthesis and performance of shape-controlled spinel LiNi0.5 Mn1.5O4%形貌可控的尖晶石型LiNi0.5 Mn1.5O4的合成与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 胡航; 赵瑞瑞; 朱继涛; 蒋建辉; 陈红雨

    2014-01-01

    LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 powders were synthesized by sol-gel method.The salt solution was add-ed into the oxalic acid solution at different feeding speeds.The crystal structures,material mor-phologies and electrochemical performances of the LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode materials were exam-ined by XRD and SEM technologies.The results reveal optimized synthesis parameters:the salt solution of a feeding speed of 0.17 ml/s and preheated temperature at 450 ℃ for 4 h.The as-made material delivers a discharge capacity of 1 3 5 mAh/g at 1 C rate with a high capacity reten-tion of 96.26% after 55 cycles.%采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了5 V正极材料LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4。将混合盐溶液以不同速度加入草酸溶液中,对制得的LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4材料的结构、形貌和电化学性能会产生显著的影响。结果表明:将盐溶液以0.17 mL/s的速度加入到草酸中,预烧温度为450℃,焙烧4 h,后900℃焙烧6 h制得的样品为粒径均匀的多面体,1 C 充放电初始容量达到135 mAh/g,55次循环后的放电比容量保持率为96.26%。

  14. Li3PO4 surface coating on Ni-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 by a citric acid assisted sol-gel method: Improved thermal stability and high-voltage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Woo; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jeong, Jun Hui; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2017-08-01

    A surface coating of Li3PO4 was applied to a Ni-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (NCM) material to improve its thermal stability and electrochemical properties via a citric acid assisted sol-gel method. The addition of citric acid effectively suppressed the instant formation of Li3PO4 in solution, resulting in successful coating of the NCM surface. The improved thermal stability of NCM after Li3PO4 surface coating was demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD). In particular, the TR-XRD results showed that the improved thermal stability after Li3PO4 surface coating originates from suppression of the phase transition of charged NCM at high temperatures. Furthermore, the charge-discharge tests demonstrated that Li3PO4-coated LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (LP-NCM) has excellent electrochemical properties. LP-NCM exhibited a specific capacity of 192.7 mAh g-1, a capacity retention of 44.1% at 10 C, and a capacity retention of 79.7% after 100 cycles at a high cut-off voltage of 4.7 V; these values represent remarkably improved electrochemical properties compared with those of bare NCM. These improved thermal and electrochemical properties were mainly attributed to the improvement of the structural stability of the material and the suppression of the interface reaction between the cathode and the electrolyte owing to the Li3PO4 coating.

  15. Preparation and characteristics ofγ-Al2 O3 coating on LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode materials%LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4正极材料的γ-Al2O3包覆及其性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建文; 叶瞡; 何世丽; 颜波; 刘彦生; 张灵志

    2015-01-01

    以氢氧化铝溶胶为前驱体在LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4正极材料表面制备尖晶石结构γ-Al2 O3包覆层,借助XRD、SEM、TEM及电化学方法对电极材料的主要性能进行了研究。结果表明:LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4表面γ-Al2 O3包覆层形成条件为600℃下煅烧0.5 h,较佳包覆量约为3%(摩尔比);γ-Al2 O3包覆层形貌完整,厚度约为5~10 nm,(311)晶面间距约0.24 nm;γ-Al2O3包覆的LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4正极材料30周充放电循环(0.2 C)后的比容量为112.1 mAh/g,4 C倍率下的比容量为82.0 mAh/g,容量保持率较基体分别提高了约10%和17.2%。因此,γ-Al2 O3包覆层减小了LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4与电解液的接触,有效抑制了基体与电解液之间的副反应,其电化学反应可逆性、循环稳定性及倍率性能得到了提高,有望用作动力锂离子电池正极材料。%γ-Al2 O3-coated LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode material was prepared using aluminum hydroxide sol as pre-cursors.The properties of samples were characterized by XRD,SEM,TEM and electrochemical methods.The results indicate that the complete and compactγ-Al2 O3 nanoshell can be obtained by sintering at 600 ℃for 0.5 h with Al2 O3/LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 mole ratio of 3%.The coating thickness is about 5 -10 nm.The crystal face is clear and the interplanar spacing of (3 1 1 )is about 0.24 nm.Al2 O3-coated samples can still deliver a discharge capacity of 1 12.1 mAh/g and 82.0 mAh/g respectively after 30 full charge-discharge cycles at constant rates of 0.2 C and 4 C.Al2 O3-coated LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 samples show outstanding cyclability.The capacities of Al2 O3-coated samples are 10% and 17.2% higher than that of the bare ones after 30 charge-discharge cycles at rates of 0.2 C and 4 C respectively.These mean that the Al2 O3 coating can effectively separate the electrolyte and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4,which depresses the side reactions,resulting in better cycling performance,better rate capabil-ity,and better rate

  16. First-principles Study on Metal-doped LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a Cathode Material for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries%锂离子电池正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4金属掺杂的第一性原理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨思七; 张天然; 陶占良; 陈军

    2013-01-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is recently considered as a promising cathode material for rechargeable Li-ion batteries,yet its large-scale application is limited due to relatively poor cycling and rate performance.Metal doping is expected to be an effective approach to improve the electrochemical performance of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.However,deeper understanding into doping effects on structural and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode materials is still ambiguous.In this work,systematic first-principles studies based on the density functional theory (DFT) have been carried out to investigate electronic and structural properties of LiM0.125Ni0.375Mn1.5O4 (where M=Cr,Fe,and Co) cathode.All computations were carried out on the basis of projector augmented wave (PAW) approach as implemented in VASP.The exchange and correlation potential was treated with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of Perdew and Wang (PW91).In order to take into account the strong on-site Coulomb interaction (U) presented in the localized d electrons of transition metals,the GGA+U framework was used for evaluating the exchange-correlation energy.Within this framework,the effective single parameters Ueff of 3.5,4,5,5.62 and 5.96 eV were used for Cr,Fe,Mn,Co and Ni,respectively.The electron wave functions were expanded by a high cutoff of 500 eV and the total energy was converged to 10-5 eV.The following electronic states are treated as valence electrons:Li,2s12p0; O,2s22p4; Cr,3d54s1; Mn,3d64s1; Fe,3d74s1; Co,3d84s1; Ni,3d94s1; Regarding the accurate calculations of total energy and electronic structure,the tetrahedron method with Bl(o)ch correction was adopted for structural relaxation and density of state (DOS) analysis.The cell parameters,volume cells,and positions of all the atoms in the primitive cell were fully relaxed until the residual Hellmann-Feynman force on each atom was less than 10-2 eV/(A).It is found that doping a small quantity of metal M atoms into the Ni site

  17. Analisis Faktor – Faktor Yang Mendorong Keberhasilan Usaha Pada Usaha Parfum Di Jalan Ginting, Padang Bulan Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Syahputra, Ade Ikhwan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine and analyze the success factors of the perfume business at Padang Bulan, Medan. Analysis of the variables that drive the success of the business which consists of 3 (three) variables: knowledge of entrepreneurship, marketing strategies, and capital and financial management of the informants from the perfume business owner at Padang Bulan Medan with an informant from the customer / consumer perfume business. This study is a descriptive type of research is the s...

  18. The Green Return in Paer Gint%《培尔·金特》中的绿色回归

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明厚

    2009-01-01

    在中,易卜生用隐喻和对比手法,把女性与生命的"绿色"联系在一起,这就是母亲与索尔维格,在她们身上体现了"永恒女性的引领作用".女性的双重的职责,她们无私的自我牺牲精神与博大深沉的爱,正是人类生命之"绿"的保证,也是培尔·金特绿色回归的保证.特别是索尔维格,易卜生将她升华到一个圣女的高度,使她成为挪威人心中的女神和理想人格的化身.从另一角度说,培尔的妄想症是对挪威"绿"的崇拜和自豪,它洋溢着整个民族特有的青春活力和生命的气息.因而,不仅是一般意义上的诗剧,它还是更高层次上的人生哲理剧.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Lithium-ion cathode materials in the system (1-x-y) LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O 2.xLi2MnO3.yLiCoO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, Anish

    Energy storage technology has been dominated by lithium ion batteries, which are considered the most promising with higher energy density compared to any other battery technologies. The market for lithium ion batteries has increased rapidly from 2007. Goals set by the U.S Department of Energy for hybrid electric vehicles have not been met by any of the existing cathode materials. The objective of this thesis was to find a material composition that has better cyclability and lower cost than the standard battery materials. A ternary composition with low cost materials like Al, Mn and Ni were used instead of high amounts of Co to reduce the cost of the battery. It was hypothesized that there are cathode compositions in the system (1-x-y) LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2.xLi2MnO3.yLiCoO2 that when tested for discharge capacities and cyclability will show better properties than the current generation lithium ion cathode materials. The system (1-x-y) LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2.xLi2MnO3.yLiCoO2 is synthesized using a simple sol-gel synthesis. The materials LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, Li2MnO3 and LiCoO2 were used as end points in a ternary composition diagram. Twenty eight cathode compositions spanning the entire ternary composition diagram were synthesized under the same conditions and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and an Arbin BT2000 battery testing system. XRD results showed α-NaFeO2 structure with a space group of R3m. The results from electrochemical testing revealed a wide range of electrochemical capacities and cyclabilities. The regions close to Li2MnO3 showed high capacities and cyclability. The material with composition Li1.5 Ni0.133Co0.358Al0.008Mn0.5 had an initial discharge capacity of 216.3 mAh/g and retained this capacity even after multiple cycles in the voltage range of 4.6-2 V at a rate of C/15. Statistical analysis was done using SAS/STAT 9.2 with the ADX procedure to fit a general linear model with three linear terms and three two way interactions to map

  20. 爆燃法制备纳米LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2正极材料%Defiagration Synthesis of Nanocrystalline LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/302 Cathode Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李节宾; 徐友龙; 杜显峰; 丁茂元

    2011-01-01

    The homogenous precursor has been prepared using a mixed aqueous solution of Ni(NO3)2·6H2O, Co(NO3)2 6H2O, Mn(NO3)2 and LiNO3 as metal sources and citric acid as chelating agent and fuel. The nanocrystalline LiNi1/3Co1/3 Mn1/3O2 powder was rapidly synthesized by deflagrating the dried precursor in oxygen. The annealed LiNi1/3Co1/3ln1/3O2 powder was mainly consisted of particle agglomerates with the primary particles size of 100~300 nm. The high initial capacities of 208.0 mAh·g-1 (2.8~4.6 V) and 173.6 mAh·g-1 (2.8~4.3 V) were discharged at the rate of 0.05 C respectively. Its capacity retentions were 89.3% and 93.4% within the voltage range of 2.8~4.6 V and 2.8~4.3 V at 0. 1 C after 20 cycles respectively.%以Ni(NO)·6HO、Co(NO)·6HO、Mn(NO)和LiNO为金属原料,以柠檬酸为鳌合剂和燃料制备出均一的前驱体.前驱体经干燥后在氧弹中快速爆燃制备出纳米LiNiCoMnO粉体,并生成了高结晶度的LiNiCoMnO材料,其平均粒径约为200nm.将其分别在2.8~4.6V和2.8~4.3V电压范围内以0.05C速率恒流充放电,首次放电比容量分别为208.0mAh·g和173.6mAh·g;以0.1C速率分别在2.8~4.6V和2.8~4.3V电压范围内循环20周后,容量保持率分别为89.3%和93.4%.

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3-Ga2O3 Alloy Coatings for Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 Cathode to Improve Rate Performance in Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Masihhur R; Jackson, David H K; Guan, Yingxin; Xu, Shenzhen; Fang, Shuyu; Dreibelbis, Mark; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K; Morgan, Dane; Hamers, Robert J; Kuech, Thomas F

    2016-04-27

    Metal oxide coatings can improve the electrochemical stability of cathodes and hence, their cycle-life in rechargeable batteries. However, such coatings often impose an additional electrical and ionic transport resistance to cathode surfaces leading to poor charge-discharge capacity at high C-rates. Here, a mixed oxide (Al2O3)1-x(Ga2O3)x alloy coating, prepared via atomic layer deposition (ALD), on Li[Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2]O2 (NMC) cathodes is developed that has increased electron conductivity and demonstrated an improved rate performance in comparison to uncoated NMC. A "co-pulsing" ALD technique was used which allows intimate and controlled ternary mixing of deposited film to obtain nanometer-thick mixed oxide coatings. Co-pulsing allows for independent control over film composition and thickness in contrast to separate sequential pulsing of the metal sources. (Al2O3)1-x(Ga2O3)x alloy coatings were demonstrated to improve the cycle life of the battery. Cycle tests show that increasing Al-content in alloy coatings increases capacity retention; whereas a mixture of compositions near (Al2O3)0.5(Ga2O3)0.5 was found to produce the optimal rate performance.

  2. Enhancing the High-Voltage Cycling Performance of LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.3)Co(0.2)O2 by Retarding Its Interfacial Reaction with an Electrolyte by Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yantao; Cui, Suihan; Zhuo, Zengqing; Yang, Wanli; Wang, Xinwei; Pan, Feng

    2015-11-18

    High-voltage (>4.3 V) operation of LiNi(x)Mn(y)Co(z)O2 (NMC; 0 ≤ x, y, z batteries because of the rapid capacity degradation over cycling. In this work, we investigate the performance of LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.3)Co(0.2)O2 (NMC532) electrodes with and without an atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) Al2O3 layer for charging/discharging in the range from 3.0 to 4.5 V (high voltage). The results of the electrochemical measurements show that the cells with ALD Al2O3-coated NMC532 electrodes have much enhanced cycling stability. The mechanism was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemical methods. We find that the ultrathin ALD Al2O3 film can reduce the interface resistance of lithium-ion diffusion and enhance the surface stability of NMC532 by retarding the reactions at NMC532/electrolyte interfaces for preventing the formation of a new microstructure rock-salt phase NiO around the NMC532 surfaces.

  3. Progress in LiNi0.5Mn1.504 as 5 V cathode materials for Li-ion battery%5V锂离子电池正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4的进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张真; 刘兴泉; 张峥; 向小春

    2011-01-01

    Research progress in the synthesizing methods (such as solid-state reaction, co-precipitation method, sol-gel, spray methed,molten salt synthesis) of Li-ion battery used 5 V cathode material LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 and its modification methods (such as body doping and surface coating) in recent years was reviewed, the development prospects were forecasted. The key challenges of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were how to carry out large-scaled industrial production at a low coat.%综述了近年来5 V锂离子电池正极材料LiNiMnO的合成方法(如固相反应法、共沉淀法、溶胶-凝胶法、喷雾法和熔盐法等)及修饰改性(如体相掺杂和表面包覆)的研究进展,并对发展前景进行了展望.LiNiMnO目前主要的问题是如何进行低成本和大规模的工业化生产.

  4. The effect of diamond-like carbon coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal, Heidy; Aihara, Yuichi; Ito, Seitaro; Watanabe, Taku; Park, Youngsin; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-05-01

    There have been several reports on improvements of the performance of all solid-state battery using lithium metal oxide coatings on the cathode active material. However, the mechanism of the performance improvement remains unclear. To better understand the effect of the surface coating, we studied the impact of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The DLC coated NCA showed good cycle ability and rate performance. This result is further supported by reduction of the interfacial resistance of the cathode and electrolyte observed in impedance spectroscopy. The DLC layer was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). After 100 cycles the sample was analyzed by X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). These analyses showed that the thickness of the coating layer was around 4 nm on average, acting to hinder the side reactions between the cathode particle and the solid electrolyte. The results of this study will provide useful insights for understanding the nature of the buffer layer for the cathode materials.

  5. Mechanistic Insight in the Function of Phosphite Additives for Protection of LiNi 0.5 Co 0.2 Mn 0.3 O 2 Cathode in High Voltage Li-Ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Peebles, Cameron; Feng, Zhenxing; Connell, Justin G.; Liao, Chen; Wang, Yan; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-05-11

    Triethlylphosphite (TEP) and tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TTFP) have been evaluated as electrolyte additives for high-voltage Li-ion battery cells using a Ni-rich layered cathode material LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM523) and the conventional carbonate electrolyte. The repeated charge/discharge cycling for cells containing 1 wt% of these additives was performed using an NCM523/graphite full cell operated at the voltage window from 3.0 to 4.6 V. During the initial charge process, these additives decompose on the cathode surface at a lower oxidation potential than the baseline electrolyte. Impedance spectroscopy and post-test analyses indicate the formation of protective coatings by both additives on the cathode surface that prevent oxidative breakdown of the electrolyte. However, only TTFP containing cells demonstrate the improved capacity retention and Coulombic efficiency. For TEP, the protective coating is also formed, but low Li+ ion mobility through the interphase layer results in inferior performance. These observations are rationalized through the inhibition of electrocatalytic centers present on the cathode surface and the formation of organophosphate deposits isolating the cathode surface from the electrolyte. The difference between the two phosphites clearly originates in the different properties of the resulting phosphate coatings, which may be in Li+ ion conductivity through such materials.

  6. A short process for the efficient utilization of transition-metal chlorides in lithium-ion batteries: A case of Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O1.1 and LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun

    2017-02-01

    A short process for the efficient utilization of transition-metal chlorides in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is proposed. A uniformly dispersed tri-component nanocomposite of Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O1.1 microspheres with a porous structure has been prepared from the solution of transition-metal chlorides via spray pyrolysis. When evaluated as anode for LIBs, the Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O1.1 nanocomposite exhibits a reversible capacity of 1180 mAh g-1 after 120 cycles. More strikingly, the nanoparticles-assembled Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O1.1 precursor has its unique advantages in synthesizing well-ordered layered LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2, owning to its excellent atomic uniformity, porous structure and Ni3+-rich surface. The as-prepared cathode material shows excellent structural stability. Discharge capacities of 173 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 1 C (1 C = 180 mA g-1) between 2.8 and 4.3 V are consistently obtained, corresponding to 95.6% capacity retention. These outstanding electrochemical results are obtained with minimal process optimization, indicating that spray pyrolysis is an efficient, robust synthesis technique for the production of Ni-rich layered cathode from solution of transition-metal chlorides.

  7. Al掺杂对正极材料LiNi0.33-xMn0.33Co0.33AlxO2结构和电化学性能的影响%Influence of Al Doping Content on the Structure and Electrochemical Behaviour of LiNi0.33-xMn0.33Co0.33AlxO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓炜; 林应斌; 林莹; 周婷; 赖恒; 黄志高

    2011-01-01

    Layered materials of LiNi0.33-xMn0.33Co0.33AlxO2 (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04) with α-NaFeO2 structure were synthesized by a fast wet-chemical process with citric acid as the chelating agent. The crystal structure and electrochemical properties were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance. Structure analysis shows that all the resulted LiNi0.33-xMn0.33Co0.33AlxO2 materials possess a well-layered hexagonal structure and the cation-mixing of Li layer in materials degrades with increasing Al content. The analysis from electrochemical tests suggests that the electrochemical performance is improved by Al substitution in LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2. LiNi0.31Mn0.33Co0.33Al0.02O2 shows higher initial discharge capacity and more structure-stable than other samples. AC impedance reveals that the enhancement of electrochemical performance is attributed to the decrease of the charge transfer resistance during high-voltage cycling because of A1 substitution.%以柠檬酸为螫合剂利用快速湿化学法合成了具有a-NaFeO2型层状结构的LiNi0.33-xMn0.33Co0.33AlxO2(x=0.00,0.01,0.02,0.04)正极材料,并通过X-射线衍射、充放电测试、循环伏安和交流阻抗对材料的结构和电化学性能进行了系统研究.XRD结果表明此方法合成的材料具有很好的层状结构且阳离子的混排度随着Al3+含量的增加而下降.电化学测试表明,LiNi0.31Mn0.33Co0.33Al0.02O2具有很好的电化学性能和和循环性能,1C放电倍率下首次放电比容量达到176.9 mAh·g-1,且Al3+的掺杂能有效提高电荷在电极界面间转移并抑制了在高压循环过程中电荷转移阻抗的增加.

  8. Electrochemical Properties of LiNi0.5 FexMn1.5-xO4 as Cathode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries%锂离子电池正极材料LiNi0.5 FexMn1.5-xO4的电化学性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁兴华; 刘浩; 王镇江; 宋清清

    2016-01-01

    The 4.6 V high potential materials LiNi0.5 FexMn1.5-x O4 was synthesized via sol-gel method using CH3COOLi·2H2O,Mn(CH3COO)2 ·4H2O,Ni(CH3COO)2 ·4H2O,Fe(C2O4)3 ·5H2O as raw materials at the molar ratio ofn(Li):n(Mn):n(Ni):n(Fe)=1.3:1.5 -x:0.5:x (x=0,0.02,0.03,0.04),and subsequent-ly preheated for 4 h at 450 ℃ within a atmosphere furnace and reheated at 800 ℃ for 18 h.The crystal structures of the cathode materials were analyzed through X-ray diffraction and the microstructures were observed by scanning elec-tron microscopy.The initial charge-discharge performances and cycle efficiencies were tested.The experimental re-sults showed that the high potential materials LiNi0.5 FexMn1.5-xO4 were cubic crystal with Fd3m space group,and the Li-ion battery fabricated by the cathode material with x=0.03 exhibited an initial discharge capacity of 126 mA·h· g-1.%以醋酸锂、醋酸锰、醋酸镍、草酸铁为原料,采用溶胶凝胶法制备出了4.6 V高电位材料LiNi0.5-FexMn1.5-xO4.合成化学计量比为n(Li):n(Mn):n(Ni):n(Fe)=1.3:1.5-x:0.5:x(x=0,0.02,0.03,0.04).在空气条件下于450℃下煅烧6 h,再于800℃下烧结18 h.对合成的材料用X射线衍射仪分析晶体结构和用扫描电镜(SEM)观察微观形貌,对电池进行首次充放电测试和循环效率测试.实验结果表明,LiNi0.5 FexMn1.5-xO4三元正极材料为立方晶系,Fd3m空间群.以其为正极材料组装的锂离子电池在x=0.03时,充放电比容量为126 mA·h·g-1.

  9. 氧化镍钴锂(NCA)体系高功率锂离子的设计研究%Design and investigations of LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2(NCA)system high power lithium ion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宁懿; 潘磊; 张健; 李成章

    2012-01-01

    The rechargeable lithium ion batteries with high-power capabilities have become an important power source tor portable electronic devices such as cellular phones and laptop computers.In addition,they have attracted the attention of the automotive industry for applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV).In this paper,2 Ah soft-package,20 Ah and 18650 cylindrical high power lithium ion cells with LiNi0.8CO0.15Al0.05O2(NCA) cathode/carbon anode chemical system were prepared.The electrochemical tests were performed to investigate the electrode formula design,separator material and thickness,electrolyte system and their influence on the power ability and cyclability of cells.%具有高功率性能的锂离子二次电池已广泛应用于手机电池、笔记本电池等便携式电源领域.此外,以HEV为代表的动力电池的研制也逐渐成为高功率锂离子电池的研究热点.选用了氧化镍钴锂(NCA)/中间相碳微球材料体系制备了2Ah软包装、20Ah圆柱形及18650功率型动力电池,并进行了相关电化学测试.探讨了电极配方设计、隔膜材质及厚度、电解液体系对电池大倍率放电性能和循环性能的影响.

  10. 高温固相法合成LiNi0.25Co0.5Mn0.25O2及其结构性能研究%Synthesis and characterization of LiNi0.25Co0.5Mn0.25O2 by high temperature solid-state method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙学义; 卢世刚; 庄卫东; 张向军

    2013-01-01

    The layered LiNi0.25Co0.5Mn0.25O2 cathode material for Li-ion batteries was synthesized by high temperature solid-state method. XRD, SEM, XPS and charge-discharge cycling measurements were used to characterize the structure, morphology and electrochemical performance. The results show that the sample synthesized at 950 °C for 7 h exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. The initial charge capacity is 166.3 mAh/g and the initial discharge capacity is 150 mAh/g at the current density of 0.1 C between 2.5-4.3 V. The discharge capacity retention is 96% after 10 cycles. Rietveld analysis of the XRD pattern showed that only 1.1% sites in the Li plane occupies by Ni2+ ions.%采用高温固相法合成了层状LiNi0.25Co.5Mn0.25O2正极材料.通过×射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)以及恒电流充放电测试,研究了LiNi0.25Co0.5Mn0.25O2材料的结构、形貌以及电化学性能.实验结果表明950℃7h合成的样品具有最好的电化学性能,在0.1 C时2.5 ~ 4.3 V间,其首次充放电比容量分别为166.3 mAh/g和150 mAh/g,循环10周容量保持96%;XRD精修结果表明Li层中只有1.1%的位置被Ni所占据.

  11. Kinetics and structural changes of Li-rich layered oxide 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi(0.292)Co(0.375)Mn(0.333)O2 material investigated by a novel technique combining in situ XRD and a multipotential step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong-Heng; Huang, Ling; Lin, Zhou; Shen, Shou-Yu; Wang, Qin; Su, Hang; Fu, Fang; Zheng, Xiao-Mei

    2014-08-13

    Li-rich layered oxide 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.292Co0.375Mn0.333O2 was prepared by an aqueous solution-evaporation route. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) showed that the as-synthesized material was a solid solution consisting of layered α-NaFeO2-type LiMO2 (M = Ni, Co, Mn) and monoclinic Li2MnO3. The superlattice spots in the selected area electron diffraction pattern indicated the ordering of lithium ions with transition metal (TM) ions in TM layers in this Li-rich layered oxide. Electrochemical performance testing showed that the as-synthesized material could deliver an initial discharge capacity of 267.7 mAh/g, with a capacity retention of 88.5% after 33 cycles. A new combination technique, multipotential step in situ XRD (MPS in situ XRD) measurement, was applied for the first time to investigate the Li-rich layered oxide. Using this approach, the relationships between kinetics and structural variations can be obtained simutaneously. In situ XRD results showed that the c parameter decreased from 3.70 to 4.30 V and increased from 4.30 to 4.70 V, whereas the a parameter underwent a decrease above 4.30 V during the first charge process. Below 3.90 V during the first discharge process, a slight decrease in the c parameter was found along with an increase in the a parameter. During the first charge process, the value of the coefficient of diffusion for lithium ions (DLi+) decreased to its mininum at 4.55 V, which might be associated with Ni(2+) migration, as indicated by both Ni occupancy in 3b sites (Ni3b%) in the Li(+) layers and complicated chemical reactions. Remarkably, a lattice distortion might occur within the local domain in the host stucture during the first discharge process, indicated by a slight splitting of the (003) diffraction peak at 3.20 V.

  12. 燃烧辅助合成LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4粉体及其性质研究%Combustion-assisted Synthesis and Characterization of LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4 Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴显明; 陈上; 刘金练; 麦发任; 李长安

    2012-01-01

    以醋酸锂、醋酸锰、硝酸镍、柠檬酸、乙二醇为原料,采用燃烧辅助合成锂离子电池正极材料LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4.采用X射线衍射、扫描电子显微镜、循环伏安、恒电流充放电等技术对合成产物进行物相、形貌及电化学性能分析与测试.结果表明:采用燃烧辅助合成LiNi0.05MnIn95O4过程中,前驱体在空气中点燃后已形成单一尖晶石相,经750℃热处理4h后得到的LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4粉末X射线衍射峰尖锐,结晶性好,晶粒尺寸均匀.该法合成的LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4粉末首次放电比容量为117.5 mAh·g-1,经50次充放电循环后的容量保持率为95.1%,合成的LiNi0.05Mn1.95O4粉末具有良好的电化学性能.%LiNi0.05 Mn1.95 O4 powders were prepared by combustion assisted sol-gel method using lithium acetate, manganese acetate, nickel nitrate, citric acid and ethylene glycol as starting materials. The structure, morphology, and electrochemical properties of the powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments. The results show that LiNi0.05 Mn1.95 O4 precursor gel ignited in air for several minutes has already been the structure of spinel. The powders heated at 750℃ for 4hours prepared by this technique is well crystallized. The grains are small and uniform. The specific capacity of the prepared powders is 117.5 mAh·g-1 and show the capacity retention of 95.1% after being cycled 50 times.

  13. Reviews on the synthesis method of layered Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 as cathode material for lithium ion batteries%层状Li[Ni1/3CO1/3Mn1/3] O2锂离子电池正极材料制备方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 邓超; 孙言虹; 尚雨

    2011-01-01

    层状结构Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2是目前国内外锂电池正极材料的研究热点.制备这种三元系材料的方法是热点中的重点.本文主要综述了不同的制备方法以及这些方法的简单对比,并探讨了Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2的应用前景.%Layered structure of Li [Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 at home and abroad is the research hotspot of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Preparation of this three yuan of material is key hot in the. This paper mainly reviews the different preparation method and the method of simple comparison, and to explore the Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 application prospect.

  14. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2 Cathode Material by Soft Template Assisted Sol-Gel Method%溶胶凝胶-软模板法制备LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2正极材料及其电化学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 黄可龙; 刘素琴; 罗燕

    2009-01-01

    在溶胶凝胶法中引入了软模板十二烷基磺酸钠(SDS)制备了LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2.2正极材料.采用X射线衍射法(XRD),扫描电镜法(SEM),循环伏安法(CV),交流阻抗法(ElS)及充放电测试等手段对材料进行了表征.结果表明,在750℃下煅烧12 h加入或不加SDS都能得到结晶较好具有六方层状a-NaFeO_2结构的LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2.SEM显示引入SDS辅助制备的目标材料颗粒细小.约60-300 nm,分散均匀.部分颗粒呈类球状形貌.而没有添加表面活性剂制备的材料粒径范围约250-600 nm,并且部分颗粒有团聚现象.在2.8-4.3 V(vs Li/Li~+),0.5C倍率下,SDS辅助制备和没有添加表面活性剂制备的材料首次放电比容量分别为136.8、123.4 mAh·g_(-1),50次循环后容量保持率分别为90.3%.73.8%.2C和5C下的充放电测试结果都显示SDS的加入能有效改善材料的倍率性能.归因于颗粒更细小.分散更均匀及较小的晶胞体积.SDS辅助制备的材料电荷传递阻抗远小于无表面活性剂辅助制备的材料是其倍率性能得到明显提高的重要原因.%Soft template(sodium dodecyl sulfonate,SDS)assisted Sol-Gel method was provided in this paper to obtain LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2 cathode material.Related characters of products were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron macroscopy(SEM),cyclic voltametry(cv),electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)and charge-discharge testing.XRD results showed that the samples with SDS and without surfaetant caclined 750℃for 12 h both were indexed to pure LiNi_(1/3)Co_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)O_2 with well hexagonal structure (α-NaFeO_2).As observed by SEM,the particle sizes of those with SDS surfactant and without surfactant were in a range of 60-300 nm and 250-600 nm,respectively.Meanwhile,the particle distribution of that with SDS Was moreuniform than that of without surfactant.It'S also observed that material prepared without surfactant showed some the

  15. Analisis Escherichia coli dan Higiene Sanitasi pada Minuman Es Teh yang Dijual di Pajak Karona Jamin Ginting Kecamatan Medan Baru Tahun 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ritonga, Rimadani

    2015-01-01

    Iced tea is a traditional beverage which favored by many people. Iced tea could be contaminated by bacteria if not better way of processing. One of the bacteria that can contaminate is Escherichia coli which is an indicator of fecal coliforms and if drinking water contaminated by E. coli is the possibility that has been contaminated by human feces. This study aims to determine the content of Escherichia coli in iced tea and also hygiene and sanitation management iced tea in pajak karona ja...

  16. Effect of Complexing Agent on Electrochemical Performance of LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 Cathode Materials Prepared by Sol-gel Method%络合剂对溶胶-凝胶法制备LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2正极材料电化学性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 夏书标; 张英杰; 邱振平; 张雁南; 徐明丽

    2016-01-01

    LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) cathode materials were prepared by a sol–gel method using maleic acid, glycine or citric acid as complexing agent. The microstructure and morphology of the cathode materials were characterized by X–ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The electrochemical properties, i.e., galvanostatic charge–discharge capacity, cyclic voltammetry, and cycling performance were determined. XRD analysis demonstrates that all the samples prepared using different complexing agents present a hexagonalα–NaFeO2 layered structure with the space groupR3m. SEM observation reveals that, the sample prepared using citrate has the more octahedral single crystals. For the NCA cathode material prepared using maleic acid, its initial discharge capacities of are 176 mA·h/g at 0.2C and 162 mA·h/g at 1C, respectively; after 30 cycles, the capacity retention rate is 97.3% for 0.2C and 92.3% for 1C, respectively.%以马来酸、甘氨酸或柠檬酸作为络合剂,采用溶胶–凝胶法制备锂离子电池 LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2正极材料,对比了络合剂种类对样品电化学性能的影响。结果表明:采用不同络合剂制备的样品都具有层状结构,以柠檬酸为络合剂制备的样品存在较多的八面体单晶体。电化学分析显示,以马来酸为络合剂制备的样品具有最佳的充放电和循环性能:0.2C下首次放电容量为176 mA·h/g,30次循环后容量保持率为97.3%;1C下首次放电容量为162 mA·h/g,30次循环后容量保持率为92.3%。根据循环伏安曲线得到的锂离子的扩散系数表明,采用马来酸为络合剂制备的样品具有最大的扩散系数。

  17. Analisis Incremental Kelayakan Penambahan Lini Perakitan Engine Motor Pt Abc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Jonny

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing motorcycle unit in Plant 1 of PT ABC requires engine supply from Plant 2. This has some burden on the operating cost of Plant 1 and the opportunity loss as well due to delay of motor engine delivery. Based on the problem, team proposes additional engine line in Plant 1 to cut engine supply from Plant 2. Therefore, team analyzes this proposal using incremental analysis to determine whether the proposal is feasible or not by comparing before and after condition with result NPV about IDR 967 Billion and Payback Period under 1 year. By this result, team determines that this proposal is recommended to be approved by management. 

  18. Preparation and performance of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/Li4Ti5O12 Li-ion battery%LiN i1/3CO1/3M n1/3O2/Li4Ti5O12锂离子电池的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永胜; 韩恩山; 黄金辉

    2011-01-01

    18650 type high power Li-ion battery was prepared with LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 and Li4Ti5O12 as positive and negative activated material, respectively. The charge-discharge performance at different temperatures and discharge rates was tested, the cycle performance and safety performance was investigated.The prepared battery had fine fast charge,rate discharge ability and discharge performance at high and low temperatures. When cycled at 1 C at 1.20 ~2.80 V,the capacity retention rate was more than 93 % in 200 cycles at normal temperature, the capacity retention rate was 98.28 % after 60 cycles at high temperature of 55 ℃. The battery neither exploded nor caught fire in external short circuit, overcharge and acupuncture test, the skin temperature didn t exceed 60 ℃.%分别以LiNi1/3 Co1/3M n1/3 O2、Li4Ti5O12为正、负极活性物质,制备了18650型高功率锂离子电池.测试了不同倍率及温度下的充放电性能,考察了安全性能.制备的电池有良好的快速充电、倍率放电及高低温放电性能.以1C在1.20~2.80 V循环,在常温下循环200次的容量保持率在93%以上;在高温55℃下循环60次的容量保持率为98.28%.电池在短路、过充、针刺测试中均不起火、不爆炸,表面温度最高不超过60 ℃.

  19. Inovační linie moderní doby I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Chwaszcz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: This work analyzes the basic theories of innovation that influenced the behaviour of firms in today's modern age. That provides a comprehensive analysis of the issue and explains the situation in a way that is useful for both managers and scholars. The work at the same time forms the foundations, on which are the newest innovations approaches formed. Without sufficient understanding of the development of the innovative, the understanding of the current and future innovative theories is considerably limited and can lead to misleading conclusions. The author considers so called open innovation & disruptive innovation as the current innovative approaches which have received the attention recently. Methodology/methods: The basic methodology of this work is based on the analysis of the individual innovative theories using comparative analysis. Each theory is also supported in the text by case studies. Scientific aim The connection of theory and use case studies creates the unusual comprehensive overview. This comprehension and inclusion of all important innovation theories of modern time is in its entirety a unique view of the topic and opens the door for further analysis of innovation and enterprises interaction. Findings: This area nowadays deserves an attention, because the environment, which are companies moving is changing more rapidly. Oncoming of globalization businesses were made to pay much more attention to their business strategies. All strategies are intended to differentiate companies from competitors and establish them on the market – companies have to constantly innovate. Conclusions: (limits, implications etc The work found out that the development of innovative theories intensifies over the time. Existing theories become far more comprehensive and even new ones are evolving. The conclusion is that further development of theories of innovation can be built on the analysis and application of the present state and that the change of environment brings also new approaches.

  20. OPTIMASI LINI PRODUKSI DENGAN VALUE STREAM MAPPING DAN VALUE STREAM ANALYSIS TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosua Caesar Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi adalah salah satu tujuan dari suatu perusahaan. Lean adalah metode yang dapat meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi. Dalam penelitian ini, metode yang digunakan untuk meminimalkan limbah di PT. Bonindo Abadi adalah Value Stream Analysis Tools (VALSAT dan Value Stream Mapping (VSM. VSM digunakan untuk melihat kondisi peta keadaan pada perusahaan. Pengurangan pemborosan dilakukan dengan menggunakan salah satu alat dari VALSAT yaitu Process Activity Mapping (PAM. Jumlah non value added (NVA yang ditemukan dalam proses produksi PT. X adalah 90,17% diikuti oleh necessary but non value added (NNVA dengan jumlah 9,79% dan value added (VA sebesar 0,04%. Usulan perbaikan yang diberikan adalah dengan mengurangi jumlah waktu aktivitas NVA atau menghilangkannya.

  1. OPTIMASI LINI PRODUKSI DENGAN VALUE STREAM MAPPING DAN VALUE STREAM ANALYSIS TOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Yosua Caesar Fernando; Sunday Noya

    2014-01-01

    Meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi adalah salah satu tujuan dari suatu perusahaan. Lean adalah metode yang dapat meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi. Dalam penelitian ini, metode yang digunakan untuk meminimalkan limbah di PT. Bonindo Abadi adalah Value Stream Analysis Tools (VALSAT) dan Value Stream Mapping (VSM). VSM digunakan untuk melihat kondisi peta keadaan pada perusahaan. Pengurangan pemborosan dilakukan dengan menggunakan salah satu alat dari VALSAT yaitu Process...

  2. OPTIMASI LINI PRODUKSI DENGAN VALUE STREAM MAPPING DAN VALUE STREAM ANALYSIS TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosua Caesar Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi adalah salah satu tujuan dari suatu perusahaan. Lean adalah metode yang dapat meminimalkan pemborosan dalam proses produksi. Dalam penelitian ini, metode yang digunakan untuk meminimalkan limbah di PT. Bonindo Abadi adalah Value Stream Analysis Tools (VALSAT dan Value Stream Mapping (VSM. VSM digunakan untuk melihat kondisi peta keadaan pada perusahaan. Pengurangan pemborosan dilakukan dengan menggunakan salah satu alat dari VALSAT yaitu Process Activity Mapping (PAM. Jumlah non value added (NVA yang ditemukan dalam proses produksi PT. X adalah 90,17% diikuti oleh necessary but non value added (NNVA dengan jumlah 9,79% dan value added (VA sebesar 0,04%. Usulan perbaikan yang diberikan adalah dengan mengurangi jumlah waktu aktivitas NVA atau menghilangkannya.

  3. Vergeten linies: Antwerpse bunkers en loopgraven door de lens van Leutnant Zimmermann (1918)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Onderzoek van de Universiteit Gent in het Koninklijk Legermuseum (KLM) in Brussel bracht in 2007 een reeks van 46 onbekende luchtfoto’s aan het licht. De foto’s dateren van januari 1918 en zijn van Duitse origine. Ze dragen het opschrift Kaiserliche Fortifikation Antwerpen en werden genomen door de tot dan toe onbekende luitenant Zimmermann. Het was direct duidelijk dat de foto’s een schat aan historische informatie bevatten. Het provinciebestuur van Antwerpen liet ze grondig analyseren om er...

  4. Rancangan Strategi Peningkatan Produktivitas Tenaga Kerja Pada Lini Produksi 2 Di PT. XYZ Deli Serdang

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Indah Rizkya

    2012-01-01

    Productivity can be realized through labor productivity. Labor productivity can be increased through improved labor competency, motivation, work climate, equipment, work methods, and job satisfaction. The importance of the increase in labor productivity is also required by the PT. XYZ which produces mineral water and soft drinks in packaging to be marketed in Northern Sumatra Region. PT. XYZ having problems that labor productivity tends to decrease so that the research was cond...

  5. An STE12 gene identified in the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices restores infectivity of a hemibiotrophic plant pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollot, Marie; Wong Sak Hoi, Joanne; van Tuinen, Diederik; Arnould, Christine; Chatagnier, Odile; Dumas, Bernard; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Seddas, Pascale M A

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms of root penetration by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are unknown and investigations are hampered by the lack of transformation systems for these unculturable obligate biotrophs. Early steps of host infection by hemibiotrophic fungal phytopathogens, sharing common features with those of AM fungal colonization, depend on the transcription factor STE12. Using degenerated primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we isolated the full-length cDNA of an STE12-like gene, GintSTE, from Glomus intraradices and profiled GintSTE expression by real-time and in situ RT-PCR. GintSTE activity and function were investigated by heterologous complementation of a yeast ste12Delta mutant and a Colletotrichum lindemuthianum clste12Delta mutant. * Sequence data indicate that GintSTE is similar to STE12 from hemibiotrophic plant pathogens, especially Colletotrichum spp. Introduction of GintSTE into a noninvasive mutant of C. lindemuthianum restored fungal infectivity of plant tissues. GintSTE expression was specifically localized in extraradicular fungal structures and was up-regulated when G. intraradices penetrated roots of wild-type Medicago truncatula as compared with an incompatible mutant. Results suggest a possible role for GintSTE in early steps of root penetration by AM fungi, and that pathogenic and symbiotic fungi may share common regulatory mechanisms for invasion of plant tissues.

  6. Teatri moodi kunst paneb publiku uude rolli / Liina Luhats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luhats, Liina

    2011-01-01

    Taani osalusteatri SIGNA etenduslik installatsioon "Bleier Research Inc" Tallinnas Standardi majas. Piireületavat eksperimenti mängivad avalikul konkursil Eestist valitud näitlejad. Intervjuu Signa Sørenseniga taani-austria kunstnikeduost SIGNA. Eesti teatritegijate arvamusi

  7. Teatri moodi kunst paneb publiku uude rolli / Liina Luhats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luhats, Liina

    2011-01-01

    Taani osalusteatri SIGNA etenduslik installatsioon "Bleier Research Inc" Tallinnas Standardi majas. Piireületavat eksperimenti mängivad avalikul konkursil Eestist valitud näitlejad. Intervjuu Signa Sørenseniga taani-austria kunstnikeduost SIGNA. Eesti teatritegijate arvamusi

  8. LiNi0.8Co0.2O2正极的电性能%Study on Electricity Properties of LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 Positive Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周姣红; 李奇; 叶伟; 熊英; 曾曦

    2006-01-01

    以LiNi0.8Co0.2O2为活性物质,炭黑为导电剂,聚偏氟乙烯为粘结剂,采用溶液浇铸法制备锂离子电池正极,研究聚偏氟乙烯含量对锂离子电池正极电性能的影响.结果表明,当正极材料中粘结剂聚偏氟乙烯含量为4%时,所制备的正极片的电性能最佳,首次放电容量为190mA·h·g-1,首次充放电效率达到91%,循环性能良好,进一步组装的18650电池经50次循环后容量为1832mA·h,是首次放电容量的97.8%.

  9. USER-CENTERED DESIGN SEBAGAI METODE PENINGKATAN KONTROL KOGNITIF PADA LINI ASSEMBLY (STUDI KASUS PT. KUBOTA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novie Susanto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like Indonesia, the rationalization of production processes and systems will increase.Challenge that emerged significantly is the increase in planning efficiency. A prospective approach to reduce theplanning effort is the development of a production system capable of optimizing itself during the process. On theassembly line PT. Kubota Indonesia found that the workers perform assembly process with a sequence that is notplanned as a result of the lack of a standardized sequence of process companies and lead to cognitive controlthat are not stable and continuous learning process. Because this issue contrary to the concept of efficiency inplanning, it takes an automated system with a complete and fully optimized (self-optimizing production system.The purpose of this study is to apply the planning efficiency through implementation of optimized productionsystem (self-optimizing production systems in assembly-line PT. Kubota Indonesia. Data obtaining done by thedetermination of primary and secondary variables include the perception of cognitive control, a solution basedon the memory (memory, and action. Repairs are carried out is by applying self-optimizing production systemconsisting of 4 steps: the development of cognitive architecture is to determine the sequence of work andapplying it to extend the software, implementation of individual modules is through the use of hand screw, thedevelopment of human machine interfaces in hand tool screw is through the explanation task analysis andimplementation and evaluation of improvement is the use of robotic assembly in the assembly processenvironment.

  10. Functional characterization of a C-4 sterol methyl oxidase from the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oger, Elodie; Ghignone, Stefano; Campagnac, Estelle; Fontaine, Joël; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lanfranco, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Sterols are crucial components of eukaryotic membranes that control membrane fluidity and permeability. They play an important role in cell signaling, polarity and sorting. Since many steps in the pathway are essential, sterol biosynthesis inhibitors (SBI) are widely used as antifungal agents. This work reports the identification and the characterization of a C-4 sterol methyl oxidase (SMO), the first gene involved in the sterol biosynthetic pathway, so far described from an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. The sequence, called GintSMO, shows a primary structure, a hydrophobicity profile and a pattern of histidine-rich motifs which are typical of C-4 methyl sterol oxidases. The complementation assay in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain demonstrates that GintSMO encodes a functional SMO. Changes in GintSMO transcript levels and in the amount of the sterol precursor squalene were observed in in vitro grown extraradical structures exposed to the fenpropimorph SBI fungicide.

  11. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的低温性能及动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光胤; 黄震雷; 张占军; 周恒辉

    2014-01-01

    通过高温烧结制备了锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2,并用XRD、SEM和恒流充放电对材料的结构、形貌和低温电性能进行了表征,通过线性极化、GITT和EIS等手段研究分析了低温下LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2性能变差的原因.结果表明,?20℃时,LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2材料的0.1、0.2、1和5 C倍率放电比容量依次为25℃时同倍率下放电比容量的83.2%、68.4%、57.2%和34.1%,放电中值电压比25℃时依次降低了0.049、0.125、0.364和0.531 V.低温充放电过程表现出明显的极化现象,其中最显著的极化来自锂离子穿过活性物质/电解液界面过程以及电荷转移过程,而非锂离子在电极材料内部的扩散过程.

  12. Structural, spectral, dielectric and magnetic properties of Tb–Dy doped Li-Ni nano-ferrites synthesized via micro-emulsion route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junaid, Muhammad, E-mail: junaid.malik95@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar, E-mail: azhar.khan@iub.edu.pk [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Iqbal, F. [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Murtaza, Ghulam [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Ahmad, Mukhtar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shakir, Imran [Deanship of scientific research, College of Engineering, King Saud University, PO Box 800, Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan)

    2016-12-01

    Terbium (Tb) and dysprosium (Dy) doped lithium-nickel nano-sized ferrites (Li{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 0.8}Tb{sub 0.5x}Dy{sub 0.5x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} where x=0.00−0.08) were prepared by micro-emulsion technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the single phase cubic spinel structure. The lattice constant was increased due to larger ionic radii of Tb{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} cations. The crystallite size was found in the range 30–42 nm. The FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) spectra revealed two significant absorption bands (~400–600 cm{sup −1}) which indicate the formation of cubic spinel structure. The peaking behavior of dielectric parameters was observed beyond 1.5 GHz. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were found to decrease by the increase of Tb–Dy contents and frequency. The doping of Tb and Dy in Li–Ni ferrites led to increase the coercive field (120–156 Oe). The smaller magnetic and dielectric parameters suggested the possible utility of these nano-materials in switching and microwave devices applications. - Highlights: • Li{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 0.8}Tb{sub 0.5x}Dy{sub 0.5x}Fe{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} ferrites were synthesized by micro-emulsion route. • Tb and Dy addition improves coercivity while decreased saturation magnetization. • These nanomaterials can be useful in microwave and switching devices applications.

  13. Pre-Lithiation of Li(Ni1-x-yMnxCoy)O2 Materials Enabling Enhancement of Performance for Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Ji, Shunping; Hu, Zongxiang; Zheng, Jiaxin; Xiao, Shu; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kang; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2016-06-22

    Transition metal oxide materials Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMCxyz) based on layered structure are potential cathode candidates for automotive Li-ion batteries because of their high specific capacities and operating potentials. However, the actual usable capacity, cycling stability, and first-cycle Coulombic efficiency remain far from practical. Previously, we reported a combined strategy consisting of depolarization with embedded carbon nanotube (CNT) and activation through pre-lithiation of the NMC host, which significantly improved the reversible capacity and cycling stability of NMC532-based material. In the present work we attempt to understand how pre-lithiation leads to these improvements on an atomic level with experimental investigation and ab initio calculations. By lithiating a series of NMC materials with varying chemical compositions prepared via a conventional approach, we identified the Ni in the NMC lattice as the component responsible for accommodating a double-layered Li structure. Specifically, much better improvements in the cycling stability and capacity can be achieved with the NMC lattices populated with Ni(3+) than those populated with only Ni(2+). Using the XRD we also found that the emergence of a double-layer Li structure is not only reversible during the pre-lithiation and the following delithiation, but also stable against elevated temperatures up to 320 °C. These new findings regarding the mechanism of pre-lithiation as well as how it affects the reversibility and stability of NMC-based cathode materials prepared by the conventional slurry approach will promote the possibility of their application in the future battery industry.

  14. Performance of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite batteries based on aqueous binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Nicholas; von Zamory, Jan; Laszczynski, Nina; Doberdo, Italo; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    This manuscript reports on the manufacturing and characterization of sodium carboxymethylcellulose-based, Li-ion positive electrodes with high active material mass loadings using only water as a solvent. The effect of different calendering forces on the aqueous processed cathode electrodes is also reported. Finally, the performance of balanced full Li-ion cells in pouch cell configuration is investigated. These Li-ion cells subjected to long-term cycling experiment displayed an average coulombic efficiency of 99.96% and retained a specific capacity of almost 70% of its initial capacity after 2000 cycles.

  15. Økologisk risikovurdering af genmodificeret dobbelt herbicidtolerant sojabønne linie FG72 i anmeldelse vedr. markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov

    2012-01-01

    i Danmark, da de klimatiske forhold udelukker dette. En markedsføring af sojabønnen kan derfor ikke have nogen uøn-skede økologiske konsekvenser i Danmark. I dyrkningsområderne i Sydeuropa kan der ved uheld ske en iblanding af GM-sojabønnefrø i frø til udsæd af ikke-GM soja. En eventuel tilfældig...... spredning af GM-soja vurderes dog ikke at få nogen uønskede økologi-ske konsekvenser. BIOSCIENCE vurderer samlet, at der ikke kan forventes nogen uønskede økologiske konsekvenser for dyre- og planteliv ved markedsføring af den genmodificerede herbicidtolerante FG72-4-sojabønne til andre for-mål end dyrkning...

  16. Nice module. Apollon Solar present their new line of solar modules; Nettes Modul. Apollon Solar stellt Linie fuer neuartige Modultechnologie vor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podewils, C.

    2008-06-15

    Solar modules, TGV engines and perfume Zerstaeuber seem to have nothing in common. The new solar module developed by French producer Apollon Solar makes use of both technologies in the construction process. The contribution presents the 'Nice' module which has many new features. (orig.)

  17. Aplikasi Metode Lean Six Sigma Untuk Usulan Improvisasi Lini Produksi Dengan Mempertimbangkan Faktor Lingkungan. Studi Kasus: Departemen GLS (General Lighting Services PT. Philips Lighting Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftachul Arifin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Departemen GLS (General Lighting Services PT. Philips Lighting Surabaya merupakan produsen lampu pijar. Pada pelaksanaan proses produksinya, perusahaan menemui beberapa kendala yang terkait dengan waste. Analisis lean six sigma dengan menggunakan value stream mapping menunjukkan terjadi defect di mesin finishing dan waiting di mesin mounting. EHS waste juga muncul yang mengindikasikan adanya dampak terhadap lingkungan dan kesehatan serta keselamatan pekerja. Pencarian akar permasalahan dilakukan dengan menggunakan tools RCA (5 whys dan FMEA hingga memunculkan 15 penyebab utama terjadinya ketiga waste tersebut. Pembentukan tim Total productive maintenance, penelitian perbaikan kualitas bulb dan flare, serta eksperimen pengurangan jumlah jenis coil menjadi usulan alternatif yang bisa dilakukan perusahaan. Dengan menggunakan konsep value management didapatkan alternatif terbaik dengan melakukan pembentukan dan pelatihan tim Total productive maintenance. Alternatif ini meningkatkan nilai sigma defect dari 2,92 menjadi 3,08 dan sigma waiting dari 2,83 menjadi 2,89. Indikator dampak lingkungan juga mengindikasikan penurunan yang sejalan.

  18. Re-construction layer effect of LiNi0.8Co0.15Mn0.05O2 with solvent evaporation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangjin; Park, Jun-Ho; Hong, Suk-Gi; Choi, Byungjin; Heo, Sung; Seo, Seung-Woo; Min, Kyoungmin; Park, Jin-Hwan

    2017-03-20

    The solvent evaporation method on the structural changes and surface chemistry of the cathode and the effect of electrochemical performance of Li1.0Ni0.8Co0.15Mn0.05O2 (NCM) has been investigated. After dissolving of Li residuals using minimum content of solvent in order to minimize the damage of pristine material and the evaporation time, the solvent was evaporated without filtering and remaining powder was re-heated at 700 °C in oxygen environment. Two kinds of solvent, de-ionized water and diluted nitric acid, were used as a solvent. The almost 40% of Li residuals were removed using solvent evaporation method. The NCM sample after solvent evaporation process exhibited an increase in the initial capacity (214.3 mAh/g) compared to the pristine sample (207.4 mAh/g) at 0.1C because of enhancement of electric conductivity caused by decline of Li residuals. The capacity retention of NCM sample after solvent evaporation process (96.0% at the 50th cycle) was also improved compared to that of the pristine NCM sample (90.6% at the 50th cycle). The uniform Li residual layer after solvent treated and heat treatment acted like a coating layer, leading to enhance the cycle performance. The NCM sample using diluted nitric acid showed better performance than that using de-ionized water.

  19. Microwave-enhanced electrochemical cycling performance of the LiNi0.2Mn1.8O4 spinel cathode material at elevated temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raju, Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ,a Funeka P. Nkosi,ab Elumalai Viswanathan,c Mkhulu K. Mathe,a Krishnan Damodaranc and Kenneth I. Ozoemena*ab The well-established poor electrochemical cycling performance of the LiMn2O4 (LMO) spinel cathode material for lithium-ion batteries at elevated... ns ed u nd er a C re at iv e Co m m on s A ttr ib ut io n 3. 0 U np or te d Li ce nc e. View Article Online View Journal | View Issue This journal is© the Owner Societies 2016 Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 13074--13083 | 13075...

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.4Mn1.5Cr0.1O4 and Li4Ti5O12

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Liu, GQ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available particles are about 0.5 um, and well distributed. The submicron particles should exhibit better electrochemical properties than large particles. 6 Because the chemical bond of Cr-O is strong, the Cr-doped compound LNMCO can enhance the structure...

  1. Kevad näitusesaalides / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Gints Gabransi näitusest Rotermanni soolalaos. Liina Jänese koostatud ja Siiri Nõva kujundatud näitusest "Valve Pormeister. Eesti maa-arhitektuuri uuendaja" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis. Külli K. Kaatsi ja Daniele Mosca näitusest "Salajased aiad" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis

  2. Euro on teel / Ivar Jung

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jung, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Reet Varblase kureeritud näitus "Oma raha" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 12. XI-4. XII. Gints Gabransi videotest, Jaan Jaanisoo masin-installatsioonist, Siim-Tanel Annuse tööst. 2. XII galeriis toimunud kunstnike, kultuurihuviliste ja rahamaailma esindajate (Eesti Panga asepresident Rein Minka, endine president Vahur Kraft, rahandusministri nõuniku kt Veiko Valkiainen) kohtumisest

  3. Theory and process of production of heavy nonferrous metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paretskii, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The main principles of solving the problems of increasing the efficiency of processing of ore raw materials in nonferrous metallurgy due to close integration of beneficiation and metallurgy processes are described. Some combined technological schemes, which provide combined use of raw materials, solve the ecological problems of manufacture, and are designed in GINTsVETMET, are presented.

  4. Euro on teel / Ivar Jung

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jung, Ivar

    2005-01-01

    Reet Varblase kureeritud näitus "Oma raha" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis 12. XI-4. XII. Gints Gabransi videotest, Jaan Jaanisoo masin-installatsioonist, Siim-Tanel Annuse tööst. 2. XII galeriis toimunud kunstnike, kultuurihuviliste ja rahamaailma esindajate (Eesti Panga asepresident Rein Minka, endine president Vahur Kraft, rahandusministri nõuniku kt Veiko Valkiainen) kohtumisest

  5. Grammatika läti moodi / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    1999-01-01

    Läti nüüdiskunsti näitus "Grammatika" Rotermanni soolalaos. Kuraator Solvita Krese. Eriks Bozhise, rühmituse F5, Renars Kruminshi, Martinsh Ratniksi, Ieva Rubeze, Armins Ozolinshi, Barbara Gaile, Gints Gabransi, Monika I. Pormale, Izolde Cesniece töödest.

  6. Kevad näitusesaalides / Andri Ksenofontov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ksenofontov, Andri, 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Gints Gabransi näitusest Rotermanni soolalaos. Liina Jänese koostatud ja Siiri Nõva kujundatud näitusest "Valve Pormeister. Eesti maa-arhitektuuri uuendaja" Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis. Külli K. Kaatsi ja Daniele Mosca näitusest "Salajased aiad" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis

  7. Täna kell 16 avatakse Rotermanni soolalaos...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Hansapanga 2004. a. kunstipreemia laureaadi, läti kunstniku Gints Gabransi (34) personaalnäitus "Nähtav/nähtamatu. Tajumise saar". Teised finalistid olid Egle Rakauskaite (Leedu) ning Killu Sukmit ja Mari Laanemets. Rahvusvahelise žürii koosseis

  8. Unipolar magnetic field pulses as transient signals prior to the 2009 Aquila earthquake shock

    CERN Document Server

    Nenovski, Petko

    2016-01-01

    Unipolar pre-seismic magnetic field pulses have been observed first by Bleier et al. (2009) and Villante et al. (2010) and Nenovski et al. (2013). In the present study a detailed analysis of the pulses is conducted looking for signatures of transient signals similar to that recorded at the 2009 Aquila earthquake main shock (Nenovski, 2015). Various magnetic field data around the Aquila earthquake provide an instrumental basis for such an analysis. In addition to fluxgate magnetometer data (already examined in previous studies), overhauser magnetometer data are involved. The result is a detection and discrimination of transient signals of diffusive form that appear prior to the earthquake main shock.

  9. Electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis of aged LiMn2O4-Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2/graphite lithium ion batteries. Part I: Cycle aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Krauß, Elke E.; Schmidt, Jan P.; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2014-04-01

    A detailed capacity fade analysis was carried out for a commercial lithium ion battery with a mixed LiMn2O4/NMC cathode, cycled at room temperature with a continuous discharge rate of 1C. Complementary electrochemical and physical-analytical investigations revealed that the most significant aging processes was loss of cycleable lithium due to SEI-layer formation on the anode. The layer formation is accelerated by transition metals coming from the cathode. Impedance spectroscopy proved a significant increase of the cathode charge transfer resistance and of the serial resistance due to electrolyte decomposition and the formation of a surface layer on the anode. The changing of the impedance spectra of the lithium ion battery with aging could be interpreted with the help of impedance spectra of symmetric cells. From DRT analysis equivalent circuits for anode and cathode were derived, which were used for fitting of the impedance spectra.

  10. Part-II: Exchange current density and ionic diffusivity studies on the ordered and disordered spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-04-01

    Additive-free pellets of Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 have been prepared for the purpose of performing ionic diffusivity and exchange current density studies. Here we report on the characterization of interfacial charge transfer kinetics and ionic diffusivity of ordered (P4332) and disordered (Fd 3 bar m) Li1-xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as a function of lithium content at ambient temperature. The exchange current density at the electrode/electrolyte interface is found to be continuously increased with increasing the degree of delithiation for ordered phase (∼0.21-6.5 mA/cm2) at (x = 0.01-0.60), in contrast the disordered phase exhibits gradually decrease of exchange current density in the initial delithiation at the 4 V plateau regime (x = 0.01-0.04) and again monotonously increases (0.65-6.8 mA/cm2) with further delithiation at (x = 0.04-0.60). The ionic diffusivity of ordered and disordered phase is found to be ∼5 × 10-10cm2s-1 and ∼10-9cm2s-1, respectively, and does not vary much with the degree of delithiation. From the obtained results it appears that the chemical diffusivity during electrochemical use is limited by lithium transport, but is fast enough over the entire state-of-charge range to allow charge/discharge of micron-scale particles at practical C-rates.

  11. Towards Li(Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33)O2/graphite batteries with ionic liquid-based electrolytes. I. Electrodes' behavior in lithium half-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, E.; Maresca, G.; Appetecchi, G. B.; Kim, G.-T.; Loeffler, N.; Passerini, S.

    2016-11-01

    Lithium cells based on NMC cathodes or graphite anodes and ionic liquid-based electrolyte mixtures are investigated. The electrode tapes, using water-soluble natural binders, as well as the ionic liquid materials, are prepared through eco-friendly routes involving H2O as the only processing solvent. The Li/NMC and Li/graphite half-cells are studied by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling tests at different temperatures. The results herein reported, demonstrate the performance improvement in terms of cycling behavior and ageing resistance, granted by the ionic liquid mixtures with respect to the electrolytes reported in literature based on a single ionic liquid.

  12. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Coatings on LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 for Li-Ion Battery Composite Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, M.M.; Kostecki, R.; Marcinek, M.; Wilcoc, J.D.

    2008-12-10

    In this paper, we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin film conductive carbon coatings on LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} cathode active material powders for lithium-ion batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon were produced from a solid organic precursor, anthracene, by a one-step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method. The structure and morphology of the carbon coatings were examined using SEM, TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. The composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half coin cells. The composite cathodes made of the carbon-coated LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} powder showed superior electrochemical performance and increased capacity compared to standard composite LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} electrodes.

  13. Relations de phases et cristallogenèse de phases de Chevrel séliniées TRMo_{6Se8} (TR = Terre rare) : premiers résultats sur monocristal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maho, F.; Le Berre, F.; Penã, O.; Horyń, R.; Wojakowski, A.

    1995-01-01

    An approach to grow single crystals of chosen RE-Mo-Se Chevrel phase materials from a liquid phase was done. To reduce the effects of compositional shifts due to incongruent melting (at 1 650-1 750 ^{circ}C), off-stoichiometric selenium-rich compositions were used. Prior to this, a detailed study of phase relations at 1 200 ^{circ}C was done and extended to 1 700 ^{circ}C. First preliminary magnetic and superconducting measurements were done on crystals containing RE = Gd, Ho, Er and Yb. La cristallogenèse de phases de Chevrel séléniés à base de terres rares (TRMo{6}Se{8}) a été réalisée avec succès pour TR = Gd, Ho, Er et Yb. La technique consiste en la fusion (non congruente) des compositions riches en terres rares et en sélénium, dans des nacelles hermétiques, à 1 650-1 750 ^{circ}C. Une étude des relations de phases à 1 200 ^{circ}C et son extension à 1 700 ^{circ}C ont dû être préalablement effectuées. Les mesures préliminaires de propriétés magnétiques et supraconductrices de ces cristaux ont été effectuées.

  14. Tuning of Thermal Stability in Layered Li(Ni x Mn y Co z )O 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jiaxin; Liu, Tongchao; Hu, Zongxiang; Wei, Yi; Song, Xiaohe; Ren, Yang; Wang, Weidong; Rao, Mumin; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Jun; Wang, Chongmin; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2016-09-19

    Understanding and further designing new layered Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC) (x + y + z = 1) materials with optimized thermal stability is important to rechargeable Li batteries (LIBs) for electrical vehicles (EV). Using ab initio calculations combined with experiments, we clarified how the thermal stability of NMC materials can be tuned by the most unstable oxygen, which is determined by the local coordination structure unit (LCSU) of oxygen (TM(Ni, Mn, Co)3-O-Li3-x'): each O atom bonds with three transition metals (TM) from the TM-layer and three to zero Li from fully discharged to charged states from the Li-layer. Under this model, how the lithium content, valence states of Ni, contents of Ni, Mn, and Co, and Ni/Li disorder to tune the thermal stability of NMC materials by affecting the sites, content, and the release temperature of the most unstable oxygen is proposed. The synergistic effect between Li vacancies and raised valence state of Ni during delithiation process can aggravate instability of oxygen, and oxygen coordinated with more nickel (especially with high valence state) in LSCU becomes more unstable at a fixed delithiation state. The Ni/Li mixing would decrease the thermal stability of the “NiMn” group NMC materials but benefit the thermal stability of “Ni-rich” group, because the Ni in the Li layer would form 180° Ni-O-Ni super exchange chains in “Ni-rich” NMC materials. Mn and Co doping can tune the initial valence state of Ni, local coordination environment of oxygen, and the Ni/Li disorder, thus to tune the thermal stability directly.

  15. Influence of electrolyte additives on the cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) formation on LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 in half cells with Li metal counter electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yunxian; Niehoff, Philip; Börner, Markus; Grützke, Martin; Mönnighoff, Xaver; Behrends, Pascal; Nowak, Sascha; Winter, Martin; Schappacher, Falko M.

    2016-10-01

    Traditional solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) forming additives of vinylene carbonate (VC), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and ethylene sulfite (ES) are studied with respect to their impact on the formation and growth of the cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) layer. T-half cells are assembled and undergo three different electrochemical investigation plans: after formation (0.1C, 5 cycles) and long term cycling (0.1C, 5 constant current cycles + 1C, 100/150 constant current/voltage cycles), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are combined to investigate morphology, CEI composition, CEI thickness and aging products for cells with different electrolyte systems. The obtained results reveal a significant influence of these additives on the CEI composition and CEI growth. With the help of SEM, it is found that large areas of electrolyte decomposition products are formed at the aged electrode surfaces (=after cycling), with the exception when 2 vol% of FEC is added into the reference electrolyte. From XPS measurements, CEI thicknesses are calculated. The reference electrolyte with 2 vol% of FEC shows the thinnest layer after long time aging (0.8 ± 0.2 nm). For the addition of 2 vol% of VC, an incremental growth of the CEI thickness occurs from the 100th to 150th cycle (from 1.0 ± 0.1 nm to 2.9 ± 0.4 nm). By correlating the CEI thickness values with the electrochemical performance, it can be observed that for lithium metal based half cells, the existence of a thinner CEI layer corresponds to a better cycling behavior, with 2 vol% of FEC showing the highest discharge capacity of 114.4 ± 0.2 mAh/g after 150 cycles at 1C. GC-MS shows that both VC and FEC help to prevent fast electrolyte aging.

  16. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 2. Following 3 formation cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  17. Introduction to a series of LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high-power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  18. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 1. Fresh electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  19. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Ni doped spinel LiNi (subx)Mn (sub2-x)O(sub)4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) cathode materials for Li-Ion battery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kebede, MA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spherical pristine LiMn(sub2)O(sub4) and Ni doped LiNixMn(sub2-x)O(sub)4 (x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) cathode materials for lithium ion battery with high first cycle discharge capacity and excellent cycle performance were synthesized using...

  20. A high-rate long-life Li4Ti5O12/Li[Ni0.45Co0.1Mn1.45]O4 lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hun-Gi; Jang, Min Woo; Hassoun, Jusef; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno

    2011-11-01

    Lithium batteries are receiving considerable attention as storage devices in the renewable energy and sustainable road transport fields. However, low-cost, long-life lithium batteries with higher energy densities are required to facilitate practical application. Here we report a lithium-ion battery that can be cycled at rates as high as 10 C has a life exceeding 500 cycles and an operating temperature range extending from -20 to 55 °C. The estimated energy density is 260 W h kg(-1), which is considerably higher than densities delivered by the presently available Li-ion batteries.

  1. Identifying the Distribution of Al 3+ in LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trease, Nicole M.; Seymour, Ieuan D.; Radin, Maxwell D.; Liu, Haodong; Liu, Hao; Hy, Sunny; Chernova, Natalya; Parikh, Pritesh; Devaraj, Arun; Wiaderek, Kamila M.; Chupas, Peter J.; Chapman, Karena W.; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Meng, Ying Shirley; Van der Van, Anton; Grey, Clare P.

    2016-11-22

    The doping of Al into layered Li transition metal (TM) oxide cathode materials, LiTMO2, is known to improve the structural and thermal stability, although the origin of the enhanced properties is not well understood. The effect of aluminum doping on layer stabilization has been investigated using a combination of techniques to measure the aluminum distribution in layered LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) over multiple length scales with 27Al and 7Li MAS NMR, local electrode atom probe (APT) tomography, X-ray and neutron diffraction, DFT, and SQUID magnetic susceptibility measurements. APT ion maps show a homogenous distribution of Ni, Co, Al and O2 throughout the structure at the single particle level in agreement with the high-temperature phase diagram. 7Li and 27Al NMR indicates that the Ni3+ ions undergo a dynamic Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion. 27Al NMR spectra indicate that the Al reduces the strain associated with the JT distortion, by preferential electronic ordering of the JT long bonds directed toward the Al3+ ion. The ability to understand the complex atomic and orbital ordering around Al3+ demonstrated in the current method will be useful for studying the local environment of Al3+ in a range of transition metal oxide battery materials.

  2. Structural properties and application in lithium cells of Li(Ni0.5Co0.5)1-yFeyO2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.25) prepared by sol-gel route: Doping optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghany, A. E.; Hashem, A. M.; Elzahany, E. A.; Abuzeid, H. A.; Indris, S.; Nikolowski, K.; Ehrenberg, H.; Zaghib, K.; Mauger, A.; Julien, C. M.

    2016-07-01

    Layered Li(Co0.5Ni0.5)1-yFeyO2 (0.0 ≤ y ≤ 0.25) oxides were prepared by citric-acid assisted sol-gel method. Elemental and structural properties were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering (RS) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetometry. EDX images show a homogeneous distribution of Fe ions. XRD and RS spectroscopy reveal that the materials crystallize as a LiNiO2sbnd LiCoO2sbnd LiFeO2 solid solution with the typical rhombohedral α-NaFeO2 structure (R 3 bar m S.G.) up to y = 0.2 at which composition a secondary phase was observed. For y > 0.2 the XRD results show the appearance of the α-LiFeO2 phase with the cubic structure (Fm3m S.G.). The degree of cation mixing investigated by XRD analysis and magnetic measurements is z < 0.04, for y < 0.2. Electrochemical tests of Li(Co0.5Ni0.5)1-yFeyO2 (0.0 ≤ y ≤ 0.1) oxides in lithium cells show the influence of iron substitution. The best results have been obtained for the composition y(Fe) = 0.05, where the electrical conductivity is maximum. A specific capacity 32 mAh g-1 is maintained at 8C rate.

  3. Pengaruh Dosis Pupuk Zeorea dan Konsentrasi ZPT Dekamon 22.43 L Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Jagung Manis (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.)

    OpenAIRE

    Aruan, Marnaek H.

    2012-01-01

    MARNAEK HASIHOLAN ARUAN, "Pengaruh Dosis Pupuk Zeorea dan Konsentrasi Zat Pengatur Tumbuh Dekamon 22.43 L Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Jagung Manis (Zea mays sacchurata Sturt.)", dibawah bimbingan ibu Ir. Hj. Sabar Ginting, MS selaku ketua komisi pembimbing dan bapak Ir Toga Simannngkalit, MS selaku anggota komisi pembimbing. Penelitian ini telah dilaksanakan di Jalan Matahari Raya Kecamatan Medan Helvetia mulai dari. bulan Januari ,2004 - April 2004. Tujuan dari penelitian...

  4. Pengaruh Bauran Promosi Terhadap Keputusan Konsumen Berkunjung ke Mikie Holiday Fundland Berastagi Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilya, Fetty

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct marketing to decision purchase. This research collects empirical evidence. This research was conducted at Mikie Holiday Fundland, Jamin Ginting street, 50 km Pecen village, Berastagi, North Sumatra, with a total sample of 100 respondents. Based on the research, the results of significance test the effect simultaneously with the F test, the variable of advertising, sales pr...

  5. Substitusi Dedak Padi Dengan Pod Kakao(Theobroma cacao L) Dipermentasi Dengan Rhizopus SP, Saccharomyces SP, Lactobacilus SP Terhadap Performans Ternak Babi Perternakan Larance Jantan

    OpenAIRE

    Bornok Venantius P.

    2013-01-01

    BORNOK VENANTIUS P: Substitution of rice bran with cacao pods fermented by Rhizopus sp, Saccharomyces sp and Lactobacillus sp to performance of male croosbred Landrace swine. Under the supervision by NURZAINNAH GINTING and ISKANDAR SEMBIRING. Cacao pods fermented can be used as an alternative feed a substitution of rice bran for its capacity to improve performance during growth. The objective of this research was to prove potention of cacao pods fermented, which can be seen from consumptio...

  6. 77 FR 13604 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...-Linie GmbH & Cie. KG. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker, Esquire; 211 Central Park W.; New York, NY 10024.... Parties: Great White Fleet (US) Ltd. and Agriculture Investment Export, Inc. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker...

  7. Environ: E00446 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00446 Linum usitatissimum seed Lini semen Flaxseed Crude drug; Medicinal herb Prot...:C06426 C06427] Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: rosids Linaceae (flax family) E00446 Linum usitatissimum seed Medicinal

  8. Tervenemine kirgastumise kaudu / Riin Kübarsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübarsepp, Riin, 1978-

    2002-01-01

    August Künnapu kohaspetsiifiline kuraatoriprojekt "Tervenemine" Mustamäe haiglas, näituse "X mistakes Y for Z" haruprojekt. Paralleele Toomas Altnurme suviste maalide ja taivani kunstniku Michael Lini installatsiooniga "Voodi"

  9. Tervenemine kirgastumise kaudu / Riin Kübarsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kübarsepp, Riin, 1978-

    2002-01-01

    August Künnapu kohaspetsiifiline kuraatoriprojekt "Tervenemine" Mustamäe haiglas, näituse "X mistakes Y for Z" haruprojekt. Paralleele Toomas Altnurme suviste maalide ja taivani kunstniku Michael Lini installatsiooniga "Voodi"

  10. Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Fagherazzi G, Katzke V, Kühn T, Boeing H, Bergmann MM, Steffen A, Naska A, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Saieva C, Grioni S, Panico S, Tumino R, Vineis P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Hjartåker A, Weiderpass E, Arriola L, Molina-Montes E, Duell EJ, Santiuste C, Alonso de la Torre R, Barricarte Gurrea A, Stocks T, Johansson M, Ljungberg B, Wareham N, Khaw KT, Travis RC, Cross AJ, Murphy N, Riboli E, Scelo G.Int J Cancer. 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66. [Epub 2015 Apr 28]. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29559.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Raman; Brennan, P; Brenner; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjønneland, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Fagherazzi; Katzke, V; Kühn, T; Boeing, H; Bergmann, M M; Steffen, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Saieva, C; Grioni, S; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; Hjartåker, A; Weiderpass, E; Arriola, L; Molina-Montes, E; Duell, E J; Santiuste, C; Alonso de la Torre, R; Barricarte Gurrea, A; Stocks, T; Johansson, M; Ljungberg, B; Wareham, N; Khaw, K T; Travis, R C; Cross, A J; Murphy, N; Riboli, E; Scelo, G

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment vs. the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), and 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer.

  11. Riia, Euroopa ja euroopalik ruum / Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Varblane, Reet, 1952-

    2004-01-01

    Riia skulptuurikvadriennaal "Euroopa ruum" Riia Arsenalis, Läti raudteemuuseumis ja linnaruumis 4. VI-25. VII. Kuraatorid Kristaps Gulbis, Aigars Bikse. Preemia saanud ungari rühmituse Little Warsaw (Balint Havas, Andras Galik) tööst "Marmori tänav" ning Gints Gabransi (Läti), Tulay Schakiri (Soome), Eestit esindanud Daniela, Paul Rodgersi, Ekke Väli, Jüri Ojaveri jt. töödest. Tagasivaates 1950-ndate skulptuuri linnaruumi paigutatud fotode kaudu esindas Eestit Arseni Mölder. Heli Ryhäneni ja Anne Meskaneni näitusest "Skulptuurid" Tallinna Kunstihoone galeriis

  12. 锂离子电池正极材料LiNi1/2Co1/6Mn1/3O2的制备与性能%Synthesis and Characterization of Cathode Material LiNi1/2CO1/6Mn1/3O2 for Lithium-ion Secondary Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国海鹏; 贾梦秋; 廖煜炤; 翟中楠

    2008-01-01

    采用CO2+浓度递增的金属离子混合溶液分次共沉淀方法制备Ni1/2Co1/6Mn1/3(OH)2,以其为前驱体,通过高温固相反应得到具有Co含量梯度的层状LiNi1/2Co1/6Mn1/3O2,探讨了焙烧温度及Co含量梯度对材料的结构和电化学性能的影响.通过X射线衍射、扫描电镜、热重分析及恒电流充放电测试对合成的样品进行了表征.结果表明,700℃合成产物即具有类LiNiO2的六方层状结构,800和850℃合成产物阳离子排列有序度高,层状结构显著.材料结晶度好,粒度均匀,粒径在亚微米级.合成温度800℃的梯度材料具有最佳的电化学性能,2.5~4.2 V,0.1 C倍率充放电50次后,梯度材料的容量仍保持在171.2 mA·h/g.相同的焙烧温度,梯度材料比均匀材料的电化学性能更加优异.

  13. 氧化镍钴锂(LiNi0.8Co0.2O2)为正极的高比能量18650型锂离子电池研究%Study on 18650 Lithium Ion Cell with LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 Cathode Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德全; 付亚娟; 高英; 高洪森; 韩宇

    2004-01-01

    对高比容量、低成本的氧化镍钴锂材料的合成及其在18650型锂离子电池中的性能进行了研究,合成出的批量5 kg的氧化镍钴锂材料的放电比容量达到180 mAh/g以上.以其为正极,MCMB和天然石墨为负极组装的一批18650电池,最高放电容量为2 297 mAh,质量比能量为190 Wh/kg;电池100%DOD,800 mA充放循环600次,容量为初始容量的65%;50% DOD,1A充放循环1 000次,放电终了电压由3.45下降到2.98 V;电池经过过充、过放、短路、挤压等安全试验,未发生起火、爆炸现象.对电极的制作工艺和电池的设计工艺进行优化,设计出的18650样品电池容量为2 530 mAh,质量比能量达到210 Wh/kg,体积比容量550 Wh/L.

  14. New Preparation Method for Cathode Material Li[Ni0.92Co0.04Mn0.04]O2 for Lithium Ion Batteries%锂离子电池正极材料Li[Ni0.92Co0.04Mn0.04]O2的合成新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨驰

    2014-01-01

    采用溶胶-凝胶法在球形Ni(OH)2颗粒表面包覆钴、锰氧化物,合成了核壳结构的镍钴锰酸锂复合正极材料Li[Ni0.92Co0.04Mn0.04]O2.用X射线衍射、扫描电镜、恒电流充放电测试等方法对材料的结构、表观形貌及电化学性能进行了表征.结果表明,与镍酸锂材料相比,该镍酸锂复合正极材料表现出了较高的比容量,较好的循环稳定性及更好的安全性.

  15. LiNi0.8Co0.2O2-based high-power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 4. Following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Daniel A; Haasch, Richard T.

    2017-01-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  16. LiNi 0.8 Co 0.2 O 2 -based high power lithium-ion battery positive electrodes analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: 3. Following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 °C, 60% state-of-charge (3.747 V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasch, Richard T.; Abraham, Daniel A.

    2016-12-01

    High-power lithium-ion batteries are rapidly replacing the nickel metal hydride batteries currently used for energy storage in hybrid electric vehicles. Widespread commercialization of these batteries for vehicular applications is, however, limited by calendar-life performance, thermal abuse characteristics, and cost. The Advanced Technology Development Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy to address these limitations. An important objective of this program was the development and application of diagnostic tools that provide unique ways to investigate the phenomena that limit lithium-ion cell life, performance, and safety characteristics. This report introduces a set of six Surface Science Spectra xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) comparison records of data collected from positive electrodes (cathode) harvested from cylindrically wound, 18650-type, 1 A h capacity cells. The cathodes included in this study are (1) fresh, (2) following three formation cycles, (3) following calendar-life test for 12 weeks at 40 C, 60% state-of-charge (SOC), (4) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 50 C, 60% SOC, (5) following calendar-life test for 8 weeks at 60 C, 60% SOC, and (6) following calendar-life test for 2 weeks at 70 C, 60% SOC.

  17. 乙二醇溶剂的流变相法合成LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4正极材料的研究%Research on the theological phase method of ethylene glycol solvent in synthetizing cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓园; 江楠

    2013-01-01

    采用乙二醇为溶剂以流变相法合成物相纯净、结晶度高、粒径均匀的立方尖晶石结构的锂离子电池高压正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.电化学测试表明:样品具有4.7V的充放电电压平台,在0.5C倍率电流下,80次循环后可逆容量还有127.7 mAh·g-1,容量保持率超过98%,并且经过活化后样品循环的库仑效率基本都保持在98%以上,样品具有较大的可逆容量、极其优秀的循环稳定性和充放电可逆性,这主要是由于样品的高结晶度和较好的颗粒分散性.

  18. 5V正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4的自蔓延燃烧合成%Self-propagation combustion synthesis of 5 V cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张真; 张峥; 刘宏基; 刘兴泉

    2011-01-01

    5 V cathode material LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 was synthesized by citric acid assisted self-propagation combustion method. The effects of calcining temperature and annealing time on the material were studied by XRD, SEM and electrochemical tests. The sample synthesized under the optimum condition (calcining temperature was 820 ℃,annealing time was 24 h) had complete spinel structure and morphology, it had a single voltage plateau at 4.7 V. When charged-discharged at3.5~5.1 V with 0.2 C under 20 ℃, the initial specific discharge capacity was 122.7 mAh/g, the capacity retention was 96.9% at the 20th cycle.%用柠檬酸络合辅助的自蔓延燃烧法合成了5V正极材料LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4.用XRD、SEM和电化学测试研究了焙烧温度、退火时间对材料的影响.在最佳条件(焙烧温度为820℃、退火时间为24 h)下合成的样品具有完整的尖晶石结构和形貌,具有单一的4.7V平台,在20℃下以0.2C在3.5-5.1V充放电,首次放电比容量为122.7 mAh/g,第20次循环的容量保持率为96.9%.

  19. 不同锂过量和镍过量对5V正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4性能的影响%Effects of excess lithium and excess nickel on the performance of 5 V cathode material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张真; 王超; 张峥; 向小春; 刘兴泉

    2011-01-01

    bstract: 5 V cathode material LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 was synthesized by the self-propagating combustion method with citric acid as the complexing agent. The effects of excess lithium and excess nickel on the structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 were investigated. The results show that: the optimum excess amounts of lithium and nickel for LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 preparation are 9% and 7% (in mole ratio), respectively, when the calcination temperature is 820 "C, the calcination time is 12 h, the annealing temperature is 600 ℃ and the annealing time is 24 h. For the LiNio.5Mn1.5O4 synthesized under the above optimal conditions, its initial discharge capacity reaches 122.7 mAh · G-1, 98.5% of which is still remained after 20 cycles, and there is only one voltage plateau at around 4.7 V found in its initial charge/discharge curve.%采用柠檬酸络合自蔓延燃烧方法制备了5V正极材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.分别考察了不同锂过量和镍过量对LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4材料结构、形貌和电化学性能的影响.结果表明:当焙烧温度为820℃,焙烧时间为12h,退火温度为600℃,退火时间为24 h时,制备LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4的最佳锂过量为9%(摩尔分数,下同),最佳镍过量为7%,在此条件下所制样品的首次放电比容量达到122.7 mA·hg-1,20次循环后的放电比容量保持率为98.5%,且只存在单一的4.7V平台.

  20. Effect observation of Amor Luo Fenjia liniment in combined with oral itraconazole and Amor Luo Fenjia lini-ment combined with oral terbinafine in the treatment of onychomycosis%阿莫罗芬甲搽剂联合口服伊曲康唑与联合口服特比萘芬治疗甲真菌病的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健发

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨甲真菌病采用阿莫罗芬甲搽剂与伊曲康唑口服联合治疗和与特比萘芬口服联合治疗效果展开对比。方法:选取甲真菌病100例,随机分组,分别为阿莫罗芬甲搽剂与伊曲康唑联用组(A 组,n =50)和特比萘芬口服联用组(B 组,n =50),研究两组效果对比。结果:A 组近期痊愈率为26%,远期痊愈率为86%;B 组近期痊愈率为24%,远期痊愈率为60%,远期痊愈率比较,差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05);A 组真菌清除率为86%,B 组为70%。两组均无严重不良事件发生。结论:甲真菌病采用阿莫罗芬甲搽剂与伊曲康唑口服联用,可获得理想的临床效果,真菌清除率较高,具有非常重要的应用价值,可显著改善患者生存质量。%Objective To study the onychomycosis by amor Luo Fenjia liniment and combination treatment with oral itraconazole and associated with oral terbinafine treatment effect comparison. Method The 100 cases of onychomycosis were selected and randomly divided into amor Luo Fenjia liniment and itraconazole together group(group A,n = 50)and amor Luo Fenjia liniment and oral terbinafine combi-nation group(group B,n = 50). The effect of the two groups were compared. Results The recent recovery rate of group A was 26% ,the long - term cure rate was 86% ;the recent recovery rate of group B was 24% ,long - term recovery rate was 60% ,the long - term recovery rate of the two groups was statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05);The fungal clearance rate of group A was 86% ,B group was 70% . Two groups had no serious adverse events. Conclusion Onychomycosis by amor Luo Fenjia liniment and oral itraconazole together,which can ob-tain ideal clinical effect,fungal clearance rate is higher,it has very important application value,can significantly improve the patients quality of life.

  1. Pr掺杂LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2的制备及电化学性能%Synthesis of Pr-doped LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 and its electrochemical performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 李军秀

    2014-01-01

    通过固相法制备了掺杂Pr的锂离子电池正极材料Li[Ni0.5 Co0.2 Mn0.3](1-x)Prx O2(x=0、0.01、0.02、0.03和0.05).用XRD、SEM、充放电测试、循环伏安测试等研究Pr掺杂对材料结构及电化学性能的影响.适量的掺杂不会改变材料的晶体类型,还能减轻阳离子混排,稳定层状结构.在0.1 C(20 mA/g)下,x=0.02样品的首次放电比容量为186.9mAh/g,在5.0C下循环100次后,容量保持率高达94.9%.

  2. Progress in Research of Layered LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathode Material for Lithium-ion Batteries%锂离子电池正极材料层状LiN1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏伟; 习小明; 湛中魁

    2006-01-01

    对层状LiN1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的制备方法(如高温固相合成法、溶胶-凝胶法、共沉淀法)进行了重点论述,并讨论了相应的电化学性能、结构特征和目前存在的问题.并对层状LiN1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2正极材料的发展进行了展望.

  3. The external and internal measurement impact on shear modulus distribution within cyclic small strains in triaxal studies into cohesive soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzebska M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with comparison of tangent shear moduli Gs of kaolin from Tułowice obtained from cyclic triaxial tests on the basis of external and internal reading in the small strains range (10-5÷10-3. The tests were carried out on a modernised test bed, enabling full saturation of specimens using the back pressure method as well as a precise internal measurement of strains by means of contactless microdisplacements sensors. The value of linearity factor L is one of adopted quality criteria for two measuring methods. Maintaining a constant deformation rate the influence of various cyclic process parameters (deviator stress amplitude – constant or variable; high or low; initial level of stress and strain, at which the unloading and reloading cycles were started; overconsolidation ratio OCR as well as cycles’ number and arrangement on the "shear modulus – axial strain" characteristic was studied. The obtained values of Gint and Gext (or Lint and Lext clearly show an underestimation (even 5 times of Gs value within the range 10-5÷10-3 when using an external measurement. In addition, the differences between Gint and Gext, which develop differently depending on specified cyclic process parameters, gradually decrease with increasing axial strains.

  4. Expression of phenazine biosynthetic genes during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of Glomus intraradices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionicia Gloria León-Martínez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To explore the molecular mechanisms that prevail during the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving the genus Glomus, we transcriptionally analysed spores of Glomus intraradices BE3 during early hyphal growth. Among 458 transcripts initially identified as being expressed at presymbiotic stages, 20% of sequences had homology to previously characterized eukaryotic genes, 30% were homologous to fungal coding sequences, and 9% showed homology to previously characterized bacterial genes. Among them, GintPbr1a encodes a homolog to Phenazine Biosynthesis Regulator (Pbr of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates phenazine production through transcriptional activation of the protein D isochorismatase biosynthetic enzyme phzD (Ramos et al., 2010. Whereas GintPbr1a is expressed during the presymbiotic phase, the G. intraradices BE3 homolog of phzD (BGintphzD is transcriptionally active at the time of the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. DNA from isolated bacterial cultures found in spores of G. intraradices BE3 confirmed that both BGintPbr1a and BGintphzD are present in the genome of its potential endosymbionts. Taken together, our results indicate that spores of G. intraradices BE3 express bacterial phenazine biosynthetic genes at the onset of the fungal-plant symbiotic interaction.

  5. Vacuum stability and radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in an SO(10) dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, Yann; Nagata, Natsumi; Olive, Keith A.; Zheng, Jiaming

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum stability in the Standard Model is problematic as the Higgs quartic self-coupling runs negative at a renormalization scale of about 1010 GeV . We consider a nonsupersymmetric SO(10) grand unification model for which gauge coupling unification is made possible through an intermediate scale gauge group, Gint=SU (3 )C⊗SU (2 )L⊗SU (2 )R⊗U (1 )B -L . Gint is broken by the vacuum expectation value of a 126 of SO(10) which not only provides for neutrino masses through the seesaw mechanism but also preserves a discrete Z2 that can account for the stability of a dark matter candidate, here taken to be the Standard Model singlet component of a bosonic 16 . We show that in addition to these features the model insures the positivity of the Higgs quartic coupling through its interactions to the dark matter multiplet and 126 . We also show that the Higgs mass squared runs negative, triggering electroweak symmetry breaking. Thus, the vacuum stability is achieved along with radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and captures two more important elements of supersymmetric models without low-energy supersymmetry. The conditions for perturbativity of quartic couplings and for radiative electroweak symmetry breaking lead to tight upper and lower limits on the dark matter mass, respectively, and this dark matter mass region (1.35-2 TeV) can be probed in future direct detection experiments.

  6. The mito-DAMP cardiolipin blocks IL-10 production causing persistent inflammation during bacterial pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Raundhal, Mahesh; Chen, Bill B.; Morse, Christina; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Khare, Anupriya; Oriss, Timothy B.; Huff, Rachael; Lee, Janet S.; St. Croix, Claudette M.; Watkins, Simon; Mallampalli, Rama K.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Ray, Anuradha; Ray, Prabir

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a significant healthcare burden worldwide. Failure to resolve inflammation after infection precipitates lung injury and an increase in morbidity and mortality. Gram-negative bacteria are common in pneumonia and increased levels of the mito-damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) cardiolipin can be detected in the lungs. Here we show that mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae develop lung injury with accumulation of cardiolipin. Cardiolipin inhibits resolution of inflammation by suppressing production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 by lung CD11b+Ly6GintLy6CloF4/80+ cells. Cardiolipin induces PPARγ SUMOylation, which causes recruitment of a repressive NCOR/HDAC3 complex to the IL-10 promoter, but not the TNF promoter, thereby tipping the balance towards inflammation rather than resolution. Inhibition of HDAC activity by sodium butyrate enhances recruitment of acetylated histone 3 to the IL-10 promoter and increases the concentration of IL-10 in the lungs. These findings identify a mechanism of persistent inflammation during pneumonia and indicate the potential of HDAC inhibition as a therapy. PMID:28074841

  7. A comparative study of Si-containing electrolyte additives for lithium ion battery: Which one is better and why is it better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Xing, Lidan; Zhu, Yunmin; Zheng, Xiongwen; Cai, Dandan; Li, Weishan

    2017-02-01

    Influence of two Si-containing electrolyte additives, tris(trimethylsilyl)borate (TMSB) and tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphate (TMSP), on the cyclic stability of high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode has been systematically studied in this work. The capacity retention of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cycling in STD (1M LiPF6/EC: EMC = 3:7), TMSB- and TMSP-containing electrolytes is 23%, 85% and 71% after 600 cycles at 1C rate, respectively, revealing that the ability of TMSB on improving the cyclic performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is superior to that of TMSP. Experimental and theoretical characterizations show that the preferential reaction of both TMSB and TMSP generates thin and uniform film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 surface, which effectively suppress the continuous oxidation reaction of electrolyte. While the film generated from TMSB, which contains B and Si-rich compounds, shows better ability on restraining the growth of interfacial resistance during cycling, resulting in better cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 than that of TMSP.

  8. Improving cyclic stability of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode at elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphosphonite as electrolyte additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Shaowei; Xu, Mengqing; Liao, Xiaolin; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrolyte additive, dimethyl phenylphosphonite (DMPP), is reported in this paper to be able to improve significantly the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery at elevated temperature. When experiencing charge/discharge cycling at 50 °C with 1C (1C = 146.7 mAh g-1) rate in a standard (STD) electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC), EC/DMC = 1/2 in volume), LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 suffers serious discharge capacity decaying, with a capacity retention of 42% after 100 cycles. With adding 0.5% DMPP into the STD electrolyte, the capacity retention is increased to 91%. This improvement can be ascribed to the preferential oxidation of DMPP to the STD electrolyte and the subsequent formation of a protective film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 from destruction. Theoretical calculations together with voltammetric analyses demonstrate the preferential oxidation of DMPP and the consequent suppression of electrolyte decomposition, while the observations from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the protection that DMPP provides for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  9. 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile: A novel electrolyte additive for lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenna; Xing, Lidan; Wang, Yating; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan; Xie, Fengchao; Xia, Shengan

    2014-12-01

    In this work, 4-(Trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile (4-TB) is used as a novel electrolyte additive for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery. Charge-discharge tests show that the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is significantly improved by using 0.5 wt.% 4-TB. With using 4-TB, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 delivers an initial capacity of 133 mAh g-1 and maintains 121 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles with a capacity retention of 91%, compared to the 75% of that using base electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate(EC)/dimethyl carbonate(DMC)). The results from linear sweep voltammetry, density functional theory calculations, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and inductively coupled plasma, indicate that 4-TB has lower oxidative stability than EC and DMC, and is preferentially oxidized on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 forming a low-impedance protective film, which prevents the subsequent oxidation decomposition of the electrolyte and suppresses the manganese dissolution from LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  10. Sub-2 nm Thick Fluoroalkylsilane Self-Assembled Monolayer-Coated High Voltage Spinel Crystals as Promising Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Kida, Satoru; Uchida, Shuhei; Teshima, Katsuya

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate herein that an ultra-thin fluoroalkylsilane self-assembled monolayer coating can be used as a modifying agent at LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δcathode/electrolyte interfaces in 5V-class lithium-ion batteries. Bare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-δ cathode showed substantial capacity fading, with capacity dropping to 79% of the original capacity after 100 cycles at a rate of 1C, which was entirely due to dissolution of Mn3+ from the spinel lattice via oxidative decomposition of the organic electrolyte. Capacity retention was improved to 97% on coating ultra-thin FAS17-SAM onto the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode surface. Such surface protection with highly ordered fluoroalkyl chains insulated the cathode from direct contact with the organic electrolyte and led to increased tolerance to HF.

  11. Kepemimpinan Model Gembala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ronda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tren kepemimpinan teiah berkembang sangat pesat dan dapat dengan mudah dipelajari secara mandiri. Bahkan nirai dan prinsip biblika teiahmewarnai semua lini prinsip iJmu kepemimpinan. Namun dalam lini praktika, kita diperhadapkan dengan kompleksitas kulrural, masalah sosial, dari konteks yang sangat beragam. saat ini kita tidak boleh berhenti dengan penerapan kepemimpinan dalam kehidupan kita. Ada banyak keunikanyang akan kita temukan di lapangan. Seperti kata Robert Clinton, kita sedang memasuki"universitas kehidupan" ("university of life", di mana penerapan nilai kepemimpinan tidak pernah berhenti. Niiai-nilai itu harus terus digali dandiaplikasikan.

  12. 电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法测定锂离子电池三元正极材料LiNi1-x-yCox MnyO2中钠%Determination of sodium in ternary cathode material (LiNi1-x-yCoxMnyO2) for lithium ion battery by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳曦; 陈珍华; 郑雪琴

    2014-01-01

    在锂离子三元正极材料LiNi1-x-y CoxMnyO2中,钠离子会占据锂离子的位置,钠离子的存在会降低材料的克容量,因此需要严格控制材料中钠含量.在研究采用电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法(ICP-AES)测定锂离子三元正极材料LiNi1-xyCoxMnyO2中的杂质元素钠含量的条件包括样品的溶解方法、测定介质盐酸的浓度、称样量、仪器参数基础上、建立了锂离子三元正极材料LiNi1-x-yCoxMnyO2中钠的测定方法.方法无需进行基体匹配、添加消电离剂等烦琐操作步骤就能得到准确、稳定的测量结果.方法的回收率在97.8%~103.6%之间,样品分析结果相对标准偏差小于2.5%,完全能够满足三元正极材料分析的要求.

  13. Potential role of D-myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase and 14-3-3 genes in the crosstalk between Zea mays and Rhizophagus intraradices under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Sun, Yuqing; Ruan, Yuan; Xu, Lijiiao; Hu, Yajun; Hao, Zhipeng; Zhang, Xin; Li, Hong; Wang, Youshan; Yang, Liguo; Chen, Baodong

    2016-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is known to stimulate plant drought tolerance. However, the mechanisms underlying the synergistic responses of the symbiotic partners to drought stress are largely unknown. A split-root experiment was designed to investigate the molecular interactions between a host plant and an AM fungus (AMF) under drought stress. In the two-compartment cultivation system, an entire or only a half root system of a maize plant was inoculated with an AMF, Rhizophagus intraradices, in the presence of localized or systemic drought treatment. Plant physiological parameters including growth, water status, and phosphorus concentration, and the expression of drought tolerance-related genes in both roots and R. intraradices were recorded. Although mycorrhizal inoculation in either one or both compartments systemically decreased abscisic acid (ABA) content in the whole root system subjected to systemic or local drought stress, we observed local and/or systemic AM effects on root physiological traits and the expression of functional genes in both roots and R. intraradices. Interestingly, the simultaneous increase in the expression of plant genes encoding D-myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase (IPS) and 14-3-3-like protein GF14 (14-3GF), which were responsible for ABA signal transduction, was found to be involved in the activation of 14-3-3 protein and aquaporins (GintAQPF1 and GintAQPF2) in R. intraradices. These findings suggest that coexpression of IPS and 14-3GF is responsible for the crosstalk between maize and R. intraradices under drought stress, and potentially induces the synergistic actions of the symbiotic partners in enhancing plant drought tolerance.

  14. orova. Ace

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the distribution of risk factors Tsehayneh K. et al 187 orova. Ace. AssESSMENT ... SkS of diabetes among diabetic patients attending Jimma Hospital diabetic lini. METHODS: A .... literacy status, 9ccupation. 獻 king was collected ...

  15. Effect of mixed and single crops on disease suppressiveness of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Raaijmakers, J.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of mixed cropping on disease suppressiveness of soils was tested for two cropping systems, Brussels sprouts¿barley and triticale¿white clover. Disease suppressiveness of field soils was evaluated in bioassays for the soilborne pathogens Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini,

  16. Kunst - Religion - Gesellschaft : das Werk Johan Thorn Prikkers zwischen 1890 und 1912

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser-Schmid, Christiane Susanne Annabella

    2008-01-01

    Der Künstler Johan Thorn Prikker (1868-1932), in den Niederlanden in erster Linie fur seine symbolistischen Gemälde und seine Art-Nouveau-Entwürfe fur Grafik, Textilien und Möbel bekannt, wurde in Deutschland als Pionier der modernen Glasmalerei kanonisiert. Diese Aufspaltung in ein niederländisches

  17. Kommentarer vedr. eventuelle ændringer af den tidligere risikovurdering. Zea mays (1507). Supplerende oplysninger til EFSA. Modtaget 17-12-2004, deadline 28-01-2005, svar 25-01-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2004-01-01

    "DMU har modtaget og vurderet de supplerende oplysninger (brev fra Skov- og Naturstyrelsen d. 16-12-2004) til ansøgningen om tilladelse til markedsføring af genetisk modificeret majs C/ES/01/01 (linie 1507). Vi har gennemgået oplysningerne i det tilsendte materiale for at se om de giver anledning...

  18. Dansk sekretær i DAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2007-01-01

    Danmark lå noget længere nede ad listen, hvad deltagere angår - på linie med Algeriet, Venezuela og Estland! Selvom Euroanalysis kongressen og DANSAK kongressen nu holdes i henholdsvis ulige og lige år, så var det alligevel kun de tre medlemmer af Analytikergruppen fra DTU, som repræsenterede Danmark. Det...

  19. Fideo ja Vilm Pärnus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Pärnu Fideo- ja Vilmifestival 2.-3. apr. Muuseumi Aidas. Margus Tiitsmaa ja Sütevaka Andrese performance'test. Jasper Zoova ja Erno Võsa installatsioonist "Eesti mehe ja naise identifitseerimise masin". Taivani kunstniku Eliza Lin'i fotoinstallatsioonist ja videost

  20. Fideo ja Vilm Pärnus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Pärnu Fideo- ja Vilmifestival 2.-3. apr. Muuseumi Aidas. Margus Tiitsmaa ja Sütevaka Andrese performance'test. Jasper Zoova ja Erno Võsa installatsioonist "Eesti mehe ja naise identifitseerimise masin". Taivani kunstniku Eliza Lin'i fotoinstallatsioonist ja videost

  1. En marketingafdeling gør ingen forskel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe

    2007-01-01

    forhold til markedet på linie med virksomheder, hvor der sidder fuldtids marketingansvarlige. Der er ingen forskel. Det viser en undersøgelse blandt 99 mellemstore danske fremstillingsvirksomheder med 50 til 250 ansatte, som Institut for Marketing & Management på Syddansk Universitet står bag. Resultatet...

  2. Screening of bacterial isolates from various European soils for in vitro antagonistic activity towards Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum : Site-dependent composition and diversity revealed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adesina, Modupe F.; Lembke, Antje; Costa, Rodrigo; Speksnijder, Arien; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-01-01

    A cultivation-based approach was used to determine the in vitro antagonistic potential of soil bacteria towards Rhizoctonia solani AG3 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini (Foln3). Four composite soil samples were collected from four agricultural sites with previous documentation of disease

  3. Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation Surgery with Autogenous Bone Grafts as Ceiling : A Pilot Study and Test of Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Telleman, Gerdien; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies have pointed out that the mere elevation of the maxillary sinus membrane might suffice to allow for bone formation indicating the additional use of augmentation materials to be redundant. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether elevation of the sinus mucosal lini

  4. Det spektakulære museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thau, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Forfatteren mener at museumsarkitekturen idag fungerer på linie med tidligere kirkebyggeri som et domæne for en artistisk overgiven dyrkelse af arkitektur som sådan. Til gengæld er det ikke indskreven i en symbolsk eller hierakisk orden. Den æstetiske gestus er næppe mindre påfaldende, men langt ...

  5. Ozonides: intermediates in ozone-induced toxicity. A study on their mechanism of toxic action and detoxification by antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ozone is a major constituent of photochemical smog. The toxicity of ozone is well documented and has been related to its strong oxidative potential. The principal target organ for ozone toxicity is the respiratory system. Unsaturated fatty acids, which are present in both the lipids of the lung lini

  6. THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FUSARIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, L J; Cerecedo, L R; Mull, R P; Nord, F F

    1945-04-13

    It has been shown that Fusarium lini B. grown on an artificial stock culture medium when supplemented with thiamin provides adequate amounts of the B-complex vitamins for normal growth, reproduction and lactation in mice, and that it compares very favorably with brewer's yeast in its food value.

  7. Autonomous Mobile Systems 2012 22 Fachgespräch Stuttgart, 26 bis 28 September 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Zweigle, Oliver; Häußermann, Kai; Eckstein, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    In erster Linie werden Tagungsberichte von Fachtagungen der Gesellschaft für Informatik veröffentlicht, die regelmäßig, oft in Zusammenarbeit mit anderen wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaften, von den Fachausschüssen der Gesellschaft für Informatik veranstaltet werden. Die Auswahl der Vorträge erfolgt im allgemeinen durch international zusammengesetzte Programmkomitees. Die Tagungssprache ist Deutsch.

  8. Trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene as a novel electrolyte additive for high temperature application of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenqiang; Ye, Changchun; Yang, Xuerui; Xing, Lidan; Liao, Youhao; Liu, Xiang; Li, Weishan

    2017-10-01

    Electrolyte additives are necessary for the application of high potential cathode in high energy density lithium ion batteries, especially at elevated temperature. However, the electrolyte additives that can effectively suppress the dissolution of transition metal ions from cathode have seldom been developed up to date. In this work, we propose a novel electrolyte additive, trimethylsilylcyclopentadiene (SE), for high temperature application of a representative high potential cathode, lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4). It is found that the dissolution of Mn and Ni from LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 can be effectively suppressed by applying SE. With applying 0.25% SE, the dissolved amount of Mn and Ni is decreased by 97.4% and 98%, respectively, after 100 cycles at 55 °C. Correspondingly, the cyclic performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is significantly improved. Physical characterizations and electrochemical measurements show that SE can be preferentially oxidized and generate a protective film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. The resulting film inhibits the electrolyte decomposition and the transition metal ion dissolution.

  9. Electrochemical and thermal studies of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenquan

    The structural, electrochemical, and thermal characteristics of carbonaceous anodes and LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode in Li-ion cells were investigated using various electrochemical and calorimetric techniques. The electrode-electrolyte interface was investigated for various carbonaceous materials such as graphite with different shapes, surface modified graphite with copper, and novel carbon material derived from sepiolite template. The structural and morphological properties were determined using XRD, TGA, SEM, BET techniques. The electrochemical characteristics were studied using conventional electrochemical techniques such as galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance (AC and DC) methods. It was observed that the electrochemical active surface area instead of the BET area plays a critical role in the irreversible capacity loss associated with the carbonaceous anodes. It was also found that the exfoliation of carbon anodes especially in PC based electrolyte could be significantly reduced by protective copper coating of the natural graphite. LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode material was found to possess high energy density and excellent cycling characteristics. The structural and electrochemical properties of LiNi0.8Co 0.2O2 synthesized by sol-gel and solid-state methods were studied. Results of the AC impedance spectroscopy carried out on LiNi 0.8Co0.2O2 cathodes revealed that the charge transfer resistance is a function of the state of charge. The solid state Li + diffusion was calculated to be around 10-13 cm2/s in the oxide particle by Warburg impedance method. In addition, the cell fabricated with LiNi0.8Co0.2O 2 cathode showed excellent energy and power performance under static and dynamic load conditions that prevail in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Thermal properties of the LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathode, carbonaceous anodes, and Li-ion cells fabricated with these electrodes were also investigated using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC), differential

  10. Frank Robert Tangherlini — the Founder of an Alternative Relativistic Kinematics (On the Occasion of His 85th Birthday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykin G. B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Already fifty years ago, Frank Robert Tangherlini, an American theoretical physicist, suggested an original procedure which, targeting the synchronization of clocks located in two different inertial reference frames of the space, was di erent from that Einstein had introduced. As a result of these, Tangherlini had deduced the so-called the Tangher- lini transformations, which are a sort of the transformations of the spatial coordinates and time being moved from one inertial reference frame into another one. The Tangher- lini transformations differ from the Lorentz transformations (which can be meant clas- sic ones in the theory of relativity and, in particular, suggest the velocity of light to be anisotropic in a moving inertial reference frame. The Tangherlini transformations be- ing applied provide adequate explanations to all well-known interference experiments checking of the Special Theory of Relativity.

  11. 锰基锂正极半导体材料禁带特性研究%Study on the band gap character of Mn-base lithium anode material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴汉杰; 梁兴华; 黄美红; 宋清清; 刘浩

    2015-01-01

    For doping Ni and Fe solid material, studying on Mn-base lithium anode material by using high temperature synthesis method, the preparation of the Mn-Base lithium anode semiconductor material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4. The crystal structure of the sample was analyzed and collected through X-ray diffractometry (XRD), It also tested spectrum features of the material by using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, The character of charge-discharge were showed by high precision electrical tester. Testing results showed that Mn-base lithium anode semiconducting material was diamond structure, crystal structure was space group of Fd3m and the cubic crystal system. When absorption coefficient of ultraviolet visible light of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4 were respectively 0.830, 0.839 and 0.857, the width of the band gap were respectively 2.24e V, 2.22e V, 1.85eV. Electrical characteristics tests indicated that there were two charge–discharge platforms and between 3.45 V and 4.8 V in the semi-finished products of the battery.%采用高温合成法对掺杂Ni和Fe固体物质锰基锂正极材料进行研究,制备出锰基锂正极半导体材料LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4,LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4和LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4,利用X射线衍射仪分析该产物的晶体结构,运用紫外可见光纤光谱仪测试该材料的光谱特征,采用高精度电池测试仪测试半电池的充放电特性.测试结果表明:锰基锂正极半导体材料为立方尖晶石结构,其晶体结构是立方晶系,Fd3m空间群.LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4,LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.1O4和LiNi0.5Mn1.5Fe0.2O4的紫外可见光吸收系数分别处于0.830,0.839和0.857时,禁带宽度分别为0.989 eV,0.966 eV和0.922 eV.半电池电特性测试表明:充放电电压范围处于3.45 V~4.8 V区间,充放电出现了2个平台.

  12. Das Verhalten von Mastputen bei unterschiedlicher Besatzdichte und Einstreuart

    OpenAIRE

    Günthner, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Die Europäische Union bereitet eine Haltungsverordnung für Puten vor, die in Deutschland die freiwillige Vereinbarung ersetzen soll. Die vorliegende Untersuchung soll wissenschaftliche Grundlagen zum Verhalten der Puten bei unterschiedlichen Besatzdichten liefern, um somit die bevorstehende Revision der Vereinbarung zu unterstützen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden in 2 Mast-Durchgängen (Winter und Sommer) das Verhalten von Puten der Linie B.U.T. Big 6 bei unterschiedlichen Besatzdichten und...

  13. Impact of electrolyte solvent and additive choices on high voltage Li-ion pouch cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jian; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Zhonghua; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    The effects that various electrolyte solvents and electrolyte additives had on both LaPO4-coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 and uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite pouch cells were studied using automated storage, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, gas production and long-term cycling experiments. Storage experiments showed that the voltage drop during storage at 4.3 or 4.4 V for both coated and uncoated cells was very similar for the same electrolyte choice. At 4.5 V or above, the LaPO4-coated cells had a significantly smaller voltage drop than the uncoated cells except when fluorinated electrolytes were used. Automated charge discharge cycling/impedance spectroscopy testing of cells held at 4.5 V for 24 h every cycle showed that all cells containing ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte or sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte exhibited severe capacity fade. By contrast, cells containing fluorinated electrolytes had the best capacity retention and smallest impedance growth during these aggressive cycling/hold tests. Long-term cycling experiments to 4.5 V confirmed that cells containing fluorinated electrolyte had the best cycling performance in the uncoated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells while cells containing sulfolane:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte had the best cycling performance in coated LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2/graphite cells.

  14. Untersuchung der Rolle von Rhodopsin 7 und Cryptochrom im Sehprozess von Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Grebler, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Ausgangspunkt für die Detektion von Licht ist im gesamten Tierreich die Absorption von Photonen durch photorezeptive Proteine, die sogenannten Opsine und in geringerem Ausmaß die Typ 1 Cryptochrome. Die Taufliege Drosophila melanogaster besitzt sechs eingehend charakterisierte, auch als Rhodopsine bezeichnete Opsine (Rh1-Rh6) und ein Cryptochrom (CRY). Neben den Ocellen und den Hofbauer-Buchner Äuglein werden die Rhodopsine in erster Linie in den Photorezeptorzellen der Komplexaugen, den Haup...

  15. Skulptuur kui avaliku ruumi keskkond / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Skulptuuri mõistest, keskkonnana lahendatud skulptuuridest. Daniel Libeskindi projekteeritud Holokausti tornist ja Eksiili aiast Berliini juudimuuseumis, Maya Lini (sünd. 1959) Vietnami sõja veteranide memoriaalist (1982) Washington DC-s, Joseph Beuysi aiaskulptuurist "7000 tamme" (1982-1987) Kasselis, Raoul Kurvitza "Katedraalist kodututele" (1999) Vabaduse väljakul, Andres Kure heliinstallatsioonist "Metroopol" (1999) Tallinna Liivalaia t. jalakäijate tunnelis

  16. (Lehr-Film(-lehren. Potenziale von Lehrfilmen für die Medienbildung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stewen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Christian Stewen schlägt in seinem Impulspapier vor, Lehrfilme im Unterricht nicht in erster Linie zur Vermittlung von Wissensinhalten einzusetzen, sondern anhand ihrer die medialen Prozesse der Entstehung und Vermittlung von Wissen in schulischen Unterrichtssituationen zu veranschaulichen und zu problematisieren. "[T]he educational film is one which contributes to the achievement of desirable educational goals by making effective use of the motion picture as a medium of communication." (McClusky 1947: 372

  17. Skulptuur kui avaliku ruumi keskkond / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Skulptuuri mõistest, keskkonnana lahendatud skulptuuridest. Daniel Libeskindi projekteeritud Holokausti tornist ja Eksiili aiast Berliini juudimuuseumis, Maya Lini (sünd. 1959) Vietnami sõja veteranide memoriaalist (1982) Washington DC-s, Joseph Beuysi aiaskulptuurist "7000 tamme" (1982-1987) Kasselis, Raoul Kurvitza "Katedraalist kodututele" (1999) Vabaduse väljakul, Andres Kure heliinstallatsioonist "Metroopol" (1999) Tallinna Liivalaia t. jalakäijate tunnelis

  18. Fortsetzung der Beschreibung von neuen Fischarten der Sunda-Expedition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popta, C.M.L.

    1912-01-01

    Diese Art trägt zu Ehren des Herrn General-Sekretär Dr. FRANT seinen Namen. Der Körper ist länglich, die Rückenlinie ist ziemlich convex und geht gerade vom Rumpf auf den Schwanz hinüber. Die ventrale Linie ist nur wenig convex, schnürt sich hinter dem Rumpf etwas ein, bevor sie sich auf dem Schwanz

  19. Brune bønner på danske middagsborde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerno, Gudrun Lau

    2005-01-01

    Linser, nødder og olivenolie eller pasta, ris og kartofler? Hvad skal vi spise for at bevare den slanke linie? Ifølge nogle eksperter bør kost¬pyramiden vendes på hovedet, mens andre mener, at den er god nok, som den er. Hvad er op og ned på kostpyramiden og eksperternes råd? Det spørgsmål forsøger...

  20. Forschungsdatenmanagement als überregionale Aufgabe der Informationsversorgung - was kann eine Zentrale Fachbibliothek wie ZB MED Leibniz-Informationszentrum Lebenswissenschaften leisten?

    OpenAIRE

    Birte Lindstädt

    2015-01-01

    Forschungsdaten sind in aller Munde. Soll sich eine überregionale tätige Bibliothek deshalb auf diesem Feld engagieren? Und falls ja, für wen und wie? Auf der Grundlage einer breit angelegten Markt- und Zielgruppenanalyse strebt ZB MED ein zielgruppengerechtes Angebot im Bereich Forschungsdatenmanagement an, das sich in erster Linie an den Bedürfnissen der lebenswissenschaftlichen Fächer ausrichtet. Research Data Management is much talked about at present. Should a national library get ...

  1. Study of vaporization of LiI, LiI/C70, LiI/LiF/C70 from the Knudsen cell located into ionization chamber of the mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đustebek Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vaporization of LiI, LiI/C70 and LiI/LIF/C70 were studied using a Knudsen cell located into ionization chamber of a magnetic sector mass spectrometer in a temperature range from 350 ˚C to 850 ˚C. Аs the ion species, LinI+ (n = 2, 3, 4, and 6 were identified from a mixture LiI/C70. While the clusters LinI+ and LinF+ (n = 2 - 6 were detected from a mixture LiI/LiF/C70. The intensities of LinI+ were higher than the emission of LinF+ cluster when the ratio of LiI to LiF was 2:1. By contrast, the emission of the LinF+ is favored when the ratio of LiI to LiF was 1:2. These results show that the vaporization of a mixture LiI/LIF/C70 from the Knudsen cell located into ionization chamber of the mass spectrometer represents an efficient and simple way to obtain and investigate clusters of the type LinX, X-F, I. In this work it has also been shown that the trend of the ln (Intensity, arbit. units versus temperature for all LinI+ clusters before and after the melting point of LiI was not same. It suggested that the way of the formation of these clusters can be different due to changes in temperature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172019

  2. Eine neuartige Roboterkinematik für die laparoskopische Single-Port Chirurgie

    OpenAIRE

    Sanagoo, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Minimal invasive Operationstechniken haben sich in den letzten Jahren sehr schnell weiterentwickelt. Unter anderem konnte sich die roboterassistierte Laparoskopie auf dem Markt etablieren. Solche Systeme können jedoch sehr eingeschränkt für die Single-Port Laparoskopie eingesetzt werden. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde basierend auf einer sphärischen Parallelkinematik ein kompakter Manipulator entwickelt. Dieser Manipulator wird in erster Linie für die laparoskopische Single-Port Chirurgie g...

  3. Lebensstile als Instrument zur Segmentierung von Markt und Marken

    OpenAIRE

    Förster, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    (1) Das Konstrukt des Lebensstils stellt für den Automobilmarkt in erster Linie ein Instrument zur Segmentierung des Marktes dar. Bestimmte Zielgruppen werden identifiziert und der Absatz der Produkte für diesen Personenkreis wird optimiert. Standardisierte Modelle der Sozialwissenschaften werden in der Ökonomie unmittelbar eingesetzt. Untersucht wurde der Lebensstil im Rahmen dieser Arbeit in einem erweiterten Kontext – unter anderem erfolgte eine Betrachtung des Lebensstils neben alternativ...

  4. Restrukturierung und Globalisierung der deutschen Automobilhersteller : Sogeffekte für die Zulieferer

    OpenAIRE

    Pries, Ludger

    1999-01-01

    "In den neunziger Jahren befinden sich die drei großen Konzerne der deutschen Automobilindustrie - BMW, Daimler-Benz und Volkswagen - in einem beachtenswerten Globalisierungsschub. Dieser unterscheidet sich stark von der Internationalisierung japanischer Automobilproduzenten in den achtziger Jahren und ist nicht in erster Linie ein nur konjunkturelles Phänomen, sondern steht in einem wechselseitigen Verstärkungsprozess mit Strategien der Produktionsmodernisierung und der tiefergreifenden Umst...

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Density Functional Study of LiMn1.5Ni 0.5O4 Electrode for Lithium ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aruna Bharathi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses material issues of development of Li-ion batteries to store electrical energy. The performance of the battery is improved by developing the high energy density cathode materials at Nano level. This paper explains the synthesis of most interesting cathode material Lithium Manganese Spinel and its derivatives like transition metal oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 using Co-Precipitation chemical method; it is one of the eco-friendly ,effective, economic and easy preparation method. The structural features of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 was characterized by XRD – analysis indicated that prepared sample mainly belong to cubic crystal form with Fd3m space group ,with lattice parameter a  8.265 and average crystal size of 31.59 nm and compared the experimental results with computation details from first principle computation methods with Quantum wise Atomistix Tool Kit (ATK,Virtual Nano Lab. First principle computation methods provide important role in emerging and optimizing this electrode material. In this study we present an overview of the computation approach aimed at building LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 crystal as cathode for Lithium ion battery. We show each significant property can be related to the structural component in the material and can be computed from first principle. By direct comparison with experimental results, we assume to interpret that first principle computation can help to accelerate the design & development of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as cathode material of lithium ion battery for energy storage.

  6. 中国扁叶蝉亚科一新属三新种(同翅目,叶蝉科,扁叶蝉亚科)%A NEW GENUS AND THREE NEW SPECIES OF PENTHIMIINAE (HOMOPTERA,CICADELLIDAE) FROM CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程霞英; 李子忠

    2005-01-01

    报道扁叶蝉亚科1新属,网背叶蝉属Reticuluma gen.nov.及3新种,柑橘网背叶蝉R.citrana sp.nov.(模式种)、林氏网背叶蝉R.lini sp.nov.和刺茎网背叶蝉R.spinata sp.nov.模式标本存放于贵州大学昆虫研究所.

  7. Achieving high capacity and rate capability in layered lithium transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Juhyeon; Susanto, Dieky; Noh, Jae-Kyo; Ali, Ghulam; Cho, Byung Won; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Kim, Jong Hak; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we target to find a new composition for a layered mixed metal oxide, which has a high structural stability and a good electrochemical performance. Our strategy is to alter the transition metal composition focusing on the relative amounts of redox active Ni and Co to the inactive Mn, based on highly-stabilized LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2. X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses show that the degree of cation disorder decreases on increasing the ratio of Ni and Co to Mn, by the presence of Ni3+, suggesting that slightly higher Ni and Co contents lead to improved structural stability. Electrochemical studies demonstrate that LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 cathodes exhibit considerable improvements in both the reversible capacity and the rate capabilities at a voltage range of 2.5-4.6 V. In situ XRD measurements reveal that LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 maintains a single-phase and undergoes lesser structural variations compared to controlled compositions during a delithiation process up to 4.6 V, while achieving a high reversible capacity over 200 mAh g-1. As a result, LiNi0.4Co0.4Mn0.2O2 experiences fewer structural degradations during electrochemical cycling, which explains the excellent long-term cycling performance.

  8. EFFECT OF COATED CARBON ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CATHODE MATERIALS FOR POWER LITHIUM ION BATTERY%碳包覆对动力锂离子电池正极材料电化学性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董怡辰; 王振波; 秦华

    2011-01-01

    概述了碳材料包覆对动力锂离子电池正极材料LiFePO4,LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4和Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2电化学性能的影响,综述了不同碳源炭化后形成的碳的特性及对各种电极材料性能的影响,总结了碳包覆动力锂离子电池正极材料的发展方向.%Effect of coated carbon on the performance of cathode materials of LiFePO4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, and Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3 ]O2 for power lithium ion battery were reviewed in this paper.The influences of different carbon sources on carbon properties after their carbonization and the performances of different cathode materials coated carbon were introduced.The development progress of the cathode materials coated carbon for power lithium ion battery was presented.

  9. Lithium recycling and cathode material regeneration from acid leach liquor of spent lithium-ion battery via facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; He, Yinghe

    2017-06-01

    A novel process for extracting transition metals, recovering lithium and regenerating cathode materials based on facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes has been developed. 100% manganese, 99% cobalt and 85% nickel are co-extracted and separated from lithium by D2EHPA in kerosene. Then, Li is recovered from the raffinate as Li2CO3 with the purity of 99.2% by precipitation method. Finally, organic load phase is stripped with 0.5M H2SO4, and the cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is directly regenerated from stripping liquor without separating metal individually by co-precipitation method. The regenerative cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 is miro spherical morphology without any impurities, which can meet with LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 production standard of China and exhibits good electrochemical performance. Moreover, a waste battery management model is introduced to guarantee the material supply for spent battery recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sub-2 nm Thick Fluoroalkylsilane Self-Assembled Monolayer-Coated High Voltage Spinel Crystals as Promising Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Kida, Satoru; Uchida, Shuhei; Teshima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate herein that an ultra-thin fluoroalkylsilane self-assembled monolayer coating can be used as a modifying agent at LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4−δcathode/electrolyte interfaces in 5V-class lithium-ion batteries. Bare LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4−δ cathode showed substantial capacity fading, with capacity dropping to 79% of the original capacity after 100 cycles at a rate of 1C, which was entirely due to dissolution of Mn3+ from the spinel lattice via oxidative decomposition of the organic electrolyte. Capacity retention was improved to 97% on coating ultra-thin FAS17-SAM onto the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode surface. Such surface protection with highly ordered fluoroalkyl chains insulated the cathode from direct contact with the organic electrolyte and led to increased tolerance to HF. PMID:27553901

  11. LiNi_(0.49)Mn_(1.49)Y_(0.02)O_4的合成及其电化学性能研究%Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Yttrium-Doped LiNi_(0.49)Mn_(1.49)Y_(0.02)O_4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张先文; 章正熙; 杨立; 房少华; 屈龙

    2012-01-01

    The LiNi0.49 Mn1.49 Y0.02 O4 cathode material was synthesized using the citric acid-assisted sol-gel method by partial substitutions of Ni and Mn with Y in the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 material.The influences of Y doping on the structure and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction,cyclic voltammetry,galvanostatic charge/discharge tests and AC impedance spectroscopy.The results showed that the introduction of Y into the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 greatly improved the cycle performance and rate capability.When the charge and discharge current was 1C in the potential range from 3.5 to 4.9 V,the LiNi0.49Mn1.49Y0.02O4 electrode delivered the initial discharge capacity of 114.9 and 113.0 mAh·g-1 after 100 cycles with the capacity retention was 98.3%.AC impedance data indicated that the LiNi0.49Mn1.49Y0.02O4 electrode had the lower impedance value during cycling,and Y doping effectively stabilized the crystal structure.%应用柠檬酸辅助溶胶-凝胶法.合成了Y3+掺杂的尖晶石LiNi0.49Mn1.49Y0.02O4材料.XRD、循环伏安、恒流充放电和交流阻抗测试结果表明,Y3+的掺杂能提高LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4的倍率和循环性能.在电压区间3.5~4.9V,1C倍率下,其初始放电比容量为114.9 mAh.g-1,100次循环后放电比容量仍可达113.0 mAh.g-1,容量保持率为98.3%.掺杂Y3+能减小材料界面阻抗.

  12. Dataset on the electronic and thermal transport properties of quaternary compounds of (PbTe0.95−x(PbSex(PbS0.05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianta Ginting

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “High thermoelectric performance in pseudo quaternary compounds of (PbTe0.95−x(PbSex(PbS0.05 by simultaneous band convergence and nano precipitation” (Ginting et al., 2017 [1]. We measured electrical and thermal transport properties such as temperature-dependent Hall carrier density nH, Hall mobility μH, thermal diffusivity D, heat capacity Cp, and power factor S2σ in (PbTe0.95−x(PbSex(PbS0.05 (x=0.0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.35, and 0.95 compounds with other related compounds from references. From the theoretical fitting of thermal conductivity κ, we found that the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity follows nano-structure model as well as alloy scattering. Transmission electron microscopy images shows that there are numerous nano-scale precipitates in a matrix. Owing to the low thermal conductivity and high power factor, we report high thermoelectric performances such as the high ZT, engineering ZTeng, efficiency η.

  13. Direct correlation of internal gradients and pore size distributions with low field NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Lizhi; Liao, Guangzhi; Blümich, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Internal magnetic field gradients Gint, which arise from the magnetic susceptibility difference Δχ between solid matrix and fluid in porous media relate to the pore geometry. However, this relationship is complex and not well understood. Here we correlate internal-gradient distributions to pore-size distributions directly to examine internal gradients in detail at low field NMR. The pore-size distributions were obtained by the method of Decay due to Diffusion in the Internal Field (DDIF), and the internal-gradient distributions were measured with the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) method. The internal-gradient-pore-size distributions correlation maps were obtained for water in packs of glass beads with different diameter and in a sandstone sample. The relationship between internal gradients and pore structure is analyzed in detail by considering the restricted diffusion of fluids in porous samples. For each case diffusion regimes are assigned by plotting normalized CPMG data and comparing the diffusion lengths, the dephasing lengths and pore diameters. In the free-diffusion limit, the correlation maps reveal the true relationship between pore structure and internal gradients so that Δχ can be approximated from the correlation maps. This limit is met most easily at low field. It provides information about porous media, which is expected to benefit the oil industry, in particular NMR well logging.

  14. The symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis drives root water transport in flooded tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Molina, Sonia; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    It is known that the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the plant roots enhances the tolerance of the host plant to different environmental stresses, although the positive effect of the fungi in plants under waterlogged conditions has not been well studied. Tolerance of plants to flooding can be achieved through different molecular, physiological and anatomical adaptations, which will affect their water uptake capacity and therefore their root hydraulic properties. Here, we investigated the root hydraulic properties under non-flooded and flooded conditions in non-mycorrhizal tomato plants and plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Only flooded mycorrhizal plants increased their root hydraulic conductivity, and this effect was correlated with a higher expression of the plant aquaporin SlPIP1;7 and the fungal aquaporin GintAQP1. There was also a higher abundance of the PIP2 protein phoshorylated at Ser280 in mycorrhizal flooded plants. The role of plant hormones (ethylene, ABA and IAA) in root hydraulic properties was also taken into consideration, and it was concluded that, in mycorrhizal flooded plants, ethylene has a secondary role regulating root hydraulic conductivity whereas IAA may be the key hormone that allows the enhancement of root hydraulic conductivity in mycorrhizal plants under low oxygen conditions.

  15. Enhancement of electrochemical performance by simultaneous substitution of Ni and Mn with Fe in Ni-Mn spinel cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltas-Yavuz, Nilüfer; Yavuz, Murat; Indris, Sylvio; Bramnik, Natalia N.; Knapp, Michael; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Das, Bijoy; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Bhaskar, Aiswarya

    2016-09-01

    LiNi0.5-xFe2xMn1.5-xO4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) spinel cathode materials are synthesized using citric acid-assisted sol-gel method with final calcination temperature of 1000 °C. The structure and morphology of the materials are characterized by using synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction as well as scanning electron microscopy. Different from the parent LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) material, the Fe-doped spinels do not contain a rock-salt type impurity phase. However, they contain additional layered (C2/m) and spinel Fe3O4 (Fd 3 bar m) phases in small amounts. The substitution of Fe into the spinel structure has been confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Fe-doped spinels exhibit improved cycling stability (with a C/2 charge-discharge rate) and rate capability compared to the parent LNMO at room temperature in a voltage range 3.5-5.0 V. Among all these samples, the composition LiNi0.4Fe0.2Mn1.4O4 shows the best room temperature cycling stability (capacity retention of 92% after 300 cycles) as well as the highest initial discharge capacity (134 mAh g-1). The delivered capacities at high C-rates (especially at 10C and 20C) with respect to the capacity delivered at C/2 are higher for all Fe-doped samples compared to the parent LNMO. Furthermore, Fe-doping improves the thermal stability of the Ni-Mn spinels in the delithiated state.

  16. Investigation of physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries by deconvolution of electrochemical impedance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Balasundaram; Ramar, Vishwanathan; Yap, Christopher; Balaya, Palani

    2017-09-01

    The individual physico-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries namely solid-state diffusion and charge transfer polarization are difficult to be tracked by impedance spectroscopy due to simultaneous contributions from cathode and anode. A deeper understanding of various polarization processes in lithium-ion batteries is important to enhance storage performance and cycle life. In this context, the polarization processes occurring in cylindrical 18650 cells comprising different cathodes against graphite anode (LiNi0.2Mn0.2Co0.6O2vs. graphite; LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2vs. graphite; LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2vs. graphite and LiFePO4vs. graphite) are investigated by deconvolution of impedance spectra across various states of charge. Further, cathodes and anodes are extracted from the investigated 18650-type cells and tested in half-cells against Li-metal as well as in symmetric cell configurations to understand the contribution of cathode and anode to the full cells of various battery chemistries studied. Except for the LiFePO4vs. graphite cell, the polarization resistance in graphite of other cells are found to be higher than those of the investigated cathodes, proving that the polarization in lithium-ion battery is largely influenced by the graphitic anode. Furthermore, the charge transfer polarization resistance encountered by the cathodes investigated in this work is found to be a strong function of the states of charge.

  17. Generalized functions and calculus operators of Mathematica applied to evaluation of influence lines and envelopes of statically indeterminate beams

    OpenAIRE

    Walentyński, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    W pracy przedstawiono metodę analityczną znalezienia funkcji linii wpływu w belkach statycznie niewyznaczalnych. Są przedstawione rozwiązania równania czwartego rzędu z występowaniem po prawej stronie drugiej i trzeciej pochodnej delty Diraca. Wykazano, że ich rozwiązaniem są linie wpływu momentów i sił poprzecznych. Ponadto, dzięki Mathematica, postać analityczna funkcji obwiedni mogą być wyznaczone. The paper presents an analytical method of finding functions of influence lines of static...

  18. Reducing Carbon Footprint Direction of the Development of Aviation Fuels / Redukcja Emisji Dwutlenku Węgla Kierunkiem Rozwoju Paliw Lotniczych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Białecki Tomasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Publikacja przedstawia kierunek rozwoju paliw do silników odrzutowych, wyznaczony przez redukcję emisji dwutlenku węgla w lotnictwie. Tematyka ta jest efektem realizacji założonego przez Organizację Międzynarodowego Lotnictwa Cywilnego celu zmniejszenia o połowę emisji CO2. Dodatkowo przedstawia możliwości zastosowania drugiej generacji biopaliw w lotnictwie oraz rentowność zastosowania takiego paliwa przez linie lotnicze na skalę komercyjną

  19. Von der synoptischen zur analytischen neumatischen Notation: Am Beispiel des Sticherons von Germanos Neon Patron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački Die Abwesenheit eines einheitlichen Schlussels in der Dechiffrage der sogenannten 'alten' neumatischen Intonation (vor der letzten Reform anfangs des neunzehnten Jarhunderts ist in erster Linie durch ihre Natur selbst bedingt. Die immanenten Eigenschaften der neumatischen Schrift sind in der Arbeet durch einen Verglich der stenographischen Schriften der ausgewahlten Sticherons Germanos Neon Patrons (Handschrift EBE 975, 18. Jahrhundert, der 'analitischen' Transcription derselben verfasst, durch CHOURMOUSIOS CHARTOPH YLAX (Handscrhrift EBE MпT 747-750 und der Interpretation der zeitgenossischen Kirchensanger, die die Chourmousios melismatische Schrift zusatzlich melodisch verziert haben, dargestellt.

  20. X-ray absorption near-edge structure study on positive electrodes of degraded lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Hironori; Koike, Shinji; Sakaebe, Hikari; Saito, Yoshiyasu; Hori, Hironobu; Kageyama, Hiroyuki; Tatsumi, Kuniaki

    18650-type cylindrical cells using LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 (NMC) and hard carbon as positive and negative electrode material, respectively, were fabricated and degraded by cycle tests. The capacity of the cells remained more than 95% and 85% after cycle tests at 25 and 50 °C, respectively. After the cycle tests, Li-deficient cubic phase was observed on the surface of NMC. This phenomenon should be related to the degradation mechanism of this type of cell.

  1. A Spacecraft Charging Capability for SXTF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-17

    energy 0.5-4 MoV 101 electrons Artificial high energy 0.5-S Mex 10 9 ele ctrons Natural positive ions 5-50 kV Sx10 Artificial positive ions 5-50 keV...shielding). Placement of the source underground would be advantageous for economy of shielding. Any underground location other than below the tank may lead...shielding, it is recommended that the accelerator( be located underground with beam linies to thle tank. [lhe tii rections of the eam should be toward

  2. Application of Magnetron Sputtering in Fabricating MEMS Microbatteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wan; YANG Zhi-min; XING Guang-jian; MAO Chang-hui; DU Jun

    2004-01-01

    With the development of MEMS and the electronic devices's miniaturization and integration, a new kind of power sources that can satisfy the need for high energy density is required. Microbatteries are being researched abroad for their advantages of extreme thinness and long-term power supply. The development of MEMS microbatteries are reviewed and suggestedmagnetron sputtering in fabricating a high-performance microbattery. The technics as annealing are analyzed. The microbattery with a LiNi1-x Cox O2 cathode exhibited stable cycle ability and a high specific discharge capacity, which was attributed to the alloying effect of the LiNiO2and LiCoO2.

  3. Möglichkeiten der Schaumsklerotherapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partsch B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Verwendung von Verödungsschaum aus oberflächenaktiven Verödungsmitteln wie Polidocanol hat in den vergangenen 10 Jahren zu einer Renaissance der Sklerotherapie geführt. Während die konventionelle Sklerotherapie in erster Linie zur Behandlung von Besenreisern und kleineren Varizen verwendet wurde, eröffnet sich durch die Schaumsklerosierung in Kombination mit hochauflösenden Ultraschallsonden auch die Möglichkeit, Stammvarizen unter Ultraschallkontrolle erfolgreich zu behandeln. Endovenöse Kathetertechniken zur Ablation von Stammvarizen mit Laser oder Radiofrequenzwellen sind vergleichsweise aufwendig und kostenintensiv.

  4. Electrodeposition of polymer electrolyte in nanostructured electrodes for enhanced electrochemical performance of thin-film Li-ion microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salian, Girish D.; Lebouin, Chrystelle; Demoulin, A.; Lepihin, M. S.; Maria, S.; Galeyeva, A. K.; Kurbatov, A. P.; Djenizian, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    We report that electrodeposition of polymer electrolyte in nanostructured electrodes has a strong influence on the electrochemical properties of thin-film Li-ion microbatteries. Electropolymerization of PMMA-PEG (polymethyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol) was carried out on both the anode (self-supported titania nanotubes) and the cathode (porous LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) by cyclic voltammetry and the resulting electrode-electrolyte interface was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical characterizations performed by galvanostatic experiments reveal that the capacity values obtained at different C-rates are doubled when the electrodes are completely filled by the polymer electrolyte.

  5. The wandering spleen: Diagnosis by ultrasonography, CT, MR(A), and scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled erythrocytes; Dystopie der Milz: Nachweis mittels Ultraschall, CT, MR(A) und {sup 99m}Tc-Szintigraphie mit alterierten Erythrozyten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinter, D.; Diehl, S.J.; Georgi, M. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Schaub, M. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Klinische Medizin

    1999-07-01

    The wandering spleen is a rare, congenital malformation, which may pose diagnostic difficulties particularly in differentiating the wandering spleen from other abdominal masses. The diagnostic modalities of choice are contrast-enhanced CT and MRT, and scintigraphy with labelled eryhtrocytes for selective detection of splenic parenchyma. (orig./MG) [German] Dystopien der Milz sind seltene kongenitale Anomalien, die differential-diagnostische Probleme bezueglich der Abgrenzung zu anderen abdominellen Raumforderungen bereiten koennen. Die Diagnostik stuetzt sich in erster Linie auf die Schnittbildverfahren CT und MRT nach Kontrastmittelgabe, wobei die Szintigraphie mit alterierten Erythrozyten den selektiven Nachweis von Milzparenchym erlaubt. (orig.)

  6. On The Problem of Constructing Routes, Part I: Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertsbakh Ilya B.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a preface of the translation of the 1967 paper by Linis and Maksim, “On the problem of constructing routes” (in Russian (in the Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Aviation Engineering, Issue 102, pp. 36-45. It marks 50-year to the deficit function (DF model initially developed in this 1967 work; the DF model then paved the way to further research of vehicle-fleet management in terms of optimal routing and scheduling. The merit of this translation is to describe the roots of the DF modelling to enable further studies to emerge with more contributions.

  7. 英伦气韵 香港TAZAMANIA BALLROOM酒吧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏天(编译)

    2011-01-01

    出生于突尼斯的设计师Tom Dixon,在1980年代中期崭露头角,被誉为"未经后天栽培的焊铁家具设计天才"。他曾加盟享誉国际的意大利家具生产商Cappel-lini,并设计了经典的"S chair"座椅。此次他受杨其龙先生的邀请设计TAZAMANIA BALLROOM,其结果令人惊艳。

  8. Servqual Method: Analisis Kualitas Pelayanan Beauty Advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Widyastuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa kualitas pelayanan beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar guna meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan pada konsumen. Pengambilan data menggunakan skala kualitas pelayanan yang disusun berdasarkan metode Servqual dari (Parasuraman, dkk., 1988 pada 72 orang konsumen Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar. Sampel diambil dengan menggunakan teknik insidental random sampling. Analisis data menggunakan pengukuran gap 5 dari metode Servqual. Hasil penelitian menemukan ada kesenjangan pelayanan (service gap antara persepsi dan harapan konsumen sebesar -81.09 dimana nilai minus disini berarti, kinerja kerja beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar berada pada kategori rendah. Kesimpulannya, beauty advisor sebagai garda lini depan dalam pemasaran belum bekerja secara optimal.

  9. Optimization of environment compatible analysis methods for mineral hydrocarbons in the soil; Optimierung umweltvertraeglicher Analysenverfahren fuer Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffe im Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flachowsky, J.; Borsdorf, H. [eds.] [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Loehmannsroeben, H.G.; Roch, T. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Leopom, P. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Reimers, C. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany); Matz, G.; Kuebler, J. [MOBILAB GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Christall, B. [SOFIA GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Hahn, M.; Matschiner, H. [Elektrochemie Halle GmbH (Germany); Baermann, A. [Dr. Baermann und Partner Mikroanalytik, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes several analytical methods for the quantitative chemical analysis of mineral oil hydrocarbons in soils. The measuring methods are investigated on accuracy, errors, sample preparation methods, analysis of reference materials and real materials. (SR) [Deutsch] Mit dieser Schrift praesentiert die Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt der Oeffentlichkeit Ergebnisse zu alternativen umweltvertraeglichen Bestimmungsmethoden fuer Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffe in Boeden. Es war in erster Linie das Ziel aller beteiligten Forscher und Entwickler, die heute noch in der Anwendung befindliche Vorschrift nach DIN 38409 H18 zur Analytik von Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffen durch eine sowohl umweltfreundliche als auch insgesamt aussagekraeftige Methode zu substituieren. (orig.)

  10. A Prototype Decision Support System for the Location of Military Water Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    SOURCE O POLUTION 6. CHMUmNCATIONS DISTANCE TO ROADS RAILROADS BIDOS 7. SITE CaODITIOB (If mic s stem, use Items 9 amd 10)szctmrt IT’r BANKS (If surface...11* b. Friendly Forces (1) 7th TAP furnish close air apt to 27th Arad Div, priority to 2d Bde. (2) U.S. Border Patrol units 8 and 9. c. Att and Det...division will hold at phase lini PIZZA but will be prepared to continue advance on order. (2) Fires: Priority of air and artillery to 2d Bde. Annex C

  11. Zwischenbilanz und Verbesserungspotenziale der Europa-2020-Strategie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Während die Instrumente der Economic Governance während der Krise erheblich gestärkt wurden, sind im Bereich der sozialen Dimension Europas keine Fortschritte zu verzeichnen. Die in erster Linie auf strikter überwachte und zentral gesteuerte Budgetpolitiken setzenden Verfahren im Europäischen...... Semester haben die ohnehin bestehende Nachrangigkeit sozialer Ziele in der EU weiterhin gefestigt. Dieser Beitrag zieht eine Zwischenbilanz der Europa-2020-Strategie. Der Fokus liegt auf dem Widerspruch zwischen den sozial- und beschäftigungspolitischen Zielen und den gleichzeitigen Vorgaben zur...... werden Verbesserungspotenziale der Europa-2020-Strategie diskutiert....

  12. Magie, Hexen und Strafverfolgung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In der Reihe „Historische Einführungen“ des Campus Verlags versucht Johannes Dillinger, die Entwicklung von Magie- und Hexereivorstellungen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart zu beschreiben. Die Hexenverfolgungen und -prozesse der Frühen Neuzeit und ihre Voraussetzungen nehmen dabei etwas mehr als die Hälfte der Gesamtdarstellung ein. Das Buch bietet in erster Linie eine Einführung in die neuere und neueste Sekundärliteratur und die dort besprochenen aktuellen Streitpunkte. In einem Teilabschnitt wird auch auf die Hexenverfolgung als Frauenverfolgung eingegangen und nach Ursachen für den hohen Frauenanteil unter den Verfolgten geforscht.

  13. Empirische Untersuchung zum Image der School of International Business (SIB) der Hochschule Reutlingen

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Im Oktober 2006 wurde erstmalig eine Vollerhebung bei den Studierenden der School of International Business (SIB) der Hochschule Reutlingen durchgeführt. Die Befragung richtete sich an die Studierenden aller Studiengänge der SIB und verfolgte in erster Linie das Ziel, die Einstellung der Studierenden zu ihrer Fakultät zu ermitteln und zu quantifizieren. Die Ergebnisse dieser Status-Quo-Analyse dienen darüber hinaus als Anhaltspunkt für die bedürfnisorientierte zukünftige Ausrichtung der Fakul...

  14. Characterization of Three New Glutaredoxin Genes in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis: Putative Role of RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 in Iron Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Elisabeth; Benabdellah, Karim; Ferrol, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxins (GRXs) are small ubiquitous oxidoreductases involved in the regulation of the redox state in living cells. In an attempt to identify the full complement of GRXs in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, three additional GRX homologs, besides the formerly characterized GintGRX1 (renamed here as RiGRX1), were identified. The three new GRXs (RiGRX4, RiGRX5 and RiGRX6) contain the CXXS domain of monothiol GRXs, but whereas RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 belong to class II GRXs, RiGRX6 belongs to class I together with RiGRX1. By using a yeast expression system, we observed that the newly identified homologs partially reverted sensitivity of the GRX deletion yeast strains to external oxidants. Furthermore, our results indicated that RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 play a role in iron homeostasis in yeast. Gene expression analyses revealed that RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 were more highly expressed in the intraradical (IRM) than in the extraradical mycelium (ERM). Exposure of the ERM to hydrogen peroxide induced up-regulation of RiGRX1, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 gene expression. RiGRX4 expression was also up-regulated in the ERM when the fungus was grown in media supplemented with a high iron concentration. These data indicate the two monothiol class II GRXs, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5, might be involved in oxidative stress protection and in the regulation of fungal iron homeostasis. Increased expression of RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 in the IRM suggests that these GRXs should play a key role in oxidative stress protection of R. irregularis during its in planta phase. PMID:26900849

  15. Characterization of Three New Glutaredoxin Genes in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Rhizophagus irregularis: Putative Role of RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 in Iron Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Tamayo

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxins (GRXs are small ubiquitous oxidoreductases involved in the regulation of the redox state in living cells. In an attempt to identify the full complement of GRXs in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, three additional GRX homologs, besides the formerly characterized GintGRX1 (renamed here as RiGRX1, were identified. The three new GRXs (RiGRX4, RiGRX5 and RiGRX6 contain the CXXS domain of monothiol GRXs, but whereas RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 belong to class II GRXs, RiGRX6 belongs to class I together with RiGRX1. By using a yeast expression system, we observed that the newly identified homologs partially reverted sensitivity of the GRX deletion yeast strains to external oxidants. Furthermore, our results indicated that RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 play a role in iron homeostasis in yeast. Gene expression analyses revealed that RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 were more highly expressed in the intraradical (IRM than in the extraradical mycelium (ERM. Exposure of the ERM to hydrogen peroxide induced up-regulation of RiGRX1, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5 gene expression. RiGRX4 expression was also up-regulated in the ERM when the fungus was grown in media supplemented with a high iron concentration. These data indicate the two monothiol class II GRXs, RiGRX4 and RiGRX5, might be involved in oxidative stress protection and in the regulation of fungal iron homeostasis. Increased expression of RiGRX1 and RiGRX6 in the IRM suggests that these GRXs should play a key role in oxidative stress protection of R. irregularis during its in planta phase.

  16. Improving the Performance of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Using Spinel Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Arrebola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we examined the use of nanospinels to construct batttery electrodes. We chose two spinels suitable as cathode materials (LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which are representative of 4 and 5 V versus Li metal, resp. and one providing good results as anode (Li4Ti5O12. In order to ensure good cell performance, nanometric particles must meet another requirement; thus they should contain few surface or bulk defects (i.e., they should be highly crystalline. Because the synthesis of such spinels usually requires a thermal treatment, ensuring that they will meet both requirements entails accuratly controlling in the synthesis conditions. Thermal decomposition of nanooxalate in the spinel-conaining elements obtained by mechanochenical activation in the presence of polymers provides a simple, effective route for this purpose. We prepared two types of hybrid lithium-ion batteries using LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as cathode materials, and Li4Ti5O12 as anode material. The electrochemical properties of these cells were compared with those of a similar configuration made from micrometric particles. The nano-nano configuration exhibited higher reversibility and better performance than the micro-micro configuartion in both types of cells, possibly as a result of lithium ions in the former being able to migrate more easily into the electrode material.

  17. Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of High Power Lithium Ion Battery%高功率型锂离子电池的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锋涛

    2015-01-01

    The 18650/1300 mA·h Li-ion batteries were prepared with LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as positive electrode and graphite as negative electrode. The discharge capacity of the batteries at 5 C was about 99% of the capacity obtained at 1.0 C. The capacity was over 87% of the original capacity after 900 cycles. Furthermore, there was no exploding and fire when the batteries were short circuited by puncturing.%采用 LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2作为正极材料,石墨为负极材料,制成18650型/1300 mA·h 功率型圆柱电池;该类电池5 C 放电容量相当于1 C 放电容量的99%,5 C 循环测试900次后,容量剩余87%以上;经过针刺后,电池没有起火爆炸。

  18. Performance degradation of high-power lithium-ion cells-Electrochemistry of harvested electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, D. P.; Knuth, J. L.; Dees, D. W.; Bloom, I.; Christophersen, J. P.

    The performance of 18650-type high-power lithium-ion cells is being evaluated as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOEs) Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program. In this article, we present accelerated aging data acquired on 18650-cells containing LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2- or LiNi 0.8Co 0.1Al 0.1O 2-based positive electrodes, MAG-10 graphite-based negative electrodes, and 1.2-M LiPF 6 in EC:EMC (3:7 by wt.) electrolyte. Capacity and impedance data acquired on electrodes harvested from these cells highlight the contributions of the positive and negative electrodes to the degradation of cell performance. We also describe test methodologies used to examine the electrochemical characteristics of the harvested electrodes. Identifying and optimizing cell components responsible for performance degradation should enable the development of new lithium-ion cell chemistries that will meet the 15-year cell calendar life goal established by DOEs FreedomCar initiative.

  19. Thermal abuse performance of high-power 18650 Li-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, E. P.; Doughty, D. H.

    High-power 18650 Li-ion cells have been developed for hybrid electric vehicle applications as part of the DOE Advanced Technology Development (ATD) program. The thermal abuse response of two advanced chemistries (Gen1 and Gen2) were measured and compared with commercial Sony 18650 cells. Gen1 cells consisted of an MCMB graphite based anode and a LiNi 0.85Co 0.15O 2 cathode material while the Gen2 cells consisted of a MAG10 anode graphite and a LiNi 0.80Co 0.15 Al 0.05O 2 cathode. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to measure the thermal response and properties of the cells and cell materials up to 400 °C. The MCMB graphite was found to result in increased thermal stability of the cells due to more effective solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation. The Al stabilized cathodes were seen to have higher peak reaction temperatures that also gave improved cell thermal response. The effects of accelerated aging on cell properties were also determined. Aging resulted in improved cell thermal stability with the anodes showing a rapid reduction in exothermic reactions while the cathodes only showed reduced reactions after more extended aging.

  20. Low-cost waste incineration and recycling from the operator`s point of view; Kostenguenstige thermische Abfallverwertung und Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz aus Betreibersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgorf, J. [Saarberg-Oekotechnic GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The 1996 Act on Recycling and Waste Management specified that waste production should be reduced first of all, and that waste still produced should be recycled or used for power generation. Dumping and `classic` incineration are permissible only if it is the more acceptable solution from an environmental point of view. There are two categories of thermal treatment: Thermal treatment of `waste for dumping`, and use of the energy content of `waste for utilisation`. The contribution analyzes the effects of the law on future waste management concepts in consideration of the current situation of thermal treatment of residual waste. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das im Oktober 1996 in Kraft getretene Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz (KrW-/AbfG) schreibt in den Grundsaetzen der Kreislaufwirtschaft fest, dass Abfaelle in erster Linie zu vermeiden und in zweiter Linie stofflich oder energetisch zu verwerten sind. Die Beseitigung von Abfaellen - und darunter faellt auch die `klassische` Muellverbrennung - ist nur dann zugelassen, wenn sie gegenueber der Verwertung die umweltvertraeglichere Loesung darstellt. Fuer die thermische Behandlung von Abfaellen denfiniert das KrW-/AbfG deshalb zwei Wege mit unterschiedlichen Ansaetzen: Zum einen die thermische Behandlung von `Abfaellen zur Beseitigung`, wie sie bisher in vielen Anlagen zur Muellverbrennung realisiert worden ist und zum anderen die energetische Nutzung von `Abfaellen zur Verwertung`. Der vorliegende Beitrag soll die Auswirkung dieser Vorgabe auf zukuenftige Abfallwirtschaftskonzepte unter Beruecksichtigung der derzeitigen Situation der thermischen Restabfallbehandlung darstellen. (orig.)

  1. Intragranular cracking as a critical barrier for high-voltage usage of layer-structured cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Chong-Min

    2017-01-01

    LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2-layered cathode is often fabricated in the form of secondary particles, consisting of densely packed primary particles. This offers advantages for high energy density and alleviation of cathode side reactions/corrosions, but introduces drawbacks such as intergranular cracking. Here, we report unexpected observations on the nucleation and growth of intragranular cracks in a commercial LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathode by using advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy. We find the formation of the intragranular cracks is directly associated with high-voltage cycling, an electrochemically driven and diffusion-controlled process. The intragranular cracks are noticed to be characteristically initiated from the grain interior, a consequence of a dislocation-based crack incubation mechanism. This observation is in sharp contrast with general theoretical models, predicting the initiation of intragranular cracks from grain boundaries or particle surfaces. Our study emphasizes that maintaining structural stability is the key step towards high-voltage operation of layered-cathode materials.

  2. ANALISIS PENGUKURAN NILAI OVERALL EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS (OEE PADA PROSES PACKAGING DI LINE 2 (STUDI KASUS PT. MULTI BINTANG INDONESIA. TBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erry Rimawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available PT. Multi Bintang Indonesia Tbk bergerak dalam bidang industri pembuatan minuman, dimana perusahaan tersebut berproduksi berdasarkan besarnya permintaan dari costumer yang merupakan kantor-kantor pemasaran yang telah tersebar berbagai daerah di Indonesia. Dalam tahap proses packaging di PT.MBI melalui dengan 3 line diantaranya racking line, canning line, bottling line. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui nilai overall equipment effectiveness (OEE dan Losses yang paling berpengaruh dari six big Losses OEE yang terfokus pada peralatan atau mesin secara keseluruhan menjadi satu kesatuan yaitu pada lini Line 2, yang kemudian akan diketahui akar penyebab losses yang terjadi dari penelitian selama dilapangan. Dari hasil perhitungan overall equipment effectiveness (OEE terdapat dua rasio yang masih kurang baik dan berada dibawah standar kelas dunia, adapun rasio tersebut yaitu avaibility sebesar 88,85% dari standar kelas dunia sebesar 90% dan performance ratio sebesar 78,51% dari standar kelas dunia sebesar 95%, sedangkan untuk quality ratio telah masuk standar kelas dunia yaitu sebesar 99,90%. Sehingga dengan demikian nilai OEE pada lini Line 2 masih berada dibawah standar kelas dunia. Pada penelitian ini hanya terdapat lima losses yang dapat diidentifikasi, dan adapun losses yang sangat berpengaruh yaitu pada Reduced Speed Losses, losses ini menyumbang nilai tingkat presentase losses terbesar yakni 19,12%, dari hasil penelitian losses ini terjadi karena adanya sistem pengawasan yang jelek (kurang baik yang menyebabkan karyawan atau operator tidak melakukan pekerjaan sesuai ketentuan yang telah ditetapkan.

  3. Effects of Chemical versus Electrochemical Delithiation on the Oxygen Evolution Reaction Activity of Nickel-Rich Layered LiMO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyn, Veronica; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-10-01

    Nickel-rich layered LiMO2 (M = transition metal) oxides doped with iron exhibit high oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity in alkaline electrolytes. The LiMO2 oxides offer the possibility of investigating the influence of the number of d electrons on OER by tuning the oxidation state of M via chemical or electrochemical delithiation. Accordingly, we investigate here the electrocatalytic behavior of LiNi0.7Co0.3O2 and LiNi0.7Co0.2Fe0.1O2 before and after chemical delithiation. In addition to varying the oxidation state of the transition-metal ions, we find that chemical delithiation also affects the local chemical environment and morphology. The electrochemical response differs depending on whether the delithiation occurred ex situ chemically or in situ during the electrocatalysis. The results point to the important role of in situ transformation in LiMO2 in alkaline electrolytes during electrocatalytic cycling.

  4. Surface-modified concentration-gradient Ni-rich layered oxide cathodes for high-energy lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jin-Yun; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Concentration-gradient layered Li[Ni0.8Co0.2]0.7[Ni0.2Mn0.8]0.3O2 oxide with Ni-rich in the core and Mn-rich in the surface region has been synthesized through a condition-controlled tank reactor reaction. While the Ni-rich core facilitates high capacity, the Mn-rich surface enables good cyclability and thermal stability. The concentration-gradient sample exhibits a higher capacity of 204 mA h g-1 at C/5 rate with superior cyclability and thermal stability compared to the constant-concentration LiNi0.62Co0.14Mn0.24O2 sample, which has the same net Ni, Co, and Mn contents as those present in the concentration-gradient sample. The concentration-gradient sample was also coated with a thin layer of Al2O3 on the surface to stabilize the electrode/electrolyte interface and thereby further improve the electrochemical performance. Both the structural (gradient structure) and surface (Al2O3 coating) modifications help suppress side reactions between electrode and electrolyte and reduce the decline in voltage during cycling. The Al2O3-coated concentration-gradient sample exhibits improved long-term cyclability, rate capability, and thermal stability compared to the pristine uncoated sample.

  5. Gaza revisited: Eine inhaltsanalytische Untersuchung der Berichterstattung deutscher Qualitätszeitungen über die Gaza-Kriege 2008/2009 und 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Witte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diese Studie untersucht die Berichterstattung über die beiden Gaza-Kriege 2008/2009 und 2012 in den überregionalen Tageszeitungen Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ und die tageszeitung (taz. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf den Unterschieden in der Berichterstattung über den ersten und den zweiten Gaza-Krieg sowie zwischen der Berichterstattung der FAZ und der taz gemäß ihrer Positionierung im publizistischen Rechts-Links-Spektrum. Es wird angenommen, dass die Orientierungs- und Kritikfunktion der Tageszeitungen durch die redaktionelle Linie und das News Management staatlicher Akteure inhaltlich beeinflusst werden. Zu den zentralen Ergebnissen zählt, dass sich lediglich Unterschiede in der Berichterstattung über den ersten und den zweiten Gaza-Krieg identifizieren lassen. Die redaktionelle Linie von FAZ und taz hat kaum einen moderierenden Einfluss. Die Berichte und Kommentare zum zweiten Gaza-Krieg sind in beiden Tageszeitungen Israel-freundlicher als während des ersten Gaza-Kriegs. Diese für Israel positive Entwicklung der Berichterstattung lässt sich möglicherweise auf das News Management der israelischen Armee und den weniger opferreichen Kriegsverlauf der israelischen Luftoffensive zurückführen.

  6. Lithium-cyclo-difluoromethane-1,1-bis(sulfonyl)imide as a stabilizing electrolyte additive for improved high voltage applications in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmann, Patrick; Streipert, Benjamin; Kloepsch, Richard; Ignatiev, Nikolai; Sartori, Peter; Winter, Martin; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora

    2015-04-14

    Lithium-cyclo-difluoromethane-1,1-bis(sulfonyl)imide (LiDMSI) was evaluated as an electrolyte additive in lithium-ion batteries for improved high voltage applications. Cycling the cathode at high potentials leads to the electrochemical oxidation of the salt to form a cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) layer on the cathode surface. With the addition of 2 wt% of LiDMSI to the 1 M LiPF6 in 1 : 1 (by wt) EC : DEC electrolyte, the capacity retention and the Coulombic efficiency in LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/Li-half-cells as well as in LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2/graphite-full-cells were improved. The cycling results point out the less over-potential and resistance at the cathode/electrolyte interface. These improvements are studied by SEM, EIS and XPS techniques.

  7. Determination of the mechanism and extent of surface degradation in Ni-based cathode materials after repeated electrochemical cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Hwang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We take advantage of scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy to investigate the changes in near-surface electronic structure and quantify the degree of local degradation of Ni-based cathode materials with the layered structure (LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 and LiNi0.4Mn0.3Co0.3O2 after 20 cycles of delithiation and lithiation. Reduction of transition metals occurs in the near-surface region of cathode materials: Mn is the major element to be reduced in the case of relatively Mn-rich composition, while reduction of Ni ions is dominant in Ni-rich materials. The valences of Ni and Mn ions are complementary, i.e., when one is reduced, the other is oxidized in order to maintain charge neutrality. The depth of degradation zone is found to be much deeper in Ni-rich materials. This comparative analysis provides important insights needed for the devising of new cathode materials with high capacity as well as long lifetime.

  8. Carbon-Coated Li3 VO4 Spheres as Constituents of an Advanced Anode Material for High-Rate Long-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Laifa; Chen, Shuangqiang; Maier, Joachim; Yu, Yan

    2017-09-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are receiving considerable attention for large-scale energy-storage systems. However, to date the current cathode/anode system cannot satisfy safety, cost, and performance requirements for such applications. Here, a lithium-ion full battery based on the combination of a Li3 VO4 anode with a LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 cathode is reported, which displays a better performance than existing systems. Carbon-coated Li3 VO4 spheres comprising nanoscale carbon-coating primary particles are synthesized by a morphology-inheritance route. The observed high capacity combined with excellent sample stability and high rate capability of carbon-coated Li3 VO4 spheres is superior to other insertion anode materials. A high-performance full lithium-ion battery is fabricated by using the carbon-coated Li3 VO4 spheres as the anode and LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 spheres as the cathode; such a cell shows an estimated practical energy density of 205 W h kg(-1) with greatly improved properties such as pronounced long-term cyclability, and rapid charge and discharge. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Comparative study of electrolyte additives using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on symmetric cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibon, R.; Sinha, N. N.; Burns, J. C.; Aiken, C. P.; Ye, Hui; VanElzen, Collette M.; Jain, Gaurav; Trussler, S.; Dahn, J. R.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of various electrolyte additives and additive combinations added to a 1 M LiPF6 EC:EMC electrolyte on the positive and negative electrodes surface of 1 year old wound LiCoO2/graphite cells and Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2])O2/graphite cells was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on symmetric cells. The additives tested were: vinylene carbonate (VC), trimethoxyboroxine (TMOBX), fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), and H2O alone or in combination. In general, compared to control electrolyte, the additives tested reduced the impedance of the positive electrode and increased the impedance of the negative electrode with the exception of LiTFSI in Li[Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2]O2/graphite wound cells. Higher charge voltage led to higher positive electrode impedance, with the exception of 2%VC + 2% FEC, and 2% LiTFSI. In some cases, some additives when mixed with another controlled the formation of the SEI at one electrode, and shared the formation of the SEI at one electrode when mixed with a different additive.

  10. Haptische Modellierung und Deformation einer Kugelzelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    Haptische Simulationsmodelle dienen in der Medizin in erster Linie dem Training operativer Eingriffe. Sie basieren zumeist auf physikalischen Gewebemodellen, welche eine sehr genaue Simulation der biomechanischen Eigenschaften des betreffenden Gewebes erlauben, aber gleichzeitig sehr rechenintensiv und damit zeitaufwändig in der Ausführung sind. Die menschliche Wahrnehmung kann allerdings auch eine ungenaue haptische Modellierung psychooptisch ausgleichen. Daher kann es sinnvoll sein, haptische Simulationen auch mit nicht vollständig physikalisch definierten Deformationsmodellen durchzuführen. Am Beispiel der haptischer Simulation einer in-vitro Fertilisation wird gezeigt, dass durch die Anwendung eines geometrischen Deformationsmodells eine künstliche Befruchtung unter realistischen experimentellen Bedingungen in Echtzeit haptisch simuliert und damit trainiert werden kann.

  11. Analysis of the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as applied to a lithium-ion porous electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Dennis W.; Kawauchi, Shigehiro; Abraham, Daniel P.; Prakash, Jai

    Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) experiments were conducted to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient of LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2, used as the active material in a lithium-ion battery porous composite positive electrode. An electrochemical model, based on concentrated solution porous electrode theory, was developed to analyze the GITT experimental results and compare to the original GITT analytical theory. The GITT experimental studies on the oxide active material were conducted between 3.5 and 4.5 V vs. lithium, with the maximum lithium diffusion coefficient value being 10 -10 cm 2 s -1 at 3.85 V. The lithium diffusion coefficient values obtained from this study agree favorably with the values obtained from an earlier electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study.

  12. Yolk-shelled cathode materials with extremely high electrochemical performances prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Hong, Young Jun; Kang, Yun Chan

    2013-08-01

    A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 mA h g-1 at 10 C. The discharge capacities are as high as 103, 95, and 91 mA h g-1 at extremely high discharge rates of 100, 200, and 300 C and the corresponding specific energy densities are 420, 370, and 328 W h kg-1. The capacity retention at a constant discharge rate of 200 C is 90% after 500 cycles.A facile, continuous preparation process of yolk-shell-structured lithium-metal oxide powders without a template for use as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries is introduced for the first time. Single and double-shelled LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 yolk-shell powders as the first target materials are prepared directly by spray pyrolysis from a spray solution with sucrose, at a short residence time of 4 s. Fast combustion and contraction of a carbon-mixed oxide composite intermediate, formed from a micro-sized droplet inside a hot wall reactor maintained at 700 °C, produces the yolk-shell powders. The yolk-shell structure of the precursor powders directly prepared by spray pyrolysis is well maintained even at a high post-treatment temperature of 750 °C. The yolk-shell LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 powders delivered a 1000th high discharge capacity of 108 m

  13. Rezension zu: Tim Rohrmann: Zwei Welten? Geschlechtertrennung in der Kindheit. Opladen u.a.: Budrich UniPress 2008 — Franz-Michael Konrad, Klaudia Schultheis: Kindheit. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rendtorff

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rohrmann legt im ersten Teil seines Buches eine sehr breite Literaturstudie zu geschlechtstypischen Themen, vor allem für den Elementarbereich, vor und entwickelt am Ende Perspektiven für Forschung und pädagogisches Handeln. Ihn interessiert dabei in erster Linie die Frage, ob die Professionellen die geschlechtliche Zusammensetzung von Kindergruppen steuern sollen und wie sie mit der bei Kindern verbreiteten Tendenz zur Bildung geschlechtergetrennter Gruppen umzugehen haben. Das Buch von Konrad/Schultheis dagegen ist eine „allgemeine pädagogische Einführung“ in die Kindheit, die erst im letzten Kapitel von der Tatsache der Geschlechtlichkeit von Kindern überrascht wird.

  14. Enabling aqueous binders for lithium battery cathodes - Carbon coating of aluminum current collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doberdò, Italo; Löffler, Nicholas; Laszczynski, Nina; Cericola, Dario; Penazzi, Nerino; Bodoardo, Silvia; Kim, Guk-Tae; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    In this manuscript a novel approach to enable aqueous binders for lithium ion battery (LIB) cathodes is reported. Producing LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrodes using sodium-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as a binder and water as a solvent, in fact, results in serious aluminum corrosion during electrode manufacturing due to the high pH of the slurry. In order to prevent the direct contact of the corrosive slurry with aluminum foil, the latter is first coated with a thin carbon layer. The CMC-based electrodes formed on carbon coated aluminum foil show enhanced performance than those made using unprotected aluminum instead. In particular, electrodes using protected aluminum foil are able to deliver a capacity of 126 mAh g-1 at 1C rate, which is rather close to that delivered by polyvinylidene-di-fluoride (PVdF)-based electrode having the same composition.

  15. Iz novõh stihhov / Jaan Kaplinski ; per. Svetlan Semenenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaplinski, Jaan, 1941-

    2001-01-01

    J. Kaplinski elu- ja loomeloost lk. 2-12. Sisu: "Rasskazõval studentam o natshale gretsheskoi kulturõ..." ; "Net boga..." ; "Mezhdu dvumja porõvami vetra..." ; "Na ulitse Vallikraavi odinoki muravei tashtshil..." ; "Tshto v stihhah glavnoje? - ne soderzhanje, ne forma..." ; "Otnosja na pomoiku slantsevuju zolu i banki..." ; "Stihhi kak zelen - vesnoi ona rozhdajetsja..." ; "Vizhu tvoju reshitelnost: prevrashtshajesh svoju zhizn..." ; "Lini, kazhetsja, ne sushtshestvujet, jest tolko totshki..." ; "Natshal stirat rubashku sõna. Nashol v karmane bumazhku..." ; "Vspomnit, podumat o sginuvshem dne..." ; "Smert ne prihhodit izvne. Smert vnutri..." ; "Ja ne pishu stihhov o lete, ob osseni..." ; "Stihhi zhivut na zemle uzhe s eotsena. Ih predki zhili..." ; "Vneshnim vidom idealõ napominajut krolikov ili beshvostnõh..."

  16. Lithium diffusion in a new cathode material Li0.8[Ni0.6Sb0.4]O2 studied by 7Li NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikhov T., Klysheva E., Zvereva E., Nalbandyan V., Shukaev I., Medvedev B., Vavilova E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A rhombohedral layered α-NaFeO2-type compound, Lix[Ni(1+x/3Sb(2-x/3]O2 (x=0.8 has been prepared from the sodium analogue by ion exchange at 570 K. In contrast to the stoichiometric composition Li3Ni2SbO6, it shows considerable Li/Ni inversion and no long-range Ni/Sb ordering. The temperature dependence of the 7Li NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate and linewidth data measured at temperature range from 30-450 K show the sharp increase of lithium ions mobility comparing to the stoichiometric compound Li3Ni2SbO6. From the NMR data the activation energy was estimated by different methods.

  17. Die Entität des Migräne-assoziierten Schwindels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiest G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Der "Migräne-assoziierte Schwindel" (MAS wird seit dem Vorliegen von neuen Ergebnissen der neurootologischen Forschung als eigene Entität unter den Gleichgewichtsstörungen anerkannt. Es handelt sich dabei um Schwindelepisoden, die bei Migränepatienten Kopfschmerz-assoziiert, oder allein mit unterschiedlichen Symptomen, wie z. B. Drehschwindel, Lageschwindel oder unsystemisiertem Schwankschwindel, auftreten. Im symptomfreien Intervall zeigen sich in der neurootologischen Untersuchung keine oder nur unspezifische Auffälligkeiten, abgesehen von einer häufigen Intoleranz gegenüber optokinetischer Stimulation. Die pathophysiologische Grundlage des MAS muss als unklar gelten, abgesehen von bekannten reziproken Verbindungen zwischen vestibulären und trigeminalen Nuklei, durch die möglicherweise auch das trigemino-vaskuläre System beeinflusst wird. Als Therapie kommen beim MAS – neben den bekannten symptomatischen Maßnahmen – Migränetherapeutika, in erster Linie Triptane, zum Einsatz.

  18. Differential voltage analyses of high-power, lithium-ion cells. 1. Technique and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Ira; Jansen, Andrew N.; Abraham, Daniel P.; Knuth, Jamie; Jones, Scott A.; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Henriksen, Gary L.

    The C/25 discharge data from 18650-size cells containing LiNi 0.8Co 0.1Al 0.1O 2 cathode and graphite anode laminates were analyzed through the use of the differential voltage, d V/d Q, curves. Using half-cell data, the peaks in the d V/d Q curve of the full cell data were assigned. Analysis of the relative peak shifts allowed for the determination of the source of capacity fade. For cells formed and aged at 45 °C for 40 weeks (capacity fade = 7.5%), the analysis indicated negligible loss of accessible material at the anode and at the cathode. Capacity loss of the cell could be accounted for, largely, by side reactions at the anode. This type of analysis can be used when the introduction of a reference electrode is difficult or impractical.

  19. Recent progress on nanostructured 4 V cathode materials for Li-ion batteries for mobile electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile electronics have developed so rapidly that battery technology has hardly been able to keep pace. The increasing desire for lighter and thinner Li-ion batteries with higher capacities is a continuing and constant goal for in research. Achieving higher energy densities, which is mainly dependent on cathode materials, has become a critical issue in the development of new Li-ion batteries. In this review, we will outline the progress on nanostructured 4 V cathode materials of Li-ion batteries for mobile electronics, covering LiCoO2, LiNixCoyMn1−x−yO2, LiMn2O4, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and Li-rich layered oxide materials. We aim to provide some scientific insights into the development of superior cathode materials by discussing the advantages of nanostructure, surface-coating, and other key properties.

  20. Forschungsdatenmanagement als überregionale Aufgabe der Informationsversorgung - was kann eine Zentrale Fachbibliothek wie ZB MED Leibniz-Informationszentrum Lebenswissenschaften leisten?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Lindstädt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forschungsdaten sind in aller Munde. Soll sich eine überregionale tätige Bibliothek deshalb auf diesem Feld engagieren? Und falls ja, für wen und wie? Auf der Grundlage einer breit angelegten Markt- und Zielgruppenanalyse strebt ZB MED ein zielgruppengerechtes Angebot im Bereich Forschungsdatenmanagement an, das sich in erster Linie an den Bedürfnissen der lebenswissenschaftlichen Fächer ausrichtet. Research Data Management is much talked about at present. Should a national library get involved in this field? If the answer is yes, what exactly should be offered and for whom? Based on a broad analysis of the market and the target groups, ZB MED is developing services in the field of research data management which focus on the special needs of the life sciences.

  1. Sergio Benvenuto: Perversionen. Sexualität, Ethik und Psychoanalyse. Wien u.a.: Verlag Turia + Kant 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Müller

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Benvenuto entkoppelt die beiden Bereiche Moral und Perversion – um stattdessen ein basales Verhältnis von Ethik und Perversion zu skizzieren. Dieses diskutiert er zum einen im Rückgriff auf die freudsche Psychoanalyse. Zum anderen greift der Autor auf sozial- und moralphilosophische Erwägungen zurück. In erster Linie erweist sich der Kantische Imperativ als wegweisend für die letztlich favorisierte soziale Verhältnisbestimmung von Moral, Sexualität und Perversion.  Sergio Benvenuto decouples the fields of morals and perversions – in order to sketch a fundamental relationship between ethics and perversions instead. On the one hand, he discusses this with the aid of Freudian psychoanalysis. On the other hand, the author relies on social, moral, and philosophical deliberations. The Kantian imperative reveals itself to be most decisive for the social correlation between morals, sexuality, and perversions, which is here ultimately favored.

  2. Innovative roller bearings for transmissions in heavy-duty drives; Innovative Waelzlagertechnik fuer Kupplungen in Schwerantrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asch, A.; Lindenthal, H. [Voith Turbo GmbH und Co. KG, Heidenheim (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Universal joint couplings are used, e.g. in heavy-duty drives in rolling plants where hitch shock loads occur. They must be designed for maximum momentum capacity. As a rule, roller bearings have higher transmission efficiencies than sliding element bearings. The contribution describes a new technology for longer life of the bearings in which the protective effects of the universal joint are considered. [German] Kreuzgelenke sind Ausgleichskupplungen, die beispielsweise in stossbelasteten Schwerantrieben der Walzwerkstechnik eingesetzt werden. Bei diesen Schwerantrieben muessen sie in erster Linie fuer hoechste Drehmomentkapazitaet ausgelegt werden. Waelzlager bieten dabei generell hoehere Uebertragungswirkungsgrade als Alternativen mit Gleitelementen. Der Beitrag stellt eine neue Entwicklung zur gezielten Steigerung der Lagerlebensdauer vor, bei der Stuetzwirkungen der Gelenkkonstruktion beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

  3. A facile approach to derive binder protective film on high voltage spinel cathode materials against high temperature degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Yu; Jin, Yi-Chun; Duh, Jenq-Gong; Lu, Cheng-Zhang; Liao, Shih-Chieh

    2015-11-01

    The electrochemical performance of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode combined with different binders at elevated temperature is firstly investigated. The water soluble binder, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate (SA), is compared with the polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF) binder used in non-aqueous process. The aqueous process can meet the need of Li-ion battery industry due to environmental-friendly and cost effectiveness by replacing toxic organic solvent, such as N-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP). In this study, a significantly improved high temperature cycling performance is successfully obtained as compared to the traditional PVdF binder. The aqueous binder can serve as a protective film which inhibits the serious Ni and Mn dissolution especially at elevated temperature. Our result demonstrates a facile approach to solve the problem of capacity fading for high voltage spinel cathodes.

  4. A step toward production of smaller diameter single wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lemos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-wall carbon nanotubes were produced with, either, a bimetallic or a mixture of three catalysts. Raman scattering and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were used as characterization tools. The mixture LiNi0.5Co0.5O2 leaded to a sample relatively free from impurities with long bundles, each containing a few tubes. A narrow distribution of diameters for the sample produced with this mixture was evidenced by Raman scattering experiences. The mean tube diameter was found to be smaller than those measured for the nanotubes obtained with the bimetallic catalysts, Fe/Ni and Ni/Co. Possible chiralities were calculated for the semiconductor nanotubes formed. Assignments of the Raman radial breathing mode frequencies to the calculated structures are presented.

  5. Therapiemonitoring mit bildgebenden Verfahren im modernen Management von Hirntumoren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerigk L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bildgebende Verfahren sind eine wichtige Grundlage der Therapieplanung und -kontrolle bei Hirntumoren. Bislang diente hierzu in erster Linie die Größenbeurteilung auf herkömmlichen morphologischen MRT-Aufnahmen. Sowohl zur besseren Therapieplanung und -kontrolle im Rahmen etablierter Therapieschemata als auch zur Evaluation neuer Therapieverfahren ist die Erfassung physiologischer Parameter wie der Perfusion, Diffusion oder Permeabilität mithilfe von MRT und PET eine vielversprechende Entwicklung. Mit der PET und entsprechenden Tracern können zusätzlich auch Targets zur Tumorklassifikation oder gezielten Therapie nachgewiesen werden. Mit der Spektroskopie können für Tumorgewebe typische Metabolite nachgewiesen werden. Bei einigen Tumorentitäten wie den niedergradigen Gliomen zeigten Studien, dass die Perfusionsbildgebung hilfreich zur Planung des weiteren therapeutischen Vorgehens sein kann. Ziel ist, durch eine Kombination geeigneter Verfahren zu einer frühen und treffsicheren Diagnostik beizutragen.

  6. Endoskopie, minimal invasive chirurgische und navigierte Verfahren in der Urologie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Joachim; von Walter, Matthias; Jakse, Gerhard

    Betrachtet man die letzten 100 Jahre der Urologie in Deutschland seit Gründung ihrer Fachgesellschaft 1906 in Stuttgart, so sind sicherlich die letzten 25 Jahre von umfassenden Entwicklungen mit z. T. vollständigen Umwälzungen bisheriger Therapien und Methoden auf urologischen Fachgebiet gekennzeichnet. In erster Linie handelte es sich dabei um minimal invasive endoskopische Techniken wie perkutane Nierenchirurgie, Ureterorenoskopie, videoendoskopisch unterstütze transurethrale Elektroresektionen der Prostata und von Blasentumore sowie die Laparoskopie. Sie führten zu besseren operativen Ergebnissen und einer deutlichen Senkung der Morbidität der entsprechenden Behandlung urologischer Krankheitsbilder, mit der Konsequenz, dass einige bisher als Standard gültige offene Operationsverfahren abgelöst wurden.

  7. Franchising; Franchising: Nachmachen ist Trumpf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iken, J.

    2000-08-01

    Franchising is booming. In many fields of industry, it is the optimal solution for better marketing and development of know-how. The solar industry still has a long way to go. Franchising systems offer a good option for starting one's own enterprise and also for expansion on the market. Four franchising systems are compared in detail. [German] Franchising boomt. Fuer viele Branchen scheint es die Idealloesung fuer gestiegene Ansprueche an Marketing und Knowhow-Entwicklung zu sein. Die Solarbranche steht hier erst am Anfang. Franchise-Systeme bieten also eine gute Starthilfe fuer den Sprung in die Selbststaendigkeit in der verhaeltnismaessig jungen Branche der Solartechnik. Da klassisches Franchising in erster Linie eine Strategie zur Expansion im Markt ist, kann es ebenso gut von etablierten Installationsbetrieben genutzt werden, um sich das Standbein Solartechnik mit abgeschwaechtem Risiko zusaetzlich aufzubauen. Vier Franchise-Systeme werden im Detail verglichen. (orig./AKF)

  8. Reversible and irreversible dilation of lithium-ion battery electrodes investigated by in-situ dilatometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerteig, Daniel; Ivanov, Svetlozar; Reinshagen, Holger; Bund, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The technique of electrochemical in-situ dilatometry is applied to study the intercalation induced macroscopic expansion of electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. A full cell setup is used to investigate the expansion under real conditions. This method enables in-situ measurement of expansion under defined pressure, using conventional electrodes, separators and electrolytes. To understand the influence of the microstructure, the swelling behavior of different LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) positive electrodes and graphite negative electrodes is measured and systematically analyzed. A theoretical approach for assessment of reversible electrode displacement in a full cell is developed, by using a low number of material specific input parameters. Electrochemical in-situ dilatometry is able to show differences in irreversible dilation depending on electrode design and therefore it is a powerful technique for stability and lifetime assessment.

  9. Electrosmog prevention in office buildings. Frequency modulators prevent electrosmog; Raumentstoerung in Buerogebaeuden. Mit Frequenzmodulatoren gegen Elektrosmog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W. [Technische Gebaeudeausruestung, Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Experts agree that electrosmog is caused by radiocommunication, electronic and electric equipment at the place of work and call for minimisation of radiation. IPR Stuttgart, a subsidiary of Drees and Sommer, Stuttgart, reduces electrosmog in office buildings with the aid of frequency modulators. [German] Noch vor wenigen Jahren galt die Klimaanlage gemeinhin als Hauptverursacher von Muedigkeit, Kopfschmerzen und Konzentrationsschwaeche. Mit dem Trend zu Kuehldecken, Quell-Lueftung, Bauteiltemperierung und Oeko-Klimaanlagen hat die Akzeptanz raumlufttechnischer Anlagen spuerbar zugenommen. Viele buerotypischen Beschwerden sind allerdings geblieben. Experten sind sich darueber einig, dass dafuer in erster Linie Elektrosmog durch Mobilfunk, elektronische Geraete und Elektrosysteme verantwortlich sind und fordern eine Minimierung der Strahlenbelastung am Arbeitsplatz. Das Institut fuer physikalische Raumentstoerung (IPR), eine Tochtergesellschaft des Projektentwicklers Drees and Sommer, Stuttgart, hat sich jetzt zur Aufgabe gemacht, Gebaeude und deren technische Ausstattung mit Hilfe von Frequenzmodulatoren physikalischen zu entstoeren. (orig.)

  10. Schauplatz Computerspiele Herbert Rosenstingl / Konstantin Mitgutsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Strohmer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Vor allem für Nicht-Computer-Spielende eröffnet Schauplatz Computerspiele neue Perspektiven im Umgang mit: Spiele - Jugendliche - Computer. Menschen spielen. Egal welchen Alters, welcher Herkunft oder welcher Kultur. Mit diesem Statement wird das Kapitel „Grundlegendes“ in Schauplatz Computerspiele von Herbert Rosenstingl und Konstantin Mitgutsch eingeleitet. Auch Computerspiele sind Spiele; und so entstehen Szenarien, die alltäglich beobachtbar sind. Sehr deutlich wird das Erleben von Spielsituationen durch Spielende sowie Nicht-Spielende dargestellt. Besonders hervorzuheben ist das vorsichtige Hineingleiten in die Welt der Computerspieltermini. Hier zeigt sich, dass Schauplatz Computerspiele in erster Linie für Computer-Laien geschrieben wurde. Die Hinweise zu wissenschaftlicher Fundierung der Aussagen sind ausreichend, sodass eine intensivere Beschäftigung mit der Thematik zielgerichtet möglich ist.

  11. Biomonitoring with lichens in the Ruhr area for air quality assessment - 1966 to 2000; Biomonitoring der Luftqualitaet im Ruhrgebiet mit Hilfe von Flechten - 1966 bis 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kricke, R.; Feige, G.B. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Botanik

    2001-04-01

    In the Ruhr area, lichens have been used as bioindicators for air quality assessment apart from physico-chemical methods. The first investigation of the lichen vegetation took place in 1966 indicating an extremely impoverished lichen flora due to high air pollution particularly by SO{sub 2}. Observations in 1985, 1988 to 1992 and 1997 to 2000 show a strong recolonization by lichens due to improved air quality. (orig.) [German] Neben physiko-chemischen Messverfahren ist im Ruhrgebiet auch die Bioindikation mit Flechten zur Erfassung des Umweltzustands eingesetzt worden. Die erste derartige Untersuchung fand 1966 statt, bei der eine extrem starke Verarmung der Flechtenvegetation festgestellt wurde. Grund dafuer war in erster Linie die hohe lufthygienische Belastung insbesondere durch SO{sub 2}. Nachfolgende Untersuchungen in den Jahren 1985, 1988 bis 1992 und 1997 bis 2000 zeigen deutlich, dass das Ruhrgebiet durch Flechten wiederbesiedelt wird. Diese Regeneration der Flechtenflora ist auf die deutliche Verbesserung der lufthygienischen Situation zurueckzufuehren. (orig.)

  12. TEWI-concept for refrigerant blends; TEWI-Betrachtungen an Kaeltemittelgemischen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiss, M. [Hoechst AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    For the refrigerant blends R 404A, HX4 and R 407C the direct and indirect greenhouse effect (TEWI) was derived depending on the evaporation temperature. 1%/a and 10%/a have been chosen as limits of the annual leakage rate. Because refrigeration systems will be more tight in future, smaller leakage rates are expected. Therefore, the indirect greenhouse effect or the system efficiency for the refrigerants are more important for the ecological rating. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Zusammenhang mit Kaeltemittelgemischen werden in erster Linie Fragen hinsichtlich ihres effektiven Einsatzes, ihres Temperaturgleits und der damit verbundenen Konzentrationsverschiebungen sowie Fragen bezueglich des Waermeuebergangs diskutiert. Ueber all diesen Fragen tritt der oekologische Aspekt dieser Kaeltemittelgemische zum Teil vollkommen in den Hintergrung. Zur Abrundung der Diskussion sollten die Gemische aber auch unter diesem Gesichtspunkt betrachtet werden, nicht zuletzt im Hinblick darauf, dass umweltpolitische Aspekte dazu gefuehrt haben, dass wir uns heute fuer die Abloesung der Fluorchlorkohlenwasserstoffe zum Teil mit Kaeltemittelgemischen befassen. (orig.)

  13. apport alimentaire chez des patients attients la sclérose en plaque dans la region de Tlemcen

    OpenAIRE

    haddaoui, hadjer

    2015-01-01

    La sclérose en plaques (SEP) est une maladie inflammatoire et démyélinisant du système nerveux central (SNC). L'apparition de plaques démyélinisées dans le SNC est associée à un infiltrat inflammatoire principalement composé de macrophages et de lymphocytes T (LT). L'objectif de notre étude est d'évaluer l'apport alimentaire chez une population atteinte de Sclérose en plaque dans la wilaya de Tlemcen, et d'essayer de déterminer la relation entre l'apport alimentaire de fer, vit...

  14. First field experiences with OBD II; Erste Felderfahrungen mit OBD II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zander, W. [AUDI AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    A report is given on first field experiences of the diagnosis technology (OBD II) with the help of examples. Since the vehicles which were sold to customers have not done enough miles yet the experience report mainly refers to AUDI`s own vehicles. The results are positive. Hence the company AUDI AG can claim that a sensitive, reliable system for assessing important engine components is available due to this new technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird anhand von Beispielen aus der Diagnosetechnik (OBD II) ueber erste Felderfahrungen berichtet. Da ausgelieferte Fahrzeuge beim Kunden noch zu geringe Laufstrecken hinter sich haben, beziehen sich die Erfahrungen in erster Linie auf eigene Dauerlaeufer. Die Ergebnisse sind positiv, so dass wir behaupten koennen, mit dieser Technik ein sensibles, zuverlaessiges System zur Beurteilung wesentlicher Motorkomponenten zur Verfuegung zu haben. (orig.)

  15. Alternative Single-Solvent Electrolytes Based on Cyanoesters for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox, Sebastian; Röser, Stephan; Husch, Tamara; Hildebrand, Stephan; Fromm, Olga; Korth, Martin; Winter, Martin; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora

    2016-07-07

    To identify alternative single-solvent-based electrolytes for application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), adequate computational methods were applied to screen specified physicochemical and electrochemical properties of new cyanoester-based compounds. Out of 2747 possible target compounds, two promising candidates and two structurally equivalent components were chosen. A constructive selection process including evaluation of basic physicochemical properties as well assessing the compatibility towards graphitic anodes was initiated to identify the most promising candidates. With addition of a film-forming additive in a low concentration, the most promising candidate showed an adequate long-term cycling stability with LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 [NMC(111)] in a full-cell setup using graphite as anode material. The main advantages of the new electrolyte formulation are related to its good thermal behavior, especially with regard to safety in combination with satisfying electrochemical performance.

  16. Iz novõh stihhov / Jaan Kaplinski ; per. Svetlan Semenenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaplinski, Jaan, 1941-

    2001-01-01

    J. Kaplinski elu- ja loomeloost lk. 2-12. Sisu: "Rasskazõval studentam o natshale gretsheskoi kulturõ..." ; "Net boga..." ; "Mezhdu dvumja porõvami vetra..." ; "Na ulitse Vallikraavi odinoki muravei tashtshil..." ; "Tshto v stihhah glavnoje? - ne soderzhanje, ne forma..." ; "Otnosja na pomoiku slantsevuju zolu i banki..." ; "Stihhi kak zelen - vesnoi ona rozhdajetsja..." ; "Vizhu tvoju reshitelnost: prevrashtshajesh svoju zhizn..." ; "Lini, kazhetsja, ne sushtshestvujet, jest tolko totshki..." ; "Natshal stirat rubashku sõna. Nashol v karmane bumazhku..." ; "Vspomnit, podumat o sginuvshem dne..." ; "Smert ne prihhodit izvne. Smert vnutri..." ; "Ja ne pishu stihhov o lete, ob osseni..." ; "Stihhi zhivut na zemle uzhe s eotsena. Ih predki zhili..." ; "Vneshnim vidom idealõ napominajut krolikov ili beshvostnõh..."

  17. Ahrenkiels påstand under lavmålet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole John

    2008-01-01

    Opinion: Ahrenkiels påstand under lavmålet   Af Ole John Nielsen, professor, Kemisk Institut, Københavns Universitet,  fredag 04. jan 2008 kl. 00:45 At Steen Ahrenkiel vil påstå at IPCC ikke kender til Milankovic cykler er under lavmålet. Anden linie i introduktionen i Summary for Policymakers i...... den seneste IPCC rapport omtaler "natural drivers of climate change". Jeg mener, at et blad som Ingeniøren burde kunne fortælle indsenderen af et sådant læserbrev, at han er helt ude på Herrens mark og burde læse indledningen til IPCC's rapport, før han udtaler sig offentligt....

  18. Material/element-dependent fluorescence-yield modes on soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Asakura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the utilities of fluorescence-yield (FY modes in soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS of several cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. In the case of total-FY (TFY XAS for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, the line shape of the Mn L3-edge XAS was largely distorted by the self-absorption and saturation effects, while the distortions were less pronounced at the Ni L3 edge. The distortions were suppressed for the inverse-partial-FY (IPFY spectra. We found that, in the cathode materials, the IPFY XAS is highly effective for the Cr, Mn, and Fe L edges and the TFY and PFY modes are useful enough for the Ni L edge which is far from the O K edge.

  19. Comprehension and acceptability of a patient information leaflet (pil for antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Mwingira

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The patient information leaflet (PIL is recognised as playing a key role in informing patients about their medicines. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the readability and understanding of a PIL for the first-line ARV (antiretroviral regimen available in the South African public health sector, and investigate its acceptability in the target Xhosa population. Opsomming Daar word algemeen aanvaar dat die pasiëntinligtingsblaadjie (PIB ‘n sleutelrol speel in die oordra van inligting ten opsigte van medikasie aan pasiënte. Die doelwitte van hierdie navorsing was om die leesbaarheid en begrip van ‘n PIB vir die eerste-linie antiretrovirale (ARV regimen wat in die Suid-Afrikaanse openbare gesondheidsektor beskikbaar is, te evalueer, en om die aanvaarbaarheid daarvan in ‘n teiken-Xhosabevolking te ondersoek. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  20. Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology – High Voltage Electrolyte - REVISED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunstrom, Joseph [Daikin America, Inc., Orangeburg, NY (United States); Hendershot, Ron E. [Daikin America, Inc., Orangeburg, NY (United States)

    2017-03-06

    An evaluation of high voltage electrolytes which contain fluorochemicals as solvents/additive has been completed with the objective of formulating a safe, stable electrolyte capable of operation to 4.6 V. Stable cycle performance has been demonstrated in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC111)/graphite cells to 4.5 V. The ability to operate at high voltage results in significant energy density gain (>30%) which would manifest as longer battery life resulting in higher range for electric vehicles. Alternatively, a higher energy density battery can be made smaller without sacrificing existing energy. In addition, the fluorinated electrolytes examined showed better safety performance when tested in abuse conditions. The results are promising for future advanced battery development for vehicles as well as other applications.

  1. Electrochemical Effects of Atomic Layer Deposition on Cathode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Isaac David

    One of the greatest challenges of modern society is to stabilize a consistent energy supply that will meet our growing energy demand while decreasing the use of fossil fuels and the harmful green house gases which they produce. Developing reliable and safe solutions has driven research into exploring alternative energy sources for transportation including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, and lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For the foreseeable future, though, rechargeable batteries appear to be the most practically viable power source. To deploy LIBs in next-generation vehicles, it is essential to develop electrodes with durability, high energy density, and high power. Unfortunately, the power capability of LIBs is generally hindered by Li+-ion diffusion in micrometer-sized materials and the formation of an insulating solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the surface of the active material. In addition, degradation of the battery material due to chemical and electrochemical reactions with the electrolyte lead to both capacity fade and safety concerns both at room and higher temperatures. The current study focuses on mitigating these issues for high voltage cathode materials by both using nanoscale particles to improve Li+-ion diffusion and using ultrathin nanoscale coatings to protect the battery materials from undesirable side reactions. The electrode material is coated with Al2O3 using atomic layer deposition (ALD), which is a method to grow conformal thin films with atomic thickness (angstrom level control) using sequential, self-limiting surface reactions. First, nano-LiCoO 2 is employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of ALD coatings and demonstrates a profound increase in rate performance (>250% improvement) over generally employed micrometer-sized particles. Second, the cathode materials LiNi 0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, LiNi0.33Mn 0.33Co0.33O2, LiMn2O4, and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 were used to demonstrate the benefits ALD coatings have on thermal runaway. The results show a

  2. Optimization and Characterization of Lithium Ion Cathode Materials in the System (1 – x – yLiNi0.8Co0.2O2 • xLi2MnO3 • yLiCoO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Manivannan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There is ongoing effort to identify novel materials that have performance better than LiCoO2. The objective of this work is to explore materials in the system (1 – x – y LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 • xLi2MnO3 • yLiCoO2. A ternary composition diagram was used to identify sample points, and compositions for testing were initially chosen. Detailed characterization of the synthesized materials was done, including Rietveld Refinement of XRD data, XPS analysis for valence state of transition-metals, SEM for microstructure details, and TGA for thermal stability of the materials. Electrochemical performance showed that discharge capacities on the order of 230 mAh/g were obtained. Preliminary results showed that these materials exhibit good cycling capabilities thereby positioning these materials as promising for Li-ion battery applications.

  3. Das Kompartmentsyndrom des Unterschenkels – Diagnostik und Therapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlbacher J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Als Folge einer Druckerhöhung in einer von Faszien umschlossenen Loge (Kompartment entstehen irreversible neuromuskuläre Schäden, besonders am Unterschenkel und am Unterarm. Bereits im 19. Jahrhundert durch den deutschen Chirurgen Richard V. Volkmann beschrieben, ist dieser seitdem namensgebend für den Folgezustand dieser Erkrankung. Kompression von außen sowie die Vermehrung des Kompartmentinhalts sind maßgeblich für die Entwicklung eines Kompartmentsyndroms. Es entsteht am häufigsten als Folge von Frakturen und betrifft vor allem Männer in der Altersgruppe bis 35 Jahren. Die Diagnose wird dabei in erster Linie klinische gestellt, gefolgt von invasiver Druckmessung, Bildgebung und von ergänzenden Laborbefunden. Die Therapie der Wahl ist die chirurgische Entlastung aller beteiligten Muskellogen zur Normalisierung des Gewebedrucks und Vermeidung irreversibler Funktionsstörungen der betroffenen Muskellogen, gefolgt von einem definitiven Wundverschluss.

  4. Quantitative Microstructure Characterization of a NMC Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usseglio Viretta, Francois L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) is strongly influenced by the porous microstructure of their electrodes. In this work, 3D microstructures of calendared and un-calendared positive electrode LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) have been investigated in order to extract relevant properties useful for battery modeling. Transport (volume fraction, connectivity, particle size and tortuosity) and electrochemical (specific surface area) properties have been calculated for the pore and the active material. Special attention has been paid to determine the size of the so-called representative volume element (RVE) required to be statistically representative of the heterogeneous medium. Several parameters have been calculated using a panel of different numerical methods in order to compare their results. Besides, the image level of detail has been evaluated (using original criteria based upon edge detection) to assess the overall data quality available for the study.

  5. Comparison between Na-Ion and Li-Ion Cells: Understanding the Critical Role of the Cathodes Stability and the Anodes Pretreatment on the Cells Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llave, Ezequiel; Borgel, Valentina; Park, Kang-Joon; Hwang, Jang-Yeon; Sun, Yang-Kook; Hartmann, Pascal; Chesneau, Frederick-Francois; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-01-27

    The electrochemical behavior of Na-ion and Li-ion full cells was investigated, using hard carbon as the anode material, and NaNi0.5Mn0.5O2 and LiNi0.5Mn0.5O2 as the cathodes. A detailed description of the structure, phase transition, electrochemical behavior and kinetics of the NaNi0.5Mn0.5O2 cathodes is presented, including interesting comparison with their lithium analogue. The critical effect of the hard carbon anodes pretreatment in the total capacity and stability of full cells is clearly demonstrated. Using impedance spectroscopy in three electrodes cells, we show that the full cell impedance is dominated by the contribution of the cathode side. We discuss possible reasons for capacity fading of these systems, its connection to the cathode structure and relevant surface phenomena.

  6. Kleine Beiträge zur slavischen wortforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Bezlaj

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Im Wörterbuch von Gutsmann treffen wir auf das interessante Wort "klar", uternost "Klarheit", von dem noch nicht mit Bestimmtheit behauptet warden kann, dass wir es nicht noch in einer anderen Quelle bezeugt finden. Es hat aber den Anschein, dass es in den heutigen kärntner Dialekten schon ausgestorben ist. Ohne Zweifel kannte es noch Jarnik 2, de über die Herkunft Überlegungen machte und sie -- durch eine Linie getrennt vom unseren gegenwärtigen Gesichtspunkt aus sehr einfallsreich, der Wortfamilie jutro "Morgen" hinzufügte. Es ist schade, dass später die Slavistik diesen frühen Randbeitrag zur eigenen Eotwikklung in der Wissenschaft zu wenig berücksichtigte und zugleich mit der Arbeit von Jarnik auch "klar" in Vergessenheit geriet, das bestimmt schon in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts die Aufmerksamheit der Sprachwissenschaftler gefesselt hätte.

  7. Physikdidaktik Theorie und Praxis

    CERN Document Server

    Girwidz, Raimund; Häußler, Peter

    2015-01-01

    „Physikdidaktik – Theorie und Praxis“ ist ein Sammelband, der dynamisch gewachsen ist. Der Teil I wurde im Jahre 2000 in erster Linie für Studierende des Lehramts Physik konzipiert. Der Teil II zeigt Konkretisierungen und im Unterricht erprobte Beispiele zu neueren didaktischen und methodischen Ansätzen, die aus der Pädagogik und der allgemeinen Didaktik für die Physikdidaktik aufbereitet wurden. Die Physikdidaktik befasst sich natürlich auch mit der Frage, welche Elemente aus der modernen Physik in den Unterricht eingehen können und sollen. Vor der Aufbereitung der Inhalte für den Unterricht, mit Vereinfachungen und angemessenen didaktischen Reduktionen, steht die Sachanalyse und die Zusammenfassung von interessanten Themen aus aktuellen experimentellen und theoretischen Arbeitsgebieten der Physik (Teil III). In der vorliegenden 3. Ausgabe eines Gesamtbandes „Physikdidaktik – Theorie und Praxis“ wurden Astrophysik, Elementar­teilchenphysik und Biophysik als interessante Beispiele aus ...

  8. The influence of cycling temperature and cycling rate on the phase specific degradation of a positive electrode in lithium ion batteries: A post mortem analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Lang, Michael; Kleiner, Karin; Mereacre, Liuda; Liebau, Verena; Fauth, Francois; Bergfeldt, Thomas; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The influence of cycling temperatures and cycling rates on the cycling stability of the positive electrode (cathode) of commercial batteries are investigated. The cathode is a mixture of LiMn2O4 (LMO), LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM) and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA). It is found that increasing the cycling temperature from 25 °C to 40 °C is detrimental to the long term cycling stability of the cathode. Contrastingly, the improved cycling stability is observed for the cathodes cycled at higher charge/discharge rate (2C/3C instead of 1C/2C). The microstructure analysis by X-ray powder diffraction reveals that a significant capacity fading and an increased overvoltage is observed for NCM and NCA in all the fatigued cathodes. After high number of cycling (above 1500 cycles), NCM becomes partially inactive. In contrast to NCM and NCA, LMO shows a good cycling stability at 25 °C. A pronounced degradation of LMO is only observed for the fatigued cathodes cycled at 40 °C. The huge capacity losses of NCM and NCA are most likely because the blended cathodes were cycled up to 4.12 V vs. the graphite anode during the cycle-life test (corresponds to 4.16 V vs. Li+/Li); which is beyond the stability limit of the layered oxides below 4.05 V vs. Li+/Li.

  9. Nanocrystalline materials obtained by using a simple, rapid method for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Alvaro; Cruz, Manuel; Hernán, Lourdes; Melero, Monserrat; Morales, Julian; Castellón, Enrique Rodríguez

    Nanocrystalline oxides with either spinel (s.g. Fd3 m) or layered (s.g. R3 m) structures suitable as cathodic materials for lithium cells were prepared by using a simple, rapid method based on the thermal decomposition of mixed nanocrystalline oxalates formed by grinding hydrated salts and oxalic acid. Their structural and textural properties were determined by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and N 2 adsorption measurements. Well-crystallized spinels of formulae viz. LiMn 2O 4 and LiNi 0.5Mn 1.5O 4 with a thin sheet-like morphology and average particle size at ca. 30 nm were obtained by heating at temperatures as low as 400 °C for a short time. On the other hand, pure layered oxides (LiCoO 2 and LiNi 0.5Co 0.5O 2) required higher temperatures (800 °C), which resulted in greater particle sizes (average size ca. 100 nm). The electrochemical properties of these materials in lithium cells were studied from cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic measurements. Cells made from the spinels exhibited good rate performance and the delivered capacities changed little over the charge-discharge rate range from C/4 to 4 C ( C is defined as the theoretical capacity delivered in 1 h). By contrast, the capacity values for the cells made from the layered oxides are strongly affected by the charge-discharge rates. Their increased particle size may be the origin of the poorer cell performance observed.

  10. A high performance layered transition metal oxide cathode material obtained by simultaneous aluminum and iron cationic substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mofid, Wassima; Ivanov, Svetlozar; Konkin, Alexander; Bund, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    The method of self-combustion synthesis was applied to prepare double Al- and Fe-substituted LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.15Al0.025Fe0.025O2 (NMCAF) and non-substituted LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC-3:1:1) cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. The novel NMCAF structure obtained by simultaneous cationic substitution showed an improved capacity and high stability during electrochemical cycling. X-ray diffraction patterns proved that both materials have a layered α-NaFeO2 type structure with a good hexagonal ordering. It was found that NMCAF has increased a and c lattice parameters due to a structural expansion caused by Al and Fe ion substitution. Rietveld refinement analysis revealed a significant decrease of the cationic mixing after the metal substitution, suggesting a structural stabilization. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy showed that Al and Fe substitution markedly influenced the EPR spectrum of NMC-(3:1:1). The EPR spectral lines of both materials are attributed to Mn4+ and Ni2+ present in the structure. The change in the Ni2+ line after the metal substitution suggests a redistribution of the Ni ions in the structure, which can be related to the diminished cation mixing in the NMCAF. The improved electrochemical behavior of NMCAF is closely connected to the stabilization of the layered structure and the reduction of the cation mixing after metal substitution.

  11. CO₂ and O₂ evolution at high voltage cathode materials of Li-ion batteries: a differential electrochemical mass spectrometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongsen; Rus, Eric; Sakuraba, Takahito; Kikuchi, Jun; Kiya, Yasuyuki; Abruña, Héctor D

    2014-07-01

    A three-electrode differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) cell has been developed to study the oxidative decomposition of electrolytes at high voltage cathode materials of Li-ion batteries. In this DEMS cell, the working electrode used was the same as the cathode electrode in real Li-ion batteries, i.e., a lithium metal oxide deposited on a porous aluminum foil current collector. A charged LiCoO2 or LiMn2O4 was used as the reference electrode, because of their insensitivity to air, when compared to lithium. A lithium sheet was used as the counter electrode. This DEMS cell closely approaches real Li-ion battery conditions, and thus the results obtained can be readily correlated with reactions occurring in real Li-ion batteries. Using DEMS, the oxidative stability of three electrolytes (1 M LiPF6 in EC/DEC, EC/DMC, and PC) at three cathode materials including LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, and LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 were studied. We found that 1 M LiPF6 + EC/DMC electrolyte is quite stable up to 5.0 V, when LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 is used as the cathode material. The EC/DMC solvent mixture was found to be the most stable for the three cathode materials, while EC/DEC was the least stable. The oxidative decomposition of the EC/DEC mixture solvent could be readily observed under operating conditions in our cell even at potentials as low as 4.4 V in 1 M LiPF6 + EC/DEC electrolyte on a LiCoO2 cathode, as indicated by CO2 and O2 evolution. The features of this DEMS cell to unveil solvent and electrolyte decomposition pathways are also described.

  12. Characterization of the gene encoding pisatin demethylase (FoPDA1) in Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jeffrey J; Wasmann, Catherine C; Usami, Toshiyuki; White, Gerard J; Temporini, Esteban D; McCluskey, Kevin; VanEtten, Hans D

    2011-12-01

    The pea pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi is able to detoxify pisatin produced as a defense response by pea, and the gene encoding this detoxification mechanism, FoPDA1, was 82% identical to the cytochrome P450 pisatin demethylase PDA1 gene in Nectria haematococca. A survey of F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi isolates demonstrated that, as in N. haematococca, the PDA gene of F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi is generally located on a small chromosome. In N. haematococca, PDA1 is in a cluster of pea pathogenicity (PEP) genes. Homologs of these PEP genes also were found in the F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi isolates, and PEP1 and PEP5 were sometimes located on the same small chromosomes as the FoPDA1 homologs. Transforming FoPDA1 into a pda(?) F. oxysporum f. sp. lini isolate conferred pda activity and promoted pathogenicity on pea to some transformants. Different hybridization patterns of FoPDA1 were found in F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi but these did not correlate with the races of the fungus, suggesting that races within this forma specialis arose independently of FoPDA1. FoPDA1 also was present in the formae speciales lini, glycines, and dianthi of F. oxysporum but they had mutations resulting in nonfunctional proteins. However, an active FoPDA1 was present in F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli and it was virulent on pea. Despite their evolutionary distance, the amino acid sequences of FoPDA1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi and F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli revealed only six amino acid differences, consistent with a horizontal gene transfer event accounting for the origin of these genes.

  13. ZnO based transparent conductive oxide films with controlled type of conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaharescu, M., E-mail: mzaharescu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Mihaiu, S., E-mail: smihaiu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Toader, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Atkinson, I., E-mail: irinaatkinson@yahoo.com [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Calderon-Moreno, J.; Anastasescu, M.; Nicolescu, M.; Duta, M.; Gartner, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Vojisavljevic, K.; Malic, B. [Institute Jožef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ivanov, V.A.; Zaretskaya, E.P. [State Scientific and Production Association “Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of the National Academy of Science Belarus, P. Brovska str.19, 220072, Minsk (Belarus)

    2014-11-28

    The transparent conductive oxide films with controlled type of conduction are of great importance and their preparation is intensively studied. In our work, the preparation of such films based on doped ZnO was realized in order to achieve controlled type of conduction and high concentration of the charge carriers. Sol–gel method was used for films preparation and several dopants were tested (Sn, Li, Ni). Multilayer deposition was performed on several substrates: SiO{sub 2}/Si wafers, silica-soda-lime and/or silica glasses. The structural and morphological characterization of the obtained films were done by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively, while spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurements were done for determination of optical properties. The selected samples with the best structural, morphological and optical properties were subjected to electrical measurement (Hall and Seebeck effect). In all studied cases, samples with good adherence and homogeneous morphology as well as monophasic wurtzite type structure were obtained. The optical constants (refractive index and extinction coefficient) were calculated from spectroscopic ellipsometry data using Cauchy model. Films with n- or p-type conduction were obtained depending on the composition, number of deposition and thermal treatment temperature. - Highlights: • Transparent conductive ZnO based thin films were prepared by the sol–gel method. • Controlled type of conduction is obtained in (Sn, Li) doped and Li-Ni co-doped ZnO films. • Hall and Seebeck measurements proved the p-type conductivity for Li-Ni co-doped ZnO films. • The p-type conductivity was maintained even after 4-months of storage. • Influence of dopant- and substrate-type on the ZnO films properties was established.

  14. On the LiCo{sub 2/3}Ni{sub 1/6}Mn{sub 1/6}O{sub 2} positive electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Abdelfattah [ECME, FST Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad, BP549, Av. A. Khattabi, Marrakech (Morocco); Saadoune, Ismael, E-mail: saadoune1@yahoo.f [ECME, FST Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad, BP549, Av. A. Khattabi, Marrakech (Morocco); Amarilla, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hakkou, Rachid [ECME, FST Marrakech, University Cadi Ayyad, BP549, Av. A. Khattabi, Marrakech (Morocco)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: LiCo{sub 2/3}Ni{sub 1/6}Mn{sub 1/6}O{sub 2} layered oxide, prepared by the combustion method, consists of particles with homogenous distribution. Rietveld refinement shows that the crystal structure of this cathode material presents no Li/Ni mixing. The best cycling performances were recorded when the upper cut off is fixed at 4.5 V corresponding to a solid solution domain. - Abstract: LiCo{sub 2/3}Ni{sub 1/6}Mn{sub 1/6}O{sub 2} layered oxide was synthesized by the combustion method that led to a crystalline phase with good homogeneity and low particles size. The structural properties of the prepared positive electrode material were investigated by performing XRD Rietveld refinement. Practically no Li/Ni mixing was detected evidencing that the studied compound adopts almost an ideal {alpha}-NaFeO{sub 2} type structure. The Li||LiCo{sub 2/3}Ni{sub 1/6}Mn{sub 1/6}O{sub 2} cell showed a discharge capacity of 199 mAh g{sup -1} when cycled in the 2.7-4.6 V potential range while the best cycling performances were recorded when the upper cut off is fixed at 4.5 V. Structural changes in Li{sub x}Co{sub 2/3}Ni{sub 1/6}Mn{sub 1/6}O{sub 2} with lithium electrochemical de-intercalation were studied using X-ray diffraction. This study clearly shows the existence of a solid solution domain in the 0.1 < x < 1.0 composition range while for x = 0.1, a new phase appears explaining the decrease of the electrochemical performance when the cell is cycled at high upper cut off voltage.

  15. Some Lewis acid-base adducts involving boron trifluoride as electrolyte additives for lithium ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Mengyun; Madec, L.; Xia, J.; Hall, D. S.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Three complexes with boron trifluoride (BF3) as the Lewis acid and different Lewis bases were synthesized and used as electrolyte additives in Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2/graphite and Li[Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16]O2/graphite pouch cells. Lewis acid-base adducts with a boron-oxygen (Bsbnd O) bond were trimethyl phosphate boron trifluoride (TMP-BF) and triphenyl phosphine oxide boron trifluoride (TPPO-BF). These were compared to pyridine boron trifluoride (PBF) which has a boron-nitrogen (Bsbnd N) bond. The experimental results showed that cells with PBF had the least voltage drop during storage at 4.2 V, 4.4 V and 4.7 V at 40 °C and the best capacity retention during long-term cycling at 55 °C compared to cells with the other additives. Charge-hold-discharge cycling combined with simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that impedance growth in TMP-BF and TPPO-BF containing cells was faster than cells containing 2%PBF, suggesting that PBF is useful for impedance control at high voltages (>4.4 V). XPS analysis of the SEI films highlighted a specific reactivity of the PBF-derived SEI species that apparently hinders the degradation of both LiPF6 and solvent during formation and charge-hold-discharge cycling. The modified SEI films may explain the improved impedance, the smaller voltage drop during storage and the improved capacity retention during cycling of cells containing the PBF additive.

  16. Alleviating Surface Degradation of Nickel-Rich Layered Oxide Cathode Material by Encapsulating with Nanoscale Li-Ions/Electrons Superionic Conductors Hybrid Membrane for Advanced Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingjun; Xu, Ming; Yao, Qi; Chen, Zhaoyong; Song, Liubin; Zhang, Zhian; Gao, Chunhui; Wang, Peng; Yu, Ziyang; Lai, Yanqing

    2016-11-16

    Nickel-rich layered oxide cathode materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries have received much attention recently because of their high specific capacities and significant reduction of cost. However, these cathodes are facing a fundamental challenge of loss in performance as a result of surface lithium residue, side reactions with the electrolyte and structure rearrangement upon long-term cycling. Herein, by capturing the lithium residue on the surface of LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NCM) cathode material as Li source, we propose a hybrid coating strategy incorporating lithium ions conductor LixAlO2 with superconductor LixTi2O4 to overcome those obstinate issues. By taking full advantage of this unique hybrid nanomembrane coating architecture, both the lithium ion diffusion ability and electronic conductivity of LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 cathode material are improved, resulting in remarkably enhanced electrochemical performances during high voltage operation, including good cycle performance, high reversible capacity, and excellent rate capability. A high initial discharge capacity of 227 mAh g(-1) at 4.4 V cutoff voltage with Coulombic efficiency of 87.3%, and reversible capacity of 200 mAh g(-1) with 98% capacity retention after 100 cycles at a current density of 0.5 C can be attained. The improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the synergetic contribution from the removal of lithium residues and the unique hybrid nanomembrane coating architecture. Most importantly, this surface modification technique could save some cost, simplify the technical procedure, and show great potential to optimize battery performance, apply in a large scale and extend to all nickel-rich cathode material.

  17. Li2Ni(0.5)Mn(0.5)SnO4/C: A Novel Hybrid Composite Electrode for High Rate Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellaisamy, Mani; Nallathamby, Kalaiselvi

    2015-09-08

    A novel Li2Ni(0.5)Mn(0.5)SnO4/C composite electrode, existing as a hybrid consisting of monoclinic Li2SnO3 and layered LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.5)O2, has been identified and validated for high capacity and high rate lithium battery applications. Of the components, LiNi(0.5)Mn(0.5)O2 upon discharge forms the corresponding dilithium oxide, viz., Li2Ni(0.5)Mn(0.5)O2, and facilitates the progressive electrochemical performance of the composite electrode. Similarly, Li2SnO3 upon discharge forms Li2O and SnO2, wherein the unacceptable volume expansion related issues of SnO2 are addressed by the buffering activity of Li2O phase. A combination of alloying/dealloying, conversion, and redox mechanism is responsible for the excellent electrochemical behavior of Li2Ni(0.5)Mn(0.5)SnO4/C electrode. With this newer formulation of dilithium stannate composite, a superior capacity of >3000 mAh g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) current density has been demonstrated. The study opens up a newer gateway for the entry of Li2SnO3·LiM1M2O2 hybrid formulations for exploitation up to 1 A g(-1) rate, thus ensuring the sustainable development of potential electrode materials for high rate applications.

  18. Solar radiation transfer in the inhomogeneous atmosphere; Solarer Strahlungstransport in der inhomogenen Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheirer, R.

    2001-07-01

    fuehren. Zur Untersuchung dieser Fehler wurde ein Monte Carlo Strahlungstransportmodell entwickelt. Die hier untersuchten Wolkenfelder entstammen dem nichthydrostatischen dreidimensionalen Atmosphaerenmodell GESIMA. Absorptions- und Streueigenschaften der Wolkenpartikel werden nach der Mie-Theorie fuer sphaerische Wolkenwassertropfen oder mittels Ray-Tracing fuer nichtsphaerische Teilchen (Regentropfen, Eis und Schnee) berechnet. 'Linie fuer Linie' Berechnungen liefern die Absorptionseigenschaften der Gase. (orig.)

  19. Determination of lithium and transition metals in Li1 Ni1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NCM) cathode material for lithium-ion batteries by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vortmann-Westhoven, Britta; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we present a novel electrophoretic method that was developed for the determination of lithium and transition metals in LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 cathode material after microwave digestion. The cations in the digested LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 material were separated by CE and the element content was determined by UV/Vis detection. To characterize the precision of the measurements, the RSDs and concentrations were calculated and compared to those obtained with ICP-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Furthermore, a certified reference material (BCR 176R-fly ash) was investigated for all techniques. For active material components, the LOD and LOQ were determined. The LODs and LOQs for the metals determined by CE were as follows: lithium (LOD/LOQ): 17.41/62.70 μg/L, cobalt (LOD/LOQ): 348.4/1283 μg/L, manganese (LOD/LOQ): 540.2/2095 μg/L, and nickel (LOD/LOQ): 838.0/2982 μg/L. Recovery rates for lithium were in the range of 95-103%. It could be proven that with the new technique, the results for the determination of the lithium content of active material were comparable with those obtained by ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Furthermore, the recovery rates of the transition metals were determined to be between 96 and 110% by CE and ICP-OES.

  20. Designing and Thermal Analysis of Safe Lithium Ion Cathode Materials for High Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Enyuan

    Safety is one of the most critical issues facing lithium-ion battery application in vehicles. Addressing this issue requires the integration of several aspects, especially the material chemistry and the battery thermal management. First, thermal stability investigation was carried out on an attractive high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4. New findings on the thermal-stability and thermal-decomposition-pathways related to the oxygen-release are discovered for the high-voltage spinel Li xNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) with ordered (o-) and disordered (d-) structures at fully delithiated (charged) state using a combination of in situ time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Both fully charged o--LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 and d-LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 start oxygen-releasing structural changes at temperatures below 300 °C, which is in sharp contrast to the good thermal stability of the 4V-spinel LixMn2O4 with no oxygen being released up to 375 °C. This is mainly caused by the presence of Ni4+ in LNMO, which undergoes dramatic reduction during the thermal decomposition. In addition, charged o-LNMO shows better thermal stability than the d-LNMO counterpart, due to the Ni/Mn ordering and smaller amount of the rock-salt impurity phase in o-LNMO. Newly identified two thermal-decomposition-pathways from the initial LixNi0.5Mn1.5O 4 spinel to the final NiMn2O4-type spinel structure with and without the intermediate phases (NiMnO3 and alpha-Mn 2O3) are found to play key roles in thermal stability and oxygen release of LNMO during thermal decomposition. In addressing the safety issue associated with LNMO, Fe is selected to partially substitute Ni and Mn simultaneously utilizing the electrochemical activity and structure-stabilizing high spin Fe3+. The synthesized LiNi1/3Mn4/3Fe1/3O4 showed superior thermal stability and satisfactory electrochemical performance. At charged state, it is able to withstand the temperature as

  1. PENDEKATAN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRODUK BROILER TOLAKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeetpy Maisana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to analyze rejected product in slaughterhouse division using total quality management approach. The secondary data were collected from the company archives and judgmental sampling was used to collect primary data from six experienced respondents. The analysis method used was total quality management, include stratification, Pareto diagrams, control charts, fishbone diagrams, and quality function deployment. The findings of this study showed that the use of line production system by the slaughterhouse to produce the product; where products’ redness/bruises, size uniformity, bloodless feature, incorrect delivery, delivery delay, and damaged package were the cause of product rejection. The strategies ordered based on the priority to improve the management quality are: tools repair and replacement, creating quality based projects, build an information system between the production lines, training and seminar. The managerial implications of the study suggested the slaughterhouse to replace or repair the plucker, scalder and automatic weighing machine. It also suggested the slaughterhouse to tighten the span of control in the chilling room to maintain product freshness.Keywords: rejected product analysis, TQM, QFD, chicken slaughterhouse, carcassABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis produk tolakan pada rumah potong ayam melalui pendekatan total quality management. Pengumpulan data sekunder penelitian diperoleh dari arsip perusahaan dan judgemental sampling digunakan terhadap enam responden ahli untuk memperoleh data primer penelitian. Metode analisis data yang digunakan total quality management, meliputi stratifikasi, diagram pareto, peta kendali, diagram tulang ikan, dan quality function deployment.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penggunaan sistem lini produksi pada proses produksi di perusahaan, dimana memar pada produk, keseragaman ukuran, kesegaran produk, pengiriman tidak sesuai pesanan

  2. The TUBES algorithm for the exact representation of advective transport in a two-dimensional discretized flow field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa-Cabral, M.C. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    1999-07-01

    Current Lagrangian models for simulating advective transport of trace species in a discretized two-dimensional flow field use simplified descriptions of tracer sources, receptors and flow paths. When 'forward trajectories' are used, a diffuse source spread over a two-dimensional grid cell is treated as a single point source located at the cell's center, and its flow is projected in the downflow direction by a line. When 'backward trajectories' are used, each cell is treated as a point receptor and flow is projected back in time in the upflow direction by a line. In both cases, two-dimensional sources or receptors are treated as zero dimensional, and two-dimensional flow tubes are replaced by one-dimensional lines. While these simplifications may be acceptable in some cases, they can generate large errors when the flow field contains regions of considerable divergence of flow directions, or when fine scales are used. A new algorithm is introduced, called TUBES, which provides an exact solution to advective transport in a discretized two-dimensional flow field. TUBES uses two-dimensional flow tubes whose width expands and contracts over directionally divergent and convergent regions of the flow field, respectively. TUBES has applications in a wide variety of the earth sciences, including atmospheric science, oceanography, and surface and groundwater hydrology. (orig.) [German] Gegenwaertige Lagrange-Modelle zur Simulation advektiver Transporte von Tracern in einem diskretisierten zweidimensionalen Stroemungsfeld verwenden vereinfachte Beschreibungen der Quellen, Rezeptoren und Transportwege. Bei der Verwendung vorwaerts gerichteter Trajektorien ('forward trajectories') werden diffusive Quellen, die ueber eine zweidimensionale Gitterzelle verteilt sind, als Punktquelle behandelt, und der Transport mit der Stroemung erfolgt entlang einer Linie. Bei der Verwendung rueckwaerts gerichteter Trajektorien ('backward trajectories

  3. Functional cine-MRI of the pelvic floor - normal anatomy and pathologic findings; Funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens: normale Anatomie und pathologische Befunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, D.; Lienemann, A.; Reiser, M. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Anthuber, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Frauenklinik

    2000-05-01

    Purpose. Functional MRI of the pelvic floor allows mapping and definition of different forms of pelvic floor dysfunction. Methods. We performed functional MRT of the pelvic floor in 39 healthy nulliparas and 324 patients. The diagnosis of a pathological organ descent was made if certain landmarks of the pelvic floor compartments descended below the pubococcygeal reference-line (PC-line). Results. If there was no organ descent below the PC-line on straining and if the pelvic floor muscles hardly changed position, a normal finding was diagnosed. 70% of organ prolapses came in the combined form. The generally gradual development of an organ descent led to a change of the main finding in 21,6%. The masking of a cystocele (48,6%) or of an enterocele (34,3%) by a rectocele was most frequent in these cases. Discussion. The use of functional MRI of the pelvic floor appears to be especially useful in young patients, in cases of divergent clinical and sonographic or radiological findings and if the presence of a predominant hernial sac with or without enterocele/rectocele is supposed. (orig.) [German] Ziel. Die funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens ermoeglicht die Dokumentation und Definition der verschiedenen Manifestationsformen einer Beckenbodeninsuffizienz. Methodik. Es wurde bei 39 gesunden Nulliparen und 324 Patientinnen eine funktionelle MRT des Beckenbodens durchgefuehrt. Ein pathologischer Organdeszensus wurde dokumentiert, wenn bestimmte Kennstrukturen der Beckenbodenkompartimente unterhalb der pubokokygealen Referenzlinie (PC-Linie) zu liegen kamen. Ergebnisse. Beim Normalbefund zeigt sich unter Pressen kein Deszensus der Kennstrukturen unterhalb der PC-Linie und die Beckenbodenmuskulatur veraendert ihre Position kaum. In 70% fand sich die kombinierte Form eines Organdeszensus. Die meist stufenweise Entwicklung eines Organvorfalles fuehrte bei 21.6% zu einem Wechsel des Hauptbefundes. Am haeufigsten war hierbei die Maskierung einer Zystozele (48,6%) oder einer

  4. Facile synthesis of hierarchical micro/nanostructured MnO material and its excellent lithium storage property and high performance as anode in a MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Liang; Xu, Yue-Feng; Fang, Jun-Chuan; Fu, Fang; Sun, Hui; Huang, Ling; Yang, Shihe; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2013-07-10

    Hierarchical micro/nanostructured MnO material is synthesized from a precursor of MnCO3 with olive shape that is obtained through a facile one-pot hydrothermal procedure. The hierarchical micro/nanostructured MnO is served as anode of lithium ion battery together with a cathode of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) material, which is synthesized also from the precursor of MnCO3 with olive shape through a different calcination process. The structures and compositions of the as-prepared materials are characterized by TGA, XRD, BET, SEM, and TEM. Electrochemical tests of the MnO materials demonstrate that it exhibit excellent lithium storage property. The MnO material in a MnO/Li half cell can deliver a reversible capacity of 782.8 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at a rate of 0.13 C, and a stable discharge capacity of 350 mAh g(-1) at a high rate of 2.08 C. Based on the outstanding electrochemical property of the MnO material and the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) as well, the MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) full cell has demonstrated a high discharge specific energy ca. 350 Wh kg(-1) after 30 cycles at 0.1 C with an average high working voltage at 3.5 V and a long cycle stability. It can release a discharge specific energy of 227 Wh kg(-1) after 300 cycles at a higher rate of 0.5 C. Even at a much higher rate of 20 C, the MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) full cell can still deliver a discharge specific energy of 145.5 Wh kg(-1). The excellent lithium storage property of the MnO material and its high performance as anode in the MnO/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(4-δ) lithium ion battery is mainly attributed to its hierarchical micro/nanostructure, which could buffer the volume change and shorten the diffusion length of Li(+) during the charge/discharge processes.

  5. The phase structure and electrochemical performance of xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 during the synthesis and charge-discharge process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ting; Liu, HongQuan; Gu, YiJie; Cui, HongZhi; Wang, YanMin

    2016-09-01

    The lithium-rich layered xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 materials were simply prepared by the molten-salt method. The effects of reaction temperature and x value on the phase structure and electrochemistry were systemically studied by X-ray diffraction, galvanostatical charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It has been found that the obtained phase is sensitive to the reaction temperature and composition. A layered rock-salt form with hexagonal α-NaFeO2-type structure occurs at 700 °C, while a spinel LiMn2O4 becomes the main phase at 800 °C. Besides, a spinel Li4Mn5O12 component can be found in the lithium-rich layered material when x value decreases to 0.4. The 0.4Li2MnO3·0.6LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 material can deliver a high initial discharge capacity of 218 mAhg-1 under 20 mAg-1 current rate, then increase to the maximum 241 mAhg-1 after 4 cycles. It is confirmed by different cycle d Q/d V profile change that the layer rock-salt transforms into the two phases with the layer rock-salt phase and the spinel phase step by step. According to the EIS analysis, the 0.4Li2MnO3·0.6LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 sample with the better electrochemical performance shows the smaller charge transfer resistance and Warburg impedance associated with Li-ion diffusion through cathode, which is attributed to contribution from a fast 3D Li-ion diffusion channel of appropriate Li4Mn5O12 phase.

  6. Spatial and temporal compact equations for water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, Alexander; Kachulin, Dmitriy; Zakharov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional potential flow of an ideal incompressible fluid with a free surface in a gravity field is the Hamiltonian system with the Hamiltonian: H = 1/2intdxint-∞^η |nablaφ|^2dz + g/2ont η^2dxŗφ(x,z,t) - is the potential of the fluid, g - gravity acceleration, η(x,t) - surface profile Hamiltonian can be expanded as infinite series of steepness: {Ham4} H &=& H2 + H3 + H4 + dotsŗH2 &=& 1/2int (gη2 + ψ hat kψ) dx, ŗH3 &=& -1/2int \\{(hat kψ)2 -(ψ_x)^2}η dx,ŗH4 &=&1/2int {ψxx η2 hat kψ + ψ hat k(η hat k(η hat kψ))} dx. where hat k corresponds to the multiplication by |k| in Fourier space, ψ(x,t)= φ(x,η(x,t),t). This truncated Hamiltonian is enough for gravity waves of moderate amplitudes and can not be reduced. We have derived self-consistent compact equations, both spatial and temporal, for unidirectional water waves. Equations are written for normal complex variable c(x,t), not for ψ(x,t) and η(x,t). Hamiltonian for temporal compact equation can be written in x-space as following: {SPACE_C} H = intc^*hat V c dx + 1/2int [ i/4(c2 partial/partial x {c^*}2 - {c^*}2 partial/partial x c2)- |c|2 hat K(|c|^2) ]dx Here operator hat V in K-space is so that Vk = ω_k/k. If along with this to introduce Gardner-Zakharov-Faddeev bracket (for the analytic in the upper half-plane function) {GZF} partial^+x Leftrightarrow ikθk Hamiltonian for spatial compact equation is the following: {H24} &&H=1/gint1/ω|cω|2 dω +ŗ&+&1/2g^3int|c|^2(ddot c^*c + ddot c c^*)dt + i/g^2int |c|^2hatω(dot c c* - cdot c^*)dt. equation of motion is: {t-space} &&partial /partial xc +i/g partial^2/partial t^2c =ŗ&=& 1/2g^3partial^3/partial t3 [ partial^2/partial t^2(|c|^2c) +2 |c|^2ddot c +ddot c^*c2 ]+ŗ&+&i/g3 partial^3/partial t3 [ partial /partial t( chatω |c|^2) + dot c hatω |c|2 + c hatω(dot c c* - cdot c^*) ]. It solves the spatial Cauchy problem for surface gravity wave on the deep water. Main features of the equations are: Equations are written for

  7. Kinetic characteristics of mixed conductive electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianxin; Wang, Chunsheng; Wroblewski, Shannon

    The rate performances of four mixed conductive electrodes (Li 4/3Ti 5/3O 4, LiFePO 4, LiCoO 2 and LiCo 1/3Ni 1/3Mn 1/3O 2) were investigated using galvanostatic charge/discharge, electrochemical impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic intermittent titration (GITT). These four electrode materials can be roughly divided into two groups according to the structure change during Li intercalation/extraction, i.e. the phase transition materials (Li 4/3Ti 5/3O 4 and LiFePO 4) and mixed phase transformation and solid solution materials (LiNi 1/3Mn 1/3Co 1/3O 2 and LiCoO 2). Both the ionic conductivity and phase transition kinetics have a strong impact on the rate capability of the electrode material in addition to the generally accepted factors such as particle size and electronic conductivity. The rate capabilities of Li 4/3Ti 5/3O 4 and LiFePO 4, which have an extended flat region in the charge/discharge curves, mainly depended on their phase transition kinetics. The rate performance of the solid solution materials were controlled by the ionic conductivity, with some influence from the electronic conductivity.

  8. Comparative study of different membranes as separators for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hong-yan; Lian, Fang; Ren, Yan; Wen, Yan; Pan, Xiao-rong; Sun, Jia-lin

    2013-06-01

    Membranes of polypropylene (PP), PP coated with nano-Al2O3, PP electrospun with polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP), and trilayer laminates of polypropylene-polyethylene-polypropylene (PP/PE/PP) were comparatively studied. Their physical properties were characterized by means of thermal shrinkage test, liquid electrolyte uptake, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Results show that, for the different membranes as PP, PP coated with nano-Al2O3, PP electrospun with PVdF-HFP, and PP/PE/PP, the thermal shrinkages are 14%, 6%, 12.6%, and 13.3%, while the liquid electrolyte uptakes are 110%, 150%, 217%, and 129%, respectively. In addition, the effects on the performance of lithium-ion batteries (LiFePO4 and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as the cathode material) were investigated by AC impedance and galvanostatic charge/discharge test. It is found that PP coated with Al2O3 and PP electrospun with PVdF-HFP can effectively increase the wettability between the cathode material and liquid electrolyte, and therefore reduce the charge transfer resistance, which improves the capacity retention and battery performance.

  9. Adiponitrile-LiTFSI solution as alkylcarbonate free electrolyte for LTO/NMC Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Douaa; Ghamouss, Fouad; Maibach, Julia; Edström, Kristina; Lemordant, Daniel

    2017-02-23

    Recently, dinitriles (NC(CH2)nCN) and especially adiponitrile (ADN, n=4) have attracted the attention as secure electrolyte solvents due to their chemical stability, high boiling points, high flash points and low vapor pressure. The good solvating properties of ADN toward lithium salts and its high electrochemical stability (~ 6V vs. Li/Li+) make it suitable for safer Li-ions cells without performances loss. In this study, ADN is used as a single electrolyte solvent with lithium bis(trimethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). This electrolyte allows the use of aluminum collectors as almost no corrosion occurs at voltages up to 4.2 V. Physico-chemical properties of ADN-LiTFSI electrolyte such as salt dissolution, conductivity and viscosity were determined. The cycling performances of batteries using Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) as anode and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) as cathode were determined. The results indicate that LTO/NMC batteries exhibit excellent rate capabilities with a columbic efficiency close to 100%. As an example, cells were able to reach a capacity of 165 mAh.g-1 at 0.1C and a capacity retention of more than 98% after 200 cycles at 0.5C. In addition, electrodes analyses by SEM, XPS and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy after cycling confirming minimal surface changes of the electrodes in the studied battery system.

  10. Suppression of Aluminum Current Collector Dissolution by Protective Ceramic Coatings for Better High-Voltage Battery Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Andreas; Krott, Manuel; Streipert, Benjamin; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Winter, Martin; Placke, Tobias

    2017-01-04

    Batteries based on cathode materials that operate at high cathode potentials, such as LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 (LNMO), in lithium-ion batteries or graphitic carbons in dual-ion batteries suffer from anodic dissolution of the aluminum (Al) current collector in organic solvent-based electrolytes based on imide salts, such as lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI). In this work, we developed a protective surface modification for the Al current collector by applying ceramic coatings of chromium nitride (Crx N) and studied the anodic Al dissolution behavior. By magnetron sputter deposition, two different coating types, which differ in their composition according to the CrN and Cr2 N phases, were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their electronic conductivity. Furthermore, the anodic dissolution behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry measurements in two different electrolyte mixtures, that is, LiTFSI in ethyl methyl sulfone and LiTFSI in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate 1:1 (by weight). These measurements showed a remarkably reduced current density or cumulative charge during the charge process, indicating an improved anodic stability of the protected Al current collector. The coating surfaces after electrochemical treatment were characterized by means of SEM and XPS, and the presence or lack of pit formation, as well as electrolyte degradation products could be well correlated to the electrochemical results.

  11. A Lithium-Ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Prepared using an Environmentally Friendly Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Franziska; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-06-08

    A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk.

  12. SACCHAROTHRIX SP. ABH26, A NEW ACTINOBACTERIAL STRAIN FROM ALGERIAN SAHARAN SOIL: ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Lahoum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new strain of actinobacteria, designated ABH26, was isolated from a Saharan soil in the Adrar region (Algeria, by the dilution agar plating method using a chitin-vitamins B medium supplemented with polymyxin and penicillin. The morphological studies showed that this strain represents a member of the Saccharothrix genus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that this strain had 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ranging from 97.63% (with Saccharothrix violaceirubra NBRC 102064T to 99.86% (with Saccharothrix xinjiangensis NBRC 101911T. Furthermore, strain ABH26 presented a strong activity against mycotoxigenic and phytopathogenic fungi including Aspergillus carbonarius (M333, A. flavus (NRRL 3251, A. westerdijkiae (ATCC 3174, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini (Fol and F. solani (Fsol. Additionally, the strain exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against many strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans (M2, M3 and IPA200 and against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA 639c. Thus, four solvents (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol were used for the extraction of produced antibiotic compounds. The highest antimicrobial activities were obtained using the butanolic extract. The thin layer chromatography (TLC method showed two bioactive spots, named HAD1 and HAD2, which were reveled negatively by using chemical revelators (ninhydrin, naphtoresorcinol-sulfuric acid, ferrous iron chloride and formaldehyde-sulfuric. These results indicated the absence of amine group, sugar, hydroxamic acid, phenol and aromatic compound.

  13. Tim Rohrmann: Zwei Welten? Geschlechtertrennung in der Kindheit. Opladen u.a.: Budrich UniPress 2008 — Franz-Michael Konrad, Klaudia Schultheis: Kindheit. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rendtorff

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rohrmann legt im ersten Teil seines Buches eine sehr breite Literaturstudie zu geschlechtstypischen Themen, vor allem für den Elementarbereich, vor und entwickelt am Ende Perspektiven für Forschung und pädagogisches Handeln. Ihn interessiert dabei in erster Linie die Frage, ob die Professionellen die geschlechtliche Zusammensetzung von Kindergruppen steuern sollen und wie sie mit der bei Kindern verbreiteten Tendenz zur Bildung geschlechtergetrennter Gruppen umzugehen haben. Das Buch von Konrad/Schultheis dagegen ist eine „allgemeine pädagogische Einführung“ in die Kindheit, die erst im letzten Kapitel von der Tatsache der Geschlechtlichkeit von Kindern überrascht wird.In the first section of his book Rohrmann produces a very broad literary study of gender-typical themes, in particular for the primary level, and concludes by developing perspectives for research and pedagogical action. He is first and foremost interested in the question as to whether professionals should guide the gendered configuration of children’s groups and how they should approach the prevailing tendency of children to form separate groups divided along gender lines. The book by Konrad/Schultheis is, in contrast, a “general pedagogical introduction” to childhood that is surprising only in the final chapter when it approaches the actuality of children’s sexuality.

  14. Proposal of simple and novel method of capacity fading analysis using pseudo-reference electrode in lithium ion cells: Application to solvent-free lithium ion polymer batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Kumi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Tabuchi, Masato; Ohno, Yasutaka; Miyashiro, Hajime; Kobayashi, Yo

    2014-02-01

    We propose a simple procedure for introducing a pseudo-reference electrode (PRE) to lithium ion batteries using isometric lithium metal placed between the cathode and anode, and we successfully obtained the cathode and anode voltage profiles, individual interfacial impedances, and the misalignment of the operation range between the cathode and anode after cycle operation. The proposed procedure is applicable to lithium ion battery systems using a solid electrolyte to prepare two cells with a lithium counter electrode. We determined the capacity decrease of a solvent-free lithium ion polymer battery consisting of a LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC), a polyether-based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE), and a graphite (Gr) with the proposed PRE over 1000 cycles. The capacity retention of the [Gr|SPE|NMC] cell reached 50% at the 1000th cycle upon the optimization of cell preparation, and we found that the main factor of the capacity decrease was the continuous irreversible loss of active lithium at the graphite anode, not the oxidation of the SPE. Our findings suggest that we should reconsider combining a polyether-based SPE with a conventionally used 4 V class cathode and a graphite anode to develop an innovative, safe, and low-cost battery for the expected large lithium ion battery systems for stationary use.

  15. Influence of dry mixing and distribution of conductive additives in cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Werner; Nötzel, Dorit; Wenzel, Valentin; Nirschl, Hermann

    2015-08-01

    Conductive additives, like carbon black or graphite, are essential components of lithium ion batteries due to the limited electrical conductivity of most electrode materials. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the optimized distribution of these materials within the electrode. A dry mixing process is used in order to prepare a conductive coating by depositing carbon black on the surface of Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 (NMC) cathode particles. It is demonstrated that this - from a theoretically point of view - favorable distribution does not allow the preparation of working electrodes without taking into account the role of the binder. After adding an organic binder to the slurry, the polymer deposits on top of the carbon shell during drying and inhibits the conductive contact between the particles. This can be avoided by a fraction of distributed carbon particles which are associated with the binder phase providing conductive paths through the isolating organic material. It is shown that carbon black and graphite are principally fulfilling this task, but both materials are leading to varying processing behavior and electrode properties.

  16. Electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis of aged LiMn2O4-NMC/graphite lithium ion batteries part II: Calendar aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiaszny, Barbara; Ziegler, Jörg C.; Krauß, Elke E.; Zhang, Mengjia; Schmidt, Jan P.; Ivers-Tiffée, Ellen

    2014-07-01

    A detailed post-mortem analysis was carried out for commercial lithium ion batteries stored at 4.2 V and 4.0 V at 60 °C. Complementary electrochemical and physical-analytical investigations revealed that the most significant aging processes for the cells aged at 4.2 V were loss of cycleable lithium, decomposition of the electrolyte and loss of active cathode material (LiMn2O4/Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2). The cells aged at 4.0 V also exhibited loss of cycleable lithium, but at a smaller extent. In fact, the aged anodes did not show significant changes compared to the new anode. Electrochemical impedance measurements including symmetric laboratory test cells gained from new and aged cells revealed valuable information about changing charge-transfer processes. The 4.2 V-cathode and both aged anodes surprisingly exhibited a decreased charge-transfer resistance, while the 4.0 V-cathode's charge-transfer resistance increased.

  17. A Long-Life Lithium Ion Battery with Enhanced Electrode/Electrolyte Interface by Using an Ionic Liquid Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Ulissi, Ulderico; Mueller, Franziska; Reiter, Jakub; Tsiouvaras, Nikolaos; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2016-05-10

    In this paper, we report an advanced long-life lithium ion battery, employing a Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI non-flammable ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte, a nanostructured tin carbon (Sn-C) nanocomposite anode, and a layered LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. The IL-based electrolyte is characterized in terms of conductivity and viscosity at various temperatures, revealing a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) trend. Lithium half-cells employing the Sn-C anode and NMC cathode in the Pyr14 TFSI-LiTFSI electrolyte are investigated by galvanostatic cycling at various temperatures, demonstrating the full compatibility of the electrolyte with the selected electrode materials. The NMC and Sn-C electrodes are combined into a cathode-limited full cell, which is subjected to prolonged cycling at 40 °C, revealing a very stable capacity of about 140 mAh g(-1) and retention above 99 % over 400 cycles. The electrode/electrolyte interface is further characterized through a combination of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations upon cell cycling. The remarkable performances reported here definitively indicate that IL-based lithium ion cells are suitable batteries for application in electric vehicles.

  18. State of health estimation in composite electrode lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alexander; Marcicki, James; Rhodes, Kevin; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical models of lithium-ion batteries have been increasingly considered for online state of health estimation. These models can more accurately predict cell performance than traditional circuit models and can better relate physical degradation mechanisms to changes in model parameters. However, examples of state of health estimation algorithms that are validated with experimental data are scarce in the literature, particularly for cells with a composite electrode. The individual electrode active materials in a composite electrode may degrade at different rates and according to different physical mechanisms, and online estimation of this degradation facilitates more robust knowledge of how battery performance changes over its life. In this paper we use a reduced-order electrochemical model for a composite LiMn2O4-LiNi1/3Mn1/3 Co1/3O2 (LMO-NMC) electrode cell for online estimation of active material loss. Experimental data collected from composite electrode half cells that were aged under constant current cycling are used in an extended Kalman filter to estimate model parameters associated with loss of each active material. The capacity loss predicted by the online estimates agrees well with the measured capacity loss. Additionally, a differential capacity analysis demonstrates that active materials lose capacity at a similar rate, the same conclusion obtained from the online estimation algorithm.

  19. Enabling LiTFSI-based electrolytes for safer lithium-ion batteries by using linear fluorinated carbonates as (Co)solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhoff, Julian; Bresser, Dominic; Bolloli, Marco; Alloin, Fannie; Sanchez, Jean-Yves; Passerini, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    In this Full Paper we show that the use of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as conducting salt in commercial lithium-ion batteries is made possible by introducing fluorinated linear carbonates as electrolyte (co)solvents. Electrolyte compositions based on LiTFSI and fluorinated carbonates were characterized regarding their ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability towards oxidation and with respect to their ability to form a protective film of aluminum fluoride on the aluminum surface. Moreover, the investigation of the electrochemical performance of standard lithium-ion anodes (graphite) and cathodes (Li[Ni1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 ]O2 , NMC) in half-cell configuration showed stable cycle life and good rate capability. Finally, an NMC/graphite full-cell confirmed the suitability of such electrolyte compositions for practical lithium-ion cells, thus enabling the complete replacement of LiPF6 and allowing the realization of substantially safer lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Preparation of thick-film electrode-solid electrolyte composites on Li7La3Zr2O12 and their electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takeshia; Iwasaki, Shinya; Ishii, Yosuke; Motoyama, Munekazu; West, William C.; Yamamoto, Yuta; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2016-01-01

    We prepared up to 20 μm-thick LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC)-Li+ conductive glass-ceramic solid electrolyte (LATP: σLi+ ˜ 10-3 S cm-2 at 298 K) composite cathode films on Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ) substrates by aerosol deposition (AD) and investigated their electrochemical properties as all-solid-state batteries. The resultant NMC/LATP interface in the composite film had a thin mutual diffusion layer (˜5 nm) and a film had a porosity of ca. 0.15% in volume. The composite films were well adhered to the LLZ substrates even though the films were prepared at room temperature. All-solid-state batteries, consisting of Li/LLZ/NMC-LATP composite film (20 μm), repeated charge-discharge reactions for 90 cycles at 100 °C at a 1/10 C rate (capacity retention: 99.97%/cycle). Rate capability of this battery was improved by modifying both the LATP and electron conductive source amount in the composite film, and a battery with 16 μm-thick composite electrode delivered 60 mAh g-1 at 1 mA cm-2.

  1. Early insights into the genome sequence of Uromyces fabae

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    Tobias eLink

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Uromyces fabae is a major pathogen of broad bean, Vicia faba. U. fabae has served as a model among rust fungi to elucidate the development of infection structures, expression and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and gene expression. Using U. fabae, enormous progress was made regarding nutrient uptake and metabolism and in the search for secreted proteins and effectors. Here, we present results from a genome survey of U. fabae. Paired end Illumina sequencing provided 53 Gb of data. An assembly gave 59,735 scaffolds with a total length of 216 Mb. K-mer analysis estimated the genome size to be 329 Mb. Of a representative set of 23,153 predicted proteins we could annotate 10,209, and predict 599 secreted proteins. Clustering of the protein set indicates families of highly likely effectors. We also found new homologs of RTP1p, a prototype rust effector. The U. fabae genome will be an important resource for comparative analyses with U. appendiculatus and P. pachyrhizi and provide information regarding the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Uromyces with respect to other rust fungi already sequenced, namely Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, Melampsora lini, and Melampsora larici-populina.

  2. The interaction of consecutive process steps in the manufacturing of lithium-ion battery electrodes with regard to structural and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockholt, Henrike; Indrikova, Maira; Netz, Andreas; Golks, Frederik; Kwade, Arno

    2016-09-01

    The individual steps in the electrode manufacturing process, e.g., conductive additives addition, mixing, and calendering, strongly affect the electrochemical and mechanical properties of the electrodes. LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM) cathode electrodes with conductive additive variations are fabricated using a reference and an intensive mixing process, and are subsequently calendered to different porosities. It is found that graphite reduces the pore size of NCM electrodes, in contrast to the carbon black that establishes additional nanoscale pores. Electrodes manufactured with reference mixing result in a porous carbon black network with good overall electric pathways, whereas those manufactured with intensive processing result in a dense carbon black network, leading to good short-range contacts, but a lack of long-range contacts. In this case, the addition of graphite as a conductive additive is identified to establish important additional long-range contacts. Due to the structural differences achieved by the compared processing routes, the calendering process can have a positive or negative impact on battery performance.

  3. 锂离子电池高倍率放电性能的影响因素%The influence factors of high rate discharge performance of Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃宇夏; 李奇; 熊英; 刘胜

    2009-01-01

    研究了18650型锂离子电池高倍率放电性能的影响因素.使用LiMn2O4/LiCoO2或LiMn2O4/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2的电池的放电容量保持率比使用LiFePO4的电池高;电解液电导率对电池的高倍率放电性能有明显的影响.采用D50=9μm的LiNi1/3co1/3Mn1/3O2、添加导电锂盐的电解液的电池,在25 C倍率下的放电电压平缓,放电容量为1246 mAh,循环性能良好.

  4. Understanding structural changes in NMC Li-ion cells by in situ neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolotko, O.; Senyshyn, A.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Nikolowski, K.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2014-06-01

    Commercial NMC cells of 18650-type based on a Lix(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 cathode and a graphitic anode were studied in situ using a combination of high-resolution monochromatic neutron powder diffraction and electrochemical analysis. The structural changes of the electrode materials during cell charge/discharge have been determined using Rietveld refinement and single profile decomposition techniques. A transformation of the graphitic anode to LiC12 and LiC6 through the formation of higher ordered lithium intercalated carbons was observed. A different behavior of electrochemically-driven lattice distortion was observed for NMC material in comparison to LixCoO2 and its influence on the overall cell performance has been discussed in brief. Detailed analysis of the structural changes in the Lix(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 cathode material revealed reversible Li/Ni cation mixing (5.6(8)%), which is state-of-charge independent below 1600 mAh and vanishing above 1800 mAh (∼0.8Qmax).

  5. A study of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA) as a flame retardant additive for Li-ion battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Dmitry G.; Shieh, D. T.

    2014-02-01

    Electrochemical behavior and flammability of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA)-mixed electrolyte solutions are investigated using 1 mol L-1 LiPF6-EC:EMC (1:2 vol.%) with 0 wt.% (reference electrolyte) and 1-3 wt.% of TBBA. The cycling performance (at room and elevated temperature) and rate capability of the 18650 cell (LiMn2O4:Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 (8:2)/Li4Ti5O12) cell containing TBBA-mixed electrolyte is similar to that of cell containing the reference electrolyte. A detailed analysis of the surface on both the anode and the cathode electrodes via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the cathode electrode contains more Br components than the anode electrode. Within the first few cycles, on the positive electrode, we observe competing redox processes between the cathode material containing Mn and TBBA, which generate hydroxy radicals and other by-products. This process and the electrochemical reductive decomposition of TBBA to HBr, Br2 and bisphenole A are responsible for the increased flame retardant properties of the electrolyte containing TBBA. Safety tests were performed using an 18650 cell showed that even 1 wt.% of TBBA in the electrolyte significantly reduces cell flammability.

  6. Correlation of aging and thermal stability of commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, M.; Friesen, A.; Grützke, M.; Stenzel, Y. P.; Brunklaus, G.; Haetge, J.; Nowak, S.; Schappacher, F. M.; Winter, M.

    2017-02-01

    Established safety of lithium ion batteries is key for the vast diversity of applications. The influence of aging on the thermal stability of individual cell components and complete cells is of particular interest. Commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries based on LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2/C are investigated after cycling at different temperatures. The variations in the electrochemical performance are mainly attributed to aging effects on the anode side considering the formation of an effective solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) during cycling at 45 °C and a thick decomposition layer on the anode surface at 20 °C. The thermal stability of the anodes is investigated including the analysis of the evolving gases which confirmed the severe degradation of the electrolyte and active material during cycling at 20 °C. In addition, the presence of metallic lithium deposits could strongly affect the thermal stability. Thermal safety tests using quasi-adiabatic conditions show variations in the cells response to elevated temperatures according to the state-of-charge, i.e. a reduced reactivity in the discharged state. Furthermore, it is revealed that the onset of exothermic reactions correlates with the thermal stability of the SEI, while the thermal runaway is mainly attributed to the decomposition of the cathode and the subsequent reactions with the electrolyte.

  7. In-house fabrication and testing capabilities for Li and Li-ion 18650 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, G.

    2010-04-01

    For over 10 years Sandia Labs have been involved in an US DOE-funded program aimed at developing electric vehicle batteries for transportation applications. Currently this program is called "Advanced Battery Research (ABR)." In this effort we were preparing 18650 cells with electrodes supplied by or purchased from private companies for thermal abuse and electrical characterization studies. Lately, we are coating our own electrodes, building cells and evaluating performance. This paper describes our extensive in-house facilities for slurry making, electrode coating, cell winding etc. In addition, facilities for electrical testing and thermal abuse will be described. This facility allows us to readjust our focus quickly to the changing demands of the still evolving ABR program. Additionally, we continue to make cells for our internal use. We made several 18650 cells both primary (Li-CFx) and secondary (Li-ion) and evaluated performance. For example Li-CFx cells gave ~2.9Ahr capacity at room temperature. Our high voltage Li-ion cells consisting of carbon anode and cathode based on LiNi 0.4Mn 0.3Co 0.3O2 in organic electrolytes exhibited reproducible behavior and gave capacity on the order of 1Ahr. Performance of Li-ion cells at different temperatures and thermal abuse characteristics will be presented.

  8. Influence of temperature on the aging behavior of 18650-type lithium ion cells: A comprehensive approach combining electrochemical characterization and post-mortem analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Alex; Mönnighoff, Xaver; Börner, Markus; Haetge, Jan; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2017-02-01

    The understanding of the aging behavior of lithium ion batteries in automotive and energy storage applications is essential for the acceptance of the technology. Therefore, aging experiments were conducted on commercial 18650-type state-of-the-art cells to determine the influence of the temperature during electrochemical cycling on the aging behavior of the different cell components. The cells, based on Li(Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3)O2 (NCM532)/graphite, were aged at 20 °C and 45 °C to different states of health. The electrochemical performance of the investigated cells shows remarkable differences depending on the cycling temperature. At contrast to the expected behavior, the cells cycled at 45 °C show a better electrochemical performance over lifetime than the cells cycled at 20 °C. Comprehensive post-mortem analyses revealed the main aging mechanisms, showing a complex interaction between electrodes and electrolyte. The main aging mechanisms of the cells cycled at 45 °C differ strongly at contrast to cells cycled at 20 °C. A strong correlation between the formed SEI, the electrolyte composition and the electrochemical performance over lifetime was observed.

  9. 高电压锂离子电池正极材料的研究进展%Research progress in high-voltage cathode materials for Li-ion battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯庆; 凌泽; 王力臻

    2013-01-01

    Structure and electrochemical performance of high-voltage cathode materials for H-ion battery,such as LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4,LiMnPO4 and LiCoPO4 were introduced.Modification researches such as doping,surface modification and coating were summarized.Ni-based and V-based high-voltage cathode materials for Li-ion battery were reviewed.%介绍了LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4、LiMnPO4和LiCoPO4等高电压锂离子电池正极材料的结构及电化学性能,总结了掺杂、表面改性和包覆等改性研究.对镍基和钒基高电压锂离子电池正极材料进行了综述.

  10. Management and organisational factors in PSA; Organisations- und Management-Faktoren in der PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balfanz, H.P. [TUEV Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-04-01

    The constraints of PSA are increasingly considered with increasing application of PSA for the safety management of nuclear power plants (see US-NRC, 'Risk Informed Regulation', NRC-1). There is a vivid international discourse about the applicability of the variables of plant management and organisation in PSAs, which has lead to a great variety of research activities into this matter (see PSAM 4). This paper here summarizes the current state of progress of research work and discusses the applicability of results. The studies for comparative assessment of methodology and results were performed by the TUeV Nord under the roof of the BMU/BfS-sponsored project SR 2260, ''Further development of probabilistic methods for nuclear power plant safety assessment. (orig./CB) [German] Mit zunehmender Anwendung der PSA (Probabilistische Sicherheitsanalyse) im Sicherheitsmanagement von KKW (vergl. US-NRC, Einfuehrung des Konzepts 'Risk Informed Regulation' NRC-1) gewinnt die Beachtung der Grenzen der PSA zusaetzliche Bedeutung. International ist eine intensive Diskussion ueber die Moeglichkeiten einer Einbindung der Einflussgroesse von Organisation und Management in der PSA zu verzeichnen und wird belegt durch vielfaeltige Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten (vergl. PSAM 4). Dieser Beitrag setzt sich in erster Linie mit diesem Entwicklungsstand auseinander und diskutiert seinen Anwendungsstand fuer die PSA. Die hierzu vom TUeV Nord durchgefuehrten Arbeiten basieren auf dem BMU/BfS-Vorhaben SR 2260, 'Weiterentwicklung probabilistischer Methoden zur Sicherheitsbeurteilung von KKW'. (orig.)

  11. Nuclear waste - where to go?; Atommuell - wohin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsiepen, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The question of the final di9sposal of nuclear waste is a problem of international importance. The solution of the problem is of increasing urgency; the discussion is controversial and implies a lot of emotions. In Germany there is consensus that the nuclear wastes have to be disposed within the country in deep geological formations. This kind of final disposal is predominantly a geological problem and has to be solved from the geological point of view. The geologist Ulrich Dornsiepen presents the problems of the final disposal in an objective way without ideology and generally understandable. Such a presentation is necessary since the public information and participation is demanded but the open geological questions and their scientific solutions are never explained for the public. [German] Die Frage der endgueltigen Lagerung von Atommuell ist ein Problem von nationaler Tragweite, dessen Loesung immer dringender wird, bisher aber sehr kontrovers diskutiert wird und mit vielen Emotionen verknuepft ist. Es besteht in Deutschland ein Konsens, diese Abfaelle innerhalb der Landesgrenzen dauerhaft in tief liegenden Gesteinsschichten abzulagern. Diese Art der Endlagerung ist aber in erster Linie ein geologisches Problem und so auch nur von geologischer Seite her zu loesen. Daher stellt der Geologe Ulrich Dornsiepen die Problematik der Endlagerung objektiv, ideologiefrei und allgemein verstaendlich dar. Ein solches Hoerbuch ist dringend noetig, da zwar die Information und Beteiligung breiter, betroffener Bevoelkerungsteile eingefordert, aber niemals versucht wird, die offenen geologischen Fragen und ihre wissenschaftliche Loesung verstaendlich zu machen.

  12. CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF SPONTANEOUS UTERINE PERFORATION IN CASE OF PLACENTA ACCRETA DURING CAES AREAN SECTION: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The incidence of placenta accrete has increased 10 f old in the past 50 years and now occurs with a frequency of 1 per 2 ,500 deliveries. Women who have had 2 or more cesarean deliveries with anterior or central pl acenta previa have nearly a 40% risk of developing placenta accreta. An abnormally adherent pl acenta, although an uncommon condition, assumes considerable significance clinic ally because of morbidity and at times mortality from severe hemorrhage, uterine perforatio n, and infection. Placenta accrete occurring in an unscarred uterus is exceedingly rar e. CASE PRESENTATION: A 25 year-old multigravida was admitted for emergency Caesarean S ection at 36 weeks with the diagnosis of preeclampsia. There were 2 small uterine perforations seen on posterior wall of uterus. The placenta was found to be densely adherent to the post erior uterine wall. Piecemeal excision of the placenta as close as possible to the uterine lini ng was then performed. The perforations were sutured with interrupted stitches. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous uterine perforation associated with placenta accreta can be managed cons ervatively with suturing & does not necessitate hysterectomy

  13. Epilepsie im höheren Lebensalter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feichtinger M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsie tritt beim älteren Menschen bis zu 3-mal häufiger auf als in jüngeren Jahren. Dadurch und bedingt durch die allgemeine Zunahme des älteren Bevölkerungsanteils wird die Altersepilepsie immer bedeutender. Die ätiologischen Faktoren umfassen in erster Linie zerebrovaskuläre Ereignisse, Traumen, Tumoren oder Demenzsyndrome. Zumeist treten in diesem Alter fokale Anfälle mit oder ohne sekundäre Generalisierung auf. Die klinische Symptomatik kann jedoch sehr diskret sein und differenzialdiagnostisch Schwierigkeiten in der Abgrenzung zu kardialen Synkopen oder transienten ischämischen Ereignissen bieten. Aufgrund von altersbedingten Änderungen in der Pharmakokinetik stellt die Behandlung der Altersepilepsie besondere Ansprüche an den behandelnden Arzt. Die Wahl des geeigneten Antiepileptikums richtet sich dabei nicht nur nach der durch Studien belegten Effektivität, sondern muss auch die individuelle Gesamtsituation (Komorbidität, Komedikation in die Entscheidung mit einbeziehen. Im Vergleich zu den "älteren" Antiepileptika sind neuere Substanzen zwar meist nicht wesentlich effektiver, jedoch oft besser verträglich und sollten daher in dieser Altersgruppe verstärkt eingesetzt werden.

  14. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test. Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air. The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL. It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein.

  15. Suchtprävention im Internet am Beispiel von www.drugcom.de

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennan Tensil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Illegale Drogen, insbesondere Cannabis, stellen trotz leicht sinkender Konsumzahlen weiterhin eine Herausforderung für die Suchtprävention dar. Die Aufgabe der selektiven Prävention besteht zum einen darin, Konsumierende über die Risiken aufzuklären. Zum anderen gilt es, problematische Konsummuster frühzeitig zu erkennen und adäquate Hilfeangebote zu machen, um eine weitere Eskalation des Konsums zu verhindern. Das Internet bietet hierfür ideale Voraussetzungen, hat es sich doch mittlerweile als Alltagsmedium besonders bei jungen Menschen etabliert. Die Bundeszen- trale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (BZgA bietet daher seit 2001 mit www.drugcom.de ein Sucht- präventionsportal an, das in erster Linie junge Menschen anspricht, die psychoaktive Substanzen konsumieren und sich über Risiken und Nebenwirkungen informieren wollen. Eingebettet in die Website ist ein spezielles Programm, in dem Cannabiskonsumierende, die ihren Konsum einstellen oder reduzieren wollen, von professionellen Beraterinnen und Beratern betreut werden.

  16. Enabling linear alkyl carbonate electrolytes for high voltage Li-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jian; Petibon, Remi; Xiong, Deijun; Ma, Lin; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Some of the problems of current electrolytes for high voltage Li-ion cells originate from ethylene carbonate (EC) which is thought to be an essential electrolyte component for Li-ion cells. Ethylene carbonate-free electrolytes containing 1 M LiPF6 in ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) with small loadings of vinylene carbonate, fluoroethylene carbonate, or (4R,5S)-4,5-Difluoro-1,3-dioxolan-2-one acting as ;enablers; were developed. These electrolytes used in Li(Ni0.4Mn0.4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch type Li-ion cells tested at 4.2 V and 4.5 V yielded excellent charge-discharge cycling and storage properties. The results for cells containing linear alkyl carbonate electrolytes with no EC were compared to those of cells with EC-containing electrolytes incorporating additives proven to enhance cyclability of cells. The combination of EMC with appropriate amounts of these enablers yields cells with better performance than cells with EC-containing electrolytes incorporating additives tested to 4.5 V. Further optimizing these linear alkyl carbonate electrolytes with appropriate co-additives may represent a viable path to the successful commercial utilization of NMC/graphite Li-ion cells operated to 4.5 V and above.

  17. „Auf dem richtigen Weg sein“ – phraseodidaktische Ansätze im DaF-Unterricht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Valenčič Arh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phraseme sind sprachliche Universalien, die sowohl in der Phraseologieforschung als auch in der Fremdsprachendidaktik einen Aufschwung erleben. Phraseologie dient zur Erweiterung des Wortschatzes einer Sprache wie auch der kommunikativen Handlungs­kompetenz. Um die Vermittlung phraseologischer Wortschätze und das Erarbeiten von Lehrwerken bemüht sich ein Teilgebiet der Phraseologie, die Phraseodidaktik. Ihre Erkenntnisinteressen reichen von der Sensibilisierung der Lernenden für phraseologische Phänomene bis zur Entwicklung und zum Erwerb eines gewissen Minimums an phraseologischer Kompetenz in der Mutter- und/oder Fremdsprache. Im folgenden Beitrag werden einige Aspekte der Förderung der phraseologischen Kompetenz im DaF-Unterricht erläutert. Ferner steht die Integration der phraseologischen Ausdrücke und ihre Ausdrucksschulung im Lehr- und Übungsbuch studio d – Die Mittelstufe B2, das sich an der Niveaustufe B2 des Gemeinsamen europäischen Referenzrahmens orientiert, im Zentrum. Der Schwerpunkt liegt nicht nur auf dem Quantum und der Frequenz von phraseologischen Ausdrücken, sondern in erster Linie auf der Vermittlung und dem gesteuerten phraseologischen Spracherwerb im Rahmen eines geplanten und strukturierten DaF-Unterrichts. Das Anliegen dieses Beitrags ist es auch, auf die Bedeutsamkeit von einer gut durchdachten Eingliederung der Phraseologie in den Gemeinsamen europäischen Referenzrahmen für Sprachen (GER als einen wichtigen Bestandteil der Wortschatzkompetenz auf allen Niveaus von A1 bis C2 hinzuweisen.

  18. Coevolution of Male and Female Response Preferences to Sexual Signals in Music Frogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo CUI; Jichao WANG; Guangzhan FANG; Xiaowei SONG; Steven E BRAUTH; Yezhong TANG

    2016-01-01

    Male signaling influences both female choice and male-male competition. Although male signaling characteristics and female preferences have been shown to coevolve in many species, few studies have examined whether male signal characteristics and male receiver responses related to male-male competition also coevolve. The present study tested the hypothesis that male and female signal receiver preferences may coevolve in parallel for frogs in the genus Babina by comparing the acoustic structure of male advertisement calls of four closely related and geographically isolated Babina species. Then we assessed the behavioral responses of both male and female B. daunchina (Emei music frog) to male call playbacks from each of the four species. The results support the hypothesis that male and female signal receiver preferences have coevolved in this species. Specifically, both male and female B. daunchina respond strongly to the heterospecific calls of B. hainanensis, suggesting that preexisting biases exist in both females and males. Both male and female individuals showed a slight response to the calls of B. adenopleura while no response was evoked by the calls of B. lini. The manifestation of similar response profiles in male and female B. daunchina to the calls of the four species support the idea that male and female signal receiver preferences evolved in parallel and that the origin of these receiver biases reflects adaptations dependent on the same neural and cognitive systems in both sexes.

  19. 基于GIS的农村居民点布局适宜性研究%Study on the Layout Suitability of Rural Residential Area Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      农村居民点空间布局适宜性评价是进行农村居民点优化布局及新农村建设规划的重要途径。该文以临颍县杜曲镇为研究区,采用GIS空间分析、层次分析及专家打分相结合的方法,对农村居民点的空间布局现状进行分析,并根据综合评价对居民点用地布局适宜性划分不同等级,为农村居民点规划提供理论参考。%The spatial distribution suitability evaluation of rural residential area is the important way which about rural residential area optimization layout and new countryside planing. This paper taking Du Qu Town,Linying County as an example,uses the method of GIS spatial analysis,hierarchical analysis and expert scoring to Space layout situation of rural residential area analysis,and divids different grades to the layout suitability of rural resi⁃dential area according to the comprehensive evaluation,and then provides theoretical reference for planning of ru⁃ral residential area.

  20. ZUR ENTWICKLUNG DES WIENER STADTRECHTS IM 13. JAHRHUNDERT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Die Stadt Wien erlangte im Hochmittelalter als eine wichtige mitteleuropǎische Zwischenhandelsstadt groBe Bedeutung. lhre Entwicklung verdankt der Wiener Raum dem Handelsverkehr an Donau. Der frühmittelalterliche Femhandel benutzte in erster Linie den von der Natur vorgezeichneten Weg und die von ihr geschaffene VerkehrsstraBe. Die WasserstraBe ist vor allem benutzbar, weil sie offenkundig schneller und billiger ist. Wien liegt am Kreuzungspunkt zweier damalig wichtiger StraBen: der DonaustraBe, die die Mittel Europas durchquert; der LandstraBe, die von ltalien über den Semmering nach Mǎhren und Polen ist. Die DonaustraBe ist eine bedeutende West-Ost-FluBverbindung Europas, bzw. die ǎlteste und wichtigste FernhandelsstraBe. Sie verband die westlichen Nachbaren sterreichs, vornehmlich Bayern und Schwaben, mit den wirtschaftlich noch unterentwickelten Lǎndern im Osten, z.B. Ungarn, einerseits; anderseits eine Reihe schiffbarer Nebenflüsse, durch die das Innere der Alpen miteinander verbunden und der

  1. Lithium plating in lithium-ion batteries at sub-ambient temperatures investigated by in situ neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinth, Veronika; von Lüders, Christian; Hofmann, Michael; Hattendorff, Johannes; Buchberger, Irmgard; Erhard, Simon; Rebelo-Kornmeier, Joana; Jossen, Andreas; Gilles, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Lithium plating in commercial LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/graphite cells at sub-ambient temperatures is studied by neutron diffraction at Stress-Spec, MLZ. Li plating uses part of the active lithium in the cell and competes with the intercalation of lithium into graphite. As a result, the degree of graphite lithiation during and after charge is lower. Comparison of graphite lithiation after a C/5 charging cycle fast enough to expect a considerable amount of Li plating with a much slower C/30 reference cycle reveals a lower degree of graphite lithiation in the first case; neutron diffraction shows less LiC6 and more LiC12 is present. If the cell is subjected to a 20 h rest period after charge, a gradual transformation of remaining LiC12 to LiC6 can be observed, indicating Li diffusion into the graphite. During the rest period after the C/5 charging cycle, the degree of graphite lithiation can be estimated to increase by 17%, indicating at least 17% of the active lithium is plated. Data collected during discharge immediately after C/5 charging give further evidence of the presence and amount of metallic lithium: in this case 19% of discharge capacity originates from the oxidation of metallic lithium. Also, lithium oxidation can be directly related to the high voltage plateau observed during discharge in case of lithium plating.

  2. Horner-Syndrom: Neuroanatomie, pathophysiologische Grundlagen und diagnostische Verfahren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawires M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Namensgebung des Horner- Syndroms erfolgte durch Friedrich Horner im Jahre 1869; es stellt eine charakteristische Trias aus Miosis, Ptosis und Enopthalmus dar. In unterschiedlichem Ausmaß kommt es hierbei auch zu einer Störung der Schweißsekretion, abhängig von der Lokalisation der Schädigung. Grundsätzlich handelt es sich um eine sympathische Denervierung des Auges, wobei eine zentrale von einer peripheren Ursache unterschieden werden muss. Das Syndrom als solches ist zwar bekannt, es wird aber in der lokalisationsdiagnostischen Aussagekraft oft nicht differenziert genug beurteilt. Die klinische Bedeutung kann sehr unterschiedlich sein, ihr akutes Auftreten stellt zumeist einen neurologischen Notfall dar. Die Kenntnis der genauen anatomischen Bahnen ist daher für das weitere diagnostische Procedere entscheidend. Ursachen, die eine unmittelbare Intervention erfordern, stellen in erster Linie die Karotisdissektion, Hirnstammischämie (Wallenberg- Syndrom oder auch entzündliche Erkrankungen (Abszess, Myelitis dar. Der vorliegende Übersichtsartikel soll die Kenntnis über das klinische Bild, die genauen anatomischen Verhältnisse, Differenzierung unterschiedlicher Ursachen sowie diagnostische Maßnahmen vermitteln.

  3. Aktuelles Vaterschaftsrecht Current Paternity Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia C. Groppler

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Das Fachbuch enthält eine sehr vollständige Übersicht über die Entwicklung und die derzeitige rechtliche Situation im Bereich der Vaterschaftsfeststellung und -anfechtung. Das Buch ist in erster Linie für Praktiker/-innen geschrieben, also insbesondere für Familienrichter/-innen, Jugend- und Standesämter sowie für Anwälte und Anwältinnen, die auf dem Gebiet des Vaterschaftsrechts tätig sind. Es ist aber auch geeignet für all diejenigen, die juristisch mit Vaterschaftsproblemen zu tun haben und sich einen fundierten Überblick verschaffen wollen bzw. das Buch als Nachschlagewerk zu einzelnen Problemfeldern des Vaterschaftsrechts nutzen wollen.This specialized book contains a complete overview of the development and current legal situation in the area of the determination and contestation of paternity. The book is primarily written for practitioners, especially for family judges, youth and registry offices, as well as for male and female lawyers who work in the field of paternity law. But it is also suitable for those who deal with legal paternity problems and would like to gain a sound overview, i.e. would like to use the book as a reference work for specific problem areas of paternity law.

  4. High performance 1.2 Ah Si-alloy/Graphite|LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 prototype Li-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, Mario; Yoon, Dong-hwan; Gabrielli, Giulio; Stegmaier, Petra; Figgemeier, Egbert; Spurk, Paul C.; Nelis, Daniël; Schmidt, Gregory; Chauveau, Jerome; Axmann, Peter; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2017-07-01

    The study reports on realization and electrochemical testing of prototype Si-alloy/Graphite|LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 batteries. Water soluble polyacrylic acid (PAA), used as the only binder at the anode side, demonstrates excellent dispersant and binding properties. Sedimentation tests and rheological measurements show remarkable stability and mostly a thinning behavior of the non-Newtonian type of slurry. The cathode is processed in N-Methylpyrrolidone based slurry using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the binding agent. The electronic conductivities of the manufactured Si-alloy/Graphite and LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 electrodes are evaluated. Furthermore, the cathode and anode electrochemical behavior is initially studied in half-cells, and subsequently in full Li-ion stacked prototype soft pouch-cells (1.22 Ah). It is demonstrated that the manufactured prototype cells can sustain about 290 charge/discharge galvanostatic cycles before the retained capacity drops below 80%. Cell aging is monitored using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), whereas post-mortem SEM analysis of electrodes cross-section is used to shed light on the causes of performance degradation of the cells.

  5. Triethylborate as an electrolyte additive for high voltage layered lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide cathode of lithium ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaisheng; Xing, Lidan; Li, JianHui; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan

    2016-03-01

    Triethylborate (TEB) is used as an electrolyte additive to improve the electrochemical performances of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (LNCM) upon cycling at 4.5 V vs. Li/Li+. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the cyclic stability of LNCM at room and elevated temperature can be improved effectively by TEB. With addition of 10 wt. % TEB into STD electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6/EC:EMC:DEC), LNCM achieves a capacity retention of 99.8% after 150 cycles and 94.7% after 120 cycles at room and elevated temperature, respectively, comparing to that of 68.9% and 68.8% of STD electrolyte. In addition, 10 wt. % TEB also improves the rate capability of LNCM at room temperature. Physical and electrochemical characterizations from XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, ICP-MS, LSV, CA, and EIS reveal that the preferential oxidative reaction of TEB generates a thin, uniform and low interfacial resistance film on the LNCM surface. This film not only suppresses the subsequent decomposition of STD electrolyte, but also prevents the dissolution of transition metal ions from LNCM, resulting in improved cyclic stability and rate capability of LNCM.

  6. Study of Water-Based Lithium Titanate Electrode Processing: The Role of pH and Binder Molecular Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Vieira Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work elucidates the manufacturing of lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12, LTO electrodes via the aqueous process using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, guar gum (GG or pectin as binders. To avoid aluminum current collector dissolution due to the rising slurries’ pH, phosphoric acid (PA is used as a pH-modifier. The electrodes are characterized in terms of morphology, adhesion strength and electrochemical performance. In the absence of phosphoric acid, hydrogen evolution occurs upon coating the slurry onto the aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of cavities in the coated electrode, as well as poor cohesion on the current collector itself. Consequently, the electrochemical performance of the coated electrodes is also improved by the addition of PA in the slurries. At a 5C rate, CMC/PA-based electrodes delivered 144 mAh·g−1, while PA-free electrodes reached only 124 mAh·g−1. When GG and pectin are used as binders, the adhesion of the coated layers to the current collector is reduced; however, the electrodes show comparable, if not slightly better, electrochemical performance than those based on CMC. Full lithium-ion cells, utilizing CMC/PA-made Li[Ni0.33Mn0.33Co0.33]O2 (NMC cathodes and LTO anodes offer a stable discharge capacity of ~120 mAh·g−1(NMC with high coulombic efficiencies.

  7. Integrated municipal wind power concepts; Windenergienutzung im staedtischen Verbund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbert, D.; Richert, F. [Ventis Energietechnik GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    The role of wind power in the industrial sector currently depends very much on its technical and economic integrability in existing conventional supply structures. The most important questions in this context relate to capacity effects, adapted operating methods of conventional power suppliers, and, most important of all, operational energy production costs. In some regions alternative energy supply concepts are not yet or not sufficiently available. However, these will nevertheless offer ways of installing energy systems with a large renewable segment. The chances of bringing such projects to fruition depend for one thing on the climate, which may either stimulate or deter from development work on renewables (wind power, solar energy), and for another, often in apparent opposition to the former, on the oftentimes poorly developed infrastructure and economic strength of the region in question. [Deutsch] Die Bedeutung der Windenergienutzung im industrialisierten Bereich ist derzeit verknuepft mit deren technischen und oekonomischen Integrationsfaehigkeit in bestehende, konventionelle Versorgungsstrukturen. Im Vordergrund steht hierbei die Klaerung der Fragestellungen nach Kapazitaetseffekten, angepassten Betriebsweisen konventioneller Stromerzeuger und, in erster Linie, betriebswirtschaftlichen Energieerzeugungskosten. Derzeit bieten die Regionen, in denen eine anderweitige Versorgung noch nicht oder in nicht ausreichendem Masse existieren Moeglichkeiten zur Installation von Energiesystemen mit hoher regenerativer Durchdringung. Fuer die Realisation solcher Projekte stehen sich haeufig die klimatischen Bedingungen, die einerseits z.T. die Ursache fuer den geringen Entwicklungsstand sind, andererseits aber auch guenstige Voraussetzungen fuer die Nutzung regenerativer Energien (Wind, Sonne) bieten, der meist schlechten Infrastruktur und der geringen Wirtschaftskraft gegenueber. (orig./MSK)

  8. Lithium ion conductive Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 based inorganic-organic composite separator with enhanced thermal stability and excellent electrochemical performances in 5 V lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junli; Xia, Yonggao; Han, Shaojie; Fang, Lifeng; Pan, Meizi; Xu, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Zhaoping

    2015-01-01

    Since 5 V lithium ion batteries have attracted more and more attentions and are deemed to be an important tendency in the future, the matched design of the separators has also become a necessary and significant work. In this work, the lithium ionic conducting glass ceramic Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3-polypropylene (PP) based inorganic-organic composite separator (LAGP-PP) is prepared. Compared with the pristine PP separator, the LAGP-PP separator owns enhanced thermal stability and wettability. Meanwhile, the LAGP-PP separator shows higher ion conductivity than the traditional Al2O3 coated PP separator due to the more facile lithium ion diffusion channels in the coating layer. The superior C-rate capacity and cyclability in the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 based 5 V lithium ion batteries indicate that the LAGP-PP separator is a good alternative for the traditional inert inorganic ceramic coated polyolefin separators and is a kind of promising candidate separator for the high voltage lithium ion batteries.

  9. Improving cycle life of layered lithium transition metal oxide (LiMO2) based positive electrodes for Li ion batteries by smart selection of the electrochemical charge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Evertz, Marco; Streipert, Benjamin; Wagner, Ralf; Nowak, Sascha; Cekic Laskovic, Isidora; Winter, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Increasing the specific energy of a lithium ion battery and maintaining its cycle life is a predominant goal and major challenge for electrochemical energy storage applications. Focusing on the positive electrode as the specific energy bottleneck, cycle life characteristics of promising layered oxide type active materials (LiMO2) has been thoroughly investigated. Comparing the variety of LiMO2 compositions, it could be shown that the ;Ni-rich; (Ni ≥ 60% for M in LiMO2) electrodes expectably revealed best performance compromises between specific energy and cycle life at 20 °C, but only LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2 (NMC622) could also maintain sufficient cycle performance at elevated temperatures. Focusing on NMC622, it could be demonstrated that the applied electrochemical conditions (charge capacity, delithiation amount) in the formation cycles significantly influence the subsequent cycling performance. Moreover, the insignificant transition metal dissolution, demonstrated by means of total X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique, and unchanged lithiation degree in the discharged state, determined by the measurement of the Li+ content by means of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) technique, pointed to a delithiation (charge) hindrance capacity fade mechanism. Considering these insights, thoughtful modifications of the electrochemical charge conditions could significantly prolong the cycle life.

  10. Novel synthetic approach for 1, 4-dihydroxyanthraquinone and the development of its Lithiated salts as anode material for aqueous rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Gurukar, Suresh Shivappa

    2015-08-17

    The influence of organic electrode materials in the field of lithium ion battery is becoming a keen interest for the present generation scientists. Here we are reporting a novel method of synthesis of electrode material by the combination of sono-chemical and thermal methods. The advantages of organic active material towards lithium ion battery are of core interest of this study. The structural confirmations are by FT-IR, 1H NMR, MALDI-TOF Mass Spectroscopy and powder XRD data. The electrochemical properties of Lithiated-1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone were studied using electrochemical-techniques such as Cyclic Voltammetry, Galvanostatic Cyclic Potential Limitation and Potentiostatic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. The satisfactory results towards stability of active species in the aqueous media, reasonable discharge capacity with 0.9 V average voltages and agreeable cycling performance during charge-discharge process with reproducibility are achieved. For the construction of the full cell, the anode material was coupled with the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as a cathode material.

  11. Hybrid composite membranes based on polyethylene separator and Al2O3 nanoparticles for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Won-Kyung; Lee, Yoon-Sung; Kim, Dong-Won

    2013-05-01

    A hybrid composite membrane is prepared by coating nano-sized Al2O3 powder (13 and 50 nm) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)) binder on both sides of polyethylene separator. The composite membrane shows better thermal stability and improved wettability for organic liquid electrolyte than polyethylene separator, due to the presence of heat-resistant Al2O3 particles with high-surface area in the coating layer. By using the composite membrane, the lithium-ion cells composed of carbon anode and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cathode are assembled and their cycling performances are evaluated. The cells assembled with the composite membranes are proven to have better capacity retention than the cell prepared with polyethylene separator, due to the enhanced ability to retain the electrolyte solution in the cell. The cell assembled with the composite membrane containing 13 nm-sized Al2O3 particles has an initial discharge capacity of 173.2 mA h g(-1) with good capacity retention.

  12. Prebiotics and bioactive natural substances induce changes of composition and metabolic activities of the colonic microflora in cancerous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijová, Emília; Bomba, Alojz; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Szabadosová, Viktória; Šoltésová, Alena

    2012-01-01

    Prebiotics are defined as selectively fermented food ingredients that induce specific changes in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota beneficial to the host well-being and health. The aim of the presented experiment was to investigate the effect of a prebiotic applied alone or in combination with Hyppocastani extractum siccum, and Lini oleum virginale in rats with dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer. Wistar albino rats were fed high fat diet supplemented with the prebiotic alone or in combination with Horse chestnut and flaxseed oil. The activity of faecal glycolytic enzymes, lipid parameters, bile acids, short chain fatty acids and counts of coliforms and lactobacilli were determined. Treatment with the prebiotic alone and in combination with selected substances significantly decreased the activity of glycolytic bacterial enzyme β-glucuronidase (Pprebiotic with Horse chestnut. The prebiotic alone decreased the lipid parameters (Pprebiotic and bioactive natural substances significantly reduced number of coliforms (PPrebiotic alone significantly increased the count of lactobacilli (Pprebiotics have a protective effect and may be the useful for colon cancer prevention and treatment.

  13. Impact of Selected LiPF6 Hydrolysis Products on the High Voltage Stability of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ralf; Korth, Martin; Streipert, Benjamin; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Gallus, Dennis R; Brox, Sebastian; Amereller, Marius; Cekic-Laskovic, Isidora; Winter, Martin

    2016-11-16

    Diverse LiPF6 hydrolysis products evolve during lithium-ion battery cell operation at elevated operation temperatures and high operation voltages. However, their impact on the formation and stability of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces is not yet investigated and understood. In this work, literature-known hydrolysis products of LiPF6 dimethyl fluorophosphate (DMFP) and diethyl fluorophosphate (DEFP) were synthesized and characterized. The use of DMFP and DEFP as electrolyte additive in 1 M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (1:1, by wt) was investigated in LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/Li half cells. When charged to a cutoff potential of 4.6 V vs Li/Li(+), the additive containing cells showed improved cycling stability, increased Coulombic efficiencies, and prolonged shelf life. Furthermore, low amounts (1 wt % in this study) of the aforementioned additives did not show any negative effect on the cycling stability of graphite/Li half cells. DMFP and DEFP are susceptible to oxidation and contribute to the formation of an effective cathode/electrolyte interphase as confirmed by means of electrochemical stability window determination, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of pristine and cycled electrodes, and they are supported by computational calculations.

  14. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li+ ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety. PMID:27354162

  15. Effect of electrode manufacturing defects on electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries: Cognizance of the battery failure sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, D.; Hockaday, E.; Li, J.; Hensley, D. K.; Daniel, C.; Wood, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    During LIB electrode manufacturing, it is difficult to avoid the certain defects that diminish LIB performance and shorten the life span of the batteries. This study provides a systematic investigation correlating the different plausible defects (agglomeration/blisters, pinholes/divots, metal particle contamination, and non-uniform coating) in a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 positive electrode with its electrochemical performance. In addition, an infrared thermography technique was demonstrated as a nondestructive tool to detect these defects. The findings show that cathode agglomerates aggravated cycle efficiency, and resulted in faster capacity fading at high current density. Electrode pinholes showed substantially lower discharge capacities at higher current densities than baseline NMC 532electrodes. Metal particle contaminants have an extremely negative effect on performance, at higher C-rates. The electrodes with more coated and uncoated interfaces (non-uniform coatings) showed poor cycle life compared with electrodes with fewer coated and uncoated interfaces. Further, microstructural investigation provided evidence of presence of carbon-rich region in the agglomerated region and uneven electrode coating thickness in the coated and uncoated interfacial regions that may lead to the inferior electrochemical performance. This study provides the importance of monitoring and early detection of the electrode defects during LIB manufacturing processes to minimize the cell rejection rate after fabrication and testing.

  16. Molecular characterization of beta-tubulin from Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talles Eduardo Ferreira Maciel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available β-tubulins are structural components of microtubules and the targets of benzimidazole fungicides used to control many diseases of agricultural importance. Intron polymorphisms in the intron-rich genes of these proteins have been used in phylogeographic investigations of phytopathogenic fungi. In this work, we sequenced 2764 nucleotides of the β-tubulin gene (Pp tubB in samples of Phakopsora pachyrhizi collected from seven soybean fields in Brazil. Pp tubB contained an open reading frame of 1341 nucleotides, including nine exons and eight introns. Exon length varied from 14 to 880 nucleotides, whereas intron length varied from 76 to 102 nucleotides. The presence of only four polymorphic sites limited the usefulness of Pp tubB for phylogeographic studies in P. pachyrhizi. The gene structures of Pp tubB and orthologous β-tubulin genes of Melampsora lini and Uromyces viciae-fabae were highly conserved. The amino acid substitutions in β-tubulin proteins associated with the onset of benzimidazole resistance in model organisms, especially at His6, Glu198 and Phe200, were absent from the predicted sequence of the P. pachyrhizi β-tubulin protein.

  17. V-ribbed belts: heavy duty power transmission by elastomers; Keilrippenriemen aus Elastomerwerkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, K.

    1995-12-01

    V-ribbed belts of the latest generation comply with the greatest requirements for reliability. Apart from design improvements, new elastomer materials contribute mainly to this. The now most frequently used polychloroprene can only stand lower thermal loads than ADWM (alkylated chlorsulfonized polyethylene) and HNBR (hydrated nitrile rubber). Comparative investigations on hardening, rubbing, dynamic behaviour and extension at fracture give information on the thermal ageing strength. The service lives of V-ribbed belts made of ACSM or HNBR are up to 250% higher in practice than that of CR, without the costs rising to the same extent. (orig.) [Deutsch] Keilrippenriemen der neuesten Generation erfuellen hoechste Ansprueche an die Zuverlaessigkeit. Neben konstruktiven Verbesserungen tragen dazu in erster Linie neue Elastomerwerkstoffe bei. Das heute meist eingesetzte Polychloropren ist dabei thermisch weniger belastbar als ACSM (alkyliertes chlorsulfoniertes Polyethylen) und HNBR (hydrierter Nitrilkautschuk). Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Verhaertung, zum Abrieb, zum dynamischen Verhalten und zur Bruchdehnung geben Aufschluss ueber die jeweiligen Waermealterungsbestaendigkeiten. Die Lebensdauern von Keilrippenriemen aus ACSM oder HNBR liegen in der Praxis im Vergleich zu CR um bis zu 250% hoeher, ohne dass die Kosten in gleichem Masse steigen. (orig.)

  18. Reaction mechanism and thermal stability study on cathode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jin

    (0≤y≤0.4) is stable up to 600 °C with particle size above 100 nm particle. And in this work Mn rich olivine phase Fe1-yMnyPO4 is found to be thermally stable up to at least 450 °C with particle size down to below 50 nm, different delithiation methods result in different decomposition routes, electrochemical delithiation results in decreased thermal stability. Moisture exposure appears the most detrimental to the thermal stability of Mn-rich samples. LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 has attracted a lot of attentions because the potential is even higher (˜ 4.7 V vs Li +/Li0). However, electrolyte decomposition is quite often observed during electrochemistry cycles due to the high voltage operation window. Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is known as ordered and disordered according to the distribution of cations which relates to the synthesis conditions. Mn and Ni ions distribute either randomly in 16d sites of an Fd3m-space group or ordered in 4a and 12d sites of P4332 space group. During discharge and charge processes, Li ions insert and extract from the structure with the oxidation state of Ni changing between +2 and +4 while Mn remains as Mn4+. So far the correlation between cation distribution and electrochemical performance is still unclear, mostly the disordered samples are observed to have better rate capabilities. In order to study the reaction mechanism, combined XRD and XAS are used to investigate the oxidation state of transition metals and structure change of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 during electrochemical cycling, disordered and ordered samples were compared and studied, and both samples show three phases transformation during charge and discharge. However, the samples suffer from severe electrolyte decomposition which has influence on the results. Good spinel samples with nice electrochemistry performance is required, pure spinel samples are obtained by using co-precipitation method, the distribution of transition metal ions can be controlled by controlling the synthesis temperature

  19. Insights into the inner structure of high-nickel agglomerate as high-performance lithium-ion cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Kai; Qi, Li-Ya; Zuo, Zicheng; Wang, Ru-Na; Ye, Meng; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Heng-Hui

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the intrinsic impact of inner structure features on the electrochemical performances of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathodes is for the first time systematically investigated. Three different spherical Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 precursors are successfully synthesized by controlling pH values and ammonia concentrations. Interestingly, via a further lithiation process, the final cathodes can gradually inherit the structural features, showing distinct particle arrangement and genetic orientation characteristics in the inner structures. Such a hereditary property can be well reined for customizing the grain-orientation, helping the growth of the inert crystal direction, reducing cation mixing and exposing the high active (100) or (010) lattice planes for lithiation/delithiation processes via an intrinsical way. The degree of grain-orientation of the primary particles turns out to be a critical factor in determining the long-term stability and power performances. Due to the reduced cation mixing degree and favorable lithium diffusion pathways, the ordered agglomerates with the grain growth along with [003] direction exhibit superior rate capability and good cycle stability.

  20. Review: Fred Pearce (2012: Land Grabbing. Der globale Kampf um Grund und Boden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blümel, Lisanne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available "Kaufen Sie Land. Es wird keins mehr gemacht.“ (7: Mit diesem Zitat von Mark Twain illustriert der britische Umweltjournalist Fred Pearce gleich zu Beginn seines Buches, dass die Ressourcenknappheit unseres Planeten das auslösende Moment für Problematiken wie Land Grabbing (auf deutsch: ,Landnahme‘ ist. Pearce erläutert in der Einleitung seinen Sprachgebrauch, der legale wie illegale Aneignung gleichermaßen umfasst: „Ich benutze ihn [den Begriff der ,Landnahme‘] in diesem Buch für alle Formen der umstrittenen Aneignung von Landrechten durch Ausländer oder andere ,Außenstehende‘, unabhängig davon, ob die Übertragung auf legalem Weg verläuft oder nicht. Nicht jedes dieser Geschäfte ist schlecht, aber alle verdienen Aufmerksamkeit“ (8. Land wird weltweit – in erster Linie in Afrika aber auch in Asien und Südamerika − von Ausländern oder Außenstehenden gepachtet bzw. gekauft. Den Landnehmern, ganzen Staaten, multinationalen Firmen oder reichen Privatanlegern kann es dabei um Profitmaximierung gehen, aber auch Ernährungssicherung und Naturschutz sind mögliche Motive. Landverkäufer hingegen erhoffen sich zumeist einen wirtschaftlichen Gewinn.

  1. CT and MRI of intrinsic space-occupying lesions of the bony skull base; CT und MRT bei intrinsischen raumfordernden Laesionen der knoechernen Schaedelbasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, S.; Brandt, S. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Universitaetsklinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Halle (Germany); Neumann, K. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Universitaetsklinik und Poliklinik fuer Hals-, Nasen-, Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie, Halle (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Intrinsic bony lesions of the skull base are diseases which arise within the bones forming the skull base. Mainly they are bone tumours and tumour-like lesions. With the exception of osteomas of the paranasal sinuses and exostoses of the external auditory canal, these lesions occur rarely. This article gives an overview of the appearance of the most common primary bony skull base masses in CT and MRI. From the authors' point of view these are fibrous dysplasia, chordomas, chondrosarcomas, Langerhans cell histiocytosis and multiple myelomas, which must be differentiated from pseudolesions. The possibilities of CT and MRI in making a specific diagnosis, differential diagnosis and the kind of making the final diagnosis are described. (orig.) [German] Unter intrinsischen Laesionen der knoechernen Schaedelbasis versteht man Erkrankungen, die von den die Schaedelbasis bildenden Knochen ausgehen. In erster Linie handelt es sich um Knochentumoren und tumoraehnliche Laesionen. Mit wenigen Ausnahmen (Nasennebenhoehlenosteome, Exostosen des aeusseren Gehoergangs) sind sie selten. Dieser Beitrag gibt einen Ueberblick ueber das CT- und MRT-Erscheinungsbild der aus Sicht der Autoren unter diesem Aspekt noch am haeufigsten anzutreffenden raumfordernden Laesionen. Dazu zaehlen die fibroese Dysplasie, Chordome, Chondrosarkome, die Langerhans-Zell-Histiozytose und das multiple Myelom. Abgrenzt werden muessen Pseudotumoren. Artdiagnostische Zuordnungsmoeglichkeiten durch CT und/oder MRT, Differenzialdiagnosen und Diagnosesicherung werden dargelegt. (orig.)

  2. Intragranular Cracking as a Critical Barrier For High-voltage Usage of Layer-structured Cathode for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chongmin

    2017-01-16

    LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC333) layered cathode is often fabricated as secondary particles of consisting of densely packed primary particles, which offers advantage of high energy density and alleviation of cathode side reactions/corrosions, but introduces other drawbacks, such as intergranular cracking. Here, we report unexpected observations on the nucleation and growth of intragranular cracks in the commercial NMC333 layered cathode by using advanced S/TEM. We found that the formation of the intragranular cracks is directly associated with high voltage cycling, which is an electrochemically driven and diffusion controlled process. The intragranular cracks were noticed to be characteristically initiated from grain interior, a consequence of dislocation based crack incubation mechanism. This observation is in sharp contrast with the general theoretical models, predicting the initiation of intragranular cracks from grain boundaries or particle surface. Our study indicates that maintain a structural stability is the key step toward high voltage operation of layered cathode materials.

  3. Small things make a big difference: binder effects on the performance of Li and Na batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Lei; Pan, Yuede; Wang, Jia-Zhao; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2014-10-14

    Li and Na batteries are very important as energy storage devices for electric vehicles and smart grids. It is well known that, when an electrode is analysed in detail, each of the components (the active material, the conductive carbon, the current collector and the binder) makes a portion of contribution to the battery performance in terms of specific capacity, rate capability, cycle life, etc. However, there has not yet been a review on the binder, though there are already many review papers on the active materials. Binders make up only a small part of the electrode composition, but in some cases, they play an important role in affecting the cycling stability and rate capability for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) has been the mainstream binder, but there have been discoveries that aqueous binders can sometimes make a battery perform better, not to mention they are cheaper, greener, and easier to use for electrode fabrication. In this review, we focus on several kinds of promising electrode materials, to show how their battery performance can be affected significantly by binder materials: anode materials such as Si, Sn and transitional metal oxides; cathode materials such as LiFePO4, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2, LiCoO2 and sulphur.

  4. Antikoagulantientherapie bei venösen Thromboembolien in Abhängigkeit von der Grunderkrankung des Patienten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinost G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Die therapeutische Basismaßnahme bei Patienten mit venösen Thromboembolien ist die Antikoagulation – initial in erster Linie mit einem niedermolekularen Heparin in therapeutischer Dosierung, weiterführend mit oraler Antikoagulation. Bei Tumorpatienten ist eine Verlängerung der Antikoagulation mit einem niedermolekularen Heparin für die ersten 3–6 Monate indiziert, danach sollte die weitere Antikoagulation individuell entschieden werden. Bei Patienten mit zerebraler oder peripherer AVK oder KHK, die eine venöse Thromboembolie erleiden, ist es zulässig, die Thrombozytenfunktionshemmung für die Dauer der Antikoagulation zu pausieren. Die Antikoagulation von Patienten mit chronischer Niereninsuffizienz kann ebenfalls mit niedermolekularem Heparin erfolgen. Bei Patienten mir höhergradiger Einschränkung der Kreatininclearance sollte jedoch eine entsprechende Reduktion der therapeutischen Dosis des niedermolekularen Heparins – idealerweise optimiert durch eine Kontrolle des Anti-Xa-Spiegels – oder die Antikoagulation mit unfraktioniertem Heparin durchgeführt werden. Patienten mit Antiphospholipid-Antikörper und venöser Thromboembolie werden in der Regel mit oraler Antikoagulation bei einer INR von 2–3 behandelt. Nur bei einem thromboembolischen Rezidivereignis unter suffizienter Antikoagulation ist eine Intensivierung bzw. Erweiterung des antithrombotischen Managements sinnvoll.

  5. Storage fading of a commercial 18650 cell comprised with NMC/LMO cathode and graphite anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, She-huang; Lee, Po-Han

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the storage capacity fade of a commercial 18650 lithium ion cell comprised with a composite cathode of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC) and Li1.1Mn1.9O4 (LMO) and graphite anode at various depths-of-discharge (DoDs) and temperatures have been investigated. The results manifest that the capacity fading is strongly affected by the storage temperature and becomes prominent as temperatures higher than 45 °C. Results of the incremental capacity analysis of the charging/discharging curves cycled at C/25 rate under 25 °C after cells been stored at various DoDs at 60 °C for various durations are used to reveal the factors of storage capacity fade of this commercial cell in company with the results of post-mortem studies on the electrodes harvested from the 12 month storage-aged cells with SEM, EDX, XPS, XRD, and electrode capacity retention study with those of a fresh commercial cell for comparison. The contributions of these factors are also estimated quantitatively. The losses of active electrode materials are the main reasons of the storage capacity fade of the commercial cell comprised with composite NMC/LMO cathode and graphite anode, while the loss of lithium inventory is less influential. The degradation of the electrodes and the loss the lithium inventory are strongly DoD dependent.

  6. Graphite Recycling from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Sergej; Evertz, Marco; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Qi, Xin; Grützke, Martin; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-12-20

    The present work reports on challenges in utilization of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)-an increasingly important aspect associated with a significantly rising demand for electric vehicles (EVs). In this context, the feasibility of anode recycling in combination with three different electrolyte extraction concepts is investigated. The first method is based on a thermal treatment of graphite without electrolyte recovery. The second method additionally utilizes a subcritical carbon-dioxide (subcritical CO2 )-assisted electrolyte extraction prior to thermal treatment. And the final investigated approach uses supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ) as extractant, subsequently followed by the thermal treatment. It is demonstrated that the best performance of recycled graphite anodes can be achieved when electrolyte extraction is performed using subcritical CO2 . Comparative studies reveal that, in the best case, the electrochemical performance of recycled graphite exceeds the benchmark consisting of a newly synthesized graphite anode. As essential efforts towards electrolyte extraction and cathode recycling have been made in the past, the electrochemical behavior of recycled graphite, demonstrating the best performance, is investigated in combination with a recycled LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 cathode. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Sulfone-carbonate ternary electrolyte with further increased capacity retention and burn resistance for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Leigang; Lee, Seung-Yul; Zhao, Zuofeng; Angell, C. Austen

    2015-11-01

    Safety and high energy density are the two focus issues for current lithium ion batteries. For safety, it has been demonstrated that sulfone electrolytes are much less flammable than the prevailing all-carbonate type, and they are also promising for high voltage batteries due to the high oxidization resistance. However, the high melting points and viscosities greatly restricted their application. Based on our previous work on use of fluidity-enhancing cosolvents to make binary sulfone-carbonate electrolytes, we report here a three-component system that is more conductive and should be even less flammable while additionally having better low temperature stability. The conductivity-viscosity relations have been determined for this electrolyte and are comparable to those of the "standard" carbonate electrolyte. The additional component also produces much improved capacity retention for the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode. As with carbonate electrolytes, increase of temperature to 55 °C leads to rapid capacity decrease during cycling, but the capacity loss is due to the salt, not the solvent. The high discharge capacity observed at 25 °C when LiBF4 replaces LiPF6, is fully retained at 55 °C.

  8. Development of complex hydride-based all-solid-state lithium ion battery applying low melting point electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shohei; Kawaji, Jun; Yoshida, Koji; Unemoto, Atsushi; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2017-08-01

    A thermally durable all-solid-state lithium ion battery composed of a complex hydride, oxide electrolytes, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 active material is developed. This battery exhibits a discharge capacity of 56 mAh g-1, and the tenth capacity retention ratio is 29% at 150 °C owing to the large contact resistance between the electrolyte layer and the composite positive electrode layer. This large contact resistance is reduced by introducing an adhesive layer comprised of a mixture of LiBH4 and LiNH2 that is easily melted by thermal treatment and fills the voids and pores at the interface between the two layers. As a result, repeated charge-discharge cycles are successfully demonstrated at 150 °C with a high discharge capacity and discharge capacity retention ratio. The first discharge capacity is enhanced to 114 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention ratio at the tenth cycle is improved to 71%. These results demonstrate that using an adhesive layer is an effective measure to reduce the contact resistance and thereby enhance the performance of the battery.

  9. Olivine-Based Blended Compounds as Positive Electrodes for Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Blended cathode materials made by mixing LiFePO4 (LFP with LiMnPO4 (LMP or LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC that exhibit either high specific energy and high rate capability were investigated. The layered blend LMP–LFP and the physically mixed blend NMC–LFP are evaluated in terms of particle morphology and electrochemical performance. Results indicate that the LMP–LFP (66:33 blend has a better discharge rate than the LiMn1−yFeyPO4 with the same composition (y = 0.33, and NMC–LFP (70:30 delivers a remarkable stable capacity over 125 cycles. Finally, in situ voltage measurement methods were applied for the evaluation of the phase evolution of blended cathodes and gradual changes in cell behavior upon cycling. We also discuss through these examples the promising development of blends as future electrodes for new generations of Li-ion batteries.

  10. Real-time mass spectroscopy analysis of Li-ion battery electrolyte degradation under abusive thermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulupeau, B.; Delobel, B.; Cahen, S.; Fontana, S.; Hérold, C.

    2017-02-01

    The lithium-ion batteries are widely used in rechargeable electronic devices. The current challenges are to improve the capacity and safety of these systems in view of their development to a larger scale, such as for their application in electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries use organic solvents because of the wide operating voltage. The corresponding electrolytes are usually based on combinations of linear, cyclic alkyl carbonates and a lithium salt such as LiPF6. It has been reported that in abusive thermal conditions, a catalytic effect of the cathode materials lead to the formation fluoro-organics compounds. In order to understand the degradation phenomenon, the study at 240 °C of the interaction between positive electrode materials (LiCoO2, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4) and electrolyte in dry and wet conditions has been realized by an original method which consists in analyzing by mass spectrometry in real time the volatile molecules produced. The evolution of specific gases channels coupled to the NMR reveal the formation of rarely discussed species such as 2-fluoroethanol and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of water or other protic impurities greatly influence their formation.

  11. Effects on electrochemical performances for host material caused by structure change of modifying material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yantao; Zhou, Enlou; Song, Dawei; Shi, Xixi; Wang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Jian; Zhang, Lianqi

    2014-09-01

    High ionic conductive lithium niobium oxides were selected as the modifying material to investigate the effects on the electrochemical performances for host material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 caused by the structure change of the modifying material at various calcination temperatures and modifying amounts. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the structure of the modifying material was single LiNbO3 phase after being calcined at 500 °C and changed to LiNbO3-Li3NbO4 mixture phases at 600 and 700 °C, and further changed to single Li3NbO4 phase at 800 °C. Electrochemical tests displayed that both LiNbO3 and Li3NbO4 phases of modifying material could contribute to the improvement of the cycle performances for the host material, but the improvement degree of Li3NbO4 phase was more evident. The cycle performances and high rate performances of the modified host material (calcined at 700 °C) electrodes were improved with the right modifying amount.

  12. Heterosexuelle (Macht-Verhältnisse erforschen Examining Heterosexual (Power Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Laufenberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Sammelband gibt Einblick in zentrale Arbeitsbereiche der aktuellen sozial- und kulturwissenschaftlichen Heteronormativitätsforschung. Wie im Untertitel angekündigt, soll dabei in erster Linie die Brauchbarkeit des Heteronormativitätskonzepts für die empirische Analyse von Machtverhältnissen um Sexualität und Geschlecht demonstriert und diskutiert werden. Die Stärken des Bandes liegen in seiner thematischen Vielfalt, in seinem methodologischen Reflexionsniveau und vor allem in seiner Systematik, die er den durchweg gelungenen Einführungstexten verdankt. Die Anthologie dokumentiert zugleich aber auch die Schwierigkeit, neue Impulse in das noch junge Forschungsfeld einzubringen; am Ende lösen viele Beiträge die in den Einleitungstexten erzeugten Erwartungen nicht ein.The collected volume provides insight into central aspects of the work being done in heteronormativity research in the social sciences and cultural studies. As the subtitle suggests, the volume’s primary concern is to demonstrate and discuss the usefulness of the concept of heteronormativity for empirical analysis of power relations surrounding sexuality and gender. The strength of the volume lies in its thematic diversity, in its methodological reflection, and most particularly in its systematic approach, made possible through the well-done introductory texts. But the anthology also documents the difficulty in incorporating new impulses into such a young field; in the end, many of the expectations produced by the introductory texts are not fulfilled.

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathodes. Improvement of the electrocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero, M.J.; Daza, L. [Dpto. Energia, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, T. [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-10-30

    The purpose of this work is to improve the electrocatalytic activity of Li-Ni mixed oxides by the addition of rare earth oxides (cerium or lanthanum). The influence of cerium and lanthanum on the electrocatalytic activity of these compounds was investigated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The stability of these compounds was studied in a mixture of 62% lithium carbonate and 38% potassium carbonate at high temperature under an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide to accelerate their dissolution. The morphology and the crystalline structure of the samples were not affected by the incorporation of cerium or lanthanum. The samples impregnated with CeO{sub 2} or La{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed lower resistance to charger-transfer processes than the sample without earth rare oxides. Both cerium and lanthanum improved the charger-transfer processes for oxygen reduction in an atmosphere rich in carbon dioxide. The reason may be due to cerium oxide acting as oxygen donor, and lanthanum oxide capturing CO{sub 2}, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide on the surface of electrode.

  14. Insulating correctly. Manual for up-to-date construction in existing buildings; Richtig daemmen. Handbuch fuer zeitgemaesses Bauen im Bestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaenssmantel, Juergen; Geburtig, Gerd

    2008-07-01

    The authors show clearly what have to be taken into account during modernization or retrofitting of an existing building or during new construction an optimal planning according to energetic points of view. Content: selection of a suitable insulation materials; airtightness and thermography; overview on insulating materials; selection of manufacturers and correct contracts; ventilation by heat recovery. (GL) [German] Die beiden Autoren zeigen auf, welche Beobachtungen und Ueberlegungen anzustellen sind, bevor ein Daemmstoff in die Hand genommen wird. Das Buch hilft dem Praktiker die verschiedenen Gegebenheiten, Anforderungen und Materialien zu beurteilen. Dazu werden auch grundlegende bauphysikalische Kenntnisse vermittelt, wie sie heute fuer jeden auf einer Baustelle verantwortlich Taetigen unerlaesslich sind. Diskutiert werden neben den Moeglichkeiten auch die Grenzen des Daemmens. Die zahlreiche Uebersichten und Checklisten erhoehen den praktischen Nutzen dieses Buches. Bei konkreten Bauvorhaben helfen sie, aus dem Buendel von Anforderungen, Gebaeudedaten und Beobachtungen zu einem Urteil zu kommen. Das Buch bietet Entscheidungshilfen und Antworten zu den Fragen: - Wo lohnt es sich nachtraeglich zu daemmen? - Wie waehlt man den geeigneten Daemmstoff aus? - Welche Checklisten kann man bei der Auswahl anwenden? - Warum haben auch energetische Nachruestungen ihre Grenzen? - Weshalb muessen bauphysikalische 'Spielregeln' beachtet werden? Ein umfangreicher Adressteil mit den Angaben zu den Herstellern von Waermedaemm-Verbundsystemen, Daemmputzen und Daemmstoffen ergaenzt das Werk. Das Buch wendet sich in erster Linie an die Fachunternehmer und Handwerker, die im Bereich des Bauens im Bestand taetig sind, darueber hinaus auch an Energieberater und Planer. (orig.)

  15. Lithium manganese spinel materials for high-rate electrochemical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna V. Potapenko; Sviatoslav A. Kirillov

    2014-01-01

    In order to successively compete with supercapacitors, an ability of fast discharge is a must for lithium-ion batteries. From this point of view, stoichiometric and substituted lithium manganese spinels as cathode materials are one of the most prospective candidates, especially in their nanosized form. In this article, an overview of the most recent data regarding physico-chemical and electrochemical properties of lithium manganese spinels, especially, LiMn2O4 and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, synthesized by means of various methods is presented, with special emphasis of their use in high-rate electrochemical applications. In particular, specific capacities and rate capabilities of spinel materials are analyzed. It is suggested that reduced specific capacity is determined primarily by the aggregation of material particles, whereas good high-rate capability is governed not only by the size of crystallites but also by the perfectness of crystals. The most technologically advantageous solutions are described, existing gaps in the knowledge of spinel materials are outlined, and the ways of their filling are suggested, in a hope to be helpful in keeping lithium batteries afloat in the struggle for a worthy place among electrochemical energy systems of the 21st century.

  16. An active core-shell nanoscale design for high voltage cathode of lithium storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongpei; Liu, Yang; Lu, Xiaojun; Wang, Hao; Yang, Gang; Chao, Yimin; Li, Weili; Yin, Fan

    2017-08-01

    Spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNM) is a potential high-voltage cathode for commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Maintaining an appropriate amount of Mn3+ in LNM is necessary to improve the rate performance. However, Mn3+ dissolution in the interface of LNM and electrolyte leads to the fast capacity degradation. Therefore, designing a cathode to prevent Mn3+ loss during charge/discharge is important for high performance LIBs. Here we present an active core-shell design with coating another high-voltage cathode material LiCoPO4 (LCP) on the surface of LNM nanoparticles. The LCP layer can simultaneously induce Mn3+ ions at the interface between LCP and LNM, and act as a stable shell to prevent the loss of Mn3+. The optimized sample LNM@5%LCP possesses 128 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C and 115 mAh g-1 at 20 C rate, and maintains 96% of the initial capacity operated at 55 °C over 100 cycles.

  17. Current and Prospective Li-Ion Battery Recycling and Recovery Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Joseph; Gratz, Eric; Zheng, Zhangfeng; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Mengyuan; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2016-10-01

    The lithium ion (Li-ion) battery industry has been growing exponentially since its initial inception in the late 20th century. As battery materials evolve, the applications for Li-ion batteries have become even more diverse. To date, the main source of Li-ion battery use varies from consumer portable electronics to electric/hybrid electric vehicles. However, even with the continued rise of Li-ion battery development and commercialization, the recycling industry is lagging; approximately 95% of Li-ion batteries are landfilled instead of recycled upon reaching end of life. Industrialized recycling processes are limited and only capable of recovering secondary raw materials, not suitable for direct reuse in new batteries. Most technologies are also reliant on high concentrations of cobalt to be profitable, and intense battery sortation is necessary prior to processing. For this reason, it is critical that a new recycling process be commercialized that is capable of recovering more valuable materials at a higher efficiency. A new technology has been developed by the researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute which is capable of recovering LiNi x Mn y Co z O2 cathode material from a hydrometallurgical process, making the recycling system as a whole more economically viable. By implementing a flexible recycling system that is closed-loop, recycling of Li-ion batteries will become more prevalent saving millions of pounds of batteries from entering the waste stream each year.

  18. A novel surface-sensitive X-ray absorption spectroscopic detector to study the thermal decomposition of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Takamasa; Okuda, Chikaaki; Oka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Makimura, Yoshinari; Kondo, Yasuhito; Dohmae, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Yoji

    2016-09-01

    A surface-sensitive conversion-electron-yield X-ray absorption fine structure (CEY-XAFS) detector that operates at elevated temperatures is developed to investigate the thermal decomposition of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The detector enables measurements with the sample temperature controlled from room temperature up to 450 °C. The detector is applied to the LiNi0.75Co0.15Al0.05Mg0.05O2 cathode material at 0% state of charge (SOC) and 50% SOC to examine the chemical changes that occur during heating in the absence of an electrolyte. The combination of surface-sensitive CEY-XAFS and bulk-sensitive transmission-mode XAFS shows that the reduction of Ni and Co ions begins at the surface of the cathode particles at around 150 °C, and propagates inside the particle upon further heating. These changes with heating are irreversible and are more obvious at 50% SOC than at 0% SOC. The fraction of reduced Ni ions is larger than that of reduced Co ions. These results demonstrate the capability of the developed detector to obtain important information for the safe employment of this cathode material in Li-ion batteries.

  19. Thermal Stability and Reactivity of Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yiqing; Lin, Yuh-Chieh; Jenkins, David M; Chernova, Natasha A; Chung, Youngmin; Radhakrishnan, Balachandran; Chu, Iek-Heng; Fang, Jin; Wang, Qi; Omenya, Fredrick; Ong, Shyue Ping; Whittingham, M Stanley

    2016-03-23

    The thermal stability of electrochemically delithiated Li0.1Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA), FePO4 (FP), Mn0.8Fe0.2PO4 (MFP), hydrothermally synthesized VOPO4, LiVOPO4, and electrochemically lithiated Li2VOPO4 is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis, coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS). The thermal stability of the delithiated materials is found to be in the order of NCA thermal run-away phenomenon in batteries at elevated temperature and so is inherently safer. The lithiated materials LiVOPO4, Li2VOPO4, and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 are found to be stable in the presence of electrolyte, but sealed-capsule high-pressure experiments show a phase transformation of VOPO4 → HVOPO4 → H2VOPO4 when VOPO4 reacts with electrolyte (1 M LiPF6 in EC/DMC = 1:1) between 200 and 300 °C. Using first-principles calculations, we confirm that the charged VOPO4 cathode is indeed predicted to be marginally less stable than FP but significantly more stable than NCA in the absence of electrolyte. An analysis of the reaction equilibria between VOPO4 and EC using a multicomponent phase diagram approach yields products and reaction enthalpies that are highly consistent with the experiment results.

  20. Applications of laser produced ion beams to nuclear analysis of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, K.; Azuma, H.; Fujita, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Okuda, C.; Ukyo, Y.; Kato, Y.; Arrabal, R. Gonzalez; Soldo, F.; Perlado, J. M.; Nishimura, H.; Nakai, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser produced ion beams have unique characteristics which are ultra-short pulse, very low emittance, and variety of nuclear species. These characteristics could be used for analyzing various materials like low Z ion doped heavy metals or ceramics. Energies of laser produced ion beam extend from 0.1MeV to 100MeV. Therefore, various nuclear processes can be induced in the interactions of ion beams with samples. The ion beam driven nuclear analysis has been developed for many years by using various electrostatic accelerators. To explore the applicability of laser ion beam to the analysis of the Li ion battery, a proton beam with the diameter of ˜ 1.0 μm at Takasaki Ion Acceleration for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA), JAEA was used. For the analysis, the PIGE (Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission) is used. The proton beam scans over Li battery electrode samples to diagnose Li density in the LiNi0.85Co0.15O2 anode. As the results, PIGE images for Li area density distributions are obtained with the spatial resolution of better than 1.5μm FWHM. By the Li PIGE images, the depth dependence of de-intercalation levels of Li in the anode is obtained. By the POP experiments at TIARA, it is clarified that laser produced ion beam is appropriate for the Li ion battery analysis. 41.85.Lc, 41.75.Jv, 42.62.cf.

  1. Kvalitative metoder i fysioterapi – en introduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, Bente; Præstegaard, Jeanette

    2002-01-01

    Historien om en tåre Den unge pige bøjede hovedet. Øjnene blev blanke og lyset glimtede i øjets tårespejl. Tåren trillede langsomt ned af kindens runding, slap fri ved hagens faste linie og faldt ned på cafebordets blanke marmorplade. Der lå den som en klar dråbe. Tåre fulgte på tåre, til der på...... marmorets hvide overflade var et lille tårespejl. Den unge pige tog sit lommetørklæde op tørrede sine øjne, rejste sig og forlod cafeen. Lidt senere kom en videnskabsmand forbi, satte sig ved bordet, så tårespejlet og tænkte; ”hvad er dog det” tog en dråbe op i et lille klart glas, og bar det til sit...... tårer”. Er det tårerne fra en ung pige, som har fået at vide, at hendes elskede har været hende utro og har forladt hende? Eller er det tårerne, hun har grædt, da hun får at vide at hendes elskede angrer, beder hende tilgive og ønsker at vende tilbage til hende? Gad vide om disse tårer er grædt af lykke...

  2. Conceptual design for 12 V "lead-free" accumulators for automobile and stationary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Kingo; Ohzuku, Tsutomu

    Conceptual design for 12 V lead-free accumulators is presented using basic research results on lithium insertion materials. Among possible materials, Li[Li 1/3Ti 5/3]O 4 is selected for a negative-electrode material, and Li[Ni 1/2Mn 3/2]O 4, LiMn 2O 4, LiCo 1/3Ni 1/3Mn 1/3O 2, and LiFePO 4 are specifically considered as positive-electrode materials. Combination of these materials with Li[Li 1/3Ti 5/3]O 4 gives a 2, 2.5 or 3 V lithium-ion battery. Series connection of such a lithium-ion battery makes 12 V lead-free accumulators possible. Characteristic features of the lead-free accumulators are discussed in terms of energy density for deep charge and discharge cycles, power density for short period of time, material economy, environmental friendliness, and safety compared with those of lead-acid batteries currently hold a position in automobile, large uninterruptible power supply, and off-grid solar home systems.

  3. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER AS MODELING TOOL FOR THE BURNING PROCESS OF A CEMENT PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Osofisan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A comprehensive optimisation of the cement production process presents a problem since the input variables as well as the output variables are non-linear, interdependent and contain uncertainties. To arrive at a solution, a Fuzzy Logic controller has been designed to achieve a well-defined relationship between the main and vital variables through the instrumentality of a Fuzzy Model. The Fuzzy Logic controller has been simulated on a digital computer using MATLAB 5.0 Fuzzy Logic Tool Box, using data from a local cement production plant.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die omvattende optimisering van 'n proses wat sement vervaardig, word beskryf deur nie-linieêre inset- en uitsetveranderlikes wat onderling afhanklik is, en ook van onsekere aard is. Om 'n optimum oplossing te verkry, word 'n Wasigheidsmodel gebruik. Die model word getoets deur gebruik te maak van die MATLAB 5.0 Fuzzy Logic Tool Box en data vanaf 'n lokale sementvervaardigingsaanleg.

  4. Superconcentrated electrolytes for a high-voltage lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Chiang, Ching Hua; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2016-06-01

    Finding a viable electrolyte for next-generation 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries is of primary importance. A long-standing obstacle has been metal-ion dissolution at high voltages. The LiPF6 salt in conventional electrolytes is chemically unstable, which accelerates transition metal dissolution of the electrode material, yet beneficially suppresses oxidative dissolution of the aluminium current collector; replacing LiPF6 with more stable lithium salts may diminish transition metal dissolution but unfortunately encounters severe aluminium oxidation. Here we report an electrolyte design that can solve this dilemma. By mixing a stable lithium salt LiN(SO2F)2 with dimethyl carbonate solvent at extremely high concentrations, we obtain an unusual liquid showing a three-dimensional network of anions and solvent molecules that coordinate strongly to Li+ ions. This simple formulation of superconcentrated LiN(SO2F)2/dimethyl carbonate electrolyte inhibits the dissolution of both aluminium and transition metal at around 5 V, and realizes a high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/graphite battery that exhibits excellent cycling durability, high rate capability and enhanced safety.

  5. Evoluţia diversităţii structurale şi compoziţionale a arboretelor cu ajutorul indicelui UMF: un studiu de caz la nivel de unitate de producţie[The evolution of stand structural and compositional diversity assessed with the UMF index: A case study at production unit level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Catalin Burlui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the UMF index (Uneven-aged, Mixed, Forest an index because the forest management, whose values are determined easily, data from management planning are the main support. The study was conducted in the Suha Mare area from Mălini, Suceava county. Wet analyzed stand descriptions for all stands for two periods (1956, 1995, using structural and site characteristics required by index. Data were obtained from management plans of the studied forest area. The index values were calculated for each stand, and its value for the total forest area was determined by summing the values calculated for stand, weighted by stand area. Index values vary between the two periods analyzed (1956, 1995, there are differences from a subplot to another, which is explained by the different treatments applied, the number of tree species and the structural heterogeneity, but also - for 1995 - by functional zoning that changed the forest management. UMF index is a good tool to determine structural and compositional diversity of a given area, using data from forest management plans. The results can be analyzed for longer periods of time and may indicate the direction of evolution of an area in relation with anthropogenic changes: from even-aged structure to uneven-aged, from monocultures to mixed stands.

  6. Positive selection in AvrP4 avirulence gene homologues across the genus Melampsora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Merwe, Marlien M; Kinnear, Mark W; Barrett, Luke G; Dodds, Peter N; Ericson, Lars; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2009-08-22

    Pathogen genes involved in interactions with their plant hosts are expected to evolve under positive Darwinian selection or balancing selection. In this study a single copy avirulence gene, AvrP4, in the plant pathogen Melampsora lini, was used to investigate the evolution of such a gene across species. Partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha sequences were obtained to establish phylogenetic relationships among the Melampsora species. We amplified AvrP4 homologues from species pathogenic on hosts from different plant families and orders, across the inferred phylogeny. Translations of the AvrP4 sequences revealed a predicted signal peptide and towards the C-terminus of the protein, six identically spaced cysteines were identified in all sequences. Maximum likelihood analysis of synonymous versus non-synonymous substitution rates indicated that positive selection played a role in the evolution of the gene during the diversification of the genus. Fourteen codons under significant positive selection reside in the C-terminal 28 amino acid region, suggesting that this region interacts with host molecules in most sequenced accessions. Selection pressures on the gene may be either due to the pathogenicity or avirulence function of the gene or both.

  7. Magie, Hexen und Strafverfolgung Magic, Witches, and Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In der Reihe „Historische Einführungen“ des Campus Verlags versucht Johannes Dillinger, die Entwicklung von Magie- und Hexereivorstellungen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart zu beschreiben. Die Hexenverfolgungen und -prozesse der Frühen Neuzeit und ihre Voraussetzungen nehmen dabei etwas mehr als die Hälfte der Gesamtdarstellung ein. Das Buch bietet in erster Linie eine Einführung in die neuere und neueste Sekundärliteratur und die dort besprochenen aktuellen Streitpunkte. In einem Teilabschnitt wird auch auf die Hexenverfolgung als Frauenverfolgung eingegangen und nach Ursachen für den hohen Frauenanteil unter den Verfolgten geforscht.Johannes Dillinger attempts to describe the development of the belief in magic and witches from the Middle Ages to today in his book published in the Campus Verlag series “Introductions to History.” Witch persecutions and prosecutions of the Early Modern period and their preconditions take up more than half of the overall study. In particular, the book provides an introduction to the newer and newest secondary literature and to those issues discussed in this literature. One section also approaches the persecution of witches as the persecution of women and searches for the reasons behind the high percentage of women among the persecuted.

  8. Effect of Overdischarge on Swelling and Recharge Performance of Lithium Ion Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-Fang; GAO Jun-Kui; ZHANG Shao-Li

    2008-01-01

    Effects of overdischarge on characteristics of lithium ion cells were deeply studied,and experiments have been made to reveal its mechanisms.The results suggest that overdischarge may result in large swelling of cells and degradation of recharge capabilities.The mechanism can be explained as that:a copper foil used as an anode collector will be oxidized to copper ion when deep overdischarge occurs and reduce at the anode in recharging progress,which greatly deteriorates the cell efficiency;solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film is to decompose and reform because of excessive de-intercalation of lithium ions,and the released gas such as carbon dioxide makes the cell bulge.The experimental results prove that when 20% Li(Ni1/3CO1/3Mn1/3)O2 was added to LiCoO2 cathode materials,thecell swelling rate could be greatly reduced,and the recharge capability would be enhanced much.

  9. One strategy to enhance electrochemical properties of Ni-based cathode materials under high cut-off voltage for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Longwei; Jiang, Feng; Cao, Yanbing; Hu, Guorong; Du, Ke; Peng, Zhongdong

    2016-10-01

    Well-distributed, nano-sized and amorphous or crystalized NaTi2(PO4)3 (NTP) coating layer with high ionic conductivity is successfully introduced onto the surface of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (LNCM) particles by a simple and effective mechanical activation method followed by adjusting the reheating temperature appropriately. The promoting influence of NTP coating on the structure stability, cycle life and high rate capability under elevated cut-off voltage has been investigated in-depth. Particularly for the crystalized NTP-coated LNCM, the main reason for the enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to the NTP layer with rhombohedral structure providing convenient and low activation barrier diffusion pathways for Li+ ions to insert/extract the interface of electrode/electrolyte. Besides, the NTP-coated layer with stable structure can effectively inhibit the surface side reaction during the long charge/discharge process under high cut-off voltage, which will reduce the harmful insulative by-products. It's worth mentioning that the cyclic stability of crystalized NTP-coated LNCM between 3.0 and 4.6 V is also improved significantly even under the rigorous test environment.

  10. Queer – Genealogie eines problematischen Begriffs Queer—Genealogy of a troublemaking term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Müller

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Jagoses Einführung in die Queer Theory ist in erster Linie eine Genealogie des Begriffs ‚queer‘. Über den historischen Kontext von Homophilenbewegung, Homobefreiungsbewegung und lesbischem Feminismus in den USA fragt sie nach den Entstehungsbedingungen, die Queer Theory hervorgebracht haben und zeichnet die Kontinuitäten und Brüche in der Bedeutungsgeschichte von queer nach. Sie setzt sich mit den poststrukturalistischen Wurzeln von Queer Theory auseinander und diskutiert das emanzipatorische Potential ihrer theoretischen und politischen Aspekte. Die deutsche Ausgabe ergänzt das Werk um ein umfangreiches Nachwort, in dem u. a. auf die Rezeption von Queer Theory in der BRD eingegangen wird.Jagoses’s introduction to queer theory presents primarily a genealogy of the term ‘queer’. Ranging from the historical context of homophile movements and gay-liberation movements to lesbian feminism in the United States Jagose investigates the conditions which have produced Queer Theory and traces the continuities and discontinuities of the semiotic history of the term ‘queer’. She discusses the poststructural roots of queer theory and discusses the emancipatory potential of its theoretical and political aspects. An extensive epilogue with notes on the reception of Queer Theory in the FRG has been added to the German edition.

  11. Ion and gas chromatography mass spectrometry investigations of organophosphates in lithium ion battery electrolytes by electrochemical aging at elevated cathode potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Waldemar; Wagner, Ralf; Streipert, Benjamin; Kraft, Vadim; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    The electrochemical aging of commercial non-aqueous lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6)/organic carbonate solvent based lithium ion battery electrolyte has been investigated in view of the formation of ionic and non-ionic alkylated phosphates. Subject was a solvent mixture of ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate EC:EMC (1:1, by wt.) with 1 M LiPF6 (LP50 Selectilyte™, BASF). The analysis was carried out by ion chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for ionic compounds and (headspace) gas chromatography mass spectrometry ((HS)-GC-MS) for non-ionic compounds. The electrochemical aging was performed by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and potentiostatic experiments with LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LMNO) as cathode material at increased cut-off potentials (>4.5 V vs. Li/Li+). A strong dependence of the formation of organophosphates on the applied electrode potential was observed and investigated by quantitative analysis of the formed phosphates. In addition, new possible "fingerprint" compounds for describing the electrolyte status were investigated and compared to existing compounds.

  12. Combined Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy/Inductively Coupled Plasma Analysis As Diagnostics for Soluble Manganese Species from Mn-Based Positive Electrode Materials in Li-ion Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilina, Yuliya; Ziv, Baruch; Meir, Aviv; Banerjee, Anjan; Ruthstein, Sharon; Luski, Shalom; Aurbach, Doron; Halalay, Ion C

    2016-04-19

    Manganese dissolution from positive electrodes significantly reduces the durability of lithium-ion batteries. Knowledge of dissolution rates and oxidation states of manganese ions is essential for designing effective mitigation measures for this problem. We show that electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) combined with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) can determine both manganese dissolution rates and relative Mn(3+) amounts, by comparing the correlation between EPR and AAS/ICP data for Mn(2+) standards with that for samples containing manganese cations dissolved from active materials (LiMn2O4 (LMO) and LiNi(0.5)Mn(1.5)O4 (LNMO)) into the same electrolyte solution. We show that Mn(3+), and not Mn(2+), is the dominant species dissolved from LMO, while Mn(2+) is predominant for LNMO. Although the dissolution rate of LMO varies significantly for the two investigated materials, due to particle morphology and the presence of Cr in one of them, the Mn speciation appears independent of such details. Thus, the relative abundance of dissolved manganese ions in various oxidation states depends mainly on the overall chemical identity of the active material (LMO vs LNMO). We demonstrate the relevance of our methodology for practical batteries with data for graphite-LMO cells after high-temperature cycling or stand at 4.2 V.

  13. Preparation and Crystal Structure of 12β,15α-dihydroxyprogesterone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hua; SHEN Yan-Jun; ZHAO Xu; WANG Min

    2011-01-01

    Progesterone(1) was biotransformed into the title compound 12β,15α-dihydroxy-progesterone(2) with Colletotrichum lini AS3.4486.The biotransformation process was monitored with HPLC.The structure of 2 was determined by 1H NMR,13C NMR,ESI-MS and single-crystal X-ray diffraction.The crystal of the compound belongs to orthorhombic,space group P212121 with a = 8.0671(9),b = 12.3970(15),c = 18.532(3) ,Z = 4,V = 1853.3(4)3,Dc = 1.242 mg/m3,μ = 0.084 mm-1,F(000) = 752,R = 0.0373 and wR = 0.0850.Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that a 1D supramolecular structure of 2 has been constructed by multiply intermolecular O(2)-H(2)…O(4) and O(3)-H(3)…O(2) H-bonding interactions.

  14. Self-Rearrangement of Silicon Nanoparticles Embedded in Micro-Carbon Sphere Framework for High-Energy and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Min-Gi; Du, Hoang Long; Islam, Mobinul; Lee, Jung Kyoo; Sun, Yang-Kook; Jung, Hun-Gi

    2017-09-13

    Despite its highest theoretical capacity, the practical applications of the silicon anode are still limited by severe capacity fading, which is due to pulverization of the Si particles through volume change during charge and discharge. In this study, silicon nanoparticles are embedded in micron-sized porous carbon spheres (Si-MCS) via a facile hydrothermal process in order to provide a stiff carbon framework that functions as a cage to hold the pulverized silicon pieces. The carbon framework subsequently allows these silicon pieces to rearrange themselves in restricted domains within the sphere. Unlike current carbon coating methods, the Si-MCS electrode is immune to delamination. Hence, it demonstrates unprecedented excellent cyclability (capacity retention: 93.5% after 500 cycles at 0.8 A g(-1)), high rate capability (with a specific capacity of 880 mAh g(-1) at the high discharge current density of 40 A g(-1)), and high volumetric capacity (814.8 mAh cm(-3)) on account of increased tap density. The lithium-ion battery using the new Si-MCS anode and commercial LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode shows a high specific energy density above 300 Wh kg(-1), which is considerably higher than that of commercial graphite anodes.

  15. Mitigating Voltage Decay of Li-Rich Cathode Material via Increasing Ni Content for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Zhang, Jie-Nan; He, Min; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Li, Hong; Guo, Yu-Guo; Gu, Lin; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-08-10

    Li-rich layered materials have been considered as the most promising cathode materials for future high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, they suffer from severe voltage decay upon cycling, which hinders their further commercialization. Here, we report a Li-rich layered material 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 with high nickel content, which exhibits much slower voltage decay during long-term cycling compared to conventional Li-rich materials. The voltage decay after 200 cycles is 201 mV. Combining in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), ex situ XRD, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that nickel ions act as stabilizing ions to inhibit the Jahn-Teller effect of active Mn(3+) ions, improving d-p hybridization and supporting the layered structure as a pillar. In addition, nickel ions can migrate between the transition-metal layer and the interlayer, thus avoiding the formation of spinel-like structures and consequently mitigating the voltage decay. Our results provide a simple and effective avenue for developing Li-rich layered materials with mitigated voltage decay and a long lifespan, thereby promoting their further application in lithium-ion batteries with high energy density.

  16. Long-Life Nickel-Rich Layered Oxide Cathodes with a Uniform Li2ZrO3 Surface Coating for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bohang; Li, Wangda; Oh, Seung-Min; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2017-03-22

    As nickel-rich layered oxide cathodes start to attract worldwide interest for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries, their long-term cyclability in full cells remains a challenge for electric vehicles. Here we report a long-life Ni-rich layered oxide cathode (LiNi0.7Co0.15Mn0.15O2) with a uniform surface coating of the cathode particles with Li2ZrO3. A pouch-type full cell fabricated with the Li2ZrO3-coated cathode and a graphite anode displays 73.3% capacity retention after 1500 cycles at a C/3 rate. The Li2ZrO3 coating has been optimized by a systematic study with different synthesis approaches, annealing temperatures, and coating amounts. The complex relationship among the coating conditions, uniformity, and morphology of the coating layer and their impacts on the electrochemical properties are discussed in detail.

  17. Investigations on the electrochemical decomposition of the electrolyte additive vinylene carbonate in Li metal half cells and lithium ion full cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yunxian; Schultz, Carola; Niehoff, Philip; Schwieters, Timo; Nowak, Sascha; Schappacher, Falko M.; Winter, Martin

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the decomposition of vinylene carbonate (VC) additive and its effect on the aging behavior is investigated in Li metal half cells and lithium ion full cells. Four electrolyte systems, the reference electrolyte with three VC additive amounts, i.e., 1, 5 and 10 vol% are examined with commercial LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC 111) cathode material and mesophase carbon microbeads (MCMB) anode material. The thickness changes of the cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) and of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) after 5 constant current cycles at 0.1C and 200 constant current/constant voltage (potential) cycles at 1C are investigated for cells containing different amounts of VC. With the help of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a correlation between CEI thickness change and electrolyte decomposition is figured out. The addition of VC leads to a thin CEI layer and a high capacity retention in a lithium metal half cell. A strong dependence of the performance on the VC concentration is found for half cells that results from the continuous consumption of electrolyte and the electrolyte additive at the Li metal counter electrode. In contrast, for full cells, even 1 vol% of VC helps to form both a stable CEI and SEI, while a larger amount of VC increases the CEI thickness, electric contact loss and the internal resistance.

  18. Ester-Based Electrolytes for Low-Temperature Li-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar

    2005-01-01

    Electrolytes comprising LiPF6 dissolved at a concentration of 1.0 M in five different solvent mixtures of alkyl carbonates have been found to afford improved performance in rechargeable lithium-ion electrochemical cells at temperatures as low as -70 C. These and other electrolytes have been investigated in continuing research directed toward extending the lower limit of practical operating temperatures of Li-ion cells. This research at earlier stages, and the underlying physical and chemical principles, were reported in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the most recent being Low-EC-Content Electrolytes for Low-Temperature Li-Ion Cells (NPO-30226), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 46. The ingredients of the present solvent mixtures are ethylene carbonate (EC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), methyl butyrate (MB), methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), ethyl butyrate (EB), and ethyl valerate (EV). In terms of volume proportions of these ingredients, the present solvent mixtures are 1EC + 1EMC + 8MB, 1EC + 1EMC + 8EB, 1EC + 1EMC + 8MP, 1EC + 1EMC + 8EV, and 1EC + 9EMC. These electrolytes were placed in Liion cells containing carbon anodes and LiNi0.8Co0.2O2 cathodes, and the low-temperature electrical performances of the cells were measured. The cells containing the MB and MP mixtures performed best.

  19. Enhancement of Thermal Stability and Cycling Performance of Lithium-Ion Battery at High Temperature by Nano-ppy/OMMT-Coated Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanopolypyrrole/organic montmorillonite- (nano-ppy/OMMT- coated separator is prepared by coating nano-ppy/OMMT on the surface of polyethylene (PE. Nano-ppy/OMMT-coated separator with three-dimensional and multilayered network structure is beneficial to absorb more organic electrolyte, enhancing the ionic conductivity (reach 4.31 mS·cm-1. Meanwhile, the composite separator exhibits excellent thermal stability and mechanical properties. The strong covalent bonds (Si-F are formed by the nucleophilic substitution reaction between F− from the thermal decomposition and hydrolysis of LiPF6 and the covalent bonds (Si-O of nano-ppy/OMMT. The Si-F can effectively prevent the formation of HF, POF3, and LiF, resulting in the inhibition of the disproportionation of Mn3+ in LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 material as well as reducing the internal resistance of the cell. Therefore, the nano-ppy/OMMT-coated separator exhibits outstanding capacity retention and cycling performance at 80°C.

  20. In situ strain evolution during a disconnection event in a battery nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Andrew; Clark, Jesse N; Singer, Andrej; Vine, David; Cho, H M; Harder, Ross; Meng, Ying Shirley; Shpyrko, Oleg G

    2015-04-28

    Lithium ion batteries are the dominant form of energy storage in mobile devices, increasingly employed in transportation, and likely candidates for renewable energy storage and integration into the electrical grid. To fulfil their powerful potential, electrodes with increased capacity, faster charge rates, and longer cycle life must be developed. Understanding the mechanics and chemistry of individual nanoparticles under in situ conditions is a crucial step to improving performance and mitigating damage. Here we reveal three-dimensional strain evolution within a single nanoparticle of a promising high voltage cathode material, LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, under in situ conditions. The particle becomes disconnected during the second charging cycle. This is attributed to the formation of a cathode electrolyte interphase layer with slow ionic conduction. The three-dimensional strain pattern within the particle is independent of cell voltage after disconnection, indicating that the particle is unable to redistribute lithium within its volume or to its neighbours. Understanding the disconnection process at the single particle level and the equilibrium or non-equilibrium state of nanoparticles is essential to improving performance of current and future electrochemical energy storage systems.

  1. Original implementation of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in symmetric cells: Evaluation of post-mortem protocols applied to characterize electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Isabel Jiménez; Genies, Sylvie; Si Larbi, Gregory; Boulineau, Adrien; Daniel, Lise; Alias, Mélanie

    2016-03-01

    Understanding ageing mechanisms of Li-ion batteries is essential for further optimizations. To determine performance loss causes, post-mortem analyses are commonly applied. For each type of post-mortem test, different sample preparation protocols are adopted. However, reports on the reliability of these protocols are rare. Herein, Li-ion pouch cells with LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 - polyvinylidene fluoride positive electrode, graphite-carboxymethyl cellulose-styrene rubber negative electrode and LiPF6 - carbonate solvents mixture electrolyte, are opened and electrodes are recovered following a specified protocol. Negative and positive symmetric cells are assembled and their impedances are recorded. A signal analysis is applied to reconstruct the Li-ion pouch cell impedance from the symmetric cells, then comparison against the pouch cell true impedance allows the evaluation of the sample preparation protocols. The results are endorsed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Carbonate solvents used to remove the salt impacts slightly the surface properties of both electrodes. Drying electrodes under vacuum at 25 °C produces an impedance increase, particularly very marked for the positive electrode. Drying at 50 °C under vacuum or/and exposition to the anhydrous room atmosphere is very detrimental.

  2. Electrochemical and thermodynamic studies of the electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyun Joo

    A series of graphite samples were tested for their electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium ion cells. Specially treated natural graphite samples showed good reversible capacities and relatively small irreversible capacity losses. The good performance of these samples can be explained by the low surface area associated with the rounded edges and absence of exfoliation due to the presence of the rhombohedral phase and defects in the grain boundaries. Graphitized cokes showed larger irreversible capacity losses while mesophase carbons showed lower reversible capacity. The treated natural graphite samples, especially LBG25 were found to be high performance, low cost anode materials for the lithium ion cells. The electrochemical and thermal behaviors of the spinels---LiMn 2O4, LiCo1/6Mn11/6O4, LiFe 1/6Mn11/6O4, and LiNi1/6Mn11/6 O4 were studied using electrochemical and thermochemical techniques. The electrochemical techniques included cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge cycling of 2016 coin cells and diffusion coefficient measurements using Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique. Better capacity retention(GITT) was observed for the substituted spinels (0.11% loss/cycle for LiCo1/6Mn 11/6O4; 0.3% loss/cycle for LiFe1/6Mn11/6 O4; and 0.2% loss/cycle for LiNi1/6Mn11/6 O4) than for the lithium manganese dioxide spinel (1.6% loss/cycle for first 10 cycles, 0.9% loss/cycle for 33 cycles) during 33 cycles. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results showed that the cobalt substituted spinel has better thermal stability than the lithium manganese oxide and other substituted spinels. The thermal profile of LiMn2O4 and LiAl0.17 Mn1.83O3.97S0.03 was measured in an isothermal micro-calorimeter. The heat contributions are discussed in terms of reversible and irreversible heat generation, in combination with the entropy change directly obtained by the dE/dT measurements and the over-potential measurements. The endothermic and exothermic heat

  3. Study on biological characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum Schl.f.sp.lin%尖孢镰刀菌亚麻专化型生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘虹; 关凤芝; 吴广文; 宋喜霞; 姜卫东; 王立群

    2011-01-01

    This paper aimed to study the biological characteristics of the Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F.sp.lini. The effects of temperature, pH, illumination, medium and the sources of nitrogen and carbon on the mycelium growth, the emergence and germination of conidiospore of the pathogen were explored; The results showed that for the mycelium growth, the optimum were 30 ℃, pH 7, 8. Continuous darkness and PDA medium were favorable for growth of the pathogen. It could also effectively use all kinds of carbon and nitrogen sources, and the optimal carbon source was soluble starch, nitrogen source was ammonium chloride. The production and germination rate of conidiospore reached at the highest in 25, 30 ℃ and pH 7, 8,respectively. Light was favorable for the emergence and germination of conidiospore. The most suitable medium for emergence of conidiospore was PSA, and for the germination was PDA. The optimum carbon source was lactose and fructose, nitrogen source was ammonium chloride and L-Cystine, respectively for the spore emergence and germination; The study of this paper systematically made a research on the biological characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum Schl.sp.lini. It provided a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of the flax disease in the field.%文章旨在研究尖孢镰刀菌亚麻专化型病原体的生物学特性.探索温度、pH、光照、培养基、碳源及氮源等条件对该病原体菌丝生长、分生孢子产生和萌发的影响.结果表明,该菌菌丝分别在30℃、pH 7、8条件下生长最快;持续黑暗及PDA培养基上生长状况最好;可有效利用多种碳、氮源,其中以淀粉、氯化铵最适.分生孢子的产量及萌发率分别在25、30℃,pH 7、8条件下最高;光照亦利于孢子的产生和萌发;PSA培养基适于产孢,PDA培养基适于孢子萌发;所试条件的产孢及孢子萌发最适碳源分别为乳糖、果糖,氮源为氯化铵及L-半胱氨酸.系统掌握了该病原体的

  4. 三种海鱼腌制过程中的理化性质及质构变化%Study on changes of physicochemical properties and texture of three marine fishes during salting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴素娟; 颜小燕; 蒋志红; 曾少葵

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究三种海鱼腌制过程中的理化性质差异及质构变化。方法本文以黄立鱼(Acanthopagrus latus)、金线鱼(Nemipterus japonicus)和金丝鱼(Aphyocypris lini)3种海鱼为原料,采用先湿法后干法进行腌制,分析鱼肉腌渍过程中的水分含量、水分活度、pH、挥发性盐基氮含量及质构的变化规律。结果随着腌制时间的推移,鱼肉水分含量和水分活度不断地减少,腌制186 h后水分约为(50~60) g/100 g,水分活度约为0.78,挥发性盐基氮呈现先升后降的趋势,腌制186 h后的挥发性盐基氮含量均低于30 mg/100 g,而pH在6~7之间;鱼肉质构随着腌渍时间而改变,硬度逐渐增大,腌渍24 h时的弹性最好。腌制后金线鱼的品质较黄立鱼及金丝鱼好。结论相比市售咸鱼而言,实验腌制的3种海鱼的水分含量及水分活度与之相差不大,但挥发性盐基氮含量更低,弹性更好。%Objective To study the difference of physicochemical properties and texture of 3 fishes salt-ing process. Methods Three marine fishes, Acanthopagrus latus, Nemipterus japonicus and Aphyocypris lini were used as salted materials. The changes of physicochemical properties such as moisture, water activity (Aw), the content of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value as well as texture parameters of meat were stu-died during the salting process. Results The contents of moisture and Aw in the fish meat were reduced with the extending of salting time. After brine salting for 186 h, the content of moisture was 50~60 g/100 g and the Aw was about 0.7. The TVB-N content of meat increased firstly and then fell with the length of salted time, which were less than 30 mg/100 g after being salted for 186 h and the pH was from 6 to 7. The texture parame-ters of fish meat changed with the salting process. The hardness increased gradually and the elasticity was the best after salting for 24 h. The texture of Nemipterus japonicus after salting was better

  5. German S3-Guideline: Rectovaginal fistula [Deutsche S3-Leitlinie: Rektovaginale Fistel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ommer, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Ursachen stellen Entbindungstraumata, lokale Infektionen und Eingriffe am Rektum dar. Rektovaginale Fisteln bei chronisch-entzündlichen Darmerkrankungen werden in dieser Leitlinie nicht behandelt.Methode: Es wurde ein systematisches Review der Literatur durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: Die Diagnose einer rektovaginalen Fistel ergibt sich aus Anamnese und klinischer Untersuchung. Andere pathologische Veränderungen sollten durch Zusatzuntersuchungen (Endoskopie, Endosonographie, Schichtuntersuchung ausgeschlossen werden. Eine Beurteilung der Sphinkterfunktion ist für die Planung des operativen Vorgehens (Frage der simultanen Sphinkterrekonstruktion sinnvoll.Eine persistierende rektovaginale Fistel kann in der Regel nur durch eine Operation zur Ausheilung gebracht werden. Es wurden verschiedene Operationsverfahren mit niedrigem Evidenzniveau beschrieben. Am häufigsten ist das transrektale Vorgehen mit endorektaler Naht. Der transperineale Zugang kommt in erster Linie bei simultaner Schließmuskelrekonstruktion zur Anwendung. Bei rezidivierenden Fisteln kann durch die Interposition von körpereigenem Gewebe (Martius-Lappen, M.gracilis ein Verschluss erzielt werden. In neuen Studien wurde auch ein Verschluss durch Einbringen von Biomaterialien vorgestellt. Bei höher gelegenen Fisteln kommen auch abdominelle Verfahren zur Anwendung. Häufiger als bei der Behandlung von Analfisteln ist bei der rektovaginalen Fistel eine Stomaanlage erforderlich. Je nach Ätiologie (v.a. Rektumresektion wurde bei einem Teil der Patientinnen bereits ein Stoma im Rahmen der Primäroperation angelegt. Die Indikation zur Stomaanlage sollte sich in erster Linie nach dem Ausmaß des lokalen Defektes und der daraus resultierenden Belastung der betroffenen Frau richten.Schlussfolgerung: In dieser klinischen Leitlinie werden zum ersten Mal in Deutschland Richtlinien für die Behandlung der rektovaginalen Fisteln basierend auf einer systematischen Literaturanalyse vorgestellt. Aufgrund des niedrigen

  6. Zellträgersysteme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Karl-Ludwig; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Mit Zellträgersystemen soll dem in der klinischen Medizin vordringlichen Problem der Behandlung von schwerstkranken Patienten, die ein partielles oder totales Organversagen erleiden, abgeholfen werden. Man stellt sich vor, dass durch geeignete Trägersubstanzen und -strukturen die Übertragung von metabolisch aktiven Zellen von einem Organismus auf den andern, erkrankten Organismus möglich wird. Die Funktion des Zellträgers ist dabei in erster Linie die des Abstandhalters einzelner Zellen und des Offenhalters für Versorgungskanäle. Man geht von der Vorstellung aus, dass Zellen, die einen optimalen Stoffwechsel haben sollen, in definierten Abständen zueinander in einem Zellträger angeordnet sein sollen. Dabei spielt die Vorstellung eine Rolle, mit dem Trägerwerkstoff die Struktur des zu ersetzenden Organs zu imitieren (Werkstoff-Mimikry). Erste Zellträgersysteme, die im Tierversuch eingesetzt wurden und sich derzeit in Vorbereitung zur klinischen Applikation befinden, sind Pankreas-Ersatzsysteme [1]. Diese Zelltransplantate basieren häufig auf Polymermembranen, die den Empfängerorganismus von den transplantierten allo- oder xenogenen Zellen trennen. Dabei verhindert die Membran einen Kontakt des Empfängerorganismus mit den Proteinen der transplantierten Zellen und damit eine Abstossungsreaktion. Es ist bei dieser Technologie zu bedenken, dass Polymere im Körper einem hydrolytischen Abbau unterworfen sein können und damit die Dauerbeständigkeit einer Polymermembran in Frage gestellt ist. Diesem Aspekt kann Rechnung getragen werden, indem Zellträgersysteme, die immunoprotektive Membranen nach bestimmten Verweilzeiten im Körper samt den transplantierten Zellen ausgetauscht werden.

  7. Effect of weather conditions of east Poland on sweet corn yields and length of growing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Celem pracy było określenie wpływu składników pogodowych (temperatura powietrza, opady atmosferyczne na plonowanie i długość okresu wegetacji kukurydzy cukrowej we wschodniej Polsce. Eksperyment przeprowadzono w latach 2002-2007. W każdym roku badań określano wielkość plonów kolb, masę kolb, liczbę kolb handlowych wykształconych na jednej roślinie, wysokość roślin oraz długość okresu wegetacji kukurydzy cukrowej. W celu scharakteryzowania warunków pluwiotermicznych w okresie wegetacji kukurydzy obliczono wskaźnik Sielianinowa. Warunki pogodowe miały istotny wpływ na plonowanie, wzrost i długość okresu wegetacji kukurydzy. Największy plon handlowy kolb dała kukurydza w latach 2002 i 2004, były to lata o najkorzystniejszych dla kukurydzy rozkładach opadów atmosferycznych. Najdłuższy okres wegetacji miała kukurydza w roku 2004, o stosunkowo równomiernym rozkładzie opadów i niższych temperaturach powietrza, a najkrótszy – w roku 2006, o dużym deficycie opadów i wysokich temperaturach powietrza w czerwcu i lipcu. W okresie wegetacji kukurydzy cukrowej największy wpływ na plonowanie i długość okresu wegetacji miały warunki pluwiotermiczne w czerwcu.  

  8. Is die ortodoksie se verstaan van die sondeval belemmerend vir die gesprek tussen teologie en natuurwetenskap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel is betoog dat die Gereformeerde Ortodoksie se begrip van die sondeval ’n  belemmering  was  vir  die  gesprek  tussen  teologie  en  natuurwetenskap.  Die  rede hiervoor was dat dit ten eerste ’n bepaalde verstaan van liniêre tyd nahou en ten tweede dat dit ’n bonatuurlike ingryp veronderstel het. Albei hierdie aspekte het die debat onnodig problematiseer. Die argument is ontwikkel deur eerstens die probleem te definieer, gevolg deur ’n uiteensetting van die standpunte van Augustinus en Calvyn onderskeidelik oor die sondeval. As ’n heuristiese sleutel is die konsepte van infralapsarisme en supralapsarisme aangewend om die tema te ontleed. Die artikel is afgesluit met die oortuiging dat die imago Dei ’n beliggaamde menslike persoon is wat biologies in die geskiedenis in terme van selfbewussyn en morele verantwoordelikheid ontluik het.Is the Orthodoxy’s notion of the Fall inhibitory for the dialogue between theology and science? In this article it was argued that the Reformed Orthodoxy’s interpretation of the Fall had become an impediment in the dialogue between theology and science. The reason was that it assumed firstly a specific understanding of linear time and secondly a metaphysical intervention. Both events were unnecessarily problematising the debate. The argument was deployed by stating the problem, followed by an exposition of the views of Augustine and Calvin on the Fall. As a heuristic key, the concepts of infralapsarism and supralapsarism were applied respectively to analyse the topic. The article concluded with the conviction that the imago Dei is an embodied human person that had biologically emerged in history as a center of self-awareness, and moral responsibility.

  9. Co-fermentation of organic waste with farming waste and/or sewage sludge; Kovergaerung von Bioabfaellen mit landwirtschaftlichen Abfaellen bzw. Klaerschlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braukmeier, J.; Stegmann, R. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Abfallwirtschaft und Stadttechnik

    1998-10-01

    Co-fermentation of additional substrates with liquid manure, organic waste or sewage sludge enhances the economy of biogas plants by generating additional income and increasing biogas production. Often, it is only thanks to co-fermentation that a plant can at all be operated (for instance, plants processing liquid manure). Technical problems that may be caused by some of the additional substrates can be solved by further conditioning equipment and an extended measuring program. The economic efficiency of such investments results primarily from the envisaged throughput. The hygienization of the co-substrates permits both compliance with the regulations governing the disposal of animal carcasses and enhances acceptance in the farming sector, which buys the fermentation product. On the whole, methane fermentation of organic waste is recommendable in the light of the `Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz` as it harnesses existing material and energy resources and as the product cycle is closed by the use of the product in farming. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Mitbehandlung von zusaetzlichen Substraten in Guelle, Bioabfall- oder Klaerschlamm-Faulungsanlagen ermoeglicht durch (zusaetzliche) Einnahmen und eine erhoehte Gasproduktion einen wirtschaftlicheren Betrieb von Biogasanlagen. Oft wird durch Kofermentation ein Betrieb ueberhaupt erst moeglich (z.B. Guellenanlagen). Die technischen Probleme, die durch einige der zusaetzlichen Substrate auftreten koennen, sind durch Zusatzeinrichtungen zur Aufbereitung und ein erweitertes Messprogramm loesbar. Die Wirtschaftlichkeit derartiger Investitionen ergibt sich in erster Linie aus dem angestrebten Anlagendurchsatz. Durch die Hygienisierung der Kosubstrate koennen sowohl die Vorschriften des Tierkoerperbeseitigungs-Gesetzes eingehalten als auch eine Akzeptanzsteigerung bei den das Gaerprodukt abnehmenden Landwirten erreicht werden. Insgesamt gesehen, ist die Methangaerung von organischen Abaellen nach dem Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz anzustreben

  10. Intramolecular interaction influences binding of the Flax L5 and L6 resistance proteins to their AvrL567 ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ravensdale

    Full Text Available L locus resistance (R proteins are nucleotide binding (NB-ARC leucine-rich repeat (LRR proteins from flax (Linum usitatissimum that provide race-specific resistance to the causal agent of flax rust disease, Melampsora lini. L5 and L6 are two alleles of the L locus that directly recognize variants of the fungal effector AvrL567. In this study, we have investigated the molecular details of this recognition by site-directed mutagenesis of AvrL567 and construction of chimeric L proteins. Single, double and triple mutations of polymorphic residues in a variety of AvrL567 variants showed additive effects on recognition strength, suggesting that multiple contact points are involved in recognition. Domain-swap experiments between L5 and L6 show that specificity differences are determined by their corresponding LRR regions. Most positively selected amino acid sites occur in the N- and C-terminal LRR units, and polymorphisms in the first seven and last four LRR units contribute to recognition specificity of L5 and L6 respectively. This further confirms that multiple, additive contact points occur between AvrL567 variants and either L5 or L6. However, we also observed that recognition of AvrL567 is affected by co-operative polymorphisms between both adjacent and distant domains of the R protein, including the TIR, ARC and LRR domains, implying that these residues are involved in intramolecular interactions to optimize detection of the pathogen and defense signal activation. We suggest a model where Avr ligand interaction directly competes with intramolecular interactions to cause activation of the R protein.

  11. The Impact of Varied Fertilisation on the Concentration of Cadmium and Copper in Organs of Willow Trees (Salix Viminalis) / Wpływ Zróznicowanego Nawożenia Na Zawartość Kadmu I Miedzi W Wierzbie Wiciowej (Salix Viminalis )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieciechowicz, Aleksandra

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the impact of varied fertilisation with sewage sludge on the concentration of cadmium and copper in willow organs during the first three years of cultivation. The lowest mean concentration of cadmium in Salix viminalis biomass was found in the plantation fertilised only with mineral fertilisers. The mean content of copper in the biomass of plants fertilised with mineral fertilisers was higher than the content of this metal in plants grown in non-fertilised soil by 23.4%. It has been shown that the method of fertilisation does not have an impact on the cadmium allocation in different organs. The highest content of cadmium and copper in the willow biomass was found in the foliage (1,76 mg/kgd.m. and 12,73 mg/kgd.m. respectively). W pracy określono wpływ zróżnicowanego nawożenia osadami ściekowymi na zmiany zawartości kadmu i miedzi w wierzbie wiciowej przez pierwsze trzy lata uprawy. Najmniejszą średnią zawartość kadmu w biomasie Salix viminalis wykazano dla plantacji nawożonej mineralnie. Średnia zawartość miedzi w biomasie roślin nawożonych mineralnie była o ok. 23,4% większa od zawartości tego metalu w roślinach uprawianych na glebie nienawożonej. Wykazano, że sposób nawożenia nie wpływa na miejsce kumulowania się kadmu w roślinie. Najwyższe zawartości kadmu i miedzi odnotowano w próbkach listowia Salix viminalis (odpowiednio 1,76 mg/kgs.m. i 12,73 mg/kgs.m.).

  12. Modular soft x-ray spectrometer for applications in energy sciences and quantum materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yi-De; Shao, Yu-Cheng; Cruz, Alejandro; Hanzel, Kelly; Brown, Adam; Frano, Alex; Qiao, Ruimin; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Huang, Shih-Wen; Wray, L. Andrew; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Chiou, Jaw-Wern; Pong, Way-Faung; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric; Reininger, Ruben; Yang, Wanli; Guo, Jinghua; Duarte, Robert; Hussain, Zahid

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the advances in grating-based soft X-ray spectrometers have revolutionized the soft X-ray spectroscopies in materials research. However, these novel spectrometers are mostly dedicated designs, which cannot be easily adopted for applications with diverging demands. Here we present a versatile spectrometer design concept based on the Hettrick-Underwood optical scheme that uses modular mechanical components. The spectrometer's optics chamber can be used with gratings operated in either inside or outside orders, and the detector assembly can be reconfigured accordingly. The spectrometer can be designed to have high spectral resolution, exceeding 10 000 resolving power when using small source (˜1 μ m) and detector pixels (˜5 μ m) with high line density gratings (˜3000 lines/mm), or high throughput at moderate resolution. We report two such spectrometers with slightly different design goals and optical parameters in this paper. We show that the spectrometer with high throughput and large energy window is particularly useful for studying the sustainable energy materials. We demonstrate that the extensive resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) map of battery cathode material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 can be produced in few hours using such a spectrometer. Unlike analyzing only a handful of RIXS spectra taken at selected excitation photon energies across the elemental absorption edges to determine various spectral features like the localized dd excitations and non-resonant fluorescence emissions, these features can be easily identified in the RIXS maps. Studying such RIXS maps could reveal novel transition metal redox in battery compounds that are sometimes hard to be unambiguously identified in X-ray absorption and emission spectra. We propose that this modular spectrometer design can serve as the platform for further customization to meet specific scientific demands.

  13. Investigation techniques and importance of CT for diagnostics of cardiac valvular diseases; Untersuchungstechniken und Stellenwert der CT bei der Diagnostik von Herzklappenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordic, S.; Alkadhi, H. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is the first-line modality for coronary assessment. In addition valvular morphology and function can be evaluated. The method of choice for the evaluation of cardiac valves is echocardiography, followed by magnetic resonance imaging. Recent technical improvements and advances in temporal resolution allow a detailed anatomical and functional evaluation of the cardiac valves. Cardiac CT provides an excellent image quality of the aortic and mitral valve thus enabling an evaluation of the morphology. In addition, cardiac CT allows an assessment of aortic valve function with respect to the grading of stenosis and regurgitation. Cardiac CT is not considered the first-line modality for the evaluation of cardiac valves; however, beyond coronary assessment CT provides important information on the morphology and function of cardiac valves. Cardiac CT can be a useful imaging alternative for patients in whom other more commonly used methods, such as echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging fail to provide the necessary information. (orig.) [German] Die Herz-CT wird in erster Linie anlaesslich einer Koronarabklaerung durchgefuehrt. Sie ist aber auch in der Lage, wichtige Informationen ueber die Morphologie und teilweise auch Herzklappenfunktion zu liefern. Die primaere Modalitaet zur Evaluation der Herzklappen ist die Echokardiographie, gefolgt von der Magnetresonanztomographie. Durch die kontinuierliche technische Weiterentwicklung der CT-Geraete erfolgte eine markante Verbesserung der raeumlichen und zeitlichen Aufloesung, welche fuer die artefaktfreie Darstellung schnell bewegender und kleiner Strukturen, wie etwa der Koronargefaesse und Herzklappen, entscheidend sind. Die CT liefert eine ausgezeichnete Bildqualitaet der Aorten- und Mitralklappe und erlaubt somit eine praezise Beurteilung ihrer Morphologie. Zudem ermoeglicht die CT eine gute Beurteilung der Aortenklappenfunktion mit einer Graduierung von Stenose und Insuffizienz. Die

  14. High temporal resolution measurement of the exhaust gas mass flow and temperature by means of ultrasound; Die hochaufloesende Messung von Abgasmassenstrom und -temperatur mittels Ultraschall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, P. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Verbrennungskraftmaschinen; Gebhardt, W. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Materialpruefung, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-03-01

    Within this research project at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Non-Destructive Test Methods (IzfP Saarbruecken) an ultrasonic time measurement technique was devised for high temporal resolution measurement of exhaust gas mass flow and temperature. To make it suitable for everything from tailpipes to cylinder exhaust it was necessary first and foremost to develop high temperature resistant airborne ultrasonic sensors. The developed sensors and the water-cooled measurement assembly can be utilised up to an exhaust gas temperature of 600 C. An extension of the temperature range up to 1000 C has been dispensed with up to now in favour of solving turbulence and solid-borne sound problems. The sensors and the measurement method were tested at a motor test bench at the Chair of Internal Combustion Engines at the University of Kaiserslautern. The average values of exhaust gas flow and temperature were in good agreement with the values determined from fuel/air consumption. It was demonstrated that this technique can be used up to 6000 rpm. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Ultraschall-Laufzeitmesstechnik wurde im Verlauf dieses Forschungsvorhabens durch das Fraunhofer-Institut fuer zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren (IzfP), Saarbruecken, als Verfahren zur zeitlich hochaufgeloesten Erfassung von Abgasmassenstrom und -temperatur etabliert. Eine Eignung von Auspuffendrohr bis zur Naehe Zylinderauslass erforderte in erster Linie die Schaffung einer hochtemperaturresistenten Ultraschallsensorik. Die entwickelte Sensorik und die Messstrecke sind mit Wasserkuehlung bis zu 600 C Abgastemperatur einsetzbar. Auf eine Erweiterung des Temperaturbereiches in Richtung 1000 C wurde bisher zugunsten der Loesung der Turbulenz- und Koerperschallproblematik verzichtet. Die am Motorpruefstand des Lehrstuhls fuer Kraft- und Arbeitsmaschinen der Universitaet Kaiserslautern gemessenen, zeitlich hochaufgeloesten Massenstroeme stimmen in ihren zeitlichen Mittelwerten gut mit den aus Kraftstoff- und Luftdurchsatz

  15. Impact of Solid Electrolyte Interphase lithium salts on cycling ability of Li-ion battery: Beneficial effect of glymes additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, Fabien; Jones, Jennifer; Damas, Christine; Lemordant, Daniel; Willmann, Patrick; Anouti, Mérièm

    2014-02-01

    The Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI), formed during the first cycles of life in lithium-ion batteries, contains a variety of lithium salts, with direct effect on the aging performance of the battery. In this work, we investigate the impact of addition of SEI lithium salts (LiF, Li2CO3, LiOH, Li2O, LiOCH3 and LiOC2H5) in the electrolyte on the cycling ability of graphite and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrodes. Results show that NMC is more sensitive to salt addition than graphite material. Furthermore, results demonstrate that both LiOH and Li2O have a negative effect on the SEI formation. Conversely, Li2CO3, LiOCH3 and LiOC2H5 are beneficial and promote the formation of a polymeric coating on the SEI. Finally, the impact of the presence of LiF on the SEI depends mainly on its concentration. The effect of the presence of additives capable of complexing lithium salts such as the glyme series, CH3O[CH2CH2O]nCH3 (Gn, with n = 2, 3 or 4), is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results show that the glymes chain length is a determining factor in their complexation mechanism, which depends on both the nature and the concentration of the lithium salt.

  16. The use of titanium alloys for dynamic risers: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torster, F.; Kocak, M.; Santos, J.F. dos [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung; Hutt, G. [Stolt Comex Seaway Ltd., Aberdeen, (Scotland)

    1997-12-31

    The main topic of this short literature review is to describe the material related aspects concerning the production and purpose of flexible titanium risers for offshore oil and gas production. Metallurgy and alloying of titanium are briefly introduced. The review concentrates on the materials properties that are relevant for the intended use in marine environment. The focus is put on {alpha}+{beta} Ti-alloys, because earlier investigations have shown that this alloy family is the most suitable one for this purpose. Further topics which are taken into account are welding processes for titanium, weld properties and aspects of the associated weld defects as well. This literature review has been carried out at GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH within the framework of the project `Titanium Risers for Deepwater Developments (contract nr. OG/175/95), supported by the THERMIE-JOULE Programme of the European Commission. The project consortium is formed by Stolt Comex Seaway Ltd. (UK), Seaflex AS (Norway) and GKSS (Germany). (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende kurze Literaturrecherche befasst sich vorrangig mit den materialbezogenen Aspekten der Produktion und des Einsatzes von flexiblen `Risern` aus Titanlegierungen fuer die Oel- und Gasfoerderung auf See. Die Metallurgie und das Legieren von Titan werden kurz vorgestellt. Die Recherche konzentriert sich im weiteren auf die Materialeigenschaften, die fuer den vorgesehenen Einsatz in mariner Umgebung von besonderer Bedeutung sind. In erster Linie wird dabei auf {alpha}+{beta}-Titanlegierungen eingegangen, da vorausgegangene Untersuchungen gezeigt haben, dass diese Legierungsfamilie die guenstigsten Eigenschaften fuer das vorgesehene Einsatzgebiet aufweist. Im weiteren werden die Schweissprozesse, die bei Titanlegierungen eingesetzt werden, vorgestellt und die Eigenschaften und moeglichen Schweissfehler der hergestellten Schweissverbindungen gegenuebergestellt. Diese Literaturrecherche wurde im GKSS-Forschungszentrum im

  17. Combined application of numerical simulation models and fission tracks analysis in order to determine the history of temperature, subsidence and lifting of sedimentary basins. A case study from the Ruhr Coal basin inWest Germany; Die kombinierte Anwendung numerischer Simulationsmodelle und Spaltspurenuntersuchungen zur Entschluesselung der Temperatur-, Subsidenz- und Hebungsgeschichte von Sedimentbecken - Ein Fallbeispiel aus dem Ruhrkohlenbecken Westdeutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karg, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und organische Geochemie; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Bueker, C. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The Ruhr Coal basin is one of the globally best known sedimentary basins. According to classical, established the Ruhr Basin is a typical foreland molasse basins. The thermal history (heating and cooling) and the structural and sedimentary development since the formation of the basin, i.e. subsidence and lifting and erosion are of the first importance for the potential formation of hydrocarbons. In order to quantify these processes, two-dimensional numerical simulation models (based on geological and seismological sections) of the Ruhr basin were developed from which one could conclude the heat flow at the time of maximum basin depth after variscis orogenesis, maximum temperatures of individual strata sections and thickness of eroded strata. The PetroMod program package of the company IES/Juelich was used for these analyses. Finite-element-grids enable mathematican mapping and reconstruction of complex geological structures and processes. The models on temperature history are calibrated by comparing measured and calculated carbonification (vitrinite reflection) data. (orig./MSK). [Deutsch] Das Ruhrkohlenbecken stellt weltweit eines der am besten erforschten Sedimentbecken dar. Nach klassischen und etablierten Beckenmodellen kann das Ruhrbecken als typisches Vorlandmolassebecken angesehen werden. Besonders relevant fuer die potentielle Bildung von Kohlenwasserstoffen sind in erster Linie die thermische Geschichte (Aufheizung und Abkuehlung) sowie die strukturelle und sedimentaere Entwicklung seit der Beckenbildung, sprich Versenkungs-, Hebungs- und Erosionsprozesse. Um solche Prozesse zu quantifizieren, wurden im Ruhrbecken zweidimensionale (d.h. auf der Grundlage von geologischen und seismischen Sektionen) numerische Simulationsmodelle entwickelt, die Aufschluss ueber Waermefluesse zur Zeit der maximalen Beckeneintiefung im Anschluss an die variszische Orogenese, erreichte Maximaltemperaturen einzelner Schichtglieder sowie die Maechtigkeit erodierter Schichten im

  18. Mountain biking. Breezy ups and traumatic downs; Mountainbiking. Luftige Hoehen und traumatische Tiefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Univ.-Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    For more than two decades the popularity of mountain biking as a national pastime as well as a competitive sport has been undiminished. However, its related risks are not monitored as closely as those, for example, of skiing. The injuries caused by mountain biking are specific and cannot be compared with those caused by other cycling sports. This is due not only to the characteristics of the terrain but also to the readiness to assume a higher risk compared to cycle racing. The particular value of radiology is in the acute trauma setting. Most often musculoskeletal lesions must be examined and digital radiography and MRI are the most useful techniques. Severe trauma of the cranium, face, spine, thorax and abdomen are primarily evaluated with CT, particularly in dedicated trauma centers. Therefore, radiology can play a role in the rapid diagnosis and optimal treatment of the trauma-related injuries of mountain biking. Thus, the unnecessarily high economical damage associated with mountain biking can be avoided. (orig.) [German] Mountainbiking erfreut sich seit mehr als 2 Jahrzehnten sowohl im Breiten- als auch Wettkampfsport einer ungebrochenen Popularitaet. Die assoziierten Risiken werden allerdings nicht mit derselben Aufmerksamkeit beobachtet wie etwa jene des Skisports. Die Verletzungen beim Mountainbiking sind spezifisch und nicht mit den Verletzungen vergleichbar, die bei anderen Radsportarten entstehen. Dies ist z. T. durch die Besonderheiten des Terrains und z. T. durch eine im Vergleich zum Rennradfahren hoehere Risikobereitschaft zu erklaeren. Die Radiologie hat ihren Stellenwert besonders in der Akutdiagnostik. Hier beschaeftigt sie sich v. a. mit muskuloskelettalen Verletzungen und setzt in erster Linie auf die digitale Projektionsradiographie und die MRT. Zur Evaluierung schwerer Verletzungen des Kopfs, der Wirbelsaeule, des Thorax und des Abdomens wird die CT bevorzugt, insbesondere in dezidierten Traumazentren. Damit kann die Radiologie ihren Teil

  19. Wide-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiao, Shuhong; Luo, Langli; Ding, Michael S.; Zheng, Jianming; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Wang, Chong-Min; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2017-05-26

    Formulating electrolytes with solvents of low freezing points and high dielectric constants is a direct approach to extend the service temperature range of lithium (Li)-ion batteries (LIBs), for which propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), methyl butyrate (MB) are excellent candidates. In this work, we report such low temperature electrolyte formulations by optimizing the content of ethylene carbonate (EC) in the EC-PC-EMC ternary solvent system with LiPF6 salt and CsPF6 additive. An extended service temperature range from 40°C to 60°C was obtained in LIBs with lithium nickel cobalt aluminum mixed oxide (LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2, NCA) as cathode and graphite as anode. The discharge capacities at low temperatures and the cycle life at room and elevated temperatures were systematically investigated in association with the ionic conductivity and phase transition behaviors. The most promising electrolyte formulation was identified as 1.0 M LiPF6 in EC-PC-EMC (1:1:8 by wt.) with 0.05 M CsPF6, which was demonstrated in both coin cells of graphite||NCA and 1 Ah pouch cells of graphite||LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2. This optimized electrolyte enables excellent wide-temperature performances, as evidenced by the 68% capacity retention at 40C and C/5 rate, and nearly identical stable cycle life at room and elevated temperatures up to 60C.

  20. Skull base tumors; Tumoren der Schaedelbasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Naumann, N.; Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie des Universitaetsklinikums des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Nabhan, A.; Shariat, K. [Neurochirurgische Klinik des Universitaetsklinikums des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Modern imaging techniques have great importance in the diagnosis and therapy of skull-base pathologies. Many of these lesions, especially in relation to their specific location, can be evaluated using CT and MR imaging. Tumors commonly found in the anterior skull base include carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, esthesioneuroblastoma and meningioma. In the central cranial fossa, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, metastases, meningioma, pituitary adenoma and neurinoma have to be considered. The most common neoplasms of the posterior skull base, including the CP angle, are neurinoma, meningioma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, chordoma and paraganglioma. One major task of imaging is the evaluation of the exact tumor extent as well as its relationship to the neighboring neurovascular structures. The purpose of this review is to recapitulate the most important anatomical landmarks of the skull base. The typical imaging findings of the most common tumors involving the skull base are also presented. (orig.) [German] Die moderne Bildgebung hat einen besonderen Stellenwert bei der Diagnostik und Therapie von Schaedelbasispathologien. Zahlreiche Laesionen koennen anhand ihrer CT- und MRT-Befunde, insbesondere unter Beruecksichtigung ihrer genauen Lokalisation, artdiagnostisch eingeordnet werden. Im Bereich der vorderen Schaedelbasis sind v. a. Karzinome, Rhabdomyosarkome, Aesthesioneuroblastome und Meningeome vorzufinden. Im Bereich der mittleren Schaedelbasis ist in erster Linie an nasopharyngeale Karzinome, Karzinommetastasen, Meningeome, Hypophysenadenome und Neurinome zu denken. Zu den haeufigsten Tumoren der hinteren Schaedelgrube, unter Einschluss des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels, gehoeren Neurinome, Meningeome, nasopharyngeale Karzinome, Karzinommetastasen, Chordome und Paragangliome. Eine wichtige Aufgabe der Schnittbildgebung liegt in der Bestimmung der exakten Tumorausdehnung und in der Beurteilung der Lagebeziehung des Tumors zu den komplexen anatomischen Strukturen wie Hirnnerven und