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Sample records for bleached human enamel

  1. Evaluation of the bleached human enamel by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Carolina Baptista; Pagani, Clovis; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Since bleaching has become a popular procedure, the effect of peroxides on dental hard tissues is of great interest in research. Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to perform a qualitative analysis of the human enamel after the application of in-office bleaching agents, using Scanning......: 2h); G3- four 2-hour exposures to 35% carbamide peroxide (total exposure: 8h); G4- two applications of 35% hydrogen peroxide, which was light-activated with halogen lamp at 700mW/cm² during 7min and remained in contact with enamel for 20min (total exposure: 40min). All bleaching treatments adopted...... analysis performing gold sputter coating under vacuum and were examined using 15kV at 500x and 2000x magnification. Results: Morphological alterations on the enamel surface were similarly detected after bleaching with either 35% carbamide peroxide or 35% hydrogen peroxide. Surface porosities were...

  2. Effects of bleaching agents on human enamel light reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Ljubisa; Fotouhi, Kasra; Lorenz, Heribert; Jordan, Rainer A; Gaengler, Peter; Zimmer, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Tooth whitening has been associated with splitting-up chromogenic molecules by hydrogen peroxides. Though micromorphological alterations are well documented, little is known about optical changes as a function of shifting in wavelengths. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to measure reflectance changes after bleaching in vitro by using a spectrometer. Forty-eight enamel slabs (diameter = 5 mm) were prepared from the sound enamel of extracted human teeth that were: 1) fully impacted, 2) from juveniles ages 10 to 16 years, 3) from adults 35 to 45 years of age and 4) from seniors older than age 65. In all specimens, the baseline total reflectance measurement was performed with a computer-assisted spectrometer (Ocean Optics, Dunedin, FL, USA) within wavelengths (wl) from 430 nm to 800 nm. Four enamel samples of each age group were exposed to either 10% or 15% carbamide peroxide (Illuminé Home, Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany) or 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office, SDI Limited, Victoria, Australia). After surface treatment, all slabs underwent total reflectance measurement again. Statistical analysis was calculated at wl 450, 500 and 750 nm using the Student's paired t-test and one-way variance analysis. Total reflectance significantly increased after bleaching at all enamel maturation stages, irrespective of the bleaching agent concentration, for wl 450 nm (blue) and 500 nm (green) with penamel from adults and seniors (pwhitening of the dental enamel works at different maturation stages, even in impacted teeth. This effect is irrespective of the bleaching protocol used and the bleaching agent concentration.

  3. Efficacy of cold light bleaching using different bleaching times and their effects on human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhu, Yuhe; Li, Jiajia; Liao, Susan; Ai, Hongjun

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of cold light bleaching using different bleaching times and the effects thereof on tooth enamel. Before and after bleaching, stained tooth specimens were subjected to visual and instrumental colorimetric assessments using Vita Shade Guide and spectrophotometric shade matching. Enamel surface alterations were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze surface morphology, surface microhardness (SMH) measurement to determine changes in mechanical properties, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize post-bleaching enamel composition. Cold light bleaching successfully improved tooth color, with optimal efficacy when bleaching time was beyond 10 min. Significant differences in surface morphology were observed among the different bleaching times, but no significant differences were observed for enamel composition and surface microhardness among the different bleaching times. Results of this study revealed an association between the bleaching time of cold light bleaching and its whitening efficacy. Together with the results on enamel surface changes, this study provided positive evidence to support cold light bleaching as an in-office bleaching treatment.

  4. The effect of long-term use of tooth bleaching products on the human enamel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polydorou, Olga; Scheitza, Sophia; Spraul, Mathias; Vach, Kirstin; Hellwig, Elmar

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the long-term effect of bleaching on human enamel. Four groups of enamel specimens were prepared (n = 20): group 1: bleaching with Opalescence Boost [40% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), 3 × 20 min/week]; group 2: control group (the specimens were stored in human saliva); group 3: beaching with Vivastyle Paint on Plus (6% H 2 O 2 , 2 × 10 min/day), and group 4: bleaching with Opalescence PF 16% [16% carbamide peroxide (CP), 6 h/day]. After each bleaching session the specimens were stored in human saliva. Knoop microhardness and surface roughness were measured: before bleaching, after 2-week and after 8-week bleaching. After 2-week treatment, surface roughness was significantly increased in all experimental groups (p  0.05). The roughness changes exerted after 8-week bleaching were not significantly higher than the ones after 2 weeks (p > 0.05). After 8-week treatment, the increase in roughness caused by 16% CP was significantly higher (p bleaching on enamel was not shown to be dependent on the method or the H 2 O 2 concentration. Bleaching with CP 16% resulted in higher roughness than bleaching with H 2 O 2 , while 40% H 2 O 2 caused the higher microhardness increase. The present study showed that in-office bleaching with 40% H 2 O 2 seems to be at least as safe as home bleaching as far as their effects on human enamel are concerned.

  5. Effects of in-office bleaching on human enamel and dentin. Morphological and mineral changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena, Carmen; Esteve, Irene; Forner, Leopoldo

    2018-05-01

    The effects of HP-based products upon dental enamel and dentin are inconclusive. To evaluate changes in micromorphology and composition of calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) in enamel and dentin after the application of 37.5% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and 35% carbamide peroxide (CP) METHODS: Crowns of 20 human teeth were divided in two halves. One half was used as control specimen and the other as experimental specimen. The control specimens were kept in artificial saliva, and the experimental specimens were divided into four groups (n=5 each): group 1 (enamel HP for 45min); group 2 (dentin HP for 45min); group 3 (enamel CP for 90min); and group 4 (dentin CP for 90min). The morphological changes were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), while the changes in the composition of Ca and P were assessed using environmental scanning electron microscopy combined with a microanalysis system (ESEM+EDX). The results within each group and between groups were compared using the Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney U-test, respectively (p0.05). When bleaching products with a neutral pH are used in clinical practice, both, the concentration and the application time should be taken into account in order to avoid possible structural and mineral changes in enamel and dentin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. A comparative study of different bleaching agents on the morphology of human enamel: an in vitro SEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthappa, Roshan; Suprith, M L; Bhandary, Shreetha; Dash, Sumit

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare two different commercial bleaching agents, Opalescence with Colgate Platinum, and 30% phosphoric acid used as aggressive agent on the morphology of human enamel. Ten freshly extracted, noncarious, human maxillary central incisors extracted for periodontal reasons were used in this study. The labial surface of the disinfected teeth were polished using a polishing paste with the help of rubber cup and a slow speed handpiece. Each tooth was sectioned at cement-enamel junction and the crown was separated into four specimens, all taken from labial surface. Group 1 was treated with Colgate Platinum for 7 hours, group 2 with Opalescence for 7 hours, group 3 was treated with 30% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds and group 4 was untreated and used as control. After the treatment period, the specimens were washed with normal saline and stored in sterile bottle and sealed. Photomicrographs obtained from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after surface treatments were examined for no alteration, slight alteration, moderate alteration and severe alterations. The specimens treated with commercial bleaching agents revealed no enamel surface morphologic alterations compared to control group. The specimen treated with phosphoric acid showed severe alterations. Ten percent carbamide peroxide evaluated in this study does not etch tooth enamel or alter enamel surface morphology as do conventional etching techniques. Carbamine peroxide is a safe and effective tooth whitening agent even when used for extended period of time. The enamel surface remains smooth which reduces caries due to plaque collection.

  8. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J.; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations.\\ud \\ud The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence® Boost and Mirawhite® Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 ...

  9. Effect of Different Anti-Oxidants on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resins to Bleached Human Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladi, Hari Krishna; Bollu, Indira Priyadarshini; Burla, Devipriya; Ballullaya, Srinidhi Vishnu; Devalla, Srihari; Maroli, Sohani; Jayaprakash, Thumu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The bond strength of the composite to the bleached enamel plays a very important role in the success and longevity of an aesthetic restoration. Aim The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the effect of Aloe Vera with 10% Sodium Ascorbate on the Shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached human enamel. Materials and Methods Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into 5 groups. Group I and V are unbleached and bleached controls groups respectively. Group II, III, IV served as experimental groups. The labial surfaces of groups II, III, IV, V were treated with 35% Carbamide Peroxide for 30mins. Group II specimens were subjected to delayed composite bonding. Group III and IV specimens were subjected to application of 10% Sodium Ascorbate and leaf extract of Aloe Vera following the Carbamide Peroxide bleaching respectively. Specimens were subjected to shear bond strength using universal testing machine and the results were statistically analysed using ANOVA test. Tukey (HSD) Honest Significant Difference test was used to comparatively analyse statistical differences between the groups. A p-value <0.05 is taken as statistically significant. Results The mean shear bond strength values of Group V showed significantly lower bond strengths than Groups I, II, III, IV (p-value <0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the shear bond strength values of groups I, II, III, IV. Conclusion Treatment of the bleached enamel surface with Aloe Vera and 10% Sodium Ascorbate provided consistently better bond strength. Aloe Vera may be used as an alternative to 10% Sodium Ascorbate. PMID:26674656

  10. Microtensile bond strength of enamel after bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Andrea Dias Neves; Garone-Netto, Narciso

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the bond strength of a composite resin to the bovine enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide. It was used an etching-and-rinse adhesive system employed immediately, 7 and 14 days after the bleaching. Twenty bovine teeth were randomly distributed into 4 groups (n = 5), 3 experimental and 1 control. G1: Unbleached + restoration 14 days after storage in artificial saliva (control); G2: Bleached + restoration immediately after bleaching; G3: Bleached + restoration 7 days after bleaching; G4: Bleached + restoration 14 days after bleaching. Their buccal enamel surfaces were flattened, and a 25 mm² (5 × 5 mm) area from each one of these regions was outlined so as to standardize the experimental region. Universal hybrid composite resin Filtek™Z350 was inserted into four layers of 1 mm each and photo-activated. The bond strength was quantitatively evaluated by a microtensile test (1.0 mm/min) 24 h after the restorative procedures. The failure mode was assessed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was a significant reduction in the bond strength of the restored teeth immediately after the bleaching (G2). There were no significant differences in enamel bond strength between groups G1, G3, and G4. There was a predominance of adhesive and mixed (cohesive + adhesive) failure in all groups. The 7-day-period after the end of the bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was enough to achieve the appropriate values of bond strength to the enamel.

  11. Microtensile bond strength of enamel after bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Dias Neves Lago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the bond strength of a composite resin to the bovine enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide. It was used an etching-and-rinse adhesive system employed immediately, 7 and 14 days after the bleaching. Materials and Methods: Twenty bovine teeth were randomly distributed into 4 groups (n = 5, 3 experimental and 1 control. G1: Unbleached + restoration 14 days after storage in artificial saliva (control; G2: Bleached + restoration immediately after bleaching; G3: Bleached + restoration 7 days after bleaching; G4: Bleached + restoration 14 days after bleaching. Their buccal enamel surfaces were flattened, and a 25 mm² (5 × 5 mm area from each one of these regions was outlined so as to standardize the experimental region. Universal hybrid composite resin Filtek™Z350 was inserted into four layers of 1 mm each and photo-activated. The bond strength was quantitatively evaluated by a microtensile test (1.0 mm/min 24 h after the restorative procedures. The failure mode was assessed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results: There was a significant reduction in the bond strength of the restored teeth immediately after the bleaching (G2. There were no significant differences in enamel bond strength between groups G1, G3, and G4. There was a predominance of adhesive and mixed (cohesive + adhesive failure in all groups. Conclusion: The 7-day-period after the end of the bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was enough to achieve the appropriate values of bond strength to the enamel.

  12. Effect of antioxidant agents on bond strength of composite to bleached enamel with 38% hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Marcela Guimaraes da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of antioxidant agents on microtensile bond strengths (mTBS of composite to bleached enamel. Fifteen freshly extracted human third molars were selected and randomly assigned to 6 groups (n = 5: (NB enamel not bleached, (B bleached enamel, (BR7 bleached enamel and restored 7 days later, (BSA bleached enamel+sodium ascorbate, (BMC bleached enamel+malvidin chloride, (BPC bleached enamel+pelargonidin chloride. The groups were bleached with 38% hydrogen peroxide (HP - Opalescence Xtra Boost and restored with Single Bond+Filtek Z350. The specimens were thermocycled and submitted to a microtensile load at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. The data were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey test at 5% of significance. The mean and standard-deviation for all groups were: NB: 30.95(±11.97a; BSA: 30.34(±8.73a, BPC: 22.81(6.00b, BR7: 21.41(±6.12b, B: 14.10(±4.45c, BMC: 13.25(±6.02c. Sodium ascorbate reversed the bond strengths to enamel immediately after bleaching.

  13. AFM analysis of bleaching effects on dental enamel microtopography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedreira de Freitas, Ana Carolina; Cardoso Espejo, Luciana; Brossi Botta, Sergio; Sa Teixeira, Fernanda de; Cerqueira, Luz Maria Aparecida A.; Garone-Netto, Narciso; Bona Matos, Adriana; Barbosa da Silveira Salvadori, Maria Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to test a new methodology to evaluate the effects of 35% hydrogen peroxide agent on the microtopography of sound enamel using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The buccal sound surfaces of three extracted human lower incisors were used, without polishing the surfaces to maintain them with natural morphology. These unpolished surfaces were subjected to bleaching procedure with 35% hydrogen peroxide that consisted of 4 applications of the bleaching agent on enamel surfaces for 10 min each application. Surface images were obtained in a 15 μm x 15 μm area using an AFM. The roughness (Ra and RMS) and the power spectral density (PSD) were obtained before and after the bleaching treatment. As results we could inquire that the PSD analyses were very suitable to identifying the morphological changes on the surfaces, while the Ra and RMS parameters were insufficient to represent the morphological alterations promoted by bleaching procedure on enamel. The morphological wavelength in the range of visible light spectrum (380-750 nm) was analyzed, showing a considerable increase of the PSD with the bleaching treatment.

  14. AFM analysis of bleaching effects on dental enamel microtopography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira de Freitas, Ana Carolina, E-mail: anacarolfreitas@usp.br [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Cardoso Espejo, Luciana, E-mail: luespejo@hotmail.com [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Brossi Botta, Sergio, E-mail: sbbotta@usp.br [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sa Teixeira, Fernanda de, E-mail: nandast@if.usp.br [Laboratorio de Filmes Finos, Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05314-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Cerqueira, Luz Maria Aparecida A., E-mail: maacluz@usp.br [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Garone-Netto, Narciso, E-mail: ngarone@usp.br [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bona Matos, Adriana, E-mail: bona@usp.br [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Barbosa da Silveira Salvadori, Maria Cecilia, E-mail: mcsalva@if.usp.br [Laboratorio de Filmes Finos, Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05314-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to test a new methodology to evaluate the effects of 35% hydrogen peroxide agent on the microtopography of sound enamel using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The buccal sound surfaces of three extracted human lower incisors were used, without polishing the surfaces to maintain them with natural morphology. These unpolished surfaces were subjected to bleaching procedure with 35% hydrogen peroxide that consisted of 4 applications of the bleaching agent on enamel surfaces for 10 min each application. Surface images were obtained in a 15 {mu}m x 15 {mu}m area using an AFM. The roughness (Ra and RMS) and the power spectral density (PSD) were obtained before and after the bleaching treatment. As results we could inquire that the PSD analyses were very suitable to identifying the morphological changes on the surfaces, while the Ra and RMS parameters were insufficient to represent the morphological alterations promoted by bleaching procedure on enamel. The morphological wavelength in the range of visible light spectrum (380-750 nm) was analyzed, showing a considerable increase of the PSD with the bleaching treatment.

  15. Decalcification prevention around orthodontic brackets bonded to bleached enamel using different topical agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msallam, Ferial Ahmed; Grawish, Mohammed El-Awady; Hafez, Ahmad Mohammed; Abdelnaby, Yasser Lotfy

    2017-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different topical agents utilized for prevention of enamel decalcification around orthodontic brackets bonded to bleached and non-bleached enamel. Human maxillary premolars (n = 120) were divided into two equal groups. Teeth in group I were left without bleaching while those in group II were bleached with Vivastyle gel. Metal brackets were bonded to all the teeth using light-cured adhesive. Each group was divided into six equal subgroups (A, B, C, D, E, and F). In subgroup A, no material was applied (control). In subgroups B, C, D, E, and F, the following materials were applied respectively: Profluorid varnish, Enamel Pro Varnish, Ortho-Choice Ortho-Coat, GC Tooth Mousse, and GC MI Paste Plus. All teeth were cycled in a demineralization solution/artificial saliva for 15 days. Laser fluorescence was used to measure the level of enamel mineralization. The data were statistically analyzed. Regarding the non-bleaching subgroups, all studied material revealed significant demineralization reduction in comparison to the control subgroup (P  0.05). Ortho-Choice Ortho-Coat, and Profluorid and Enamel Pro varnishes could be utilized successfully to reduce enamel demineralization around brackets bonded to either bleached or non-bleached enamel. GC MI Paste Plus and GC Tooth Mousse were effective only in non-bleached enamel.

  16. Graded changes in enamel component volumes resulted from a short tooth bleaching procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Artemisa Fernanda Moura; Perez, Flávia Maria de Moraes Ramos; Limeira Júnior, Francisco de Assis; de Moura, Mirella de Fátima Liberato; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2016-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that changes in enamel component volumes (mineral, organic, and water volumes, and permeability) are graded from outer to inner enamel after a short bleaching procedure. Extracted unerupted human third molars had half of their crowns bleached (single bleaching session, 3 × 15 min), and tooth shade changes in bleached parts were analyzed with a spectrophotometer. Ground sections were prepared, component volumes and permeability were quantified at histological points located at varying distances from the enamel surface (n=10 points/location), representing conditions before and after bleaching. Tooth shade changes were significant (pbleaching, except at the outer layers. Multiple analysis of covariances revealed that most of the variance of the change in enamel composition after bleaching was explained by the combination of the set of types of component volume (in decreasing order of relevance: mineral loss, organic gain, water gain, and decrease in permeability) with the set of distances from the enamel surface (graded from the enamel surface inward) (canonical R(2)=0.97; p99%). Changes in enamel composition after a short bleaching procedure followed a gradient within component volumes (mineral loss>organic gain>water gain>decrease in permeability) and decreased from the enamel surface inward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of bleaching agents on surface roughness of sound or eroded dental enamel specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrak, Birgül; Callaway, Angelika; Kurth, Petra; Willershausen, Brita

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the effect of bleaching agents on eroded and sound enamel specimens. Enamel specimens prepared from human permanent anterior teeth were incubated with different bleaching agents containing active ingredients as 7.5 or 13.5% hydrogen peroxide or 35% carbamide peroxide, ranging in pH from 4.9 to 10.8. The effect of the tooth whitening agents on surface roughness was tested for sound enamel surfaces as well as for eroded enamel specimens. To provoke erosive damage, the enamel specimens were incubated for 10 hours with apple juice (pH = 3.4). Afterwards, pretreated and untreated dental slices were incubated with one of the bleaching agents for 10 hours. The surface roughness (R(a)) of all enamel specimens (N = 80) was measured using an optical profilometric device. A descriptive statistical analysis of the R(a) values was performed. The study demonstrated that exposure to an acidic bleaching agent (pH = 4.9) resulted in a higher surface roughness (p = 0.043) than treatment with a high peroxide concentration (pH = 6.15). If the enamel surface was previously exposed to erosive beverages, subsequent bleaching may enhance damage to the dental hard tissue. Bleaching agents with a high concentration of peroxide or an acidic pH can influence the surface roughness of sound or eroded enamel. © 2010, COPYRIGHT THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2010, WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  18. Effect of vital bleaching with solutions containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and pineapple extract as an additive on human enamel using reflectance spectrophotometer: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejai Vekaash, Chitra Janardhanan; Kumar Reddy, Tripuravaram Vinay; Venkatesh, Kondas Vijay

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the color change in human enamel bleached with three different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, containing pineapple extract as an additive in two different timings, using reflectance spectrophotometer. The study aimed to investigate the bleaching efficacy on natural teeth using natural enzymes. Baseline color values of 10 randomly selected artificially stained incisors were obtained. The specimens were divided into three groups of 20 teeth each: Group 1 - 30% hydrogen peroxide, Group II - 20% hydrogen peroxide, and Group III - 10% hydrogen peroxide. One half of the tooth was bleached with hydrogen peroxide, and other was bleached with hydrogen peroxide and pineapple extract for 20 min (Subgroup A) and 10 min (Subgroup B). The results were statistically analyzed using student's t -test. The mean ΔE values of Group IA (31.62 ± 0.9), Group IIA (29.85 ± 1.2), and Group IIIA (28.65 ± 1.2) showed statistically significant higher values when compared to the mean Δ E values of Group 1A (25.02 ± 1.2), Group IIA (22.86 ± 1.1), and Group IIIA (16.56 ± 1.1). Identical results were obtained in Subgroup B. The addition of pineapple extract to hydrogen peroxide resulted in effective bleaching.

  19. Effect of tooth bleaching agents on protein content and mechanical properties of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfallah, Hunida M; Bertassoni, Luiz E; Charadram, Nattida; Rathsam, Catherine; Swain, Michael V

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of two bleaching agents, 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) and 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP), on the mechanical properties and protein content of human enamel from freshly extracted teeth. The protein components of control and treated enamel were extracted and examined on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Marked reduction of the protein matrix and random fragmentation of the enamel proteins after bleaching treatments was found. The mechanical properties were analyzed with Vickers indentations to characterize fracture toughness, and nanoindentation to establish enamel hardness, elastic modulus and creep deformation. Results indicate that the hardness and elastic modulus of enamel were significantly reduced after treatment with CP and HP. After bleaching, the creep deformation at maximum load increased and the recovery upon unloading reduced. Crack lengths of CP and HP treated enamel were increased, while fracture toughness decreased. Additionally, the microstructures of fractured and indented samples were examined with field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) showing distinct differences in the fracture surface morphology between pre- and post-bleached enamel. In conclusion, tooth bleaching agents can produce detrimental effects on the mechanical properties of enamel, possibly as a consequence of damaging or denaturing of its protein components. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microhardness of demineralized enamel following home bleaching and laser-assisted in office bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarzadeh, Majid; Akbari, Majid; Hamzei, Haniye

    2015-01-01

    Background There is little data regarding the effect of tooth whitening on microhardness of white spot lesions. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of home-bleaching and laser-assisted in-office bleaching on microhardness of demineralized enamel. Material and Methods Forty bovine incisors were selected and immersed in a demineralizing solution for 12 weeks to induce white spot lesions. Enamel blocks were prepared and randomly assigned to two groups of 20 each. The first group underwent home bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide which was applied for 8 hours a day over a period of 15 days. In the second group, in-office bleaching was performed by 40% hydrogen peroxide and powered by irradiation from an 810 nm gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser (CW, 2W). This process was performed for 3 sessions every seven days, in 15 days. The specimens were stored in Fusayama Meyer artificial saliva during the experiment. Surface microhardness was assessed before and after the bleaching therapies in both groups. Results Microhardness decreased significantly following both home bleaching and laser-assisted in-office bleaching (pTooth whitening through home bleaching or laser-assisted in-office bleaching can result in a significant reduction in microhardness of white spot lesions. Therefore, it is suggested to take protective measures on bleached demineralized enamel. Key words:White spot lesion, bleaching, laser, microhardness, demineralized enamel, home bleaching, in-office bleaching. PMID:26330939

  1. The effect of enamel bleaching on the shear bond strengths of metal and ceramic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztaş, E; Bağdelen, G; Kiliçoğlu, H; Ulukapi, H; Aydin, I

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bleaching and delayed bonding on the shear bond strengths of metal and ceramic brackets bonded with light and chemically cure composite resin to human enamel. One hundred and twenty extracted human premolar teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 40 each. The first two groups were bleached with 20 per cent carbamide peroxide (CP) at-home bleaching agent. No bleaching procedures were applied to the third group and served as control. The first two and control groups were divided into equal subgroups according to different adhesive-bracket combinations. Specimens in group 1 (n = 40) were bonded 24 hours after bleaching process was completed while the specimens in group 2 (n = 40) were bonded 14 days after. The specimens in all groups were debonded with a Universal testing machine while the modified adhesive remnant index was used to evaluate fracture properties. No statistically significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to bleached enamel after 24 hours, 14 days, and unbleached enamel with light or chemical cure adhesives (P > 0.05). The mode of failure was mostly at the bracket/adhesive interface and cohesive failures within the resin were also observed. Our findings indicated that at-home bleaching agents that contain 20 per cent CP did not significantly affect the shear bond strength of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets to enamel when bonding is performed 24 hours or 14 days after bleaching.

  2. Effects of the bleaching procedures on enamel micro-hardness: Plasma Arc and diode laser comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematianaraki, Saeid; Fekrazad, Reza; Naghibi, Nasim; Kalhori, Katayoun Am; Junior, Aldo Brugnera

    2015-10-02

    One of the major side effects of vital bleaching is the reduction of enamel micro-hardness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of two different bleaching systems, Plasma Arc and GaAlAs laser, on the enamel micro-hardness. 15 freshly extracted human third molars were sectioned to prepare 30 enamel blocks (5×5 mm). These samples were then randomly divided into 2 groups of 15 each (n=15): a plasma arc bleaching group (: 350-700 nm) + 35% Hydrogen Peroxide whitening gel and a laser bleaching group (GaAlAs laser, λ: 810 nm, P: 10 W, CW, Special Tip) + 35% Hydrogen Peroxide whitening gel. Samples were subjected to the Vickers micro-hardness test (VHN) at a load of 50 g for 15s before and after treatment. Data were statistically analyzed by a Mann-Whitney test (p≤0.05). In the GaAlAs laser group, the enamel micro-hardness was 618.2 before and was reduced to 544.6 after bleaching procedures. In the plasma arc group, the enamel micro-hardness was 644.8 before and 498.9 after bleaching. Although both techniques significantly reduced VHN, plasma arc bleaching resulted in a 22.62% reduction in VHN for enamel micro-hardness, whereas an 11.89% reduction in VHN was observed for laser bleaching; this difference is statistically significant (plaser than with the plasma arc. Therefore GaAlAs laser bleaching has fewer harmful effects than plasma arc in respect to enamel micro-hardness reduction.

  3. Effect of three nanobiomaterials on the surface roughness of bleached enamel

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    Maryam Khoroushi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ever-increasing demand for enhanced esthetic appearance has resulted in significant developments in bleaching products. However, the enamel surface roughness (SR might be negatively affected by bleaching agents. This in vitro study was undertaken to compare the effects of three nanobiomaterials on the enamel SR subsequent to bleaching. Materials and Methods: The crowns of six extracted intact nonerupted human third molars were sectioned. Five dental blocks measuring 2 mm × 3 mm × 4 mm were prepared from each tooth and placed in colorless translucent acrylic resin. The enamel areas from all the specimens were divided into five groups (n = 6: Group 1 did not undergo any bleaching procedures; Group 2 was bleached with a 40% hydrogen peroxide (HP gel; Groups 3, 4, and 5 were bleached with a 40% HP gel modified by bioactive glass (BAG, amorphous calcium phosphate, and hydroxyapatite, respectively. The enamel SR was evaluated before and after treatment by atomic force microscopy. The data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: SR increased significantly in the HP group. SR decreased significantly in the HP gel modified by BAG group as compared to other groups. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, incorporation of each one of the three test biomaterials proved effective in decreasing enamel SR subsequent to in-office bleaching technique.

  4. Titanium dioxide in dental enamel as a trace element and its variation with bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Koudriavtsev, Tatiana; Durán-Sedó, Randall; Herrera-Sancho, Óscar-Andrey

    2018-06-01

    Titanium is a less studied trace element in dental enamel. Literature relates an increased Titanium concentration with a decreased enamel crystal domain size, which in turn is related to a higher color value. The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of tooth bleaching agents on its concentration in dental enamel by means of confocal Raman spectroscopy. Human teeth were randomly distributed in six experimental groups (n=10) and submitted to different bleaching protocols according to the manufacturer´s instructions. Confocal Raman spectroscopy was carried out in order to identify and quantify the presence of titanium dioxide molecules in enamel prior to and during whitening. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance ( p ≤0.05) and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. Titanium dioxide concentration was negatively affected by the longer bleaching protocols (at-home bleaching gels). All in-office whitening products increased significantly the studied molecule ( p ≤0,05). All dental specimens depicted the presence of titanium dioxide as a trace element in dental enamel. Bleaching gels that have to be applied at higher concentrations but for shorter periods of time increase the concentration of titanium dioxide, whilst at-home whitening gels used for longer periods of time despite the lower concentration caused a loss in titanium. Key words: Bleaching, whitening, hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, Raman spectroscopy, titanium dioxide.

  5. Effect of newer antioxidants on the bond strength of composite on bleached enamel

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    M Manoharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aims to evaluate the effect of the application of two antioxidants on the bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: Eighty enamel surfaces were obtained from forty human extracted premolars. Specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n = 20. Group 1: No bleaching (control; Group 2a: Bleaching with 15% carbamide peroxide gel; Group 2b: Bleaching, followed by application of 10% sodium ascorbate gel; Group 2c: Bleaching, followed by application of 5% proanthocyanidin agent. Surfaces were etched followed by application of total etch bonding system, and composite resin cylinders were bonded. Specimens were tested for shear bond strength. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance was used for multiple group comparison and post hoc Tukey′s test for individual group-wise comparison. Results: Significantly higher shear bond strength values were observed in Group 2c and 2b as compared with Group 1 and 2a (P < 0.05. Among the antioxidants, Group 2c showed significantly higher shear bond strength values than Group 2b (P < 0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the use of antioxidant before bonding procedures on bleached enamel completely neutralizes the deleterious effects of bleaching and increases the bond strength significantly.

  6. Bleaching and enamel surface interactions resulting from the use of highly-concentrated bleaching gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazioli, Guillermo; Valente, Lisia Lorea; Isolan, Cristina Pereira; Pinheiro, Helena Alves; Duarte, Camila Gonçalves; Münchow, Eliseu Aldrighi

    2018-03-01

    Tooth bleaching is considered a non-invasive treatment, although the use of highly-concentrated products may provoke increased surface roughness and enamel demineralization, as well as postoperative sensitivity. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) concentration would affect tooth bleaching effectiveness and the enamel surface properties. Enamel/dentin bovine specimens (6 × 4 mm) were immersed in coffee solution for 7 days and evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Easyshade; baseline), using the CIEL * a * b * color parameters. Hardness was measured using a hardness tester. The specimens were randomly assigned into four groups: one negative control, in which the specimens were not bleached, but they were irradiated with a laser-light source (Whitening Lase II, DMC Equipments); and three groups using distinct H 2 O 2 concentration, namely LP15% (15% Lase Peroxide Lite), LP25% (25% Lase Peroxide Sensy), and LP35% (35% Lase Peroxide Sensy), all products from DMC. The bleached specimens were also irradiated with the laser-light source. After bleaching, all specimens were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). pH kinetics and rate was monitored during bleaching. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p bleaching gels produced similar color change (p > 0.05). Concerning hardness, only the LP25% and LP35% significantly reduced hardness after bleaching; also, there was a progressive tendency for a greater percentage reduction in hardness with increased H 2 O 2 concentration of the gel (R 2  = 0.9973, p bleaching effectiveness, and may increase the possibility for alteration of enamel hardness, surface morphology, and acidity of the medium. When using H 2 O 2 -based bleaching agents, dental practitioners should choose for less concentrated gels, e.g., around the 15% level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In situ Effect of Nanohydroxyapatite Paste in Enamel Teeth Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Yasmin Sb de Lima; Alexandrino, Larissa D; Alencar, Cristiane de M; Alves, Eliane B; Faial, Kelson Cf; Silva, Cecy M

    2017-11-01

    Evaluate in situ the effect of nanohydroxyapatite paste (nano-HAP) before bleaching with hydrogen peroxide 35% (HP35%) by ion chromatography (IC) Knoop hardness number (KHN) and tristimulus colorimetry (TC). A total of 60 fragments were obtained from third molars included (3 mm × 3 mm × 3 mm) and the specimens were divided into three groups (n = 20): Gas chromatography (CG) (negative control group) = no bleaching; HP35% (positive control group) = HP35% whitening (whiteness HP35%); nano-HAP = application for 10 minutes before bleaching treatment + HP35%. The specimens were fixed to the volunteers' molars. The KHN and TC were measured before and after bleaching. For IC, the dentin layer was removed, leaving the enamel that was crushed, and autoclaved for chemical quantification (calcium, fluorine, and phosphorus). The results of KHN and TC were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test (p bleaching treatment. Nano-HA is a biomaterial that has shown positive results in the prevention of deleterious effects on the enamel by the action of the office bleaching treatment.

  8. Effect of tooth-bleaching on the carbonate concentration in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Koudriavtsev, Tatiana; Herrera-Sancho, Óscar-Andrey

    2017-01-01

    There are not many studies evaluating the effects of surface treatments at the molecular level. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the concentration of carbonate molecules in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy after the application of in-office and home whitening agents. Sixty human teeth were randomly divided into six groups and exposed to three different home bleaching gels (Day White) and three in-office whitening agents (Zoom! Whitespeed and PolaOffice) according to the manufacturer´s instructions. The concentration of carbonate molecules in enamel was measured prior to and during the treatment by means of Raman spectroscopy. Statistical analysis included repeated measures analysis of variance ( p ≤0.05) and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons. At home bleaching agents depicted a decrease in the carbonate molecule. This decrease was statistically significant for the bleaching gel with the highest hydrogen peroxide concentration ( p ≤0,05). In-office whitening agents caused an increase in carbonate, which was significant for all three groups ( p ≤0,05). In-office bleaching gels seem to cause a gain in carbonate of the enamel structure, whilst at-home whitening gels caused a loss in carbonate. Key words: Bleaching, whitening, hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, Raman spectroscopy, carbonate.

  9. Influence of tooth bleaching on dental enamel microhardness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolla, J; Marques, Abc; da Costa, D C; de Souza, A S; Coutinho, M

    2017-09-01

    Several studies have investigated the effect of bleaching on dental tissues. The evaluation of the effect of home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide is important for assessing alterations in enamel microhardness that may affect dental health in terms of resistance to masticatory forces. This meta-analysis was performed in order to determine scientific evidence regarding the effects of home vital bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the microhardness of human dental enamel. A systematic electronic literature search was conducted in the PubMed and Web of Science databases using search terms. Two independent researchers evaluated the information and methodological quality of the studies. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established for article selection; further, only studies published in English were selected. Thirteen studies that met all of the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected and underwent statistical analysis. The results of this meta-analysis showed no significant changes in enamel microhardness when using the 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching gel over periods of 7, 14 and 21 days. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Effect of Delayed Bonding and Antioxidant Application on the Bond Strength to Enamel after Internal Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Halil İbrahim; Aslan, Tuğrul; Kılıç, Kerem; Er, Özgür; Kurt, Gökmen

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of delayed bonding and antioxidant application (AA, 10% sodium ascorbate) after internal bleaching (35% carbamide peroxide) on the shear bond strength of an adhesive cement to enamel. Eighty-four human maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated. The control group remained unbleached with no AA. Experimental groups were all internally bleached. The buccal enamel was finished and polished with metallographic paper to a refinement of #600, in order to obtain a 5-mm(2) flat bonding area. An adhesive cement (Clearfil Esthetic) was placed into a plastic tube with internal diameter of 3 mm and a 3-mm height and cured on the enamel. Bonding occurred either immediately after bleaching (group Im), a 7-day delay (group 7), or a 14-day delay (group 14), and half the specimens were treated with antioxidant application (groups Im-AA, 7-AA, and 14-AA). Shear bond strength testing was performed on a universal testing machine, and data were analyzed with ANOVA and Fisher test (5%). Delaying of bonding is a useful factor for enhancing shear bond strength (p adhesive cementation to enamel is recommended only when delayed 14 days, or delayed 7 days with sodium ascorbate application. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. Effect of enamel sealants on tooth bleaching and on the color stability of the result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcodel, N; Hassel, A J; Sen, S; Saure, D; Rammelsberg, P; Lux, C J; Zingler, S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of enamel sealants on bleaching of natural teeth by use of 40 % hydrogen peroxide in a dental surgery. The color stability of the results from bleaching was, furthermore, determined 10 months after the bleaching procedure. In a standardized setting, four sealants (Pro Seal ® , Light Bond™ Sealant, Protecto ® , and Clinpro™ XT Varnish) were applied to and removed from human teeth in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Natural teeth served as medium; half of the teeth were sealed and the others served as controls. Hydrogen peroxide gel (40 %; Opalescence Boost; Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT, USA) was used as bleaching agent. Color measurement was performed with a spectroradiometer (Photoresearch PR670) before the bleaching process (T1) and 24 h (T2) and 10 months (T3) after bleaching. The spectroradiometer results were expressed by use of the Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) L*a*b* color notation. The L*, a*, and b* values of the sealed and the unsealed surfaces were not significantly different at any time during the study (p > 0.05), irrespective of the sealant used. Ten months after the bleaching process, mean L*, a*, and b* values were lower than at 1-day post-bleaching; the mean value of ΔE between 1-day post-bleaching and 10 months post-bleaching was 2.46 (±3.1). The results of the study suggest that the effectiveness of professional tooth whitening is not appreciably affected by the application of the four sealants tested.

  12. Effect of tooth-bleaching on the carbonate concentration in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Koudriavtsev, Tatiana; Herrera-Sancho, ?scar-Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Background There are not many studies evaluating the effects of surface treatments at the molecular level. The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze the concentration of carbonate molecules in dental enamel by Raman spectroscopy after the application of in-office and home whitening agents. Material and Methods Sixty human teeth were randomly divided into six groups and exposed to three different home bleaching gels (Day White) and three in-office whitening agents (Zoom! Whitespeed and Pol...

  13. Influence of remineralizing gels on bleached enamel microhardness in different time intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Yui, Karen Cristina Kazue; D'Avila, Thaís Corrêa; Takahashi, Camila Lurie; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Borges, Alexandre Luis Souto

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of bleaching gel pH, the effect of applying remineralizing gels after bleaching and the effect of artificial saliva on enamel microhardness. Seventy bovine incisors were divided into three groups: Group 1 (n=10) received no bleaching procedure (control); Group 2 was bleached with a 35% hydrogen peroxide neutral gel (n=30) and Group 3 was bleached with a 35% hydrogen peroxide acid gel (n=30). Each experimental group was subdivided into three groups (n=10) according to the post-bleaching treatment: storage in artificial saliva, application of a fluoride gel and application of a combination of calcium and fluoride gel. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 7, 15 and 30 days and enamel microhardness was evaluated. The Vickers microhardness data were analyzed by three-way RM ANOVA, which revealed a significant difference only for treatment factor. The Tukey's test showed that the groups bleached followed by no additional treatment exhibited microhardness means significantly lower than the bleached groups treated with remineralizing gels. The Dunnet's test showed a significant difference only for the group bleached with acid gel without remineralizing treatment compared to the control group measured immediately after bleaching. It was concluded that acid bleaching gel significantly reduced enamel microhardness and that use of remineralizing gels after bleaching can significantly enhance the microhardness of bleached enamel.

  14. In-Vitro Evaluation of the Effect of Herbal Antioxidants on Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Bleached Enamel

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    Zahra Khamverdi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A reduction in bond strength of composite to bleached enamel has been reported immediately after bleaching treatment. Application of some antioxidant agents may decrease the adverse effects of whitening agents on bond strength and enhance composite bond to enamel. This study aimed to assess the effect of green tea, sodium ascorbate, sage and grape seed extract on bond strength of composite to bleached enamel.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 90 human enamel surfaces were randomly divided into six groups as follows (n=15: G1, no bleaching; G2, bleaching with 40% hydrogen peroxide (HP; G3, HP+1000 μmol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG for 10 minutes; G4, HP+10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes; G5, HP+10% sage for 10 minutes and G6, HP+5% grape seed extract for 10 minutes. The specimens were bonded to composite in all groups. The shear bond strength of specimens was measured in Megapascals (MPa. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test (α=0.05.Results: The highest and the lowest mean shear bond strength values were observed in group 1 (22.61±3.29MPa and group 2 (5.87±1.80MPa, respectively. The reduction in bond strength in group 2 was greater than that in other groups (P<0.001. No significant difference was found among groups 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 (P>0.05. Conclusions: All the herbal antioxidants used in this study equally compensated for the reduced bond strength of composite to bleached enamel.Keywords: Antioxidants; Tooth Bleaching; Composite Resins; Shear Strength 

  15. Enamel susceptibility to red wine staining after 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching

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    Sandrine Bittencourt Berger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Concern has been expressed regarding the staining of enamel surface by different beverages after bleaching. This study investigated the influence of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on enamel surface stained with wine after whitening treatments. Flat and polished bovine enamel surfaces were submitted to two commercially available 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents or kept in 100% humidity, as a control group (n = 10. Specimens of all groups were immersed in red wine for 48 h at 37°C, immediately, 24 h or 1 week after treatments. All specimens were ground into powder and prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD test at 5% significance level. The amount of wine pigments uptake by enamel submitted to bleaching treatments was statistically higher than that of control group, independently of the evaluation time. Results suggested that wine staining susceptibility was increased by bleaching treatments.

  16. ENAMEL SUSCEPTIBILITY TO RED WINE STAINING AFTER 35% HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Coelho, Alessandra Sanchez; Oliveira, Valéria Aparecida Pessatti; Cavalli, Vanessa; Giannini, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Concern has been expressed regarding the staining of enamel surface by different beverages after bleaching. This study investigated the influence of 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on enamel surface stained with wine after whitening treatments. Flat and polished bovine enamel surfaces were submitted to two commercially available 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents or kept in 100% humidity, as a control group (n = 10). Specimens of all groups were immersed in red wine for 48 h at 37°C, immediately, 24 h or 1 week after treatments. All specimens were ground into powder and prepared for the spectrophotometric analysis. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's PLSD test at 5% significance level. The amount of wine pigments uptake by enamel submitted to bleaching treatments was statistically higher than that of control group, independently of the evaluation time. Results suggested that wine staining susceptibility was increased by bleaching treatments. PMID:19089218

  17. Trace elementary concentration in enamel after dental bleaching using HI-ERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Added, N [GFAA, Depto de Fisica Nuclear, IFUSP, University of Sao Paulo, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rizzutto, M A [GFAA, Depto de Fisica Nuclear, IFUSP, University of Sao Paulo, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Curado, J F [GFAA, Depto de Fisica Nuclear, IFUSP, University of Sao Paulo, Travessa R da rua do Matao 187, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Francci, C [School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Markarian, R [School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mori, M [School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-08-15

    Changes of elementary concentrations in dental enamel after a bleaching treatment with different products, is presented, with special focus on the oxygen contribution. Concentrations for Ca, P, O and C and some other trace elements were obtained for enamel of bovine incisor teeth by HI-ERDA measurements using a {sup 35}Cl incident beam and an ionization chamber. Five groups of teeth with five samples each were treated with a different bleaching agents. Each tooth had its crown sectioned in two halves, one for bleaching test and one the other used as a control. Average values of C/Ca, O/Ca, F/Ca enrichment factors were found. The comparison between bleached and non-bleached halves indicates that bleaching treatment did not affect the mineral structure when low-concentration whitening systems were used. The almost constant oxygen concentration in enamel, suggests little changes due to whitening therapy.

  18. Trace elementary concentration in enamel after dental bleaching using HI-ERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Added, N.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Curado, J.F.; Francci, C.; Markarian, R.; Mori, M.

    2006-01-01

    Changes of elementary concentrations in dental enamel after a bleaching treatment with different products, is presented, with special focus on the oxygen contribution. Concentrations for Ca, P, O and C and some other trace elements were obtained for enamel of bovine incisor teeth by HI-ERDA measurements using a 35 Cl incident beam and an ionization chamber. Five groups of teeth with five samples each were treated with a different bleaching agents. Each tooth had its crown sectioned in two halves, one for bleaching test and one the other used as a control. Average values of C/Ca, O/Ca, F/Ca enrichment factors were found. The comparison between bleached and non-bleached halves indicates that bleaching treatment did not affect the mineral structure when low-concentration whitening systems were used. The almost constant oxygen concentration in enamel, suggests little changes due to whitening therapy

  19. Trace elementary concentration in enamel after dental bleaching using HI-ERDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Curado, J. F.; Francci, C.; Markarian, R.; Mori, M.

    2006-08-01

    Changes of elementary concentrations in dental enamel after a bleaching treatment with different products, is presented, with special focus on the oxygen contribution. Concentrations for Ca, P, O and C and some other trace elements were obtained for enamel of bovine incisor teeth by HI-ERDA measurements using a 35Cl incident beam and an ionization chamber. Five groups of teeth with five samples each were treated with a different bleaching agents. Each tooth had its crown sectioned in two halves, one for bleaching test and one the other used as a control. Average values of C/Ca, O/Ca, F/Ca enrichment factors were found. The comparison between bleached and non-bleached halves indicates that bleaching treatment did not affect the mineral structure when low-concentration whitening systems were used. The almost constant oxygen concentration in enamel, suggests little changes due to whitening therapy.

  20. Influence of bleaching regimen and time elapsed on microtensile bond strength of resin composite to enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Toksoy Topcu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of time elapsed since bleaching and different bleaching regimens on the microtensile bond strength of resin composite to enamel. Methodology: Forty flattened buccal enamel surfaces were divided into four groups: An unbleached (control group and three bleaching groups. Control group specimens were not subjected to a bleaching regimen (Group 1, while those in the bleaching groups were bleached as follows: opalescence 10% (Group 2, whiteness perfect 16% (Group 3, and whiteness hydrogen peroxide 35% (Group 4. Thereafter, the bleached specimens were divided into three subgroups (n = 4 teeth each for restoration according to predetermined posttreatment time intervals (immediately, 1 week, and 2 weeks. Bonded specimens were then sectioned and subjected to μTBS testing. The data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-tests at α = 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference in the μTBS of the resin composite to enamel in groups that were bonded immediately after bleaching and in the control group (P 0.05. Conclusions: Adhesive restorative procedures could not be performed immediately or after 1 week irrespective of the type or concentration of bleaching system used. Composite restorations on bleached enamel surfaces should be performed after an interval of at least 2 weeks.

  1. Evaluation of the bleached human enamel by Scanning Electron Microscopy Avaliação do esmalte dental humano submetido ao tratamento clareador por meio de Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura

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    Carolina Baptista Miranda

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Since bleaching has become a popular procedure, the effect of peroxides on dental hard tissues is of great interest in research. Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to perform a qualitative analysis of the human enamel after the application of in-office bleaching agents, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Materials and Methods: Twenty intact human third molars extracted for orthodontic reasons were randomly divided into four groups (n=5 treated as follows: G1- storage in artificial saliva (control group; G2- four 30-minute applications of 35% carbamide peroxide (total exposure: 2h; G3- four 2-hour exposures to 35% carbamide peroxide (total exposure: 8h; G4- two applications of 35% hydrogen peroxide, which was light-activated with halogen lamp at 700mW/cm² during 7min and remained in contact with enamel for 20min (total exposure: 40min. All bleaching treatments adopted in this study followed the application protocols advised by manufacturers. Evaluation of groups submitted to 35% carbamide peroxide was carried out after two time intervals (30 minutes and 2 hours per session, following the extreme situations recommended by the manufacturer. Specimens were prepared for SEM analysis performing gold sputter coating under vacuum and were examined using 15kV at 500x and 2000x magnification. Results: Morphological alterations on the enamel surface were similarly detected after bleaching with either 35% carbamide peroxide or 35% hydrogen peroxide. Surface porosities were characteristic of an erosive process that took place on human enamel. Depression areas, including the formation of craters, and exposure of enamel rods could also be detected. Conclusion: Bleaching effects on enamel morphology were randomly distributed throughout enamel surface and various degrees of enamel damage could be noticed. Clinical significance: In-office bleaching materials may adversely affect enamel morphology and therefore should be used with caution.Desde o

  2. The effect of two bleaching agents on the phosphate concentration of the enamel evaluated by Raman spectroscopy: An ex vivo study

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    Sokkalingam Mothilal Venkatesan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of in-office bleaching agents,-35% and 38% hydrogen peroxide containing bleaching agents, on the phosphate concentration of the enamel evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. Materials and Methods : Forty noncarious, craze-free human maxillary incisors, extracted for periodontal reasons, were used in this study. Baseline Raman spectra from each specimen were obtained before the application of the bleaching agent to assess the phosphate content present in the teeth. The teeth were divided into two groups: Group A - bleached with pola office bleach (35% hydrogen peroxide, potassium nitrate (light activated. Group B - bleached with opalescence Xtra bleach (38% hydrogen peroxide potassium nitrate and fluoride (chemical activated. After the bleaching procedure, the treated specimens were taken to obtain Raman spectra to assess the phosphate loss after bleaching treatment. Results : The results showed that the chemically activated bleaching agent showed less phosphate loss when compared with the light activated bleaching agent. Conclusion : Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the chemically activated bleaching agent showed minimal phosphate loss when compared to light activated bleaching agent. The chemically activated bleaching agent was better than the light activated bleaching agent when values were evaluated statistically.

  3. Influence of Enamel Thickness on Bleaching Efficacy: An In-Depth Color Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Públio, Juliana do Carmo; D'Arce, Maria Beatriz Freitas; Catelan, Anderson; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lovadino, José Roberto; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different enamel thicknesses and bleaching agents on treatment efficacy in-depth by spectrophotometry color analysis. Eighty bovine dental fragments were previously stained in black tea solution and randomly assigned into eight groups (n=10), 1.75mm dentin thickness and different enamel thicknesses as follows: 0.5mm, 1.0mm planned, 1.0mm unplanned (aprismatic enamel), and absence of enamel. The 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) and 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching gels were applied on the enamel surface following the manufacturer's recommendations. Color of underlying dentin was evaluated at four times: after staining with tea (baseline) and after each one of the three weeks of bleaching treatment, by CIE L*a*b* system using reflectance spectrophotometer (CM 700d, Konica Minolta). The ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb values were recorded and subjected to repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The results showed an increase on lightness (L*), with decreased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). At first and second week, bleaching with CP showed higher whitening effectiveness compared to bleaching with HP and the presence of aprismatic enamel significantly reduced ΔE for bleaching with CP. After three weeks of bleaching, few differences were observed between CP and HP groups, and outer enamel layer caused no influence on bleaching effectiveness. Overall, both at-home and in-office bleaching treatments were effective and the presence of aprismatic enamel did not interfere on the whitening efficacy.

  4. In-Vitro Comparative Study of In-office and Home Bleaching Agents on Surface Micro-morphology of Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nazish

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of home-use bleaching agent containing 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) and in-office bleaching agent with 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) on surface micro-morphology of enamel. An experimental study. The discs were prepared at Material Engineering Department of NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, and surface morphology was analyzed at Centralized Science Laboratory of Karachi University, Pakistan. Duration of study was one year from January to December 2012. Forty five sound human third molar crowns, extracted for periodontal reason, were included in the study. Longitudinal sections were made using diamond disks (0.2 mm) under water lubrication to obtain enamel slabs measuring (3 mm x 3 mm). The slabs were embedded in polystyrene resin by using 2.0 cm diameter PVC molds, leaving the outer enamel surface uncovered by the resin. Ninety dental enamel slabs were prepared. The slabs were then randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group contained thirty specimens (n=30). Group 1 was kept in artificial saliva at 37°C in incubator (Memart, Germany) during whole experiment. Group 2 was treated with power whitening gel (White Smile 2011, Germany). Group 3 was treated with tooth whitening pen (White Smile 2011, Germany). The most central region or the region that was most representative of the entire surface area was used. The SEM (Jeol-Japan-JSM6380A, JAPAN) micrographs were examined to determine the type of surface presented. The enamel changes were classified as no or mild alteration, moderate alteration and severe altered surface. Regarding micro-morphology, the enamel surface of control groups showed smooth surface in general with some scattered clear scratches due to the polishing procedure. The specimens bleached in group 2 and group 3, represented areas of mild erosion. Bleaching with 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) and 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) resulted in mild changes in surface micro-morphology of enamel.

  5. Bleaching Gels Containing Calcium and Fluoride: Effect on Enamel Erosion Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra B. Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP bleaching gel modified or not by the addition of calcium and fluoride on enamel susceptibility to erosion. Bovine enamel samples (3 mm in diameter were divided into four groups (n=15 according to the bleaching agent: control—without bleaching (C; 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP; 35% HP with the addition of 2% calcium gluconate (HP + Ca; 35% HP with the addition of 0.6% sodium fluoride (HP + F. The bleaching gels were applied on the enamel surface for 40 min, and the specimens were subjected to erosive challenge with Sprite Zero and remineralization with artificial saliva for 5 days. Enamel wear was assessed using profilometry. The data were analyzed by ANOVA/ Tukey’s test (P<0.05. There were significant differences among the groups (P=0.009. The most enamel wear was seen for C (3.37±0.80 μm, followed by HP (2.89 ± 0.98 μm and HP + F (2.72 ± 0.64 μm. HP + Ca (2.31 ± 0.92 μm was the only group able to significantly reduce enamel erosion compared to C. The application of HP bleaching agent did not increase the enamel susceptibility to erosion. However, the addition of calcium gluconate to the HP gel resulted in reduced susceptibility of the enamel to erosion.

  6. Efficacy and cytotoxicity of a bleaching gel after short application times on dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; da Silveira Vargas, Fernanda; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and correlate the efficacy and cytotoxicity of a 35 % hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching gel after different application times on dental enamel. Enamel/dentin disks in artificial pulp chambers were placed in wells containing culture medium. The following groups were formed: G1, control (no bleaching); G2 and G3, three or one 15-min bleaching applications, respectively; and G4 and G5, three or one 5-min bleaching applications, respectively. Extracts (culture medium with bleaching gel components) were applied for 60 min on cultured odontoblast-like MDPC-23 cells. Cell metabolism (methyl tetrazolium assay) (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 5 %) and cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) were analyzed immediately after the bleaching procedures and the trans-enamel and trans-dentinal HP diffusion quantified (one-way analysis of variance/Tukey's test; α = 5 %). The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was evaluated 24 h after the contact time of the extracts with the cells (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 5 %). Tooth color was analyzed before and 24 h after bleaching using a spectrophotometer according to the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* system (Kruskal-Wallis/Mann-Whitney; α = 0.05). Significant difference (p 0.05). The lowest amount of HP diffusion was observed in G5 (p 0.05). HP diffusion through dental tissues and its cytotoxic effects were proportional to the contact time of the bleaching gel with enamel. However, shorter bleaching times reduced bleaching efficacy. Shortening the in-office tooth bleaching time could be an alternative to minimize the cytotoxic effects of this clinical procedure to pulp tissue. However, the reduced time of bleaching agent application on enamel may not provide adequate esthetic outcome.

  7. In Vitro Comparative Study of Two Different Bleaching Agents on Micro-hardness Dental Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nazish; Ali Abidi, Syed Yawar; Meo, Ashraf Ali

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of home-use bleaching agent containing 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) and in-office bleaching agent containing 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) on enamel micro-hardness. An in vitroexperimental study. Department of Operative Dentistry and Science of Dental Materials at Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences and Material Engineering Department of NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, from July to December 2014. Atotal of 90 enamel slabs from 45 sound human 3rd molar were randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group contained 30 specimens (n=30). Group 1 was kept in artificial saliva at 37°C in incubator during the whole experiment. However, Groups 2 and 3 were treated with power whitening gel and tooth whitening pen respectively. After bleaching session, specimens were thoroughly rinsed with deionized water again for 10 seconds and then stored in artificial saliva at 37°C in incubator. Artificial saliva was changed after every 2 days. The Vickers hardness tester (Wolpert 402 MVD, Germany) was adjusted to a load of 0.1 kg (100 gm) and dwell time of 5 seconds. Three Vickers were performed on each specimen using a hardness tester according to the ISO 6507-3:1998 specification. Micro-hardness measurements were performed before and after bleaching at day 1, 7 and 14. In the control group, the baseline micro-hardness was 181.1 ±9.3 which was reduced after the storage on day 1, 7 and 14 (p = 0.104). In Group 2, baseline micro-hardness was 180.4 ±10.1 which was reduced to 179.79 ±10.0 units after day 1. Whereas, on day 7 and 14, the values of micro-hardness were 179.8 ±10 and 179.7 ±10.29, respectively (p=0.091). Furthermore, the baseline micro-hardness in Group 3 was 174.0 ±22.9 units which was reduced to 173 ±23 on day 1, 170 ±30 on day 7 and 173 ±23 on day 14 (p = 0.256). The statistically insignificant difference was found among micro-hardness values of different bleaching

  8. In Vitro Comparative Study of Two Different Bleaching Agents on Micro-hardness Dental Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, N.; Abidi, S. Y. A.; Meo, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of home-use bleaching agent containing 16 percentage Carbamide Peroxide (CP) and in-office bleaching agent containing 38 percentage Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) on enamel micro-hardness. Study Design: An in vitro experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Operative Dentistry and Science of Dental Materials at Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences and Material Engineering Department of NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, from July to December 2014. Methodology: A total of 90 enamel slabs from 45 sound human 3rd molar were randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group contained 30 specimens (n=30). Group 1 was kept in artificial saliva at 37 Degree C in incubator during the whole experiment. However, Groups 2 and 3 were treated with power whitening gel and tooth whitening pen respectively. After bleaching session, specimens were thoroughly rinsed with deionized water again for 10 seconds and then stored in artificial saliva at 37 Degree C in incubator. Artificial saliva was changed after every 2 days. The Vickers hardness tester (Wolpert 402 MVD, Germany) was adjusted to a load of 0.1 kg (100 gm) and dwell time of 5 seconds. Three Vickers were performed on each specimen using a hardness tester according to the ISO 6507-3:1998 specification. Micro-hardness measurements were performed before and after bleaching at day 1, 7 and 14. Results: In the control group, the baseline micro-hardness was 181.1 ± 9.3 which was reduced after the storage on day 1, 7 and 14 (p = 0.104). In Group 2, baseline micro-hardness was 180.4 ±10.1 which was reduced to 179.79 ± 10.0 units after day 1. Whereas, on day 7 and 14, the values of micro-hardness were 179.8 ±10 and 179.7 ±10.29, respectively (p=0.091). Furthermore, the baseline micro-hardness in Group 3 was 174.0 ±22.9 units which was reduced to 173 ± 23 on day 1, 170 ±30 on day 7 and 173 ± 23 on day 14 (p = 0

  9. The efficacy of laser-assisted in-office bleaching and home bleaching on sound and demineralized enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Majid; Mohammadpour, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated the effectiveness of laser-assisted in-office bleaching and home-bleaching in sound and demineralized enamel. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 120 freshly-extracted bovine incisors. Half of the specimens were stored in a demineralizing solution to induce white spot lesions. Following exposure to a tea solution for 7.5 days, the specimens were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 30 according to the type of enamel and the bleaching procedure employed. Groups 1 and 2 consisted of demineralized teeth subjected to in-office bleaching and home bleaching, whereas in groups 3 and 4, sound teeth were subjected to in-office and home bleaching, respectively. A diode laser (810 nm, 2 W, continuous wave, four times for 15 seconds each) was employed for assisting the in-office process. The color of the specimens was measured before (T1) and after (T2) staining and during (T3) and after (T4) the bleaching procedures using a spectrophotometer. The color change (ΔE) between different treatments stages was compared among the groups. Results: There were significant differences in the color change between T2 and T3 (ΔE T2–T3) and T2 and T4 (ΔE T2–T4) stages among the study groups (pbleaching (group 1) as compared to the other groups (Pbleaching could provide faster and greater whitening effect than home bleaching on stained demineralized enamel, but both procedures produced comparable results on sound teeth. PMID:26877590

  10. Effects of drying agents on bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesive systems to enamel immediately after bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niat, Alireza Boruzi; Yazdi, Fatmeh Maleknejad; Koohestanian, Niloufar

    2012-12-01

    To determine the effect of drying agents and adhesive solvents on the bond strength of resin composite to enamel immediately after bleaching. Sixty healthy human premolars were bleached using 15% carbamide peroxide gel and randomly divided into three groups according to the immersing solutions applied immediately after bleaching: 70% alcohol, acetone, and distilled water. Each group was randomly divided into two subgroups according to the adhesives that were applied: an alcohol-based adhesive (Single Bond) and an acetone-based adhesive (One Step). By using rubber washers, composite Z100 was placed onto the enamel and shear bond strength was evaluated in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The type of failure was also assessed using a stereomicroscope. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Fisher's Exact test was used to evaluate differences in the failure modes. Statistical analysis showed that the bond strength of the distilled water groups was significantly lower than that of the other groups, but the bond strengths of the two groups where a drying agent was applied were similar to that of the unbleached group. The acetone-based adhesive (One Step) provided higher bond strength than did the alcohol-based adhesive (Single Bond) (p 0.05). Fisher's Exact test showed there was no significant difference in the failure mode of all the experimental groups (p > 0.05). The application of drying agents improves the bond strength of resin composite to bleached enamel. Furthermore, the acetone-based adhesive used in the study had a higher bond strength to bleached enamel than did the alcohol-based adhesive used.

  11. A comparative analysis of bleached and sound enamel structure through scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.; Kaleem, M.; Anwar, R.

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effects of bleaching agent on enamel structure and to characterize the morphological and chemical changes in enamel due to bleaching. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: School of Chemical and Material Engineering (SCME), NUST Islamabad from Feb to May 2013. Materials and Methods: Ten recently extracted pre molars between the 12-22 years age group were randomly assigned into two groups. Group one was a non-bleached control group with sound enamel. Group two was bleached with Everbrite In office tooth whitening system after specimen preparation, surface morphology was observed under SEM (scanned electron microscope) and AFM (Atomic force microscope). Results: The detrimental effects of hydrogen per-oxide on enamel were evident in bleached specimens under SEM, and AFM analysis. Conclusion: There were significant surface alterations found in the bleached specimens as compared to control group. However salivary buffering potentials could overcome the demineralizing effect of bleaching gel. (author)

  12. Susceptibility of Enamel Treated with Bleaching Agents to Mineral Loss after Cariogenic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Tezel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Controversial reports exist whether bleaching agents cause a susceptibility to demineralization. The aim of this study was to compare the calcium loss of enamel treated with different bleaching agents and activation methods. Method and Materials. The specimens obtained from human premolars were treated in accordance with manufacturer protocols; 10% carbamide peroxide, 38% hydrogen peroxide light-activated, 38% hydrogen peroxide laser-activated, and no treatment (control. After cariogenic challenge calcium concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Results. No differences were found between the calcium loss of the laser-activated group and 10% carbamide peroxide group (>0.05. However, the differences between laser-activated and control groups were statistically significant (0.05. On the other hand, the light-activated group showed a significantly higher calcium loss compared with the other groups (<0.05. Conclusions. The results show that bleaching agents may cause calcium loss but it seems to be a negligible quantity for clinical aspects.

  13. Effect of Green Tea Extract as Antioxidant on Shear Bond Strength of Resin Composite to in-Office and Home-Bleached Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharafeddin F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Shear bond strength (SBS of home and office bleached enamel will be compromised by immediate application of composite restoration. Antioxidant agent may overcome this problem. Objectives: This in vitro study assessed the effect of green tea extract on shear bond strength of resin composite to in-office and home-bleached enamel. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5 ×1.5 cm, with the coronal portion above the cemento enamel junction out of the block. Then, after bleaching labial enamel surfaces of 20 teeth with 15% carbamide peroxide 6 hours a day for 5 days, they were randomly divided into two groups: A1 and A2 (n = 10, depending upon whether or not they are treated with antioxidant. Labial enamel surfaces of the remaining 20 teeth were bleached with 38% hydrogen peroxide before being randomly divided into groups B1 and B2 (n = 10, again depending on whether or not the antioxidant was used in their treatment . The experimental groups (A2,B2 were treated with 5% solution of green tea extract before resin composite restoration was done by a cylindrical Teflon mould (5×2 mm. Shear bond strength of the specimens was tested under a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020. The SBS data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p < 0.05. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between shear bond strength of the control group (A1 and treated group (A2 but there were statistically significant differences between the groups B1 and B2 (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Application of antioxidant did not increase the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel to resin composite but its application increased the shear bond strength of in-office bleached enamel to resin composite.

  14. Study of the hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent effects on bovine enamel using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Ruda F.; Calazans, Fernanda S.; Miranda, Mauro S.; Santos, Ramon S.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Assis, Joaquim T.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen Peroxide's a bleaching agent capable of oxidizing a wide range of colored organic, causing discoloration and hence bleaching of the substrate, but some authors related the occurrence of side effects related to bleaching of the tooth structure, such as changes in morphology superficial. It was used 6 bovine incisors, each tooth was initially evaluated six times in different areas to obtain the count of elements phosphorus and calcium using X-Ray Fluorescence. The teeth were randomly divided in two groups: both groups were submitted to bleaching in office with hydrogen peroxide 38%, once a week during three weeks. Group 1 was stored in distilled water and group 2 in artificial saliva, between the sessions. The measurements were repeated every seven days before the bleaching treatment. Besides that, changes in mineral levels were always assessed in the same area and using the same procedure. It was observed that the bleaching was not able to demineralize the tooth enamel studied. (author)

  15. Effect of 10% Strontium Chloride and 5% Potassium Nitrate with Fluoride on Bleached Bovine Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Cristiane de Melo; Pedrinha, Victor Feliz; Araújo, Jesuína Lamartine Nogueira; Esteves, Renata Antunes; Silva da Silveira, Ana Daniela; Silva, Cecy Martins

    2017-01-01

    Dental whitening has been increasingly sought out to improve dental aesthetics, but may cause chemical and morphological changes in dental enamel surfaces. This study evaluated in vitro the effect of 10% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate with fluoride on bovine enamel, through tristimulus colorimetry, Knoop microhardness (KHN), and roughness after bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). The specimens were divided into three groups (n=15): GControl received bleaching treatment with 35% HP; GNitrate received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 5% potassium nitrate with 2% sodium fluoride; and GStrontium received bleaching with 35% HP followed by the application of 10% strontium chloride on the enamel. Next, five specimens of each experimental group were subjected to KHN and tristimulus colorimetry tests, and 10 specimens were subjected to surface roughness (SR) tests. The values obtained for the different groups were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post-hoc Tukey-Kramer test in addition to Student's T-test for paired data. In the intergroup comparison, KHN final differed statistically ( p 0.05). 10% strontium chloride and 5% potassium nitrate combined with 2% fluoride downplayed morphological changes to the enamel, without interfering with the effectiveness of the bleaching process.

  16. Influence of microhybrid resin and etching times on bleached enamel for the bonding of ceramic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Macedo Firoozmand

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS of polycrystalline ceramic brackets (PCB bonded after bleaching treatment using different composite resins and enamel etching times. A total of 144 bovine incisors were randomly divided into two study groups (n = 72, each as follows: G1, enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide, and G2 (control group, enamel unbleached. After the bleaching treatment, the samples were stored in artificial saliva for 14 days. These groups were further divided into two subgroups (n = 36, each as follows: GA, brackets bonded with Transbond XT (3M and GB, brackets bonded with Filtek Z250 (3M. For each resin used, three different etching times with 37% phosphoric acid (15, 30 and 60 seconds were tested. SBS tests were performed using a universal testing machine (EMIC, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI score was verified. Significant differences among the three experimental conditions and interactions between the groups were observed. The type of composite resin accounted for 24% of the influence on the bond strength, whereas the etching time and bleaching treatment accounted for 14.5% and 10% of the influence on bond strength, respectively. The ARI revealed that the most common area of adhesion failure was at the composite resin-bracket interface. The type of composite resin, etching time and external bleaching significantly influenced the SBS of PCB on enamel, even after 14 days of saliva storage.

  17. An Analysis of Dental Enamel after Bleaching using 35% Hydrogen Peroxide with Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Asmawati, Dr. drg. Asmawati, M.Kes

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an effective bleaching agent of tooth whitening, but its use causes changes in the chemical composition of the elements that configure tooth enamel. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are changes in the composition of the elements that configure the tooth enamel after bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide. Background: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an effective bleaching agent of tooth whitening, but its use causes changes in the chemical compo...

  18. Influence of enamel/dentin thickness on the toxic and esthetic effects of experimental in-office bleaching protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Duque, C C; Soares, D G; Basso, F G; Hebling, J; de Souza Costa, C A

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to assess the whitening effectiveness and toxicity of tooth-bleaching protocols applied to enamel/dentin disks simulating mandibular incisors (ICs) and premolars (PMs). A 10% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) gel was applied for 3 × 15, 1 × 15, or 1 × 5 min to enamel/dentin disks simulating mandibular ICs and PMs, and the trans-enamel and trans-dentinal diffusion products were applied to human dental pulp cells (1 h). Professional therapy (35% H 2 O 2 -3 × 15 min) was used as positive control, and non-bleached samples were used as negative control. Cell viability and morphology, oxidative stress generation, and odontoblastic marker expression were assessed. The H 2 O 2 diffusion and enamel color change (ΔE) were also analyzed. The 10% H 2 O 2 gel induced significant cell viability reduction only when applied 3 × 15 min, with the intensity of oxidative stress and down-regulation of odontoblastic markers being higher in the IC group. The other experimental bleaching protocols caused slight alterations regarding the cell parameters evaluated, with intensity being related to enamel/dentin thickness. These effects were also correlated with higher H 2 O 2 diffusion in the IC group. ΔE values similar as positive control were found for the 10% 3 × 15 and 1 × 15 protocols on IC group, after 4 and 6 sessions. Application of a 10% H 2 O 2 bleaching gel for 15 or 45 min to thin dental substrate significantly minimizes cell toxicity in comparison with highly concentrated gels associated with similar esthetic outcomes by increasing the number of bleaching sessions. Bleaching gels with 10% H 2 O 2 applied in small teeth for short periods may be an interesting alternative to obtain whitening effectiveness without causing toxicity to pulp cells, which may be able to reduce the tooth hypersensitivity claimed by patients.

  19. A review of the effect of vital teeth bleaching on the mechanical properties of tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfallah, Hunida M; Swain, Michael V

    2013-09-01

    Tooth whitening is considered the easiest and most cost-effective procedure for treating tooth discoloration. Contemporary bleaching agents contain hydrogen peroxide as the active ingredient. It is either applied directly or produced from its precursor, carbamide peroxide. A review of the published literature was undertaken to investigate the potential adverse effects of whitening products on dental enamel, with a focus on its mechanical properties and the influence of various parameters on study outcomes. There appear to be considerable differences in opinion as to whether changes in mechanical properties occur as a result of tooth whitening. However, the mechanical property findings of those studies appear to be related to the load applied during the indentation tests. Most studies which used loads higher than 500mN to determine enamel hardness showed no effect of bleaching, whereas those using lower loads were able to detect hardness reduction in the surface layer of enamel. In conclusion, bleaching reduces the hardness of the enamel surface of enamel, and that is more readily detected with instrumented low load testing systems. This hardness reduction may arise due to degradation or denaturation of enamel matrix proteins by the peroxide oxidation.

  20. In-Vitro Comparative Study of In-office and Home Bleaching Agents on Surface Micro-morphology of Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of home-use bleaching agent containing 16 percent Carbamide Peroxide (CP) and in-office bleaching agent with 38 percentage Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) on surface micro-morphology of enamel. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The discs were prepared at Material Engineering Department of NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, and surface morphology was analyzed at Centralized Science Laboratory of Karachi University, Pakistan. Duration of study was one year from January to December 2012. Methodology: Forty five sound human third molar crowns, extracted for periodontal reason, were included in the study. Longitudinal sections were made using diamond disks (0.2 mm) under water lubrication to obtain enamel slabs measuring (3 mm x 3 mm). The slabs were embedded in polystyrene resin by using 2.0 cm diameter PVC molds, leaving the outer enamel surface uncovered by the resin. Ninety dental enamel slabs were prepared. The slabs were then randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group contained thirty specimens (n=30). Group 1 was kept in artificial saliva at 37 degree C in incubator (Memart, Germany) during whole experiment. Group 2 was treated with power whitening gel (White Smile 2011, Germany). Group 3 was treated with tooth whitening pen (White Smile 2011, Germany). The most central region or the region that was most representative of the entire surface area was used. The SEM (Jeol-Japan-JSM6380A, JAPAN) micrographs were examined to determine the type of surface presented. The enamel changes were classified as no or mild alteration, moderate alteration and severe altered surface. Results: Regarding micro-morphology, the enamel surface of control groups showed smooth surface in general with some scattered clear scratches due to the polishing procedure. The specimens bleached in group 2 and group 3, represented areas of mild erosion. Conclusion: Bleaching with 38 percentage Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) and

  1. Microhardness and Roughness of Enamel Bleached with 10% Carbamide Peroxide and Brushed with Different Toothpastes: An In Situ Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Carolina França de Medeiros; Manfroi, Fernanda Borguetti; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: This in situ study evaluated the roughness and microhardness of enamel bleached with 10% carbamide peroxide (PC10) and brushed with different toothpastes. Materials and Methods: Two groups of volunteers received PC10 and placebo agents for 21 days in two phases in a crossover 2 × 3 study. Fragments of human enamel were distributed among intraoral removable appliances (IRA). Nine fragments, divided into three triplets, were used in each IRA, and these were brushed with toothpastes R (Colgate), W (Colgate Total 12 Whiteness Gel) or BS (Colgate Whitening Oxygen Bubbles Fluoride). Treatments agents were applied for 8 h overnight. After brushing, the volunteers used the IRA for about 16 h/day. After a washout period, new IRAs were distributed and the volunteers were crossed over to the alternate agent for 21 days. Roughness and microhardness were measured before and after each phase. Results: According to the paired Student’s t-test, roughness of enamel increased and microhardness decreased (P Enamel microhardness and surface roughness are altered when PC10 bleaching is associated with tooth brushing using toothpastes BS, R, and W. PMID:25214727

  2. Acid demineralization susceptibility of dental enamel submitted to different bleaching techniques and fluoridation regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomão, Dlf; Santos, Dm; Nogueira, Rd; Palma-Dibb, Rg; Geraldo-Martins, Vr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the acid demineralization susceptibility of bleached dental enamel submitted to different fluoride regimens. One hundred bovine enamel blocks (6×6×3 mm) were randomly divided into 10 groups (n=10). Groups 1 and 2 received no bleaching. Groups 3 to 6 were submitted to an at-home bleaching technique using 6% hydrogen peroxide (HP; G3 and G4) or 10% carbamide peroxide (CP; G5 and G6). Groups 7 to 10 were submitted to an in-office bleaching technique using 35% HP (G7 and G8) or 35% CP (G9 and G10). During bleaching, a daily fluoridation regimen of 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) solution was performed on groups 3, 5, 7, and 9, while weekly fluoridation with a 2% NaF gel was performed on groups 4, 6, 8, and 10. The samples in groups 2 to 10 were pH cycled for 14 consecutive days. The samples from all groups were then assessed by cross-sectional Knoop microhardness at different depths from the outer enamel surface. The average Knoop hardness numbers (KHNs) were compared using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α=0.05). The comparison between groups 1 and 2 showed that the demineralization method was effective. The comparison among groups 2 to 6 showed the same susceptibility to acid demineralization, regardless of the fluoridation method used. However, the samples from groups 8 and 10 showed more susceptibility to acid demineralization when compared with group 2 (penamel to acid demineralization. However, the use of 35% HP and 35% CP must be associated with a daily fluoridation regimen, otherwise the in-office bleaching makes the bleached enamel more susceptible to acid demineralization.

  3. Susceptibility to Coffee Staining during Enamel Remineralization Following the In-Office Bleaching Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Aline Akemi; Lima, Fernanda Ferruzzi; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    with coffee; (group 2) immersion in a coffee solution for 30 minutes daily for 7 days, starting 1 week after bleaching; and (group 3) immersion in a coffee solution for 30 minutes daily for 14 days, starting immediately after bleaching. Enamel mineralization and color were assessed before bleaching (T1......), immediately after bleaching (T2), and after 7 (T3) and 14 days (T4). The CIE whiteness index (W*) and closeness to white (ΔW*) following bleaching and/or immersion in coffee were calculated. Data were analyzed with Friedman and Wilcoxon tests or Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS...

  4. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  5. The influence of the Nd:YAG laser bleaching on physical and mechanical properties of the dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Maurem; Paranhos, Maria Paula Gandolfi; Spohr, Ana Maria; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; da Silva, Isaac Newton Lima; Souto, André Arigony; Burnett, Luiz Henrique

    2009-07-01

    The Nd:YAG laser can be used in Dentistry to remove soft tissue, disinfect canals in endodontic procedures and prevent caries. However, there is no protocol for Nd:YAG laser application in dental bleaching. The aims of this in vitro study were: (a) to observe the tooth shade alteration when hydrogen peroxide whitening procedures are associated with dyes with different wavelengths and irradiated with Nd:YAG laser or halogen light; (b) to measure the Vickers (VHN) enamel microhardness before and after the whitening procedure; (c) to evaluate the tensile bond strength of two types of adhesive systems applied on bleached enamel; (d) to observe the failure pattern after bond strength testing; (e) to evaluate the pulpal temperature during the bleaching procedures with halogen light or laser; (f) to measure the kinetic reaction of hydrogen peroxide. Extracted sound human molar crowns were sectioned in the mesiodistal direction to obtain 150 fragments that were divided into five groups for each adhesive system: WL (H(2)O(2) + thickener and Nd:YAG), WH (H(2)O(2) + thickener and halogen light), QL (H(2)O(2) + carbopol + Q-switch and Nd:YAG), QH (H(2)O(2) + carbopol + Q-switch and halogen light), and C (Control, without whitening agent). Shade assessment was made with a shade guide and the microhardness tests were performed before and after the bleaching procedures. Immediately afterwards, the groups were restored with the adhesive systems Adper Single Bond 2 or Solobond M plus composite resin, and the tensile bond strength test was performed. The temperature was measured by thermocouples placed on the enamel surface and intrapulpal chamber. The kinetics of hydrogen peroxide was observed by ultraviolet analysis. The shade changed seven levels for Nd:YAG laser groups and eight levels for halogen light. According to the student's t-test, there was no statistical difference between the VHN before and after the whitening protocols (p > 0.05). The tensile bond strength showed no

  6. 'In vitro' assessment to instrumented indentation hardness tests in enamel of bovine teeth, before and after dental bleaching by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto Junior, Francisco Meira

    2004-01-01

    The laser enamel bleaching is a common used procedure due to its satisfactory esthetic results. The possible changes on the dental structures caused by the bleaching technique are of great importance. The enamel superficial microhardness changes through instrumented indentation hardness on bovine teeth were analyzed in this present study. The samples were divided in two halves, one being the control and the other irradiated with a diode laser (808 nm) or with a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) to activate the Whiteness HP bleaching gel (hydrogen peroxide at 35%). It was possible to conclude that there was a statistical significant increase on the enamel superficial microhardness (Group I, sample 1 and Group II, sample 1) despite this increase did not seem to indicate a concern regarding the enamel surface resistance change. There was not a significant statistical change on the enamel microhardness on the other samples. The final conclusion is that there was no superficial enamel morphological change after these treatments. (author)

  7. Effect of two bleaching agents on enamel morphology: a SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghavam M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bleaching materials are able to change the surface morphology as well as mineral and organic content of tooth structure. Considering that bleaching is done for aesthetic purpose, awareness of the possible effect of these materials on hard tissue is important, because it may affect the restorative treatments. Purpose: The aim of this study was comparing the effect of two bleaching materials, Kimia and Ultradent both containing 35% H2O2, on tooth enamel by SEM. Materials and Methods: Five intact central incisors were cut into three sections vertically and each part was randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, without any bleaching. Group 2, bleached with Kimia 35% H2O2. Group 3, bleached with Ultradent 35% H2O2. Each tooth served as its own control. Then the samples were observed by SEM with 250 and 500 magnifications. Results: In the control group some scratches and small white grains were observed which seems to be the result of mastication trauma and pumice powder. In the other groups, morphologic changes like increased surface roughness, deepening of cracks, rod exposure and presence of new cracks were observed. The two experimental materials did not differ in these regards. Conclusion: It seems that both studied materials have limited destructive effects on tooth enamel which seems to be of no clinical importance.

  8. Effect of Toothpaste Application Prior to Dental Bleaching on Whitening Effectiveness and Enamel Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Junior, W F; Lima, D A N L; Tabchoury, C P M; Ambrosano, G M B; Aguiar, F H B; Lovadino, J R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on the enamel properties and effectiveness of bleaching using 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) when applying toothpastes with different active agents prior to dental bleaching. Seventy enamel blocks (4 × 4 × 2 mm) were submitted to in vitro treatment protocols in a tooth-brushing machine (n=10): with distilled water and exposure to placebo gel (negative control [NC]) or HP bleaching (positive control [PC]); and brushing with differing toothpastes prior to HP bleaching, including potassium nitrate toothpaste (PN) containing NaF, conventional sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste (FT), arginine-based toothpastes (PA and SAN), or a toothpaste containing bioactive glass (NM). Color changes were determined using the CIE L*a*b* system (ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb), and a roughness (Ra) analysis was performed before and after treatments. Surface microhardness (SMH) and cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) were analyzed after treatment. Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA for Ra, one-way ANOVA (SMH, ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb), split-plot ANOVA (CSMH), and Tukey post hoc test (α PA = SAN > all other groups) or decreased HP effects (CSMH). Ra increased in all bleached groups, with the exception of NM, which did not differ from the NC. The variation in the color variables (ΔL, Δa, and Δb) explained 21% of the variation in the physical surface variables (Ra and SMH). The application of toothpaste prior to dental bleaching did not interfere with the effectiveness of treatment. The bioactive glass based toothpaste protected the enamel against the deleterious effects of dental bleaching.

  9. Smile restoration through use of enamel microabrasion associated with tooth bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Rahal, Vanessa; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Sversut; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Sundfeld Neto, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Enamel microabrasion can eliminate enamel irregularities and discoloration defects, improving the appearance of teeth. This article presents the latest treatment protocol of enamel microabrasion to remove stains on the enamel surface. It has been verified that teeth submitted to microabrasion acquire a yellowish color because of the thinness of the remaining enamel, revealing the color of dentinal tissue to a greater degree. In these clinical conditions, correction of the color pattern of these teeth can be obtained with a considerable margin of clinical success using products containing carbamide peroxide in custom trays. Thus, patients can benefit from combined enamel microabrasion/tooth bleaching therapy, which yields attractive cosmetic results. Esthetics plays an important role in contemporary dentistry, especially because the media emphasizes beauty and health. Currently, in many countries, a smile is considered beautiful if it imitates a natural appearance, with clear, well-aligned teeth and defined anatomical shapes. Enamel microabrasion is one technique that can be used to correct discolored enamel. This technique has been elucidated and strongly advocated by Croll and Cavanaugh since 1986, and by other investigators who suggested mechanical removal of enamel stains using acidic substances in conjunction with abrasive agents. Enamel microabrasion is indicated to remove intrinsic stains of any color and of hard texture, and is contraindicated for extrinsic stains, dentinal stains, for patients with deficient labial seals, and in cases where there is no possibility to place a rubber dam adequately during the microabrasion procedure. It should be emphasized that enamel microabrasion causes a microreduction on the enamel surface, and, in some cases, teeth submitted to microabrasion may appear a darker or yellowish color because the thin remaining enamel surface can reveal some of the dentinal tissue color. In these situations, according to Haywood and Heymann

  10. Dental bleaching on teeth submitted to enamel microabrasion 30 years ago-a case report of patients' compliance during bleaching treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundfeld, Daniel; Pavani, Caio Cesar; Schott, Timm Cornelius; Machado, Lucas Silveira; Pini, Núbia Inocêncya Pavesi; Bertoz, André Pinheiro de Magalhães; Sundfeld, Renato Herman

    2018-04-20

    The present dental bleaching case report describes a new method that precisely quantifies the daily wearing-times of the bleaching product by inserting a microsensor in the acetate custom tray. The bleaching efficacy was also discussed since the patient was previously submitted to enamel microabrasion. The patient was submitted to enamel microabrasion in 1987, and bleaching treatment was performed in 2005. In 2017, re-bleaching was executed using 10% peroxide carbamide. The electronic microsensor, TheraMon (TheraMon® microelectronic system; Sales Agency Gschladt, Hargelsberg, Austria), was embedded in the labial region of the upper and lower acetate trays to evaluate the wearing-times of the acetate trays/bleaching product. The patient was instructed to wear the tray for 6 to 8 h/day while sleeping. After 24 days of bleaching treatment, the data obtained from the TheraMon electronic devices was collected and interpreted. The patient did not entirely follow the bleaching treatment as recommended, as there was no evidence of use of the upper and lower trays for some days; additionally, the bleaching product was used for shorter and longer periods than was instructed. The TheraMon microeletronic device precisely measured the wearing-times of the acetate tray/bleaching product during the bleaching treatment. Teeth submitted to enamel microabrasion presented with a healthy clinical appearance after 30 years. Measuring the length and frequency of use of an acetate tray/bleaching product can be important to clinicians and patients for obtaining a controlled and adequate bleaching treatment.

  11. Influence of pH, bleaching agents, and acid etching on surface wear of bovine enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Flávia; Bombonatti, Juliana Fraga Soares; Alencar, Marina Studart; Consolmagno, Elaine Cristina; Honório, Heitor Marques; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Development of new materials for tooth bleaching justifies the need for studies to evaluate the changes in the enamel surface caused by different bleaching protocols. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bovine dental enamel wear in function of different bleaching gel protocols, acid etching and pH variation. Material and Methods Sixty fragments of bovine teeth were cut, obtaining a control and test areas. In the test area, one half received etching followed by a bleaching gel application, and the other half, only the bleaching gel. The fragments were randomly divided into six groups (n=10), each one received one bleaching session with five hydrogen peroxide gel applications of 8 min, activated with hybrid light, diode laser/blue LED (HL) or diode laser/violet LED (VHL) (experimental): Control (C); 35% Total Blanc Office (TBO35HL); 35% Lase Peroxide Sensy (LPS35HL); 25% Lase Peroxide Sensy II (LPS25HL); 15% Lase Peroxide Lite (LPL15HL); and 10% hydrogen peroxide (experimental) (EXP10VHL). pH values were determined by a pHmeter at the initial and final time periods. Specimens were stored, subjected to simulated brushing cycles, and the superficial wear was determined (μm). ANOVA and Tukey´s tests were applied (α=0.05). Results The pH showed a slight decrease, except for Group LPL15HL. Group LPS25HL showed the highest degree of wear, with and without etching. Conclusion There was a decrease from the initial to the final pH. Different bleaching gels were able to increase the surface wear values after simulated brushing. Acid etching before bleaching increased surface wear values in all groups. PMID:27008254

  12. Comparative evaluation of two different remineralizing agents on the microhardness of bleached enamel surface: Results of an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunpriya Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Both GC Tooth Mousse (Recaldent and Toothmin Tooth cream (Abbott Healthcare Pvt.Ltd increase the microhardness of bleached enamel. Toothmin tooth cream is a better agent for increasing microhardness, although difference is not significant.

  13. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on bovine enamel surface during in-office tooth bleaching ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionysopoulos, Dimitrios; Strakas, Dimitrios; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia; Koumpia, Effimia

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of using Er,Cr:YSGG laser during in-office tooth bleaching on bovine enamel surface to evaluate the safety of this therapy on tooth tissues. Thirty-six enamel specimens were prepared from bovine incisors and divided into three groups: Group 1 specimens (control) received no bleaching treatment; Group 2 received a conventional in-office bleaching treatment (40 % H 2 O 2 ); Group 3 received laser-assisted bleaching procedure (40 % H 2 O 2 ) utilizing an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The specimens were stored for 10 days after the bleaching treatment in artificial saliva. Vickers hardness was determined using a microhardness tester, and measurements for surface roughness were done using a VSI microscope. Three specimens for each experimental group were examined under SEM and mineral composition of the specimens was evaluated using EDS. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc, Wilcoxon signed rank and Kruskal-Wallis tests (a = 0.05). The Vickers hardness of the enamel was reduced after in-office bleaching procedures (p  0.05), and no changes in mineral composition of the enamel were detected after in-office bleaching procedures (p > 0.05). The laser-assisted bleaching treatment with Er,Cr:YSGG laser did not influence the enamel surface compared to the conventional bleaching technique. The safety of the use of Er,Cr:YSGG laser during in-office tooth bleaching regarding the surface properties of the enamel was confirmed under in vitro conditions.

  14. [Bonding strength of resin and tooth enamel after teeth bleaching with cold plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-meng; Wang, Guo-min; Sun, Ke; Li, Ying-long; Pan, Jie

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the immediate bond strength and surface structure of resin and the tooth enamel which treated by cold plasma. In the study, 40 bovine incisors were divided into two equal parts. In this sense, all enamel adhesive samples were prepared and then randomly divided into 4 groups (n =20). group 1: acid + single bond 2+resin composite (control group); group 2:beyond bleaching+ acid+single bond 2+resin composite; group 3: treated by cold plasma for 5 minutes+ acid+single bond 2+resin composite; group 4: treated by cold plasma for 5 minutes+single bond 2+resin composite. Single bond 2 bonding system and Filtek Z250 resin were used in this experiment. The shear bond strength was tested by universal testing machine. The surface of the enamel in different processes was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Statistical analyses by the single factor analysis of variance and multiple pairwise comparisons were performed with SPSS 17.0 . The shear bond strength of group 4 (8.60 MPa) was significantly lower than that of the other three groups (Penamel treated by cold plasma had slight molten form, which was different from etched enamel surface.The fractured surface of group 3 was mix fracture, which was similar to the control group (group 1). Compared with the conventional clinic bleaching, immediate bond strength of resin-enamel that treated by cold plasma has not been affected.

  15. Preliminary surface analysis of etched, bleached, and normal bovine enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruse, N.D.; Smith, D.C.; Torneck, C.D.; Titley, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and secondary ion-mass spectroscopic (SIMS) analyses were performed on unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground labial enamel surfaces of young bovine incisors exposed to four different treatments: (1) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min; (2) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (3) immersion in 35% H2O2 for 60 min, in distilled water for two min, and in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s; (4) immersion in 37% H3PO4 for 60 s, in distilled water for two min, and in 35% H2O2 for 60 min. Untreated unground un-pumiced, unground pumiced, and ground enamel surfaces, as well as synthetic hydroxyapatite surfaces, served as controls for intra-tooth evaluations of the effects of different treatments. The analyses indicated that exposure to 35% H2O2 alone, besides increasing the nitrogen content, produced no other significant change in the elemental composition of any of the enamel surfaces investigated. Exposure to 37% H3PO4, however, produced a marked decrease in calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and an increase in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) concentrations in unground un-pumiced specimens only, and a decrease in C concentration in ground specimens. These results suggest that the reported decrease in the adhesive bond strength of resin to 35% H2O2-treated enamel is not caused by a change in the elemental composition of treated enamel surfaces. They also suggest that an organic-rich layer, unaffected by acid-etching, may be present on the unground un-pumiced surface of young bovine incisors. This layer can be removed by thorough pumicing or by grinding. An awareness of its presence is important when young bovine teeth are used in a model system for evaluation of resin adhesiveness

  16. Molecular analysis of tooth enamel by Raman spectroscopy after treatment with bleaching agents at different concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran Sedo, Randall; Obando Rosabal, Sofia; Saenz Bonilla, Paola; Soto Aguilar, Calendy; Vasquez Rodriguez, Amaya

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the concentration of the v1 phosphate molecule of the surface of dentin enamel are treated and researched with bleaching agents of chemical activation to basis of hydrogen peroxide than 9,5% and 14% and carbamide peroxide than 38%, for a period of 28 days. Raman spectroscopy was used and 30 dental pieces extracted, of which, were to be free of blemishes and pigmentations, without possessing fractures of the enamel, decay nor any other type of defect. The Raman spectrum was obtained of each dental piece prior to the application of bleaching agents. The specimens were separated into three experimental groups according to the concentration of whitening. The concentration of the v1 phosphate molecule was measured in the tooth enamel to the second and fourth week of treatment. In addition, ANOVA was performed for respective measurements (p≤0.05). A reduction of the v1 phosphate molecule were observed during and after the bleaching process in the experimental groups that have used of hydrogen peroxide to 14% and carbamide peroxide 38%. In the group of hydrogen peroxide to 9,5% has remained unproven a significant reduction. Within the limitations of this study is concluded that the bleaching agent causes a loss of v1 phosphate. This loss has been greater in the whitening of higher concentration. In spite, that the possible effect remineralizing of the saliva on a teeth whitening process has been unevaluated, it is recommended using during and after the treatment, toothpastes, mouthwashes, chewing gums, dental floss, among others, that contain ACP to help to cushion the potential loss of phosphate from tooth enamel. (author) [es

  17. Effect of a 16% Carbamide Peroxide Bleaching Gel on Enamel Staining Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghavamnasiri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Due to the growing popularity of vital bleaching by CarbamidePeroxide it is imperative to understand the effect of such agents on enamel and dentine.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 16% carbamide peroxide bleaching gel; Vivastyle on enamel staining susceptibility.Materials and Methods: Thirty bovine specimens were selected and randomly divided into two groups of fifteen. The experimental group was subjected to Vivastyle gel and then was immersed in coffee, for half an hour daily for three weeks. The control group was only immersed in coffee. The teeth were evaluated by colorimeter readings to measure L*, a*, b* of each tooth. Total color differences between two colors (ΔE were calculated using the following formula: ΔE= [(ΔL* 2 + (Δa* 2+ (Δb* 2].ΔE1 represent color difference after bleaching; ΔE2: bleached and immersed in coffee,and ΔE3 immersed in coffee.Results: Mean color difference were: 9.478, 13.808, and 7.230 for ΔE1, ΔE2, and ΔE3 respectively. Paired comparison by Duncan test showed that there was a significant difference between ΔE1 and ΔE2 (P0.000. t-test showed that there was no significant difference between ΔE3 and ΔE1. (P=0.08, however, ΔE3 had significant difference with ΔE2 (P0.000.Conclusion: After vital bleaching, the enamel staining susceptibility is significantly increased.

  18. Study of the hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent effects on bovine enamel using X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Ruda F.; Calazans, Fernanda S.; Miranda, Mauro S.; Santos, Ramon S.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Assis, Joaquim T. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogen Peroxide's a bleaching agent capable of oxidizing a wide range of colored organic, causing discoloration and hence bleaching of the substrate, but some authors related the occurrence of side effects related to bleaching of the tooth structure, such as changes in morphology superficial. It was used 6 bovine incisors, each tooth was initially evaluated six times in different areas to obtain the count of elements phosphorus and calcium using X-Ray Fluorescence. The teeth were randomly divided in two groups: both groups were submitted to bleaching in office with hydrogen peroxide 38%, once a week during three weeks. Group 1 was stored in distilled water and group 2 in artificial saliva, between the sessions. The measurements were repeated every seven days before the bleaching treatment. Besides that, changes in mineral levels were always assessed in the same area and using the same procedure. It was observed that the bleaching was not able to demineralize the tooth enamel studied. (author)

  19. Kekerasan mikro enamel gigi permanen muda setelah aplikasi bahan pemutih gigi dan pasta remineralisasi (Enamel micro hardness of young permanent tooth after bleaching and remineralization paste application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budianto Liwang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed that bleaching agent had demineralization effect to enamel, and encourage use of remineralization paste after bleaching treatment especially in young permanent tooth which in post-eruptive enamel maturation. Purpose: The study ere aimed to determine the bleaching agent effect on enamel surface micro hardness, and to determine the effect of remineralization paste application on enamel surface micro hardness of young permanent tooth after bleaching treatment. Methods: Fourteen young permanent teeth were placed in a block of resin with a window on the buccal surface enamel. The initial enamel surface hardness was measured using Microvickers Hardness Tester. Then the application of hydrogen peroxide bleaching materials 30% was done three times for 15 minutes and followed by surface hardness of enamel measurement. Samples were divided into 2 groups; the first group was applied paste of Hydroxy apatite + NaF 1450ppm , and the second group was applied paste of CPP–ACP + NaF 900ppm. Each paste was applied for 30 minutes for 7 days, then the enamel surface hardness of samples were measured. Results: The enamel surface micro hardness decreased after bleaching from 333.09 ± 10.49 VHN to 299.15±5.70 VHN. Micro hardness after application of Hidroxy apatite + NaF 1450ppm was 316.61±5.87 VHN and after application of CPP-ACP + NaF 900ppm was 319.94±3.25 VHN, however the micro hardness still lower than initial micro hardness. Conclusion: Tooth bleaching agent caused a decrease of enamel surface micro hardness in young permanent tooth. The use of remineralization paste enabled to increase the enamel surface micro hardness young permanent tooth.Latar belakang: Penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa produk pemutih gigi memiliki efek demineralisasi enamel gigi, dan mendorong penggunaan pasta remineralisasi setelah pemutihan gigi terutama di gigi muda permanen yang enamelnya masih dalam proses maturasi pasca-erupsi. Tujuan

  20. A randomized CIE L*a*b* evaluation of external bleaching therapy effects on fluorotic enamel stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Attin, Rengin; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of external bleaching on the color and luminosity of fluorotic stains and adjacent, normally mineralized enamel areas by means of CIE L*a*b* colorimetry. Eighteen adolescents with mild to moderate fluorotic stains were randomly assigned to either bleaching group A (n = 9) or control group B. Eligibility criteria were fluorotic stained maxillary incisors or canines and the informed consent of the participants and their guardians. Using a colorimeter, CIE L*a*b* values of maxillary incisors and canines were assessed at baseline (T1) in the center of the fluorotic stained area (F1) and at adjacent, normally mineralized enamel areas (F2). Then, external bleaching with Illumine office (30% hydrogen peroxide, Dentsply DeTrey) was performed for 60 minutes, followed by color reassessment (T2). After 14 days (T3), a 2-week home bleaching period with a daily bleaching time of 1 hour with Illumine home (15% carbamide peroxide, Dentsply DeTrey) was conducted with subsequent color determination (T4). After completion of bleaching therapy, 96.0% of all fluorotic areas (F1) and 100% of normal enamel areas (F2) showed a significant change within group A, compared to 29.4% in control group B. Comparing the collective DeltaE (L*, a*, b*) of F1 and F2, 60.0% of all areas showed significant differences after completion of bleaching therapy, compared to 88.0% initially. Of group B sites, 82.4% showed color differences in the beginning (T1) and 88.2% at the end (T4). Whereas a single 1-hour session of in-office bleaching with 30% hydrogen peroxide does not significantly affect the color and luminosity of fluorotic teeth, a 14-day period of home bleaching leads to an assimilation of the color of the fluorotic stain with the color of surrounding enamel areas due to different responses of sound and fluorotic enamel to the bleaching regime.

  1. Catalase and sodium fluoride mediated rehabilitation of enamel bleached with 37% hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bleaching agents bring about a range of unwanted changes in the physical structure of enamel which needs to be restored qualitatively and timely. Catalase being an antioxidant ensures the effective removal of free radicals and improvement in fluoride mediated remineralization from the enamel microstructure which if retained may harm the integrity and affect the hardness of enamel. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted incisors were sectioned to 6 slabs which were divided into 5 groups: Group A, control; Group B, treatment with 37% hydrogen peroxide (HP; Group C, treatment with 37% HP and catalase, Group D, treatment with 37% HP and 5% sodium fluoride application, Group E, treatment with 37% HP followed by catalase and 5% sodium fluoride. Scanning electron microscope and microhardness analysis were done for all slabs. One-way ANOVA test was applied among different groups. Results: Vicker′s microhardness number (VHN of Group B and C was significantly lower. No significant difference between VHN of Group B and C. VHN of Group D was significantly higher than Group A, B, and C; but significantly lower than Group E. VHN of Group E was significantly higher than any other experimental group. One-way ANOVA revealed a highly significant P value (P = 0.0001 and so Tukey′s post-hoc Test for the group comparisons was employed. Conclusion: Subsequent treatment of bleached enamel with catalase and fluoride varnish separately results in repairing and significantly increasing the microhardness.

  2. Synergistic effects of sodium 
ascorbate and acetone to restore compromised bond strength 
after enamel bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruziniat, Alireza; Manafi, Safa; Cehreli, Zafer C

    To evaluate the effect of a new experimental solution containing sodium ascorbate (SA) and acetone on reversing compromised bonding to enamel immediately after bleaching. The buccal surface of intact, extracted human premolars (n = 60) was bleached. The teeth were then randomly assigned to 6  groups according to the type of pretreatment applied prior to adhesive procedures: 10% SA in acetone-water solution applied for 1 and 5 min (groups 1 and 2, respectively); aqueous solution of 10% SA applied for 10 min (group 3); 100% acetone applied for 10 min (group 4); no pretreatment (negative control; group 5). An additional group (positive control; group 6) comprised unbleached teeth (n = 12). Two composite microcylinders were bonded on each specimen for evaluation of microshear bond strength (MBS) and failure modes. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc and chi-square tests at P = 0.05. Groups 1 and 2 yielded similar MBS values to groups 4 and 6 (positive control). The mean MBS of groups 3 and 5 (negative control) were similar, and significantly lower than that of the positive control group. The application of 10% SA in an acetone-water solution prior to bonding procedures can restore compromised enamel bond strength to its unbleached state within a clinically acceptable time of 1 min.

  3. Shear bond strength of self-etching adhesive systems with different pH values to bleached and/or CPP-ACP-treated enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoee, Siavash Savadi; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Navimipour, Elmira Jafari; Firouzmandi, Maryam

    2012-08-01

    To compare shear bond strengths of three different self-etching adhesive systems of different pH values to enamel bleached with carbamide peroxide, treated with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), or treated with CPP-ACP subsequent to bleaching with carbamide peroxide. Thirty-six human third molars were cut into 4 sections and randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 36): group I: no treatment; group II: bleaching; group III: CPP-ACP; group IV: bleaching and CPP-ACP. After surface treatments, the samples of each group were further divided into three subgroups (n = 12) based on the adhesive used. The adhesives Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), AdhesE (ADE), and Adper SE Plus (ADP) were applied, and resin composite cylinders with a diameter of 2 mm and a height of 4 mm were bonded to the enamel. Then the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing. Two-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). There were significant differences between the adhesive systems (p system showed the highest bond strength, and the bleaching procedure reduced bond strengths (p = 0.001). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in shear bond strength values between the control and CPP groups. However, the differences between other groups were statistically significant (p material dependent.

  4. Fracture toughness of bleached enamel: Effect of applying three different nanobiomaterials by nanoindentation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Mazaheri, Hamid; Saneie, Tahere; Samimi, Pouran

    2016-01-01

    Despite the absence of dispute about the efficacy of bleaching agents, a prime concern is about their compromising effect on the enamel structure. This in vitro study investigated whether the addition of three different biomaterials, including nano-bioactive glass (n-BG)/nano-hydroxy apetite (n-HA)/nano-amorphous calcium phosphate (n-ACP), to bleaching agents can affect the fracture toughness (FT) and vickers hardness number (VHN) of bovine enamel. The crowns of the newly extracted permanent bovine incisors teeth were separated from the root and sectioned along their central line; one half serving as the control specimen and the other half as the test specimen. After mounting and polishing procedure, all the control specimens (C) were subjected to nano-indentation test to obtain the baseline values of FT. Then, the control specimens were exposed to a 38% hydrogen peroxide for four times, each time for 10 min. The test specimens were divided into three groups and treated as follows, with the same protocol used for the control specimens: Group 1; ACP + hydrogen peroxide (HP) mixed gel; Group 2 BG + HP mixed gel; and Group 3 HA + HP mixed gel. FT measurements with nano-indentation were carried out subsequent to bleaching experiments. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Kruskal-Wallis test (α = 0.05). A significant difference in young's modulus (YM), VHN, and FT at baseline and subsequent to bleaching in control group was observed. However, no significant differences were found in YM, VHN, and FT between the test groups, compared to the respective baseline values. Under the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the n-HA, n-ACP, and n-BG could be potential biomaterials used to reduce the adverse effects of tooth bleaching.

  5. Fracture toughness of bleached enamel: Effect of applying three different nanobiomaterials by nanoindentation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the absence of dispute about the efficacy of bleaching agents, a prime concern is about their compromising effect on the enamel structure. This in vitro study investigated whether the addition of three different biomaterials, including nano-bioactive glass (n-BG/nano-hydroxy apetite (n-HA/nano-amorphous calcium phosphate (n-ACP, to bleaching agents can affect the fracture toughness (FT and vickers hardness number (VHN of bovine enamel. Materials and Methods: The crowns of the newly extracted permanent bovine incisors teeth were separated from the root and sectioned along their central line; one half serving as the control specimen and the other half as the test specimen. After mounting and polishing procedure, all the control specimens (C were subjected to nano-indentation test to obtain the baseline values of FT. Then, the control specimens were exposed to a 38% hydrogen peroxide for four times, each time for 10 min. The test specimens were divided into three groups and treated as follows, with the same protocol used for the control specimens: Group 1; ACP + hydrogen peroxide (HP mixed gel; Group 2 BG + HP mixed gel; and Group 3 HA + HP mixed gel. FT measurements with nano-indentation were carried out subsequent to bleaching experiments. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Kruskal–Wallis test (α = 0.05. Results: A significant difference in young's modulus (YM, VHN, and FT at baseline and subsequent to bleaching in control group was observed. However, no significant differences were found in YM, VHN, and FT between the test groups, compared to the respective baseline values. Conclusion: Under the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the n-HA, n-ACP, and n-BG could be potential biomaterials used to reduce the adverse effects of tooth bleaching.

  6. Fracture toughness of bleached enamel: Effect of applying three different nanobiomaterials by nanoindentation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Mazaheri, Hamid; Saneie, Tahere; Samimi, Pouran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the absence of dispute about the efficacy of bleaching agents, a prime concern is about their compromising effect on the enamel structure. This in vitro study investigated whether the addition of three different biomaterials, including nano-bioactive glass (n-BG)/nano-hydroxy apetite (n-HA)/nano-amorphous calcium phosphate (n-ACP), to bleaching agents can affect the fracture toughness (FT) and vickers hardness number (VHN) of bovine enamel. Materials and Methods: The crowns of the newly extracted permanent bovine incisors teeth were separated from the root and sectioned along their central line; one half serving as the control specimen and the other half as the test specimen. After mounting and polishing procedure, all the control specimens (C) were subjected to nano-indentation test to obtain the baseline values of FT. Then, the control specimens were exposed to a 38% hydrogen peroxide for four times, each time for 10 min. The test specimens were divided into three groups and treated as follows, with the same protocol used for the control specimens: Group 1; ACP + hydrogen peroxide (HP) mixed gel; Group 2 BG + HP mixed gel; and Group 3 HA + HP mixed gel. FT measurements with nano-indentation were carried out subsequent to bleaching experiments. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Kruskal–Wallis test (α = 0.05). Results: A significant difference in young's modulus (YM), VHN, and FT at baseline and subsequent to bleaching in control group was observed. However, no significant differences were found in YM, VHN, and FT between the test groups, compared to the respective baseline values. Conclusion: Under the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the n-HA, n-ACP, and n-BG could be potential biomaterials used to reduce the adverse effects of tooth bleaching. PMID:27307669

  7. Effect of fluoride-treated enamel on indirect cytotoxicity of a 16% carbamide peroxide bleaching gel to pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of fluoride solutions applied to enamel to protect pulp cells against the trans-enamel and transdentinal cytotoxicity of a 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching gel. The CP gel was applied to enamel/dentin discs adapted to aicial pulp chambers (8 h/day) during 1, 7 or 14 days, followed by fluoride (0.05% or 0.2%) application for 1 min. The extracts (culture medium in contact with dentin) were applied to MDPC-23 cells for 1 h, and cell metabolism (MTT assay), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cell membrane damage (flow cytometry) were analyzed. Knoop microhardness of enamel was also evaluated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=0.05). For the MTT assay and ALP activity, significant reductions between the control and the bleached groups were observed (p0.05), regardless of fluoride application or treatment days. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated 30% of cell membrane damage in all bleached groups. After 14 days of treatment, the fluoride-treated enamel presented significantly higher microhardness values than the bleached-only group (pfluoride solutions, the treated enamel surface did not prevent the toxic effects caused by the 16% CP gel to odontoblast-like cells.

  8. Micro-CT and FE-SEM enamel analyses of calcium-based agent application after bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mauricio Neves; Rodrigues, Flávia Pires; Silikas, Nick; Francci, Carlos Eduardo

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on bleached enamel. A bleaching agent (35% hydrogen peroxide) was applied, 4 × 8 min on premolar teeth (n = 8). A CPP-ACP paste was applied for 7 days. Prior and post-treatment, microtomography images were obtained and 3D regions of interest (ROIs) were selected, from outer enamel, extending to 110.2-μm depth. CT parameters of structure: thickness (St.Th), separation (St.Sp), and fragmentation index (Fr.I.) were calculated for each (ROI). Data was submitted to paired t tests at a 95% confidence level. The samples were evaluated at 3000 to 100,000 magnification. Quantitative analysis of enamel mineral content was also determined by SEM EDX. There was a significant increase in structure thickness and calcium content. The phosphorus content increased after bleaching. There was also a decreased separation and fragmentation index on the outer enamel to a depth of 56.2 μm (p spaces between the hydroxyapatite crystals appeared around the enamel prisms, 7 days after the CPP-ACP application. The application of a CPP-ACP provides a compact structure on the enamel's outer surface, for 7 days, due to calcium deposition. CT parameters seem to be a useful tool for mineralizing and remineralizing future studies. CPP-ACP neutralizes any adverse effects on enamel surface when applied during a week after bleaching and minimizes any side effects of the bleaching treatment due to a more compact structure.

  9. In-office bleaching for the remineralization of enamel lesions filled with organic components of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu, Yuichi; Iizuka, Junko; Taniguchi, Motoe; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Mukai, Yoshiharu

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effects of in-office bleaching on the remineralization of enamel lesions filled with organic components of red wine. Enamel specimens were exposed to 0.1% NaF solution for 1 minute immersed in red wine for 5 days at 37°C, and subjected to in-office bleaching followed by remineralization in 1.5 mM CaCl₂, 0.9 mM KH₂PO₄, 130 mM KCl, 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.0, at 37°C for 28 days. The presence of organic substances on the enamel surface was detected by Raman spectroscopy. The specimens were also subjected to transverse microradiography (TMR). Raman spectroscopy of baseline lesions showed characteristic peaks at 1,300-1,600 cm-1 which disappeared in bleached specimens. TMR showed that red wine formed subsurface lesions with surface content at approximately 22 mineral volume %. The integrated mineral loss (IML) was significantly lower in unbleached remineralized specimens than at baseline (P 0.05). Lesion depth was significantly lower in the bleached than in the unbleached group (P< 0.05). In-office bleaching can enhance the remineralization of enamel lesions filled with organic components of red wine. Copyright©American Journal of Dentistry.

  10. Effect of 10% sodium bicarbonate on bond strength of enamel and dentin after bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Medeiros Darzé

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionBy-products of hydrogen peroxide degradation released during dental bleaching influence the polymerization of adhesive systems and composite resins, causing a reduction in shear bond strength to the tooth.Objectivethe aim of this article was to evaluate the effect of 10% sodium bicarbonate (SB, applied for different lengths of time, on the shear bond strength to enamel and dentin after bleaching.Material and methodEnamel and dentin blocks were divided into groups (n=10: (1 control: no bleaching; (2 immediate: bleaching immediately followed by restoration; (3 14-day: bleaching, restoration 14 days later; (4 SB for 10 minutes: bleaching, SB gel for 10 minutes, immediately followed by restoration; (5 SB for 20 minutes: bleaching, SB gel for 20 minutes, immediately followed by restoration. A 38% hydrogen peroxide gel (Opalescence Boost/Ultradent was used. After application of the adhesive system, composite resin cylinders were mounted on the surface of the substrates in order to test shear bond strength. Result: ANOVA and Tukey tests showed significantly higher mean enamel bond strength values for the 14-day follow-up group and without significant differences for control group. Mean bond strength values obtained for the other groups were intermediate. When testing dentin, the Tukey test revealed a significantly higher mean bond strength value for the 14-day follow-up group when compared with application of SB for 20 minutes.ConclusionSB gel applied was unable to reverse the low bond strength to enamel and dentin after bleaching treatment.

  11. Effect of Sodium Ascorbate and Delayed Bonding on the Bond Strength of Silorane and Two-step Self-etch Adhesive Systems in Bleached Enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abed Kahnemooyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Studies have shown decreased bond strength of composite resin to human and bovine bleached enamel. This study evaluated the effect of sodium ascorbate and delayed bonding on the bond strength of two adhesive systems to bleached enamel. Materials and methods. The labial surfaces of 150 sound bovine incisor teeth were abraded with abrasive paper. The teeth were randomly divided into 8 groups: A: control; B: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide; C: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide + sodium ascorbate gel; and D: bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide + delayed bonding. In groups A‒D, silorane adhesive system and Filtek silorane composite resin were used. In groups E‒H, the same preparation methods of groups A‒D were used. Two-step self-etch Clearfil SE Bond adhesive systems and AP-X composite resin were administered. Shear bond strength of each group was measured. Two samples were prepared for each surface preparation for ultrastructural evaluation. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used for data analysis at P<0.05. Results. The interaction between the adhesive system type and surface preparation protocol was significant (P=0.014, with significant differences in shear bond strengths in terms of the adhesive systems (P<0.01. There were significant differences in shear bond strength in terms of surface preparation techniques irrespective of the adhesive system (P<0.01. Conclusion. The results showed that bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide decreased the shear bond strength values with both adhesive systems, and a one-week delay in bonding and 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes restored the bond strength in both adhesive systems.

  12. In vitro evaluation of the chemical and morphological changes of the enamel surface using different bleaching techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Alessandra de Siervi

    2003-01-01

    'In vitro' evaluation through MEV and EDS of the morphological and chemical changes, respectively, of the bovine enamel, submitted to different bleaching techniques. For the MEV evaluation eighteen apical thirds were pigmented and divided into two parts. One half of each sample was the control and the other half was bleached according to the protocol of each test group (n= 6). Group I - home bleaching with a 10% carbamide peroxide; group II bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and LED; group III - bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with diode laser bleaching. The same procedure was done with the eighteen samples which were analyzed through EDS and which had their buccal surface grinded and polished before the bleaching procedure in order to obtain more precise values of the fraction of calcium and phosphorus. The results showed no morphological changes among the analyzed control halves and the bleached halves. There was not a statistical significant difference about Ca and P values, among the control halves and the bleached halves regarding the chemical components (p< 0,05). (author)

  13. Enamel Mineral Content Changes After Bleaching With High and Low Hydrogen Peroxide Concentrations: Colorimetric Spectrophotometry and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Avd; Bridi, E C; Amaral, Flb; França, Fmg; Turssi, C P; Pérez, C A; Martinez, E F; Flório, F M; Basting, R T

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) content in enamel bleached with high and low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP) using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and colorimetric spectrophotometry (SPEC). Forty-eight sound human third molars were used. Their roots were embedded in polystyrene resin and immersed for seven days in an artificial saliva solution. Then they were distributed into six groups to receive the bleaching treatments. The agents of high HP concentration (for in-office use) evaluated were Whiteness HP Maxx/FGM (35% HP), Whiteness HP Blue/FGM (35% HP, 2% calcium gluconate), Pola Office+/SDI (37.5% HP, 5% potassium nitrate), and Opalescence Boost/Ultradent (38% HP, 1.1% ion fluoride, 3% potassium nitrate); these agents were applied to enamel in three sessions. The agents of low HP concentration (for home use) evaluated were Pola Day/SDI (9.5% HP) and White Class 10%/FGM (10% HP, potassium nitrate, calcium, fluoride), and these agents were applied for 14 days. Enamel microbiopsies were evaluated by TXRF and SPEC analysis before the bleaching treatment (baseline), during the treatment, and 14 days after the end of the treatment. For TXRF, the Kruskal-Wallis test showed that Ca and P were not influenced by agent (p>0.05). For SPEC, Pola Office+, Opalescence Boost, Pola Day, and White Class 10% caused a decrease of Ca over time; there was a significant decrease of P over time to Pola Office+ and White Class 10%. The Spearman test showed no correlation between the Ca (p=0.987; r 2 =-0.020) and P (p=0.728, r 2 =0.038) obtained by SPEC and TXRF. For TXRF and SPEC, changes in Ca and P during bleaching occurred independently of the HP concentration used.

  14. Comparative evaluation of two different remineralizing agents on the microhardness of bleached enamel surface: Results of an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gunpriya; Sanap, Anita U; Aggarwal, Shalini D; Kumar, Tanaya

    2015-01-01

    Various agents are studied for their remineralization potential. To evaluate the effect of GC Tooth Mousse and Toothmin Tooth Cream on microhardness of bleached enamel. In vitro- study. Twenty freshly extracted anterior teeth were cut sagittally and impregnated in cold cure acrylic resin. Specimens were kept in artificial saliva to prevent from dehydration. After measuring baseline hardness, teeth were randomly divided into two groups. Everbrite In - Office Tooth whitening kit (Dentamerica) was used to demineralize the teeth following which hardness was measured again. Teeth in group one (n=10) and group two (n=10) were treated with GC tooth mousse (Recaldent) and Toothmin tooth cream (Abbott Healthcare Pvt.Ltd) daily for seven days and microhardness of enamel surface was measured. Mean, SD, and percentage change in the microhardness were calculated. Student's paired t-test was used to evaluate the signifi cance of change from initial, after bleaching for 5 min and after 1-week remineralization Unpaired't' test was used to compare difference between groups. Microhardness significantly decreased in both groups after bleaching (% change group one: 3.24% group two: 3.26% in group; P0.05). Both GC Tooth Mousse (Recaldent) and Toothmin Tooth cream (Abbott Healthcare Pvt.Ltd) increase the microhardness of bleached enamel. Toothmin tooth cream is a better agent for increasing microhardness, although difference is not significant.

  15. Evaluation of enamel by scanning electron microscopy green LED associated to hydrogen peroxide 35% for dental bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; de Oliveira, Susana C. P. S.; Zanin, Fátima A. A.; Santos, Gustavo M. P.; Sampaio, Fernando J. P.; Gomes Júnior, Rafael Araújo; Gesteira, Maria F. M.; Vannier-Santos, Marcos A.; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz B.

    2014-02-01

    Dental bleaching is a frequently requested procedure in clinical dental practice. The literature is contradictory regarding the effects of bleaching agents on both morphology and demineralization of enamel after bleaching. The aim of this study was to analyze by SEM the effect of 35% neutral hydrogen peroxide cured by green LED. Buccal surfaces of 15 pre-molars were sectioned and marked with a central groove to allow experimental and control groups on the same specimen. For SEM, 75 electron micrographs were evaluated by tree observers at 43X, 220X and 1000X. Quantitative analysis for the determination of the surface elemental composition of the samples through X-ray microanalysis by SEM was also performed. The protocol tested neither showed significant changes in mineral composition of the samples nor to dental enamel structure when compared to controls. SEM analysis allowed inferring that there were marked morphological differences between the enamel samples highlighting the need for the use of the same tooth in comparative morphological studies. The tested protocol did not cause morphological damage the enamel surface when compared to their respective controls.

  16. Effect of Hydrogen and Carbamide Peroxide in Bleaching, Enamel Morphology, and Mineral Composition: In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llena, Carmen; Esteve, Irene; Forner, Leopoldo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bleaching effect, morphological changes, and variations in calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) in the enamel with hydrogen peroxide (HP) and carbamide peroxide (CP) after the use of different application regimens. Four groups of five teeth were randomly assigned, according to the treatment protocol: HP 37.5% applied for 30 or 60 minutes (HP30, HP60), CP 16% applied for 14 or 28 hours (CP14, CP28). Changes in dental color were evaluated, according to the following formula: ΔE = [(L a -L b ) 2 +(a a -a b ) 2 + (b a -b b ) 2 ] 1/2 . Enamel morphology and Ca and P compositions were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscope and environmental scanning electron microscopy. ΔE HP30 was significantly greater than CP14 (10.37 ± 2.65/8.56 ± 1.40), but not between HP60 and CP28. HP60 shows greater morphological changes than HP30. No morphological changes were observed in the groups treated with CP. The reduction in Ca and P was significantly greater in HP60 than in CP28 (p tooth color; HP produced morphological changes and Ca and P a gradual decrease, while CP produced no morphological changes, and the decrease in mineral component was smaller. CP 16% applied during 2 weeks could be equally effective and safer for tooth whitening than to administer two treatment sessions with HP 37.5%.

  17. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets to Tooth Enamel After Treatment With Different Tooth Bleaching Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Khaloo, Negar; Mojahedi, Seyed Masoud; Azarsina, Mohadese

    2015-11-01

    Bleaching treatments decrease shear bond strength between orthodontic brackets and teeth; although definite results have not been reported in this regard. This study determined the effects of different bleaching protocols on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to teeth. This experimental study was performed in Iran. Forty-eight extracted human premolars were randomly assigned into four groups. In the control group, no bleaching treatment was performed. In groups 2 - 4, the bleaching procedures were performed using carbamide peroxide 45%, carbamide peroxide 20% and diode laser, respectively. Two weeks later, brackets were bonded to teeth and thermocycled. The shear bond strengths of the brackets to the teeth were measured. Data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett post-hoc test. Shear bond strength of the brackets to the teeth were 10.54 ± 1.51, 6.37 ± 0.92, 7.67 ± 1.01 and 7.49 ± 1.19 MPa, in groups 1 - 4, respectively. Significant differences were found between control group and all other groups (P brackets to the teeth. 45% carbamide peroxide had a more significant effect on bond strength compared to 20% carbamide peroxide. The difference in bond strength was not significant between laser group and either carbamide peroxide groups.

  18. Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, H.; Ahmed, Doaa; Eldakrouri, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

  19. Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imam, H. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ahmed, Doaa [Department of Restorative Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Eldakrouri, Ashraf [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-06-21

    The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

  20. In vitro evaluation of human dental enamel surface roughness bleached with 35% carbamide peroxide and submitted to abrasive dentifrice brushing Avaliação in vitro da rugosidade superficial do esmalte dental humano clareado com peróxido de carbamida a 35% e submetido à escovação com dentifrícios abrasivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cia Worschech

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the surface roughness of human enamel bleached with 35% carbamide peroxide at different times and submitted to different superficial cleaning treatments: G1 - not brushed; G2 - brushed with fluoride abrasive dentifrice; G3 - brushed with a non-fluoride abrasive dentifrice; G4 - brushed without dentifrice. Sixty fragments of human molar teeth with 4 x 4 mm were obtained using a diamond disc. The specimens were polished with sandpaper and abrasive pastes. A perfilometer was used to measure roughness average (Ra values of the initial surface roughness and at each 7-day-interval after the beginning of treatment. The bleaching was performed on the surface of the fragments for 1 hour a week, and the surface cleaning treatment for 3 minutes daily. The samples were stored in individual receptacles with artificial saliva. Analysis of variance and the Tukey test revealed significant differences in surface roughness values for G2 and G3, which showed an increase in roughness over time; G1 and G4 showed no significant roughness differences. The bleaching with 35% carbamide peroxide did not alter the enamel surface roughness, but when the bleaching treatment was performed combined with brushing with abrasive dentifrices, there was a significant increase in roughness values.O propósito deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar em diferentes tempos a rugosidade superficial do esmalte dental humano clareado com peróxido de carbamida a 35% e submetido a diferentes tratamentos superficiais de limpeza: G1 - não escovado; G2 - escovado com dentifrício fluoretado abrasivo; G3 - escovado com dentifrício não fluoretado abrasivo; G4 - escovado sem dentifrício. Sessenta fragmentos de molares humanos com 4 x 4 mm foram obtidos através do seccionamento com discos diamantados. Os espécimes foram polidos com lixas e pastas abrasivas. Um perfilômetro foi utilizado para determinar os valores da média de dureza Ra ("roughness

  1. ON THE R-CURVE BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN TOOTH ENAMEL

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is function of distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0...

  2. Enamel proteins mitigate mechanical and structural degradations in mature human enamel during acid attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubarsky, Gennady V.; Lemoine, Patrick; Meenan, Brian J.; Deb, Sanjukta; Mutreja, Isha; Carolan, Patrick; Petkov, Nikolay

    2014-04-01

    A hydrazine deproteination process was used to investigate the role of enamel proteins in the acid erosion of mature human dental enamel. Bright field high resolution transmission electron micrographs and x-ray diffraction analysis show no crystallographic changes after the hydrazine treatment with similar nanoscale hydroxyapatite crystallite size and orientation for sound and de-proteinated enamel. However, the presence of enamel proteins reduces the erosion depth, the loss of hardness and the loss of structural order in enamel, following exposure to citric acid. Nanoindentation creep is larger for sound enamel than for deproteinated enamel but it reduces in sound enamel after acid attack. These novel results are consistent with calcium ion-mediated visco-elasticty in enamel matrix proteins as described previously for nacre, bone and dental proteins. They are also in good agreement with a previous double layer force spectroscopy study by the authors which found that the proteins electrochemically buffer enamel against acid attack. Finally, this suggests that acid attack, and more specifically dental erosion, is influenced by ionic permeation through the enamel layer and that it is mitigated by the enamel protein matrix.

  3. Enamel proteins mitigate mechanical and structural degradations in mature human enamel during acid attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubarsky, Gennady V; Lemoine, Patrick; Meenan, Brian J; Deb, Sanjukta; Mutreja, Isha; Carolan, Patrick; Petkov, Nikolay

    2014-01-01

    A hydrazine deproteination process was used to investigate the role of enamel proteins in the acid erosion of mature human dental enamel. Bright field high resolution transmission electron micrographs and x-ray diffraction analysis show no crystallographic changes after the hydrazine treatment with similar nanoscale hydroxyapatite crystallite size and orientation for sound and de-proteinated enamel. However, the presence of enamel proteins reduces the erosion depth, the loss of hardness and the loss of structural order in enamel, following exposure to citric acid. Nanoindentation creep is larger for sound enamel than for deproteinated enamel but it reduces in sound enamel after acid attack. These novel results are consistent with calcium ion-mediated visco-elasticty in enamel matrix proteins as described previously for nacre, bone and dental proteins. They are also in good agreement with a previous double layer force spectroscopy study by the authors which found that the proteins electrochemically buffer enamel against acid attack. Finally, this suggests that acid attack, and more specifically dental erosion, is influenced by ionic permeation through the enamel layer and that it is mitigated by the enamel protein matrix. (papers)

  4. Trace Elements in Human Tooth Enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, G. S. [Turner Dental School, University Of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Smith, H.; Livingston, H. D. [Department of Forensic Medicine, University Of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1967-10-15

    The trace elements are considered to play a role in the resistance of teeth to dental caries. The exact mechanism by which they act has not yet been fully established. Estimations of trace elements have been undertaken in sound human teeth. By means of activation analysis it has been possible to determine trace element concentrations in different layers of enamel in the same tooth. The concentrations of the following elements have been determined: arsenic, antimony, copper, zinc, manganese, mercury, molybdenum and vanadium. The distribution of trace elements in enamel varies from those with a narrow range, such as manganese, to those with a broad range, such as antimony. The elements present in the broad range are considered to be non-essential and their presence is thought to result from a chance incorporation into the enamel. Those in the narrow range appear to be essential trace elements and are present in amounts which do not vary unduly from other body tissues. Only manganese and zinc were found in higher concentrations in the surface layer of enamel compared with the inner layers. The importance of the concentration of trace elements on this surface layer of enamel is emphasized as this layer is the site of the first attack by the carious process. (author)

  5. Influence of the bleaching interval on the luminosity of long-term discolored enamel-dentin discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Lucia K; Lenherr, Patrik; Zaugg, Judith B; Weiger, Roland; Krastl, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of changing the sodium perborate-tetrahydrate (PBS-4) at a 4-day interval versus no change after 16 days of internal bleaching. Two hundred and ten bovine enamel-dentin discs were discolored for 3.5 years with 14 different endodontic materials. All groups with a discoloring index of ∆E (mean) ≥ 5.5 were included in the present investigation: ApexCal (APCA), MTA white + blood (WMTA+BL), Portland cement + blood (PC+BL), blood (BL), MTA gray (GMTA), MTA gray + blood (GMTA+BL), Ledermix (LED), and triple antibiotic paste containing minocycline (3Mix). Fourteen specimens of each group were randomly assigned into two treatment groups: (1) no change of the PBS-4 (n = 7); (2) change of the PBS-4 every 4 days (n = 7). Color measurements were taken at 10 different time intervals and the L*a*b* values were recorded with a spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade® compact). In the group 3Mix, significantly better results were achieved by changing the bleaching agent every 4 days (P = 0.0049; q = 0.04), while the group WMTA+BL indicated better results by no change of the bleaching agent (P = 0.0222, q = 0.09). All remaining groups showed no statistical difference between the two treatment procedures. Moderate discolorations can be successfully treated without changing the bleaching agent over a period of 16 days. Changing the sodium perborate-tetrahydrate every 4 days is preferred in case of severe discolored enamel-dentin discs only. This approach may offer a reduced number of clinical appointments and a secondary cost reduction to the patient.

  6. Effect of different storage conditions on the physical properties of bleached enamel: An in vitro vs. in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeczkowski, Marília; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite

    2015-09-01

    Evaluate the effect of different storage conditions on bleached enamel using Knoop microhardness (KHN) and colour variation. Forty-eight tooth blocks were divided into four groups (n=12), based on storage media (SM): purified water (PW), artificial saliva (AS), natural saliva (NS), in situ (IS). Three whitening sessions were carried out using 35% hydrogen peroxide, with a week interval. Colour and KHN measurements were taken before the samples were placed in the SM (t1), after 24h in the SM (t2), and after 24h at the end of the bleaching treatment (t3). Two extra samples from each group were analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). KHN results were analysed by PROC-MIXED and Tukey-Kramer test (α=0.05), and colour changes were evaluated using ΔL, Δa, Δb, ΔE between the different times Δ1(t1-t2), Δ2(t2-t3) using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's test (α=0.05). Significant statistical difference was noted in KHN at t3, with the lowest values found for PW. As for colour analysis in ΔE2 and Δb2, IS showed values that were statistically lower when compared to AS. Likewise, there were differences between PW and AS in relation to IS when evaluating ΔL2. In addition, NS showed similar values to IS. The storage conditions had different effects on the physical properties of bleached enamel. NS was the only SM that showed similar behaviour to IS. NS proved an effective SM in the protection and recovery of damage caused by bleaching and is a viable SM for in vitro studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanoindentation creep behavior of human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Hong; Swain, Michael V

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the indentation creep behavior of human enamel was investigated with a nanoindentation system and a Berkovich indenter at a force of 250 mN with one-step loading and unloading method. A constant hold period of 900 s was incorporated into each test at the maximum load as well at 5 mN minimum load during unloading. The indentation creep at the maximum load and creep recovery at the minimum load was described with a double exponential function and compared with other classic viscoelastic models (Debye/Maxwell and Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts). Indentation creep rate sensitivity, m, of human enamel was measured for the first time with a value of approximately 0.012. Enamel displayed both viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior similar to that of bone. These results indicate that, associated with entrapment of particulates between teeth under functional loading and sliding wear conditions, the enamel may inelastically deform but recover upon its release. This behavior may be important in explaining the excellent wear resistance, antifatigue, and crack resistant abilities of natural tooth structure. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Spectrophotometric evaluation of dental bleaching under orthodontic bracket in enamel and dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correr, Americo-Bortolazzo; Rastelli, Alessandra-Nara-Souza; Lima, Débora-Alves-Nunes-Leite; Consani, Rafael-Leonardo-Xediek

    2014-01-01

    Aware of the diffusion capacity of bleaching in the dental tissues, many orthodontists are subjecting their patients to dental bleaching during orthodontic treatment for esthetic purposes or to anticipate the exchange of esthetic restorations after the orthodontic treatment. For this purpose specific products have been developed in pre-loaded whitening trays designed to fit over and around brackets and wires, with clinical efficacy proven. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate, through spectrophotometric reflectance, the effectiveness of dental bleaching under orthodontic bracket. Material and Methods: Thirty-two bovine incisors crown blocks of 8 mm x 8 mm height lengths were used. Staining of tooth blocks with black tea was performed for six days. They were distributed randomly into 4 groups (1-home bleaching with bracket, 2- home bleaching without bracket, 3- office bleaching with bracket, 4 office bleaching without bracket). The color evaluation was performed (CIE L * a * b *) using color reflectance spectrophotometer. Metal brackets were bonded in groups 1 and 3. The groups 1 and 2 samples were subjected to the carbamide peroxide at 15%, 4 hours daily for 21 days. Groups 3 and 4 were subjected to 3 in-office bleaching treatment sessions, hydrogen peroxide 38%. After removal of the brackets, the second color evaluation was performed in tooth block, difference between the area under the bracket and around it, and after 7 days to verified color stability. Data analysis was performed using the paired t-test and two-way variance analysis and Tukey’s. Results: The home bleaching technique proved to be more effective compared to the office bleaching. There was a significant difference between the margin and center color values of the specimens that were subjected to bracket bonding. Conclusions: The bracket bond presence affected the effectiveness of both the home and office bleaching treatments. Key words:Tooth bleaching, spectrophotometry

  9. In vitro wear of four ceramic materials and human enamel on enamel antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Jun; Taira, Yohsuke; Sawase, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the wear of four different ceramics and human enamel. The ceramics used were lithium disilicate glass (e.max Press), leucite-reinforced glass (GN-Ceram), yttria-stabilized zirconia (Aadva Zr), and feldspathic porcelain (Porcelain AAA). Hemispherical styli were fabricated with these ceramics and with tooth enamel. Flattened enamel was used for antagonistic specimens. After 100,000 wear cycles of a two-body wear test, the height and volume losses of the styli and enamel antagonists were determined. The mean and standard deviation for eight specimens were calculated and statistically analyzed using a non-parametric (Steel-Dwass) test (α = 0.05). GN-Ceram exhibited greater stylus height and volume losses than did Porcelain AAA. E.max Press, Porcelain AAA, and enamel styli showed no significant differences, and Aadva Zr exhibited the smallest stylus height and volume losses. The wear of the enamel antagonist was not significantly different among GN-Ceram, e.max Press, Porcelain AAA, and enamel styli. Aadva Zr resulted in significantly lower wear values of the enamel antagonist than did GN-Ceram, Porcelain AAA, and enamel styli. In conclusion, leucite-reinforced glass, lithium disilicate glass, and feldspathic porcelain showed wear values closer to those for human enamel than did yttria-stabilized zirconia. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  10. Effect of bleaching gel in Ca, P and Zn content in tooth enamel evaluated by μ-EDXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godinho, J.; Silveira, J.; Mata, A. [Oral and Biomedical Sciences Research Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, M.L. [Centro de Física Atómica, Av. Professor Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal); Pessanha, S., E-mail: aldaspsousa@gmail.com [Centro de Física Atómica, Av. Professor Gama Pinto, 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this in vitro study is to assess whether the elemental content of P, Ca and Zn in tooth enamel is altered when bleaching the teeth with bleaching gel. In order to perform this evaluation, sound vestibular surfaces of six anterior healthy teeth, extracted for periodontal or orthodontic reasons were used. Cuts were made in order to obtain 8 × 2 mm samples. Samples were then treated with the bleaching product (Opalescence PF 10%) accordingly to manufacturer instructions and stocked in artificial saliva between each application. The elemental content of each sample, before and after treatment was obtained by a portable micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (μ-EDXRF), making use of a polycapillary optic to obtain a focal spot of 100 μm for Fe-Kα. Quantitative calculations were obtained by WinAXIL compare mode method, using four standard reference materials. The obtained results show that no significant statistic differences were observed for the studied elements.

  11. Effect of bleaching gel in Ca, P and Zn content in tooth enamel evaluated by μ-EDXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, J.; Silveira, J.; Mata, A.; Carvalho, M. L.; Pessanha, S.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study is to assess whether the elemental content of P, Ca and Zn in tooth enamel is altered when bleaching the teeth with bleaching gel. In order to perform this evaluation, sound vestibular surfaces of six anterior healthy teeth, extracted for periodontal or orthodontic reasons were used. Cuts were made in order to obtain 8 × 2 mm samples. Samples were then treated with the bleaching product (Opalescence PF 10%) accordingly to manufacturer instructions and stocked in artificial saliva between each application. The elemental content of each sample, before and after treatment was obtained by a portable micro Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (μ-EDXRF), making use of a polycapillary optic to obtain a focal spot of 100 μm for Fe-Kα. Quantitative calculations were obtained by WinAXIL compare mode method, using four standard reference materials. The obtained results show that no significant statistic differences were observed for the studied elements.

  12. In vitro demineralization of tooth enamel subjected to two whitening regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Kayoko; Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Miyazaki, Takashi; Hisamitsu, Hisashi

    2013-07-01

    The resistance of bleached enamel to demineralization has not been elucidated fully. In this study, the authors aimed to examine the level of in vitro demineralization of human tooth enamel after bleaching by using two common bleaching regimens: home bleaching (HB) and office bleaching (OB) with photoirradiation. The authors bleached teeth to equivalent levels by means of the two bleaching regimens. They used fluorescence spectroscopy to measure the reduction in enamel density and the release of calcium into solution after storing the treated teeth in a demineralizing solution for two weeks. They also visualized and quantified mineral distribution in demineralized bleached enamel over time by using a desktop microcomputed-tomographic analyzer. Enamel subjected to HB or to photoirradiation without bleaching showed increased demineralization. In contrast, enamel treated with OB was more resistant to demineralization. This resistance to demineralization in teeth treated with OB presumably is due to peroxide's permeating to deeper layers of enamel before being activated by photoirradiation, which enhances mineralization. The mineral distribution pattern of enamel after treatment plays a critical role in providing resistance to demineralization in whitened teeth. OB confers to enamel significant resistance to in vitro demineralization. Dentists should supervise the nightguard HB process.

  13. Micro-structural integrity of dental enamel subjected to two tooth whitening regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Reina; Shibata, Yo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2010-04-01

    Colour modification of tooth enamel has proven successful, but it is unclear how various bleaching applications affect micro-structural integrity of the whitened enamel. To investigate the internal structural integrity of human intact tooth enamel with the application of two commonly used whitening regimes (in-office power bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and home bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide), evaluations were performed on teeth of identical colour classification. After the bleaching applications, the enamel mineral density was quantified and visualised with micro-computed tomography. The micro-structural differences between the whitened tooth enamel samples were distinctive, though the colour parameter changes within the samples were equivalent. Home bleaching achieved colour modification by demineralisation, whereas in-office bleaching depended on redistribution of the minerals after treatment and subsequent enhanced mineralisation.

  14. Peroxide bleaching agent effects on enamel surface microhardness, roughness and morphology Efeitos de agentes clareadores à base de peróxidos na microdureza, rugosidade e morfologia superficial do esmalte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Franco Pinto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness, microhardness and morphology of human enamel exposed to six bleaching agents (at baseline and post-treatment. Human dental enamel samples were obtained from human third molars and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 11: control, Whiteness Perfect - 10% carbamide peroxide (10% CP, Colgate Platinum - 10% CP, Day White 2Z - 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (7.5% HP, Whiteness Super - 37% CP, Opalescence Quick - 35% CP and Whiteness HP - 35% HP. Bleaching agents were applied according to manufacturers' instructions. The control group remained not treated and stored in artificial saliva. Microhardness testing was performed with a Knoop indentor and surface roughness was analyzed with a profilometer. Morphologic observations were carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (5%, and revealed a significant decrease in microhardness values and a significant increase in surface roughness post-bleaching. Changes in enamel morphology after bleaching were observed under SEM. It was concluded that bleaching agents can alter the microhardness, roughness and morphology of dental enamel surface.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a rugosidade, microdureza e morfologia superficial do esmalte dental humano tratado com seis agentes clareadores (antes e depois do tratamento. Amostras de esmalte dental humano foram obtidas de terceiros molares e aleatoriamente distribuídas em sete grupos (n = 11: controle, Whiteness Perfect - peróxido de carbamida a 10% (PC 10%, Colgate Platinum - PC 10%, Day White 2Z - peróxido de hidrogênio a 7,5% (PH 7,5%, Whiteness Super - PC 37%, Opalescence Quick - PC 35% e Whiteness HP - PH 35%. Os agentes clareadores foram aplicados de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes. O grupo controle permaneceu sem tratamento e armazenado em saliva artificial. O teste de microdureza foi realizado

  15. Does the hybrid light source (LED/laser) influence temperature variation on the enamel surface during 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching? A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Patricia Moreira; Menezes, Andressa Nery; da Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Simões, Alyne; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Lago, Andrea Dias Neves; Ferreira, Leila Soares; Ramos-Oliveira, Thayanne Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how a hybrid light source (LED/laser) influences temperature variation on the enamel surfaces during 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching. Effects on the whitening effectiveness and tooth sensitivity were analyzed. Twenty-two volunteers were randomly assigned to two different treatments in a split-mouth experimental model: group 1 (control), 35% HP; group 2 (experimental), 35% HP + LED/laser. Color evaluation was performed before treatment, and 7 and 14 days after completion of bleaching, using a color shade scale. Tooth sensitivity was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS; before, immediately, and 24 hours after bleaching). During the bleaching treatment, thermocouple channels positioned on the tooth surfaces recorded the temperature. Data on color and temperature changes were subjected to statistical analysis (α = 5%). Tooth sensitivity data were evaluated descriptively. Groups 1 and 2 showed mean temperatures (± standard deviation) of 30.7 ± 1.2 °C and 34.1 ± 1.3 °C, respectively. It was found that there were statistically significant differences between the groups, with group 2 showing higher mean variation (P enamel surface. The color change results showed no differences in bleaching between the two treatment groups (P = .177). The variation of the average temperature during the treatments was not statistically associated with color variation (P = .079). Immediately after bleaching, it was found that 36.4% of the subjects in group 2 had mild to moderate sensitivity. In group 1, 45.5% showed moderate sensitivity. In both groups, the sensitivity ceased within 24 hours. Hybrid light source (LED/ laser) influences temperature variation on the enamel surface during 35% HP bleaching and is not related to greater tooth sensitivity.

  16. Indentation Damage and Crack Repair in Human Enamel*

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, C.; Arola, D.; Ossa, A.

    2013-01-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized tissue in the human body. While there have been a number of studies aimed at understanding the hardness and crack growth resistance behavior of this tissue, no study has evaluated if cracks in this tissue undergo repair. In this investigation the crack repair characteristics of young human enamel were evaluated as a function of patient gender and as a function of the distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). Cracks were introduced ...

  17. The molecular basis of hereditary enamel defects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J T; Carrion, I A; Morris, C

    2015-01-01

    The formation of human enamel is highly regulated at the molecular level and involves thousands of genes. Requisites for development of this highly mineralized tissue include cell differentiation; production of a unique extracellular matrix; processing of the extracellular matrix; altering of cell function during different stages of enamel formation; cell movement and attachment; regulation of ion and protein movement; and regulation of hydration, pH, and other conditions of the microenvironment, to name just a few. Not surprising, there is a plethora of hereditary conditions with an enamel phenotype. The objective of this review was to identify the hereditary conditions listed on Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) that have an associated enamel phenotype and whether a causative gene has been identified. The OMIM database was searched with the terms amelogenesis, enamel, dental, and tooth, and all results were screened by 2 individuals to determine if an enamel phenotype was identified. Gene and gene product function was reviewed on OMIM and from publications identified in PubMed. The search strategy revealed 91 conditions listed in OMIM as having an enamel phenotype, and of those, 71 have a known molecular etiology or linked genetic loci. The purported protein function of those conditions with a known genetic basis included enzymes, regulatory proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, transcription factors, and transmembrane proteins. The most common enamel phenotype was a deficient amount of enamel, or enamel hypoplasia, with hypomineralization defects being reported less frequently. Knowing these molecular defects allows an initial cataloging of molecular pathways that lead to hereditary enamel defects in humans. This knowledge provides insight into the diverse molecular pathways involved in enamel formation and can be useful when searching for the genetic etiology of hereditary conditions that involve enamel. © International & American Associations for

  18. The Molecular Basis of Hereditary Enamel Defects in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, I.A.; Morris, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of human enamel is highly regulated at the molecular level and involves thousands of genes. Requisites for development of this highly mineralized tissue include cell differentiation; production of a unique extracellular matrix; processing of the extracellular matrix; altering of cell function during different stages of enamel formation; cell movement and attachment; regulation of ion and protein movement; and regulation of hydration, pH, and other conditions of the microenvironment, to name just a few. Not surprising, there is a plethora of hereditary conditions with an enamel phenotype. The objective of this review was to identify the hereditary conditions listed on Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) that have an associated enamel phenotype and whether a causative gene has been identified. The OMIM database was searched with the terms amelogenesis, enamel, dental, and tooth, and all results were screened by 2 individuals to determine if an enamel phenotype was identified. Gene and gene product function was reviewed on OMIM and from publications identified in PubMed. The search strategy revealed 91 conditions listed in OMIM as having an enamel phenotype, and of those, 71 have a known molecular etiology or linked genetic loci. The purported protein function of those conditions with a known genetic basis included enzymes, regulatory proteins, extracellular matrix proteins, transcription factors, and transmembrane proteins. The most common enamel phenotype was a deficient amount of enamel, or enamel hypoplasia, with hypomineralization defects being reported less frequently. Knowing these molecular defects allows an initial cataloging of molecular pathways that lead to hereditary enamel defects in humans. This knowledge provides insight into the diverse molecular pathways involved in enamel formation and can be useful when searching for the genetic etiology of hereditary conditions that involve enamel. PMID:25389004

  19. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references

  20. Deformation behavior of human enamel and dentin-enamel junction under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, Dmitry; Panfilov, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Deformation behavior under uniaxial compression of human enamel and dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) is considered in comparison with human dentin. This deformation scheme allows estimating the total response from all levels of the hierarchical composite material in contrast with the indentation, which are limited by the mesoscopic and microscopic scales. It was shown for the first time that dental enamel is the strength (up to 1850MPa) hard tissue, which is able to consider some elastic (up to 8%) and plastic (up to 5%) deformation under compression. In so doing, it is almost undeformable substance under the creep condition. Mechanical properties of human enamel depend on the geometry of sample. Human dentin exhibits the similar deformation behavior under compression, but the values of its elasticity (up to 40%) and plasticity (up to 18%) are much more, while its strength (up to 800MPa) is less in two times. Despite the difference in mechanical properties, human enamel is able to suppress the cracking alike dentin. Deformation behavior under the compression of the samples contained DEJ as the same to dentin. This feature allows a tooth to be elastic-plastic (as dentin) and wear resistible (as enamel), simultaneously. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of conditioners on microshear bond strength to enamel after carbamide peroxide bleaching and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, O A; Burrow, M F; Tyas, M J

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate (a) the enamel microshear bond strength (MSBS) of a universal adhesive and (b) the effects of conditioning with a self-etching primer adhesive with/without prior bleaching and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) application. Thirty-five molars were cut into four sections, assigned randomly to four groups (no treatment; 16% carbamide peroxide bleaching; CPP-ACP-containing paste (Tooth Mousse, TM); bleaching and TM) and treated accordingly. Specimens were divided into two for bonding with either a self-etching primer (Clearfil SE Bond, CSE) or a total-etch adhesive (Single Bond, SB). Specimens for CSE bonding were subdivided for one of four preconditioning treatments (no conditioning; 30-40% phosphoric acid (PA); 15% EDTA; 20% polyacrylic acid conditioner (Cavity conditioner, CC) and treated. The adhesives were applied and resin composite bonded to the enamel using microtubes (internal diameter 0.75mm). Bonds were stressed in shear until failure, mean MSBS calculated and data analysed using ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test (alpha=0.05). The modes of bond failure were assessed and classified. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences between treatments (Padhesive system on treated enamel may significantly improve bond strengths.

  2. On the R-curve behavior of human tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D

    2009-08-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is a function of distance from the dentin enamel junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0.67+/-0.12 MPam(0.5)), and the inner enamel exhibited a rise in the growth toughness from 1.13 MPam(0.5)/mm to 3.93 MPam(0.5)/mm. The maximum crack growth resistance at fracture (i.e. fracture toughness (K(c))) ranged from 1.79 to 2.37 MPam(0.5). Crack growth in the inner enamel was accompanied by a host of mechanisms operating from the micro- to the nano-scale. Decussation in the inner enamel promoted crack deflection and twist, resulting in a reduction of the local stress intensity at the crack tip. In addition, extrinsic mechanisms such as bridging by unbroken ligaments of the tissue and the organic matrix promoted crack closure. Microcracking due to loosening of prisms was also identified as an active source of energy dissipation. In summary, the unique microstructure of enamel in the decussated region promotes crack growth toughness that is approximately three times that of dentin and over ten times that of bone.

  3. The use of a 'bleach-etch-seal' deproteinization technique on MIH affected enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Shan; Crawford, Peter; Shellis, Peter

    2012-11-01

    To ascertain whether deproteinization pretreatment of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) enamel affects resin sealant infiltration. Thirty one extracted MIH teeth were divided into three sections and randomly allocated into the Control (etch and FS), Treatment 1 (5% NaOCl, etched and fissure sealed), and Treatment 2 (5% NaOCl and fissure sealed with no etch) groups. Two hundred seventy nine sealant tag/enamel grade observations were recorded by scanning electron microscopy. Control and Treatment 1 were similar in their outcomes, and Treatment 2 was markedly different. There was no statistical evidence to suggest that there was any difference between Treatment 1 and the Control Treatment (95% CI, 0.52, 1.51; P = 0.6). There was a marked difference between Treatment 2 and the Control Treatment (95% CI, 0.07, 0.25; P MIH enamel, regardless of which of the three treatments was used. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Effects of hydrogen peroxide bleaching strips on tooth surface color, surface microhardness, surface and subsurface ultrastructure, and microchemical (Raman spectroscopic) composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschner, Heinz; Götz, Hermann; White, Donald J; Kozak, Kathleen M; Zoladz, James R

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of hydrogen peroxide tooth bleaching strips on the surface hardness and morphology of enamel and the ultrastructure and chemical composition of enamel and dentin in vitro. Sound human molars were ground and polished to prepare a uniform substrate for bleaching treatments. A cycling treatment methodology was employed which alternated ex vivo human salivary exposures with bleaching treatments under conditions of controlled temperature and durations of treatment. Bleaching treatments included commercial Crest Whitestrips bleaching strips, which utilize hydrogen peroxide in a gel as the in situ bleaching source at 6.0 and 6.5% concentrations of H2O2. Control treatments included an untreated group. Crest Whitestrips bleaching included treatment exposures simulating 2x the recommended clinical exposures (28 hours bleaching). Surface color measurements were taken prior to and following bleaching to ensure tooth bleaching activity. The effects of bleach on physical properties of enamel were assessed with microhardness measures. Ultrastructural effects were classified by surface and subsurface confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. In addition, the effects of bleaching on tooth microchemical composition was studied in different tooth regions by coincident assessment of Raman spectroscopic signature. Color assessments confirmed significant ex vivo tooth bleaching by Whitestrips. Surface microhardness and SEM measures revealed no deleterious effects on the enamel surfaces. CLSM micromorphological assessments supported the safety of hydrogen peroxide bleaching strips both on surface and subsurface enamel, DEJ, and dentin ultrastructure. Raman spectroscopy analysis demonstrated no obvious effects of bleaching treatments on the microchemical composition of enamel and dentin. These results confirm that tooth bleaching with hydrogen peroxide whitening strips does not produce changes in surface

  5. Depth profile analysis of non-specific fluorescence and color of tooth tissues after peroxide bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Götz, Hermann; White, Donald J; Zoladz, James; Schwarz, Björn-Olaf; Duschner, Heinz

    2013-02-01

    To examine laboratory changes of endogenous non-specific fluorescence and color throughout subsurface of tooth structures prior to and following peroxide bleaching. Extracted human teeth were cross sectioned and mounted on glass slides. Cross sections were examined for internal color (digital camera) and nonspecific fluorescence (microRaman spectroscopy) throughout the tooth structure at specified locations. Surfaces of sections were then saturation bleached for 70 hours with a gel containing 6% hydrogen peroxide. Cross sections were reexamined for color and non-specific fluorescence changes. Unbleached enamel, dentin-enamel junction and dentin exhibit different CIELab color and non-specific fluorescence properties. Bleaching of teeth produced significant changes in color of internal cross sections and substantial reductions of non-specific fluorescence levels within enamel dentin and DEJ. Enamel and dentin non-specific fluorescence were reduced to common values with bleaching with enamel and the DEJ showing larger reductions than dentin.

  6. Indentation damage and mechanical properties of human enamel and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H H; Smith, D T; Jahanmir, S; Romberg, E; Kelly, J R; Thompson, V P; Rekow, E D

    1998-03-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of human teeth is important to clinical tooth preparation and to the development of "tooth-like" restorative materials. Previous studies have focused on the macroscopic fracture behavior of enamel and dentin. In the present study, we performed indentation studies to understand the microfracture and deformation and the microcrack-microstructure interactions of teeth. It was hypothesized that crack propagation would be influenced by enamel rods and the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ), and the mechanical properties would be influenced by enamel rod orientation and tooth-to-tooth variation. Twenty-eight human third molars were used for the measurement of hardness, fracture toughness, elastic modulus, and energy absorbed during indentation. We examined the effect of enamel rod orientation by propagating cracks in the occlusal surface, and in the axial section in directions parallel and perpendicular to the occlusal surface. The results showed that the cracks in the enamel axial section were significantly longer in the direction perpendicular to the occlusal surface than parallel. The cracks propagating toward the DEJ were always arrested and unable to penetrate dentin. The fracture toughness of enamel was not single-valued but varied by a factor of three as a function of enamel rod orientation. The elastic modulus of enamel showed a significant difference between the occlusal surface and the axial section. It is concluded that the cracks strongly interact with the DEJ and the enamel rods, and that the mechanical properties of teeth are functions of microstructural orientations; hence, single values of properties (e.g., a single toughness value or a single modulus value) should not be used without information on microstructural orientation.

  7. Penetration of 38% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber in bovine and human teeth submitted to office bleach technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Samira Esteves Afonso; Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; Gasparoto Mancini, Maria Nadir; Menezes, Marcia Maciel

    2007-09-01

    This study evaluated the pulp chamber penetration of peroxide bleaching agent in human and bovine teeth after office bleach technique. All the teeth were sectioned 3 mm apical of the cement-enamel junction and were divided into 2 groups, A (70 third human molars) and B (70 bovine lateral incisors), that were subdivided into A1 and B1 restored by using composite resin, A2 and B2 by using glass ionomer cement, and A3 and B3 by using resin-modified glass ionomer cement; A4, A5, B4, and B5 were not restored. Acetate buffer was placed in the pulp chamber, and the bleaching agent was applied for 40 minutes as follows: A1-A4 and B1-B4, 38% hydrogen peroxide exposure and A5 and B5, immersion into distilled water. The buffer solution was transferred to a glass tube in which leuco crystal violet and horseradish peroxidase were added, producing a blue solution. The optical density of the blue solution was determined by spectrophotometer and converted into microgram equivalents of hydrogen peroxide. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Dunnett, Kruskal-Wallis, and Tukey tests (5%). A higher level of hydrogen peroxide penetrated into the pulp chamber in resin-modified glass ionomer cements in bovine (0.79 +/- 0.61 microg) and human (2.27 +/- 0.41 microg) groups. The bleaching agent penetration into the pulp chamber was higher in human teeth for any experimental situation. The penetration of the hydrogen peroxide depends on restorative materials, and under the conditions of this study human teeth are more susceptible to penetration of bleaching agent into the pulp chamber than bovine teeth.

  8. Enamel microstructure and microstrain in the fracture of human and pig molar cusps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowics, T E; Rensberger, J M; Herring, S W

    2004-08-01

    The role of microstructure in enamel strain and breakage was investigated in human molar cusps and those of the pig, Sus scrofa. Rosette strain gauges were affixed to cusp surfaces (buccal human M3, n=15, and lingual pig M1, n=13), and a compressive load was applied to individual cusps using an MTS materials testing machine. Load and strain data were recorded simultaneously until cusp fracture, and these data were used to estimate enamel stresses, principal strains, and stiffness. Fractured and polished enamel fragments were examined in multiple planes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human cusp enamel showed greater stiffness than pig enamel (P=0.02), and tensile stress at yield was higher (17.9 N/mm2 in humans versus 8.9 N/mm2 in pigs, P=0.06). SEM revealed enamel rod decussation in both human and pig enamel; however, only pig enamel showed a decussation plane between rod and inter-rod crystallites. Human inter-rod enamel was densely packed between rods, whereas in pig enamel, inter-rod enamel formed partitions between rows of enamel rods. Overall, human enamel structure enabled molar cusps to withstand horizontal tensile stress during both elastic and plastic phases of compressive loading. In contrast, pig cusp enamel was less resistant to horizontal tensile stresses, but appeared to fortify the enamel against crack propagation in multiple directions. These structural and biomechanical differences in cusp enamel are likely to reflect species-level differences in occlusal function.

  9. Spatial distribution of the human enamel fracture toughness with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qinghua; Xu, Haiping; Song, Fan; Zhang, Lan; Zhou, Xuedong; Shao, Yingfeng; Huang, Dingming

    2013-10-01

    A better understanding of the fracture toughness (KIC) of human enamel and the changes induced by aging is important for the clinical treatment of teeth cracks and fractures. We conducted microindentation tests and chemical content measurements on molar teeth from "young" (18 ≤ age ≤ 25) and "old" (55 ≤ age) patients. The KIC and the mineral contents (calcium and phosphorus) in the outer, the middle, and the inner enamel layers within the cuspal and the intercuspal regions of the crown were measured through the Vickers toughness test and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The elastic modulus used for the KIC calculation was measured through atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanoindentation tests. In the outer enamel layer, two direction-specific values of the KIC were calculated separately (direction I, crack running parallel to the occlusal surface; direction II, perpendicular to direction I). The mean KIC of the outer enamel layer was lower than that of the internal layers (penamel layer, old enamel has a lower KIC, II and higher mineral contents than young enamel (penamel surface becomes more prone to cracks with aging partly due to the reduction in the interprismatic organic matrix observed with the maturation of enamel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of at-home and in-office bleaching agents on the shear bond strength of metal, ceramic, and composite brackets to enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahul, M; Kumar, P Anil; Nair, Amal S; Mathew, Shino; Amaladas, Antony Shijoy; Ommen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of at-home and in-office bleaching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal, ceramic, and composite orthodontic brackets and to compare their SBSs. A total of 96 human lower premolar teeth were used for this study. Six teeth were used for scanning electron microscopic study while the remaining ninety were divided into three equal groups. Each group was further subdivided into three subgroups with ten samples each. Three protocols were used. In the at-home bleaching group (n = 30), opalescence non-PF (potassium nitrate and fluoride) bleaching agent (10% carbamide peroxide) was applied onto the teeth daily for 14 days and left for 8 h each day. Teeth in the in-office group (n = 30) were treated twice in consecutive days with Opalescence boost PF (40% hydrogen peroxide). After bleaching, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 1 day before bonding. SBS testing was performed on all teeth using Instron universal testing machine. Analysis of variance indicated a significant difference (P brackets in control group (Ib) and minimum was shown by composite brackets of in-office bleached group (IIIc). The results showed that at-home bleaching did not affect the SBS significantly whereas in-office bleaching reduced SBS of metal, ceramic, and composite brackets significantly. It is preferable to use metal or ceramic brackets than composite brackets for bonding 24 h after bleaching.

  11. Effect of carbamide peroxide-based bleaching agents containing fluoride or calcium on tensile strength of human enamel Efeito de agentes clareadores à base de peróxido de carbamida contendo fluoreto e cálcio na resistência à tração do esmalte humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Giannini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of carbamide peroxide-based bleaching agents (CPG containing fluoride (CF or calcium (CCa on the ultimate tensile strength of enamel (UTS. METHOD: A "cube-like" resin composite structure was built-up on the occlusal surface of twenty-two sound third molars to facilitate specimen preparation for the micro-tensile test. The restored teeth were serially sectioned in buccal-lingual direction in slices with approximate 0.7 mm thickness. Each slice was trimmed with a fine diamond bur to reduce the buccal, internal slope enamel of the cusps to a dumb-bell shape with a cross-sectional area at the "neck" of less than 0.5 mm². The samples were randomly divided into 12 groups (n=11. The control groups were not submitted to the bleaching regimen. Specimens were treated with 10% CPG gel or with 10% CPG formulations containing CF (0.2% and 0.5% or CCa (0.05% and 0.2%. Bleached groups received the application of the 10% CPGs for 6 hours/day at 37º C, during 14 consecutive days and were stored in artificial saliva (AS or 100% relative humidity (RH among each application. After bleaching, specimens were tested with the microtensile method at 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (5%. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed between groups stored in AS or RH. Specimens treated with CF or CCa presented similar UTS as unbleached control groups. CONCLUSION: Either 10% CPG formulations containing CF or CCa can preserve the UTS after bleaching regimen.OBJETIVO: O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de agents clareadores à base de peróxido de carbamida (CPG contendo fluoreto (CF e cálcio (CCa na resistência à tração do esmalte (UTS. MÉTODO: Um bloco de resina composta foi confeccionada na superfície oclusal de vinte e dois terceiros molars hígidos para facilitar a preparação dos espécimes para o teste de micro-tração. Os dentes restaurados foram

  12. Testing functional and morphological interpretations of enamel thickness along the deciduous tooth row in human children.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The significance of a gradient in enamel thickness along the human permanent molar row has been debated in the literature. Some attribute increased enamel thickness from first to third molars to greater bite force during chewing. Others argue that thicker third molar enamel relates to a smaller crown size facilitated by a reduced dentin component. Thus, differences in morphology, not function, explains enamel thickness. This study draws on these different interpretive models to assess enamel ...

  13. Role of Prism Decussation on Fatigue Crack Growth and Fracture of Human Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    The role of prism decussation on the crack growth resistance of human enamel is evaluated. Miniature inset Compact Tension (CT) specimens embodying a section of cuspal enamel were subjected to Mode I cyclic or monotonic loads. Cracks were grown in either the forward (from outer enamel inwards) or reverse (from inner enamel outwards) direction and the responses were compared quantitatively. Results showed that the outer enamel exhibits lower resistance to the inception and growth of cracks. Re...

  14. Wear of human enamel: a quantitative in vitro assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidonis, J A; Richards, L C; Townsend, G C; Tansley, G D

    1998-12-01

    Many factors influence the extent and rate at which enamel wears. Clinical studies in humans are limited by difficulties in the accurate quantification of intra-oral wear and by a lack of control over the oral environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the wear characteristics of human dental enamel under controlled experimental conditions. An electro-mechanical tooth wear machine, in which opposing enamel surfaces of sectioned, extracted teeth were worn under various conditions, was used to simulate tooth grinding or bruxism. Enamel surface wear was quantified by weight to an accuracy of 0.1 mg, with water uptake and loss controlled. The variables considered included the structure and hardness of enamel, facet area, duration of tooth contact, relative speed of opposing surfaces, temperature, load, pH, and the nature of the lubricant. Enamel wear under non-lubricated conditions increased with increasing load over the range of 1.7 to 16.2 kg. The addition of a liquid lubricant (pH = 7) reduced enamel wear up to 6.7 kg, but when the load increased above this threshold, the rate of wear increased dramatically. With the viscosity of the lubricant constant and pH = 3, the rate of wear was further reduced to less than 10% of the non-lubricated rate at 9.95 kg, after which the rate again increased substantially. Under more extreme conditions (pH = 1.2, simulating gastric acids), the wear was excessive under all experimental loads. When saliva was used as a lubricant, the amount of wear was relatively low at 9.95 kg, but rapid wear occurred at 14.2 kg and above. These results indicate that under non-lubricated conditions, enamel wear remains low at high loads due to the dry-lubricating capabilities of fine enamel powder. Under lubricated conditions, low loads with an acidic lubricant lead to little enamel wear, whereas very low pH results in a high rate of wear under all loads.

  15. Indentation damage and crack repair in human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, C; Arola, D; Ossa, A

    2013-05-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized tissue in the human body. While there have been a number of studies aimed at understanding the hardness and crack growth resistance behavior of this tissue, no study has evaluated if cracks in this tissue undergo repair. In this investigation the crack repair characteristics of young human enamel were evaluated as a function of patient gender and as a function of the distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). Cracks were introduced via microindentation along the prism direction and evaluated as a function of time after the indentation. Microscopic observations indicated that the repair of cracks began immediately after crack initiation and reaches saturation after approximately 48 h. During this process he crack length decreased up to 10% of the initial length, and the largest degree of reduction occurred in the deep enamel, nearest the DEJ. In addition, it was found that the degree of repair was significantly greater in the enamel of female patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Indentation Damage and Crack Repair in Human Enamel*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, C.; Arola, D.; Ossa, A.

    2013-01-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized tissue in the human body. While there have been a number of studies aimed at understanding the hardness and crack growth resistance behavior of this tissue, no study has evaluated if cracks in this tissue undergo repair. In this investigation the crack repair characteristics of young human enamel were evaluated as a function of patient gender and as a function of the distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). Cracks were introduced via microindentation along the prism direction and evaluated as a function of time after the indentation. Microscopic observations indicated that the repair of cracks began immediately after crack initiation and reaches saturation after approximately 48 hours. During this process he crack length decreased up to 10% of the initial length, and the largest degree of reduction occurred in the deep enamel, nearest the DEJ. In addition, it was found that the degree of repair was significantly greater in the enamel of female patients. PMID:23541701

  17. In vitro evaluation of the chemical and morphological changes of the enamel surface using different bleaching techniques; Avaliacao in vitro das alteracoes quimica e morfologica da superficie do esmalte utilizando diferentes tecnicas de clareamento dental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Alessandra de Siervi

    2003-07-01

    'In vitro' evaluation through MEV and EDS of the morphological and chemical changes, respectively, of the bovine enamel, submitted to different bleaching techniques. For the MEV evaluation eighteen apical thirds were pigmented and divided into two parts. One half of each sample was the control and the other half was bleached according to the protocol of each test group (n= 6). Group I - home bleaching with a 10% carbamide peroxide; group II bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and LED; group III - bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with diode laser bleaching. The same procedure was done with the eighteen samples which were analyzed through EDS and which had their buccal surface grinded and polished before the bleaching procedure in order to obtain more precise values of the fraction of calcium and phosphorus. The results showed no morphological changes among the analyzed control halves and the bleached halves. There was not a statistical significant difference about Ca and P values, among the control halves and the bleached halves regarding the chemical components (p< 0,05). (author)

  18. In vitro evaluation of the chemical and morphological changes of the enamel surface using different bleaching techniques; Avaliacao in vitro das alteracoes quimica e morfologica da superficie do esmalte utilizando diferentes tecnicas de clareamento dental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Alessandra de Siervi

    2003-07-01

    'In vitro' evaluation through MEV and EDS of the morphological and chemical changes, respectively, of the bovine enamel, submitted to different bleaching techniques. For the MEV evaluation eighteen apical thirds were pigmented and divided into two parts. One half of each sample was the control and the other half was bleached according to the protocol of each test group (n= 6). Group I - home bleaching with a 10% carbamide peroxide; group II bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and LED; group III - bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with diode laser bleaching. The same procedure was done with the eighteen samples which were analyzed through EDS and which had their buccal surface grinded and polished before the bleaching procedure in order to obtain more precise values of the fraction of calcium and phosphorus. The results showed no morphological changes among the analyzed control halves and the bleached halves. There was not a statistical significant difference about Ca and P values, among the control halves and the bleached halves regarding the chemical components (p< 0,05). (author)

  19. Effects of at-home and in-office bleaching agents on the shear bond strength of metal, ceramic, and composite brackets to enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of at-home and in-office bleaching on the shear bond strength (SBS of metal, ceramic, and composite orthodontic brackets and to compare their SBSs. Subjects and Methods: A total of 96 human lower premolar teeth were used for this study. Six teeth were used for scanning electron microscopic study while the remaining ninety were divided into three equal groups. Each group was further subdivided into three subgroups with ten samples each. Three protocols were used. In the at-home bleaching group (n = 30, opalescence non-PF (potassium nitrate and fluoride bleaching agent (10% carbamide peroxide was applied onto the teeth daily for 14 days and left for 8 h each day. Teeth in the in-office group (n = 30 were treated twice in consecutive days with Opalescence boost PF (40% hydrogen peroxide. After bleaching, the specimens were stored in distilled water for 1 day before bonding. SBS testing was performed on all teeth using Instron universal testing machine. Results: Analysis of variance indicated a significant difference (P < 0.005 among the groups. Maximum SBS was shown by ceramic brackets in control group (Ib and minimum was shown by composite brackets of in-office bleached group (IIIc. Conclusions: The results showed that at-home bleaching did not affect the SBS significantly whereas in-office bleaching reduced SBS of metal, ceramic, and composite brackets significantly. It is preferable to use metal or ceramic brackets than composite brackets for bonding 24 h after bleaching.

  20. The Influence of Post Bleaching Treatments in Stain Absorption and Microhardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Horieh; Darvishzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of post bleaching treatments to prevent restaining and the change of enamel surface microhardness after dental bleaching in vitro. Sixty intact human incisor teeth were stained in tea solution and randomly assigned into four groups (n=15). Then samples were bleached for two weeks (8 hours daily) by 15% carbamide peroxide. Tooth color was determined both with a spectrophotometer and visually before bleaching (T1) and immediately after bleaching (T2). Next, it was applied in group 1 fluoride (Naf 2%) gel for 2 minutes, and in group 2 a fractional CO2 laser (10 mJ, 200 Hz, 10 s), and in group 3, nanohydroxyapatite gel for 2 minutes. The bleached teeth in group 4 remained untreated (control group). Then teeth placed in tea solution again. Color examinations were repeated after various post bleaching treatments (T3) and restaining with tea (T4) and color change values recorded. The microhardness was measured at the enamel surface of samples. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, Tukey HSD test and Dunnett T3 (α = 0.05). Directly after bleaching (ΔE T3-T2), the treatment with nanohydroxyapatite showed significantly the least color lapse in colorimetric evaluation. In experimental groups, the color change between T3 and T4 stages (ΔE T4-T3) was significantly lower than control group (P bleaching treatments are suggested for prevention of stain absorption and increasing the hardening of bleached enamel.

  1. Comparison of the effect of hydrogel and solution forms of sodium ascorbate on orthodontic bracket-enamel shear bond strength immediately after bleaching: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimyai Soodabeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the effects of hydrogel and solution forms of sodium ascorbate (SA with two different application times on bracket bond strength subsequent to bleaching. Materials and Methods: A total of 72 sound premolars were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12: An unbleached control group (group one and five experimental groups of carbamide peroxide. Specimens in group two were bonded immediately after bleaching; specimens in groups three and four were bleached, then treated with SA solution for ten minutes and three hours, respectively, and then bonded. In groups five and six, SA hydrogel was used and the specimens were prepared similar to groups three and four, respectively. Following debonding, bond strengths were recorded in MPa. To evaluate the amount of resin left on the enamel surfaces, adhesive remnant index (ARI scores were used. Statistical Analysis: The bond strength data were analyzed with ANOVA and pairwise comparisons were made by Tukey test. The ARI data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis test and two-by-two comparisons were made by the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There were significant differences in bond strengths between the groups ( P < 0.0005. However, the differences between groups three, four, five and six were not significant. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between group one and groups four and six, whereas the differences between the other groups were significant ( P < 0.05. Regarding ARI, there were significant differences among the groups ( P = 0.004. Conclusion: Bleaching significantly decreased the bracket bond strength. Compromised bonding was reversed with a three-hour application of both forms of SA.

  2. 'In vitro' assessment to instrumented indentation hardness tests in enamel of bovine teeth, before and after dental bleaching by laser; Avaliacao in vitro' de ensaios instrumentados de dureza em esmalte de dente bovino, antes e apos clareamento dental a laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto Junior, Francisco Meira

    2004-07-01

    The laser enamel bleaching is a common used procedure due to its satisfactory esthetic results. The possible changes on the dental structures caused by the bleaching technique are of great importance. The enamel superficial microhardness changes through instrumented indentation hardness on bovine teeth were analyzed in this present study. The samples were divided in two halves, one being the control and the other irradiated with a diode laser (808 nm) or with a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) to activate the Whiteness HP bleaching gel (hydrogen peroxide at 35%). It was possible to conclude that there was a statistical significant increase on the enamel superficial microhardness (Group I, sample 1 and Group II, sample 1) despite this increase did not seem to indicate a concern regarding the enamel surface resistance change. There was not a significant statistical change on the enamel microhardness on the other samples. The final conclusion is that there was no superficial enamel morphological change after these treatments. (author)

  3. Molecular Basis of Human Enamel Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzopoulos Georgios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During eruption of teeth in the oral cavity, the effect of gene variations and environmental factors can result in morphological and structural changes in teeth. Amelogenesis imperfecta is a failure which is detected on the enamel of the teeth and clinical picture varies by the severity and type of the disease. Classification of the types of amelogenesis imperfecta is determined by histological, genetic, clinical and radiographic criteria. Specifically, there are 4 types of amelogenesis imperfecta (according to Witkop: hypoplastic form, hypo-maturation form, hypo-calcified form, and hypo-maturation/hypoplasia form with taurodontism and 14 subcategories. The diagnosis and classification of amelogenesis imperfecta has traditionally been based on clinical presentation or phenotype and the inheritance pattern. Several genes can be mutated and cause the disease. Millions of genes, possibly more than 10,000 genes produce proteins that regulate synthesis of enamel. Some of the genes and gene products that are likely associated with amelogenesis imperfecta are: amelogenin (AMELX, AMELY genes, ameloblastin (AMBN gene, enamelin (ENAM gene, enamelysin (MMP20 gene, kalikryn 4 (KLK 4 gene, tuftelins (Tuftelin gene, FAM83H (FAM83H gene and WDR72 (WDR72 gene. Particular attention should be given by the dentist in recognition and correlation of phenotypes with genotypes, in order to diagnose quickly and accurately such a possible disease and to prevent or treat it easily and quickly. Modern dentistry should restore these lesions in order to guarantee aesthetics and functionality, usually in collaboration with a group of dentists.

  4. Micro-indentation fracture behavior of human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sanosh Kunjalukkal; Balakrishnan, Avinash; Chu, Min-Cheol; Kim, Taik Nam; Cho, Seong Jai

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the crack resistance behavior (K(R)) of human enamel in relation to its microstructure. Human molar teeth were precision cut, polished and tested using Vickers micro-indentation at different loads ranging from 0.98 to 9.8 N. Five indentation load levels were considered, 20 indentation cracks for each load level were introduced on the surface of the test specimen (10 indentations per tooth) and their variability was evaluated using Weibull statistics and an empirical model. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to analyze the crack morphology and propagation mechanisms involved. The results showed that enamel exhibited increasing cracking resistance (K(R)) with increasing load. It was found that the crack propagation mainly depended on the location and the microstructure it encountered. SEM showed the formation of crack bridges and crack deflection near the indentation crack tip. The crack mode was of Palmqvist type even at larger loads of 9.8 N. This was mainly attributed to the large process zone created by the interwoven lamellar rod like microstructure exhibited by the enamel surface. This study shows that there are still considerable prospects for improving dental ceramics and for mimicking the enamel structure developed by nature.

  5. Study of the arrangement of crystallites in γ-irradiated human enamel by electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevc, P.; Schara, M.; Ravnik, C.; Skaleric, U.

    1976-01-01

    The arrangement of tooth enamel microcrystals has been studied on CO 3 3- bound electrons by paramagnetic resonance. It was found that noncarious human maxillary central incisors have a greater degree of alignment of tooth enamel microcrystals than the carious ones. The outermost surface layer of enamel showed a greater crystallite degree of alignment than other parts

  6. Contact fatigue of human enamel: Experiments, mechanisms and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S S; An, B B; Yahyazadehfar, M; Zhang, D; Arola, D D

    2016-07-01

    Cyclic contact between natural tooth structure and engineered ceramics is increasingly common. Fatigue of the enamel due to cyclic contact is rarely considered. The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the fatigue behavior of human enamel by cyclic contact, and to assess the extent of damage over clinically relevant conditions. Cyclic contact experiments were conducted using the crowns of caries-free molars obtained from young donors. The cuspal locations were polished flat and subjected to cyclic contact with a spherical indenter of alumina at 2Hz. The progression of damage was monitored through the evolution in contact displacement, changes in the contact hysteresis and characteristics of the fracture pattern. The contact fatigue life diagram exhibited a decrease in cycles to failure with increasing cyclic load magnitude. Two distinct trends were identified, which corresponded to the development and propagation of a combination of cylindrical and radial cracks. Under contact loads of less than 400N, enamel rod decussation resisted the growth of subsurface cracks. However, at greater loads the damage progressed rapidly and accelerated fatigue failure. Overall, cyclic contact between ceramic appliances and natural tooth structure causes fatigue of the enamel. The extent of damage is dependent on the magnitude of cyclic stress and the ability of the decussation to arrest the fatigue damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of atomic number and composition of human enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, M.S.; Rodas Duran, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The teeth are organs of complicated structure that consist, partly, of hard tissue containing in its interior the dental pulp, rich in vases and nerves. The main mass of the tooth is constituted by the dentine, which is covered with hard tissues and of epithelial origin called enamel. The dentine of the human teeth used in this work were completely removed and the teeth were cut with a device with a diamond disc. In this work the chemical composition of the human enamel was determined, which showed a high percentage of Ca and P, in agreement with the results found in the literature. The effective atomic number of the material and the half-value layer in the energy range of diagnostic X-ray beams were determined. Teeth could be used to evaluated the public's individual doses as well as for retrospective dosimetry what confirms the importance of their effective atomic number and composition determination. (author)

  8. In vitro effect of energy drinks on human enamel surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Sano Suga MATUMOTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Energy drinks (ED possess low pH and citric acid in their composition, making them potentially erosive beverages that can contribute to the high dental erosion rates found currently in the general population and also in young people. Objective To evaluate the mean pH and titratable acidity of commercial ED and the influence of a brand of ED on the superficial microhardness of human enamel. Material and method Ten commercial ED were selected and the pH of two lots of each ED with and without gas was obtained. Acid titration was conducted with the addition of NaOH aliquots until the pH 7 was reached. Eighteen human enamel specimens were allocated in three groups (N=6, Red Bull (RB, Red Bull Light (RBL and distilled water (C, submitted to an acid challenge with the ED, six consecutive times, with 12 hours intervals, during three days. Knoop microhardness was measured before and after the acid challenge. Result All ED brands tested presented low pH levels ranging from 2.1 to 3.2. Regarding titratable acidity, it was found that the amount of base required promoting the neutralization of the solutions ranged from 1200μL to 3750μL. Samples of human enamel in the RB and RBL groups submitted to the acid challenge presented significantly decreased Knoop microhardness when compared with the group C. Conclusion All ED examined have potential to promote mineral loss due to the low pH and high titratable acidity. The ED analyzed promoted significant mineral losses on the dental enamel surface.

  9. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  10. Effect of thickener agents on dental enamel microhardness submitted to at-home bleaching Efeito de agentes espessantes na microdureza do esmalte submetido ao clareamento dental caseiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental bleaching occurs due to an oxidation reaction between the bleaching agents and the macromolecules of pigments in the teeth. This reaction is unspecific and the peroxides can also affect the dental matrix causing mineral loss. On the other hand, recent studies have suggested that the thickener agent carbopol can also cause mineral loss. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of at-home dental bleaching on dental enamel microhardness after the use of bleaching agents with and without carbopol as a thickener agent. Bovine dental slabs with 3 x 3 x 3 mm were obtained, sequentially polished, and randomly divided into 4 groups according to the experimental treatment: G1: 2% carbopol; G2: 10% carbamide peroxide with carbopol; G3: carbowax; G4: 10% carbamide peroxide with poloxamer. Bleaching was performed daily for 4 weeks, immersed in artificial saliva. Enamel microhardness values were obtained before the treatment (T0 and 7 (T1, 14 (T2, 21 (T3, 28 (T4, and 42 (T5 days after the beginning of the treatment. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed statistically significant differences only for the factor Time (F = 5.48; p O clareamento dental ocorre devido a uma reação de oxidação entre o agente clareador e as macromoléculas de pigmentos presentes nos dentes. Esta reação é inespecífica e o peróxido pode agir na matriz dental causando perdas de mineral. Por outro lado, estudos recentes sugerem que o agente espessante carbopol também pode causar perda mineral. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar in vitro o efeito do clareamento caseiro sobre a microdureza do esmalte após o uso de agentes clareadores com e sem carbopol como espessante. Fragmentos de esmalte bovino de 3 x 3 x 3 mm foram obtidos, polidos seqüencialmente e aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos de acordo com o tratamento experimental: G1: carbopol a 2%; G2: peróxido de carbamida a 10% com carbopol; G3: carbowax; G4: peróxido de carbamida a

  11. Determination of fracture toughness of human permanent and primary enamel using an indentation microfracture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi-Sakai, Sachiko; Sakai, Jun; Sakamoto, Makoto; Endo, Hideaki

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the fracture toughness and Vickers microhardness number of permanent and primary human enamel using the indentation microfracture method. Crack resistance and a parameter indirectly related to fracture toughness were measured in 48 enamel specimens from 16 permanent teeth and 12 enamel specimens obtained from six primary teeth. The Vickers microhardness number of the middle portion was greater than the upper portion in primary enamel. The fracture toughness was highest in the middle portion of permanent enamel, because fracture toughness greatly depends upon microstructure. These findings suggest that primary teeth are not miniature permanent teeth but have specific and characteristic mechanical properties.

  12. A Comparison of Fatigue Crack Growth in Human Enamel and Hydroxyapatite

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Devendra; Nazari, Ahmad; Eidelman, Naomi; Arola, Dwayne

    2008-01-01

    Cracks and craze lines are often observed in the enamel of human teeth, but they rarely cause tooth fracture. The present study evaluates fatigue crack growth in human enamel, and compares that to the fatigue response of sintered hydroxyapatite (HAp) with similar crystallinity, chemistry and density. Miniature inset compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared that embodied a small piece of enamel (N=8) or HAp (N=6). The specimens were subjected to mode I cyclic loads and the steady state cra...

  13. Heat Transfer Behavior across the Dentino-Enamel Junction in the Human Tooth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Niu

    Full Text Available During eating, the teeth usually endure the sharply temperature changes because of different foods. It is of importance to investigate the heat transfer and heat dissipation behavior of the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ of human tooth since dentine and enamel have different thermophysical properties. The spatial and temporal temperature distributions on the enamel, dentine, and pulpal chamber of both the human tooth and its discontinuous boundaries, were measured using infrared thermography using a stepped temperature increase on the outer boundary of enamel crowns. The thermal diffusivities for enamel and dentine were deduced from the time dependent temperature change at the enamel and dentine layers. The thermal conductivities for enamel and dentine were calculated to be 0.81 Wm-1K-1 and 0.48 Wm-1K-1 respectively. The observed temperature discontinuities across the interfaces between enamel, dentine and pulp-chamber layers were due to the difference of thermal conductivities at interfaces rather than to the phase transformation. The temperature gradient distributes continuously across the enamel and dentine layers and their junction below a temperature of 42°C, whilst a negative thermal resistance is observed at interfaces above 42°C. These results suggest that the microstructure of the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ junction play an important role in tooth heat transfer and protects the pulp from heat damage.

  14. Exoemission and thermoluminescence from human enamel and shark enameloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of exoelectron emission and thermoluminescence from powdered biological apatites, which have not been chemically or thermally pretreated, are reported. Recycling, that is, consecutive irradiation and non-isothermal scanning, is shown to change both the form of the glow curves and emissivity of samples. Two biological apatites of the hydroxyapatite type (human enamel) and fluorapatite type (shark enameloid) are compared. Although their initial glow curves are different, recycling renders the glow curves similar suggesting that the defects involved are a product of the host lattice. The relevance of exoemission as a ''fingerprinting'' technique for biologically reactive material is discussed. (author)

  15. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V [St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  16. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V

    2014-01-01

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  17. Ceramic-like wear behaviour of human dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsecularatne, J A; Hoffman, M

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of subsurfaces of enamel specimens following in vitro reciprocating wear tests with an enamel cusp sliding on a flat enamel specimen under hydrated conditions. The obtained results show that crack formation occurred in the wear scar subsurface. The path followed by these cracks seems to be dictated either by the histological structure of enamel or by the contact stress field. Moreover, the analysis of a set of enamel wear results obtained from the literature and application of fracture-based models, originally developed for ceramics, correlate well, confirming the similar wear processes taking place in these materials. This analysis also reveals a marked influence of coefficient of friction on the enamel wear rate: for a higher coefficient of friction value, enamel wear can be severe even under forces generated during normal operation of teeth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Type VII collagen is enriched in the enamel organic matrix associated with the dentin-enamel junction of mature human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jacob D; Walker, Mary P; Mousa, Ahmad; Wang, Yong; Gorski, Jeff P

    2014-06-01

    The inner enamel region of erupted teeth is known to exhibit higher fracture toughness and crack growth resistance than bulk phase enamel. However, an explanation for this behavior has been hampered by the lack of compositional information for the residual enamel organic matrix. Since enamel-forming ameloblasts are known to express type VII collagen and type VII collagen null mice display abnormal amelogenesis, the aim of this study was to determine whether type VII collagen is a component of the enamel organic matrix at the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) of mature human teeth. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy of demineralized tooth sections localized type VII collagen to the organic matrix surrounding individual enamel rods near the DEJ. Morphologically, immunoreactive type VII collagen helical-bundles resembled the gnarled-pattern of enamel rods detected by Coomassie Blue staining. Western blotting of whole crown or enamel matrix extracts also identified characteristic Mr=280 and 230 kDa type VII dimeric forms, which resolved into 75 and 25 kDa bands upon reduction. As expected, the collagenous domain of type VII collagen was resistant to pepsin digestion, but was susceptible to purified bacterial collagenase. These results demonstrate the inner enamel organic matrix in mature teeth contains macromolecular type VII collagen. Based on its physical association with the DEJ and its well-appreciated capacity to complex with other collagens, we hypothesize that enamel embedded type VII collagen fibrils may contribute not only to the structural resilience of enamel, but may also play a role in bonding enamel to dentin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Near-surface structural examination of human tooth enamel subject to in vitro demineralization and remineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Carmen Veronica

    The early stages of chemical tooth decay are governed by dynamic processes of demineralization and remineralization of dental enamel that initiates along the surface of the tooth. Conventional diagnostic techniques lack the spatial resolution required to analyze near-surface structural changes in enamel at the submicron level. In this study, slabs of highly-polished, decay-free human enamel were subjected to 0.12M EDTA and buffered lactic acid demineralizing agents and MI Paste(TM) and calcifying (0.1 ppm F) remineralizing treatments in vitro. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), a technique typically used for thin film analysis, provided depth profiles of crystallinity changes in surface enamel with a resolution better than 100 nm. In conjunction with nanoindentation, a technique gaining acceptance as a means of examining the mechanical properties of sound enamel, these results were corroborated with well-established microscopy and Raman techniques to assess the nanohardness, morphologies and chemical nature of treated enamel. Interestingly, the average crystallite size of surface enamel along its c-axis dimension increased by nearly 40% after a 60 min EDTA treatment as detected by GIXD. This result was in direct contrast to the obvious surface degradation observed by microscopic and confocal Raman imaging. A decrease in nanohardness from 4.86 +/- 0.44 GPa to 0.28 +/- 0.10 GPa was observed. Collective results suggest that mineral dissolution characteristics evident on the micron scale may not be fully translated to the nanoscale in assessing the integrity of chemically-modified tooth enamel. While an intuitive decrease in enamel crystallinity was observed with buffered lactic acid-treated samples, demineralization was too slow to adequately quantify the enamel property changes seen. MI Paste(TM) treatment of EDTA-demineralized enamel showed preferential growth along the a-axis direction. Calcifying solution treatments of both demineralized sample types

  20. Fluoride uptake from restorative dental materials by human enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsten, L.; Rytoemaa, I.; Anttila, A.; Keinonen, J.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the uptake in vitro of fluoride from restorative materials by tooth enamel and whether prior etching of the enamel causes a change of uptake. The outermost layer of the labial surface of extracted canines was removed by grinding and the enamel was covered with five different fluoride-containing materials ; a silicate, a composite resin, an amalgam, a silicophosphate, and a polycarboxylate luting cement. The material was either removed immediately or after storing the tooth in distilled water. The fluoride content was determined using a sensitive physical method based on the 19 F (p, αγ) 16 O reaction. In addition, the fluoride content of enamel after etching for different periods of time and of etched enamel which had been in contact with silicate cement was determined. The mean fluoride content of uncovered interior enamel was 226 parts 10 6 . All materials, except the composite, increased clearly the fluoride content of the underlying enamel. Etching of interior enamel also increased the fluoride values. No difference could be shown in fluoride uptake from silicate and composite resin between etched and unetched enamel. (author)

  1. REMINERALIZATION POTENTIAL OF A CARBAMIDE BLEACHING AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinova-Takorova Borislavova Mirela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bleaching has gradually became a popular procedure for people searching for aesthetic improvement. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of bleaching with 45% carbamide peroxide on the level of mineralization of enamel, using laser fluorescence. Materials and methods: Sixty extracted human teeth were treated with 45% carbamid peroxide (Opalescence, Ultradent, 4 consecutive days for one hour each day. The effect of the bleaching agent on the level of mineralization of enamel was measured with DIAGNO dent pen. The statistical method we use was descriptive analysis. Results: The average values, measured before the applications of the carbamid peroxide were 6.33. On the first day they were 5.41, on the second 5.38, on the third 5.11 and 5.35 on the forth. Conclusion: There was observed a slight remineralization effect due to the incorporated Ca2+ and F- ions in the bleaching agent that we have used.

  2. Opalescence of bleached teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Max; Maia, Hamilton Pires; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the influence of tooth bleaching on the opalescence properties of enamel. Color of 38 specimens was determined by colorimetric analysis before and after bleaching in the reflectance and transmittance modes. The results were described as CIELab color coordinates. The Opalescent Parameter (OP) was calculated as the difference in yellow-blue color coordinate (CIE Δb*) and red-green color coordinate (CIE Δa*) between the reflected and transmitted colors. Mean OP value of the specimens was 18.9 (±1.6) before bleaching and 16.1 (±1.0) after bleaching. Bleaching decreases the OP of the specimens (p>0.001). OP decrease was correlated with differences in b* color coordinate in the transmittance mode. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of fatigue crack growth in human enamel and hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Nazari, Ahmad; Eidelman, Naomi; Arola, Dwayne D

    2008-12-01

    Cracks and craze lines are often observed in the enamel of human teeth, but they rarely cause tooth fracture. The present study evaluates fatigue crack growth in human enamel, and compares that to the fatigue response of sintered hydroxyapatite (HAp) with similar crystallinity, chemistry and density. Miniature inset compact tension (CT) specimens were prepared that embodied a small piece of enamel (N=8) or HAp (N=6). The specimens were subjected to mode I cyclic loads and the steady state crack growth responses were modeled using the Paris Law. Results showed that the fatigue crack growth exponent (m) for enamel (m=7.7+/-1.0) was similar to that for HAp (m=7.9+/-1.4), whereas the crack growth coefficient (C) for enamel (C=8.7 E-04 (mm/cycle)x(MPa m(0.5))(-m)) was significantly lower (pcrack growth in the enamel occurred primarily along the prism boundaries. In regions of decussation, the microstructure promoted microcracking, crack bridging, crack deflection and crack bifurcation. Working in concert, these mechanisms increased the crack growth resistance and resulted in a sensitivity to crack growth (m) similar to bone and lower than that of human dentin. These mechanisms of toughening were not observed in the crack growth response of the sintered HAp. While enamel is the most highly mineralized tissue of the human body, the microstructural arrangement of the prisms promotes exceptional resistance to crack growth.

  4. Electrophoretic demonstration of glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and phosphoproteins in human and bovine enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Bøg-Hansen, T C

    1990-01-01

    Enamel proteins from fully mineralized human molars and from bovine tooth germs were separated by electrophoresis. The gels were stained for detection of glycoproteins, lipoproteins, and phosphoproteins. Glycoproteins were shown by periodic acid-Schiff staining and lectin blotting. In mature human...... enamel a number of high molecular weight proteins could be demonstrated after ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid demineralization and subsequent Triton X-100 extraction. These proteins are suggested to be lipoproteins. Phosphoproteins could only be visualized in enamel matrix from the tooth germs....

  5. Effect of various bleaching treatments on shear bond strength of different universal adhesives and application modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of 2 universal adhesives used in different application modes to bleached enamel. Materials and Methods Extracted 160 sound human incisors were used for the study. Teeth were divided into 4 treatment groups: No treatment, 35% hydrogen peroxide, 16% carbamid peroxide, 7.5% carbamid peroxide. After bleaching treatments, groups were divided into subgroups according to the adhesive systems used and application modes (n = 10): 1) Single Bond Universal, etch and rinse mode; 2) Single Bond Universal, self-etch mode; 3) Gluma Universal, etch and rinse mode; 4) Gluma Universal, self-etch mode. After adhesive procedures nanohybrid composite resin cylinders were bonded to the enamel surfaces. All specimens were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) test after thermocycling. Data were analyzed using a 3-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test. Results No significant difference were found among bleaching groups (35% hydrogen peroxide, 16% carbamid peroxide, 7.5% carbamid peroxide, and no treatment groups) in the mean SBS values. There was also no difference in SBS values between Single Bond Universal and Gluma Universal at same application modes, whereas self-etch mode showed significantly lower SBS values than etch and rinse mode (p adhesives was enhanced with the etch and rinse mode application to bleached enamel and non-bleached enamel. PMID:29765900

  6. Hidden contributions of the enamel rods on the fracture resistance of human teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Yahyazadehfar, M.; Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D.

    2012-01-01

    The enamel of human teeth is generally regarded as a brittle material with low fracture toughness. Consequently, the contributions of this tissue in resisting tooth fracture and the importance of its complex microstructure have been largely overlooked. In this study an experimental evaluation of the crack growth resistance of human enamel was conducted to characterize the role of rod (i.e. prism) orientation and degree of decussation on the fracture behavior of this tissue. Incremental crack ...

  7. Wear of human enamel opposing monolithic zirconia, glass ceramic, and composite resin: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripetchdanond, Jeerapa; Leevailoj, Chalermpol

    2014-11-01

    Demand is increasing for ceramic and composite resin posterior restorations. However, ceramics are recognized for their high abrasiveness to opposing dental structure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear of enamel as opposed to dental ceramics and composite resin. Twenty-four test specimens (antagonists), 6 each of monolithic zirconia, glass ceramic, composite resin, and enamel, were prepared into cylindrical rods. Enamel specimens were prepared from 24 extracted human permanent molar teeth. Enamel specimens were abraded against each type of antagonist with a pin-on-disk wear tester under a constant load of 25 N at 20 rpm for 4800 cycles. The maximum depth of wear (Dmax), mean depth of wear (Da), and mean surface roughness (Ra) of the enamel specimens were measured with a profilometer. All data were statistically analyzed by 1-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey test (α=.05). A paired t test was used to compare the Ra of enamel at baseline and after testing. The wear of both the enamel and antagonists was evaluated qualitatively with scanning electron microscopic images. No significant differences were found in enamel wear depth (Dmax, Da) between monolithic zirconia (2.17 ±0.80, 1.83 ±0.75 μm) and composite resin (1.70 ±0.92, 1.37 ±0.81 μm) or between glass ceramic (8.54 ±2.31, 7.32 ±2.06 μm) and enamel (10.72 ±6.31, 8.81 ±5.16 μm). Significant differences were found when the enamel wear depth caused by monolithic zirconia and composite resin was compared with that of glass ceramic and enamel (Pglass ceramic, and enamel (Pglass ceramic and enamel. All test materials except composite resin similarly increased the enamel surface roughness after wear testing. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of different dental ceramic systems on the wear of human enamel: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandparsa, Roya; El Huni, Rabie M; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Johnson, Marc I

    2016-02-01

    The wear of tooth structure opposing different advanced dental ceramic systems requires investigation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the wear of advanced ceramic systems against human enamel antagonists. Four ceramic systems (IPS e.max Press, IPS e.max CAD, Noritake Super Porcelain EX-3, and LAVA Plus Zirconia) and 1 control group containing human enamel specimens were used in this study (n = 12). All specimens were fabricated as disks 11 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick. The mesiopalatal cusps of the maxillary third molars were prepared to serve as the enamel styluses. All specimens were embedded individually in 25 mm(3) autopolymerizing acrylic resin blocks. Wear was measured with a cyclic loading machine and a newly designed wear simulator. All enamel styluses (cusps) were scanned using the Activity 880 digital scanner (SmartOptics). Data from the base line and follow-up scans were collected and compared with Qualify 2012 3-dimensional (3D) and 2D digital inspection software (Geomagic), which aligned the models and detected the geometric changes and the wear caused by the antagonist specimen. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the collected data. After 125,000 bidirectional loading cycles, the mean loss of opposing enamel volume for the enamel disks in the control group was 37.08 μm(3), the lowest mean value for IPS e.max Press system was 39.75 μm(3); 40.58 μm(3) for IPS e.max CAD; 45.08 μm(3) for Noritake Super Porcelain EX-3 system; and 48.66 μm(3) for the Lava Plus Zirconia system. No statically significant differences were found among the groups in opposing enamel volume loss (P=.225) or opposing enamel height loss (P=.149). In terms of opposing enamel height loss, Lava Plus Zirconia system showed the lowest mean value of 27.5 μm. The mean value for the IPS e.max CAD system was 27.91 μm; 29.08 μm for the control enamel; 33.25 μm for the IPS e.max Press system; and 34.75 μm for the Noritake Super Porcelain EX-3 system. Within the

  9. Dependencies of the radiation sensitivity of human tooth enamel in EPR dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; El-Faramawy, N.; Meckbach, R.

    2001-01-01

    The EPR dose response of tooth enamel was determined for human molars collected in Egypt. The influence of age, gender and residence of the tooth donors as well as tooth position and sample preparation on EPR sensitivity and its variability over the enamel samples was investigated. The EPR sensitivity and its variability were found to depend only on the sample preparation procedure. The variability in EPR sensitivity of enamel from Egyptian teeth was maximally 10% and the mean sensitivity was in good agreement with that of German teeth

  10. Measurement of Ca, Zn and Sr in enamel of human teeth by XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, L.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been employed to measure Ca, Zn, and Sr in enamel of human teeth. The calibration of the EDXRF system was performed by comparing Sr/Ca ratios with values obtained by atomic absorption analysis of acid etched biopsies of the enamel surface. Two calibration lines were obtained, one line for untreated teeth and the second line for teeth immersed (treated) in solutions containing Sr. A simple analytical model demonstrated that the two calibration lines were the result of the difference in the depth of the enamel sampled by EDXRF and by the acid-etched biopsy. The multi-elemental, non-destructive and quantitative aspects of EDXRF permit the sequential monitoring of the effects of Sr and Zn ions on the mineralization and demineralization processes in human enamel. The portability of the system and adaptability to non-invasive measurements makes it suitable for field studies. 26 references, 4 figures.

  11. Measurement of Ca, Zn and Sr in enamel of human teeth by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Featherstone, J.D.B.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been employed to measure Ca, Zn, and Sr in enamel of human teeth. The calibration of the EDXRF system was performed by comparing Sr/Ca ratios with values obtained by atomic absorption analysis of acid etched biopsies of the enamel surface. Two calibration lines were obtained, one line for untreated teeth and the second line for teeth immersed (treated) in solutions containing Sr. A simple analytical model demonstrated that the two calibration lines were the result of the difference in the depth of the enamel sampled by EDXRF and by the acid-etched biopsy. The multi-elemental, non-destructive and quantitative aspects of EDXRF permit the sequential monitoring of the effects of Sr and Zn ions on the mineralization and demineralization processes in human enamel. The portability of the system and adaptability to non-invasive measurements makes it suitable for field studies. 26 references, 4 figures

  12. Measurement of Ca, Zn, and Sr in enamel of human teeth by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Featherstone, J.D.b.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been employed to measure Ca, Zn, and Sr in enamel of human teeth. The calibration of the EDXRF system was performed by comparing Sr/Ca ratios with values obtained by atomic absorption analysis of acid etched biopsies of the enamel surface. Two calibration lines were obtained, one line for untreated teeth and the second line for teeth immersed (treated) in solutions containing Sr. A simple analytical model demonstrated that the two calibration lines were the result of the difference in the depth of the enamel sampled by EDXRF and by the acid-etched biopsy. The multi-elemental, non-destructive and quantitative aspects of EDXRF permit the sequential monitoring of the effects of Sr and Zn ions on the mineralization and demineralization processes in human enamel. The portability of the system and adaptability to non-invasive measurements makes it suitable for field studies. 26 references, 4 figures

  13. Role of prism decussation on fatigue crack growth and fracture of human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-10-01

    The role of prism decussation on the crack growth resistance of human enamel is evaluated. Miniature inset compact tension (CT) specimens embodying a section of cuspal enamel were subjected to Mode I cyclic or monotonic loads. Cracks were grown in either the forward (from outer enamel inwards) or reverse (from inner enamel outwards) direction and the responses were compared quantitatively. Results showed that the outer enamel exhibits lower resistance to the inception and growth of cracks. Regardless of the growth direction, the near-threshold region of cyclic extension was typical of "short crack" behavior (i.e. deceleration of growth with an increase in crack length). Cyclic crack growth was more stable in the forward direction and occurred over twice the spatial distance achieved in the reverse direction. In response to the monotonic loads, a rising R-curve response was exhibited by growth in the forward direction only. The total energy absorbed in fracture for the forward direction was more than three times that in the reverse. The rise in crack growth resistance was largely attributed to a combination of mechanisms that included crack bridging, crack bifurcation and crack curving, which were induced by decussation in the inner enamel. An analysis of the responses distinguished that the microstructure of enamel appears optimized for resisting crack growth initiating from damage at the tooth's surface.

  14. Wear behavior of human enamel against lithium disilicate glass ceramic and type III gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahreum; Swain, Michael; He, Lihong; Lyons, Karl

    2014-12-01

    The wear behavior of human enamel that opposes different prosthetic materials is still not clear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate and compare the friction and wear behavior of human tooth enamel that opposes 2 indirect restorative materials: lithium disilicate glass ceramic and Type III gold. Friction-wear tests on human enamel (n=5) that opposes lithium disilicate glass ceramic (n=5) and Type III gold (n=5) were conducted in a ball-on-flat configuration with a reciprocating wear testing apparatus. The wear pairs were subjected to a normal load of 9.8 N, a reciprocating amplitude of approximately 200 μm, and a reciprocating frequency of approximately 1.6 Hz for up to 1100 cycles per test under distilled water lubrication. The frictional force of each cycle was recorded, and the corresponding friction coefficient for different wear pairs was calculated. After wear testing, the wear scars on the enamel specimens were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Type III gold had a significantly lower steady-state friction coefficient (P=.009) and caused less wear damage on enamel than lithium disilicate glass ceramic. Enamel that opposed lithium disilicate glass ceramic exhibited cracks, plow furrows, and surface loss, which indicated abrasive wear as the prominent wear mechanism. In comparison, the enamel wear scar that opposed Type III gold had small patches of gold smear adhered to the surface, which indicated a predominantly adhesive wear mechanism. A lower friction coefficient and better wear resistance were observed when human enamel was opposed by Type III gold than by lithium disilicate glass ceramic in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enamel biorhythms of humans and great apes: the Havers-Halberg Oscillation hypothesis reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, Patrick; Miszkiewicz, Justyna J.; Pitfield, Rosie; Deter, Chris; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    The Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO) hypothesis links evidence for the timing of a biorhythm retained in permanent tooth enamel (Retzius periodicity) to adult body mass and life history traits across mammals. Potentially, these links provide a way to access life history of fossil species from teeth. Recently we assessed intra-specific predictions of the HHO on human children. We reported Retzius periodicity (RP) corresponded with enamel thickness, and cusp formation time, when calculated from...

  16. 3D enamel thickness in Neandertal and modern human permanent canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Laura; Le Cabec, Adeline; Panetta, Daniele; Tripodi, Maria; Salvadori, Piero A; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Feeney, Robin N M; Benazzi, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Enamel thickness figures prominently in studies of human evolution, particularly for taxonomy, phylogeny, and paleodietary reconstruction. Attention has focused on molar teeth, through the use of advanced imaging technologies and novel protocols. Despite the important results achieved thus far, further work is needed to investigate all tooth classes. We apply a recent approach developed for anterior teeth to investigate the 3D enamel thickness of Neandertal and modern human (MH) canines. In terms of crown size, the values obtained for both upper and lower unworn/slightly worn canines are significantly greater in Neandertals than in Upper Paleolithic and recent MH. The 3D relative enamel thickness (RET) is significantly lower in Neandertals than in MH. Moreover, differences in 3D RET values between the two groups appear to decrease in worn canines beginning from wear stage 3, suggesting that both the pattern and the stage of wear may have important effects on the 3D RET value. Nevertheless, the 3D average enamel thickness (AET) does not differ between the two groups. In both groups, 3D AET and 3D RET indices are greater in upper canines than in lower canines, and overall the enamel is thicker on the occlusal half of the labial aspect of the crown, particularly in MH. By contrast, the few early modern humans investigated show the highest volumes of enamel while for all other components of 3D enamel, thickness this group holds an intermediate position between Neandertals and recent MH. Overall, our study supports the general findings that Neandertals have relatively thinner enamel than MH (as also observed in molars), indicating that unworn/slightly worn canines can be successfully used to discriminate between the two groups. Further studies, however, are needed to understand whether these differences are functionally related or are the result of pleiotropic or genetic drift effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Compositional changes of human hair melanin resulting from bleach treatment investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Isobe, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Miyuki; Aoki, Dan; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

    2014-11-01

    It is important to understand the influence of bleach treatment on human hair because it is one of the most important chemical treatments in hair cosmetic processes. A comparison of the elemental composition of melanin between virgin hair and bleached hair would provide important information about the structural changes of melanin. To investigate the elemental composition of melanin granules in virgin black hair and bleached hair, these hair cross-sections are analyzed by using a nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The virgin black hair and bleached hair samples were embedded in resin and smooth hair cross-sections were obtained using an ultramicrotome. NanoSIMS measurements were performed using a Cs(+) primary ion beam to detect negative secondary ions. More intensive (16) O(-) ions were detected from the melanin granules of bleached hair than from those of virgin black hair in NanoSIMS (16) O(-) ion image. In addition, it was indicated that (16) O(-) ion intensity and (16) O(-) /(12) C(14) N(-) ion intensity ratio of melanin granules in bleached hair were higher than those in virgin black hair. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of the cross-sections of virgin black hair and bleached hair indicated that the oxygen content in melanin granules was increased by bleach treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Hidden contributions of the enamel rods on the fracture resistance of human teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyazadehfar, M; Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D

    2013-01-01

    The enamel of human teeth is generally regarded as a brittle material with low fracture toughness. Consequently, the contributions of this tissue in resisting tooth fracture and the importance of its complex microstructure have been largely overlooked. In this study an experimental evaluation of the crack growth resistance of human enamel was conducted to characterize the role of rod (i.e. prism) orientation and degree of decussation on the fracture behavior of this tissue. Incremental crack growth was achieved in-plane, with the rods in directions longitudinal or transverse to their axes. Results showed that the fracture resistance of enamel is both inhomogeneous and spatially anisotropic. Cracks extending transverse to the rods in the outer enamel undergo a lower rise in toughness with extension, and achieve significantly lower fracture resistance than in the longitudinal direction. Though cracks initiating at the surface of teeth may begin extension towards the dentin-enamel junction, they are deflected by the decussated rods and continue growth about the tooth's periphery, transverse to the rods in the outer enamel. This process facilitates dissipation of fracture energy and averts cracks from extending towards the dentin and vital pulp. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative investigation on electron spin resonance dosimetry of tooth enamel of cow and human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Ling; Zhang Wenyi; Ding Yanqiu; Kou Mingying

    2010-01-01

    The enamel samples from cow teeth and human teeth were irradiated with 137 Cs γ ray. Their electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra pre and post-irradiation were weaker than those of human. Mass of each sample is 100 mg, the dosimetric signal intensity of cow enamel increased with the radiation dose; the averaged radiation response of cow samples was (34.4±2.0) Gy -1 , very close to the average response of human tooth samples (36.3±2.9) Gy -1 . Therefore cow teeth can be used for retrospective radiation dosimetry when human teeth are unavailable. (authors)

  20. Laser Teeth Bleaching: Evaluation of Eventual Side Effects on Enamel and the Pulp and the Efficiency In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Roeland Jozef Gentil; Meire, Maarten August; De Coster, Peter Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Light and heat increase the reactivity of hydrogen peroxide. There is no evidence that light activation (power bleaching with high-intensity light) results in a more effective bleaching with a longer lasting effect with high concentrated hydrogen peroxide bleaching gels. Laser light differs from conventional light as it requires a laser-target interaction. The interaction takes place in the first instance in the bleaching gel. The second interaction has to be induced in the tooth, more specifically in the dentine. There is evidence that interaction exists with the bleaching gel: photothermal, photocatalytical, and photochemical interactions are described. The reactivity of the gel is increased by adding photocatalyst of photosensitizers. Direct and effective photobleaching, that is, a direct interaction with the colour molecules in the dentine, however, is only possible with the argon (488 and 415 nm) and KTP laser (532 nm). A number of risks have been described such as heat generation. Nd:YAG and especially high power diode lasers present a risk with intrapulpal temperature elevation up to 22°C. Hypersensitivity is regularly encountered, being it of temporary occurrence except for a number of diode wavelengths and the Nd:YAG. The tooth surface remains intact after laser bleaching. At present, KTP laser is the most efficient dental bleaching wavelength. PMID:25874258

  1. In vitro study of the diode laser effect on artificial demineralized surface of human dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    In scientific literature there are many reports about fusion and resolidification of dental enamel after laser irradiation and their capability to generate surfaces with increased resistance to demineralization compared to non-irradiated areas. The use of high power diode laser on demineralized surfaces of human dental enamel is presented as a good alternative in caries prevention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes produced by the use of one high power diode laser on human dental enamel surface after demineralization treatment with lactic acid, under chosen parameters. Fifteen samples of human dental molars were used and divided in four groups: control - demineralization treatment with lactic acid and no irradiation, and demineralization treatment with lactic acid followed of irradiation with 212,20 mJ/cm 2 , 282,84 mJ/cm 2 and 325,38 mJ/cm 2 , respectively. The samples were irradiated with high power diode laser (808 nm) with a 300 μm diameter fiber optics. Black ink was used on enamel surface to enhance the superficial absorption. The samples were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Modifications on the enamel surfaces were observed. Such modifications were characterized by melted and re-solidified region of the enamel. According with our results the best parameter was 2.0 W, presenting the most uniform surface. The use of high power diode laser as demonstrated in this study is able to promote melting and re-solidification on human dental enamel. (author)

  2. Human and bovine enamel erosion under 'single-drink' conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Andrew J.; Yorath, Celyn; ten Hengel, Valerie; Leary, Sam D.; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte D. N. J. M.; Barbour, Michele E.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth-surface pH is lowered, during drinking, to a value close to the pH of the drink itself. After the drink is swallowed, the pH rises to baseline values but this process can take several minutes. Few techniques can quantify enamel erosion at timescales representative of single drinks. The

  3. HeNe-laser light scattering by human dental enamel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijp, [No Value; tenBosch, JJ; Groenhuis, RAJ

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the optical properties of tooth enamel and an understanding of the origin of these properties are necessary for the development of new optical methods for caries diagnosis and the measurement of tooth color. We measured the scattering intensity functions for HeNe-laser light of 80- to

  4. Spectrophotometric assessment of the effects of 10% carbamide peroxide on enamel translucency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Fioranelli Vieira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Tooth shade results from the interaction between enamel color, enamel translucency and dentine color. A change in any of these parameters will change a tooth’s color. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes occurring in enamel translucency during a tooth whitening process. Fourteen human tooth enamel fragments, with a mean thickness of 0.96 mm (± 0.3 mm, were subjected to a bleaching agent (10% carbamide peroxide 8 hours per day for 28 days. The enamel fragment translucency was measured by a computer controlled spectrophotometer before and after the bleaching agent applications in accordance with ANSI Z80.3-1986 - American National Standard for Ophthalmics - nonprescription sunglasses and fashion eyewear-requirements. The measurements were statistically compared by the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test. A decrease was observed in the translucency of all specimens and, consequently, there was a decrease in transmittance values for all samples. It was observed that the bleaching procedure significantly changes the enamel translucency, making it more opaque.

  5. Enamel biorhythms of humans and great apes: the Havers-Halberg Oscillation hypothesis reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Patrick; Miszkiewicz, Justyna J; Pitfield, Rosie; Deter, Chris; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie

    2017-02-01

    The Havers-Halberg Oscillation (HHO) hypothesis links evidence for the timing of a biorhythm retained in permanent tooth enamel (Retzius periodicity) to adult body mass and life history traits across mammals. Potentially, these links provide a way to access life history of fossil species from teeth. Recently we assessed intra-specific predictions of the HHO on human children. We reported Retzius periodicity (RP) corresponded with enamel thickness, and cusp formation time, when calculated from isolated deciduous teeth. We proposed the biorhythm might not remain constant within an individual. Here, we test our findings. RP is compared between deciduous second and permanent first molars within the maxillae of four human children. Following this, we report the first RPs for deciduous teeth from modern great apes (n = 4), and compare these with new data for permanent teeth (n = 18) from these species, as well as with previously published values. We also explore RP in teeth that retain hypoplastic defects. Results show RP changed within the maxilla of each child, from thinner to thicker enameled molars, and from one side of a hypoplastic defect to the other. When considered alongside correlations between RP and cusp formation time, these observations provide further evidence that RP is associated with enamel growth processes and does not always remain constant within an individual. RP of 5 days for great ape deciduous teeth lay below the lowermost range of those from permanent teeth of modern orangutan and gorilla, and within the lowermost range of RPs from chimpanzee permanent teeth. Our data suggest associations between RP and enamel growth processes of humans might extend to great apes. These findings provide a new framework from which to develop the HHO hypothesis, which can incorporate enamel growth along with other physiological systems. Applications of the HHO to fossil teeth should avoid transferring RP between deciduous and permanent enamel, or including

  6. Acids with an equivalent taste lead to different erosion of human dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Markus; Reichert, Jörg; Bossert, Jörg; Sigusch, Bernd W; Watts, David C; Jandt, Klaus D

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of acidic soft drinks may lead to demineralization and softening of human dental enamel, known as dental erosion. The aims of this in vitro study were to determine: (i) if different acids with a similar sensorial acidic taste lead to different hardness loss of enamel and (ii) if the fruit acids tartaric, malic, lactic or ascorbic acid lead to less hardness loss of enamel than citric or phosphoric acid when their concentration in solution is based on an equivalent sensorial acidic taste. Enamel samples of non-erupted human third molars were treated with acidic solutions of tartaric (TA), malic (MA), lactic (LA), ascorbic (AA), phosphoric (PA) and citric (CA) acids with a concentration that gave an equivalent sensorial acidic taste. The acidic solutions were characterized by pH value and titratable acidity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation was used to study the nano mechanical properties and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphology of the treated enamel samples and the untreated control areas, respectively. The investigated acids fell into two groups. The nano hardnesses of MA, TA and CA treated enamel samples (group I) were statistically significantly greater (penamel samples (group II). Within each group the nano hardness was not statistically significantly different (p>0.05). The SEM micrographs showed different etch prism morphologies depending on the acid used. In vitro, the acids investigated led to different erosion effects on human dental enamel, despite their equivalent sensorial acidic taste. This has not been reported previously. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An investigation on the crack growth resistance of human tooth enamel: Anisotropy, microstructure and toughening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyazadehfar, Mobin

    The enamel of human teeth is generally regarded as a brittle material with low fracture toughness. Consequently, the contributions of this tissue in resisting tooth fracture and the importance of its complex microstructure have been largely overlooked. The primary objective of this dissertation is to characterize the role of enamel's microstructure and degree of decussation on the fracture behavior of human enamel. The importance of the protein content and aging on the fracture toughness of enamel were also explored. Incremental crack growth in sections of human enamel was achieved using a special inset Compact Tension (CT) specimen configuration. Crack extension was achieved in two orthogonal directions, i.e. longitudinal and transverse to the prism axes. Fracture surfaces and the path of crack growth path were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand the fundamental mechanisms of crack growth extension. Furthermore, a hybrid approach was adopted to quantify the contribution of toughening mechanisms to the overall toughness. Results of this investigations showed that human enamel exhibits rising R-curve for both directions of crack extension. Cracks extending transverse to the rods in the outer enamel achieved lower rise in toughness with crack extension, and significantly lower toughness (1.23 +/- 0.20 MPa·m 0.5) than in the inner enamel (1.96 +/- 0.28 MPa· 0.5) and in the longitudinal direction (2.01 +/- 0.21 MPa· 0.5). The crack growth resistance exhibited both anisotropy and inhomogeneity, which arise from the complex hierarchical microstructure and the decussated prism structure. Decussation causes deflection of cracks extending from the enamel surface inwards, and facilitates a continuation of transverse crack extension within the outer enamel. This process dissipates fracture energy and averts cracks from extending toward the dentin and vital pulp. This study is the first to investigate the importance of proteins and the effect of

  8. Wear properties of dental ceramics and porcelains compared with human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcangelo, Camillo; Vanini, Lorenzo; Rondoni, Giuseppe D; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Contemporary pressable and computer-aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramics exhibit good mechanical and esthetic properties. Their wear resistance compared with human enamel and traditional gold based alloys needs to be better investigated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the 2-body wear resistance of human enamel, gold alloy, and 5 different dental ceramics, including a recently introduced zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate ceramic (Celtra Duo). Cylindrical specimens were fabricated from a Type III gold alloy (Aurocast8), 2 hot pressed ceramics (Imagine PressX, IPS e.max Press), 2 CAD/CAM ceramics (IPS e.max CAD, Celtra Duo), and a CAD/CAM feldspathic porcelain (Vitablocs Mark II) (n=10). Celtra Duo was tested both soon after grinding and after a subsequent glaze firing cycle. Ten flat human enamel specimens were used as the control group. All specimens were subjected to a 2-body wear test in a dual axis mastication simulator for 120000 loading cycles against yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal cusps. The wear resistance was analyzed by measuring the vertical substance loss (mm) and the volume loss (mm(3)). Antagonist wear (mm) was also recorded. Data were statistically analyzed with 1-way ANOVA tests (α=.05). The wear depth (0.223 mm) of gold alloy was the closest to that of human enamel (0.217 mm), with no significant difference (P>.05). The greatest wear was recorded on the milled Celtra Duo (wear depth=0.320 mm), which appeared significantly less wear resistant than gold alloy or human enamel (Pceramics did not statistically differ in comparison with the human enamel. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of human enamel surfaces treated with theobromine: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargul, Betul; Özcan, Mutlu; Peker, Sertac; Nakamoto, Tetsuo; Simmons, William B; Falster, Alexander U

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this in-vitro study were to investigate the effect of theobromine, which is the principle xanthine species in Theobroma cacao, at two concentrations on the surface hardness and topography of human enamel. Twenty-four freshly extracted human third molars were collected and stored in distilled water with 0.1% thymol solution at room temperature prior to the experiments. The enamel specimens were treated with one coat of theobromine at two concentrations (100 mg/l or 200 mg/l in distilled water) for 5 min. Enamel surfaces in the control group received no theobromine. They were then kept in distilled water for 1 week and subjected to SEM analysis. The specimens were demineralised by storing them in acidic hydroxyethylcellulose for three days. After baseline microhardness measurements, they were incubated either in 100 or 200 mg/l theobromine for 5 min. The control group was kept in distilled water. After washing the specimens under distilled water, they were kept in a remineralising solution for 18 h. Microhardness of the enamel surface was initially determined for each specimen before artificial demineralisation. After demineralisation, the experimental groups were incubated in 100 mg or 200 mg theobromine and control-group specimens were placed in remineralising solution. Enamel surfaces of the untreated control group presented a generally smooth and slightly hummocky surface with small lines of pits. Specimens treated with theobromine showed differences between the two concentrations. The group treated with 200 mg/l solution for 5 min showed a greater quantity of globules on enamel than did specimens treated with 100 mg/l solution. As shown by the microhardness values, a consistent and remarkable protection of the enamel surface was found with the application of theobromine.

  10. Molecular analysis of tooth enamel by Raman spectroscopy after treatment with bleaching agents at different concentrations; Analisis molecular del esmalte dental por medio de espectroscopia Raman despues del tratamiento con agentes blanqueadores a diferentes concentraciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Sedo, Randall; Obando Rosabal, Sofia; Saenz Bonilla, Paola; Soto Aguilar, Calendy; Vasquez Rodriguez, Amaya

    2014-07-01

    The changes in the concentration of the v1 phosphate molecule of the surface of dentin enamel are treated and researched with bleaching agents of chemical activation to basis of hydrogen peroxide than 9,5% and 14% and carbamide peroxide than 38%, for a period of 28 days. Raman spectroscopy was used and 30 dental pieces extracted, of which, were to be free of blemishes and pigmentations, without possessing fractures of the enamel, decay nor any other type of defect. The Raman spectrum was obtained of each dental piece prior to the application of bleaching agents. The specimens were separated into three experimental groups according to the concentration of whitening. The concentration of the v1 phosphate molecule was measured in the tooth enamel to the second and fourth week of treatment. In addition, ANOVA was performed for respective measurements (p≤0.05). A reduction of the v1 phosphate molecule were observed during and after the bleaching process in the experimental groups that have used of hydrogen peroxide to 14% and carbamide peroxide 38%. In the group of hydrogen peroxide to 9,5% has remained unproven a significant reduction. Within the limitations of this study is concluded that the bleaching agent causes a loss of v1 phosphate. This loss has been greater in the whitening of higher concentration. In spite, that the possible effect remineralizing of the saliva on a teeth whitening process has been unevaluated, it is recommended using during and after the treatment, toothpastes, mouthwashes, chewing gums, dental floss, among others, that contain ACP to help to cushion the potential loss of phosphate from tooth enamel. (author) [Spanish] Los cambios en la concentracion de la molecula de fosfato v1 de la superficie del esmalte dental son tratados e investigados con agentes blanqueadores de activacion quimica a base de peroxido de hidrogeno al 9,5% y 14% y peroxido de carbamida al 38%, por un periodo de 28 dias. Espectroscopia Raman fue utilizada y 30 piezas

  11. Effect of light energy on peroxide tooth bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Karen; Tam, Laura; Hubert, Manfred

    2004-02-01

    Light-activated bleaching is a method of tooth whitening. The authors conducted a study to compare the whitening effects and tooth temperature changes induced by various combinations of peroxide bleaches and light sources. The authors randomly assigned 250 extracted human teeth halves into experimental groups (n = 10). A placebo gel (control), a 35 percent hydrogen peroxide or a 10 percent carbamide peroxide bleach was placed on the tooth surface and was irradiated with no light (control); a halogen curing light; an infrared, or IR, light; an argon laser; or a carbon dioxide, or CO2, laser. Color changes were evaluated immediately, one day and one week after treatment using a value-oriented shade guide and an electronic dental color analyzer. The outer enamel and inner dentin surface temperatures were monitored before and immediately after each 30-second application of light using a thermocouple thermometer. Color and temperature changes were significantly affected by an interaction of the bleach and light variables. The application of lights significantly improved the whitening efficacy of some bleach materials, but it caused significant temperature increases in the outer and inner tooth surfaces. The IR and CO2 laser lights caused the highest tooth temperature increases. Dentists performing an in-office bleaching technique with the use of an additional light source to accelerate tooth whitening should consider the specific bleaching agent being used, as well as the potential risks of heating teeth. A specific combination of bleach and light that demonstrates good color change and little temperature rise should be selected for in-office tooth bleaching.

  12. Fracture processes and mechanisms of crack growth resistance in human enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Park, Saejin; Quinn, George D.; Arola, Dwayne

    2010-07-01

    Human enamel has a complex micro-structure that varies with distance from the tooth’s outer surface. But contributions from the microstructure to the fracture toughness and the mechanisms of crack growth resistance have not been explored in detail. In this investigation the apparent fracture toughness of human enamel and the mechanisms of crack growth resistance were evaluated using the indentation fracture approach and an incremental crack growth technique. Indentation cracks were introduced on polished surfaces of enamel at selected distances from the occlusal surface. In addition, an incremental crack growth approach using compact tension specimens was used to quantify the crack growth resistance as a Junction of distance from the occlusal surface. There were significant differences in the apparent toughness estimated using the two approaches, which was attributed to the active crack length and corresponding scale of the toughening mechanisms.

  13. Kinetic model for hydroxyapatite precipitation on human enamel surface by electrolytic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Caixia; Liao Yingmin; Feng Zude

    2009-01-01

    The electrolytic deposition (ELD) of hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating on human enamel surface for different loading times at varied temperatures (ranging from 37 deg. C to 85 deg. C) and varied current densities (ranging from 0.05 mA cm -2 to 10 mA cm -2 ) was investigated in this study. Thin film x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectra analysis, as well as an environmental scanning electron microscope, were used to characterize the coating. The results showed that only the HAP phase occurred on the enamel surface after ELD experiments. The contents of HAP deposits on the enamel surface linearly changed proportional to the square root of the loading time, which was in good agreement with the kinetic model of ELD of HAP coating based on one-dimensional diffusion. The induction periods were observed on all the regression lines, and the rate of the HAP coating formation on enamel showed a linear relationship with the current density. It was implied that the diffusion process was the rate-determining step in the ELD of the HAP coating on human enamel.

  14. Kinetic model for hydroxyapatite precipitation on human enamel surface by electrolytic deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Caixia; Liao Yingmin; Feng Zude, E-mail: zdfeng@xmu.edu.c [College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-06-15

    The electrolytic deposition (ELD) of hydroxyapatite (HAP) coating on human enamel surface for different loading times at varied temperatures (ranging from 37 deg. C to 85 deg. C) and varied current densities (ranging from 0.05 mA cm{sup -2} to 10 mA cm{sup -2}) was investigated in this study. Thin film x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectra analysis, as well as an environmental scanning electron microscope, were used to characterize the coating. The results showed that only the HAP phase occurred on the enamel surface after ELD experiments. The contents of HAP deposits on the enamel surface linearly changed proportional to the square root of the loading time, which was in good agreement with the kinetic model of ELD of HAP coating based on one-dimensional diffusion. The induction periods were observed on all the regression lines, and the rate of the HAP coating formation on enamel showed a linear relationship with the current density. It was implied that the diffusion process was the rate-determining step in the ELD of the HAP coating on human enamel.

  15. Effect of acidity upon attrition-corrosion of human dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Qi; Arsecularatne, Joseph A; Hoffman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Attrition-corrosion is a synthesized human enamel wear process combined mechanical effects (attrition) with corrosion. With the rising consumption of acidic food and beverages, attrition-corrosion is becoming increasingly common. Yet, research is limited and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, in vitro wear loss of human enamel was investigated and the attrition-corrosion process and wear mechanism were elucidated by the analysis of the wear scar and its subsurface using focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Human enamel flat-surface samples were prepared with enamel cusps as the wear antagonists. Reciprocating wear testing was undertaken under load of 5N at the speed of 66 cycle/min for 2250 cycles with lubricants including citric acid (at pH 3.2 and 5.5), acetic acid (at pH 3.2 and 5.5) and distilled water. All lubricants were used at 37°C. Similar human enamel flat-surface samples were also exposed to the same solutions as a control group. The substance loss of enamel during wear can be linked to the corrosion potential of a lubricant used. Using a lubricant with very low corrosion potential (such as distilled water), the wear mechanism was dominated by delamination with high wear loss. Conversely, the wear mechanism changed to shaving of the softened layer with less material loss in an environment with medium corrosion potential such as citric acid at pH 3.2 and 5.5 and acetic acid at pH 5.5. However, a highly corrosive environment (e.g., acetic acid at pH 3.2) caused the greatest loss of substance during wear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of different preparation procedures during tooth whitening on enamel bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dustin; Xu, Changqi; Hong, Liang; Wang, Yong

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess effects of some clinically related preparation procedures during tooth whitening on enamel bonding properties. Sixty-two extracted human teeth were cleaned and divided into four groups. Forty-two of the teeth were left with their natural surface intact while 20 teeth were polished to form a flat surface. Half of the tooth served as the experimental side and received one of the two whitening products: Opalescence (10% carbamide peroxide) and Crest Whitestrips (6.5% hydrogen peroxide), for 2 weeks. Post-bleaching intervals included: 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks. On these days, tooth (10 mm x 1.5 mm x 1.5 mm) sections were evaluated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile bond strength tests. T-test, ANOVA test, and mixed model regression analysis were used to assess the differences. No significant difference existed between natural surface and polished surface teeth for all groups at both Day One and Week Two (P > 0.05). On Day One, both treated groups had significant lower bond strength than the control group (P = 0.002). After 2 weeks, no significant difference existed between any group (P = 0.381). SEM indicated that resin-enamel interfaces in bleached enamel exhibited more defects in granular formations when compared to the control. Raman results indicated a lower degree of polymerization (DP) of adhesive at the interface for treated teeth surfaces. In summary, pre-bleaching surface treatments such as polish or non-polish, had no effect on bond strength. Bleaching significantly decreased bond strength initially, but after 2 weeks, bleaching had no significant effect on bond strength. Storage time had significant effect on Opalescence treated enamel, but not on control and Whitestrip treated enamel. The decrease of bond strength may be related to interfacial defects and low DP due to oxygen release after bleaching.

  17. Influence of carbamide peroxide-based bleaching agents on the bond strength of resin-enamel/dentin interfaces Influência de agentes clareadores à base de peróxido de carbamida na resistência de união entre resina-esmalte/dentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cavalli

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this bond strength study, a bleaching agent containing 10% carbamide peroxide was applied over composite-teeth bonded interfaces of two adhesive systems applied to enamel and dentin. Sixteen human third molars were used for bonding procedures. Single Bond (SB and Clearfil SE Bond (CB were applied to enamel and dentin according to the manufacturers' instructions. A resin composite cube-like structure was incrementally built on the bonded surfaces. The restored teeth were sectioned into 0.7 mm thick slices that were trimmed at enamel or dentin bonded interfaces to an hourglass shape with a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.5 mm². Specimens were assigned to 8 groups (n = 10 according to the following factors under study: dental substrate (enamel and dentin; adhesive system (SB and CB and treatment (10% carbamide peroxide and not bleached/control. The bleaching gel (Opalescence was applied at the bonded interfaces for 6 hours during 14 days and after daily treatment specimens were stored in artificial saliva. Unbleached specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 14 days. Specimens were tested for tension and the data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p Este estudo avaliou a resistência de união de dois sistemas adesivos ao esmalte e à dentina após a aplicação de agente clareador sobre a união compósito-dente. Dezesseis terceiros molares humanos foram usados nos procedimentos restauradores. Single Bond (SB e Clearfil SE Bond (CB foram aplicados no esmalte e na dentina de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes. Um bloco de compósito foi construído nas superfícies tratadas com os adesivos. Os dentes restaurados foram seccionados em fatias com espessura de 0,7 mm, que receberam constrição na interface de união num formato de ampulheta, com área de secção transversal de ± 0,5 mm². Os espécimes foram distribuídos em 8 grupos (n = 10 de acordo com os fatores em estudo: substrato dental (esmalte e

  18. Subfractions of enamel matrix derivative differentially influence cytokine secretion from human oral fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Villa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Enamel matrix derivative is used to promote periodontal regeneration during the corrective phase of the treatment of periodontal defects. Our main goal was to analyze the bioactivity of different molecular weight fractions of enamel matrix derivative. Enamel matrix derivative, a complex mixture of proteins, was separated into 13 fractions using size-exclusion chromatography and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were treated with either enamel matrix derivative or the different fractions. Proliferation and cytokine secretion to the cell culture medium were measured and compared to untreated cells. The liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the most abundant peptides were amelogenin and leucine-rich amelogenin peptide related. The fractions containing proteins above 20 kDa induced an increase in vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 secretion, whereas lower molecular weight fractions enhanced proliferation and secretion of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and reduced interleukin-4 release. The various molecular components in the enamel matrix derivative formulation might contribute to reported effects on tissue regeneration through their influence on vascularization, the immune response, and chemotaxis.

  19. An in vitro investigation of human enamel wear by restorative dental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, L.K.; Saiki, M.; De Campos, T.N.

    2001-01-01

    A radiometric method was applied to asses enamel wear by another enamel and by restorative materials. The radioactive enamel was submitted to wear in a machine which allows sliding motion of an antagonistic surface in contact with the radioactive enamel. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring the beta-activity of 32 P transferred to water from this irradiated tooth. Results obtained indicated that dental porcelains cause pronounced enamel wear when compared with that provoked by another natural enamel or by resin materials. Resin materials caused less enamel wear than another natural enamel. Vickers microhardness data obtained for antagonistic materials showed a correlation with the wear caused to the enamel. (author)

  20. Microchemical and structural regular variability of apatites in 'overbuilt' enamel and dentin of human molar teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczumow, A.; Nowak, J.; ChaLas, R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of a recent paper was to recognize the chemical and structural changes in apatites, which form both the enamel and the dentin of the human tooth. The aim was achieved by scrutinizing the linear elemental profiles along the cross-sections of human molar teeth. Essentially, the task was accomplished with the application of the Electron Probe Microanalysis method and with some additional studies by Micro-Raman spectrometry. All the trends in linear profiles were strictly determined. In the enamel zone they were either increasing or decreasing curves of exponential character. The direction of the investigations was to start with the tooth surface and move towards the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). The results of the elemental studies were more visible when the detected material was divided, in an arbitrary way, into the prevailing 'core' enamel (∼93.5% of the total mass) and the remaining 'overbuilt' enamel. The material in the 'core' enamel was fully stable, with clearly determined chemical and mechanical features. However, the case was totally different in the 'overbuilt enamel', with dynamic changes in the composition. In the 'overbuilt' layer Ca, P, Cl and F profiles present the decaying distribution curves, whereas Mg, Na, K and CO 3 2- present the growing ones. Close to the surface of the tooth the mixture of hydroxy-, chlor- and fluor-apatite is formed, which is much more resistant than the rest of the enamel. On passing towards the DEJ, the apatite is enriched with Na, Mg and CO 3 2- . In this location, three of six phosphate groups were substituted with carbonate groups. Simultaneously, Mg is associated with the hydroxyl groups around the hexad axis. In this way, the mechanisms of exchange reactions were established. The crystallographic structures were proposed for new phases located close to DEJ. In the dentin zone, the variability of elemental profiles looks different, with the most characteristic changes occurring in Mg and Na concentrations. Mg

  1. In vitro study of hydroxy apatite and enamel powder fused in human enamel by Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrreira, Marcus Vinicius Lucas

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser irradiation on hydroxyapatite and enamel powder fusion. This laser beam is not well absorbed by this two compounds for this reason they were mixed with vegetal coal to increase the absorption of the laser beam. Fifteen enamel flat surfaces and six occlusal enamel surfaces were prepared with three different substances: hydroxyapatite mixed with vegetal coal (3:1 in weigh); enamel powder mixed with vegetal coal (3:1 in weigh); vegetal coal. The occlusal surfaces were utilized to determine if the compounds could seal pits and fissures. Flat surfaces were utilized to determine fusion of hydroxyapatite and enamel powder. All samples were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the parameters: 80 mJ, 15 Hz, 1,2 W, 100 μs pulse-width, 131,1 J/cm 2 . Laser beam was delivered to the samples with a 300 μm diameter fiber optic. Morphology of the irradiated surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds with hydroxyapatite and enamel powder were fused to enamel surfaces. Only partial pits and fissures sealing could be observed. (author)

  2. [Influence of Coca-Cola on early erosion and surface microhardness of human enamel: an in situ study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M; Zhang, Q; Gao, X J

    2016-06-01

    Assessed the effect of single dose attack of Coca-Cola on early erosion and surface microhardness of permanent human enamel, in order to provide diet instructions on minimum amount and frequency of carbonated beverage consumption. Eighty enamel slabs were prepared out of 10 extracted human mandibular third molars, and distributed into 8 groups with randomized block design(n=10). Ten generally healthy volunteers with normal saliva secretion wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 2 enamel slabs, with formation of a salivary pellicle 2 h ahead. The volunteers were instructed to drink 100 ml fresh Coca-Cola within 20 s. And then the alterations of the enamel slabs were measured using a Vicker's microhardness tester at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20 and 30 min after the consumption of Coca-Cola. For each volunteer, the experiment was carried out in four days, 2 samples were examined each time. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests(α =0.05). Significant decreases in surface microhardness(SMH)were observed in each time point(PCoca-Cola could lead to significant decrease of enamel microhardness and initiate erosion of enamel surface. Enamel surface microhardness decreased to the lowest points at 2-8 min, and began to recover after 10 min. The enamel surface microhardness could not fully recovered to the baseline level in 30 min if no intervention was performed.

  3. Analysis of internal structure changes in black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate in detail the internal structure changes in virgin black human hair keratin fibers resulting from bleaching treatments, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of black human hair, which had been impossible due to high melanin grande content, was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) content of the sbnd SSsbnd groups existing from the cuticle region to the center of cortex region of the virgin black human hair remarkably decreased, while the gauche-gauche-trans and trans-gauche-trans contents were not changed by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. In particular, it was found that not only the β-sheet and/or random coil content, but also the α-helix content existing throughout the cortex region of virgin black human hair decreased. In addition, the transmission electron microscope observation shows that the proteins in the cell membrane complex, the cuticle and cortex of the virgin black human hair were remarkably eluted by performing the excessive bleaching treatment. From these experiments, the author concluded that the sbnd SSsbnd groups, which have a GGG conformation were decomposed and finally converted to cysteic acid, and the α-helix structure of some of the proteins existing in the keratin was changed to the random coil structure, or eluted from the cortex region, thereby leading to the reduction in the protein density of the virgin human hair after the excessive bleaching treatment.

  4. Effect of property gradients on enamel fracture in human molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark B; Lawn, Brian R

    2012-11-01

    A model for the fracture of tooth enamel with graded elastic modulus and toughness is constructed using an extended finite element modeling (XFEM) package. The property gradients are taken from literature data on human molars, with maximum in modulus at the outer enamel surface and in toughness at the inner surface. The tooth is modeled as a brittle shell (enamel) and a compliant interior (dentin), with occlusal loading from a hard, flat contact at the cusp. Longitudinal radial (R) and margin (M) cracks are allowed to extend piecewise along the enamel walls under the action of an incrementally increasing applied load. A simple stratagem is deployed in which fictitious temperature profiles generate the requisite property gradients. The resulting XFEM simulations demonstrate that the crack fronts become more segmented as the property gradients become more pronounced, with enhanced propagation at the outer surface and inhibited propagation at the inner. Whereas the growth history of the cracks is profoundly influenced by the gradients, the ultimate critical loads required to attain full fractures are relatively unaffected. Some implications concerning dentistry are considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the importance of aging to the crack growth resistance of human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyazadehfar, Mobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Arola, Dwayne

    2016-03-01

    With improvements in oral health and an overall increase in quality of life, the percentage of fully or largely dentate seniors is increasing. Understanding the effects of aging on the mechanical properties of teeth is essential to the maintenance of lifelong oral health. In this investigation the effects of aging on the fracture toughness of human enamel were evaluated from incremental crack growth experiments performed on tissue of donor teeth representing "young" (17 ⩽ age ⩽ 25) and "old" (age ⩾ 55) age groups. Results showed that the old enamel exhibited significantly lower resistance to fracture than that of the young tissue in two orthogonal directions of crack growth. For crack growth transverse to the enamel rods, the fracture toughness of the old enamel (0.37 ± 0.15 MPa m(0.5)) was nearly 70% lower than that of tissue from the young teeth (1.23 ± 0.20 MPa m(0.5)). Based on results from a mechanistic analysis of crack growth, the reduction in fracture resistance is attributed to a decrease in the degree of extrinsic toughening. The practice of restorative dentistry should account for these changes in tooth tissues in the treatment of senior patients. The mechanical behavior of enamel has been studied for over 3 decades. Due to the limited volume of tissue available for evaluation, past work has been largely based on indentation methods. In this investigation we have evaluated the resistance to fracture of human enamel using a conventional fracture mechanics approach and incremental crack growth. We compared the fracture resistance of cuspal enamel obtained from the teeth of representative "young" and "old" donor groups. Our results show that there is a substantial reduction in the resistance to fracture with age, that it is anisotropic, and that the degradation is more severe than that which occurs to dentin. As such, we feel this work is a significant contribution to the field. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Analysis of human enamel and dentine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Marco A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Determination of trace elements in dental tissues has been of great interest to study the correlation between element composition and caries as well as food habits of individuals. In the present study dentine and enamel samples from healthy individuals were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The teeth were provided form dental clinics, and they were previously washed using purified water and acetone. Then they were dried at 40 deg C and ground in a agate mortar. The samples and element standards were irradiated with thermal neutrons at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor. Long irradiations of 8 h under thermal neutron flux of 5x10 12 n cm -2 s -1 were used for Ca, Na, Sr and Zn determinations. In short irradiations of 15 s and under neutron flux of 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 the elements Mg, Mn, Na e Sr were determined. The induced gamma activities of the samples and standards were measured using a hyperpure Ge detector coupled to a gamma ray spectrometer. Elemental concentrations were calculated by comparative method. Results obtained showed that Ca, Mg and Na are present in both tissues at the level of percentages and the elements Mn, Sr and Zn at the μg g -1 levels. For quality control of the results the certified reference materials NIST 1400 Bone Ash and NIST 1486 Bone Meal were analysed. (author)

  7. The effects of three different food acids on the attrition-corrosion wear of human dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichi; Arsecularatne, Joseph A.; Hoffman, Mark

    2015-07-01

    With increased consumption of acidic drinks and foods, the wear of human teeth due to attrition in acidic environments is an increasingly important issue. Accordingly, the present paper investigates in vitro the wear of human enamel in three different acidic environments. Reciprocating wear tests in which an enamel cusp slides on an enamel flat surface were carried out using acetic, citric and lactic acid lubricants (at pH 3-3.5). Distilled water was also included as a lubricant for comparison. Focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy imaging were then used to investigate the enamel subsurfaces following wear tests. Nanoindentation was used to ascertain the changes in enamel mechanical properties. The study reveals crack generation along the rod boundaries due to the exposure of enamel to the acidic environments. The wear mechanism changes from brittle fracture in distilled water to ploughing or shaving of the softened layer in acidic environments, generating a smooth surface with the progression of wear. Moreover, nanoindentation results of enamel samples which were exposed to the above acids up to a duration of the wear tests show decreasing hardness and Young’s modulus with exposure time.

  8. Separate whitening effects on enamel and dentin after fourteen days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Gerard; Petkevis, Jason; Gurgan, Sevil; Doherty, Eileen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of a bleaching agent, as it relates to enamel and dentin. Twenty-six extracted human molar teeth were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction and were randomly assigned to two groups. L*a*b* readings were taken with a spectrophotometer: on buccal surfaces of the crown, at enamel and dentin. The teeth were exposed to carbamide peroxide or placebo gel and L*a*b* scores were again recorded to determine color changes. Treatments were compared using ancova test with baseline color as the covariate. Relative to placebo, buccal surfaces exhibited the greatest Deltab* and DeltaL* color change. On buccal surfaces, the adjusted mean (SE) treatment differences were -7.8 (1.00) for Deltab* and 5.7 (0.97) for DeltaL, with groups differing significantly (p enamel surfaces, treatment differences were -3.6 (0.61) for Deltab* and 4.6 (0.80) for DeltaL* (p tooth crowns exposed to carbamide peroxide 15% was because of the color change in enamel. As compared to enamel, dentin was less affected after 14 days.

  9. On the Importance of Aging to the Crack Growth Resistance of Human Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Yahyazadehfar, Mobin; Zhang, Dongsheng; Arola, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    With improvements in oral health and an overall increase in quality of life, the percentage of fully or largely dentate seniors is increasing. Understanding the effects of aging on the mechanical properties of teeth is essential to the maintenance of lifelong oral health. In this investigation the effects of aging on the fracture toughness of human enamel were evaluated from incremental crack growth experiments performed on tissue of donor teeth representing ?young? (17? age ? 25) and ?old? (...

  10. Influence of dental bleaching on marginal leakage of Class V restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Ramos Dorini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the in vitro effect of bleaching performed in the dental office and waiting time on the degree of microleakage in class V cavities with margins in enamel, restored with resin composite. Methods: Forty-five human third molars were used, in which the vestibular faces were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide activated with LED and the palatine faces were not bleached (control. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups with 15 teeth in each: Group 1, restored immediately after bleaching; Group 2, seven days after bleaching; and Group 3, fourteen days after bleaching. After cavity preparation, 35% phosphoric acid, Adper Single Bond 2 adhesive (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Mn, USA, and resin composite Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA were applied. The teeth were thermal cycled and sealed with red nail polish on the bleached faces and blue on the non bleached faces, except for 1mm around the restored region. The samples were classified according to the following scores: 0 = no leakage, 1 = minimum leakage (less than 1 / 3 the length of the wall, 2 = moderate leakage (1/3 to 2/3 of the wall and 3 = extensive leakage (over 2/3 of the wall. The data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test at a level of significance of 5%. Results: The restorative procedure immediately after bleaching resulted in statistically higher microleakage values (p 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is advisable to wait at least 7 days after bleaching to make the definitive restoration.

  11. The whitening effect of bleaching agents on tetracycline-stained rat teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D H; Summitt, J B

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the whitening effect of three bleaching agents on the teeth of rats and demonstrated differences in bleaching where dentin was exposed or enamel was thin. Thirty Albino rats were peritoneally injected with tetracycline solution daily for two weeks. Thirty-two disc-shaped specimens were cut from the crowns of incisors removed from sacrificed rats and were irradiated with UV light for 16 hours. Sections were stored in saline. Eight sections served as controls and were not bleached. Three bleaching agents (Opalescence, Rembrandt and Nite White) were applied to eight specimens each, five times a day for two weeks, and images of the sections were recorded at the following times: before bleaching (baseline), day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7, day 9, day 11 and day 14. Mean colors to demonstrate any change (deltaE) from baseline for each time period were as follows: control-9.78 (baseline), 9.17, 9.36, 9.65, 9.40, 9.99, 10.57, 11.36; Opalescence-10.08, (baseline) 7.63, 6.72, 6.04, 5.10, 4.87, 4.89, 4.27; Rembrandt-9.83 (baseline), 11.27, 9.55, 8.36, 7.75, 6.94, 7.11, 7.04; Nite White-10.44 (baseline), 9.92, 7.58, 6.80, 5.45, 5.05, 4.73, 4.01. All bleached teeth were lightened (p<.01). Another 56 tetracycline-stained rat incisors were UV irradiated for three days. Three different penetration depths were tested: penetration through lingual dentin and labial enamel (DN group), penetration through labial enamel only (RE group) and penetration through labial enamel covered with 1.0 mm human enamel (HE group). Specimens were bleached with Opalescence for one hour five times a day for one week or four weeks. A control group of unbleached teeth was also examined. Results (deltaE) were as follows: control--11.67; 1-week DN--13.55; 1-week RE--12.80; 1-week HE--12.07; 4-week DN--7.48; 4-week RE--7.50; 4-week HE--11.69. The color change in the 4-week DN and the 4-week RE groups showed the greatest reduction (p<.01).

  12. In vitro Evaluation of Effect of Dental Bleaching on the Shear Bond Strength of Sapphire Orthodontics Brackets Bonded with Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab M Kadhom

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to assess the effect of various types of bleaching agents on the shear bond strength of sapphire brackets bonded to human maxillary premolar teeth using resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC and to determine the site of bond failure. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted maxillary human premolars were selected and assigned into three equal groups, ten teeth in each. The first group was the control (unbleached group; the second group comprised teeth bleached with hydrogen peroxide group (HP 37.5% (in-office bleaching while the third group included teeth bleached with carbamide peroxide group (CP 16% (at-home bleaching. The teeth in the experimental groups were bleached and stored in water one day then bonded with sapphire brackets using RMGIC with the control group and left another day. De-bonding was performed using Instron universal testing machine. To determine the site of bond failure, both the enamel surface and bracket base of each tooth were examined under magnifying lens (20X of a stereomicroscope. Results: Results showed statistically highly significant difference in the shear bond strengths between control group and both of bleaching groups being low in the control group. Score III was the predominant site of bond failure in all groups. Conclusions: RMGIC provides adequate bond strength when bonding the sapphire brackets to bleached enamel; this bonding was strong enough to resist both the mechanical and masticatory forces. Most of the adhesive remained on the brackets, so it reduced the time required for removal of the bonding material’s remnants during enamel finishing and polishing.

  13. Structural and thermal behaviour of carious and sound powders of human tooth enamel and dentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E; Garcia-Garcia, R; Reyes-Gasga, J

    2009-01-01

    Powder from carious human tooth enamel and dentine were structurally, chemically and thermally analysed and compared against those from sound (healthy) teeth. Structural and chemical analyses were performed using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Thermal analysis was carried out by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Results demonstrate partially dissolved crystals of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with substitutions of Na, Mg, Cl and C, and a greater weight loss in carious dentine as compared with carious enamel. A greater amount of thermal decomposition is observed in carious dentine as compared with sound dentine, with major variations in the a-axis of the HAP unit cell than in the c-axis. Variations in shape and intensity of the OH - , CO 3 2- and PO 4 3- FTIR bands were also found.

  14. Confocal Raman mapping of collagen cross-link and crystallinity of human dentin-enamel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Amel; Nouioua, Fares; Desoutter, Alban; Levallois, Bernard; Cuisinier, Frédéric J. G.; Tassery, Hervé; Terrer, Elodie; Salehi, Hamideh

    2017-08-01

    The separation zone between enamel and dentin [dentin-enamel junction (DEJ)] with different properties in biomechanical composition has an important role in preventing crack propagation from enamel to dentin. The understanding of the chemical structure (inorganic and organic components), physical properties, and chemical composition of the human DEJ could benefit biomimetic materials in dentistry. Spatial distribution of calcium phosphate crystallinity and the collagen crosslinks near DEJ were studied using confocal Raman microscopy and calculated by different methods. To obtain collagen crosslinking, the ratio of two peaks 1660 cm-1 over 1690 cm-1 (amide I bands) is calculated. For crystallinity, the inverse full-width at half maximum of phosphate peak at 960 cm-1, and the ratio of two Raman peaks of phosphate at 960/950 cm-1 is provided. In conclusion, the study of chemical and physical properties of DEJ provides many benefits in the biomaterial field to improve the synthesis of dental materials in respect to the natural properties of human teeth. Confocal Raman microscopy as a powerful tool provides the molecular structure to identify the changes along DEJ and can be expanded for other mineralized tissues.

  15. Amelogenin and Enamel Biomimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Qichao; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Mature tooth enamel is acellular and does not regenerate itself. Developing technologies that rebuild tooth enamel and preserve tooth structure is therefore of great interest. Considering the importance of amelogenin protein in dental enamel formation, its ability to control apatite mineralization in vitro, and its potential to be applied in fabrication of future bio-inspired dental material this review focuses on two major subjects: amelogenin and enamel biomimetics. We review the most recent findings on amelogenin secondary and tertiary structural properties with a focus on its interactions with different targets including other enamel proteins, apatite mineral, and phospholipids. Following a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and its mechanical properties we will present the state-of-the-art strategies in the biomimetic reconstruction of human enamel. PMID:26251723

  16. [Effects of tooth whitening agents and acidic drinks on the surface properties of dental enamel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Chen, Zhiqun; Lin, Yao; Shao, Jinquan; Yin, Lu

    2013-10-01

    Using tooth whitening agents (bleaching clip) in vitro and acidic drinks, we conducted a comparative study of the changes in enamel surface morphology, Ca/P content, and hardness. Tooth whitening glue pieces, cola, and orange juice were used to soak teeth in artificial saliva in vitro. Physiological saline was used as a control treatment. The morphology of the four groups was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) immediately after the teeth were soaked for 7 and 14 d. The changes in Ca/P content and microhardness were analyzed. The enamel surfaces of the teeth in the three test groups were demineralized. The Ca/P ratio and the average microhardness were significantly lower than those of the control group immediately after the teeth were soaked (P 0.05). Bleaching agents caused transient demineralization of human enamel, but these agents could induce re-mineralization and repair of enamel over time. Demineralization caused by bleaching covered a relatively normal range compared with acidic drinks and daily drinking.

  17. In-vivo analysis of fluorine and other elements in human tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baijot-Stroobants, J.; Vreven, J.

    1979-01-01

    The technique used to study fluorination of human tooth enamel is based on prompt activation by charged particles and detection of the 110- and 197-keV gamma rays emitted in the (p,p'γ) reaction on fluorine. The proton beam is provided by the Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Namur and is used at atmospheric pressure. The technique can be used for non-destructive determination of fluorine concentrations of the same area of enamel both before and after topical application of fluorinated compounds (commercial solutions and gels) and thus for determination of fluorine fixation in the surface layer of the enamel. A very high degree of enrichment is obtained 30 min after the application of a solution of amine fluoride (AmF; 4400 ppm) and of two fluorophosphate acid (APF) gels (1774 and 3277 ppm). Monofluorophosphate (MFP) and amine fluoride (AmF) gels, however, produce insignificant degrees of enrichment (105 and 228 ppm). Measurement of fluorine retention during the hours after fluorination shows a small loss of fluorine 6 h after application of the AmF solution and the APF gels, whereas with MFP and AmF gels the degree of enrichment is nil 5 h after treatment. Determinations of sodium and of phosphorus have also been carried out with the same technique after brushing with a fluorinated tooth-paste or after topical application of a fluorinated gel. (author)

  18. Mesoscopic modeling of the response of human dental enamel to mid-infrared radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Verde, Ana; Ramos, Marta; Stoneham, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    Ablation of human dental enamel, a composite biomaterial with water pores, is of significant importance in minimally invasive laser dentistry but progress in the area is hampered by the lack of optimal laser parameters. We use mesoscopic finite element models of this material to study its response to mid-infrared radiation. Our results indicate that the cost-effective, off-the-shelf CO2 laser at λ = 10.6 μm may in fact ablate enamel precisely, reproducibly and with limited unwanted side effects such as cracking or heating, provided that a pulse duration of 10 μs is used. Furthermore, our results also indicate that the Er:YAG laser (λ = 2.94 μm), currently popular for laser dentistry, may in fact cause unwanted deep cracking in the enamel when regions with unusually high water content are irradiated, and also provide an explanation for the large range of ablation threshold values observed for this material. The model may be easily adapted to study the response of any composite material to infrared radiation and thus may be useful for the scientific community.

  19. The role of organic proteins on the crack growth resistance of human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyazadehfar, Mobin; Arola, Dwayne

    2015-06-01

    With only 1% protein by weight, tooth enamel is the most highly mineralized tissue in mammals. The focus of this study was to evaluate contributions of the proteins on the fracture resistance of this unique structural material. Sections of enamel were obtained from the cusps of human molars and the crack growth resistance was quantified using a conventional fracture mechanics approach with complementary finite element analysis. In selected specimens the proteins were extracted using a potassium hydroxide treatment. Removal of the proteins resulted in approximately 40% decrease in the fracture toughness with respect to the fully proteinized control. The loss of organic content was most detrimental to the extrinsic toughening mechanisms, causing over 80% reduction in their contribution to the total energy to fracture. This degradation occurred by embrittlement of the unbroken bridging ligaments and consequent reduction in the crack closure stress. Although the organic content of tooth enamel is very small, it is essential to crack growth toughening by facilitating the formation of unbroken ligaments and in fortifying their potency. Replicating functions of the organic content will be critical to the successful development of bio-inspired materials that are designed for fracture resistance. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping the nanostructures in human adult and baby tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, I.M.; Mahmood, U.; Duraman, N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates and compares the variations in crystal structure, composition, and nanostructures within the human adult and deciduous teeth. The similarities and differences in the nanostructure of both types of teeth are highlighted and discussed. (author)

  1. The effect of CPP-ACP containing fluoride on Streptococcus mutans adhesion and enamel roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulita Kristanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Direct contact between the bleaching agent and the enamel surface results in demineralization, alteration in surface roughness and bacterial adhesion. Many studies try to minimize this side effect through different way. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determined the effect of Calcium Phospho Peptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP containing fluoride application before and after bleaching procedure on the adhesion of S. Mutans and enamel roughness. Methods: The samples were 6 teeth which were divided into 4 groups, and each tooth was cut into four pieces. Group A and C were treated with CPP-ACP after bleaching, while group B and D were treated with CPP-ACP before and after bleaching. CPP-ACP used in group C and D was the one that contain fluoride. After treatment, all samples were sterilized, immersed in steril human saliva for one hour, then immersed into S. mutans suspension of 108 CFU. Samples were incubated overnight. On the next day the samples were put into steril BHI and vortexed for one minute to detach the bacteria. Fifteen ml BHI containing bacteria was poured into TYS agar then incubated 37°Cfor 48 hours. Bacterial colony was counted with colony counter. The SEM examination was done on all samples. Results: Application of desensitizing agent reduced the S.mutans adhesion significantly among groups (p<0.05 except between group A and C. SEM evaluation revealed significant differences among groups. Conclusion: The application of CPP-ACP containing fluoride before and after bleaching was effective to reduce the accumulation of S.mutans colony and enamel roughness.Latar belakang: Kontak langsung antara bahan bleaching dan permukaan enamel menyebabkan demineralisasi, perubahan kekasaran permukaan dan berpengaruh terhadap banyaknya bakteri Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans yang melekat. Banyak peneliti mencoba meminimalkan efek samping ini dengan cara yang beragam. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti efek

  2. Biofilm three-dimensional architecture influences in situ pH distribution pattern on the human enamel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Hara, Anderson T; Kim, Dongyeop; Zero, Domenick T; Koo, Hyun; Hwang, Geelsu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate how the biofilm three-dimensional (3D) architecture influences in situ pH distribution patterns on the enamel surface. Biofilms were formed on human tooth enamel in the presence of 1% sucrose or 0.5% glucose plus 0.5% fructose. At specific time points, biofilms were exposed to a neutral pH buffer to mimic the buffering of saliva and subsequently pulsed with 1% glucose to induce re-acidification. Simultaneous 3D pH mapping and architecture of intact biofilms was performed using two-photon confocal microscopy. The enamel surface and mineral content characteristics were examined successively via optical profilometry and microradiography analyses. Sucrose-mediated biofilm formation created spatial heterogeneities manifested by complex networks of bacterial clusters (microcolonies). Acidic regions (pHinterior of microcolonies, which impedes rapid neutralization (taking more than 120 min for neutralization). Glucose exposure rapidly re-created the acidic niches, indicating formation of diffusion barriers associated with microcolonies structure. Enamel demineralization (white spots), rougher surface, deeper lesion and more mineral loss appeared to be associated with the localization of these bacterial clusters at the biofilm-enamel interface. Similar 3D architecture was observed in plaque-biofilms formed in vivo in the presence of sucrose. The formation of complex 3D architectures creates spatially heterogeneous acidic microenvironments in close proximity of enamel surface, which might correlate with the localized pattern of the onset of carious lesions (white spot like) on teeth.

  3. Evaluation of a 6% hydrogen peroxide tooth whitening gel on enamel and dentine microhardness in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Andrew; Thakker, Gopal; Cooper, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of a novel 6% hydrogen peroxide containing tooth whitener, Xtra White (XW), on enamel and dentine microhardness in vitro. Polished human enamel and dentine specimens were prepared and baseline microhardness determined. In study 1, enamel specimens were exposed to 20 min cycles of either water, XW or Sprite Light for up to 28 cycles. In studies 2 and 3, enamel specimens were treated with 20 min cycles of either XW or water and exposed to whole saliva at all other times. In study 3, an additional exposure to a fluoride containing toothpaste was conducted. In total, 28 treatments were conducted in order to simulate a 2 weeks product use. In study 4, dentine specimens were treated as per study 3. Final microhardness measurements were taken and for studies 3 and 4 colour measurements were additionally taken. XW and water gave no statistically significant (p>0.05) changes in enamel and dentine microhardness after 28 treatments. Sprite Light gave a significant (penamel microhardness after one 20 min treatment. XW showed significant bleaching of enamel and dentine specimens as compared to the water control. XW does not have any significant effect on enamel and dentine microhardness.

  4. Effect of laser-assisted bleaching with Nd:YAG and diode lasers on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhashemi, Amirhossein; Emadian Razavi, Elham Sadat; Behboodi, Sara; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of laser-assisted bleaching with neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) and diode lasers on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. One hundred and four extracted human premolars were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: No bleaching applied (control group); group 2: Teeth bleached with 40 % hydrogen peroxide; group 3: Teeth treated with 30 % hydrogen peroxide activated with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 2.5 W, 25 Hz, pulse duration of 100 μs, 6 mm distance); and group 4: Teeth treated with 30 % hydrogen peroxide activated with diode laser (810 nm, 1 W, CW, 6 mm distance). Equal numbers of teeth in groups 2, 3, and 4 were bonded at start, 1 h, 24 h, and 1 week after bleaching. A universal testing machine measured the SBS of the samples 24 h after bonding. After bracket debonding, the amount of residual adhesive on the enamel surface was observed under a stereomicroscope to determine the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. The SBS in the unbleached group was significantly higher than that in the bleached groups bonded immediately and 1 h after laser-assisted bleaching (P laser-assisted bleaching, the SBS was found to be significantly lower than that in the control group. Significant differences in the ARI scores existed among groups as well. The SBS of brackets seems to increase quickly within an hour after laser-assisted bleaching and 24 h after conventional bleaching. Thus, this protocol can be recommended if it is necessary to bond the brackets on the same day of bleaching.

  5. Facilitatory effect of AC-iontophoresis of lidocaine hydrochloride on the permeability of human enamel and dentine in extracted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hideharu; Suda, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to quantitatively evaluate chemical permeability through human enamel/dentine using conductometry and to clarify if alternating current (AC) iontophoresis facilitates such permeability. Electrical impedance of different concentrations of lidocaine hydrochloride was measured using a bipolar platinum impedance probe. A quadratic curve closely fitted to the response functions between conductance and lidocaine hydrochloride. For analysis of the passage of lidocaine hydrochloride through human enamel/dentine, eight premolars that were extracted for orthodontic treatment were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction. The tooth crowns were held between two chambers with a double O-ring. The enamel-side chamber was filled with lidocaine hydrochloride, and the pulp-side chamber was filled with extrapure water. Two platinum plate electrodes were set at the end of each chamber to pass alternating current. A simulated interstitial pulp pressure was applied to the pulp-side chamber. The change in the concentration of lidocaine hydrochloride in the pulp-side chamber was measured every 2min using a platinum recording probe positioned at the centre of the pulp-side chamber. Passive entry without iontophoresis was used as a control. The level of lidocaine hydrochloride that passed through enamel/dentine against the dentinal fluid flow increased with time. Electrical conductance (G, mho) correlated closely to the concentration (x, mmol/L) of lidocaine hydrochloride (G=2.16x(2)+0.0289x+0.000376, r(2)=0.999). Lidocaine hydrochloride can pass through enamel/dentine. Conductometry showed that the level of lidocaine hydrochloride that passed through enamel/dentine was increased by AC iontophoresis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An in vitro study to evaluate the effect of two ethanol-based and two acetone-based dental bonding agents on the bond strength of composite to enamel treated with 10% carbamide peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Basavaraj Benni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Carbamide peroxide bleaching has been implicated in adversely affecting the bond strength of composite to enamel. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol-based (Clearfil S 3 bond, Kuraray, Adper Single bond 2, 3M ESPE dental products and acetone-based (Prime and Bond NT, Dentsply, One Step, Bisco bonding agents on the shear bond strength of composite to enamel treated with 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 extracted human noncarious permanent incisors were randomly divided into two groups (control and experimental. Experimental group specimens were subjected to a bleaching regimen with a 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching system (Opalescence; Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, USA. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to the specimens using four bonding agents and shear bond strength was determined with universal testing machine. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the shear bond strength between control and experimental groups with both ethanol-based (Clearfil S 3 Bond and Adper Single Bond 2 and acetone-based bonding agent (Prime and Bond NT and One Step. Interpretation and Conclusion: The adverse effect of bleaching on bonding composite to enamel can be reduced or eliminated by using either ethanol- or acetone-based bonding agent. Clinical Significances: Immediate bonding following bleaching procedure can be done using ethanol- or acetone-based bonding agent without compromising bond strength.

  7. Mechanical properties of in situ demineralised human enamel measured by AFM nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Manuela; Hughes, Julie A.; Parker, David M.; Jandt, Klaus D.

    2001-10-01

    Diet-induced demineralisation is one of the key factors in surface changes of tooth enamel, with soft drinks being a significant etiological agent. The first step in this dissolution process is characterised by a change in the mechanical properties of the enamel and a roughening of the surface. The objective of this pilot study was to measure early stages of in situ induced hardness changes of polished human enamel surfaces with high accuracy using a nanoindenter attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM). Human unerupted third molars were cleaned, sterilised with sodium hypochlorite, sectioned and embedded in epoxy resin. The outer enamel surface was polished and the samples partly covered with a tape, allowing a 2-mm-wide zone to be exposed to the oral environment. Samples were fitted in an intra-oral appliance, which was worn from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. for one day. During this time the volunteer sipped 250 ml of a drink over 10 min periods at 9.00, 11.00, 13.00 and 15.00 h. Three different drinks, mineral water, orange juice and the prototype of a blackcurrant drink with low demineralisation potential were used in this study. At the end of the experiment the samples were detached from the appliance, the tape removed and the surfaces chemically cleaned. The surface hardness and reduced Young's modulus of the exposed and unexposed areas of each sample were determined. In addition, high resolution topographical AFM images were obtained. This study shows that by determining the hardness and reduced Young's modulus, the difference in demineralisation caused by the drinks can be detected and quantified before statistically significant changes in surface topography could be observed with the AFM. The maximum decrease in surface hardness and Young's modulus occurred in the samples exposed to orange juice, followed by those exposed to the blackcurrant drink, while exposure to water led to the same values as unexposed areas. A one-way ANOVA showed a statistically significant

  8. XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices in sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Gasga, José; Martínez-Piñeiro, Esmeralda L.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Galois; Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E.; García-García, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The crystallinity index (CI) is a measure of the percentage of crystalline material in a given sample and it is also correlated to the degree of order within the crystals. In the literature two ways are reported to measure the CI: X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Although the CI determined by these techniques has been adopted in the field of archeology as a structural order measure in the bone with the idea that it can help e.g. in the sequencing of the bones in chronological and/or stratigraphic order, some debate remains about the reliability of the CI values. To investigate similarities and differences between the two techniques, the CI of sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) was measured in this work by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), at room temperature and after heat treatment. Although the (CI) XRD index is related to the crystal structure of the samples and the (CI) FTIR index is related to the vibration modes of the molecular bonds, both indices showed similar qualitative behavior for heat-treated samples. At room temperature, the (CI) XRD value indicated that enamel is more crystalline than synthetic HAP, while (CI) FTIR indicated the opposite. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) images were also used to corroborate the measured CI values. - Highlights: • XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices for tooth enamel and synthetic HAP were obtained. • SEM and TEM images were more correlated with (CI) XRD than with (CI) FTIR . • Regardless of the temperature, (CI) XRD and (CI) FTIR showed similar behavior. • XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices resulted in a fast and qualitative measurement

  9. XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices in sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Gasga, José, E-mail: jreyes@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Martínez-Piñeiro, Esmeralda L., E-mail: esmemapi@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Rodríguez-Álvarez, Galois, E-mail: galoisborre@yahoo.com [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E., E-mail: gab0409@yahoo.com.mx [Unidad Académica de Odontología, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Edificio E7, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); García-García, Ramiro, E-mail: ramiro@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); and others

    2013-12-01

    The crystallinity index (CI) is a measure of the percentage of crystalline material in a given sample and it is also correlated to the degree of order within the crystals. In the literature two ways are reported to measure the CI: X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Although the CI determined by these techniques has been adopted in the field of archeology as a structural order measure in the bone with the idea that it can help e.g. in the sequencing of the bones in chronological and/or stratigraphic order, some debate remains about the reliability of the CI values. To investigate similarities and differences between the two techniques, the CI of sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) was measured in this work by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), at room temperature and after heat treatment. Although the (CI){sub XRD} index is related to the crystal structure of the samples and the (CI){sub FTIR} index is related to the vibration modes of the molecular bonds, both indices showed similar qualitative behavior for heat-treated samples. At room temperature, the (CI){sub XRD} value indicated that enamel is more crystalline than synthetic HAP, while (CI){sub FTIR} indicated the opposite. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) images were also used to corroborate the measured CI values. - Highlights: • XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices for tooth enamel and synthetic HAP were obtained. • SEM and TEM images were more correlated with (CI){sub XRD} than with (CI){sub FTIR}. • Regardless of the temperature, (CI){sub XRD} and (CI){sub FTIR} showed similar behavior. • XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices resulted in a fast and qualitative measurement.

  10. Type VII Collagen is Enriched in the Enamel Organic Matrix Associated with the Dentin-Enamel Junction of Mature Human Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Jacob D.; Walker, Mary P.; Mousa, Ahmad; Wang, Yong; Gorski, Jeff P.

    2014-01-01

    The inner enamel region of erupted teeth is known to exhibit higher fracture toughness and crack growth resistance than bulk phase enamel. However, an explanation for this behavior has been hampered by the lack of compositional information for the residual enamel organic matrix. Since enamel-forming ameloblasts are known to express type VII collagen and type VII collagen null mice display abnormal amelogenesis, the aim of this study was to determine whether type VII collagen is a component of...

  11. Peroxy bleaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, P.A. [Unilever Research, Port Sunlight Laboratory (United States) and Chemistry Department, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology (United States)]. E-mail: pcarson2005@aol.com; Fairclough, C.S. [Unilever Research, Port Sunlight Laboratory (United States); Mauduit, C. [Chemistry Department, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology (United States); Colsell, M. [Chemistry Department, University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology (United States)

    2006-08-25

    Fabric laundering is now a sophisticated chemical process involving a variety of operations including bleaching. The chemistry of peroxy bleaches is described including the use of novel organic compounds to provide effective bleaching at the lower temperatures of modern wash cycles. The instability of peroxy compounds is illustrated using cameo case histories to relate theory and practice. Techniques available for determining their thermochemistry are summarised. A model is provided for hazard and risk assessment of development projects in general (particularly those involving new molecules, processes or formulations) from ideas phase through exploratory laboratory investigations to pilot plant scale-up and eventual manufacture and commercial exploitation. This paper is a prelude to Part 2, which describes the determination of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of peroxy bleaches and discusses the implication of the results in terms of precautions for their safe storage and incorporation into detergent formulations during processing.

  12. Peroxy bleaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, P.A.; Fairclough, C.S.; Mauduit, C.; Colsell, M.

    2006-01-01

    Fabric laundering is now a sophisticated chemical process involving a variety of operations including bleaching. The chemistry of peroxy bleaches is described including the use of novel organic compounds to provide effective bleaching at the lower temperatures of modern wash cycles. The instability of peroxy compounds is illustrated using cameo case histories to relate theory and practice. Techniques available for determining their thermochemistry are summarised. A model is provided for hazard and risk assessment of development projects in general (particularly those involving new molecules, processes or formulations) from ideas phase through exploratory laboratory investigations to pilot plant scale-up and eventual manufacture and commercial exploitation. This paper is a prelude to Part 2, which describes the determination of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of peroxy bleaches and discusses the implication of the results in terms of precautions for their safe storage and incorporation into detergent formulations during processing

  13. XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices in sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gasga, José; Martínez-Piñeiro, Esmeralda L; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Galois; Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E; García-García, Ramiro; Brès, Etienne F

    2013-12-01

    The crystallinity index (CI) is a measure of the percentage of crystalline material in a given sample and it is also correlated to the degree of order within the crystals. In the literature two ways are reported to measure the CI: X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Although the CI determined by these techniques has been adopted in the field of archeology as a structural order measure in the bone with the idea that it can help e.g. in the sequencing of the bones in chronological and/or stratigraphic order, some debate remains about the reliability of the CI values. To investigate similarities and differences between the two techniques, the CI of sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) was measured in this work by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), at room temperature and after heat treatment. Although the (CI)XRD index is related to the crystal structure of the samples and the (CI)FTIR index is related to the vibration modes of the molecular bonds, both indices showed similar qualitative behavior for heat-treated samples. At room temperature, the (CI)XRD value indicated that enamel is more crystalline than synthetic HAP, while (CI)FTIR indicated the opposite. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) images were also used to corroborate the measured CI values. © 2013.

  14. In-vitro study investigating influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized human enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febrian, K.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, DJ

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of toothpaste containing green tea extract on the microhardness of demineralized enamel. Human tooth, which was demineralised in citric acid solution, had a toothpaste containing green tea extract of concentration of 5, 10 or 15% application. Microhardness measurement was carried out on each enamel surface of the teeth for initial, after the demineralization and after application of the tooth pastes. It showed that there was significant decrease between enamel microhardness of the teeth at the initial condition and after demineralization. After application of the toothpaste containing green tea extract of each concentration the microhardnss increased significantly. However, there the microhardness was insignificant between the applications of each green tea concentration.

  15. Microchemical and structural regular variability of apatites in 'overbuilt' enamel and dentin of human molar teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuczumow, A., E-mail: kuczon@kul.lublin.pl [Department of Chemistry, Lublin Catholic University, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Nowak, J. [Department of Chemistry, Lublin Catholic University, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); ChaLas, R. [Department of Conservative Medicine, Lublin Medical University, 20-081 Lublin (Poland)

    2011-10-15

    The aim of a recent paper was to recognize the chemical and structural changes in apatites, which form both the enamel and the dentin of the human tooth. The aim was achieved by scrutinizing the linear elemental profiles along the cross-sections of human molar teeth. Essentially, the task was accomplished with the application of the Electron Probe Microanalysis method and with some additional studies by Micro-Raman spectrometry. All the trends in linear profiles were strictly determined. In the enamel zone they were either increasing or decreasing curves of exponential character. The direction of the investigations was to start with the tooth surface and move towards the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ). The results of the elemental studies were more visible when the detected material was divided, in an arbitrary way, into the prevailing 'core' enamel ({approx}93.5% of the total mass) and the remaining 'overbuilt' enamel. The material in the 'core' enamel was fully stable, with clearly determined chemical and mechanical features. However, the case was totally different in the 'overbuilt enamel', with dynamic changes in the composition. In the 'overbuilt' layer Ca, P, Cl and F profiles present the decaying distribution curves, whereas Mg, Na, K and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} present the growing ones. Close to the surface of the tooth the mixture of hydroxy-, chlor- and fluor-apatite is formed, which is much more resistant than the rest of the enamel. On passing towards the DEJ, the apatite is enriched with Na, Mg and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. In this location, three of six phosphate groups were substituted with carbonate groups. Simultaneously, Mg is associated with the hydroxyl groups around the hexad axis. In this way, the mechanisms of exchange reactions were established. The crystallographic structures were proposed for new phases located close to DEJ. In the dentin zone, the variability of elemental profiles looks different, with

  16. Penetration pattern of rhodamine dyes into enamel and dentin: confocal laser microscopy observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S R; Wertz, P W; Li, Y; Chan, D C N

    2012-02-01

    Enamel and dentin are susceptible to extrinsic and intrinsic stains. The purposes of this study were to determine the penetration pattern of Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B into the enamel and dentin as observed by confocal laser microscopy and to relate it to the penetration pattern of hydrogen peroxide commonly used as an active ingredient in tooth-whitening agents and high-molecular-weight staining molecules. Eighteen recently extracted human maxillary anterior teeth were used. Teeth were cleaned and painted with nail varnish except for the crown area above the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). The painted teeth were then immersed in Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B (70 000 MW) for 4, 7, 10 and 15 days. Teeth were sliced to 3 mm thickness in transverse plane and mounted on a glass slide just prior to observation with confocal laser microscopy. Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B readily penetrated into the enamel and dentin when exposed for 4 and 7 days, respectively. Rhodamine B penetrated along the interprismatic spaces of the enamel into the dentin. The penetration was accentuated in sections with existing crack lines in the enamel. Rhodamine B was readily absorbed into the dentinal tubules at the dentino-enamel junction and continued to penetrate through the dentin via the dentinal tubules into the pre-dentin. Within the limitations of this study, it is concluded that Rhodamine B and dextran-conjugated Rhodamine B when applied to the external surface of the tooth readily penetrate into the enamel and dentin via the interprismatic spaces in the enamel and dentinal tubules in the dentin, suggesting that stain molecules and bleaching agents possibly exhibit similar penetration pathways. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Potential of CO2 lasers (10.6 µm associated with fluorides in inhibiting human enamel erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayanne Monteiro RAMOS-OLIVEIRA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study aimed to investigate the potential of CO2 lasers associated with different fluoride agents in inhibiting enamel erosion. Human enamel samples were randomly divided into 9 groups (n = 12: G1-eroded enamel; G2-APF gel; G3-AmF/NaF gel; G4-AmF/SnF2 solution; G5-CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 µm+APF gel; G6-CO2 laser+AmF/NaF gel; G7-CO2laser+AmF/SnF2solution; G8-CO2 laser; and G9-sound enamel. The CO2 laser parameters were: 0.45 J/cm2; 6 μs; and 128 Hz. After surface treatment, the samples (except from G9 were immersed in 1% citric acid (pH 4.0, 3 min. Surface microhardness was measured at baseline and after surface softening. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (p < 0.05. G2 (407.6 ± 37.3 presented the highest mean SMH after softening, followed by G3 (407.5 ± 29.8 and G5 (399.7 ± 32.9. Within the fluoride-treated groups, G4 (309.0 ± 24.4 had a significantly lower mean SMH than G3 and G2, which were statistically similar to each other. AmF/NaF and APF application showed potential to protect and control erosion progression in dental enamel, and CO2 laser irradiation at 0.45J/cm2 did not influence its efficacy. CO2 laser irradiation alone under the same conditions could also significantly decrease enamel erosive mineral loss, although at lower levels.

  18. An exploratory study of human teeth enamel by using Ft-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afishah Alias; Siti Rahayu Mohd Hashim; Mihaly, Judith; Julyannie Wajir; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2009-01-01

    Unaffected , affected and heavily affected teeth enamel were studied by using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The 14 permanent teeths enamel surface were measured randomly, resulting in total n = 43 FT-Raman spectra. The results obtained from FT-Raman spectra of heavily affected, affected and unaffected tooths enamel surfaces did not show any significant difference. In this study, Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare the intensity between the categories of enamel as well as the surfaces of teeth samples. (author)

  19. Influence of whitening gel on pulp chamber temperature rise by in-office bleaching technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Cordeiro Loretto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental bleaching is a conservative method for the aesthetic restoration of stained teeth. However, whitening treatments are likely to cause adverse effects when not well planned and executed. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the influence of whitening gel on temperature rise in the pulp chamber, using the in-office photoactivated dental bleaching technique. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The root portion of an upper central human incisor was sectioned 3mm below the cemento-enamel junction. The root canal was enlarged to permit the insertion of the K-type thermocouple sensor (MT-401 into the pulp chamber, which was filled with thermal paste to facilitate the transfer of heat during bleaching. Three photosensitive whitening agents (35% hydrogen peroxide were used: Whiteness HP (FGM, Whiteness HP Maxx (FGM and Lase Peroxide Sensy (DMC. An LED photocuring light (Flash Lite - Discus Dental was used to activate the whitening gels. Six bleaching cycles were performed on each group tested. The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA and LSD t-test (α<0.05. RESULT: The lowest mean temperature variation (ºC was detected for Lase Peroxide Sensy (0.20, while the highest was recorded for Whiteness HP (1.50. CONCLUSION: The Whiteness HP and Whiteness HP Maxx whitening gels significantly affected the temperature rise in the pulp chamber during bleaching, and this variation was dependent on the type of whitening gel used.

  20. Atomic force microscopy and tridimensional topography analysis of human enamel after resinous infiltration and storage in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Nadia M

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of water storage on surface roughness (Ra) of human enamel after treatment with resin infiltrant and fissure sealant, by utilizing atomic force microscopy (AFM) and microtomography. This study was conducted after registration and ethical approval clarification at the College of Dentistry Research Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and August 2011. Thirty enamel surface specimens were prepared from caries-free human premolar teeth. Specimens were divided into 3 groups: Group I, was the control; Group II, a resin infiltrant (Icon) was applied on the enamel surfaces; and Group III, the teeth were treated with fissure sealant (SealRite). All specimens were stored in distilled water for 6 months and then, subjected to AFM Veeco CP11 1.2 analysis. A few specimens were scanned by skyscan-1072-x-ray microtomography. The Ra mean readings were recorded and statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 16 at the significance level of pwater and its protective effect on enamel surface.

  1. Effect of CPP-ACP on the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel: nanomechanical properties and microtribological behaviour study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L; Zheng, J; Zhang, Y F; Qian, L M; Zhou, Z R

    2013-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been used to enhance tooth remineralization in the dental clinic. But the contribution of CPP-ACP to the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel is of widespread controversy. To confirm the application potential of CPP-ACP in the remineralization repair of tooth erosion caused by acid-attack, the effect of remineralization in vitro in 2% w/v CPP-ACP solution on the acid-eroded human tooth enamel was investigated in this study. The repair of surface morphology and the improvement of nanomechanical and microtribological properties were characterized with laser confocal scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope, nanoindentation tester and nanoscratch tester. Results showed that a layer of uneven mineral deposits, which were mainly amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in all probability, was observed on the acid-eroded enamel surface after remineralization. Compared with the acid-eroded enamel surface, the nanoindentation hardness and Young's modulus of the remineralized enamel surface obviously increased. Both the friction coefficient and wear volume of the acid-eroded enamel surface decreased after remineralization. However, both the nanomechanical and the anti-wear properties of the remineralized enamel surface were still inferior to those of original enamel surface. In summary, tooth damage caused by acid erosion could be repaired by remineralization in CPP-ACP solution, but the repair effect, especially on the nanomechanical and anti-wear properties of the acid-eroded enamel, was limited. These results would contribute to a further exploration of the remineralization potential of CPP-ACP and a better understanding of the remineralization repair mechanism for acid-eroded human tooth enamel. (paper)

  2. Effect of CPP-ACP on the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel: nanomechanical properties and microtribological behaviour study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, Y. F.; Qian, L. M.; Zhou, Z. R.

    2013-10-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been used to enhance tooth remineralization in the dental clinic. But the contribution of CPP-ACP to the remineralization of acid-eroded human tooth enamel is of widespread controversy. To confirm the application potential of CPP-ACP in the remineralization repair of tooth erosion caused by acid-attack, the effect of remineralization in vitro in 2% w/v CPP-ACP solution on the acid-eroded human tooth enamel was investigated in this study. The repair of surface morphology and the improvement of nanomechanical and microtribological properties were characterized with laser confocal scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope, nanoindentation tester and nanoscratch tester. Results showed that a layer of uneven mineral deposits, which were mainly amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) in all probability, was observed on the acid-eroded enamel surface after remineralization. Compared with the acid-eroded enamel surface, the nanoindentation hardness and Young's modulus of the remineralized enamel surface obviously increased. Both the friction coefficient and wear volume of the acid-eroded enamel surface decreased after remineralization. However, both the nanomechanical and the anti-wear properties of the remineralized enamel surface were still inferior to those of original enamel surface. In summary, tooth damage caused by acid erosion could be repaired by remineralization in CPP-ACP solution, but the repair effect, especially on the nanomechanical and anti-wear properties of the acid-eroded enamel, was limited. These results would contribute to a further exploration of the remineralization potential of CPP-ACP and a better understanding of the remineralization repair mechanism for acid-eroded human tooth enamel.

  3. Relationship between human tooth enamel free radical concentration and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yongzeng; Wang Jiadong; Jia Xiaomei; Wu Ke; Cong Jianbo; Sun Cunpu

    1999-01-01

    Free radical concentrations of 25 adult tooth enamel samples were measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique in this paper, and the relationship between free radical concentration of tooth enamel and radiation dose was also investigated. In the 25 adult enamel samples they are 16 male samples and 9 female samples, Ages of tooth donors range from 18-41 years. Difference in background ESR signal intensity between male and female samples was no observed; free radical concentration (or increment of radiation-induced free radical concentration) in tooth enamel increases linearly with increasing of radiation dose. In the case of radiation accident, the study results of this paper could be applied to dose estimation when conditions of ESR measurement of exposed individual tooth enamel are similar to measurement conditions of dose-effect calibration curve in this paper

  4. Effect of high energy X-ray irradiation on the nano-mechanical properties of human enamel and dentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xue; Zhang, Jing Yang; Cheng, Iek Ka [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Li, Ji Yao, E-mail: jiyao_li@aliyun.com [West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2016-05-01

    Radiotherapy for malignancies in the head and neck can cause common complications that can result in tooth damage that are also known as radiation caries. The aim of this study was to examine damage to the surface topography and calculate changes in friction behavior and the nano-mechanical properties (elastic modulus, nano hardness and friction coefficient) of enamel and dentine from extracted human third molars caused by exposure to radiation. Enamel and dentine samples from 50 human third molars were randomly assigned to four test groups or a control group. The test groups were exposed to high energy X-rays at 2 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 5 days (10 Gy group), 15 days (30 Gy group), 25 days (50 Gy group), 35 days (70 Gy group); the control group was not exposed. The nano hardness, elastic modulus, and friction coefficient were analyzed using a Hysitron Triboindenter. The nano-mechanical properties of both enamel and dentine showed significant dose-response relationships. The nano hardness and elastic modulus were most variable between 30-50 Gy, while the friction coefficient was most variable between 0-10 Gy for dentine and 30-50 Gy for enamel. After exposure to X-rays, the fracture resistance of the teeth clearly decreased (rapidly increasing friction coefficient with increasing doses under the same load), and they were more fragile. These nano-mechanical changes in dental hard tissue may increase the susceptibility to caries. Radiotherapy caused nano-mechanical changes in dentine and enamel that were dose related. The key doses were 30-50 Gy and the key time points occurred during the 15{sup th}-25{sup th} days of treatment, which is when application of measures to prevent radiation caries should be considered. (author)

  5. Effect of high energy X-ray irradiation on the nano-mechanical properties of human enamel and dentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue LIANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiotherapy for malignancies in the head and neck can cause common complications that can result in tooth damage that are also known as radiation caries. The aim of this study was to examine damage to the surface topography and calculate changes in friction behavior and the nano-mechanical properties (elastic modulus, nanohardness and friction coefficient of enamel and dentine from extracted human third molars caused by exposure to radiation. Enamel and dentine samples from 50 human third molars were randomly assigned to four test groups or a control group. The test groups were exposed to high energy X-rays at 2 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 5 days (10 Gy group, 15 days (30 Gy group, 25 days (50 Gy group, 35 days (70 Gy group; the control group was not exposed. The nanohardness, elastic modulus, and friction coefficient were analyzed using a Hysitron Triboindenter. The nano-mechanical properties of both enamel and dentine showed significant dose-response relationships. The nanohardness and elastic modulus were most variable between 30-50 Gy, while the friction coefficient was most variable between 0-10 Gy for dentine and 30-50 Gy for enamel. After exposure to X-rays, the fracture resistance of the teeth clearly decreased (rapidly increasing friction coefficient with increasing doses under the same load, and they were more fragile. These nano-mechanical changes in dental hard tissue may increase the susceptibility to caries. Radiotherapy caused nano-mechanical changes in dentine and enamel that were dose related. The key doses were 30-50 Gy and the key time points occurred during the 15th-25th days of treatment, which is when application of measures to prevent radiation caries should be considered.

  6. Effect of high energy X-ray irradiation on the nano-mechanical properties of human enamel and dentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xue; Zhang, Jing Yang; Cheng, Iek Ka; Li, Ji Yao

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy for malignancies in the head and neck can cause common complications that can result in tooth damage that are also known as radiation caries. The aim of this study was to examine damage to the surface topography and calculate changes in friction behavior and the nano-mechanical properties (elastic modulus, nano hardness and friction coefficient) of enamel and dentine from extracted human third molars caused by exposure to radiation. Enamel and dentine samples from 50 human third molars were randomly assigned to four test groups or a control group. The test groups were exposed to high energy X-rays at 2 Gy/day, 5 days/week for 5 days (10 Gy group), 15 days (30 Gy group), 25 days (50 Gy group), 35 days (70 Gy group); the control group was not exposed. The nano hardness, elastic modulus, and friction coefficient were analyzed using a Hysitron Triboindenter. The nano-mechanical properties of both enamel and dentine showed significant dose-response relationships. The nano hardness and elastic modulus were most variable between 30-50 Gy, while the friction coefficient was most variable between 0-10 Gy for dentine and 30-50 Gy for enamel. After exposure to X-rays, the fracture resistance of the teeth clearly decreased (rapidly increasing friction coefficient with increasing doses under the same load), and they were more fragile. These nano-mechanical changes in dental hard tissue may increase the susceptibility to caries. Radiotherapy caused nano-mechanical changes in dentine and enamel that were dose related. The key doses were 30-50 Gy and the key time points occurred during the 15 th -25 th days of treatment, which is when application of measures to prevent radiation caries should be considered. (author)

  7. Nanoindentation mapping of the mechanical properties of human molar tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuy, J L; Mann, A B; Livi, K J; Teaford, M F; Weihs, T P

    2002-04-01

    The mechanical behavior of dental enamel has been the subject of many investigations. Initial studies assumed that it was a more or less homogeneous material with uniform mechanical properties. Now it is generally recognized that the mechanical response of enamel depends upon location, chemical composition, and prism orientation. This study used nanoindentation to map out the properties of dental enamel over the axial cross-section of a maxillary second molar (M(2)). Local variations in mechanical characteristics were correlated with changes in chemical content and microstructure across the entire depth and span of a sample. Microprobe techniques were used to examine changes in chemical composition and scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructure. The range of hardness (H) and Young's modulus (E) observed over an individual tooth was found to be far greater than previously reported. At the enamel surface H>6GPa and E>115GPa, while at the enamel-dentine junction H<3GPa and E<70GPa. These variations corresponded to the changes in chemistry, microstructure, and prism alignment but showed the strongest correlations with changes in the average chemistry of enamel. For example, the concentrations of the constituents of hydroxyapatite (P(2)O(5) and CaO) were highest at the hard occlusal surface and decreased on moving toward the softer enamel-dentine junction. Na(2)O and MgO showed the opposite trend. The mechanical properties of the enamel were also found to differ from the lingual to the buccal side of the molar. At the occlusal surface the enamel was harder and stiffer on the lingual side than on the buccal side. The interior enamel, however, was softer and more compliant on the lingual than on the buccal side, a variation that also correlated with differences in average chemistry and might be related to differences in function.

  8. Measurement uncertainty associated with chromatic confocal profilometry for 3D surface texture characterization of natural human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, F; Bartlett, D; Austin, R S

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the measurement performance of a chromatic confocal profilometer for quantification of surface texture of natural human enamel in vitro. Contributions to the measurement uncertainty from all potential sources of measurement error using a chromatic confocal profilometer and surface metrology software were quantified using a series of surface metrology calibration artifacts and pre-worn enamel samples. The 3D surface texture analysis protocol was optimized across 0.04mm 2 of natural and unpolished enamel undergoing dietary acid erosion (pH 3.2, titratable acidity 41.3mmolOH/L). Flatness deviations due to the x, y stage mechanical movement were the major contribution to the measurement uncertainty; with maximum Sz flatness errors of 0.49μm. Whereas measurement noise; non-linearity's in x, y, z and enamel sample dimensional instability contributed minimal errors. The measurement errors were propagated into an uncertainty budget following a Type B uncertainty evaluation in order to calculate the Standard Combined Uncertainty (u c ), which was ±0.28μm. Statistically significant increases in the median (IQR) roughness (Sa) of the polished samples occurred after 15 (+0.17 (0.13)μm), 30 (+0.12 (0.09)μm) and 45 (+0.18 (0.15)μm) min of erosion (Pchromatic confocal profilometry was from flatness deviations however by optimizing measurement protocols the profilometer successfully characterized surface texture changes in enamel from erosive wear in vitro. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  9. Topographic assessment of human enamel surface treated with different topical sodium fluoride agents: Scanning electron microscope consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurlal Singh Brar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuous balanced demineralization and remineralization are natural dynamic processes in enamel. If the balance is interrupted and demineralization process dominates, it may eventually lead to the development of carious lesions in enamel and dentine. Fluoride helps control decay by enhancing remineralization and altering the structure of the tooth, making the surface less soluble. Methodology: One hundred and twenty sound human permanent incisors randomly and equally distributed into six groups as follows: Group I - Control, II - Sodium fluoride solution, III - Sodium fluoride gel, IV - Sodium fluoride varnish, V - Clinpro Tooth Crème (3M ESPE, and VI-GC Tooth Mousse Plus or MI Paste Plus. The samples were kept in artificial saliva for 12 months, and the topical fluoride agents were applied to the respective sample groups as per the manufacturer instructions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM evaluation of all the samples after 6 and 12 months was made. Results: Morphological changes on the enamel surface after application of fluoride in SEM revealed the presence of globular precipitate in all treated samples. Amorphous, globular, and crystalline structures were seen on the enamel surface of the treated samples. Clear differences were observed between the treated and untreated samples. Conclusion: Globular structures consisting of amorphous CaF2precipitates, which acted as a fluoride reservoir, were observed on the enamel surface after action of different sodium fluoride agents. CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse and Tricalcium phosphate with fluoride (Clinpro tooth crème are excellent delivery vehicles available in a slow release amorphous form to localize fluoride at the tooth surface.

  10. The effects of brushing on human enamel surface roughness after NaF gel and theobromine gel exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahardhika, A.; Noerdin, A.; Eriwati, Y. K.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of brushing on human enamel surface roughness after different exposure times of 200 mg/L theobromine gel (8, 16, and 32 minutes) and 2% NaF gel (16 minutes). Twenty-four human upper premolars were used and divided into four groups. Group 1 was exposed to 2% NaF gel for 16 minutes. In contrast, groups 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to 200 mg/L theobromine gel for 8 minutes, 16 minutes, and 32 minutes, and each group was then brushed for 9 minutes and 20 seconds. After the treatment, samples were tested using a surface roughness tester (Mitutoyo SJ 301, Japan). The Wilcoxon test showed significant changes (p enamel surface and then increase roughness after brushing.

  11. Determination of atomic number and composition of human enamel; Determinacao da composicao e numero atomico efetivo do esmalte humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, M.S. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN), Recife, PE (Brazil); Rodas Duran, J.E. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2001-07-01

    The teeth are organs of complicated structure that consist, partly, of hard tissue containing in its interior the dental pulp, rich in vases and nerves. The main mass of the tooth is constituted by the dentine, which is covered with hard tissues and of epithelial origin called enamel. The dentine of the human teeth used in this work were completely removed and the teeth were cut with a device with a diamond disc. In this work the chemical composition of the human enamel was determined, which showed a high percentage of Ca and P, in agreement with the results found in the literature. The effective atomic number of the material and the half-value layer in the energy range of diagnostic X-ray beams were determined. Teeth could be used to evaluated the public's individual doses as well as for retrospective dosimetry what confirms the importance of their effective atomic number and composition determination. (author)

  12. Effects of green tea on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets after in-office vital bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa; Fernandes, Thais Maria; Schwertner, Renata de Castro Alves; Ursi, Wagner José Silva

    2016-01-01

    The application of bleaching agents before placement of resin-bonded fixed appliances significantly, but temporarily, reduces bond strength to tooth structure. Antioxidants have been studied as a means to remove residual oxygen that compromises bonding to bleached enamel. This in vitro study evaluated whether green tea (GT) could restore the shear bond strength between bonded orthodontic brackets and bleached enamel. Six experimental groups were compared: group 1, no bleaching plus bracket bonding (positive control); group 2, bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) plus bracket bonding (negative control); group 3, 35% HP plus 10% sodium ascorbate (SA) plus bracket bonding; group 4, 35% HP plus 10% GT plus bracket bonding; group 5, no bleaching plus 10% SA plus bracket bonding; group 6, no bleaching plus 10% GT plus bracket bonding. Results suggested that GT, like SA, may be beneficial for bracket bonding immediately after bleaching.

  13. CORROSION IN ACIDIC BEVERAGES AND RECOVERY OF MICROHARDNESS OF HUMAN TEETH ENAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Gaalova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied the influence of corrosion in acidic beverages (white wine, pH~3.5 on micromechanical properties of human teeth. Simultaneously, the effect of fluorine-containing mouthwash (pH~4.4 and of artificial saliva (pH~5.3 in terms of their protective action against corrosion, and the recovery of mechanical properties through fluoridation and re-calcification was studied. The influence of the solutions on Vickers hardness of dental enamel was monitored on the basis of results from the corrosion tests carried out under quasi-dynamic conditions. The tests were performed at the temperature corresponding to the temperature of human body (37°C. The measurements confirmed a significant deterioration of microhardness with prolonged exposure to white wine. The Vickers hardness decreased from 347 HV0.2 in un-corroded specimens to 186 HV0.2 in samples corroded for 60 minutes in white wine. A recovery of Vickers hardness was observed after 60 minutes exposition time in the fluoridation solution, with the increase from 186 to 372 HV0.2. Similar effect was observed in the artificial saliva solution, with observed hardness increase from 186 to 320 HV0.2. Healing of corrosion-induced defects by the action of both solutions was observed by SEM, and associated with observed increase of hardness

  14. Three-dimensional primate molar enamel thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejniczak, Anthony J; Tafforeau, Paul; Feeney, Robin N M; Martin, Lawrence B

    2008-02-01

    Molar enamel thickness has played an important role in the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and dietary assessments of fossil primate teeth for nearly 90 years. Despite the frequency with which enamel thickness is discussed in paleoanthropological discourse, methods used to attain information about enamel thickness are destructive and record information from only a single plane of section. Such semidestructive planar methods limit sample sizes and ignore dimensional data that may be culled from the entire length of a tooth. In light of recently developed techniques to investigate enamel thickness in 3D and the frequent use of enamel thickness in dietary and phylogenetic interpretations of living and fossil primates, the study presented here aims to produce and make available to other researchers a database of 3D enamel thickness measurements of primate molars (n=182 molars). The 3D enamel thickness measurements reported here generally agree with 2D studies. Hominoids show a broad range of relative enamel thicknesses, and cercopithecoids have relatively thicker enamel than ceboids, which in turn have relatively thicker enamel than strepsirrhine primates, on average. Past studies performed using 2D sections appear to have accurately diagnosed the 3D relative enamel thickness condition in great apes and humans: Gorilla has the relatively thinnest enamel, Pan has relatively thinner enamel than Pongo, and Homo has the relatively thickest enamel. Although the data set presented here has some taxonomic gaps, it may serve as a useful reference for researchers investigating enamel thickness in fossil taxa and studies of primate gnathic biology.

  15. Effects of 45S5 bioglass on surface properties of dental enamel subjected to 35% hydrogen peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Meng; Wen, Hai-Lin; Dong, Xiao-Li; Li, Feng; Xu, Xin; Li, Hong; Li, Ji-Yao; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Tooth bleaching agents may weaken the tooth structure. Therefore, it is important to minimize any risks of tooth hard tissue damage caused by bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of applying 45S5 bioglass (BG) before, after, and during 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching on whitening efficacy, physicochemical properties and microstructures of bovine enamel. Seventy-two bovine enamel blocks were prepared and randomly divided into six groups: distilled deionized ...

  16. Effect of 4% titanium tetrafluoride solution on the erosion of permanent and deciduous human enamel: an in situ/ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Magalhães

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This in situ/ex vivo study assessed the effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4 solution on erosion of permanent (P and deciduous (d human enamel. Ten volunteers wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 4 enamel samples, divided into two rows: TiF4 and no - TiF4 (control. Each row contained one deciduous and one permanent enamel sample. During the 1st day, formation of a salivary pellicle was allowed. At the 2nd day, the 4% TiF4 solution was applied on one row (TiF4, while the other row remained untreated (control. From the 3rd until the 7th day, the samples were subjected to erosion by immersion in a cola drink for 5 min, 4 times/day. Enamel alterations were determined by microhardness testing (%SMHC. Data were analyzed using 2 two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (α=0.05. The mean %SMHC (±SD amounted to: P (TiF4 - 73.32 ± 5.16 and control - 83.49 ± 4.59 and d (TiF4 - 83.01 ± 7.41 and control - 75.75 ± 2.57. In conclusion, the application of 4% TiF4 solution reduced the softening of permanent enamel but not of deciduous enamel significantly. However, no significant differences were detected between the permanent and deciduous enamel when the factor substrate was considered.

  17. Modeling Photo-Bleaching Kinetics to Create High Resolution Maps of Rod Rhodopsin in the Human Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ehler

    Full Text Available We introduce and describe a novel non-invasive in-vivo method for mapping local rod rhodopsin distribution in the human retina over a 30-degree field. Our approach is based on analyzing the brightening of detected lipofuscin autofluorescence within small pixel clusters in registered imaging sequences taken with a commercial 488nm confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO over a 1 minute period. We modeled the kinetics of rhodopsin bleaching by applying variational optimization techniques from applied mathematics. The physical model and the numerical analysis with its implementation are outlined in detail. This new technique enables the creation of spatial maps of the retinal rhodopsin and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE bisretinoid distribution with an ≈ 50μm resolution.

  18. Modeling Photo-Bleaching Kinetics to Create High Resolution Maps of Rod Rhodopsin in the Human Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehler, Martin; Dobrosotskaya, Julia; Cunningham, Denise; Wong, Wai T.; Chew, Emily Y.; Czaja, Wojtek; Bonner, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and describe a novel non-invasive in-vivo method for mapping local rod rhodopsin distribution in the human retina over a 30-degree field. Our approach is based on analyzing the brightening of detected lipofuscin autofluorescence within small pixel clusters in registered imaging sequences taken with a commercial 488nm confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) over a 1 minute period. We modeled the kinetics of rhodopsin bleaching by applying variational optimization techniques from applied mathematics. The physical model and the numerical analysis with its implementation are outlined in detail. This new technique enables the creation of spatial maps of the retinal rhodopsin and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) bisretinoid distribution with an ≈ 50μm resolution. PMID:26196397

  19. Interpreting sex differences in enamel hypoplasia in human and non-human primates: Developmental, environmental, and cultural considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatelli-Steinberg, D; Lukacs, J R

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a synoptic, critical evaluation of the evidence of, and potential etiological factors contributing to, sex differences in the expression of enamel hypoplasia (EH). Specifically, this review considers theoretical expectations and empirical evidence bearing on two central issues. The first of these is the impact of a theorized inherent male vulnerability to physiological stress on sex differences in EH. The second issue is the potential contribution to sex differences in EH of intrinsic differences in male and female enamel composition and development. To address this first issue, EH frequencies by sex are examined in samples subject to a high degree of physiological stress. Based on the concept of inherent male vulnerability (or female buffering), males in stressful environments would be expected to exhibit higher EH frequencies than females. This expectation is evaluated in light of cultural practices of sex-biased investment that mediate the relationship between environmental stress and EH expression. Defects forming prenatally afford an opportunity to study this relationship without the confounding effects of sex-biased postnatal investment. Data bearing on this issue derive from previously conducted studies of EH in permanent and deciduous teeth in both modern and archaeological samples as well as from new data on Indian schoolchildren. To address the second issue, fundamental male-female enamel differences are evaluated for their potential impact on EH expression. A large sex difference in the duration of canine crown formation in non-human primates suggests that male canines may have greater opportunity to record stress events than those of females. This expectation is examined in great apes, whose canines often record multiple episodes of stress and are sexually dimorphic in crown formation times. With respect to the first issue, in most studies, sex differences in EH prevalence are statistically nonsignificant

  20. Matching the optical properties of direct esthetic dental restorative materials to those of human enamel and dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragain, James Carlton, Jr.

    One of the goals of the restorative dentist is to restore the appearance of the natural dentition. Clinical matching of teeth and restorative materials are seldom accurate and shade selection techniques are subjective. The first specific aim of this research was to characterize the optical absorption and scattering that occurs within enamel, dentin, and composite resin and compomer restorative materials and to relate those phenomena to translucency and color. The second aim was to evaluate small color differences among composite restorative materials which would be detectable by humans. The last aim was to lay the foundation for developing an improved model of specifying layers of dental restorative materials in order to match the translucency and color to those of human enamel. The Kubelka-Munk theory was validated for enamel, dentin, and the restorative materials. These tissues and materials were then characterized in terms of their color parameters. Tooth cores were also characterized in terms of color space parameters. Human subjects were evaluated for their abilities to discriminate small color differences in the dental composite resin materials. The following conclusions were derived from this study: (1) Kubelka-Munk theory accurately predicts the diffuse reflectance spectra of enamel, dentin, and the direct esthetic dental restorative materials studied. (2) Scattering and absorption coefficients of the dental tissues and esthetic restorative materials can be directly calculated from diffuse reflectance measurements of a uniformly thick slab of tissue/material using black and white backings and the appropriate refractive index. (3) For tooth cores, there is a positive correlation between L* and b* and a negative correlation between L* and a*. (4) The range of translucency parameters for the restorative materials studied does not match those of enamel and dentin. (5) None of the shades of the dental composite resin restorative materials studied fit into the

  1. Enamel Defects of Human Primary Dentition as Virtual Memory of Early Developmental Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Asl Aminabadi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and the position of enamel defects of primary teeth and hence to estimate the approximate time of an insult. Material and methods. 121 children aged 3 to 5 years were included in the study. The Modified Developmental Defects of Enamel Index was used to diagnose and classify the defects. The defects were categorized as hypoplasia, hypocalcification or a combination of them. Each tooth was investigated for occlusal/incisal, middle, cervical, incisomiddle, cervicomiddle and complete crown defects. Results. 55.37% of the children were affected by enamel defects, 23.96% being categorized as hypocalcification and 22.31% as hypoplasia. The enamel defects were more abundant in maxillary primary incisors and mandibular primary canines. Minimum involvement was seen in maxillary primary second molars and mandibular primary lateral incisors. The prevalence of cervical defects in maxillary primary incisors was significantly more than the middle or incisal defects (P < 0.05. The prevalence of incisal defects in mandibular primary incisors was significantly more than the middle or cervical defects (P < 0.05. Conclusions. The results revealed a considerable number of enamel defects which are multiple, symmetric and chronologically accordant with the estimated neonatal line in primary teeth of healthy children.

  2. Extra-high doses detected in the enamel of human teeth in the Techa riverside region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishkina, E.A., E-mail: ElenaA.Shishkina@gmail.com [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Degteva, M.O.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Volchkova, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, 68A, Vorovsky Str., 454076 Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, D.V. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 18 S. Kovalevsky Str, 620041 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Della Monaca, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Rome (Italy); Istituto Regina Elena, 00144 Rome (Italy); Fattibene, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 00161 Rome (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2011-09-15

    During the long-term study of tooth enamel by EPR dosimetry for population exposed to radiation due to contamination of the Techa River, it was found out that for some of the tooth donors the dose accumulated in tooth enamel could be as high as several tens of Gy. Such doses were absorbed only in tooth enamel and they should not be associated with exposures to other organs or the whole body. The nature of such doses was discussed in a number of previous papers where it was shown that the source of such doses is {sup 90}Sr incorporated in the calcified dental tissues. However, among specialists in radiation dosimetry who were not involved in the biokinetic studies, the nature and dosimetric significance of extra-high doses in tooth enamel are still raising questions. The aim of the current paper is to summarize the accumulated information on extra-high doses in the teeth of the Techa riverside residents, describe the dose levels observed, explain the nature of extra-high doses in the enamel and discuss their informative value. The paper includes an overview of already published findings and an analysis of information collected in the data bank of the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), Chelyabinsk, Russia, which has not been published before.

  3. The dentin-enamel junction and the fracture of human teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbeni, V.; Kruzic, J. J.; Marshall, G. W.; Marshall, S. J.; Ritchie, R. O.

    2005-03-01

    The dentin-enamel junction (DEJ), which is the interfacial region between the dentin and outer enamel coating in teeth, is known for its unique biomechanical properties that provide a crack-arrest barrier for flaws formed in the brittle enamel1. In this work, we re-examine how cracks propagate in the proximity of the DEJ, and specifically quantify, using interfacial fracture mechanics, the fracture toughness of the DEJ region. Careful observation of crack penetration through the interface and the new estimate of the DEJ toughness (~5 to 10 times higher than enamel but ~75% lower than dentin) shed new light on the mechanism of crack arrest. We conclude that the critical role of this region, in preventing cracks formed in enamel from traversing the interface and causing catastrophic tooth fractures, is not associated with the crack-arrest capabilities of the interface itself; rather, cracks tend to penetrate the (optical) DEJ and arrest when they enter the tougher mantle dentin adjacent to the interface due to the development of crack-tip shielding from uncracked-ligament bridging.

  4. Peroxy bleaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, P.A.; Fairclough, C.S.; Mauduit, C.; Colsell, M.

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a series of inorganic and organic peroxy bleaches were determined using adiabatic rate calorimetry and isothermal microcalorimetry. Results are compared to calculated oxygen balance values. The decomposition of the majority of the compounds is complex. Data indicate the need for cooling during the storage and transport for some materials evaluated. Although no overall structure/activity relationship could be established because of the diversity of molecular architectures studied, a combination of decomposition and activation energy data provides a means for hazard and risk classification

  5. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhiro, Matsuda; Katsushi, Okuyama; Hiroko, Yamamoto; Hisanori, Komatsu; Masashi, Koka; Takahiro, Sato; Naoki, Hashimoto; Saiko, Oki; Chiharu, Kawamoto; Hidehiko, Sano

    2015-04-01

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials ["MS coats F" (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials ("hybrid coats 2" [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8-4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries.

  6. An innovative chairside bleaching protocol for treating stained dentition: initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, P

    2000-09-01

    For years, investigators have attempted to develop a predictable means of bleaching pathologically and nonpathologically stained dentition. While previous efforts have modified the concentration of the bleaching material, the duration of the procedure, and the manner by which the bleaching agent is activated, the ability to affect a significant shade improvement remains an elusive objective. This article demonstrates an innovative technique used to influence the penetration of oxygen ions into the tooth enamel, which may resolve this clinical dilemma.

  7. Effects of Material Modulus on Fracture Toughness of Human Enamel, a Natural Biocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Dhaneshwar; Yoo, Seung Hyun [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The enamel, the upper layer of a tooth has remarkable capability of bearing severe loading on the tooth. The fracture behavior is important to understand the mechanism of load bearing and it cold be very useful for developing new materials. Non-destructive evaluation of such materials will also benefit from this knowledge. The graded microstructures of enamel were modeled by finite element analysis software and the J-integrals and the stress intensity factors were evaluated as the fracture parameters. The results show that these parameters are location dependent. Those values increase when measure in the direction of dentine enamel junction. This finding matched well with experiments and implies many useful understanding of biomaterials and applications to new materials

  8. Morphology of the cemento-enamel junction in premolar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambawatta, Kapila; Peiris, Roshan; Nanayakkara, Deepthi

    2009-12-01

    The present study attempted to describe the distribution of the mineralized tissues that compose the cemento-enamel junction, with respect to both the different types of permanent premolars of males and females and the various surfaces of individual teeth. The cervical region of ground sections of 67 premolars that had been extracted for orthodontic reasons were analyzed using transmitted light microscopy to identify which of the following tissue interrelationships was present at the cemento-enamel junction: cementum overlapping enamel; enamel overlapping cementum; edge-to-edge relationship between cementum and enamel; or the presence of gaps between the enamel and cementum with exposed dentin. An edge-to-edge interrelation between root cementum and enamel was predominant (55.1%). In approximately one-third of the sample, gaps between cementum and enamel with exposed dentin were observed. Cementum overlapping enamel was less prevalent than previously reported, and enamel overlapping cementum was seen in a very small proportion of the sample. In any one tooth, the distribution of mineralized tissues at the cemento-enamel junction was irregular and unpredictable. The frequency of gaps between enamel and cementum with exposure of dentin was higher than previously reported, which suggests that this region is fragile and strongly predisposed to pathological changes. Hence, this region should be protected and carefully managed during routine clinical procedures such as dental bleaching, orthodontic treatment, and placement of restorative materials.

  9. Influence of bleaching and coloring on ethyl glucuronide content in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel-Witt, Silvana; Pogoda, Werner; Wunder, Cora; Paulke, Alexander; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2018-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is increasingly used in forensic toxicology as a marker for alcohol use in analyses of hair samples, especially in abstinence control. Some cosmetic treatments are considered to markedly reduce the EtG content. In view of especially many women with coloured hair the present study was performed to further investigate the effect of a variety of colouring procedures (bleaching, tinting, permanent and semi-permanent dyeing, henna) on the EtG content. Untreated hair samples (n = 12, EtG 13.9-64.7 pg/mg) were re-analyzed (gas chromatography- negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry, 0.8 pg/mg quantification limit) after different treatment procedures. A decrease of the EtG content of at least 10% occurred in every case. The reduction in comparison to the untreated hair was expectedly high for permanent dyeing and bleaching with 18.1% of the initial content (median, range 0.0-50.9%) and 18.4% (0.0-46.7%), respectively. For henna this was 38.3% (0.0-83.0%), for tinting 70.4% (29.0-90.8%), for semi-permanent dyeing 41.9% (0.0-77.4%). With permanent hair dye the EtG content was decreased to below 7 pg/mg in 10 of 12 cases, in 3 cases even below the LOD (0.2 pg/mg). Surprisingly henna treatment without oxidative component had a marked influence, EtG was below 2 pg/mg in 2 of 12 samples. The study showed that all tested coloration procedures markedly affected the deposited EtG content. Even temporary or henna coloration may have a marked effect. The present data support the recommendation to exclude hair samples with colour manipulations for analysis on the EtG content as a precaution in alcohol abstinence programs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Radiation exposure during in-vivo analysis of human dental enamel by proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baijot-Stroobants, J.; Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Vreven, J.

    Fluorine can be analysed by proton activation, with detection of prompt γ-rays. Using external beams, it is possible to make in-vivo determinations and to follow the concentration in fluoridated enamel. Radiation damage and radiation hazards are investigated. It is found that the dose rate is very small and that the technique can be used without radiation problems. Local destruction on the enamel surface is investigated using a scanning microscope, no modification is observed in the cristallite structure after irradiation. (author)

  11. Surface variations affecting human dental enamel studied using nanomechanical and chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Michelle Emma

    The enamel surface is the interface between the tooth and its ever changing oral environment. Cavity (caries) formation and extrinsic tooth staining are due, respectively, to degradation of the enamel structure under low pH conditions and interactions between salivary pellicle and dietary elements. Both of these occur at the enamel surface and are caused by the local environment changing the chemistry of the surface. The results can be detrimental to the enamel's mechanical integrity and aesthetics. Incipient carious lesions are the precursor to caries and form due to demineralisation of enamel. These carious lesions are a reversible structure where ions (e.g. Ca2+, F -) can diffuse in (remineralisation) to preserve the tooth's structural integrity. This investigation used controlled in vitro demineralisation and remineralisation to study artificial carious lesion formation and repair. The carious lesions were cross-sectioned and characterised using nanoindentation, electron probe micro-analysis and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Mechanical and chemical maps showed the carious lesion had a significantly reduced hardness and elastic modulus, and the calcium and phosphate content was lower than in sound enamel. Fluoride based remineralisation treatments gave a new phase (possibly fluorohydroxyapatite) within the lesion with mechanical properties higher than sound enamel. The acquired salivary pellicle is a protein-rich film formed by the physisorption of organic molecules in saliva onto the enamel surface. Its functions include lubrication during mastication and chemical protection. However, pellicle proteins react with dietary elements such as polyphenols (tannins in tea) causing a brown stain. This study has used in vitro dynamic nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy to examine normal and stained pellicles formed in vivo. The effects of polyphenols on the pellicle's mechanical properties and morphology have been studied. It was found that the

  12. The fracture behaviour of dental enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Bechtle, Sabine; Habelitz, Stefan; Klocke, Arndt; Fett, Theo; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Enamel is the hardest tissue in the human body covering the crowns of teeth. Whereas the underlying dental material dentin is very well characterised in terms of mechanical and fracture properties, available data for enamel are quite limited and are apart from the most recent investigation mainly based on indentation studies. Within the current study, stable crack-growth experiments in bovine enamel have been performed, to measure fracture resistance curves for enamel. Single edge...

  13. Comparison of Knoop and Vickers surface microhardness and transverse microradiography for the study of early caries lesion formation in human and bovine enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, F; Lynch, R J M

    2014-07-01

    The aims of the present laboratory study were twofold: a) to investigate the suitability of Knoop and Vickers surface microhardness (SMH) in comparison to transverse microradiography (TMR) to investigate early enamel caries lesion formation; b) to compare the kinetics of caries lesion initiation and progression between human and bovine enamel. Specimens (90×bovine and 90×human enamel) were divided into six groups (demineralization times of 8/16/24/32/40/48h) of 15 per enamel type and demineralized using a partially saturated lactic acid solution. SMH was measured before and after demineralization and changes in indentation length (ΔIL) calculated. Lesions were characterized using TMR. Data were analyzed (two-way ANOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficients calculated. ΔIL increased with increasing demineralization times but plateaued after 40h, whereas lesion depth (L) and integrated mineral loss (ΔZ) increased almost linearly throughout. No differences between Knoop and Vickers SMH in their ability to measure enamel demineralization were observed as both correlated strongly. Overall, ΔIL correlated strongly with ΔZ and L but only moderately with the degree of surface zone mineralization, whereas ΔZ and L correlated strongly. Bovine demineralized faster than human enamel (all techniques). Lesions in bovine formed faster than in human enamel, although the resulting lesions were almost indistinguishable in their mineral distribution characteristics. Early caries lesion demineralization can be sufficiently studied by SMH, but its limitations on the assessment of the mineral status of more demineralized lesions must be considered. Ideally, complementary techniques to assess changes in both physical and chemical lesion characteristics would be employed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of the concentration and composition of in-office bleaching gels on hydrogen peroxide penetration into the pulp chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Serrano, A P; Parreiras, S O; do Nascimento, E M S; Borges, C P F; Berger, S B; Loguercio, A D; Reis, A

    2015-01-01

    In tooth whitening, the hydrogen peroxide (HP) diffuses in the enamel and dentin, reaching the pulp. This in vitro study aimed to quantify the penetration of HP in the pulp chamber in teeth submitted to bleaching agents of different concentrations of HP without calcium (HP 20% [20CF], HP 35% [35CF]) and with calcium (HP 20% [20CC], HP 35% [35CC]). Fifty human premolars were sectioned 3 mm from the cemento-enamel junction and the pulp tissue was removed. The teeth were divided into five groups according to treatment and with a control group (n=10). An acetate buffer solution was placed in the pulp chamber of all teeth. The control group was exposed only to distilled water, while the other groups were treated with a bleaching procedure, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. After treatment, the acetate buffer solution was transferred to a glass tube in which leuco-crystal violet and peroxidase solutions were added, resulting in a blue solution. The optical density of this blue solution was determined spectrophotometrically and converted into micrograms equivalent to the HP. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey tests (α=0.05). The HP concentration did not affect the HP inside the pulp chamber, but the presence of calcium significantly reduced it (p<0.0001). The amount of HP that reaches the pulp chamber depends on the bleaching protocol and the product employed, and it seems to be less affected by HP concentration.

  15. Microstructure and mechanical changes induced by Q-Switched pulse laser on human enamel with aim of caries prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsari, R.; Pratomo, D. A.; Hikmawati, D.; Bidin, N.

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser energy dose to human enamel caries. The specifications of Q-Switched Nd: YAG laser as followed: wavelength of 1064 nm and 6 ns pulse width. Caries enamel samples taken from human teeth molars of 17-35 ages and the type of media caries. Energy doses used in this study were 723.65 mJ/cm2, 767.72 mJ/cm2, and 1065.515 mJ/cm2; 5 Hz repetition rate, and 20 second exposure time. Samples characterized the surface morphology and the percentage of constituent elements, especially calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) with FESEM-EDAX. The fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of hydroxyapatite (HA) with XRD and hardness value using Vickers Microhardness Test. The results indicated that exposure of Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser on enamel caries resulting cracks, holes, and melt due to plasma production effects in the surface. Plasma production effect also resulted in micro properties such as percentage of Ca/P was close to normal, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA went up but did not change the crystal structure (in terms of the lattice structure). The hardness value also rose as linear as exposure energy dose caused by phototermal effect. Based on the results, Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser can be used as contactless drill dental caries replacement candidate with the additional therapy effect such as localized caries in order to avoid the spread, the ratio of Ca/P approaching healthy teeth, the fraction volume and crystallinity percentage of HA rose and established stronger teeth with peak energy dose 1065.515 mJ/cm2.

  16. Beneficial effects of hydroxyapatite on enamel subjected to 30% hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Zhejun; Tong, Hua; Hu, Jiming; Wang, Yining

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of combination of hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) on color, microhardness and morphology of human tooth enamel. Forty-eight human dental blocks were obtained from 12 pairs of premolars and were randomly divided into four groups. Group DW was treated with distilled water, group HP with 30% HP, group HA+DW with HA mixed with distilled water and group HA+HP with HA mixed with 30% HP. Baseline and final color measurements and microhardness test were carried out before and after bleaching experiments. Two specimens from each group were selected for morphological investigation after final tests. The DeltaE of group HP and HA+HP were significantly higher than those of group DW (p=0.000 and p=0.000) and group HA+DW (p=0.000 and p=0.000). The percentage microhardness loss of group HA+HP was significantly lower than that of group HP (p=0.047), but significantly higher than those of group DW (p=0.000) and group HA+DW (p=0.000). The obvious variation of morphology was only observed on enamel surfaces in group HP. This study suggested that combination of HA and HP was effective in tooth whitening. HA could significantly reduce the microhardness loss of enamel caused by 30% HP and keep enamel surface morphology almost unchanged.

  17. Relationship between free radical content in human tooth enamel and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yongzeng; Wang Jiadong; Jia Xiaomei; Wu Ke; Cong Jianbo; Sun Cunpu

    2000-01-01

    Application of ESR technique of tooth enamel have become more and more wide-spread in accidental and retrospective dosimetry. The purpose of this paper is to study relationship between free radical content in tooth enamel and radiation dose. Method Samples of 25 Chinese adult teeth, 25 child permanent teeth and 35 milk teeth were used in the study. All teeth were obtained from patients in the course of dental practice. Tooth enamel was separated from dentine using dental drill and then crushed manually into grains of about 0.5-1.5 mm in diameter. The mass of each sample is 100 mg. Signal intensity of enamel samples was measured by ESR technique (Bruker-ESP300). Parameters used were modulation frequency 50 KHz, modulation amplitude 0.2 mT, time constant 41 ms, scan width 15 mT, microwave power 5 mw, room temperature. Samples of 25 adult teeth, 25 child permanent teeth and 35 milk teeth were divided into 5 dose groups, respectively, and irradiated with 60 Co γ-ray at dose rate of 0.48 Gy/min. Radiation doses of the 5 groups were 0.30, 0.50, 1.00, 3.00 and 5.00 Gy, respectively. After irradiation, each sample was subjected to ESR measurements. There is no significant difference in background signal intensity between male and female samples for both child permanent teeth and milk teeth. And also no significant difference in background signal intensity between child permanent teeth and milk teeth was observed. Results of study on adult teeth indicated that radiation sensitivity of different teeth is fairly uniform. Free radical content in enamel of child permanent teeth and milk teeth increases linearly with increasing of radiation dose, and similar results were obtained for adult teeth. Slope of the dose-response curve for adult teeth is somewhat steeper than that for milk teeth. There exists a linear relation between ESR signals intensity and radiation doses for adult teeth, child permanent and milk teeth. In the case of radiation accident, the dose-response curves

  18. Dental Enamel Development: Proteinases and Their Enamel Matrix Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, John D.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins by describing their nomenclature, tissue expression, functions, proteinase activation, and proteinase substrate specificity. These proteins and their respective null mice and human mutations are also evaluated to shed light on the mechanisms that cause nonsyndromic enamel malformations termed amelogenesis imperfecta. Pertinent controversies are addressed. For example, do any of these proteins have a critical function in addition to their role in enamel development? Does amelogenin initiate crystallite growth, does it inhibit crystallite growth in width and thickness, or does it do neither? Detailed examination of the null mouse literature provides unmistakable clues and/or answers to these questions, and this data is thoroughly analyzed. Striking conclusions from this analysis reveal that widely held paradigms of enamel formation are inadequate. The final section of this review weaves the recent data into a plausible new mechanism by which these enamel matrix proteins support and promote enamel development. PMID:24159389

  19. Characterization of the porosity of human dental enamel and shear bond strength in vitro after variable etch times: initial findings using the BET method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang T; Miller, Arthur; Orellana, Maria F

    2011-07-01

    (1) To quantitatively characterize human enamel porosity and surface area in vitro before and after etching for variable etching times; and (2) to evaluate shear bond strength after variable etching times. Specifically, our goal was to identify the presence of any correlation between enamel porosity and shear bond strength. Pore surface area, pore volume, and pore size of enamel from extracted human teeth were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas adsorption before and after etching for 15, 30, and 60 seconds with 37% phosphoric acid. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with Transbond to the samples with variable etch times and were subsequently applied to a single-plane lap shear testing system. Pore volume and surface area increased after etching for 15 and 30 seconds. At 60 seconds, this increase was less pronounced. On the contrary, pore size appears to decrease after etching. No correlation was found between variable etching times and shear strength. Samples etched for 15, 30, and 60 seconds all demonstrated clinically viable shear strength values. The BET adsorption method could be a valuable tool in enhancing our understanding of enamel characteristics. Our findings indicate that distinct quantitative changes in enamel pore architecture are evident after etching. Further testing with a larger sample size would have to be carried out for more definitive conclusions to be made.

  20. Nanostructural effect of acid-etching and fluoride application on human primary and permanent tooth enamels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Youjin; Choi, Samjin; Kim, So Jung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nanostructural effects of fluoride application and the acid-etching time with respect to the time elapsed after fluoride application on the primary and permanent tooth enamel layers using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 192 non-carious teeth were assigned to sixteen experimental groups (n = 12) including primary (1 to 8) and permanent (9 to 16) teeth, based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. The APF pre-treatment led to a decrease in surface roughness in both the primary and permanent teeth. After the APF treatment, the roughness in both primary and permanent teeth increased with the time elapsed. An acid-etching time of 40 s led to increased nanostructural changes in the enamel surfaces compared to the conventional acid-etching time of 20 s. This acid-etching process led to a higher roughness changes in the primary teeth than in the permanent teeth. To obtain proper enamel adhesion of a sealant after APF pre-treatment, it is important to apply acid-etching two weeks after pre-treatment. In addition, the acid-etching time should be prolonged to apply etching more quickly than two weeks, regardless of the primary and permanent teeth. Highlights: ► APF pre-treatment led to decreased surface roughness in the enamel. ► After APF treatment, the more roughness increased with increasing time elapsed. ► Acid-etching should be performed two weeks after fluoride application.

  1. Cutting efficiency of a mid-infrared laser on human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G; Koubi, G F; Miserendino, L J

    1998-02-01

    In this study, the cutting ability of a newly developed dental laser was compared with a dental high-speed handpiece and rotary bur for removal of enamel. Measurements of the volume of tissue removed, energy emitted, and time of exposure were used to quantify the ablation rate (rate of tissue removal) for each test group and compared. Cutting efficiency (mm3/s) of the laser was calculated based on the mean volume of tissue removed per pulse (mm3/pulse) and unit energy expended (mm3/J) over the range of applied powers (2, 4, 6, and 8 W). The specimens were then examined by light microscopy and scanning electron micrographs for qualitative analysis of the amount of remaining debris and the presence of the smear layer on the prepared enamel surface. Calculations of the cutting efficiency of the laser over the range of powers tested revealed a linear relationship with the level of applied power. The maximum average rate of tissue removal by the laser was 0.256 mm3/s at 8 W, compared with 0.945 mm3/s by the dental handpiece. Light microscopy and scanning electron micrograph examinations revealed a reduction in the amount of remaining debris and smear layer in the laser-prepared enamel surfaces, compared with the conventional method. Based on the results of this study, the cutting efficiency of the high-speed handpiece and dental bur was 3.7 times greater than the laser over the range of powers tested, but the laser appeared to create a cleaner enamel surface with minimal thermal damage. Further modifications of the laser system are suggested for improvement of laser cutting efficiency.

  2. Nanostructural effect of acid-etching and fluoride application on human primary and permanent tooth enamels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Youjin [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Healthcare Industry Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Samjin [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Healthcare Industry Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Jung [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hun-Kuk, E-mail: sigmoidus@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Healthcare Industry Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Program of Medical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the nanostructural effects of fluoride application and the acid-etching time with respect to the time elapsed after fluoride application on the primary and permanent tooth enamel layers using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 192 non-carious teeth were assigned to sixteen experimental groups (n = 12) including primary (1 to 8) and permanent (9 to 16) teeth, based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. The APF pre-treatment led to a decrease in surface roughness in both the primary and permanent teeth. After the APF treatment, the roughness in both primary and permanent teeth increased with the time elapsed. An acid-etching time of 40 s led to increased nanostructural changes in the enamel surfaces compared to the conventional acid-etching time of 20 s. This acid-etching process led to a higher roughness changes in the primary teeth than in the permanent teeth. To obtain proper enamel adhesion of a sealant after APF pre-treatment, it is important to apply acid-etching two weeks after pre-treatment. In addition, the acid-etching time should be prolonged to apply etching more quickly than two weeks, regardless of the primary and permanent teeth. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer APF pre-treatment led to decreased surface roughness in the enamel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After APF treatment, the more roughness increased with increasing time elapsed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acid-etching should be performed two weeks after fluoride application.

  3. Morphology and fracture of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, Sangwon; Lee, James; Constantino, Paul; Lucas, Peter; Chai, Herzl; Lawn, Brian

    2009-08-25

    This study examines the inter-relation between enamel morphology and crack resistance by sectioning extracted human molars after loading to fracture. Cracks appear to initiate from tufts, hypocalcified defects at the enamel-dentin junction, and grow longitudinally around the enamel coat to produce failure. Microindentation corner cracks placed next to the tufts in the sections deflect along the tuft interfaces and occasionally penetrate into the adjacent enamel. Although they constitute weak interfaces, the tufts are nevertheless filled with organic matter, and appear to be stabilized against easy extension by self-healing, as well as by mutual stress-shielding and decussation, accounting at least in part for the capacity of tooth enamel to survive high functional forces.

  4. In vitro colorimetric evaluation of the efficacy of home bleaching and over-the-counter bleaching products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, Didier; Benbachir, Nacer; Krejci, Ivo

    2010-06-01

    Various bleaching modalities are now offered to patients, either monitored by the dental office or self-directed, for which relative efficiency is unknown. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the ability of bleaching products and protocols to lighten enamel and dentin. Bovine tooth specimens of standardized thickness (2.5 +/- 0.025 mm with similar dentin and enamel thickness) were prepared and stained with whole blood and hemolysate before being submitted to seven supervised or self-directed bleaching regimens: tray-based bleaching using 10% (Opalescence, Ultradent; Nite White, Discus Dental) or light-activated 30% (Metatray, Metatray) carbamide peroxide (CP); 6% (Zoom, Discus Dental) or 9% (TresWhite, Ultradent) hydrogen peroxide (HP); strips (Whitening Strips, Oral B-Rembrandt); and paint-on gel (Paint on Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent) containing 8.1% and 6% HP, respectively. Colorimetric measurements were performed on each specimen side, according to the CIE L*a*b* system, before and after staining, as well as after 5, 10, and the recommended number of bleaching applications. Color change after recommended number of applications (DEr) varied from 15.72 (Metatray) to 29.67 (Nite White) at enamel and 14.91 (Paint on Plus) to 41.43 (Nite White) at dentin side; Nite White (10% CP) and TresWhite (9% HP) were more effective than Metatray (30% CP) and Paint on Plus (6% HP) after 5 or the recommended number of applications. In this in vitro study based on bovine teeth, tray-based systems produced the faster and better bleaching effect, regardless of the product and concentration used, at both enamel and dentin sides.

  5. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuhiro, Matsuda, E-mail: matsuda@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Katsushi, Okuyama [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Hiroko, Yamamoto [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University (Japan); Hisanori, Komatsu [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan); Masashi, Koka; Takahiro, Sato [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA (Japan); Naoki, Hashimoto; Saiko, Oki; Chiharu, Kawamoto; Hidehiko, Sano [Department of Restorative Dentistry, Graduate School of Dental Medicine Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials [“MS coats F” (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials (“hybrid coats 2” [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8–4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries.

  6. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuhiro, Matsuda; Katsushi, Okuyama; Hiroko, Yamamoto; Hisanori, Komatsu; Masashi, Koka; Takahiro, Sato; Naoki, Hashimoto; Saiko, Oki; Chiharu, Kawamoto; Hidehiko, Sano

    2015-01-01

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials [“MS coats F” (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials (“hybrid coats 2” [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8–4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries

  7. Spectrophotometric assessment of tooth bleaching under orthodontic braquets bonded with different materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maria Lima de CASTRO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction patients have been submitted to tooth bleaching during orthodontic treatment for aesthetic purposes or to anticipate the replacement of restorations after completion of the treatment. Objective to evaluate the effectiveness of tooth bleaching under orthodontic brackets bonded with different materials. Material and method a hundred bovine enamel blocks were divided into two groups, at-home and in-office tooth bleaching. In-office bleaching was subdivided into five groups (n = 10: HP (control - without brackets; SA(t - brackets bonded with Transbond XT, without bleaching; SA(fm - brackets bonded with Orthodontic Fill Magic, without bleaching; HP(t - brackets bonded with Transbond XT subjected to bleaching; and HP(fm - brackets bonded with Orthodontic Fill Magic subjected to bleaching. At-home bleaching followed the same treatments, only replacing the bleaching agent. Spectrophotometric assessment was used for tooth color determination at three moments: 1 before staining (baseline; 2 after staining; 3 after bonding the brackets and bleaching procedures. Data were submitted to ANOVA and analyzed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05. Result For both types of bleaching, the control group had an effective bleaching action. Groups using Transbond XT presented greater bleaching potential among the groups with orthodontic accessory, but the bleaching action differed from the positive control. Groups using Orthodontic Fill Magic presented no bleaching action, resembling the negative control groups (artificial saliva. Conclusion the orthodontic bracket impaired the effectiveness of the at-home and in-office bleaching treatment, regardless of the resin used for bonding.

  8. Model-based assessment of the role of human-induced climate change in the 2005 Caribbean coral bleaching event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, S.D. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs; Knutson, T.R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Princeton, NJ (United States). Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab.; Oppenheimer, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    2007-03-27

    Episodes of mass coral bleaching around the world in recent decades have been attributed to periods of anomalously warm ocean temperatures. In 2005, the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the tropical North Atlantic that may have contributed to the strong hurricane season caused widespread coral bleaching in the Eastern Caribbean. Here, the authors use two global climate models to evaluate the contribution of natural climate variability and anthropogenic forcing to the thermal stress that caused the 2005 coral bleaching event. Historical temperature data and simulations for the 1870-2000 period show that the observed warming in the region is unlikely to be due to unforced climate variability alone. Simulation of background climate variability suggests that anthropogenic warming may have increased the probability of occurrence of significant thermal stress events for corals in this region by an order of magnitude. Under scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions, mass coral bleaching in the Eastern Caribbean may become a biannual event in 20-30 years. However, if corals and their symbionts can adapt by 1-1.5{sup o}C, such mass bleaching events may not begin to recur at potentially harmful intervals until the latter half of the century. The delay could enable more time to alter the path of greenhouse gas emissions, although long-term 'committed warming' even after stabilization of atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels may still represent an additional long-term threat to corals.

  9. [Mechanism of the dentino-enamel junction on the resist-crack propagation of human teeth by the finite element method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingjing, Zheng; Tiezhou, Hou; Hong, Tao; Xueyan, Guo; Cui, Wu

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to identify the crack tip stress intensity factor of the propagation process, crack propagation path, and the changes in the shape of the crack tip by the finite element method. The finite element model of dentino-enamel junction was established with ANSYS software, and the length of the initial crack in the single edge was set to 0.1 mm. The lower end of the sample was fixed. The tensile load of 1 MPa with frequency of 5 Hz was applied to the upper end. The stress intensity factor, deflection angle, and changes in the shape of the crack tip in the crack propagation were calculated by ANSYS. The stress intensity factor suddenly and continuously decreased in dentino-enamel junction as the crack extended. A large skewed angle appeared, and the stress on crack tip was reduced. The dentino-enamel junction on human teeth may resist crack propagation through stress reduction.

  10. Analysis of fluorine by nuclear reactions and applications to human dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroobants, J.; Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Demortier, G.; Nicolas, G.

    Nuclear reactions induced on Fluorine by low energy protons are investigated, thick target excitation yield curves and tables for 19 F(p,p'γ) 19 F and 19 F(p,αγ) 16 O reactions are given between 0.3 and 2.5 MeV. Interferences from other nuclear reactions, detection limits and sensitivity for Fluorine detection are investigated. After a wide investigation of the repartition of Fluorine in tooth enamel it is concluded that there is an equilibrium of the concentrations between tooth and saliva which is rapidly restored after the perturbation introduced by the external treatments. (author)

  11. Erosive potential of soft drinks on human enamel: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Lin Wang

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: All tested soft drinks were found to be erosive. Soft drinks with high calcium contents have significantly lower erosive potential. Low pH value and high citrate content may cause more surface enamel loss. As the erosive time increased, the titratable acidity to pH 7 may be a predictor of the erosive potential for acidic soft drinks. The erosive potential of the soft drinks may be predicted based on the types of acid content, pH value, titratable acidity, and ion concentration.

  12. Erosive effect of energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol on human enamel surface.An in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Beltrán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the erosive effect of energy drinks (ED alone and mixed with alcohol on the human enamel surface in vitro. Methods: Twenty non-erupted human third molars were vertically sectioned in half. Specimens were exposed to 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva or 5mL of ED plus 5mL of artificial saliva plus 5mL of alcohol (Pisco. Exposure times were set at 30min and 60min. Erosive assessments were made using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The ED analyzed were Mr. Big, Kem Extreme, Red Bull, and Monster Energy. ED pH measurements were performed at 25°C and titration was done with NaOH 0.1mol/L. Results: The pH ranges were: ED alone 2.55 to 3.46, ED mixed with artificial saliva 2.60 to 3.55, ED mixed with Pisco 2.82 to 3.70, and ED mixed with both 2.92 to 3.86. The pH of Pisco was 6.13, and Pisco mixed with artificial saliva had a pH of 6.23. Titration showed a pH range from 3.5 to 5.7. SEM-EDS analysis showed that Mr. Big and Monster led to clear demineralization at 30 min and remineralization at 60m in. Pisco slightly decreased the erosive effect of these ED. Kem Xtreme and Red Bull led to no demineralization in the first hour. Conclusion: According to the pH, acidity and EDS analysis, the ED of the present study likely caused enamel erosion in human teeth surface dependent on exposure time.

  13. A technique to measure the absorbed dose in human tooth enamel using EPR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanjanian, H.; Ziaie, F.; Modarresi, M.; Nikzad, M.; Shahvar, A.; Durrani, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    The EPR spectrum of irradiated tooth enamel contains a multitude of signals that are divided into two categories of radiation-induced and radiation insensitive (native) signals. At lower doses the broad native signal obscures the radiation-induced signal. In this work attempt has been made to find a method to measure the radiation-induced signal other than peak-to-peak signal amplitude measurement. For this reason software was programmed to extract the data from EPR system. The average amplitude of the radiation-induced EPR signal which is defined between the known g-values can also be calculated using the software. The result of this calculations were considered as the EPR response for the tooth enamel samples irradiated from 100 to 500 mGy and was drawn as the calibration curve. The resulted data as compared to the peak-to-peak amplitude measurement method seems to be more reproducible and shows a better variation against the dose values

  14. Crystallite size and lattice distortion of human dental enamel estimated from the integral width of x-ray diffraction peak profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Fumiaki; Sakae, Toshiro

    2000-01-01

    Crystallite size and lattice distortion of human dental enamel were estimated by peak profile analysis using x-ray diffraction pattern. Firstly, noises were removed from x-ray diffraction pattern, and deconvolution of overlapping peaks and determination of baseline level were carried out. Then, the instrumental peak broadening and effect of overlapping Kα1 and Kα2 were eliminated to obtain pure peak profile using the Stokes's Fourier method. The integral width method was applied for estimation of crystallite size and 'upper-limit of distortion', assuming the peak profile as Cauchy function. The estimated crystallite size and distortion were ca. 210 A and ca. 0.4% in the a-axis direction and ca. 550 A and ca. 0.7% in the c-axis direction, respectively. The crystallite size value along the a-axis was almost the same to the previously reported values, but the value for along the c-axis was nearly half of the reported values. The crystallite size in this study means the size of coherent domain in contrast to the size of particle which may contain several domains in the case of enamel crystals. The results suggest that human enamel crystals grow in their size along the c-axis by multiplication, fusion of crystallites. It was notable that the distortion value was larger in the c-axis direction. The phenomenon may partly be due to the high carbonate ion content of enamel crystals and partly due to crystal growth mechanism. (author)

  15. Exogenous bleaching evaluation on dentin using chemical activated technique compared with diode laser technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Breno Carnevalli Franco de

    2003-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the results of different exogenous bleaching proceedings on dentin after treatment of enamel surface. Thirty human canine were hewn preserving the vestibular half of the crown and 3 mm of root, showing a vestibular-lingual thickness average of 3,5 mm, measuring in the third middle of the crown. Ali teeth were maintained in wet chamber during the experiment. Digital photographs were taken of the dentin surface at 3 experimental times (LI: initial record, L0: immediate pos-bleaching record and L 15: 15 days after bleaching). The teeth were divided into 3 experimental groups of 10 teeth in each. The Control Group did not receive any kind of treatment. The Laser Group received 2 session of laser bleaching, with 3 applications each, using 35% hydrogen peroxide, activated by diode laser during 30 seconds, by scanning the enamel surface from incisal edge to the top of the crown, from mesial to distal portion of the crown and circularly, each movement during 10 seconds. The following parameters being adopted: wavelength of 808 nm, power of 1,5 W and optic fiber with 600 μm (core). The Peroxide Group received 28 daily applications, during 4 hours each application, using 16% carbamide peroxide. The bleaching records were analysed using a computer, through RGBK (red, green , blue and black). The K averages (K=100% for black and K=0% for white) of the records for Control Group were: LI=50,1 %, L0=50,3% and L 15=50,6%. For Laser Group the K averages were LI=48,5%, L0=50,0% and L 15=47,7%. And for the Peroxide Group were LI=50,5%, L0=35,9% and L 15=37,3%. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference of the K between the Control Group and the Laser Group, as to LI, L0 and L 15. Only Peroxide Group showed significant statistical difference between LI with L0 and L 15 (0,1%), and L0 in comparison with L 15 did not show any difference. (author)

  16. Fluorine uptake into human enamel around fluoride-containing dental materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Nomachi, M.; Yasuda, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Kinugawa, M.; Kijimura, T.; Sano, H.; Satou, T.; Oikawa, S.; Kamiya, T.

    2009-01-01

    Using PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma Emission) technique at TARRI (Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute), Japan, we measured fluorine (F) uptake into the tooth enamel around two fluoride-containing materials during caries progression using pH cycling. Class V cavities in extracted human teeth were drilled and filled with fluoride-containing materials (i.e. 'Fuji IX' (FN) and 'UniFil flow with MEGA bond' (UF)) and a non-fluoride-containing material (i.e. 'SOLARE with MEGA bond' (SO)). Three 120 μm longitudinal sections including the filling material were obtained from each tooth. In order to simulate daily acid attack occurring in the oral cavity, the pH cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 1, 3 and 5 weeks, separately. After pH cycling, the caries progression in all specimens was observed using transverse microradiography (TMR). The F and calcium distributions of the specimens were evaluated using PIGE and PIXE techniques. The F distribution of the specimens clearly showed the F uptake from FN into enamel adjacent to the filling material, while the F uptakes from UF and SO were not detected. For UF, the MEGA bond (non-fluoride-containing) between the tooth and UniFil flow interfered with the F absorption into the tooth. For FN, the amount of F uptake into the subsurface enamel increased during pH cycling. The amount of F uptake in 5-week pH cycling had significantly higher value compared to those in 1- and 3-week pH cycling. For UF and SO, there were no significant differences between the different durations of pH cycling. Among fluoride-containing materials, there were some differences in the F uptake with increased pH cycling, which could possibly lead to obtaining difference in clinical performance. The data obtained using PIGE and PIXE techniques were useful in understanding the benefit of fluorine by means of fluoride-containing material for preventing caries.

  17. Fluorine uptake into human enamel around fluoride-containing dental materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)], E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [The Wakasa wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Matsuda, Y.; Kinugawa, M.; Kijimura, T.; Sano, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Satou, T.; Oikawa, S.; Kamiya, T. [Advanced Radiation Technology, TARRI, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Using PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma Emission) technique at TARRI (Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute), Japan, we measured fluorine (F) uptake into the tooth enamel around two fluoride-containing materials during caries progression using pH cycling. Class V cavities in extracted human teeth were drilled and filled with fluoride-containing materials (i.e. 'Fuji IX' (FN) and 'UniFil flow with MEGA bond' (UF)) and a non-fluoride-containing material (i.e. 'SOLARE with MEGA bond' (SO)). Three 120 {mu}m longitudinal sections including the filling material were obtained from each tooth. In order to simulate daily acid attack occurring in the oral cavity, the pH cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 1, 3 and 5 weeks, separately. After pH cycling, the caries progression in all specimens was observed using transverse microradiography (TMR). The F and calcium distributions of the specimens were evaluated using PIGE and PIXE techniques. The F distribution of the specimens clearly showed the F uptake from FN into enamel adjacent to the filling material, while the F uptakes from UF and SO were not detected. For UF, the MEGA bond (non-fluoride-containing) between the tooth and UniFil flow interfered with the F absorption into the tooth. For FN, the amount of F uptake into the subsurface enamel increased during pH cycling. The amount of F uptake in 5-week pH cycling had significantly higher value compared to those in 1- and 3-week pH cycling. For UF and SO, there were no significant differences between the different durations of pH cycling. Among fluoride-containing materials, there were some differences in the F uptake with increased pH cycling, which could possibly lead to obtaining difference in clinical performance. The data obtained using PIGE and PIXE techniques were useful in understanding the benefit of fluorine by means of fluoride-containing material for preventing caries.

  18. The vanadium content of human dental enamel and its relationship to caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Vrbic, V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the determination of vanadium in dental enamel based on neutron activation analysis is described. After rapid dissolution of the irradiated sample in perchloric acid, 52 V is quickly separated by solvent extraction from mixed perchloric-hydrochloric medium with N-benzoyl-N-phenyl hydroxylamine (BPHA) reagent in toluene in 95% yield. The technique was applied to samples from a low caries area of Dalmatia, Zemunik (DMFT 5), in the same region. No significant differences in vanadium content were found between the two areas, nor between deciduous and permanent teeth. The levels in other areas of Yugoslavia were found to be similar, with a mean concentration of 3.7 +- 1.5 ngxg -1 for 37 samples, with a nearly normal distribution; a few impacted teeth gave lower values. The method can also be adapted to the analysis of bone and biological materials generally. (author)

  19. Microtensile bond strength of composite resin to human enamel prepared using erbium: Yttrium aluminum garnet laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Carina Sinclér; Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2007-02-01

    The Erbium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) laser used for preparation of cavity can alter the substrate and it could influence the bond strength of enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of Er:YAG laser's energy using microtensile bond test. Three groups were obtained (cavity preparation) and each group was divided into two subgroups (adhesive system). After that the adhesive protocol was performed, sections with a cross-sectional area of 0.8 mm2 (+/-0.2 mm2) were obtained. The specimens were mounted in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min). Statistical analysis showed a decrease in bond strength for lased groups (p adhesive system was used the laser 300 mJ subgroup showed higher bond strength compared to the laser 250 mJ (p adhesive procedures than conventional bur-cut cavities. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Vanadium content of human dental enamel and its relationship to caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, A R [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia); Vrbic, V [Ljubljana Univ. (Yugoslavia)

    1979-01-01

    A method for the determination of vanadium in dental enamel based on neutron activation analysis is described. After rapid dissolution of the irradiated sample in perchloric acid, /sup 52/V is quickly separated by solvent extraction from mixed perchloric-hydrochloric medium with N-benzoyl-N-phenyl hydroxylamine (BPHA) reagent in toluene in 95% yield. The technique was applied to samples from a low caries area of Dalmatia, Zemunik (DMFT < 2), and a normal area, Novigrad (DMFT > 5), in the same region. No significant differences in vanadium content were found between the two areas, nor between deciduous and permanent teeth. The levels in other areas of Yugoslavia were found to be similar, with a mean concentration of 3.7 +- 1.5 ngxg/sup -1/ for 37 samples, with a nearly normal distribution; a few impacted teeth gave lower values. The method can also be adapted to the analysis of bone and biological materials generally.

  1. An investigation by LA-ICP-MS of possum tooth enamel as a model for identifying childhood geographical locations of historical and archaeological human remains from New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, N.E.; Balks, M.; Littler, R.; Manley-Harris, M.; Te Awekotuku, N.

    2012-01-01

    LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) has been used to analyse enamel from the teeth of brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in order to model a method for identifying the childhood geographical origin of human remains within New Zealand. The model application of the method is promising for establishing locations of historical and archaeological human remains, including preserved heads, upoko tuhi. (author). 30 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Fluorine uptake into human enamel around a fluoride-containing dental material during cariogenic pH cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Nomachi, M.; Yasuda, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Murata, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Sano, H.; Sakai, T.; Kamiya, T.

    2007-01-01

    Using PIGE (TIARA, JAPAN) technique, we measured fluorine (F) uptake into the tooth enamel around a fluoride-containing material during caries progression using pH cycling. Class I cavities in the buccal surfaces of 6 extracted human teeth were drilled and filled with fluoride-containing material; a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX(GC)). Three 300 μm sections through the material were obtained from each tooth. Two of these specimens were utilized to measure the F distribution in enamel adjacent to the material. A 1.7 MeV proton beam accelerated by the TIARA single-ended accelerator was delivered to a micro-beam apparatus. The beam spot size was about 1 μm with a beam current of about 100 pA. A nuclear reaction, 19 F(p, αγ) 16 0, was used to measure the F concentration and the gamma-rays from this reaction were detected with a 4' NaI detector. X-rays induced by proton were detected with a Si(Li) detector to measure calcium concentration and the beam intensity was monitored with the X-ray yield from a copper foil for quantitative analysis. After measurement of F uptake, all specimens were polished to a thickness of 120 μm. In order to simulate daily acid challenges occurring in the oral cavity, the pH cycling (pH6.8-pH4.5) was carried out for 1, 3 and 5 weeks, separately. The duration that the solution remained below pH 5.5 was 37 min per cycle. The cycles were repeated 6 times per day with 2 h interval between cycles, and the specimens were kept in remineralizing solution for the rest of pH cycle. After pH cycling, F and calcium distribution of each specimen was evaluated using PIGE technique. The F distribution of the specimens before pH cycling clearly showed the F uptake from fluoride-containing material into enamel adjacent to the material. After pH cycling, the caries progression in all specimens was observed by the image of transverse microradiography (TMR). The depth of caries and mineral loss progressed with increasing the duration of pH cycling, although

  3. Fluorine uptake into human enamel around a fluoride-containing dental material during cariogenic pH cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)]. E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Wakasa wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Murata, Y. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Kijimura, T. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Sano, H. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Sakai, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Kamiya, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    Using PIGE (TIARA, JAPAN) technique, we measured fluorine (F) uptake into the tooth enamel around a fluoride-containing material during caries progression using pH cycling. Class I cavities in the buccal surfaces of 6 extracted human teeth were drilled and filled with fluoride-containing material; a glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX(GC)). Three 300 {mu}m sections through the material were obtained from each tooth. Two of these specimens were utilized to measure the F distribution in enamel adjacent to the material. A 1.7 MeV proton beam accelerated by the TIARA single-ended accelerator was delivered to a micro-beam apparatus. The beam spot size was about 1 {mu}m with a beam current of about 100 pA. A nuclear reaction, {sup 19}F(p, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}0, was used to measure the F concentration and the gamma-rays from this reaction were detected with a 4' NaI detector. X-rays induced by proton were detected with a Si(Li) detector to measure calcium concentration and the beam intensity was monitored with the X-ray yield from a copper foil for quantitative analysis. After measurement of F uptake, all specimens were polished to a thickness of 120 {mu}m. In order to simulate daily acid challenges occurring in the oral cavity, the pH cycling (pH6.8-pH4.5) was carried out for 1, 3 and 5 weeks, separately. The duration that the solution remained below pH 5.5 was 37 min per cycle. The cycles were repeated 6 times per day with 2 h interval between cycles, and the specimens were kept in remineralizing solution for the rest of pH cycle. After pH cycling, F and calcium distribution of each specimen was evaluated using PIGE technique. The F distribution of the specimens before pH cycling clearly showed the F uptake from fluoride-containing material into enamel adjacent to the material. After pH cycling, the caries progression in all specimens was observed by the image of transverse microradiography (TMR). The depth of caries and mineral loss progressed with increasing the

  4. Clinical Comparison of At-Home and In-Office Dental Bleaching Procedures: A Randomized Trial of a Split-Mouth Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lucas Silveira; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Briso, André Luiz; Tovar, Nick; Janal, Malvin N; Coelho, Paulo Guilherme; Sundfeld, Renato Herman

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this split-mouth clinical study was to compare a combination of in-office and at-home dental bleaching with at-home bleaching alone. Two applications of in-office bleaching were performed, with one appointment per week, using 38% hydrogen peroxide. At-home bleaching was performed with or without in-office bleaching using 10% carbamide peroxide in a custom-made tray every night for 2 weeks. The factor studied was the bleaching technique on two levels: Technique 1 (in-office bleaching combined with home bleaching) and Technique 2 (home bleaching only). The response variables were color change, dental sensitivity, morphology, and surface roughness. The maxillary right and left hemiarches of the participants were submitted to in-office placebo treatment and in-office bleaching, respectively (Phase 1), and at-home bleaching (Phase 2) treatment was performed on both hemiarches, characterizing a split-mouth design. Enamel surface changes and roughness were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and optical interferometry using epoxy replicas. No statistically significant differences were observed between the bleaching techniques for either the visual or the digital analyses. There was a significant difference in dental sensitivity when both dental bleaching techniques were used, with in-office bleaching producing the highest levels of dental sensitivity after the baseline. Microscopic analysis of the morphology and roughness of the enamel surface showed no significant changes between the bleaching techniques. The two techniques produced similar results in color change, and the combination technique produced the highest levels of sensitivity. Neither technique promoted changes in morphology or surface roughness of enamel.

  5. Bleaching Dengan Teknologi Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Eliwaty

    2008-01-01

    Penulisan tentang bleaching dengan laser dimaksudkan untuk menambah wawasan serta pengetahuan dari pembaca di bidang kedokteran gigi. Macam-macam laser yang dipergunakan dalam bleaching yaitu argon, CO2 serta dioda laser. Contoh merek produk laser yaitu Blulaze, Dentcure untuk argonlaser, Novapulse untuk C02 serta Opus 5 untuk dioda laser. Laser bleaching hasilnya dapat dicapai dalam satu kunjungan saja, cepat, efisien namun biayanya relatif mahal, dapat menimbulkan burn, sensitivitas se...

  6. Erosion and abrasion on dental structures undergoing at-home bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarquinio SBC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Flávio Fernando Demarco1, Sônia Saeger Meireles2, Hugo Ramalho Sarmento1, Raquel Venâncio Fernandes Dantas1, Tatiana Botero3, Sandra Beatriz Chaves Tarquinio11Graduate Program in Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil; 2Department of Operative Dentistry, Federal University of Paraíba, Brazil; 3Cariology, Restorative Science, and Endodontics Department, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, MI, USAAbstract: This review investigates erosion and abrasion in dental structures undergoing at-home bleaching. Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition that may be idiopathic or caused by a known acid source. Some bleaching agents have a pH lower than the critical level, which can cause changes in the enamel mineral content. Investigations have shown that at-home tooth bleaching with low concentrations of hydrogen or carbamide peroxide have no significant damaging effects on enamel and dentin surface properties. Most studies where erosion was observed were in vitro. Even though the treatment may cause side effects like sensitivity and gingival irritation, these usually disappear at the end of treatment. Considering the literature reviewed, we conclude that tooth bleaching agents based on hydrogen or carbamide peroxide have no clinically significant influence on enamel/dentin mineral loss caused by erosion or abrasion. Furthermore, the treatment is tolerable and safe, and any adverse effects can be easily reversed and controlled.Keywords: peroxide, tooth bleaching, enamel, dentin, erosion, abrasion

  7. Effect of sodium ascorbate on the bond strength of silorane and methacrylate composites after vital bleaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Guler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of sodium ascorbate (SA on the microtensile bond strengths (MTBSs of different composites to bovine enamel after vital bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (HP or carbamide peroxide (CP. Thirty bovine incisors were randomly divided into five groups and treated with no bleaching application (control, 35% HP alone, 35% HP + 10% SA for 10 minutes (HP + SA, 16% CP alone, or 16% CP + 10% SA for 10 minutes (CP + SA. Specimens were restored with Silorane adhesive and Filtek Silorane composite (designated as S / group or with Clearfil SE bond and Filtek Supreme XT (designated as F / group. Composite build-up was created on the enamel. Sectioned specimens (n = 10 per group; 1 mm2; cross-sectional area were created and stressed in a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. The application of 10% SA immediately after bleaching with 16% CP or 35% HP increased the enamel MTBS, regardless of the adhesive / composite resin used. The resulting MTBS values were similar to those of the control groups. Use of 16% CP and 35% HP alone decreased the enamel MTBS, regardless of the adhesive / composite resin used, with F / CP + SA = F / HP + SA = F / CP = S / CP + SA = S / HP + SA = S / C > S / CP = S / HP = F / CP = F / HP (p < 0.05. We concluded that the application of SA for 10 minutes immediately after vital bleaching increases the enamel BS for dimethacrylate- and silorane-based composites

  8. Human dental enamel and dentin structural effects after Er:YAG laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Darlon Martíns; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; de Mendonça, Adriano Augusto Melo; Elossais, André Afif; Saad, José Roberto Cury; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho

    2014-05-01

    Ideally projected to be applied on soft tissues, infrared lasers were improved by restorative dentistry to be used in hard dental tissues cavity preparations--namely enamel and dentin. This paper evidentiates the relevant aspects of infrared Erbium laser's action mechanism and its effects, and characterizes the different effects deriving from the laser's beams emission. The criteria for use and selection of optimal parameters for the correct application of laser systems and influence of supporting factors on the process, such as water amount and its presence in the ablation process, protection exerted by the plasma shielding and structural factors, which are indispensable in dental tissues cavity preparation related to restorative technique, are subordinated to optical modifications caused by the interaction of the energy dissipated by these laser light emission systems in the targeted tissue substrate. Differences in the action of infrared Erbium laser system in regard to the nature of the ablation process and variations on the morphological aspects observed in the superficial structure of the target tissue irradiated, may be correlated to the structural optical modifications of the substrate produced by an interaction of the energy propagated by laser systems.

  9. In-Office Bleaching During Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mauricio Neves; Dutra, Hélio; Morais, Alexandre; Sgura, Ricardo; Devito-Moraes, André Guaraci

    2017-04-01

    To demonstrate that it is possible to pursue teeth whitening treatment protocols during orthodontic treatment with no esthetic loss. Many patients undergoing orthodontic treatment desire to have a straight and well aligned dentition, but also whiter teeth. For many years, it was believed that carrying out a whitening treatment with positioned orthodontic brackets in place would result in localized spots on the enamel labial surfaces of teeth. However, a deeper understanding of the bleaching process suggests that the oxidation caused by products, which results from hydrogen peroxide decomposition, are able to diffuse peripherally into the tooth structure and reach even that under the cemented brackets. Two in-office-bleaching treatments were performed in patients using orthodontic fixed braces in two or three 40-minute sessions using a 35% hydrogen peroxide. In-office bleaching is possible and effective, even with orthodontic brackets in position. The teeth were successfully bleached despite the presence of brackets. All biological criteria have been fulfilled satisfying patients' expectations of aligned and whitened teeth in less time than if treatments had been performed separately, with satisfactory results and no esthetic loss. The whitening of teeth is possible during orthodontic treatment with fixed braces without any esthetic loss. The in-office bleaching treatment with brackets in position also may act as a motivation factor, preventing patient withdrawal or treatment interruption. Therefore, at the end of the orthodontic treatment, the patient is able to display an aligned, functional and whitened smile. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:83-92, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Utilization of radiometric method in evaluation of wear on human dental enamel in vitro by dental porcelain glazed and polished

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki de; Adachi, Eduardo Makoto

    2005-01-01

    The dental porcelain is a material commonly used in prosthesis. Disadvantages of dental porcelain use include possibility to cause tooth or dental materials wear. Before its use in the mouth, surfaces are treated with polishing and/or glazing. This research used the radiometric method to verify the influence of these surface treatments on the porcelains of commercial brands: Ceramco II, Noritake and Finesse. This method was originally developed for dentifrice abrasiveness evaluation. Five specimens of dental enamel and 10 specimens of each porcelain (5 glazed, 5 polished) were used. The dental enamel was flattened and irradiated with neutrons from the IEA-R1 (IPEN/CNEN) nuclear reactor. Then it was weared by each porcelain in sliding motion, with water. After 2,500 cycles for each porcelain specimen, the released enamel residue was measured. The enamel wear was evaluated by measuring beta activity of 32 P transferred to water from the irradiated tooth. Results varied from 2.57 to 5.81 μg of enamel /mm 2 weared surface. There was no statistical difference (α=0.05) between dental enamel wear caused by the same porcelains glazed or polished. The results suggest that adequate surface finishing depend on the type of dental porcelain. (author)

  11. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of human dental enamel after bracket debonding: a noncontact three-dimensional optical profilometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fabiano G; Nouer, Darcy F; Silva, Nelson P; Garbui, Ivana U; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Nouer, Paulo R A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to undertake a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of changes on enamel surfaces after debonding of brackets followed by finishing procedures, using a high-resolution three-dimensional optical profiler and to investigate the accuracy of the technique. The labial surfaces of 36 extracted upper central incisors were examined. Before bonding, the enamel surfaces were subjected to profilometry, recording four amplitude parameters. Brackets were then bonded using two types of light-cured orthodontic adhesive: composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Finishing was performed by three different methods: pumice on a rubber cup, fine and ultrafine aluminum oxide discs, and microfine diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes. The samples were subsequently re-analyzed by profilometry. Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test (p enamel roughness when diamond cups followed by silicon carbide brushes were used to finish surfaces that had remnants of resin-modified glass ionomer adhesive and when pumice was used to finish surfaces that had traces of composite resin. Enamel loss was minimal. The 3D optical profilometry technique was able to provide accurate qualitative and quantitative assessment of changes on the enamel surface after debonding. Morphological changes in the topography of dental surfaces, especially if related to enamel loss and roughness, are of considerable clinical importance. The quantitative evaluation method used herein enables a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of orthodontic bonding on teeth.

  12. Colour Change of Enamel after Application of Averrhoa bilimbi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Fauziah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Teeth discoloration is mainly treated with dental bleaching. Use of chemical bleaching has side effects, so it is important to find an alternative natural dental bleaching agent. Averrhoa bilimbi contains peroxide and oxalate acid that possess tooth whitening properties. Objective: To determine the change in color of dental enamel after the application of Averrhoa bilimbi and 10% carbamide peroxide. Methods: Samples were 20 post-extracted of the two tested materials premolars (10 specimens each for Averrhoa bilimbi and carbamide peroxide application. After the application, the specimens were incubated at 37ºC for 2 hours, washed and soaked in aquadest before further incubated for another 14 days. The colour changed was observed by 5 independent observers using shade guide. Results: Quantitative and qualitative analyzes were performed. Qualitatively, A3 color has changed into C1, A2, D2, B2 and B1 in the Averrhoa bilimbi group. A more significant color change in the 10% carbamide peroxide group (p=0.005 compared to Averrhoa bilimbi group (p=0.005 were observed. The difference of resulted enamel colour change was statistically significant (p=0.002. Conclusion: Averrhoa bilimbi had a good prospect as dental bleaching agent since its application effectively resulted in a slight enamel colour change although its whitening properties was still lower than 10% carbamide peroxide.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v19i3.134

  13. Concentrations of and application protocols for hydrogen peroxide bleaching gels: effects on pulp cell viability and whitening efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Basso, Fernanda Gonçalves; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2014-02-01

    To assess the whitening effectiveness and the trans-enamel/trans-dentinal toxicity of experimental tooth-bleaching protocols on pulp cells. Enamel/dentine discs individually adapted to trans-well devices were placed on cultured odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) or human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). The following groups were formed: G1 - no treatment (control); G2 to G4 - 35% H2O2, 3 × 15, 1 × 15, and 1 × 5 min, respectively; and G5 to G7 - 17.5% H2O2, 3 × 15, 1 × 15, and 1 × 5 min, respectively. Cell viability and morphology were evaluated immediately after bleaching (T1) and 72 h thereafter (T2). Oxidative stress and cell membrane damage were also assessed (T1). The amount of H2O2 in culture medium was quantified (Mann-Whitney; α=5%) and colour change (ΔE) of enamel was analysed after 3 sessions (Tukey's test; α=5%). Cell viability reduction, H2O2 diffusion, cell morphology alteration, oxidative stress, and cell membrane damage occurred in a concentration-/time-dependent fashion. The cell viability reduction was significant in all groups for HDPCs and only for G2, G3, and G5 in MDPC-23 cells compared with G1. Significant cell viability and morphology recovery were observed in all groups at T2, except for G2 in HDPCs. The highest ΔE value was found in G2. However, all groups presented significant ΔE increases compared with G1. Shortening the contact time of a 35%-H2O2 gel for 5 min, or reducing its concentration to 17.5% and applying it for 45, 15, or 5 min produce gradual tooth colour change associated with reduced trans-enamel and trans-dentinal cytotoxicity to pulp cells. The experimental protocols tested in the present study provided significant tooth-bleaching improvement associated with decreased toxicity to pulp cells, which may be an interesting alternative to be tested in clinical situations intended to reduce tooth sensitivity and pulp damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The combination of sodium perborate and water as intracoronal teeth bleaching agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananta Tantri Budi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The color change on post-endodontic treated teeth can be overcome by intracoronal tooth bleaching using walking bleach. Some agents used in walking bleach are combination of sodium peroxide and hydrogen peroxide, and combination of sodium perborate and water. Purpose: The objective of this review is to provide information and consideration of using safe and effective bleaching agents in the field of dentistry. Reviews: On one side, the use of sodium perborate and water combination does not cause the reduction of dentin hardness, enamel decay, and root resorbtion. On the other side, the use of sodium perborate and 30% hydrogen peroxide combination indicates that it takes longer time in yielding the proper color of teeth. Conclusion: The use of sodium perborate and water combination as bleaching agents is effective and safe.

  15. Toothpaste use protocol with dental bleaching for a conservative treatment: Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemir F. Vieira-Junior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-office bleaching is a treatment based on products that contain hydrogen peroxide (HP while demonstrating whitening effectiveness. HP could promote alterations to surface morphologies and properties of dental tissues. The objective was describe a toothpaste protocol associated to bleaching therapy to promote a safer approach. Patient 1 (male and Patient 2 (female were attended, and toothbrushing (twice a day with a dentifrice containing bioactive glass (BG (NovaMin™ and fluoride was indicated before and during the treatment. Three bleaching sessions were made in cases, at intervals of 7 days. The gels used were 35% HP (Patient 1 and 35% HP supplied with calcium (Patient 2. The effectiveness of bleaching treatment was observed in both cases (Vita scale, with an esthetic self-acceptance. Sensitivity associated with the procedure was not reported. The indication of BG-based toothpaste is relevant in relation to enamel properties and did not affect the whitening effectiveness of dental bleaching.

  16. Temperature variation in pulp chamber during dental bleaching in presence or absence of light activation

    OpenAIRE

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Rocha, Daniel Maranha da; Travassos, Alessandro Caldas; Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Araujo, Maria Amélia Maximo de

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: In addition to the chemical damage due to bleaching gels penetration into the pulp during pulp vitality dental bleaching, another possible aggressive factor could be the heat generated by the exothermal oxidation reaction of the bleaching gel, which may also be aggravated by the use of light activation. This study assessed the temperature variation in the pulp chamber in human teeth, using three different bleaching gels with or without LED light activation. METHODS: Thirty human pre-...

  17. Effect of light irradiation on tooth whitening: enamel microhardness and color change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mauricio Neves; Francci, Carlos; Medeiros, Igor Studart; De Godoy Froes Salgado, Nívea Regina; Riehl, Heraldo; Marasca, José Milton; Muench, Antônio

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of light exposure associated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office, SDI, Melbourne, Vic., Australia) or 15% hydrogen peroxide (BriteSmile, Discus, Culver City, CA, USA) on the microhardness and color changes of bovine enamel. Experimental groups were Britesmile + Light (BL) (15% hydrogen peroxide + plasm arc; 4 x 20 minutes), Britesmile + No Light (BN) (BL, no light), Pola office + Light (PL) (35% hydrogen peroxide + LED; 4 x 8 minutes), and Pola office + No light (PN) (PL, no light). Color changes (DeltaE) and the CIELAB (Commission Internationale de l' Eclairage, L* a* b* color system) parameters (L*, a*, and b*) were assessed with a spectrophotometer before (B), immediately (A), 1 day and 7 days after bleaching. The microhardness was measured before (B) and after (A), the obtained data were submitted to a two-way analysis of variance, and DeltaE were submitted to t-test for each period. Only Pola Office, in which the peroxide is associated with the light, improved DeltaE when evaluated immediately after bleaching (p enamel microhardness was not altered after bleaching for BriteSmile. However, enamel microhardness was reduced after bleaching for Pola Office, 283 MPa (+/-21) and 265 MPa (+/-27), respectively. It was concluded that these two bleaching systems were efficient regardless of the light systems used. However, the 35% hydrogen peroxide altered the enamel microhardness. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Enamel microhardness was affected by a 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching therapy. Moreover, the in-office bleaching outcome was not improved by using the light associated with systems tested in this study. (J Esthet Restor Dent 21:387-396, 2009).

  18. The effect of Trigona sp propolis from Luwu regency, South Sulawesi province, Indonesia on human enamel teeth (an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardo Sabir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honey bees. It is well-known that propolis exhibits both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities therefore it has been used in folk medicine since primeval times.In recent years, propolis has been used as active component of mouthwashes in the attempt to treat gingivitis and periodontitis. The purpose of the present study is to know in vitro effect of Ethanolic Extract of Propolis (EEP solution on the microhardness of human enamel teeth. Solution of 0.125% EEP has been made from propolis which was collected from honeycombs in Luwu Regency, South Sulawesi Province. Aquadest and 1% povidone iodine were used as negative and positive control. Calcium, phosphate, fluoride concentrations and pH of the solutions were also measured using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and a digital pH meter. Ninety human maxillary first incisors which extracted for periodontal reasons were used in this study. The roots of the teeth were removed at the cementoenamel junction. The crowns were randomly divided into three groups of 30 each and were immersed in aquadest solution pH 8.4 (Group I; 0.125% EEP solution pH 4.3 (Group II or 1% povidone iodine solution pH 3.0 (Group III for 21, 42, 63, and 84 minutes respectively. A Vickers Hardness Tester was used to measure enamel surface microhardness before and after immersion. Data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests with significance level of 5%. The results showed that except immersed in aquadest, enamel microhardness increased after being immersed in EEP and povidone iodine solutions, although statistical analysis did not show significant differences (p>0.05 microhardness of enamel teeth before and after immersed in each group.In conclusion, immersion the teeth in 0.125% EEP solution pH 4.3 with 2.69 ppm phosphate, 1.49 ppm calcium, and 0.00 ppm fluoride concentrations for 84 minutes increased human enamel hardness in vitro.

  19. On the mechanistic role of the dentin-enamel junction in preventing the fracture of human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbeni, V.; Kruzic, J.J.; Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2004-09-01

    The dentin-enamel junction (DEJ), which is the interface between the dentin and outer enamel coating in teeth, is known for its unique biomechanical properties that provide a crack-arrest barrier for flaws formed in the brittle enamel. In this work, we re-examine how cracks propagate in the proximity of the DEJ, and specifically quantify, using interfacial fracture mechanics, the fracture toughness of the DEJ region. Additionally, we show that the vital function of the DEJ, in preventing cracks formed in enamel from traversing the interface and causing catastrophic tooth fractures, is not necessarily associated with the crack-arrest capabilities of the DEJ itself, but rather with the development of crack-tip shielding, primarily from uncracked-ligament bridging, in the mantle dentin adjacent to the DEJ. Measurements of the toughness of the DEJ region give estimates of G{sub c} {approx} 115 J/m{sup 2}, i.e., {approx}5 to 10 times higher than enamel and {approx}75 percent of that of dentin.

  20. Influence of bleaching and desensitizing gel on bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alves Rodrigues Britto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess, in vitro, the influence of bleaching gel and the use of desensitizing agent over bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded to bovine enamel. METHODS: One hundred bovine incisors were selected and randomly divided into five groups (n = 20: Group 1, control group (without bleaching; Group 2, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide; Group 3, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (three applications, 15 minutes each and desensitizing agent applied for 10 minutes; Group 4, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 40 minutes; Group 5, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 40 minutes with desensitizing agent applied for 10 minutes. Brackets were bonded 7 days after bleaching and submitted to shear bond strength test after 24 hours at a compression rate of 1 mm/minute. After fracture, the adhesive remnant index (ARI was assessed under stereoscopic at 40 x magnification. Shear strength data (MPa were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: Group 5 (29.33 MPa showed significantly higher bond strength than Group 1 (19.19 MPa, Group 2 (20.59 MPa and Group 4 (23.25 MPa, but with no difference in comparison to Group 3. There was no significant difference among the other groups. The adhesive remnant index showed predominance of score 3, that is, all resin remained adhered to enamel for all groups. CONCLUSION: Bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with calcium associated with desensitizing agent application produced higher bond strength values of brackets bonded to bovine enamel.

  1. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  2. Enamel microabrasion: An overview of clinical and scientific considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Sundfeld-Neto, Daniel; Aguiar, Flavio Henrique Baggio; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Martins, Luis Roberto Marcondes; Lovadino, José Roberto; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite

    2015-01-01

    Superficial stains and irregularities of the enamel are generally what prompt patients to seek dental intervention to improve their smile. These stains or defects may be due to hypoplasia, amelogenesis imperfecta, mineralized white spots, or fluorosis, for which enamel microabrasion is primarily indicated. Enamel microabrasion involves the use of acidic and abrasive agents, such as with 37% phosphoric acid and pumice or 6% hydrochloric acid and silica, applied to the altered enamel surface with mechanical pressure from a rubber cup coupled to a rotatory mandrel of a low-rotation micromotor. If necessary, this treatment can be safely combined with bleaching for better esthetic results. Recent studies show that microabrasion is a conservative treatment when the enamel wear is minimal and clinically imperceptible. The most important factor contributing to the success of enamel microabrasion is the depth of the defect, as deeper, opaque stains, such as those resulting from hypoplasia, cannot be resolved with microabrasion, and require a restorative approach. Surface enamel alterations that result from microabrasion, such as roughness and microhardness, are easily restored by saliva. Clinical studies support the efficacy and longevity of this safe and minimally invasive treatment. The present article presents the clinical and scientific aspects concerning the microabrasion technique, and discusses the indications for and effects of the treatment, including recent works describing microscopic and clinical evaluations. PMID:25610848

  3. The effect of Curcuma domestica Val - Tamarindus indica L mixed solution (“kunyit asam” on microhardness and roughnessof human tooth enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Pratiwi Iljas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays,peoples tendto seekan alternative treatment from traditional plants because it is side effects relatively less than synthetic drugs. One of the famous traditional medicinedrinks in Indonesia is “kunyit asam”. People was make it with mixed both Curcuma domestica Val and Tamarindus indica L. Beside it has many advantages for health such as increasing stamina, it also has a good taste, so many people consumed it. However, the acid content in this drink maycause enamel erosion. Therefore the aim of this present study is to determine thein vitro effect of “kunyit asam” solution towards microhardness and roughness of human enamel tooth. The pH of solutionwas measure using a digital pH meter, while the calcium content measure using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. This study used 40 permanent maxillary first incisor that has been extracted from the patient who came to dental polyclinic of hospitals in Polewali Mandar regency, West Sulawesi Province during February 2015-April 2015 period. The roots of the teeth were removed at the cementoenamel junction. Tooth crowns placed on blocks orthoplast with labial surface facing up. Samples were randomly divided into 2 groups equally andimmersed in aquadest solution pH 7.0 (negative control (Group I or “kunyit asam” solution pH 3.0 (Group II for 14, 28, 42 and 56 minutes respectively. An Universal Hardness Tester (Affri® Universal Hardness Tester, Japan was used to measure enamel surface microhardness, while to measure enamel surface roughness wasused a Roughness Tester (Surftest 301 Mitutoyo, Japan. Both measure were done before and after immersed in solution. Data were statistically analyzed using Levene, paired-t one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Least Significance Different (LSD tests. The results of present study showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05 microhardness but significant differences (p<0.05 for the roughness of tooth enamelbefore and

  4. Enamel Regeneration - Current Progress and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baswaraj; H.K, Navin; K.B, Prasanna

    2014-01-01

    Dental Enamel is the outermost covering of teeth. It is hardest mineralized tissue present in the human body. Enamel faces the challenge of maintaining its integrity in a constant demineralization and remineralization within the oral environment and it is vulnerable to wear, damage, and decay. It cannot regenerate itself, because it is formed by a layer of cells that are lost after the tooth eruption. Conventional treatment relies on synthetic materials to restore lost enamel that cannot mimic natural enamel. With advances in material science and understanding of basic principles of organic matrix mediated mineralization paves a way for formation of synthetic enamel. The knowledge of enamel formation and understanding of protein interactions and their gene products function along with the isolation of postnatal stem cells from various sources in the oral cavity, and the development of smart materials for cell and growth factor delivery, makes possibility for biological based enamel regeneration. This article will review the recent endeavor on biomimetic synthesis and cell based strategies for enamel regeneration. PMID:25386548

  5. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Paulo Hilgenberg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide. Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste, G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste, and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste. The average roughness (Ra was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p < 0.0001. The final Ra had higher values (p < 0.05 following the procedures. The mean of the Ra did not show significant differences, considering toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment showed significant difference (p < 0.0001. The whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.

  6. Tooth enamel oxygen "isoscapes" show a high degree of human mobility in prehistoric Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Maura; Pouncett, John; Jay, Mandy; Pearson, Mike Parker; Richards, Michael P

    2016-10-07

    A geostatistical model to predict human skeletal oxygen isotope values (δ 18 O p ) in Britain is presented here based on a new dataset of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age human teeth. The spatial statistics which underpin this model allow the identification of individuals interpreted as 'non-local' to the areas where they were buried (spatial outliers). A marked variation in δ 18 O p is observed in several areas, including the Stonehenge region, the Peak District, and the Yorkshire Wolds, suggesting a high degree of human mobility. These areas, rich in funerary and ceremonial monuments, may have formed focal points for people, some of whom would have travelled long distances, ultimately being buried there. The dataset and model represent a baseline for future archaeological studies, avoiding the complex conversions from skeletal to water δ 18 O values-a process known to be problematic.

  7. Tooth enamel oxygen “isoscapes” show a high degree of human mobility in prehistoric Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Maura; Pouncett, John; Jay, Mandy; Pearson, Mike Parker; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-10-01

    A geostatistical model to predict human skeletal oxygen isotope values (δ18Op) in Britain is presented here based on a new dataset of Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age human teeth. The spatial statistics which underpin this model allow the identification of individuals interpreted as ‘non-local’ to the areas where they were buried (spatial outliers). A marked variation in δ18Op is observed in several areas, including the Stonehenge region, the Peak District, and the Yorkshire Wolds, suggesting a high degree of human mobility. These areas, rich in funerary and ceremonial monuments, may have formed focal points for people, some of whom would have travelled long distances, ultimately being buried there. The dataset and model represent a baseline for future archaeological studies, avoiding the complex conversions from skeletal to water δ18O values-a process known to be problematic.

  8. Coral mass bleaching and reef temperatures at Navassa Island, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. W.; Piniak, G. A.; Williams, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    Bleaching and associated mortality is an extreme threat to the persistence of coral populations in the projected warming regime of the next few decades. Recent evidence indicates that thermal bleaching thresholds may be affected by water quality gradients. The unexpected encounter of a coral mass bleaching event at a remote, uninhabited Caribbean island (Navassa) during a routine reef assessment cruise in November 2006 provided the opportunity to characterize bleaching responses and thermal exposure in an oceanic area with negligible continental influence or human impact on water quality. The coral taxa most susceptible to bleaching were Agaricia spp. and Montastraea faveolata. Siderastraea siderea, Diploria spp. and Porites porites were intermediately affected, while Porites astreoides and Montastraea cavernosa were minimally affected and negligible bleaching was observed in Acropora palmata. Bleaching prevalence (colonies > 4 cm diameter) ranged from 0.16 to 0.63 among sites. Deeper sites (between 18 and 37 m) had significantly higher prevalence of bleaching than shallow sites (<10 m). This general pattern of more bleaching in deeper sites also occurred within species. Though exposure to high-temperature stress was not greater at deeper sites, water motion, which may bolster bleaching resistance, was likely less. In situ loggers indicated temperatures over 30 °C initiated at shallow sites in mid-August, at deeper sites in early September, and were persistent at all sites until mid-October. Long term (1983-2007) climatologies constructed from AVHRR SSTs suggest that the mass bleaching event observed at Navassa in 2006 corresponded with greater intensity and duration of warm temperature anomalies than occurred in 2005, for which no in situ observations (bleaching nor temperature) are available.

  9. In vitro study of the diode laser effect on artificial demineralized surface of human dental enamel; Estudo in vitro do efeito do laser diodo sobre a superficie de esmalte dental humano desmineralizado artificialmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebel, Patricia

    2003-07-01

    In scientific literature there are many reports about fusion and resolidification of dental enamel after laser irradiation and their capability to generate surfaces with increased resistance to demineralization compared to non-irradiated areas. The use of high power diode laser on demineralized surfaces of human dental enamel is presented as a good alternative in caries prevention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes produced by the use of one high power diode laser on human dental enamel surface after demineralization treatment with lactic acid, under chosen parameters. Fifteen samples of human dental molars were used and divided in four groups: control - demineralization treatment with lactic acid and no irradiation, and demineralization treatment with lactic acid followed of irradiation with 212,20 mJ/cm{sup 2}, 282,84 mJ/cm{sup 2} and 325,38 mJ/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The samples were irradiated with high power diode laser (808 nm) with a 300 {mu}m diameter fiber optics. Black ink was used on enamel surface to enhance the superficial absorption. The samples were studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Modifications on the enamel surfaces were observed. Such modifications were characterized by melted and re-solidified region of the enamel. According with our results the best parameter was 2.0 W, presenting the most uniform surface. The use of high power diode laser as demonstrated in this study is able to promote melting and re-solidification on human dental enamel. (author)

  10. Evaluation of crystalline changes and resistance to demineralization of the surface of human dental enamel treated with Er:YAG laser and fluoride using x-ray diffraction analysis and Vickers microhardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Shahabi, Sima; Ghavami-Lahiji, Mehrsima; Sadeghian, Safura; Sadat Faal Nazari, Neda

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the changes in crystalline structure and resistance to demineralization of human dental surface enamel treated with erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser (Er:YAG) laser and fluoride. The enamel surfaces were divided into four groups according to the treatment process including, (L): irradiated with Er:YAG; (F): treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (LF): Pre-irradiated surfaces with Er:YAG subjected to acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and (FL): laser irradiation was performed on the fluoridated enamel surface. Before and after the treatment procedure, the samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the Vickers microhardness test. The surface microhardness values also were measured after a pH-cycling regime and acid challenge. The a-axis of all lased groups was contracted after treatment procedure. Measurement of the area under the peaks showed the highest crysallinity in the FL group. The hardness values of all laser treated samples significantly reduced after treatment procedure compared to the F group (p  ⩽  0.001). The morphological observations showed remarkable changes on the lased enamel surfaces including cracks, craters and exposed prisms. These findings suggest, irradiation of the Er:YAG laser accompanying with fluoride application can induce some beneficial crystalline changes regarding the acid-resistance properties of enamel, however, the craters and cracks produced by laser irradiation can promote enamel demineralization and consequently the positive effects of the Er:YAG laser will be eliminated.

  11. Anisotropic local physical properties of human dental enamel in comparison to properties of some common dental filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Lars; Hartmann, Christiane D; Rödiger, Matthias; Bürgers, Ralf; Gersdorff, Nikolaus

    2014-11-01

    A major aspect in evaluating the quality of dental materials is their physical properties. Their properties should be a best fit of the ones of dental hard tissues. Manufacturers give data sheets for each material. The properties listed are characterized by a specific value. This assumes (but does not prove) that there is no direction dependence of the properties. However, dental enamel has direction-dependent properties which additionally vary with location in the tooth. The aim of this paper is to show the local direction dependence of physical properties like the elastic modulus or the thermal expansion in dental hard tissues. With this knowledge the 'perfect filling/dental material' could be characterized. Enamel sections of ∼400-500 μm thickness have been cut with a diamond saw from labial/buccal to palatal/lingual (canine, premolar and molar) and parallel to labial (incisor). Crystallite arrangements have been measured in over 400 data points on all types of teeth with x-ray scattering techniques, known from materials science. X-ray scattering measurements show impressively that dental enamel has a strong direction dependence of its physical properties which also varies with location within the tooth. Dental materials possess only little or no property direction dependence. Therefore, a mismatch was found between enamel and dental materials properties. Since dental materials should possess equal (direction depending) properties, worthwhile properties could be characterized by transferring the directional properties of enamel into a property 'wish list' which future dental materials should fulfil. Hereby the 'perfect dental material' can be characterized.

  12. In vitro study of hydroxy apatite and enamel powder fused in human enamel by Nd:YAG laser; Estudo in vitro da fusao de hidroxiapatita e esmalte em superficies de esmalte humano pelo laser de Nd:YAg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrreira, Marcus Vinicius Lucas

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser irradiation on hydroxyapatite and enamel powder fusion. This laser beam is not well absorbed by this two compounds for this reason they were mixed with vegetal coal to increase the absorption of the laser beam. Fifteen enamel flat surfaces and six occlusal enamel surfaces were prepared with three different substances: hydroxyapatite mixed with vegetal coal (3:1 in weigh); enamel powder mixed with vegetal coal (3:1 in weigh); vegetal coal. The occlusal surfaces were utilized to determine if the compounds could seal pits and fissures. Flat surfaces were utilized to determine fusion of hydroxyapatite and enamel powder. All samples were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser with the parameters: 80 mJ, 15 Hz, 1,2 W, 100 {mu}s pulse-width, 131,1 J/cm{sup 2}. Laser beam was delivered to the samples with a 300 {mu}m diameter fiber optic. Morphology of the irradiated surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compounds with hydroxyapatite and enamel powder were fused to enamel surfaces. Only partial pits and fissures sealing could be observed. (author)

  13. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded with Resin-modified Glass-ionomer Cement to Bleached Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Khosravanifard

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Bleaching can considerably reduce shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic brackets bonded with composite adhesives. Application of antioxidants is a method to reverse the negative effect of bleaching on compositeto-enamel bond. However, the efficacy of antioxidants in increasing the SBS of brackets bonded using resin-modified glassionomer cement (RMGIC has not been studied, which was the aim of this study. Materials and methods. Fifty freshly extracted human maxillary first premolars were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Pola Office Bleaching, SDI. Sodium ascorbate 10% was applied to the experimental specimens (n=25. All the specimens were etched with 37% phosphoric acid (Ivoclar/Vivadent and bonded using RMGIC (Fuji Ortho LC, GC. The specimens were subjected to incubation (37°C, 24h and thermocycling (1000 cycles, 5-55°C, dwell time = 1 min. The SBS was measured at 0.5 mm/min debonding crosshead speed. The adhesive remnant index (ARI was scored under ×10 magnification. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test, one- and independent-samples t-test, and Fisher’s exact test (α=0.05. Results. The mean SBS of experimental and control groups were 11.97 ± 4.49 and 7.7 ± 3.19 MPa, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.000 by t-test. SBS of both control (P=0.014 and experimental (P=0.000 groups were significantly higher than the minimum acceptable SBS of 6 MPa, according to one-sample t-test. Conclusion. Application of ascorbic acid can guarantee a strong bond when RMGIC is to be used. However, RMGIC might tolerate the negative effect of bleaching with minimum SA treatments (or perhaps without treatments, which deserves further studies.

  14. Accelerated enamel mineralization in Dspp mutant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelis, Kostas; Szabo-Rogers, Heather L.; Xu, Yang; Chong, Rong; Kang, Ryan; Cusack, Brian J.; Jani, Priyam; Boskey, Adele L.; Qin, Chunlin; Beniash, Elia

    2016-01-01

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is one of the major non-collagenous proteins present in dentin, cementum and alveolar bone; it is also transiently expressed by ameloblasts. In humans many mutations have been found in DSPP and are associated with two autosomal-dominant genetic diseases — dentinogenesis imperfecta II (DGI-II) and dentin dysplasia (DD). Both disorders result in the development of hypomineralized and mechanically compromised teeth. The erupted mature molars of Dspp–/– mice have a severe hypomineralized dentin phenotype. Since dentin and enamel formations are interdependent, we decided to investigate the process of enamel onset mineralization in young Dspp–/– animals. We focused our analysis on the constantly erupting mouse incisor, to capture all of the stages of odontogenesis in one tooth, and the unerupted first molars. Using high-resolution microCT, we revealed that the onset of enamel matrix deposition occurs closer to the cervical loop and both secretion and maturation of enamel are accelerated in Dspp–/– incisors compared to the Dspp+/– control. Importantly, these differences did not translate into major phenotypic differences in mature enamel in terms of the structural organization, mineral density or hardness. The only observable difference was the reduction in thickness of the outer enamel layer, while the total enamel thickness remained unchanged. We also observed a compromised dentin-enamel junction, leading to delamination between the dentin and enamel layers. The odontoblast processes were widened and lacked branching near the DEJ. Finally, for the first time we demonstrate expression of Dspp mRNA in secretory ameloblasts. In summary, our data show that DSPP is important for normal mineralization of both dentin and enamel. PMID:26780724

  15. Size dependent elastic modulus and mechanical resilience of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Simona; Shaw, Jeremy; Zhao, Xiaoli; Abbott, Paul V; Munroe, Paul; Xu, Jiang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2014-03-21

    Human tooth enamel exhibits a unique microstructure able to sustain repeated mechanical loading during dental function. Although notable advances have been made towards understanding the mechanical characteristics of enamel, challenges remain in the testing and interpretation of its mechanical properties. For example, enamel was often tested under dry conditions, significantly different from its native environment. In addition, constant load, rather than indentation depth, has been used when mapping the mechanical properties of enamel. In this work, tooth specimens are prepared under hydrated conditions and their stiffnesses are measured by depth control across the thickness of enamel. Crystal arrangement is postulated, among other factors, to be responsible for the size dependent indentation modulus of enamel. Supported by a simple structure model, effective crystal orientation angle is calculated and found to facilitate shear sliding in enamel under mechanical contact. In doing so, the stress build-up is eased and structural integrity is maintained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulated fracture in tooth enamel: a nanotechnological strategy from nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimi, Elnaz; Eimar, Hazem; Song, Jun; Marelli, Benedetto; Ciobanu, Ovidiu; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Stähli, Christoph; Nazhat, Showan N; Vali, Hojatollah; Tamimi, Faleh

    2014-07-18

    Tooth enamel is a very brittle material; however it has the ability to sustain cracks without suffering catastrophic failure throughout the lifetime of mechanical function. We propose that the nanostructure of enamel can play a significant role in defining its unique mechanical properties. Accordingly we analyzed the nanostructure and chemical composition of a group of teeth, and correlated it with the crack resistance of the same teeth. Here we show how the dimensions of apatite nanocrystals in enamel can affect its resistance to crack propagation. We conclude that the aspect ratio of apatite nanocrystals in enamel determines its resistance to crack propagation. According to this finding, we proposed a new model based on the Hall-Petch theory that accurately predicts crack propagation in enamel. Our new biomechanical model of enamel is the first model that can successfully explain the observed variations in the behavior of crack propagation of tooth enamel among different humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of coral bleaching: Modeling the adaptive bleaching hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, J.R.; Fautin, D.G.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Bleaching - the loss of symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) from animals normally possessing them - can be induced by a variety of stresses, of which temperature has received the most attention. Bleaching is generally considered detrimental, but Buddemeier and Fautin have proposed that bleaching is also adaptive, providing an opportunity for recombining hosts with alternative algal types to form symbioses that might be better adapted to altered circumstances. Our mathematical model of this "adaptive bleaching hypothesis" provides insight into how animal-algae symbioses might react under various circumstances. It emulates many aspects of the coral bleaching phenomenon including: corals bleaching in response to a temperature only slightly greater than their average local maximum temperature; background bleaching; bleaching events being followed by bleaching of lesser magnitude in the subsequent one to several years; higher thermal tolerance of corals subject to environmental variability compared with those living under more constant conditions; patchiness in bleaching; and bleaching at temperatures that had not previously resulted in bleaching. ?? 1996 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fracture resistance of bleached teeth restored with different procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Coelho Bandéca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fracture resistance of teeth submitted to internal bleaching and restored with different non-metallic post. Eighty mandibular incisors were endodontically treated and randomly divided in 10 groups (n = 8: G1- restored with composite resin (CR, G2- CR + fiber-reinforced composite post (FRC, Everstick post, Sticktech cemented with resin cement self-etch adhesive (RCS, Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray, G3- CR + FRC + self-adhesive resin cement (SRC, Breeze, Pentral Clinical, G4- CR+ glass fiber post (GF, Exacto Post, Angelus + RCS, G5- CR + GF + SRC. The G6 to G10 were bleached with hydrogen peroxide (HP and restored with the same restorative procedures used for G1 to G5, respectively. After 7 days storage in artificial saliva, the specimens were submitted to the compressive strength test (N at 0.5 mm/min cross-head speed and the failure pattern was identified as either reparable (failure showed until 2 mm below the cement-enamel junction or irreparable (the failure showed <2 mm or more below the cement-enamel. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05. No significant difference (p < 0.05 was found among G1 to G10. The results suggest that intracoronal bleaching did not significantly weaken the teeth and the failure patterns were predominately reparable for all groups. The non-metallic posts in these teeth did not improve fracture resistance.

  19. Emergency dose estimation using optically stimulated luminescence from human tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholom, S.; DeWitt, R.; Simon, S.L.; Bouville, A.; McKeever, S.W.S.

    2011-01-01

    Human teeth were studied for potential use as emergency Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeters. By using multiple-teeth samples in combination with a custom-built sensitive OSL reader, 60 Co-equivalent doses below 0.64 Gy were measured immediately after exposure with the lowest value being 27 mGy for the most sensitive sample. The variability of OSL sensitivity, from individual to individual using multiple-teeth samples, was determined to be 53%. X-ray and beta exposure were found to produce OSL curves with the same shape that differed from those due to ultraviolet (UV) exposure; as a result, correlation was observed between OSL signals after X-ray and beta exposure and was absent if compared to OSL signals after UV exposure. Fading of the OSL signal was 'typical' for most teeth with just a few of incisors showing atypical behavior. Typical fading dependences were described by a bi-exponential decay function with 'fast' (decay time around of 12 min) and 'slow' (decay time about 14 h) components. OSL detection limits, based on the techniques developed to-date, were found to be satisfactory from the point of view of medical triage requirements if conducted within 24 h of the exposure.

  20. Emergency dose estimation using optically stimulated luminescence from human tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, S., E-mail: sergey.sholom@okstate.edu [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); DeWitt, R. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); Simon, S.L.; Bouville, A. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); McKeever, S.W.S. [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Human teeth were studied for potential use as emergency Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeters. By using multiple-teeth samples in combination with a custom-built sensitive OSL reader, {sup 60}Co-equivalent doses below 0.64 Gy were measured immediately after exposure with the lowest value being 27 mGy for the most sensitive sample. The variability of OSL sensitivity, from individual to individual using multiple-teeth samples, was determined to be 53%. X-ray and beta exposure were found to produce OSL curves with the same shape that differed from those due to ultraviolet (UV) exposure; as a result, correlation was observed between OSL signals after X-ray and beta exposure and was absent if compared to OSL signals after UV exposure. Fading of the OSL signal was 'typical' for most teeth with just a few of incisors showing atypical behavior. Typical fading dependences were described by a bi-exponential decay function with 'fast' (decay time around of 12 min) and 'slow' (decay time about 14 h) components. OSL detection limits, based on the techniques developed to-date, were found to be satisfactory from the point of view of medical triage requirements if conducted within 24 h of the exposure.

  1. A new non-vital tooth bleaching method using titanium dioxide and 3.5% hydrogen peroxide with a 405-nm diode laser or a halogen lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suemori, T; Kato, J; Nakazawa, T; Akashi, G; Hirai, Y

    2008-01-01

    To establish a safer and more effective bleaching method for discolored pulpless teeth, we examined bleaching from the pulpal dentin side using a 3.5% hydrogen peroxide solution containing titanium dioxide. The twenty bovine blood-stained discolored enamel-dentin plates of 1.0 mm enamel thickness and 2.0 mm dentin thickness were used. The bleaching agent was applied to the dentin side that was then irradiated with a 405-nm diode laser (800 mW/cm 2 ) or a halogen lamp (720 mW/cm 2 ) for 15 minutes. The bleaching effect was assessed by spectrophotometric measurement of the color of the specimens from the dentin and enamel side for every 5 minutes, and then dentin or enamel surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope. The 3.5% hydrogen peroxide solution containing titanium dioxide proved to have a strong bleaching effect. The color difference after laser irradiation was higher than that after halogen lamp irradiation, however, there was no significant difference between them. No changes in the enamel surface morphology were found and open dentinal tubules with no smear layer were clearly observed at the pulpal dentin surface in both groups

  2. Colorimeter and scanning electron microscopy analysis of teeth submitted to internal bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Biedma, Benjamin; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Teresa; Lopes, Manuela; Lopes, Luis; Vilar, Rui; Bahillo, José; Varela-Patiño, Purificación

    2010-02-01

    This in vitro study compared the tooth color and the ultrastructure of internal dental tissues before and after internal bleaching. Sodium perborate was placed in the pulp chamber of endodontically treated molars and sealed with intermediate restorative material. The test samples were stored in a physiologic solution, and the bleaching agent was replaced every 7 days. A control group was used. After 1 month, the colors of the test and control samples were measured with a colorimeter, and the internal surfaces were observed under field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Statistically significant differences were found between the test and control sample colors. The FESEM ultrastructure analysis of the internal enamel and dentin surfaces did not show any changes after the internal bleaching. The results of the present study show that sodium perborate is effective in bleaching nonvital teeth and does not produce ultrastructural changes in the dental tissues. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of Bleaching Agents on Color and Translucency of Aged Resin Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Maristela; Mozzaquatro, Lisandra R; Rodrigues, Camila; Kaizer, Marina R; Mallmann, André; Jacques, Letícia B

    2017-09-01

    Evaluate the influence of two bleaching agents (16% carbamide peroxide-CP and 35% hydrogen peroxide-HP) on color and translucency of one resin composite (Filtek Z350 XT) in two opacities (enamel and dentin) previously aged in deionized water or red wine. Sixty specimens of each material were divided in two groups (n = 30): aged in water or red wine for 14 days. Then the specimens were divided in three subgroups (n = 10): control/no treatment, treated with 16% carbamide peroxide (Mix Night), treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Mix One). Color readings were performed 24 hours after polishing (baseline); after the 14 days of aging; and after bleaching treatment. Color coordinates CIE L*a*b* were measured using a spectrophotometer (SP60 X-Rite). Color change (CIEDE2000) and translucency parameter were calculated. Data were analyzed with repeated measures two-way ANOVA, and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (5%). Bleaching decreased color change in stained resin composites (aged in red wine), whereas increased it in non-stained enamel resin composites (aged in water). CP had better bleaching results with stained resin composites than HP. Translucency of non-stained dentin resin composite decreased with aging, but did not change with bleaching. For stained resin composites, aging caused reduced translucency, whereas bleaching increased it. Effective bleaching of discolored resin composites aged in an acidic and alcoholic media rich in staining agents was achieved, improving color and translucency. Carbamide peroxide showed better performance than hydrogen peroxide for the bleaching of stained resin composites. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:368-377, 2017). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Does a toothpaste containing blue covarine have any effect on bleached teeth? An in vitro, randomized and blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Freitas BORTOLATTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of bleaching toothpastes, both conventional and those containing the new whitening agent Blue Covarine, on teeth previously bleached by conventional techniques (in-office and at-home. Squared bovine enamel/dentin blocks (6.0 x 6.0 x 2.0 mm were randomly distributed in 6 groups (n = 15, according to the technique used to bleach them (in-office: HP35%; at-home: PC10% and the type of bleaching toothpaste (none: control; Blue Covarine containing: BC; and without Blue Covarine: NBC. Experimental groups denominated HP35%, HP35%BC and HP35%NBC received in-office tooth bleaching before toothbrushing, and groups PC10%, PC10%BC and PC10%NBC were subjected to at-home tooth bleaching prior to toothbrushing. After bleaching treatment, groups HP35%BC, PC10%BC, HP35%NBC and PC10%NBC underwent daily tooth brushing in a brushing machine for 3 minutes (150 strokes/min, with a load of 375 g. Tooth color alteration was measured by reflectance spectroscopy (Vita EasyShade, Vident, Brea, CA, USA at: T0 (baseline – after in-office or at-home bleaching treatment; T1 – immediately after tooth brushing; T2 - 7 days and T3 - 14 days after tooth brushing. Data was analyzed by repeated measures mixed ANOVA and the Bonferroni post hoc test, with a significance level of 5%. Statistically significant differences were found between different experimental groups, evaluation times and for the interaction between them (p < 0.001. Tooth brushing using either bleaching toothpaste (conventional or with Blue Covarine showed no color alteration on teeth previously bleached by in-office and at-home tooth bleaching. The use of bleaching toothpastes on previously bleached teeth did not produce a color alteration.

  5. Bond strength of resin composite to light activated bleached enamel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-02

    Sep 2, 2015 ... After setting of the cement, a composite resin (Variolink II) block was .... do not completely duplicate the physical and chemical properties of the oral ... peroxide concentrations on the corrosion behavior and surface topography.

  6. Zinc-Containing Hydroxyapatite Enhances Cold-Light-Activated Tooth Bleaching Treatment In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-light bleaching treatment has grown to be a popular tooth whitening procedure in recent years, but its side effect of dental enamel demineralization is a widespread problem. The aim of this study was to synthesize zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite as an effective biomaterial to inhibit demineralization or increase remineralization. We synthesized zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite containing different zinc concentrations and analysed the product using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The biological assessment of Zn-HA was conducted by CCK-8 assay and bacterial inhibition tests. pH cycling was performed to estimate the effect of Zn-HA on the enamel surface after cold-light bleaching treatment. The XRD, FTIR, and EDS results illustrated that zinc ions and hydroxyapatite combined in two forms: (1 Zn2+ absorbed on the surface of HA crystal and (2 Zn2+ incorporated into the lattice of HA. The results indicated that 2% Zn-HA, 4% Zn-HA, and 8% Zn-HA effectively inhibited the growth of bacteria yet showed poor biocompatibility, whereas 1% Zn-HA positively affected osteoblast proliferation. The XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM results showed that the use of Zn-HA in pH cycling is obviously beneficial for enamel remineralization. Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite could be a promising biomaterial for use in cold-light bleaching to prevent enamel demineralization.

  7. Zinc-Containing Hydroxyapatite Enhances Cold-Light-Activated Tooth Bleaching Treatment In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xinchang

    2017-01-01

    Cold-light bleaching treatment has grown to be a popular tooth whitening procedure in recent years, but its side effect of dental enamel demineralization is a widespread problem. The aim of this study was to synthesize zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite as an effective biomaterial to inhibit demineralization or increase remineralization. We synthesized zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite containing different zinc concentrations and analysed the product using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The biological assessment of Zn-HA was conducted by CCK-8 assay and bacterial inhibition tests. pH cycling was performed to estimate the effect of Zn-HA on the enamel surface after cold-light bleaching treatment. The XRD, FTIR, and EDS results illustrated that zinc ions and hydroxyapatite combined in two forms: (1) Zn2+ absorbed on the surface of HA crystal and (2) Zn2+ incorporated into the lattice of HA. The results indicated that 2% Zn-HA, 4% Zn-HA, and 8% Zn-HA effectively inhibited the growth of bacteria yet showed poor biocompatibility, whereas 1% Zn-HA positively affected osteoblast proliferation. The XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the use of Zn-HA in pH cycling is obviously beneficial for enamel remineralization. Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite could be a promising biomaterial for use in cold-light bleaching to prevent enamel demineralization. PMID:29159178

  8. Measurement of opalescence of tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Yu, Bin

    2007-08-01

    Opalescent dental esthetic restoratives look natural and esthetic in any light, react to light in the same manner as the natural tooth and show improved masking effect. The objective of this study was to determine the opalescence of tooth enamel with reflection spectrophotometers. Color of intact bovine and human enamel was measured in the reflectance and transmittance modes. Two kinds of spectrophotometers were used for bovine and one kind was used for human enamel. The opalescence parameter (OP) was calculated as the difference in yellow-blue color coordinate (CIE Deltab(*)) and red-green color coordinate (CIE Deltaa(*)) between the reflected and transmitted colors. Mean OP value of bovine enamel was 10.6 (+/-1.4) to 19.0 (+/-2.1), and varied by the configuration of spectrophotometers. Mean OP value of human enamel was 22.9 (+/-1.9). Opalescence varied by the configuration of measuring spectrophotometer and the species of enamel. These values could be used in the development of esthetic restorative materials.

  9. Bleaching of Wool with Sodium Borohydride

    OpenAIRE

    Duygu Yilmazer, MSc.; Mehmet Kanik, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    An untreated wool fabric was bleached both with sodium borohydride (SBH) in the presence of sodium bisulphite (SBS) solution and with a commercial H2O2 bleaching method. The concentration effects of SBH and SBS, bleaching time, pH and temperature on SBH bleaching process were investigated. Whiteness, yellowness and alkali solubility results were assessed for both bleaching methods. The results showed that whiteness degrees obtained with SBH bleaching was comparable with that of H2O2 bleaching...

  10. BLEACHING NEPTUNE BALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONET Maria Angeles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Posidonia Oceanic is a seaweed from Mediterranean Sea and it is more concentrated at the Balerian SEA. This implies the Valencian Community also. It forms vaste underwater meadows in the sea and are part of the Mediterranean ecosystem. It is a sea-grass specie with fruits and flowers. Leaves are ribbon-like and they grow in winter and at the end of summer some of them are separated and arrive to some sea line. Fuit is separated and can floate, it is known as “the olive of the sea” mainly in Italy, or as the Neptune Balls. As it can be used in different fields, it is is being studied in order ro have the precitice tests. Some authors have reported the manufacturing of fully bio-based comites with a gluten matrix by hot-press molding. And it has been considered as an effective insulator for building industry or even though to determine the presence of mercure in the Mediterranean sea some years ago. As many applications can be designed from that fibers, it has been considered to be bleached in order to used them in fashionable products. Consequently, its original brown color is not the most suitable one and it should be bleached as many other cellulosic fibers. The aim of this paper is to bleache neptune balls however, the inner fibers were not accessible at all and it implied not to bleach the inner fibers in the neptune ball. Further studiesd will consider bleaching the individualized fibers.

  11. Investigation of 16% carbamide-peroxide on the structure and properties and effect return enamel staining teeth whitening after their

    OpenAIRE

    Matvijenko Vladimir; Živković M.; Videnović G.; Kostić-Šubarić Lj.; Živković D.; Perić D.; Jovanović R.

    2015-01-01

    The most tooth whitening is a procedure that removes stains and various discolorations of tooth surface. Discoloration of teeth may be endogenous and exogenous nature. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of bleaching combined with daily use of drinks that cause tooth discoloration. Evaluated the changes in surface structure of enamel, and changes in hardness after bleaching. Were 20 extracted teeth. The teeth are marked with longitudinal lines halves (medial vestibular and dis...

  12. Fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth: effect of combination bleaching and an antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Feiz, Atieh; Khodamoradi, Roghayeh

    2010-01-01

    This in vitro study assessed the fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth undergoing combination bleaching with 38% and 9.5% hydrogen peroxide gels as in-office and at-home bleaching techniques, respectively. In addition, the effect of an antioxidizing agent, sodium ascorbate, was investigated. Sixty maxillary premolars were endodontically-treated, received a glass ionomer barrier as a mechanical seal and were embedded in acrylic resin up to the cemento-enamel junction. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 15) as follows: G I: no bleaching, access cavity restored with resin composite (negative control); G II: bleached for three weeks daily using 9.5% hydrogen peroxide for two hours and three sessions of in-office bleaching using 38% hydrogen peroxide every seven days, then restored (positive control); G III: bleached similar to G II and restored after one week; G IV: bleached similar to G II, along with the use of an antioxidizing agent for 24 hours, then restored. In each in-office and at-home bleaching session, the whitening gels were applied to the buccal surface of the tooth and placed inside the pulp chamber (inside/outside bleaching technique). Finally, the specimens underwent fracture resistance testing; the data were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffé's test (alpha = 0.05). Significant differences were observed among the study groups (p 0.05). Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth decreases after combination bleaching. The use of sodium ascorbate can reverse decreased fracture resistance.

  13. Investigation of 16% carbamide-peroxide on the structure and properties and effect return enamel staining teeth whitening after their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvijenko Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most tooth whitening is a procedure that removes stains and various discolorations of tooth surface. Discoloration of teeth may be endogenous and exogenous nature. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of bleaching combined with daily use of drinks that cause tooth discoloration. Evaluated the changes in surface structure of enamel, and changes in hardness after bleaching. Were 20 extracted teeth. The teeth are marked with longitudinal lines halves (medial vestibular and distal surfaces. Tretitana mesial half of the 16% carbamide peroxide, a distal was left as control. NDT device HL-400DL, duroskopskom method of enamel hardness was measured before treatment, after treatment and after remineralization. Olympus inverted microscope GX41 enamel structures were observed in the treated and control half of the tooth. After bleaching there is a difference compared to the untreated surface, that surface is bleached a few shades lighter, but after the use of coffee and soft drinks teeth back to the original dark color. Enamel microhardness after the treatment is somewhat small but not significant. With a magnification of 2000x and see the structural changes in enamel. Tooth whitening, but that the remineralization and the abstinence from prebojenih beverages and tobacco.

  14. Endocytosis and Enamel Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Dat Pham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enamel formation requires consecutive stages of development to achieve its characteristic extreme mineral hardness. Mineralization depends on the initial presence then removal of degraded enamel proteins from the matrix via endocytosis. The ameloblast membrane resides at the interface between matrix and cell. Enamel formation is controlled by ameloblasts that produce enamel in stages to build the enamel layer (secretory stage and to reach final mineralization (maturation stage. Each stage has specific functional requirements for the ameloblasts. Ameloblasts adopt different cell morphologies during each stage. Protein trafficking including the secretion and endocytosis of enamel proteins is a fundamental task in ameloblasts. The sites of internalization of enamel proteins on the ameloblast membrane are specific for every stage. In this review, an overview of endocytosis and trafficking of vesicles in ameloblasts is presented. The pathways for internalization and routing of vesicles are described. Endocytosis is proposed as a mechanism to remove debris of degraded enamel protein and to obtain feedback from the matrix on the status of the maturing enamel.

  15. Near-UV laser treatment of extrinsic dental enamel stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, J E; Seka, W; Featherstone, J D B; Rechmann, P

    2012-04-01

    The selective ablation of extrinsic dental enamel stains using a 400-nm laser is evaluated at several fluences for completely removing stains with minimal damage to the underlying enamel. A frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser (400-nm wavelength, 60-nanosecond pulse duration, 10-Hz repetition rate) was used to treat 10 extracted human teeth with extrinsic enamel staining. Each tooth was irradiated perpendicular to the surface in a back-and-forth motion over a 1-mm length using an ∼300-µm-diam 10th-order super-Gaussian beam with fluences ranging from 0.8 to 6.4 J/cm(2) . Laser triangulation determined stain depth and volume removed by measuring 3D surface images before and after irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy evaluated the surface roughness of enamel following stain removal. Fluorescence spectroscopy measured spectra of unbleached and photobleached stains in the spectral range of 600-800 nm. Extrinsic enamel stains are removed with laser fluences between 0.8 and 6.4 J/cm(2) . Stains removed on sound enamel leave behind a smooth enamel surface. Stain removal in areas with signs of earlier cariogenic acid attacks resulted in isolated and randomly located laser-induced, 50-µm-diam enamel pits. These pits contain 0.5-µm diam, smooth craters indicative of heat transfer from the stain to the enamel and subsequent melting and water droplet ejection. Ablation stalling of enamel stains is typically observed at low fluences (Laser ablation of extrinsic enamel stains at 400 nm is observed to be most efficient above 3 J/cm(2) with minimal damage to the underlying enamel. Unsound underlying enamel is also observed to be selectively removed after irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of erosive, cariogenic or combined erosive/cariogenic challenges on human enamel: an in situ/ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honório, H M; Rios, D; Santos, C F; Magalhães, A C; Buzalaf, M A R; Machado, M A A M

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with cariogenic diet can also consume erosive beverages. Thus, it seems necessary to investigate a possible caries/erosion interaction. To test in situ/ex vivo a combination of these challenges, 11 subjects wore intraoral appliances containing four enamel blocks randomly assigned. In the first 2-week phase, the appliances were immersed in a cola drink 3 times/day. Two blocks were free of plaque (erosion only: EO) and two blocks were covered with plaque (erosion + plaque: EP). In the second 2-week phase, four new blocks were all covered with plaque and subjected to a sucrose solution 8 times/day. Among the four new blocks, two were also subjected to the cola drink 3 times/day (erosion + caries: EC) while the other two were not (caries only: CO). Thus, in EO, the specimens were fixed at the intraoral appliance level. In EP, EC and CO they were fixed 1.0 mm under the appliance level and covered with plastic meshes for dental plaque accumulation. Changes in wear and hardness were measured. Data were tested using ANOVA and Tukey's test (p cariogenic challenges showed less enamel alterations when compared to erosive or cariogenic challenges only. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Spectral analysis of paramagnetic centers induced in human tooth enamel by x-rays and gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, V. A.; Kuchuro, I. I.

    2010-03-01

    Based on study of spectral and relaxation characteristics, we have established that paramagnetic centers induced in tooth enamel by x-rays and gamma radiation are identical in nature. We show that for the same exposure dose, the intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal induced by x-radiation with effective energy 34 keV is about an order of magnitude higher than the amplitude of the signal induced by gamma radiation. We have identified a three-fold attenuation of the EPR signal along the path of the x-radiation from the buccal to the lingual side of a tooth, which is evidence that the individual had undergone diagnostic x-ray examination of the dentition or skull. We have shown that the x-ray exposure doses reconstructed from the EPR spectra are an order of magnitude higher than the applied doses, while the dose loads due to gamma radiation are equal to the applied doses. The data obtained indicate that for adequate reconstruction of individual absorbed doses from EPR spectra of tooth enamel in the population subjected to the combined effect of x-radiation and accidental external gamma radiation as a result of the disaster at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, we need to take into account the contribution to the dose load from diagnostic x-rays in examination of the teeth, jaw, or skull.

  18. Transenamel and transdentinal penetration of hydrogen peroxide applied to cracked or microabrasioned enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briso, A L F; Lima, A P B; Gonçalves, R S; Gallinari, M O; dos Santos, P H

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated transenamel and transdentinal penetration of hydrogen peroxide during tooth whitening recognized in altered enamel by the presence of cracks or microabrasion. We used 72 experimental units (n=20) obtained from bovine incisors: GI-sound enamel; GII-teeth showing visible enamel cracks (4 mm to 5.7 mm in length); and GIII-microabrasioned enamel. The 12 remaining specimens were used to analyze the enamel surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy. The specimens were cylindrical and 5.7 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm thick. A product based on 35% hydrogen peroxide was used for bleaching, following the manufacturer's recommendations for use. To quantify the H2O2 penetration, the specimens were placed in artificial pulp chambers containing an acetate buffer solution. After bleaching, the solution was collected and adequately proportioned with leucocrystal violet, peroxidase enzyme, and deionized water. The resulting solution was evaluated using ultraviolet visible reflectance spectrophotometer equipment. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's PLSD at a significance level of 0.05, and significant differences in the penetration of peroxide in different substrate conditions were observed (penamel was microabraded showed intermediate values when compared to the control group. Microabrasion and the presence of cracks in the enamel make this substrate more susceptible to penetration of hydrogen peroxide during in-office whitening.

  19. Ubiquitous occurrence of chlorinated byproducts of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in bleached food contacting papers and their implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyin; Chen, Mo; Zhao, Fanrong; Mu, Di; Zhang, Zhaobin; Hu, Jianying

    2015-06-16

    The occurrence of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and their six chlorinated byproducts were investigated in 74 food contacting papers (FCPs) from China, the U.S.A., Japan, and Europe using a sensitive dansylation LC-MS/MS method. BPA (paper production. The mean concentrations of monochloro-BPA (MCBPA), dichloro-BPA (DCBPA), trichloro-BPA (TCBPA), tetrachloro-BPA (TeCBPA), monochloro-NP (MCNP), and dichloro-NP (DCNP) in bleached FCPs were 0.019 ± 0.025, 0.0033 ± 0.0059, 0.0030 ± 0.0045, 0.0081 ± 0.019, 0.23 ± 0.46, and 0.066 ± 0.11 ng/g, respectively, much higher than those (0.0021 ± 0.0020 ng/g for MCBPA, 0.00068 ± 0.00076 ng/g for DCBPA, human exposure to BPA, NP, and their chlorinated derivatives.

  20. Effects of 45S5 bioglass on surface properties of dental enamel subjected to 35% hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng; Wen, Hai-Lin; Dong, Xiao-Li; Li, Feng; Xu, Xin; Li, Hong; Li, Ji-Yao; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2013-06-01

    Tooth bleaching agents may weaken the tooth structure. Therefore, it is important to minimize any risks of tooth hard tissue damage caused by bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of applying 45S5 bioglass (BG) before, after, and during 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching on whitening efficacy, physicochemical properties and microstructures of bovine enamel. Seventy-two bovine enamel blocks were prepared and randomly divided into six groups: distilled deionized water (DDW), BG, HP, BG before HP, BG after HP and BG during HP. Colorimetric and microhardness tests were performed before and after the treatment procedure. Representative specimens from each group were selected for morphology investigation after the final tests. A significant color change was observed in group HP, BG before HP, BG after HP and BG during HP. The microhardness loss was in the following order: group HP>BG before HP, BG after HP>BG during HP>DDW, BG. The most obvious morphological alteration of was observed on enamel surfaces in group HP, and a slight morphological alteration was also detected in group BG before HP and BG after HP. Our findings suggest that the combination use of BG and HP could not impede the tooth whitening efficacy. Using BG during HP brought better protective effect than pre/post-bleaching use of BG, as it could more effectively reduce the mineral loss as well as retain the surface integrity of enamel. BG may serve as a promising biomimetic adjunct for bleaching therapy to prevent/restore the enamel damage induced by bleaching agents.

  1. Enamelin is critical for ameloblast integrity and enamel ultrastructure formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C-C Hu

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human enamelin gene cause autosomal dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta in which the affected enamel is thin or absent. Study of enamelin knockout NLS-lacZ knockin mice revealed that mineralization along the distal membrane of ameloblast is deficient, resulting in no true enamel formation. To determine the function of enamelin during enamel formation, we characterized the developing teeth of the Enam-/- mice, generated amelogenin-driven enamelin transgenic mouse models, and then introduced enamelin transgenes into the Enam-/- mice to rescue enamel defects. Mice at specific stages of development were subjected to morphologic and structural analysis using β-galactosidase staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Enamelin expression was ameloblast-specific. In the absence of enamelin, ameloblasts pathology became evident at the onset of the secretory stage. Although the aggregated ameloblasts generated matrix-containing amelogenin, they were not able to create a well-defined enamel space or produce normal enamel crystals. When enamelin is present at half of the normal quantity, enamel was thinner with enamel rods not as tightly arranged as in wild type suggesting that a specific quantity of enamelin is critical for normal enamel formation. Enamelin dosage effect was further demonstrated in transgenic mouse lines over expressing enamelin. Introducing enamelin transgene at various expression levels into the Enam-/- background did not fully recover enamel formation while a medium expresser in the Enam+/- background did. Too much or too little enamelin abolishes the production of enamel crystals and prism structure. Enamelin is essential for ameloblast integrity and enamel formation.

  2. Enamelin Is Critical for Ameloblast Integrity and Enamel Ultrastructure Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jan C.-C.; Hu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yuhe; Smith, Charles E.; Lertlam, Rangsiyakorn; Wright, John Timothy; Suggs, Cynthia; McKee, Marc D.; Beniash, Elia; Kabir, M. Enamul; Simmer, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the human enamelin gene cause autosomal dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta in which the affected enamel is thin or absent. Study of enamelin knockout NLS-lacZ knockin mice revealed that mineralization along the distal membrane of ameloblast is deficient, resulting in no true enamel formation. To determine the function of enamelin during enamel formation, we characterized the developing teeth of the Enam−/− mice, generated amelogenin-driven enamelin transgenic mouse models, and then introduced enamelin transgenes into the Enam−/− mice to rescue enamel defects. Mice at specific stages of development were subjected to morphologic and structural analysis using β-galactosidase staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Enamelin expression was ameloblast-specific. In the absence of enamelin, ameloblasts pathology became evident at the onset of the secretory stage. Although the aggregated ameloblasts generated matrix-containing amelogenin, they were not able to create a well-defined enamel space or produce normal enamel crystals. When enamelin is present at half of the normal quantity, enamel was thinner with enamel rods not as tightly arranged as in wild type suggesting that a specific quantity of enamelin is critical for normal enamel formation. Enamelin dosage effect was further demonstrated in transgenic mouse lines over expressing enamelin. Introducing enamelin transgene at various expression levels into the Enam−/− background did not fully recover enamel formation while a medium expresser in the Enam+/− background did. Too much or too little enamelin abolishes the production of enamel crystals and prism structure. Enamelin is essential for ameloblast integrity and enamel formation. PMID:24603688

  3. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by μ-PIGE/PIXE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Kinugawa, M.; Okuyama, K.; Nomachi, M.; Yasuda, K.; Satoh, T.; Oikawa, S.

    2011-01-01

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air μ-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX GP FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 μm of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  4. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by {mu}-PIGE/PIXE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, H., E-mail: kom@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, 1-8 Yamada-Oka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Matsuda, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Kinugawa, M.; Okuyama, K. [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Nomachi, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yasuda, K. [Wakasa Wan Energy Research Center, 64-52-1 Hase, Tsuruga 914-0192 (Japan); Satoh, T. [Advanced Radiation Technology, TARRI, JAEA, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Oikawa, S. [National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air {mu}-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX{sub GP} FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 {mu}m of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  5. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  6. A comparative study on component volumes from outer to inner dental enamel in relation to enamel tufts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setally Azevedo Macena, Marcus; de Alencar e Silva Leite, Maria Luísa; de Lima Gouveia, Cíntia; de Lima, Tamires Alcoforado Sena; Athayde, Priscilla Alves Aguiar; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Dental enamel presents marked mechanical properties gradients from outer to inner enamel, a region lacking component volumes profiles. Tufts, structures of inner enamel, have been shown to play a role in enamel resilience. We aimed at comparing component volumes from inner to outer enamel in relation to enamel tufts. Transversal ground sections from the cervical half of unerupted human third molars (n=10) were prepared and histological points were selected along transversal lines (extending from innermost to outer enamel) traced across tufts and adjacent control areas without tufts. Component volumes were measured at each histological point. Component volumes ranges were: 70.6-98.5% (mineral), 0.02-20.78% (organic), 3.8-9.8% (total water), 3-9% (firmly bound water), and 0.02-3.3% (loosely bound water). Inner enamel presented the lowest mineral volumes and the highest non-mineral volumes. Mineral, water and organic contents differed as a function of the distance from innermost enamel but not between the tuft and control lines. Tufts presented opaqueness in polarizing microscopy (feature of fracture lines). Organic volume gradient correlated with a relatively flat profile of loosely bound water. Inner, but not outer enamel, rehydrated after air-dried enamel was heated to 50°C and re-exposed to room conditions, as predicted by the organic/water gradient profiles. Component volumes vary markedly from outer to inner enamel, but not between areas with or without tufts (that behave like fracture lines under polarizing microscopy). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein- mediated enamel mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Enamel is a hard nanocomposite bioceramic with significant resilience that protects the mammalian tooth from external physical and chemical damages. The remarkable mechanical properties of enamel are associated with its hierarchical structural organization and its thorough connection with underlying dentin. This dynamic mineralizing system offers scientists a wealth of information that allows the study of basic principals of organic matrix-mediated biomineralization and can potentially be utilized in the fields of material science and engineering for development and design of biomimetic materials. This chapter will provide a brief overview of enamel hierarchical structure and properties as well as the process and stages of amelogenesis. Particular emphasis is given to current knowledge of extracellular matrix protein and proteinases, and the structural chemistry of the matrix components and their putative functions. The chapter will conclude by discussing the potential of enamel for regrowth. PMID:22652761

  8. Human permanent teeth are divided into two parts at the cemento-enamel junction in the divine golden ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Rahul; Sarode, Sachin C; Sarode, Gargi S; Patil, Shankargouda

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out whether tooth length (crown length + root length) follows the rule of most divine and mysterious phi (ϕ) or the golden ratio. A total of 140 teeth were included in the study. The crown-root ratio was manually calculated using vernier caliper and its approximation to golden ratio or the divine number phi (ϕ) was examined. The average root-crown ratio (R/C) for maxillary central incisor was 1.627 ± 0.04, and of its antagonist, mandibular central incisor was 1.628 ± 0.02. The tooth-root ratio (T/R) for the same was 1.609 ± 0.016 and 1.61 ± 0.008, respectively. Similar values were appreciated for lateral incisors where the R/C ratio in the maxillary and mandibular teeth was 1.632 ± 0.015 and 1.641 ± 0.012 and the T/R ratio was 1.606 ± 0.005 and 1.605 ± 0.005, respectively. On measuring the tooth length in linear fashion from the cusp tip to the root apex, we found that the tooth was divided into two parts at the cemento-enamel junction in the golden ratio. This information can be exploited in restorative and implant dentistry in future.

  9. Intra-individual metameric variation expressed at the enamel-dentine junction of lower post-canine dentition of South African fossil hominins and modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Thackeray, John Francis; Dumoncel, Jean; Zanolli, Clément; Oettlé, Anna; de Beer, Frikkie; Hoffman, Jakobus; Duployer, Benjamin; Tenailleau, Christophe; Braga, José

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the degree and patterning of inter- and intra-individual metameric variation in South African australopiths, early Homo and modern humans. Metameric variation likely reflects developmental and taxonomical issues, and could also be used to infer ecological and functional adaptations. However, its patterning along the early hominin postcanine dentition, particularly among South African fossil hominins, remains unexplored. Using microfocus X-ray computed tomography (µXCT) and geometric morphometric tools, we studied the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) morphology and we investigated the intra- and inter-individual EDJ metameric variation among eight australopiths and two early Homo specimens from South Africa, as well as 32 modern humans. Along post-canine dentition, shape changes between metameres represented by relative positions and height of dentine horns, outlines of the EDJ occlusal table are reported in modern and fossil taxa. Comparisons of EDJ mean shapes and multivariate analyses reveal substantial variation in the direction and magnitude of metameric shape changes among taxa, but some common trends can be found. In modern humans, both the direction and magnitude of metameric shape change show increased variability in M 2 -M 3 compared to M 1 -M 2 . Fossil specimens are clustered together showing similar magnitudes of shape change. Along M 2 -M 3 , the lengths of their metameric vectors are not as variable as those of modern humans, but they display considerable variability in the direction of shape change. The distalward increase of metameric variation along the modern human molar row is consistent with the odontogenetic models of molar row structure (inhibitory cascade model). Though much remains to be tested, the variable trends and magnitudes in metamerism in fossil hominins reported here, together with differences in the scale of shape change between modern humans and fossil hominins may provide valuable information

  10. Effects of fluoride or nanohydroxiapatite on roughness and gloss of bleached teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedreira De Freitas, Ana Carolina; Botta, Sérgio Brossi; Teixeira, Fernanda De Sá; Salvadori, Maria Cecília Barbosa Silveira; Garone-Netto, Narciso

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe roughness and gloss alterations of enamel after treatment with 38% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and after polishing with 2% neutral sodium fluoride (SF) or a dental tooth paste containing nanohydroxiapatite particles (nHA) using power spectral density (PSD) description, roughness parameters (Ra, RMS, and Z range) and gloss analysis. An atomic force microscope (AFM) and a spectrophotometer were used to analyze eighteen specimens of upper incisors. After initial analyses, all specimens were bleached with 38% HP for 135 min. The specimens were analyzed after bleaching. Nine specimens were polished with SF (Group Fluor) and the other nine specimens were polished with nHA (Group nHA), then all specimens were analyzed after polishing. Roughness and gloss were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's t-test. No statistical difference was found for Ra and RMS among initial, after bleaching and after polishing in both groups. For Z range, Group nHA showed a significant decrease after polishing. Bleaching with 38% HP did not increase the PSD in the spatial frequency of the visible light spectrum range in both groups. After polishing, nHA group showed a decrease in PSD for all morphological wavelengths. Gloss did not show statistical difference after bleaching in both groups. Gloss showed significant increase after polishing with nHA. bleaching treatment with 38% HP didn't alter enamel surface roughness or gloss. PSD analyses were very suitable to identifying the morphological changes on the surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of hydrogen peroxide bleaching strip gels on dental restorative materials in vitro: surface microhardness and surface morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschner, Heinz; Götz, Hermann; White, Donald J; Kozak, Kathleen M; Zoladz, James R

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of peroxide tooth bleaching, including Crest Whitestrips hydrogen peroxide gel treatments, on the surface hardness and morphology of common dental restorative treatments. American Dental Association (ADA) recommended dental restorative materials, including amalgam, dental gold, porcelain, glass ionomer, and composites, were prepared according to manufacturers' instructions. A cycling treatment methodology was employed which alternated ex vivo human salivary exposures with bleaching treatments under conditions of controlled temperature and durations of treatment. Bleaching treatments included commercial Crest Whitestrips bleaching gels, which utilize hydrogen peroxide as the in situ bleaching source, and several commercial carbamide peroxide bleaching gels. Control treatments included placebo gels and an untreated group. Crest Whitestrips bleaching included treatment exposures simulating recommended clinical exposures (14 hours), along with excess bleaching simulating exposure to five times suggested Crest Whitestrips use. At the conclusion of treatments, surface microhardness measures and surface morphological assessments with standard and variable pressure (VP-) SEMs were conducted to assess the effects of bleaching exposure on the surface morphology and structural integrity of the restoratives. Surface microhardness and SEM measures revealed no significant deleterious effects on the restoration surfaces from Whitestrips gels. These results confirm that tooth bleaching from the selected commercial hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide bleaching systems does not produce changes in surface morphology or microhardness of common dental restorative materials. These results support the clinical safety of the selected commercial bleaching systems to the oral environment, matching results obtained from long-term use of these ingredients applied in dental offices and available in commercial formulations.

  12. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Young Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Enamel microabrasion has become accepted as a conservative, nonrestorative method of removing intrinsic and superficial dysmineralization defects from dental fluorosis, restoring esthetics with minimal loss of enamel. However, it can be difficult to determine if restoration is necessary in dental fluorosis, because the lesion depth is often not easily recognized. This case report presents a method for analysis of enamel hypoplasia that uses quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF followed by a combination of enamel microabrasion with carbamide peroxide home bleaching. We describe the utility of QLF when selecting a conservative treatment plan and confirming treatment efficacy. In this case, the treatment plan was based on QLF analysis, and the selected combination treatment of microabrasion and bleaching had good results.

  13. Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. W.

    1993-03-01

    Coral reef bleaching, the whitening of diverse invertebrate taxa, results from the loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae and/or a reduction in photosynthetic pigment concentrations in zooxanthellae residing within the gastrodermal tissues of host animals. Of particular concern are the consequences of bleaching of large numbers of reef-building scleractinian corals and hydrocorals. Published records of coral reef bleaching events from 1870 to the present suggest that the frequency (60 major events from 1979 to 1990), scale (co-occurrence in many coral reef regions and often over the bathymetric depth range of corals) and severity (>95% mortality in some areas) of recent bleaching disturbances are unprecedented in the scientific literature. The causes of small scale, isolated bleaching events can often be explained by particular stressors (e.g., temperature, salinity, light, sedimentation, aerial exposure and pollutants), but attempts to explain large scale bleaching events in terms of possible global change (e.g., greenhouse warming, increased UV radiation flux, deteriorating ecosystem health, or some combination of the above) have not been convincing. Attempts to relate the severity and extent of large scale coral reef bleaching events to particular causes have been hampered by a lack of (a) standardized methods to assess bleaching and (b) continuous, long-term data bases of environmental conditions over the periods of interest. An effort must be made to understand the impact of bleaching on the remainder of the reef community and the long-term effects on competition, predation, symbioses, bioerosion and substrate condition, all factors that can influence coral recruitment and reef recovery. If projected rates of sea warming are realized by mid to late AD 2000, i.e. a 2°C increase in high latitude coral seas, the upper thermal tolerance limits of many reef-building corals could be exceeded. Present evidence suggests that many corals would be unable to adapt

  14. The fracture behaviour of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, Sabine; Habelitz, Stefan; Klocke, Arndt; Fett, Theo; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-01-01

    Enamel is the hardest tissue in the human body covering the crowns of teeth. Whereas the underlying dental material dentin is very well characterized in terms of mechanical and fracture properties, available data for enamel are quite limited and are apart from the most recent investigation mainly based on indentation studies. Within the current study, stable crack-growth experiments in bovine enamel have been performed, to measure fracture resistance curves for enamel. Single edge notched bending specimens (SENB) prepared out of bovine incisors were tested in 3-point bending and subsequently analysed using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Cracks propagated primarily within the protein-rich rod sheaths and crack propagation occurred under an inclined angle to initial notch direction not only due to enamel rod and hydroxyapatite crystallite orientation but potentially also due to protein shearing. Determined mode I fracture resistance curves ranged from 0.8-1.5 MPa*m(1/2) at the beginning of crack propagation up to 4.4 MPa*m(1/2) at 500 microm crack extension; corresponding mode II values ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 MPa*m(1/2).

  15. Impact of toothbrushing with a dentifrice containing calcium peroxide on enamel color and roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Diala Aretha de Sousa; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; Pinheiro, Fabio Henrique de Sa Leitao; Duarte, Rosangela Marques; Araujo, Renato Evangelista de; Braz, Rodivan; Santos, Maria Carmo Moreira da Silva; Montes, Marcos Antonio Japiassu Resende

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate both the bleaching potential and changes to average surface roughness (Ra) of enamel after brushing with a dentifrice. Fifty-four enamel specimens (4 x 4 x 2 mm) were divided into 3 groups (n = 18) and treated with 1 of 3 dentifrices: 1 with calcium peroxide, and 2 without. The samples were submitted to 20,000 brushing cycles. Color and Ra were measured before and after brushing. Although the Ra increased in all groups after brushing, only the dentifrice containing calcium peroxide resulted in an increase in reflectance.

  16. Enamel Defects Reflect Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedeon, Katia; De la Dure-Molla, Muriel; Brookes, Steven J.; Loiodice, Sophia; Marciano, Clémence; Kirkham, Jennifer; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Boudalia, Sofiane; Bergès, Raymond; Harada, Hidemitsu; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA), are environmental ubiquitous pollutants and associated with a growing health concern. Anecdotally, molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is increasing concurrently with EDC-related conditions, which has led us to investigate the effect of BPA on amelogenesis. Rats were exposed daily to BPA from conception until day 30 or 100. At day 30, BPA-affected enamel exhibited hypomineralization similar to human MIH. Scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis revealed an abnormal accumulation of organic material in erupted enamel. BPA-affected enamel had an abnormal accumulation of exogenous albumin in the maturation stage. Quantitative real-timePCR, Western blotting, and luciferase reporter assays revealed increased expression of enamelin but decreased expression of kallikrein 4 (protease essential for removing enamel proteins) via transcriptional regulation. Data suggest that BPA exerts its effects on amelogenesis by disrupting normal protein removal from the enamel matrix. Interestingly, in 100-day-old rats, erupting incisor enamel was normal, suggesting amelogenesis is only sensitive to MIH-causing agents during a specific time window during development (as reported for human MIH). The present work documents the first experimental model that replicates MIH and presents BPA as a potential causative agent of MIH. Because human enamel defects are irreversible, MIH may provide an easily accessible marker for reporting early EDC exposure in humans. PMID:23764278

  17. Towards enamel biomimetics: Structure, mechanical properties and biomineralization of dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Hanson Kwok

    Dental enamel is the most mineralized tissue in the human body. This bioceramic, composed largely of hydroxyapatite (HAp), is also one of the most durable tissues despite a lifetime of masticatory loading and bacterial attack. The biosynthesis of enamel, which occurs in physiological conditions is a complex orchestration of protein assembly and mineral formation. The resulting product is the hardest tissue in the vertebrate body with the longest and most organized arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals known to biomineralizing systems. Detail understanding of the structure of enamel in relationship to its mechanical function and the biomineralization process will provide a framework for enamel regeneration as well as potential lessons in the design of engineering materials. The objective of this study, therefore, is twofold: (1) establish the structure-function relationship of enamel as well as the dentine-enamel junction (DEJ) and (2) determine the effect of proteins on the enamel biomineralization process. A hierarchy in the enamel structure was established by means of various microscopy techniques (e.g. SEM, TEM, AFM). Mechanical properties (hardness and elastic modulus) associated with the microstructural features were also determined by nanoindentation. Furthermore, the DEJ was found to have a width in the range of micrometers to 10s of micrometers with continuous change in structure and mechanical properties. Indentation tests and contact fatigue tests using a spherical indenter have revealed that the structural features in the enamel and the DEJ played important roles in containing crack propagation emanating from the enamel tissue. To further understand the effect of this protein on the biominerailzation process, we have studied genetically engineered animals that express altered amelogenin which lack the known self-assembly properties. This in vivo study has revealed that, without the proper self-assembly of the amelogenin protein as demonstrated by the

  18. Thermal induced EPR signals in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattibene, P.; Aragno, D.; Onori, S.; Pressello, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to detect the effects of temperature on powdered human tooth enamel, not irradiated in the laboratory. Samples were heated at temperature between 350 and 450, at 600 and at 1000 deg. C, for different heating times, between 6 min and 39 h. Changes in the EPR spectra were detected, with the formation of new signals. Possible correlation between the changes in EPR spectra and modifications in the enamel and in the mineral phase of bone detected with other techniques is discussed. The implications for dosimetric applications of signals induced by overheating due to mechanical friction during sample preparation are underlined

  19. Sea otter dental enamel is highly resistant to chipping due to its microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziscovici, Charles; Lucas, Peter W; Constantino, Paul J; Bromage, Timothy G; van Casteren, Adam

    2014-10-01

    Dental enamel is prone to damage by chipping with large hard objects at forces that depend on chip size and enamel toughness. Experiments on modern human teeth have suggested that some ante-mortem chips on fossil hominin enamel were produced by bite forces near physiological maxima. Here, we show that equivalent chips in sea otter enamel require even higher forces than human enamel. Increased fracture resistance correlates with more intense enamel prism decussation, often seen also in some fossil hominins. It is possible therefore that enamel chips in such hominins may have formed at even greater forces than currently envisaged. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectrophotometric and computerized evaluation of tooth bleaching employing 10 different home-bleaching procedures: In-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskersoy, Cem; Tetik, Ayhan; Ozturk, Veli Ozgen; Gokay, Necmi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of bleaching products, determine the applicability and validation of the measurement methods. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 110 human incisor teeth were stained with whole blood and hemolysate solution prior to the application of 10 different home-bleaching products. Spectrophotometric measurements of the tooth shades were performed for each specimen before and after bleaching at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14 days. Differences in lightness (Δl), chroma (Δc), hue (Δh) values and shade changes were measured to evaluate process. Computerized digital imaging analyses to determine the color changes were performed with Photoshop CS4 software (Adobe, San Jose, CA, USA). Statistical analyses were performed with analysis of variance, Scheffe and Tukey tests. Results: In all of the test groups regardless of the material used, a significant increase in lightness and hue, and decrease of chroma were observed, as compared to the control group. After recommended bleaching applications, Δl and Δh values respectively increased in group Zaris White and Brite (ZWB) and group Pola Night and Δc values showed significant decrease in groups ZWB and Rembrandt REM3 (P bleaching systems showed slower but almost permanent bleaching effect likewise office-based methods. Both software and spectrophotometric analyses have advantages such as evaluating the results objectively and numerically, also treatment outcomes could be preserved. PMID:25512738

  1. Fluoride retention in human enamel after a single phosphoric acid and mixed phosphoric acid/SnF2 application in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, P.G.E.; Flissebaalje, T.D.; Groeneveld, A.

    1980-01-01

    Pieces of enamel were treated with either an APF solution or a 1:1 mixture of APF/SnF2 (APF: 1.23 per cent F−, 0.1 M H3PO4; and SnF2: 2 per cent) for 4 min at 37 °C followed by 30 min washing. There was an increase of 1640 parts/106 in the fluoride concentration of APF-treated enamel. Most of the

  2. Brief communication: Enamel thickness and durophagy in mangabeys revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, W Scott; Pampush, James D; Daegling, David J

    2012-02-01

    The documentation of enamel thickness variation across primates is important because enamel thickness has both taxonomic and functional relevance. The Old World monkeys commonly referred to as mangabeys have figured prominently in investigations of feeding ecology and enamel thickness. In this article, we report enamel thickness values for four mangabey taxa (Cercocebus atys, Cercocebus torquatus, Lophocebus aterrimus, and Lophocebus albigena), offer revised interpretation of the significance of thick enamel in papionin evolution, and place our new data in a broader comparative framework. Our data indicate that all mangabeys have thick enamel and that the values obtained for Cercocebus and Lophocebus equal or exceed those published for most extant non-human primates. In addition, new field data combined with a current reading of the dietary literature indicate that hard foods make up a portion of the diet of every mangabey species sampled to date. Clarification on the relationship between diet and enamel thickness among mangabeys is important not only because of recognition that mangabeys are not a natural group but also because of recent arguments that explain thick enamel as an evolved response to the seasonal consumption of hard foods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tooth Whitening And Temperature Rise With Two Bleaching Activation Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-ElMagd, D. M.; El-Sayad, I. I.; Abd El-Gawad, L. M.

    2009-01-01

    To measure the tooth whitening and the surface and Intrapulpal temperature increase in vitro on freshly extracted upper human central incisors after chemical, Zoom AP light and diode laser activated bleaching. Thirty caries-free upper human incisors were selected. Teeth were divided into three equal groups according to the methods of activation of the bleaching agent (n = 10). A whitening gel containing hydrogen peroxide was applied to the buccal surface of all teeth. Group I was bleached using chemically activated hydrogen peroxide gel, for three applications of 15 min each. Group II was bleached with high intensity advanced power Zoom activation light (Zoom AP), for three applications of 15 min each. Group III was bleached with diode laser activation technique, where the teeth were irradiated with 2 Watt diode laser for three applications of 30 sec each. The whitening degree was assessed using an image analysis system, while temperature rise was recorded using a thermocouple on the external tooth surface and Intrapulpal. The degree of whitening increased significantly in all groups. However, the percentage of whitening was not statistically significantly different between the three groups. In addition, group II showed statistically significant higher mean rise in both surface and pulp temperatures than group I and group III. Chemical bleaching produces the same whitening effect as Zoom AP light and laser, with no surface or pulpal temperature rise. Laser application is faster and produces less surface and pulp temperature increase than Zoom AP light. Diode laser used to activate bleaching gels is not considered dangerous to the vitality of dental pulp using power settings of 2 W.

  4. Clarifications, guidelines and questions about the dental bleaching "associated" with orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the best moment for carrying out or recommending dental bleaching to orthodontic patients, some explanations and orientations are given in order to answers the following questions: 1 Why orthodontic treatment completion is considered the best opportunity for carrying out the procedure? 2 Why dental bleaching should not be performed immediately before orthodontic treatment? 3 If that would be possible at any special case, what would that be? 4 Why dental bleaching should not be performed during orthodontic treatment? 5 If that would be possible at any special case, what would that be? This article highlights why it is essential to protect both the mucosa and the cervical region, regardless of the moment when dental bleaching is performed, whether associated with orthodontic treatment or not. The "how", "why" and "if" of whether or not it is convenient to perform dental bleaching before orthodontic treatment are still a matter of clinical suggestion, as it is a procedure that is under analysis, empirical knowledge waiting for scientific proof or disproof! Although tooth enamel has adamantine fluid flowing within it, providing a specific metabolism that is peculiar to its own and which could scientifically explain and base the option of carrying out teeth whitening before and during orthodontic treatment, we must still be very careful.

  5. Effect of Two-minute Application of 35% Sodium Ascorbate on Composite Bond Strength following Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Eman H; Kilinc, Evren; Hardigan, Patrick C; Rothrock, James K; Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Garcia-Godoy, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of 35% sodium ascorbate on microtensile bond strength of dentin immediately after bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide. A total of 25 sound human 3 rd molars were collected. Teeth were randomly divided into five groups for different treatments: Group I [bleaching + immediate bonding (i.e., restoration)], group II (bleaching + delayed bonding), group III (bleaching + sodium ascorbate + immediate bonding), group IV (bleaching + sodium ascorbate + delayed bonding), and group V (bonding only). After bleaching, but before bonding, groups II and IV were stored for 1 week in deionized water at 37°C. All samples were bonded using OptiBoned FL (Kerr) and Filtek Supreme (3M/ESPE). Teeth were sectioned into 1 × 1 mm 2 bars, and microtensile bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine (Instron 8841) at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Microtensile bond strength differed significantly across the five groups, with a significant reduction in microtensile bond strength observed for samples in group I relative to samples in any of the other treatment groups (p bleaching on composite bonding strength to dentin. The negative effects of bleaching on composite bonding can be neutralized by the application of the reversing agent sodium ascorbate thus, increasing the efficiency of clinic chair time. This is clinically relevant for those patients requiring restorative treatment immediately after in-office bleaching.

  6. Keratins as components of the enamel organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Olivier; Beniash, Elia; Morasso, Maria I.

    2016-01-01

    Dental enamel is a hardest tissue in the human body, and although it starts as a tissue rich in proteins, by the time of eruption of the tooth in the oral cavity only a small fraction of the protein remains. While this organic matrix of enamel represents less than 1% by weight it plays essential roles in improving both toughness and resilience to chemical attacks. Despite the fact that the first studies of the enamel matrix began in the 19th century its exact composition and mechanisms of its function remain poorly understood. It was proposed that keratin or a keratin-like primitive epithelial component exists in mature enamel, however due to the extreme insolubility of its organic matrix the presence of keratins there was never clearly established. We have recently identified expression of a number of hair keratins in ameloblasts, the enamel secreting cells, and demonstrated their incorporation into mature enamel. Mutation in epithelial hair keratin KRT75 leads to a skin condition called pseudofollicularis barbae. Carriers of this mutation have an altered enamel structure and mechanical properties. Importantly, these individuals have a much higher prevalence of caries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing a direct link between a mutation in a protein-coding region of a gene and increased caries rates. In this paper we present an overview of the evidence of keratin-like material in enamel that has accumulated over the last 150 years. Furthermore, we propose potential mechanisms of action of KTR75 in enamel and highlight the clinical implications of the link between mutations in KRT75 and caries. Finally, we discuss the potential use of keratins for enamel repair. PMID:26709044

  7. Camel molar tooth enamel response to gamma rays using EPR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Faramawy, N A; El-Somany, I; Mansour, A; Maghraby, A M; Eissa, H; Wieser, A

    2018-03-01

    Tooth enamel samples from molar teeth of camel were prepared using a combined procedure of mechanical and chemical tooth treatment. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the dose response of tooth enamel samples was examined and compared to that of human enamel. The EPR dose response of the tooth enamel samples was obtained through irradiation to gamma doses from 1 Gy up to 100 kGy. It was found that the radiation-induced EPR signal increased linearly with gamma dose for all studied tooth enamel samples, up to about 15 kGy. At higher doses, the dose response curve leveled off. The results revealed that the location of the native signal of camel tooth enamel was similar to that of enamel from human molars at 2.00644, but different from that of enamel from cows and goats. In addition, the peak-to-peak width (ΔH pp ) for human and camel molar teeth was similar. It was also found that the response of camel enamel to gamma radiation was 36% lower than that of human enamel. In conclusion, the results indicate the suitability of camel teeth for retrospective gamma dosimetry.

  8. Camel molar tooth enamel response to gamma rays using EPR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Faramawy, N.A.; El-Somany, I. [Ain Shams University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Mansour, A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Maghraby, A.M.; Eissa, H. [National Institute of Standards (NIS), Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory, Giza (Egypt); Wieser, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Department of Radiation Sciences, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    Tooth enamel samples from molar teeth of camel were prepared using a combined procedure of mechanical and chemical tooth treatment. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the dose response of tooth enamel samples was examined and compared to that of human enamel. The EPR dose response of the tooth enamel samples was obtained through irradiation to gamma doses from 1 Gy up to 100 kGy. It was found that the radiation-induced EPR signal increased linearly with gamma dose for all studied tooth enamel samples, up to about 15 kGy. At higher doses, the dose response curve leveled off. The results revealed that the location of the native signal of camel tooth enamel was similar to that of enamel from human molars at 2.00644, but different from that of enamel from cows and goats. In addition, the peak-to-peak width (ΔH{sub pp}) for human and camel molar teeth was similar. It was also found that the response of camel enamel to gamma radiation was 36% lower than that of human enamel. In conclusion, the results indicate the suitability of camel teeth for retrospective gamma dosimetry. (orig.)

  9. On the critical parameters that regulate the deformation behaviour of tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zonghan; Swain, Michael; Munroe, Paul; Hoffman, Mark

    2008-06-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest tissue in the human body with a complex hierarchical structure. Enamel hypomineralisation--a developmental defect--has been reported to cause a marked reduction in the mechanical properties of enamel and loss of dental function. We discover a distinctive difference in the inelastic deformation mechanism between sound and hypomineralised enamels that is apparently controlled by microstructural variation. For sound enamel, when subjected to mechanical forces the controlling deformation mechanism was distributed shearing within nanometre thick protein layer between its constituent mineral crystals; whereas for hypomineralised enamel microcracking and subsequent crack growth were more evident in its less densely packed microstructure. We develop a mechanical model that not only identifies the critical parameters, i.e., the thickness and shear properties of enamels, that regulate the mechanical behaviour of enamel, but also explains the degradation of hypomineralised enamel as manifested by its lower resistance to deformation and propensity for catastrophic failure. With support of experimental data, we conclude that for sound enamel an optimal microstructure has been developed that endows enamel with remarkable structural integrity for durable mechanical function.

  10. Effect of At-home and In-office Bleaching on Marginal Microleakage in Composite Resin Restorations using Two Adhesive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Celso A; da Silva, Douglas; Reston, Eduardo G; Borghetti, Diana Lb; Zimmer, Roberto

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is to assess marginal microleakage of cervical cavities restored with composite resins and two different adhesive techniques subjected to at-home and in-office bleaching. In this randomized, blind laboratory experiment, 60 bovine teeth recently extracted were collected and divided into six groups (n = 10 each group). The teeth received cervical cavity preparations (2 mm × 3 mm × 1 mm) with enamel margins. Two different adhesive systems were used (Single Bond 2 and Clearfil SE Bond), in addition to composite resin (Z250). Restored teeth received two different bleaching gels (Opalescence PF and Opalescence Boost). Teeth were thermo-cycled and analyzed under confocal laser scanning microscopy. No significant differences were observed (p > 0.05) in microleakage scores between the two groups not subjected to bleaching nor between the four groups that received bleaching treatment (p > 0.05), regardless of the gel and adhesive system employed. However, when comparing nonbleached with bleached teeth, those not subjected to bleaching showed statistically lower marginal microleakage scores (p bleaching agents used both at-home and in-office, regardless of the adhesive system employed (total-etch or self-etch). Both at-home and in-office bleaching agents have an influence on the adhesive interface of resin restorations, producing changes and inducing marginal leakage.

  11. The Effect of 3% Phosphate Ascorbyl Gel on Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Enamel treated with 35% Hydrogen Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Milena de Fátima Schalcher; Silva, Alice Carvalho; Franco, Marcela Mayana Pereira; Silva, Ana Paula Brito; Bramante, Fausto da Silva; da Silva, Monica Barros; Lima, Darlon Martins; Pereira, Adriana de Fátima Vasconcelos

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of 3% phosphate ascorbyl gel (PA) in different times onto the microshear bond strength of composite resin (CR) to bovine enamel treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). Thirty enamel blocks of bovine incisors were made and divided into 5 groups (n = 6) with three specimens per group (n = 18), according to treatment: G1= No bleaching + CR; G2 = HP + CR after 15d; G3 = HP + CR after 24 hours; G4 = HP + PA (15 min) + CR after 24 hours; G5 = HP + PA (2 hours) + CR after 24 hours. The resin cylinders were made by Tygon matrices. Microshear bond strength test was performed using universal testing machine with a 50N load at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Fracture modes were assessed by a stereomicroscope 40 ×. Microshear bond strength values were submitted to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) one-way and Tukey test (p 0.05). Failure modes were categorized into adhesive (90%) and mixed (10%). The use of 3% phosphate ascorbyl gel for 15 minutes was able to improve bond strength of composite resin to bleached bovine enamel, but when 3% phosphate ascorbyl gel was applied during 40 minutes it negatively interfered in the adhesion of the resin to bleached bovine enamel.

  12. Development of fluorapatite cement for dental enamel defects repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Wang, Jiecheng; Shan, Wenpeng; Liu, Xiaochen; Ma, Jian; Liu, Changsheng; Fang, Jing; Wei, Shicheng

    2011-06-01

    In order to restore the badly carious lesion of human dental enamel, a crystalline paste of fluoride substituted apatite cement was synthesized by using the mixture of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) and ammonium fluoride. The apatite cement paste could be directly filled into the enamel defects (cavities) to repair damaged dental enamel. The results indicated that the hardened cement was fluorapatite [Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)F(2), FA] with calcium to phosphorus atom molar ratio (Ca/P) of 1.67 and Ca/F ratio of 5. The solubility of FA cement in Tris-HCl solution (pH = 5) was slightly lower than the natural enamel, indicating the FA cement was much insensitive to the weakly acidic solutions. The FA cement was tightly combined with the enamel surface, and there was no obvious difference of the hardness between the FA cement and natural enamel. The extracts of FA cement caused no cytotoxicity on L929 cells, which satisfied the relevant criterion on dental biomaterials, revealing good cytocompatibility. In addition, the results showed that the FA cement had good mechanical strength, hydrophilicity, and anti-bacterial adhesion properties. The study suggested that using FA cement was simple and promising approach to effectively and conveniently restore enamel defects.

  13. Enamel formation and amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jan C-C; Chun, Yong-Hee P; Al Hazzazzi, Turki; Simmer, James P

    2007-01-01

    Dental enamel is the epithelial-derived hard tissue covering the crowns of teeth. It is the most highly mineralized and hardest tissue in the body. Dental enamel is acellular and has no physiological means of repair outside of the protective and remineralization potential provided by saliva. Enamel is comprised of highly organized hydroxyapatite crystals that form in a defined extracellular space, the contents of which are supplied and regulated by ameloblasts. The entire process is under genetic instruction. The genetic control of amelogenesis is poorly understood, but requires the activities of multiple components that are uniquely important for dental enamel formation. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a collective designation for the variety of inherited conditions displaying isolated enamel malformations, but the designation is also used to indicate the presence of an enamel phenotype in syndromes. Recently, genetic studies have demonstrated the importance of genes encoding enamel matrix proteins in the etiology of isolated AI. Here we review the essential elements of dental enamel formation and the results of genetic analyses that have identified disease-causing mutations in genes encoding enamel matrix proteins. In addition, we provide a fresh perspective on the roles matrix proteins play in catalyzing the biomineralization of dental enamel. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Structural, mechanical and chemical evaluation of molar-incisor hypomineralization-affected enamel: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhennawy, Karim; Manton, David John; Crombie, Felicity; Zaslansky, Paul; Radlanski, Ralf J; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg; Schwendicke, Falk

    2017-11-01

    To systematically assess and contrast reported differences in microstructure, mineral density, mechanical and chemical properties between molar-incisor-hypomineralization-affected (MIH) enamel and unaffected enamel. Studies on extracted human teeth, clinically diagnosed with MIH, reporting on the microstructure, mechanical properties or the chemical composition and comparing them to unaffected enamel were reviewed. Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar) were screened; hand searches and cross-referencing were also performed. Twenty-two studies were included. Fifteen studies on a total of 201 teeth investigated the structural properties, including ten (141 teeth) on microstructure and seven (60 teeth) on mineral density; six (29 teeth) investigated the mechanical properties and eleven (87 teeth) investigated the chemical properties of MIH-affected enamel and compared them to unaffected enamel. Studies unambiguously found a reduction in mineral quantity and quality (reduced Ca and P content), reduction of hardness and modulus of elasticity (also in the clinically sound-appearing enamel bordering the MIH-lesion), an increase in porosity, carbon/carbonate concentrations and protein content compared to unaffected enamel. were ambiguous with regard to the extent of the lesion through the enamel to the enamel-dentin junction, the Ca/P ratio and the association between clinical appearance and defect severity. There is an understanding of the changes related to MIH-affected enamel. The association of these changes with the clinical appearance and resulting implications for clinical management are unclear. MIH-affected enamel is greatly different from unaffected enamel. This has implications for management strategies. The possibility of correlating the clinical appearance of MIH-affected enamel with the severity of enamel changes and deducing clinical concepts (risk stratification etc.) is limited. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Enamel surface remineralization: Using synthetic nanohydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shanti Swarup

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of synthetically processed hydroxyapatite particles in remineralization of the early enamel lesions in comparison with 2% sodium fluoride. Materials and Methods: Thirty sound human premolars were divided into nanohydroxyapatite group (n0 = 15 and the sodium fluoride group (n = 15. The specimens were subjected to demineralization before being coated with 10% aqueous slurry of 20 nm nanohydroxyapatite or 2% sodium fluoride. The remineralizing efficacy of the materials was evaluated using surface microhardness (SMH measurements, scanning microscopic analysis and analysis of the Ca/P ratio of the surface enamel. Data analysis was carried out using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: The results showed that the nanohydroxyapatite group produced a surface morphology close to the biologic enamel, the increase in mineral content (Ca/P ratio was more significant in the nanohydroxyapatite group ( P 0.05. Conclusion: The use of biomimetic nanohydroxyapatite as a remineralizing agent holds promise as a new synthetic enamel biocompatible material to repair early carious lesions.

  16. Further morphological evidence on South African earliest Homo lower postcanine dentition: Enamel thickness and enamel dentine junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Dumoncel, Jean; de Beer, Frikkie; Hoffman, Jakobus; Thackeray, John Francis; Duployer, Benjamin; Tenailleau, Christophe; Braga, José

    2016-07-01

    The appearance of the earliest members of the genus Homo in South Africa represents a key event in human evolution. Although enamel thickness and enamel dentine junction (EDJ) morphology preserve important information about hominin systematics and dietary adaptation, these features have not been sufficiently studied with regard to early Homo. We used micro-CT to compare enamel thickness and EDJ morphology among the mandibular postcanine dentitions of South African early hominins (N = 30) and extant Homo sapiens (N = 26), with special reference to early members of the genus Homo. We found that South African early Homo shows a similar enamel thickness distribution pattern to modern humans, although three-dimensional average and relative enamel thicknesses do not distinguish australopiths, early Homo, and modern humans particularly well. Based on enamel thickness distributions, our study suggests that a dietary shift occurred between australopiths and the origin of the Homo lineage. We also observed that South African early Homo postcanine EDJ combined primitive traits seen in australopith molars with derived features observed in modern human premolars. Our results confirm that some dental morphological patterns in later Homo actually occurred early in the Homo lineage, and highlight the taxonomic value of premolar EDJ morphology in hominin species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acquired acid resistance of human enamel treated with laser (Er:YAG laser and Co 2 laser and acidulated phosphate fluoride treatment: An in vitro atomic emission spectrometry analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is essentially a process of diffusion and dissolution. If the aspect of dissolution can be curtailed some degree of prevention can be achieved. Aims: The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effect of Er:YAG laser and Co 2 laser irradiation combined with acidulated phosphate fluoride treatment on in vitro acid resistance of human enamel. Design: An in vitro study was carried out on 30 human premolars to evaluate the enamel′s acid resistance using an atomic emission spectrometry analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 enamel specimens were prepared from 30 human premolars and were randomly assigned to 6 groups: (1 Untreated (control; (2 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel application alone for 4 min; (3 Er:YAG laser treatment alone; (4 Co 2 laser treatment alone; (5 Er:YAG laser + APF gel application; (6 Co 2 laser + APF gel application. The specimens were then individually immersed in 5 ml of acetate buffer solution (0.1 mol/L, pH 4.5 and incubated at 37°C for 24 h, and the acid resistance was evaluated by determining the calcium ion concentration using the atomic emission spectrometry. Statistical Analysis: An ANOVA model was constructed (P value of 0.05, followed by Tukey′s test for multiple pair wise comparisons of mean values. Results: Significant differences were found between the control group and the test groups ( P < 0.001. Conclusions: Combining acidulated phosphate fluoride with either Er:YAG or Co 2 laser had a synergistic effect in decreasing the enamel demineralization more than either fluoride treatment or laser treatment alone.

  18. Retrospective radiation dosimetry using electron paramagnetic resonance in canine dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rao F.H.; Pekar, J.; Rink, W.J.; Boreham, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) biodosimetry of human tooth enamel has been widely used for measuring radiation doses in various scenarios. We have now developed EPR dosimetry in tooth enamel extracted from canines. Molars and incisors from canines were cleaned by processing in supersaturated aqueous potassium hydroxide solution. The dosimetric signal in canine tooth enamel was found to increase linearly as a function of laboratory added dose from 0.44±0.02 to 4.42±0.22 Gy. The gamma radiation sensitivity of the canine molar enamel was found to be comparable to that of human tooth enamel. The dosimetric signal in canine enamel has been found to be stable up to at least 6 weeks after in vitro irradiation. A dosimetric signal variation of 10-25% was observed for canines ranging from in age 3 years to 16 year old

  19. DEMINERALIZATION OF HUMAN DENTIN COMPARED WITH ENAMEL IN A PH-CYCLING APPARATUS WITH A CONSTANT COMPOSITION DURING DE-MINERALIZATION AND REMINERALIZATION PERIODS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERKSTROTER, FM; WITJES, M; ARENDS, J

    1991-01-01

    A comparison was made between the demineralization of enamel and dentine with and without abraded surfaces. This was done in a pH-cycling experiment for different demineralization/remineralization ratios - in the range from 1:1 to 1:4 - and for different fluoride additions (up to 2 ppm) in solution.

  20. Human diet in the early medieval period: Tooth wear, mastication, enamel thickness and its relationship to social stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ibrová, A.; Dupej, J.; Stránská, Petra; Velemínský, P.; Poláček, Lumír; Velemínská, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 162, S64 (2017), s. 226 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists /86./. 19.04.2017-22.04.2017, New Orleans] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early Middle Ages * human diet * anthropology * tooth wear * Central Europe Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology; AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology (ARUB-Q) OBOR OECD: Archaeology; Archaeology (ARUB-Q) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.23210/pdf

  1. Hipoplasia Enamel Pada Penderita Penyakit Eksantema

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi saputri

    2008-01-01

    Hipoplasia enamel merupakan gangguan pada masa pemhentukan matriks organik yang menyebabkan gangguan struktur pada enamel sehingga secara klinis terlihat pada suatu bagian dari gigi tidak terbentuk enamel dan kadang-kadang sama sekali tidak terbentuk enamel, serta diikuti dengan perubahan warna pada gigi. Dikenal berbagai faktor penyebab hipoplasia enamel, salah satunya adalah penyakit eksantema yaitu menyebabkan infeksi pada bayi dan anak-anak. Gambaran histopatologis hipoplasia enamel adala...

  2. Dose response of hydrazine - Deproteinated tooth enamel under blue light stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuece, Ulkue Rabia, E-mail: ulkuyuce@hotmail.co [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Meric, Niyazi, E-mail: meric@ankara.edu.t [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Atakol, Orhan, E-mail: atakol@science.ankara.edu.t [Ankara University, Science Faculty, Department of Chemistry, 06100, Tandogan - Ankara (Turkey); Yasar, Fusun, E-mail: ab121310@adalet.gov.t [Council of Forensic Medicine, Ankara Branch, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    The beta dose response and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal stability characteristics of human tooth enamel deproteinated by hydrazine reagent under blue photon stimulation are reported. Removal of the protein organic component of tooth enamel resulted in a higher OSL sensitivity and slower fading of OSL signals. The effect of chemical sample preparation on the enamel sample sensitivity is discussed and further steps to make this deproteinization treatment suitable for in vitro dose reconstruction studies are suggested.

  3. Dose response of hydrazine - Deproteinated tooth enamel under blue light stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuece, Ulkue Rabia; Meric, Niyazi; Atakol, Orhan; Yasar, Fusun

    2010-01-01

    The beta dose response and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal stability characteristics of human tooth enamel deproteinated by hydrazine reagent under blue photon stimulation are reported. Removal of the protein organic component of tooth enamel resulted in a higher OSL sensitivity and slower fading of OSL signals. The effect of chemical sample preparation on the enamel sample sensitivity is discussed and further steps to make this deproteinization treatment suitable for in vitro dose reconstruction studies are suggested.

  4. Spectra processing at tooth enamel dosimetry: Analytical description of EPR spectrum at different microwave power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tieliewuhan, E.; Ivannikov, A.; Zhumadilov, K.; Nalapko, M.; Tikunov, D.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V.; Toyoda, S.; Tanaka, K.; Endo, S.; Hoshi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Variation of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of the human tooth enamel recorded at different microwave power is investigated. The analytical models describing the native and the radiation-induced signals in the enamel are proposed, which fit the experimental spectra in wide range of microwave power. These models are designed to use for processing the spectra of irradiated enamel at determination of the absorbed dose from the intensity of the radiation-induced signal

  5. Microstructure of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, A

    1997-01-01

    Enamel is a composite material consisting of mineral and organic phases. The properties of the mineral phase are modulated dramatically by its division into microscopic crystals, cemented together by the organic matrix protein polymer. A good concept of the 3D orientations of the crystals derives from visualizing their growth perpendicular to the surface in which they develop, which is pitted by the secretory poles of the ameloblasts. The arrangement of the crystals is the cause of the discontinuities, known as the prism boundaries or junctions, in the otherwise continuous structure. These locations acquire a more concentrated organic matrix during maturation, and they are both crack stoppers and crack propagation tracks in the adult tissue. Any tendency of prisms to cleave may be reduced by their varicosities, which reflect daily variations in the rate of production; their cross-sectional shape; the non-parallelism of adjacent groups, which develops through translocation of groups of cells across the surface during development; and the support of any one microscopic tissue element by other tissue, including dentine, placed to resist an applied load. Incremental growth lines are preferential cleavage planes within the enamel. Failure patterns of enamel in normal and abnormal use can be explained by these parameters, with additional consideration of functional variation and fatigue.

  6. Effect of two in-office whitening agents on the enamel surface in vivo: a morphological and non-contact profilometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo; Nucci, Cesare; Antoniolli, Francesca; Visintini, Erika; Prati, Carlo; Matis, Bruce A; Di Lenarda, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the morphological effects produced in vivo by two in-office bleaching agents on enamel surface roughness using a noncontact profilometric analysis of epoxy replicas. The null hypothesis tested was that there would be no difference in the micromorphology of the enamel surface during or after bleaching with two different bleaching agents. Eighteen subjects were selected and randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n=9). The tooth whitening materials tested were 38% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (Opalescence Xtra Boost) and 35% carbamide peroxide (CP) (Rembrandt Quik Start). The bleaching agents were applied in accordance with manufacturer protocols. The treatments were repeated four times at one-week intervals. High precision impressions of the upper right incisor were taken at baseline as the control (CTRL) and after each bleaching treatment (T0: first application, T1: second application at one week, T2: third application at two weeks and T3: fourth application at three weeks). Epoxy resin replicas were poured from impressions, and the surface roughness was analyzed by means of a non-contact profilometer (Talysurf CLI 1000). Epoxy replicas were then observed using SEM. All data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and differences were determined with a t-test. No significant differences in surface roughness were found on enamel replicas using either 38% hydrogen peroxide or 35% carbamide peroxide in vivo. This in vivo study supports the null hypothesis that two in-office bleaching agents, with either a high concentration of hydrogen or carbamide peroxide, do not alter enamel surface roughness, even after multiple applications.

  7. Study on Bleaching Technology of Cotton Fabric with Sodium Percarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhi; Wang Yanling; Wang Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Bleach cotton fabric with sodium percarbonate solution. Analyse of the effect of the concentration of sodium percarbonate solution, bleaching time, bleaching temperature and the light radiation on the bleaching effect of fabric.The result shows that increasing concentrations of percarbonate,increasing the bleaching time , raising the bleaching temperature and the UV irradiation may whiten the cotton fabric.The most suitable conditions for the bleaching process is concentration of sodium perca...

  8. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  9. In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

    1990-12-01

    Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization.

  10. Photomechanical model of tooth enamel ablation by Er-laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Vostryakov, R. G.; Maykapar, N. O.

    2012-03-01

    The photomechanical model of ablation of human tooth enamel is described in this work. It takes into account the structural peculiarities of enamel: free water in the enamel pores or cracks. We consider the photomechanical destruction of the enamel rods of hydroxyapatite by the pressure of water contained in the enamel pores and heated by laser radiation. This model takes into account attenuation by the Lambert-Beer law when radiation passes through the tissue and the fact that the tissue removal occurs when a unit volume of water was heated to the critical temperature. Decreasing logarithmic dependence of the enamel removal efficiency on the energy density was obtained as a result of the calculations. The shape of this function follows the shape of the experimental curve.

  11. Analysis of the enamel hypoplasia using micro-CT scanner versus classical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Justyna; Skrzat, Janusz; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates the use of micro-CT scanning of the teeth surface for recognizing and evaluating severity of the enamel hypoplasia. To test capabilities of the microtomography versus classical method of evaluation hypoplastic defects of the enamel we selected two human teeth (C, M(2)) showing different types of enamel hypoplasia: linear, pits, and groove. Examined samples derive from archeological material dated on XVII-XVIII AD and excavated in Poland. In the current study we proved that micro-CT scanning is a powerful technique not only for imaging all kinds of the enamel hypoplasia but also allows to perform accurate measurements of the enamel defects. We figure out that contrary to the classical method of scoring enamel defects, the micro-computed tomography yields adequate data which serve for estimating the length of stress episode and length of interval between them.

  12. Spectrophotometric analysis of discoloration and internal bleaching after use of different antibiotic pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundaoğlu Küçükekenci, Funda; Çakici, Fatih; Küçükekenci, Ahmet Serkan

    2018-04-14

    To investigate teeth's antibiotic-induced color differences after bleaching using two different techniques. One hundred twenty extracted maxillar human incisors were examined. The specimens were randomly divided into six groups, each receiving one of six antibiotic paste fillings: (1) triple antibiotic paste (TAP) with minocycline, (2) double antibiotic paste (DAP), (3) TAP with amoxicillin, (4) TAP with cefaclor, (5) TAP with doxycycline, and (6) no filling (control group). Spectrophotometric measurements were obtained at baseline and then during the first, second, and third weeks after paste placement. The specimens discolored by antibiotics pastes were randomly divided into two subgroups: (1) internal bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) and (2) internal bleaching with H 2 O 2 plus Nd-YAG laser irradiation. The ∆E value was calculated and analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The ∆E for all groups showed color differences exceeding the perceptibility threshold (∆E ˃ 3.7) at all time points except in the control and DAP groups. Minocycline-induced TAP showed the most severe coronal discoloration (32.42). When the ∆E was examined, thermo/photo bleaching (22.01 ± 8.23) caused more bleaching than walking bleaching (19.73 ± 5.73) at every time point (P = 0.19). No group returned to the original color after bleaching (P bleaching with Nd-YAG laser can be useful for bleaching/removing this discoloration. For clinically successful final appearances, understanding the effects of bleaching procedures on antibiotic paste discoloration is important.

  13. Frequency of Application of AmF/NaF/SnCl2 Solution and Its Potential in Inhibiting the Progression of Erosion in Human Dental Enamel - An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Camilla Vieira; Nazello, Jessica Laporta; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira

    To evaluate whether increasing the frequency of its use can enhance the protective effect of AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution against dental erosion. Sixty human enamel samples were obtained from sound human third molars, and after the formation of incipient erosive lesions (1% citric acid, pH 4.0, for 3 min), they were divided into five treatment groups (n = 12): G1 - deionised water (negative control); G2 - NaF solution (positive control) once a day; G3 - NaF solution (positive control) twice a day; G4 - AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution once a day; G5 - AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution twice a day. The samples were then subjected to 5 days of erosive cycling through 6 daily immersions (2 min each) in citric acid solution (0.05 M, pH 2.6). At the end of erosive cycling, surface wear was determined by means of optical profilometry. One-way ANOVA showed that the surface wear was affected by surface treatments (p enamel surface loss and its use twice a day potentiated its anti-erosive effect.

  14. Fluoride varnishes and enamel caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, Hugo de

    1987-01-01

    Topical fluoride applications have the aim of increasing the fluoride uptake in enamel and consequently reducing caries. In the early ‘60s fluoride varnishes were introduced because they had a long contact period with the enamel which resulted in a higher fluoride uptake than from other topical

  15. Silicate enamel for alloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ket'ko, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    The use of silicate enamels in the metallurgical industry is discussed. Presented are the composition and the physico-chemical properties of the silicate enamel developed at the factory 'Krasnyj Oktyabr'. This enamel can be used in the working conditions both in the liquid and the solid state. In so doing the enamel is melted at 1250 to 1300 deg C, granulated and then reduced to a fraction of 0.3 to 0.5 mm. The greatest homogeneity is afforded by a granulated enamel. The trials have shown that the conversion of the test ingots melted under a layer of enamel leads to the smaller number of the ingots rejected for surface defect reasons and the lower metal consumption for slab cleaning. The cost of the silicate enamel is somewhat higher than that of synthetic slags but its application to the melting of stainless steels is still economically beneficial and technologically reasonable. Preliminary calculations only for steel EhI4IEh have revealed that the use of this enamel saves annually over 360000 roubles [ru

  16. Influence of Surfactants and Fluoride against Enamel Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Rayssa Ferreira; Ávila, Daniele Mara da Silva; Miyamoto, Karen Mayumi; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Borges, Alessandra Bühler

    2018-06-06

    This study investigated the effect of surfactants associated with sodium fluoride (NaF) on enamel erosion prevention, using an erosion-remineralization in vitro model. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polysorbate 20 (P20), and cocoamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) were tested, at concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5%, and associated or not with NaF (275 ppm). The control groups were distilled water and the NaF solution. Bovine enamel samples (n = 12) were prepared and submitted to a 5-day cycling model: acid challenge (0.3% citric acid, pH 2.6, 4×/day), human saliva (2 h, 4×/day), and the treatment solutions (2 min, 2×/day). The protective potential of the agents against initial erosion was assessed by microhardness and the surface loss by profilometry. Enamel surface wettability was determined by goniometry, protein adsorption was measured by spectroscopy (FTIR), and the KOH-soluble fluoride was quantified. Goniometry showed that SLS and CAPB increased enamel wettability. No differences were found among the surfactants regarding protein adsorption. Microhardness showed that SLS reduced NaF protection. P20 (1 and 1.5%) and CAPB 1.5% presented a protective effect, but lower than the NaF solution. Profilometry showed that CAPB protected enamel, but no agent associated with NaF promoted a higher protection than the NaF solution alone. KOH-soluble fluoride analysis showed that all surfactants reduced the fluoride adsorption on the enamel surface. Therefore, the surfactants tested (except for P20) changed the enamel surface energy. The SLS decreased the protective potential of NaF on initial erosion, but no tested agent interfered with the protective effect of NaF on enamel erosive wear. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Enamel and dentin bond strength following gaseous ozone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenaro, Milena; Delise, Chiara; Antoniollo, Francesca; Navarra, Ottavia Chiara; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Breschi, Lorenzo

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of gaseous ozone application on enamel and dentin bond strength produced by two self-etching adhesive systems. The shear bond strength test was conducted to assess adhesion on enamel (protocol 1), while the microtensile bond strength test was performed on dentin (protocol 2). Protocol 1: 96 bovine incisors were randomly divided into 4 groups, and enamel surfaces were bonded in accordance with the following treatments: (1E) ozone + Clearfil Protect Bond; (2E) Clearfil Protect Bond (control); (3E) ozone + Xeno III; (4E) Xeno III (control). Ozone gas was applied for 80 s. Shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine. Protocol 2: 40 noncarious human molars were selected. Middle/deep dentin was exposed and bonded in accordance with the following treatments: (1D) ozone+Clearfil Protect Bond; (2D) Clearfil Protect Bond (control); (3D) ozone+Xeno III (4D) Xeno III (control). Four-mm-thick buildups were built on the adhesives, then specimens were sectioned in accordance with the nontrimming technique. Specimens were stressed until failure occurred, and failure modes were analyzed. Shear bond and microtensile bond strength data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. No statistical differences were found between ozone treated specimens and controls, neither on enamel nor on dentin irrespective of the tested adhesive. Clearfil Protect Bond showed higher bond strength to enamel than Xeno III, irrespective of the ozone treatment (p enamel and dentin bond strength.

  18. Body image disturbance and skin bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christopher A D; McLean, Shua-Kym

    2017-11-01

    This study looks at body image disturbance among Jamaicans who bleach their skin. The hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between skin bleaching and body image disturbance. The study used a convenience sample of 160 participants with a skin bleaching group (n = 80) and a non-bleaching comparison group (n = 80). The instrument included demographic questions, the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ), and questions about skin bleaching. The results of a t-test revealed that the skin bleaching group (M = 1.5255, SD = 0.42169) was not significantly different from the non-bleaching group (M = 1.4938, SD = 0.74217) in terms of body image disturbance, t(158) = 0.333, p = .740. The participants who bleached did not suffer from body image disturbance. Self-reports revealed that they bleached to acquire beauty, attract a partner, elude the police, and market skin bleaching products. The practice was fashionable and popular and it made some participants feel good, while others were fans of a popular musical artiste who bleached his skin. The majority of participants bleached because of the perceived personal, social, and entrepreneurial benefits of the practice and not because they suffered emotional distress, anxiety, and functional impairment because of their skin colour. However, there was some level of BID among the minority of participants who argued that they bleached because they wanted to be pretty so they were emotionally distressed about there body image and experienced functional impairment. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Investigation of EPR signals on tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenko, A; Mironova-Ulmane, N; Polakov, M; Riekstina, D [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    2007-12-15

    Calcified tissues are involved in continues metabolic process in human organism exchanging a number of chemical elements with environment. The rate of biochemical reactions is tissue dependent and the slowest one at the tooth enamel, the most mineralized tissue of human organism. The long time stability and unique chemical composition make tooth enamel suitable for number of application. The assessment of individual radiation dose by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and evaluations of elemental composition by Instrumentation Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) are the well known procedures where properties of tooth enamel intensively used. The current work is focused on investigation of EPR signals and determination of chemical composition on several teeth samples having different origin. The EPR spectra and INAA element content of milk tooth, caries tooth, and paradantose tooth have been compared to each other. The results showed that the intensity of EPR signal is much higher for the caries tooth than the for paradantose tooth that is in agreement with depleted Ca content.

  20. Efficacy, side-effects and patients' acceptance of different bleaching techniques (OTC, in-office, at-home).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auschill, T.M.; Hellwig, E.; Schmidale, S.; Sculean, A.; Arweiler, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    This clinical study compared the efficacy of three different bleaching techniques with respect to the bleaching times required in order to achieve six grades of whitening in human teeth. Any side effects that were noted and the patients' acceptance of the method were recorded by a visual analog

  1. Non-bleached colonies of massive Porites may attract fishes for selective grazing during mass bleaching events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Ikeuchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the variation in grazing scar densities between bleached and non-bleached colonies of massive Porites species in Sekisei Lagoon (Okinawa, southwestern Japan during a mass bleaching event in 2016. The grazing scar densities and bleaching susceptibility varied among neighboring colonies of massive Porites spp. However, non-bleached colonies had significantly more surface scars than bleached colonies. One explanation for these variations is that corallivorous fishes may selectively graze on non-bleached, thermally tolerant colonies. This is the first report of a relationship between grazing scars and the bleaching status of massive Porites spp. colonies during a mass bleaching event.

  2. Mechanical characterization of enamel coated steel bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the corrosion process of enamel-coated deformed rebar completely immersed in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was evaluated : over a period of 84 days by EIS testing. Three types of enamel coating were investigated: pure enamel, 50/50 enamel coa...

  3. Shear bond strengths of three glass ionomer cements to enamel and dentine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, T.S.; van Amerongen, W.E.; de Gee, A.; Bönecker, M.; Sampaio, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The shear bond strength of three glass ionomer cements (GIC) to enamel and dentine was evaluated. Study Design: Sound permanent human molars (n=12) were grinded perpendicular to their axial axes, exposing smooth, flat enamel and dentine surfaces. The teeth were embedded in resin and

  4. Radiation coloration and bleaching of glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treadaway, M.J.; Passenheim, B.C.; Kitterer, B.D.; Schall, P.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an investigation of the bleaching of radiation-induced darkening in ten Schott optical glasses is presented. Measurements were made at several temperatures from 160K to 340K for times from 5 msec to 500 hours after exposure. The theory of processes distributed in activation energies has been used to formulate a model which explains the time and temperature dependence of the bleaching. Analysis of the bleaching results in terms of this model has yielded the activation energy distributions and ''frequency factors'' which govern the bleaching for each material

  5. A new automated method for the determination of the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC of human plasma, based on the crocin bleaching assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notas George

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antioxidant molecules, which scavenge free radical species to prevent or delay oxidative damage of important macromolecules, membrane lipids and lipoproteins, are prevalent in plasma and other biological fluids. Among them, bilirubin, uric acid and protein thiols are the major endogenous antioxidants, while vitamins C and E, as well as a number of food-derived (polyaromatic substances, belonging to stilbens, flavonoids and phenolic acids, are the main classes of nutritional antioxidants. Assays for total antioxidant capacity in plasma differ in their type of oxidation source, target and measurement used to detect the oxidized product. Methods In the present work we present an automated assay for the estimation of blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC assay, based on the crocin bleaching (oxidation method. This method was adapted on a modern autoanalyzer, was linear over a wide range of values (0–3 mmol/L, and performed using an end point measurement. Results The TAC method presented a linear correlation with another automated commercial Total Antioxidant Status (TAS test. Detection of the interference of different metabolites revealed a significant participation of TAC from uric acid, bilirubin, albumin, a minor interference from ascorbic acid, and no interference from hemoglobin. TAC was not modified by two freeze/thawing cycles, and was stable in samples stored at room temperature for 4 hours. K-EDTA and heparin were the best anticoagulants, while citrate decreased TAC by 20%. Reference values derived from samples of normal blood donors was 1.175 ± 0.007 mmol/L (mean ± SEM, while a diet rich in antioxidants more than doubled this value. Conclusions The proposed TAC assay, is fully automated, stable and reliable, and could be of value in the estimation of the AC of plasma. It is further proposed to calculate the antioxidant capacity of plasma after a subtraction of all interference deriving from endogenous and

  6. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  7. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  8. Studies of direct electroinsulating enamels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwulski, S.; Gruszka, B.; Nocun, M.

    1998-01-01

    The results of studies on the influence of chemical composition of direct electroinsulating enamel on its properties were presented. The influence of alkaline Li 2 O, Na 2 O, K 2 O and adhesion promoting oxides CoO, NiO, CuO, MoO 3 on the frits properties were estimated. The characteristic temperature T g and T m as well as flowability were measured. The dielectric properties of frits and prepared enamels were also measured. Enamel substrates were prepared and tested for application in thick hybrid circuit technology. (author)

  9. Comparative clinical study of the effectiveness of different dental bleaching methods - two year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Francisco Lia Mondelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated color change, stability, and tooth sensitivity in patients submitted to different bleaching techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, 48 patients were divided into five groups. A half-mouth design was conducted to compare two in-office bleaching techniques (with and without light activation: G1: 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP (Lase Peroxide - DMC Equipments, São Carlos, SP, Brazil + hybrid light (HL (LED/Diode Laser, Whitening Lase II DMC Equipments, São Carlos, SP, Brazil; G2: 35% HP; G3: 38% HP (X-traBoost - Ultradent, South Jordan UT, USA + HL; G4: 38% HP; and G5: 15% carbamide peroxide (CP (Opalescence PF - Ultradent, South Jordan UT, USA. For G1 and G3, HP was applied on the enamel surface for 3 consecutive applications activated by HL. Each application included 3x3' HL activations with 1' between each interval; for G2 and G4, HP was applied 3x15' with 15' between intervals; and for G5, 15% CP was applied for 120'/10 days at home. A spectrophotometer was used to measure color change before the treatment and after 24 h, 1 week, 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. A VAS questionnaire was used to evaluate tooth sensitivity before the treatment, immediately following treatment, 24 h after and finally 1 week after. RESULTS: Statistical analysis did not reveal any significant differences between in-office bleaching with or without HL activation related to effectiveness; nevertheless the time required was less with HL. Statistical differences were observed between the results after 24 h, 1 week and 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months (intergroup. Immediately, in-office bleaching increased tooth sensitivity. The groups activated with HL required less application time with gel. CONCLUSION: All techniques and bleaching agents used were effective and demonstrated similar behaviors.

  10. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  11. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  12. Assessment of micro-leakage for light-cure glass ionomer and pro-root mineral trioxide aggregate as coronal barriers in intracoronal bleaching of endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zare Jahromi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical root resorption is one of the most important complications of intra coronal bleaching. A way of preventing this type of resorption is using a coronal barrier under the bleaching materials. The aim of this study was to compare the sealing ability of glass ionomer cement and Pro Root Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA as a coronal barrier in intra coronal bleaching. Materials &Methods: In this study, 40 single-root maxillary anterior teeth were endodontically prepared and divided into two experimental groups (n= 15 and two positive and negative control groups (n=5. In the experimental groups, gutta percha was removed up to 3 mm below the cemento enamel junction (CEJ.RMGI and MTA were placed over gutta percha up to the level of CEJ. After a 24-hour incubation period, the bleaching agent (a mixture of sodium perborate and 30% hydrogen peroxide was placed in the access cavities. The bleaching agents were replaced every 3 days over 9 days. Then, the access cavity was filled with 2% methylene blue for 48 hours. All samples were longitudinally sectioned and the dye penetration range was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests (α=0.05. Results: Leakage mean indicated that there was a significant difference between these two groups and leakage was less in ProRoot than glass ionomer. Conclusion: It seems that the MTA can provide a better coronal seal during the bleaching.

  13. THE BLEACHING SYNDROME: MANIFESTATION OF A POST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    universal and extends to the Americas and elsewhere impacted by colonial influences. Without exception .... "They say we should stop bleaching because of skin cancer and skin disease. ... Kenya, activists moved to have a ban put on the sale of skin bleaching creams. In agreement .... socioeconomic standing. Furthermore ...

  14. Reef corals bleach to resist stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, David O

    2009-02-01

    A rationale is presented here for a primary role of bleaching in regulation of the coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis under conditions of stress. Corals and zooxanthellae have fundamentally different metabolic rates, requiring active homeostasis to limit zooxanthellae production and manage translocated products to maintain the symbiosis. The control processes for homeostasis are compromised by environmental stress, resulting in metabolic imbalance between the symbionts. For the coral-zooxanthella symbiosis the most direct way to minimize metabolic imbalance under stress is to reduce photosynthetic production by zooxanthellae. Two mechanisms have been demonstrated that do this: reduction of the chlorophyll concentration in individual zooxanthellae and reduction of the relative biomass of zooxanthellae. Both mechanisms result in visual whitening of the coral, termed bleaching. Arguments are presented here that bleaching provides the final control to minimize physiological damage from stress as an adversity response to metabolic imbalance. As such, bleaching meets the requirements of a stress response syndrome/general adaptive mechanism that is sensitive to internal states rather than external parameters. Variation in bleaching responses among holobionts reflects genotypic and phenotypic differentiation, allowing evolutionary change by natural selection. Thus, reef corals bleach to resist stress, and thereby have some capacity to adapt to and survive change. The extreme thermal anomalies causing mass coral bleaching worldwide lie outside the reaction norms for most coral-zooxanthellae holobionts, revealing the limitations of bleaching as a control mechanism.

  15. BLEACHING IN VITAL TEETH: A LITERARY REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fagundes Soares

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tooth bleaching technique has presented a significant evolution, promoting higher satisfaction and comfort to the patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to present the bleaching agents and the techniques, discussing advantages and disadvantages of each one, and the effect of these agents in the oral environment. The main agents used in the bleaching technique are the hydrogen peroxide and the carbamide peroxide, promoting the bleaching effect through oxidation of organic compounds. The application of these agents can be made at home or at a doctor office. During treatment, it may occur some adverse effects, such as tooth sensibility, increasing of dental porosity, and some interactions with the restorative material. However, these adverse effects can be eliminated or controlled when the treatment is executed under professional orientation. When the bleaching technique is well indicated and correctly conducted, it is associated with significantly positive results.

  16. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruzell, E.M.; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study was performed to assess the risk of at-home and in-office bleaching procedures, and to recognise potential predictors for side effects. Design Multi-centre, questionnaire-based prospective study with follow-ups at around 14 days and around one year post-treatment. Setting...... General practices and university clinics during the years 2007‑2009 in Scandinavia. Subjects Patients with tooth bleaching as part of the treatment plan. Results The prevalence of experienced tooth sensitivity at first follow-up was independent of bleaching procedure (at-home = 50.3% [n = 143]; in...... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  17. An association of external and internal enamel pearls.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan S; Charan C

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of an association of external enamel pearl with internal enamel pearl on the root of a molar. To the best of our knowledge, association of external and internal enamel pearls has not been previously reported. We discussed the histogenesis of enamel pearls and proposed that internal enamel pearl formation may be a continuation of formation of external enamel pearl.

  18. Esthetic management of a patient with severely fluorosed enamel and pigmented gingiva: A conservative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated brown or white defects of less than few tenths of millimeter depth can be successfully treated with microabrasion. However, for deeper enamel defects, a combination of various techniques such as microabrasion/macroabrasion along with bleaching or full or partial veneering are available. Template-assisted direct veneering technique helps for better separation and contouring of individual tooth through which composite resin can be applied directly to tooth structure and artistically sculpted. Frequently, the gingival hyperpigmentation is caused by excessive melanin deposits mainly located in the basal and suprabasal cell layers of the epithelium. Recently, laser ablation has been recognized as one of the most effective, pleasant, and reliable techniques. This article describes a conservative approach for a complete smile makeover of a patient with severe fluorosis and pigmented gingiva with the help of enamel microabrasion and template-assisted direct composite veneering followed by laser depigmentation of gingiva.

  19. Bonding strategies for MIH-affected enamel and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Norbert; Bui Khac, Ngoc-Han Nana; Lücker, Susanne; Stachniss, Vitus; Frankenberger, Roland

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate resin composite adhesion to dental hard tissues affected by molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). 94 freshly extracted human molars and incisors (53 suffering MIH) were used. 68 teeth (35 with MIH) were used for μ-TBS tests in enamel and dentin, 26 (18 with MIH) for qualitative evaluation. Specimens were bonded with Clearfil SE Bond, Scotchbond Universal, and OptiBond FL. For MIH affected enamel, additional OptiBond FL groups with NaOCl and NaOCl+Icon were investigated. Beside fractographic analysis, also qualitative evaluations were performed using SEM at different magnifications as well as histological sectioning. Highest μ-TBS values were recorded with dentin specimens (ANOVA, mod. LSD, p0.05). Pre-test failures did not occur in dentin specimens. Sound enamel specimens exhibited significantly higher μ-TBS values than MIH enamel (p0.05), however, it caused less pre-test failures (pMIH enamel is the limiting factor in adhesion to MIH teeth. MIH-affected dentin may be bonded conventionally. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Year of birth determination using radiocarbon dating of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B A; Spalding, K L

    2010-05-01

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 ((14)C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, (14)C levels in the enamel represent (14)C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  1. Enzyme replacement prevents enamel defects in hypophosphatasia mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manisha C.; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Foster, Brian L.; Fong, Hanson; Cory, Esther; Narisawa, Sonoko; Sah, Robert L.; Somerman, Martha; Whyte, Michael P.; Millán, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn error of metabolism characterized by deficiency of alkaline phosphatase activity leading to rickets or osteomalacia and to dental defects. HPP occurs from loss-of-function mutations within the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). TNAP knockout (Alpl−/−, a.k.a. Akp2−/−) mice closely phenocopy infantile HPP, including the rickets, vitamin B6-responsive seizures, improper dentin mineralization, and lack of acellular cementum. Here, we report that lack of TNAP in Alpl−/− mice also causes severe enamel defects, which are preventable by enzyme replacement with mineral-targeted TNAP (ENB-0040). Immunohistochemistry was used to map the spatiotemporal expression of TNAP in the tissues of the developing enamel organ of healthy mouse molars and incisors. We found strong, stage-specific expression of TNAP in ameloblasts. In the Alpl−/− mice, histological, μCT, and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed reduced mineralization and disrupted organization of the rods and inter-rod structures in enamel of both the molars and incisors. All of these abnormalities were prevented in mice receiving from birth daily subcutaneous injections of mineral-targeting, human TNAP (sALP-FcD10, a.k.a. ENB-0040) at 8.2 mg/kg/day for up to 44 days. These data reveal an important role for TNAP in enamel mineralization, and demonstrate the efficacy of mineral-targeted TNAP to prevent enamel defects in HPP. PMID:22461224

  2. Year of Birth Determination Using Radiocarbon Dating of Dental Enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A; Spalding, K L

    2009-03-10

    Radiocarbon dating is typically an archaeological tool rather than a forensic one. Recently however, we have shown that the amount of radiocarbon present in tooth enamel, as a result of nuclear bomb testing during the cold war, is a remarkably accurate indicator of when a person is born. Enamel isolated from human teeth is processed to form graphite and carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) levels are measured using accelerator mass spectrometry. Since there is no turnover of enamel after it is formed, {sup 14}C levels in the enamel represent {sup 14}C levels in the atmosphere at the time of its formation. In this paper we describe the strategy used to determine the date of birth of an individual based on radiocarbon levels in tooth enamel, focusing on the methodology of this strategy. Year of birth information can significantly assist police investigators when the identity of a deceased individual is unknown. In such cases police will try to match particulars of the unidentified individual (which is often only gender and/or an estimate of age), with particulars from missing persons lists.

  3. Enamel softening with Coca-Cola and rehardening with milk or saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalia, I; Dakuar, A; Shapira, L; Lewinstein, I; Goultschin, J; Rahamim, E

    1991-06-01

    Rehardening effects by cow's milk and by secreted saliva were investigated, in situ, following softening of human enamel with an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola). Volunteers wearing orthodontic removable appliances participated in the study. The intra-oral test was chosen for measuring microhardness of enamel slabs inserted into the dental appliance. The softening and the rehardening degrees were defined as the alterations between initial- and experimental-microhardness value at the enamel surface. In addition, SEM photos were prepared from the initial and experimental stages. Exposure of enamel slabs to the acidic beverage during 1 hour had a softening effect as expressed by the hardness decrease and visualized by the SEM photo. Rehardening effects following milk or saliva exposures respectively were evident, presumably due to deposited organic and mineral material on the enamel surface.

  4. Retrospective dosimetry assessment using the 380 deg. C thermoluminescence peak of tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secu, C.E. [National Institute for Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Cherestes, M. [Dozimed Ltd., Dosimetry Laboratory, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Secu, M., E-mail: msecu@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Cherestes, C.; Paraschiva, V. [Dozimed Ltd., Dosimetry Laboratory, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Barca, C. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2011-10-15

    The thermoluminescence (TL) response to gamma-ray irradiation of tooth enamel is reported. The tooth enamel was separated from dentine by using mechanical and physico-chemical procedures followed by grinding (grain size {approx}100 {mu}m) and etching. The TL was attributed to the recombination of CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals incorporated into or attached to the surface of hydroxyapatite crystals. The growth of the {approx}380 deg. C TL peak with absorbed dose was examined with irradiated tooth enamel samples and reconstructed doses evaluated for tooth enamel samples from four human subjects. - Highlights: > Thermoluminescence response after gamma-ray irradiation of tooth enamel was investigated. > Thermoluminescence was attributed to the recombination of CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals. > CO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals are produced inside or at the surface of hydroxyapatite crystals. > From the growth of the 380C peak reconstructed doses have been evaluated.

  5. Variations in enamel damage after debonding of two different bracket base designs: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangar Atashi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadr Haghighi, Amir Hooman; Nastarin, Parastou; Ahangar Ata