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Sample records for blazei contra ralstonia

  1. Indução de resistência em plantas de berinjela por Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei contra Ralstonia solanacearum: aspectos bioquímicos e biomassa vegetal Induction of resistance in eggplants by Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei against Ralstonia solanacearum: biochemical aspects and vegetable biomass

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    Ricardo Ferrari Silva

    2008-06-01

    ão foi alterada. Com base nos resultados, ficou evidenciado que o aSm e os isolados Abl-11 e Abl-28 de A. blazei apresentam potencial para induzir resistência em berinjela contra R. solanacearum.The bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is an important disease for eggplants, which control is difficult. Induction of resistance in plants is a promising method for disease control. Fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei and Lentinula edodes have substances that exhibit antibiotic activity or are able of acting as elicitors of resistance in plants. The objectives of the present work were to verify the effect of aqueous extracts from the mushrooms and the plant activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (aSm on in vitro bacterial growth and to control bacterial wilt as well as to investigate the activity of certain enzymes. The inhibitory effect on the pathogen was evaluated by using different concentrations of aqueous extracts. The induced resistance was studied in plants treated with the biological or chemical inducers, by measuring the intensity of wilt and alterations in some defense-related enzymes. The results showed that the isolates of A. blazei and L. edodes, used in several dilutions, did not inhibit in vitro bacterial growth. The extracts of the isolates Abl-11 and Abl-28 from A. blazei (15%, v/v and aSm (0,05 g/L caused significant reduction in the occurrence of wilted leaves, when applied two days before inoculation. Plants treated with aSm or aqueous extracts of Abl-11 and Abl-28 exhibited increased peroxidase activity. The chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenoloxidase activities did not change in plants treated with Abl-28 and aSm. However, plants treated with Abl-11 exhibited increased phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenoloxidase activities, while the chitinase activity was not affected. Based upon the results, it was shown that the aSm and the isolates Abl-11 and Abl-28 of A. blazei exhibited a potential to induce resistance in eggplants

  2. Auraalne Contra / Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Hasso, 1964-

    2001-01-01

    Bibliogr. joonealustes märkustes. Rets. rmt. : Contra [Konnula, Margus]. Suusamütsi tutt : luulet aastatest 1974-2000. Urvaste ; Tartu : Mina Ise, 2001; Contra [Konnula, Margus]. Contra on õhk : [helikassett]. Urvaste :¡ Mina Ise, 2000

  3. Cultivation of Agaricus blazei on Pleurotus spp. spent substrate

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    Regina Maria Miranda Gern

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the use of Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus sajor-caju for the previous lignocellulolytic decomposition of banana tree leaf straw and the further use of the degraded straw as substrate for the culture of Agaricus blazei. For optimising the production of A. blazei in terms of yield (Y% and biological efficiency (BE%, adjustments to the composition of the substrate were evaluated in a 2(5 experimental design. The following components were tested in relation to % of substrate dry mass: urea (1 and 10%, rice bran (10 or 20% or ammonium sulphate (0 or 10%, inoculum (10 or 20% and the casing material (subsoil or burned rice husks. The best results (79.71 Y% and 6.73 BE% were found when the substrate containing 10% of rice bran, without ammonium sulphate, inoculated with 20% and covered with subsoil was used.O cultivo de fungos comestíveis e medicinais utilizando resíduos da agroindústria vem se apresentando como uma alternativa econômica para o pequeno produtor rural, favorecendo a agricultura familiar do nordeste catarinense. Este trabalho avaliou o fungo Pleurotus para a decomposição lignocelulolítica de palha de folhas de bananeira e a utilização da palha residual como substrato para o cultivo de Agaricus blazei. Ajustes na composição do substrato residual de Pleurotus, tais como o tipo e a concentração da fonte de nitrogênio, a porcentagem de inóculo e a camada de cobertura, foram avaliadas. O substrato residual que mais favoreceu a produção de A. blazei em Eficiência Biológica (6,73%, Rendimento (79,71% e menor tempo para emissão do primeiro primórdio (27 dias foi o substrato residual de P. ostreatus inoculado com 20% de inóculo (ms, 10% de farelo de arroz (ms, sem sulfato de amônio e utilizando terra de subsolo como camada de cobertura.

  4. Antigenotoxic Properties of Agaricus blazei against Hydrogen Peroxide in Human Peripheral Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozan, Sunčica; Topalović, Dijana; Ciptasari, Ummi; Bajić, Vladan

    2017-01-01

    The ability of Agaricus blazei mushroom in its dried and powdered mycelial form was evaluated for its antigenotoxic properties for the first time. Antigenotoxic effects in human peripheral blood cells against H2O2-induced DNA damage were examined in pretreatment and posttreatment protocol by comet assay. The results showed better antigenotoxic properties of Agaricus blazei on the interventional level, respectively, after treatment. Agaricus blazei in concentration of 250 μg/mL after treatment was most efficient in regard to its action against DNA damage. The evaluation of repair kinetics showed decrease in H2O2 induced DNA damage 15 min after the application of A. blazei, reaching the maximum potency after 30 min. Analysis of antioxidant properties of Agaricus blazei revealed strong •OH scavenging properties and moderate reducing power, while its DPPH scavenging ability was weak. In regard to our findings, we can conclude that our preliminary results demonstrated antigenotoxic properties of Agaricus blazei and its strong •OH scavenging ability. Mechanisms underlying its properties should be further evaluated in in vivo studies.

  5. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human PathogenPseudomonas Aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.; Ciric, A.; Glamoclija, J.; Nicolic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence,

  6. Agaricus blazei Murill - immunomodulatory properties and health benefits

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    Biedron R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Agaricus blazei Murill (AbM, also known as Agaricus brasiliensis L. due to its origin in Brazilian rain forest, is an edible mushroom of the Basidiomycetes family, which also comprises medicinal mushrooms such as Hericium erinaceus and Grifola frondosa. AbM has been used in traditional medicine locally and also recently as a health food worldwide. Since it has been found to possess immunomodulatory properties, its biological and health-related effects, as well as its isolated active ingredients e.g. beta-glucans, have been examined by scientists. Otherinvestigations have been performed with mixed mushroom products, such as AndoSanTM, which contains mostly AbM, but also the two other mushrooms above. AbM-related benefits reviewed here include effects against cancer, infections, inflammation, allergy/ asthma and diabetes. Effects of AndoSanTMand other AbM-based extracts have been compared in a bacterial sepsis model.

  7. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

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    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-05-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg(-1) d(-1)), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg(-1) d(-1)) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg(-1) d(-1)) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass.

  8. Identification of cadmium-induced Agaricus blazei genes through suppression subtractive hybridization.

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    Wang, Liling; Li, Haibo; Wei, Hailong; Wu, Xueqian; Ke, Leqin

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most serious environmental pollutants. Filamentous fungi are very promising organisms for controlling and reducing the amount of heavy metals released by human and industrial activities. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in Cd accumulation and tolerance of filamentous fungi are not fully understood. Agaricus blazei Murrill, an edible mushroom with medicinal properties, demonstrates high tolerance for heavy metals, especially Cd. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of A. blazei after Cd exposure, we constructed a forward subtractive library that represents cadmium-induced genes in A. blazei under 4 ppm Cd stress for 14 days using suppression subtractive hybridization combined with mirror orientation selection. Differential screening allowed us to identify 39 upregulated genes, 26 of which are involved in metabolism, protein fate, cellular transport, transport facilitation and transport routes, cell rescue, defense and virulence, transcription, and the action of proteins with a binding function, and 13 are encoding hypothetical proteins with unknown functions. Induction of six A. blazei genes after Cd exposure was further confirmed by RT-qPCR. The cDNAs isolated in this study contribute to our understanding of genes involved in the biochemical pathways that participate in the response of filamentous fungi to Cd exposure.

  9. Agaricus blazei production on non-composted substrates based on sunflower seed hulls and spent oyster mushroom substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Matute, R; Figlas, D; Curvetto, N

    2011-06-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill is usually cultivated using the same biphasic composting method employed for A. bisporus. Because cultivation of A. blazei on traditional A. bisporus composts poses some disadvantages, non-composted substrates were studied for A. blazei cultivation. Mycelial growth rate and productive performance of A. blazei were evaluated on substrates containing sunflower seed hulls, Pleurotus spp. spent mushroom substrate, or their combination, in the absence or in the presence of different supplements (vermicompost, peat or brewery residues). Substrates were prepared by initially soaking them and then they were sterilized (1 atm for 120 min). In addition, each substrate's degradation was measured after cultivation by obtaining the lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, organic matter, total fiber, ash, carbon and nitrogen contents before spawn-run and at the end of two flushes of A. blazei. The cultivation of A. blazei on non-composted substrates is possible and with a low rate of contamination when using the spent mushroom substrate as the main component or combined 50:50 with sunflower seed hulls. In addition, the best yields were obtained on those substrates containing spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate with supplements and those mixtures with sunflower seed hulls and vermicompost. These yields were similar to those reported on composted substrates. Substrate changes in composition measured at the end of two flushes indicate that the lignin-hemicellulose fraction was preferentially used and that the substrates exhibiting the best yield showed greater biodegradation of lignin-hemicellulose fraction than the others did.

  10. Laccases production by A.blazei mushroom grown either in composted or non-composted substrates

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    Gonzalez Matute, Ramiro; Figlas, Norma Débora; Curvetto, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus blazei is an edible and medicinal mushroom commonly cultivated on compost. However, non-composted substrates are being particularly studied for specialty mushrooms because their economic and labour advantages. Addition of salt minerals to the substrate or casing materials may stimulate both the synthesis and activity of enzymes involved in the mushroom substrate biotransformation and eventually lead to an increase not only in mushroom productivity but in the fruitbody mineral content...

  11. Contra continuity and almost contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological spaces

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    Bhattacharya, Baby; Chakraborty, Jayasree

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we introduce fuzzy contra continuity and almost contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological space. Fuzzy almost contra continuity is weaker than fuzzy contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological space. Then we investigate their characterizations and properties. We also established some equivalent relation on fuzzy contra continuity and fuzzy almost contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological spaces.

  12. Lovell contra Lovell

    OpenAIRE

    Canosa Benítez, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Lovell contra Lovell es poner, uno frente a otro, los proyectos de dos maestros del siglo XX para el mismo cliente y en ubicaciones distintas en la California de los años 20. Las ideas que contienen, los conceptos de uso del suelo, la mirada de la casa y sus espacios al abierto se configuran con criterios semejantes en resoluciones plásticas próximas. Con origen en el repertorio espacial ensayado en la famosa Schindler-Chace studio-dwelling en Kings Road, Schindl...

  13. Classification of metal-resistant bacteria from industrial biotopes as Ralstonia campinensis sp nov., Ralstonia metallidurans sp nov and Ralstonia basilensis Steinle et al. 1998 emend.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, J; de Vos, P; Coenye, T; Hoste, B; Janssens, D; Brim, H; Diels, L; Mergeay, M; Kersters, K; Vandamme, P

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-one heavy-metal-resistant bacteria isolated from industrial biotopes were subjected to polyphasic characterization, including 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, biochemical tests, whole-cell protein and fatty-acid analyses. All strains were shown to belong to the Ralstonia br

  14. contra la pobreza

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    Ezaidi A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El conjunto del territorio marroquí encierra un rico patrimonio geológico esencialmente térmico y mineral. La explotación de este patrimonio nacional con fines terapéuticos puede desempeñar un papel económico y social importante para la creación de empleo, sobre todo en las zonas áridas y saharianas que sufren la sequía, la desertificación y la emigración de los jóvenes que habitan en zonas rurales. En el marco la Declaración del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas invitando a las naciones del mundo a contribuir de manera prioritaria en la lucha contra la pobreza y la extrema pobreza, se inserta nuestra propuesta, para los sectores más desprovistos, de un turismo de salud como la clave para asociar la lucha contra la pobreza y el turismo sostenible, sin desvirtuar el patrimonio natural ni condenarlo a la desaparición. Nuestro artículo se inscribe asimismo en el marco de la Iniciativa Nacional para el Desarrollo Humano (INDH que sitúa el ciudadano como objetivo de las estrategias de desarrollo y factor prioritario del mismo.

  15. Literatura contra desarraigo.

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    Xosé A. Perozo Ruiz.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las reflexiones contenidas en Literatura contra desarraigo son una clara interpretación propia realizadas por Xosé A. Perozo. Nacidas del ejercicio literario constante y productivo nos acerca a conceptos actuales como el nacionalismo o la España de las Autonomías. Desde la lejanía, asistimos a la recuperación de la memoria social extremeña, que se trasluce en las novelas del autor son expuestas de manera biográfica en este artículo metaliterario, donde se detiene en la saga de Los Lancharro, o el personaje de Cerrato, ambientadas en la zona geográfica de la Campiña Sur de la Guerra Civil y posguerra.

  16. Study on Several Characteristics of Agaricus blazei Murril Strain J3 Irradiated by 60Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Bo-qi; JIANG Zhi-he; HUANG Ting-jun; CHEN Jian; ZHENG Wei-wen

    2003-01-01

    A new mutant strain J3 from Agaricus blazei Murril was obtained by 60Co irradiation. The yields of successive generations were increased more than 70% to compare with their original strain. The component analysis on amino acids and fatty acid illuminated that the nutrient value of strain J3 fruiting body was better than the original strain. The apparent nodule structure was found in the hyphea of J3 strain through the observation by scanning electron microscope. RAPD analysis showed the great difference of PCR fingerprints between J3 and its original strain. It is a promising mutant strain for further commercial development in the future.

  17. Composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei na dieta de frangos de corte Spent mushroom substrate of Agaricus blazei in broiler chicks diet

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    Alexandre Magno Batista Machado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição de um antibiótico por diferentes níveis do composto exaurido do cogumelo (CEC Agaricus blazei sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram avaliadas sete dietas, seis com adição de CEC (0,0; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0% e uma com antibiótico (avilamicina 10 ppm. Foram utilizados 588 pintos de 1 dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições por dieta (três por sexo e 14 aves por unidade experimental. As aves que não receberam qualquer aditivo na dieta apresentaram os piores resultados de desempenho. Níveis de CEC superiores a 0,4% ocasionaram redução gradual no desempenho. O nível de 0,2% de CEC proporcionou o maior ganho de peso e o de 0,21%, a melhor conversão alimentar e o maior consumo de ração. À exceção do rendimento de peito e do rendimento de gordura abdominal, os aditivos não influenciaram os rendimentos de carcaça e dos cortes. O composto exaurido do cogumelo Agaricus blazei pode ser utilizado como aditivo alternativo ao antibiótico no nível de 0,2% da dieta, pois não prejudicou o desempenho produtivo e o rendimento de carcaça das aves.The effect of the substitution of an antibiotic by different levels of spent mushroom substrate (SMS of Agaricus blazei on the performance of broiler chicks from 1 to 42 days old was evaluated. Seven diets were evaluated, six with SMS addiction (0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0% and one with antibiotic (avilamycin 10 ppm. A total of 588 one day old chicks was allotted to a complete randomized design, with six replications per diet (three per sex and 14 birds per experimental unit. The birds fed diet with any additive showed the worst performance results. Levels of SMS above 0.4% caused gradual reduction in the performance. The level of 0.2% of SMS provided the highest value of weight gain and of 0.21% promoted the best feed conversion and the highest value of feed intake

  18. Agaricus Blazei Hot Water Extract Shows Anti Quorum Sensing Activity in the Nosocomial Human Pathogen Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

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    Marina Soković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  19. Susceptibility of Geranium Cultivars (Pelargonium spp.) to Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty-one cultivars of geraniums including zonal, regal, ivy, and scented were tested for susceptibility to three strains of Ralstonia solanacearum: a Race 1 Biovar 1 (R1B1) strain P597 isolated from tomato in Florida, a R1B1 strain P673 obtained from pothos originating in Costa Rica, and a Race 3 B...

  20. Gene transcription analysis during interaction between potato and Ralstonia solanacearum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, G.C.; Jin, L.P.; Wang, X.W.; Xie, K.Y.; Yang, Y.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.; Huang, S.W.; Qu, D.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) is an important quarantine disease that spreads worldwide and infects hundreds of plant species. The BW defense response of potato is a complicated continuous process, which involves transcription of a battery of genes. The molecular mechanis

  1. Ralstonia mannitolilytica infection in renal transplant recipient: First report

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    Mukhopadhyay C

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia mannitolilytica is being increasingly identified as an opportunist pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We report the first case of post renal transplant infection by R. mannitolilytica, in a 14-year-old recipient. The graft and the patient were saved with prompt microbiological identification, sensitivity testing and subsequent administration of appropriate antibiotic.

  2. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water. Diversity in Ralstonia pickettii

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    Adley Catherine C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i Species-specific-PCR, ii PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR iii the fliC gene genes, iv RAPD and BOX-PCR and v phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin.

  3. Classification of Ralstonia pickettii-like isolates from the environment and clinical samples as Ralstonia insidiosa sp nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenye, T; Goris, J; de Vos, P; Vandamme, P; LiPuma, JJ

    2003-01-01

    Thirteen Ralstonia pickettii-like isolates from the environment (water, soil and activated sludge) and human clinical samples (including respiratory secretions of cystic fibrosis patients) were investigated in a polyphasic taxonomic study that employed 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizati

  4. Influence of structural features on immunostimulating activity of glucans extracted from Agaricus blazei mushroom

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    Kozarski Maja S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High molecular weight b-D-glucans derived from Basidiomycetes cell walls are able to specifically activate cellular and humoral components of the host immune system. The aim of this paper was to examine immunomodulating activity of native, chemically and enzimatically modified glucans from Agaricus blazei mushroom and to determine which structural features are of primary importance for their stimulation referring to humane immune cells. The immunomodulating activities were tested in vitro, by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and measuring of interferon-gamma (IFN-g production by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Measurements of immunomodulatory capacity of Agaricus blazei native glucans showed their expressive immunostimulating effect on activated PBMCs and synthesis of IFN-g. The results obtained after the stimulation of cells with 1M H2SO4 and 1M NaOH, the treated glucans showed that primary structure is of more importance than the tertiary structure of the triple helix for their immunostimulating activity and synthesis of IFN-g. Glucans of lower molecular weight obtained after acid hydrolysis appeared as effective immunostimulators of PBMC's. The results obtained after the incubation of cells with 1,6 b-glucanase modified glucans suggest that b-(1,6 binding of glucose monomers probably has no importance for the production of imunostimulating effects, in vitro. This confirmed that b-(1,3 bonds are the primary determinants of immunomodulatory activities and stimulation of IFN-g synthesis.

  5. Effects of extraction methods on the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei Murrill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shaoyi; Li, Feng; Liu, Yong; Ren, Haitao; Gong, Guili; Wang, Yanyan; Wu, Songhai

    2013-11-01

    Five polysaccharides were obtained from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) through different extraction methods including hot water extraction, single enzyme extraction (pectinase, cellulase or papain) and compound enzymes extraction (cellulase:pectinase:papain). Their characteristics such as the polysaccharide yield, polysaccharide content, protein content, infrared spectra were determined, and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical, DPPH free radical, ABTS free radical and reducing power. The results showed that five extracts exhibited antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with other methods, the compound enzymes extraction method was found to present the highest polysaccharides yield (17.44%). Moreover, compound enzymes extracts exhibited the strongest reducing power and highest scavenging rates on hydroxyl radicals, DPPH radicals and ABTS radicals. On the contrary, hot water extraction method had the lowest polysaccharides yield of 11.95%, whose extracts also exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities. Overall, the available data obtained in vitro models suggested that ABM extracts were natural antioxidants and compound enzymes extraction was an appropriate, mild and effective extracting method for obtaining the polysaccharide extracts from Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM).

  6. Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia in hemodialysis patients: a report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, Darwin; Limongi, Gino; Bertullo, Mauricio; Cancela, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia pickettii is a low-virulence gram-negative bacillus that may be associated with infections related to health care and may cause bacteremia. Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia is uncommon but is related to the contamination of medical products, mainly in immunodepressed patients. We present two cases of patients on chronic hemodialysis with Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia linked to contamination of the dialysis water. Similar cases have been published with links to intravenous fluid administration, medication ampules, and the use of extracorporeal oxygenation membranes, among other factors. The detection of Ralstonia pickettii bacteremia should provoke suspicion and a search for contaminated medical products, fluids, and/or medications. PMID:27410414

  7. La violencia contra las mujeres

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Gómez, Alicia; Escrig Gil, Gemma; Forcada Martínez, Águeda

    2010-01-01

    Las mujeres con diversidad funcional en la agenda jurídico política española: la Ley estatal contra la violencia de género y sus nuevos desafíos,SOLEDAD ARNAU RIPOLLÉS. La violencia contra las mujeres. El estado de la cuestión: Una cuestión de estado. “La violencia en el ámbito laboral”, ENCARNA BARRAGÁN BRITO. El problema de la rehabilitación de los maltratadores, ESPERANZA BOSCH FIOL. La violencia política, LEONORA CASTAÑO CANO. La violencia psicológica, ...

  8. Native Valve Endocarditis due to Ralstonia pickettii: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Joseph; Rivera-Bonilla, Tomas; Loli, Akil; Blattman, Negin N

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia pickettii is a rare pathogen and even more rare in healthy individuals. Here we report a case of R. pickettii bacteremia leading to aortic valve abscess and complete heart block. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Ralstonia species causing infective endocarditis with perivalvular abscess.

  9. Native Valve Endocarditis due to Ralstonia pickettii: A Case Report and Literature Review

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    Joseph Orme

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia pickettii is a rare pathogen and even more rare in healthy individuals. Here we report a case of R. pickettii bacteremia leading to aortic valve abscess and complete heart block. To our knowledge this is the first case report of Ralstonia species causing infective endocarditis with perivalvular abscess.

  10. Effects of an Agaricus blazei Aqueous Extract Pretreatment on Paracetamol-Induced Brain and Liver Injury in Rats

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    Andréia A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of an Agaricus blazei aqueous extract pretreatment on paracetamol injury in rats was examined not only in terms of the classical indicators (e.g., levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma but also in terms of functional and metabolic parameters (e.g., gluconeogenesis. Considering solely the classical indicators for tissue damage, the results can be regarded as an indication that the A. blazei extract is able to provide a reasonable degree of protection against the paracetamol injury in both the hepatic and brain tissues. The A. blazei pretreatment largely prevented the increased levels of hepatic enzymes in the plasma (ASP, ALT, LDH, and ALP and practically normalized the TBARS levels in both liver and brain tissues. With respect to the functional and metabolic parameters of the liver, however, the extract provided little or no protection. This includes morphological signs of inflammation and the especially important functional parameter gluconeogenesis, which was impaired by paracetamol. Considering these results and the long list of extracts and substances that are said to have hepatoprotective effects, it would be useful to incorporate evaluations of functional parameters into the experimental protocols of studies aiming to attribute or refute effective hepatoprotective actions to natural products.

  11. Serum hepatic biochemistry and electrophoretic protein profile of healthy and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice treated with extracts of Agaricus blazei Murill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durval Verçosa Junior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compounds isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill represent a group of promising natural immunomodulators for use in the treatment of neoplasms. We have evaluated the serum biochemical profile of healthy and Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice treated with different extracts of A. blazei. Total, supernatant, and polysaccharide extracts of A. blazei were obtained from suspensions (at acidic or neutral pH kept in a water bath at 60 °C or in an ultrasonic bath at 37 °C. After oral administering the extracts to mice for 21 days, blood samples were collected for determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatine kinase (CK, urea, total protein, albumin, globulins, and alpha-, beta- and gamma-globulin fractions. The presence of the tumor led to a significant increase in serum CK and AST activities and in the concentrations of total globulin and the gamma-globulin fraction, and to a decrease in the albumin and alpha2-globulin levels. The polysaccharide extracts of A. blazei reduced the serum AST and ALT activities, probably due to a hepatoprotective effect. In addition, polysaccharide and supernatant extracts inhibited the tumor-induced increase in gamma-globulin levels. Thus, the supernatant and polysaccharide fractions of the extract of A. blazei have potential for use in complementary antineoplastic treatments.

  12. Violencia intrafamiliar contra las mujeres

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Huertas Díaz

    2012-01-01

    El presente texto pretende abordar el tema de violencia en contra de las mujeres desde la perspectiva familiar, es decir la violencia intrafamiliar o también llamada doméstica, entendida y afirmada desde la Corte Constitucional, como aquella violencia que causa daño o maltrato físico, psíquico o sexual, trato cruel, intimidatorio o degradante, amenaza, agravio, ofensa o cualquier otra forma de agresión, producida entre miembros de una familia, llámese cónyuge o compañero permanente, padre o m...

  13. The Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill: Review of Literature and Pharmaco-Toxicological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Firenzuoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM popularly known as ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ in Brazil, or ‘Himematsutake’ in Japan, is a mushroom native to Brazil, and widely cultivated in Japan for its medicinal uses, so it is now considered as one of the most important edible and culinary-medicinal biotechnological species. It was traditionally used to treat many common diseases like atherosclerosis, hepatitis, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, dermatitis and cancer. In vitro and in vivo ABM has shown immunomodulatory and antimutagenic properties, although the biological pathways and chemical substances involved in its pharmacological activities are still not clear. The polysaccharides phytocomplex is thought to be responsible for its immunostimulant and antitumor properties, probably through an opsonizing biochemical pathway. Clinical studies are positive confirmations, but we are still at the beginning, and there are perplexing concerns especially relative to the content of agaritine. Argantine is a well-known carcinogenic and toxic substance in animals, that must be completely and fully evaluated.

  14. Extratos de Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici, in vitro Extracts of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei on Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici., in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Grade Fiori-Tutida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de buscar medidas alternativas para o controle de Bipolaris sorokiniana e Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici testou-se o efeito fungitóxico in vitro dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei sobre esses fungos. Os extratos brutos aquosos de ambos os cogumelos não tiveram efeito significativo tanto no crescimento micelial quanto na germinação de esporos de B. sorokiniana. Por outro lado, os extratos dos cogumelos inibiram a germinação de esporos de P. recondita f. sp. tritici, com destaque para o isolado LE 96/17 de L. edodes que apresentou inibição da ordem de 52,4%.With the purpose of finding alternative ways to control Bipolaris sorokiniana and Puccinia recondita f. sp. triciti, the fungitoxic effect in vitro of Lentinula edodes and Agaricus blazei mushrooms was tested on these fungi. The aqueous crude extract of both mushrooms did not have significant effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of B. sorokiniana . On the other hand, the mushroom extracts inhibited the germination of P. recondita f. sp. tritici uredospores, particularly on the L. edodes (96/17, which exhibited the largest inhibition of spore germination (52,38%.

  15. A violencia contra a muller

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Calvo, María Sol

    2013-01-01

    Grao en Medicina Esta unidade didáctica denominada “Violencia contra a muller”, está incluída no bloque de “Clínica forense” da materia “Medicina legal”, que se imparte no segundo semestre do 5º curso do Grao en Medicina. Esta materia é froito da interrelación entre a Medicina e o Dereito nun dobre sentido: o primeiro refírese á aplicación dos coñecementos médicos para resolver cuestións xudiciais (Medicina legal propiamente dita). O segundo ocúpase da regulación xurídica da práctica médic...

  16. Violencia contra inmigrantes en Tamaulipas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara-Palacios

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Violence against immigrants in TamaulipasMigrants in Mexico are subjected to extortions, kidnappings, rapes and killings. Tamaulipas, a state situated in the northeast of Mexico, has registered an unprecedented level of violence against migrants. In August of 2010, 72 migrants were massacred in San Fernando (Tamaulipas and in April of 2011, 194 corpses of migrants were found in the same place. Furthermore, since 2009, rural communities in central Tamaulipas, which receive more than five thousand migrants a year to work in harvesting oranges, have suffered violent attacks targeting immigrants. This paper, based on a qualitative methodology that includes in-depth interviews with 60 immigrants conducted between April 2011 and November 2011, examines the forms of cultural, direct, structural and post-structural violence suffered by immigrant workers employed in the orange sector of Tamaulipas.Resumen:Los migrantes en México son objeto de extorsiones, secuestros, violaciones y asesinatos. Tamaulipas, un estado situado en el noreste de México, ha registrado niveles sin precedentes de violencia contra los migrantes. En Agosto de 2010 72 migrantes fueron masacrados en San Fernando (Tamaulipas, y en Abril de 2011 194 cadáveres de migrantes fueron encontrados en el mismo lugar. Asimismo, las comunidades rurales del centro de Tamaulipas, que reciben anualmente más de 5 mil migrantes para trabajar en la pizca de la naranja, han sufrido desde el año 2009 violentos ataques dirigidos contra los migrantes. Este artículo, basado en una metodología cualitativa que incluye entrevistas en profundidad con 60 migrantes realizadas entre Abril y Noviembre de 2011, examina las formas de violencia cultural, directa, estructural y postestructural sufrida por los trabajadores migratorios empleados en el sector citrícola de Tamaulipas.

  17. Violencia contra las mujeres y alguien mas...

    OpenAIRE

    Piatti, Mª de Lujan

    2013-01-01

    La violencia contra las mujeres es una clara vulneración a sus derechos humanos. Es una violencia ejercida contra ellas por el solo hecho de ser mujeres; no se trata de casos aislados, sino que constituye un fenómeno social, presente en la sociedad actual sin distinción de razas, lugar geográfico, nivel cultural, religión, sistema político o económico. Investigar sobre “La violencia contra las mujeres y alguien más…”, desde una mirada multidisciplinar, significa bucear en las profundidades de...

  18. CIA and the Contras' cocaine connection

    OpenAIRE

    Kain, Victor

    2006-01-01

    The evidence shows that the government knew that the Contras’ decided to traffic cocaine to finance themselves. The government participated in the drug trafficking by not interrupting it. CIA ordered the Contras to traffic drugs. Traffickers were protected from prosecution and received government contract. The government knew and sanctioned the drug trafficking into the US to support the Contras. The White House urged lenience for at least one convicted trafficker and terrorist.

  19. Vacuna contra el VPH (HPV Vaccine)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-25

    Desde el 2006, hay una vacuna que protege contra los tipos de VPH que causan cáncer con mayor frecuencia. Este podcast habla sobre la importancia de que los padres hablen con los proveedores de atención médica de sus hijos sobre ponerles la vacuna contra el VPH.  Created: 7/25/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/4/2013.

  20. Violencia intrafamiliar contra las mujeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Huertas Díaz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto pretende abordar el tema de violencia en contra de las mujeres desde la perspectiva familiar, es decir la violencia intrafamiliar o también llamada doméstica, entendida y afirmada desde la Corte Constitucional, como aquella violencia que causa daño o maltrato físico, psíquico o sexual, trato cruel, intimidatorio o degradante, amenaza, agravio, ofensa o cualquier otra forma de agresión, producida entre miembros de una familia, llámese cónyuge o compañero permanente, padre o madre, aunque no convivan bajo el mismo techo, ascendientes o descendientes de estos incluyendo hijos adoptivos, y en general todas las personas que de manera permanente se hallaren integrados a la unidad doméstica. Junto a ello el documento explicará de qué forma afecta esta particular clase de violencia a las mujeres, los abusos y malos tratos que la materializan, y las medidas adoptadas por el Estado Colombiano para enfrentar sus consecuencias, y por último la presentación de los conceptos que maneja la Corte Constitucional en la interpretación de dicho fenómeno.

  1. Synergistic interaction in dual-species biofilms formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Ralstonia spp., a heterotrophic bacterium that are isolated from produce processing environments as part of the native microflora, have strong potentials for formaing biofilms on various surfaces. When co-cultured, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) and Ralstonia spp. displayed a synerg...

  2. Formaldehyde degradation by Ralstonia eutropha in an immobilized cell bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Alireza; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    The formaldehyde (FA) degradation ability of the loofa-immobilized Ralstonia eutropha cells in a packed bed reactor was modeled using a statistically based design of the experiment (DOE) considering application of response surface methodology (RSM). The simultaneous effects of four operative test factors on the cells performance in terms of FA degradation rate and extent of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were monitored. The combination of factors at initial FA concentration of 629.7 mg L(-1)h(-1), recycling substrate flow rate of 4.4 mL min(-1), aeration rate of 1.05 vvm, and the system's temperature of 28.8°C resulted the optimal conditions for the FA biodegradation rate and COD removal efficiency. Loofa porous structure was found to be a protective environment for the cells in exposing to the toxic substances and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed extensive cells penetration within this support. Oxygen transfer analysis in the form of evaluating K la value was also carried out and at the optimum conditions of the DOE was equaled to 9.96 h(-1)and oxygen uptake rate was 35.6 mg L(-1)h(-1).

  3. Molecular Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum Isolated from Ginger in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Alvarez, A M; Moore, P H; Zee, F; Kim, M S; de Silva, A; Hepperly, P R; Ming, R

    2003-09-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum strains isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) growing on the island of Hawaii was determined by analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Initially 28 strains of R. solanacearum collected from five host plant species worldwide were analyzed by AFLP. A second analysis was conducted on 55 R. solanacearum strains collected from three ginger farms along the Hamakua Coast of Hawaii, the principle area of ginger cultivation in the state. From the initial analysis, R. solanacearum strains from ginger in Hawaii showed a high degree of similarity at 0.853. In contrast, the average genetic similarity between R. solanacearum strains from heliconia and ginger was only 0.165, and strains from ginger showed little similarity with strains from all other hosts. The second analysis of 55 strains from ginger on different Hawaiian farms confirmed that they were distinct from race 1 strains from tomato. Strains from ginger also showed greater diversity among themselves in the second analysis, and the greatest diversity occurred among strains from a farm where ginger is frequently imported and maintained. Our results provide evidence that R. solanacearum strains from ginger in Hawaii are genetically distinct from local strains from tomato (race 1) and heliconia (race 2).

  4. La Ciudad Contra el Campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaramillo Ocampo Hernán

    1940-03-01

    Full Text Available La Colombia colonial regida por virreyes, alcabaleros y frailes, fundó su economía en escasas faenas pastoriles que eran más pasatiempo de nuestros abuelos que correría económica, y en el laboreo de las minas, donde la carne de los negros inflaba las arcas de los chapetones y acrecentaba el afán imperialista de España. Contra los pilones de las rocas hostiles trabajaba una recua importada, que nunca supo de la vida cristiana y cuyo sudor recogían tres o cuatro ciudades antipáticas, encaprichadas en aclimatar las costumbres hispánicas y en gozar de los lujos y prebendas propios de una nación crecida. Hispánicas, fafaracheras y endomingadas nuestras pequeñas ciudades, aparecían en un todo divorciadas de la índole misma del pueblo, de la textura de la Colombia tropical. En esta forma fuimos preparando una línea divisoria entre la ciudad y el campo. Las ciudades progresan, se fundan nuevos pueblos, la conquista se realiza abriendo la selva para plantar moradas y clavar iglesias, mientras que en el campo reina la misma e irremediable soledad. Continúa así la lucha entre la ciudad y el campo, en la cual la primera resulta siempre triunfadora. Toda la riqueza rural está garantizando el progreso y embellecimiento de nuestras urbes, Así la despoblación de los campos no es un hecho tolerado por el país, sino preparado por éste. El traslado patrimonial del campo a la ciudad ha permitido que las clases urbanas se organicen.

  5. Common desease and insect in Agaricus blazei and their control%巴西蘑菇常见病虫害及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林衍铨; 黄建成; 胡润芳

    2000-01-01

    @@ 巴西蘑菇(Agaricus blazei Murrill,日本商品名称姬松茸)在栽培过程中,往往会出现各种病、虫害,轻者降低品质,造成减产,重者甚至绝收.现将巴西蘑菇常见的病虫害及其防治措施介绍如下.

  6. Against inequality Contra la desigualdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugger William

    1998-12-01

    es impracticable porque el Estado siempre actua, aún cuando siga políticas económicas no intervencionistas. En contra del simplismo de quienes defienden la disyunción 'Estado o mercado'. En cuanto a la desigualdad, resume así el problema central de nuestra época: ¿Cuánta desigualdad creará y permitirá el Estado para preservar la estructura de mercado?

  7. Continuos g-contraíbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Rincón-Villamizar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diremos que un continuo X es g-contraíble si existe una función continua y sobreyectiva f : X → X que es homotópica a una función constante. En este artículo hacemos una recopilación de los resultados conocidos acerca de los continuos g-contraíbles. Mostraremos que existe un continuo que no es g-contraíble tal que el producto numerable de él con sí mismo sí lo es.Con esto damos respuesta negativa a un caso particular de la Pregunta 3.2 que propusimos en el artículo “On g-contractibility of continua” [3].

  8. Transcriptomes of Ralstonia solanacearum during Root Colonization of Solanum commersonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigvert, Marina; Guarischi-Sousa, Rodrigo; Zuluaga, Paola; Coll, Núria S.; Macho, Alberto P.; Setubal, João C.; Valls, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt of potatoes—also called brown rot—is a devastating disease caused by the vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that leads to significant yield loss. As in other plant-pathogen interactions, the first contacts established between the bacterium and the plant largely condition the disease outcome. Here, we studied the transcriptome of R. solanacearum UY031 early after infection in two accessions of the wild potato Solanum commersonii showing contrasting resistance to bacterial wilt. Total RNAs obtained from asymptomatic infected roots were deep sequenced and for 4,609 out of the 4,778 annotated genes in strain UY031 were recovered. Only 2 genes were differentially-expressed between the resistant and the susceptible plant accessions, suggesting that the bacterial component plays a minor role in the establishment of disease. On the contrary, 422 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in planta compared to growth on a synthetic rich medium. Only 73 of these genes had been previously identified as DE in a transcriptome of R. solanacearum extracted from infected tomato xylem vessels. Virulence determinants such as the Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) and its effector proteins, motility structures, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying enzymes were induced during infection of S. commersonii. On the contrary, metabolic activities were mostly repressed during early root colonization, with the notable exception of nitrogen metabolism, sulfate reduction and phosphate uptake. Several of the R. solanacearum genes identified as significantly up-regulated during infection had not been previously described as virulence factors. This is the first report describing the R. solanacearum transcriptome directly obtained from infected tissue and also the first to analyze bacterial gene expression in the roots, where plant infection takes place. We also demonstrate that the bacterial transcriptome in planta can be studied when pathogen numbers are low by

  9. Novel plant inputs influencing Ralstonia solanacearum during infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paola eZuluaga Cruz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil and water-borne pathogen that can infect a wide range of plants and cause the devastating bacterial wilt disease. To successfully colonize a host, R. solanacearum requires the type III secretion system (T3SS, which delivers bacterial effector proteins inside the plant cells. HrpG is a central transcriptional regulator that drives the expression of the T3SS and other virulence determinants. hrpG transcription is highly induced upon plant cell contact and its product is also post-transcriptionally activated by metabolic signals present when bacteria are grown in minimal medium. Here, we describe a transcriptional induction of hrpG at early stages of bacterial co-culture with plant cells that caused overexpression of the downstream T3SS effector genes. This induction was maintained in a strain devoid of prhA, the outer membrane receptor that senses bacterial contact with plant cells, demonstrating that this is a response to an unknown signal. Induction was unaffected after disruption of the known R. solanacearum pathogenicity regulators, indicating that it is controlled by a non-described system. Moreover, plant contact-independent signals are also important in planta, as shown by the hrpG induction triggered by apoplastic and xylem extracts. We also found that none of the amino acids or sugars present in the apoplast and xylem saps studied correlated with hrpG induction. This suggests that a small molecule or an environmental condition is responsible for the T3SS gene expression inside the plants. Our results also highlight the abundance and diversity of possible carbon, nitrogen and energy sources likely used by R. solanacearum during growth in planta.

  10. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Michael P

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine) from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i) Species-specific-PCR, ii) PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR) iii) the fliC gene genes, iv) RAPD and BOX-PCR and v) phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin.

  11. Contra pürib sajandi rahvakirjanikuks / Aivar Kull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kull, Aivar, 1955-

    2001-01-01

    Contra [Konnula, Margus]. Suusamütsi tutt : luulet aastatest 1974-2000. Urvaste ; Tartu : Mina Ise, 2001. Vaata ka: Kull, Aivar. Kulli pilk. - Tartu : Ilmamaa, 2005, lk. 184-185, pealkirjaga "Contra - uue sajandi rahvakirjanik?"

  12. Effect of plant essential oils on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4 causing bacterial wilt of edible ginger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini), lemongrass (C. citratus) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) oils were investigated for their effects on Ralstonia solanacearum race 4, and their potential use as bio-fumigants for treating pathogen- infested edible ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) fields. Three conce...

  13. A multiplex PCR assay to detect and differentiate select agent strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralstonia solanacearum causes bacterial wilt in a variety of cash crops. R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strains are considered select agents by the U.S. Government because they are not endemic to the U.S. and have the potential to cause brown rot disease in our potato production fields. Simple and...

  14. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: a new potential biocontrol agent of Ralstonia solanacearum, causal agent of potato brown rot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Farag, N.S.; Abdallah, S.A.; Janse, J.D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2007-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated from the rhizosphere of eggplant in the Nile Delta of Egypt, and its antagonistic potential against Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causal agent of potato brown rot, was in vitro evaluated on KB agar medium and in vivo on potato plants. In vitro,

  15. Amplification of RNA by NASBA allows direct detection of viable cells of Ralstonia solanacearum in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentsink, L.; Leone, G.O.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Schijndel, van H.B.; Gemen, van B.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to develop a Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) assay, targeting 16S rRNA sequences, for direct detection of viable cells of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal organism of bacterial wilt. The presence of intact 16S rRNA is considered to be a usefu

  16. Emergence of VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase producing Ralstonia pickettii clinical isolate in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khajuria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Ralstonia pickettii from a woman was analysed. Modified Hodge test was positive for carbapenemase production. Conjugation experiment revealed the presence of conjugative plasmid of >140 Kb size typed as IncN type. This is the first report of emergence blaVIM-2 in R. pickettii in India.

  17. A putative genomic island, PGI-1, in Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 revealed by subtractive hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, P.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, a key bacterial pathogen of potato, has recently established in temperate climate waters. On the basis of isolates obtained from diseased (potato) plants, its genome has been assumed to be virtually clonal, but information on environmental isolates has been lacking.

  18. Ave sol contra excrementum : Kiri / Harri Tibar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tibar, Harri

    1996-01-01

    Peeter Sauteri novell 'Kõhuvalu'. Vastukaja : Bogovski, Paul. Surun kätt, dotsent hr. Tibar! // Sõnumileht. - 1996. - 24. apr. - Lk.14; Väljataga, Märt. Viisipärasus contra inimlähedus // Sõnumileht. - 1996. - 26. apr. - Lk.14

  19. Chitosan oligosaccharides in combination with Agaricus blazei Murill extract reduces hepatoma formation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    YEH, MING YANG; SHANG, HUNG SHENG; LU, HSU FENG; CHOU, JASON; YEH, CHUN; CHANG, JIN BIOU; HUNG, HSIAO FANG; KUO, WAN LIN; WU, LUNG YUAN; CHUNG, JING GUNG

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan and Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) extracts possess antitumor activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chitosan, ABM extract or the two in combination were effective against tumors in tumor-bearing mice. The mice were subcutaneously injected with SK-Hep 1 cells and were then were divided into the following six groups: Group 1, control group; group 2, chitosan 5 mg/kg/day; group 3, chitosan 20 mg/kg/day; group 4, ABM (246 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) combined; group 5, ABM (984 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (20 mg/kg/day) combined; and group 6, ABM (984 mg/kg/day). The mice were treated with the different concentrations of chitosan, ABM or combinations of the two for 6 weeks. The levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tissue histopathological features were examined in the surviving animals. Based on the results of the investigation, the treatments performed in groups 2, 3 and 4 were identified as being capable of reducing the weights of the tumors, however, group 4, which was treated with chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) in combination with ABM (246 mg/kg/day) was able to reduce the levels of GOT and VEGF. As a result, treatment with chitosan in combination with ABM may offer potential in cancer therapy and requires further investigation. PMID:25760985

  20. A polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (ABP-AW1) as a potential Th1 immunity-stimulating adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liran; Sun, Yongxu; Xu, Hao; Xu, Huiyu; Cong, Huan; Liu, Jicheng

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, a low molecular weight polysaccharide, ABP-AW1, isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill was assessed for its potential adjuvant activity. ABP-AW1 is considered to create a 'depot' of antigen at a subcutaneous injection site. ICR mice were immunized with 100 μg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 100 μg OVA formulated in 0.9% saline containing 200 μg aluminum (alum) or ABP-AW1 (50, 100 and 200 μg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks after the secondary immunization, splenocyte proliferation, the expression of surface markers, cytokine production and the OVA-specific antibody levels in the serum were determined. The OVA/ABP-AW1 vaccine, in comparison with OVA alone, markedly increased the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and elicited greater antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell activation, as determined by splenic CD4(+)CD69(+) T cells and Th1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ release. The combination of ABP-AW1 and OVA also enhanced IgG2b antibody responses to OVA. In conclusion, these data indicated that ABP-AW1 significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses against OVA in the mice, suggesting that ABP-AW1 stimulated Th1-type immunity. We suggest that ABP-AW1 may serve as a new adjuvant.

  1. Chitosan oligosaccharides in combination with Agaricus blazei Murill extract reduces hepatoma formation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ming-Yang; Shang, Hung-Sheng; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chou, Jason; Yeh, Chun; Chang, Jin-Biou; Hung, Hsiao-Fang; Kuo, Wan-Lin; Wu, Lung-Yuan; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan and Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) extracts possess antitumor activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chitosan, ABM extract or the two in combination were effective against tumors in tumor‑bearing mice. The mice were subcutaneously injected with SK-Hep 1 cells and were then were divided into the following six groups: Group 1, control group; group 2, chitosan 5 mg/kg/day; group 3, chitosan 20 mg/kg/day; group 4, ABM (246 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) combined; group 5, ABM (984 mg/kg/day) and chitosan (20 mg/kg/day) combined; and group 6, ABM (984 mg/kg/day). The mice were treated with the different concentrations of chitosan, ABM or combinations of the two for 6 weeks. The levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tissue histopathological features were examined in the surviving animals. Based on the results of the investigation, the treatments performed in groups 2, 3 and 4 were identified as being capable of reducing the weights of the tumors, however, group 4, which was treated with chitosan (5 mg/kg/day) in combination with ABM (246 mg/kg/day) was able to reduce the levels of GOT and VEGF. As a result, treatment with chitosan in combination with ABM may offer potential in cancer therapy and requires further investigation.

  2. Aqueous Extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill Prevents Age-Related Changes in the Myenteric Plexus of the Jejunum in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Santi-Rampazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of the supplementation with aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM on biometric and blood parameters and quantitative morphology of the myenteric plexus and jejunal wall in aging Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized at 7 (C7, 12 (C12 and CA12, and 23 months of age (C23 and CA23. The CA12 and CA23 groups received a daily dose of ABM extract (26 mg/animal via gavage, beginning at 7 months of age. A reduction in food intake was observed with aging, with increases in the Lee index, retroperitoneal fat, intestinal length, and levels of total cholesterol and total proteins. Aging led to a reduction of the total wall thickness, mucosa tunic, villus height, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells. In the myenteric plexus, aging quantitatively decreased the population of HuC/D+ neuronal and S100+ glial cells, with maintenance of the nNOS+ nitrergic subpopulation and increase in the cell body area of these populations. Supplementation with the ABM extract preserved the myenteric plexus in old animals, in which no differences were detected in the density and cell body profile of neurons and glial cells in the CA12 and CA23 groups, compared with C7 group. The supplementation with the aqueous extract of ABM efficiently maintained myenteric plexus homeostasis, which positively influenced the physiology and prevented the death of the neurons and glial cells.

  3. Phytobiocidal management of bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi

    OpenAIRE

    Naseerud Din; Musharaf Ahmad; Muhammad Siddique; Asad Ali; Ishrat Naz; Najeeb Ullah; Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Phytobiocides are a good alternative to chemicals in managing bacterial diseases including bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. In the present research study, finely ground dried powders of seven widely available medicinal plants/weeds species viz., Peganum harmala (esfand or wild rue), Calotropis procera (sodom apple), Melia azedarach (white cedar), Allium sativum (garlic), Adhatoda vasica (malabar nut), Tagetes patula (marigold) and Nerium oleander (oleander) were asse...

  4. Characterization of the Adaptive Response to Trichloroethylene-Mediated Stresses in Ralstonia pickettii PKO1

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Joonhong; Kukor, Jerome J.; Abriola, Linda M.

    2002-01-01

    In Ralstonia pickettii PKO1, a denitrifying toluene oxidizer that carries a toluene-3-monooxygenase (T3MO) pathway, the biodegradation of toluene and trichloroethylene (TCE) by the organism is induced by TCE at high concentrations. In this study, the effect of TCE preexposure was studied in the context of bacterial protective response to TCE-mediated toxicity in this organism. The results of TCE degradation experiments showed that cells induced by TCE at 110 mg/liter were more tolerant to TCE...

  5. Synthesis and antibacterial activity against ralstonia solanacearum for novel hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ralstonia solanacearum, one of the most important bacterial diseases on plants, is a devastating, soil-borne plant pathogen with a global distribution and an unusually wide host range. In order to discover new bioactive molecules and pesticides acting on tobacco bacterial wilt, we sought to combine the active structure of hydrazone and pyridine together to design and synthesize a series of novel hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety. Results A series of hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety were synthesized. Their structures were characterized by 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. The preliminary biological activity tests showed that compound 3e and 3g exhibited more than 80% activity against Ralstonia solanacearum at 500 mg/L, especially compound 3g displayed relatively good activity to reach 57.0% at 200 mg/L. Conclusion A practical synthetic route to hydrazone derivatives containing a pyridine moiety by the reaction of intermediates 2 with different aldehydes in ethanol at room temperature using 2-chloronicotinic acid and 2-amino-5-chloro-3-methylbenzoic acid as start materials is presented. This study suggests that the hydrazone derivatives containing a substituted pyridine ring could inhibit the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum.

  6. Studies on Odontotermes formosanus Food Choice between Agaricus blazei and Its Substrate%黑翅土白蚁对姬松茸及其培养料的取食性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德伟; 林辉; 罗海凌; 林春梅; 林占熺

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of Odontotermes formosanus to Agaricus blazei Murrill cultivation, studies were carried out on food selectiveness of Odontotermes formosanus by observing 5 different materials ( fruitbody of Agaricus blazei Murrill, bamboo powder, Juncao, Juncao substrate of Agaricus blazei Murrill, bamboo substrate of Agaricus blazei Murrill) foraging behaviors. The results showed that consumption rate of Juncao and bamboo powders were very significantly higher than that of other 3 materials. And the consumption rate of Agaricus blazei Murrill was 0. The mud sheet area and mud sheet coverage rate of Juncao and bamboo powders were very significantly higher than that of the other 3 materials. These all indicated that the volatile substances distributed from mycelium and fruitbody of Agaricus blazei Murrill could inhibit termites' feeding. And the harms of termites in Agaricus blazei Murrill were mainly from cultivation materials.%通过观察黑翅土白蚁工蚁的觅食行为,进行了黑翅土白蚁对5种材料(姬松茸、木屑、菌草草粉、菌草姬松茸培养料、木屑姬松茸培养料)的取食选择性研究.结果表明,木屑和菌草草粉的被食率极显著高于其他3种材料,而姬松茸被食率为0;木屑与菌草草粉的泥被面积和泥被覆盖率极显著高于其他3种材料.这都表明姬松茸菌丝及其子实体散发出来的挥发性物质可以抑制黑翅土白蚁取食,黑翅土白蚁为害姬松茸主要是对其栽培料的破坏.

  7. Genome sequences of Ralstonia insidiosa type strain ATCC 49129 and strain FC1138, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut produce-processing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralstonia insidiosa FC1138 is a strong biofilm producer, isolated from a local fresh-cut produce processing plant. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Ralstonia insidiosa FC1138 which includes two circular chromosomes and a plasmid. To our knowledge, this is the first reported complete ...

  8. A polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei Murill induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Hongmin; Han, Junqing; Liu, Li

    2014-09-01

    Polysaccharides are the major active ingredients of fungus Agaricus blazei for treating and preventing cancer. However, there are no reports showing anti-tumor activity of A. blazei polysaccharides (ABP) on human leukemia (HL)-60 cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that ABP efficiently inhibited proliferation of cultured HL-60 cells, which was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The increase in ABP-induced apoptosis was accompanied by loss of mitochondria membrane potential (∆Ψm), cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, activation of caspase-3, degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and the elevated ratio of Bcl-2-associated X (Bax)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). Moreover, z-DEVD-fmk, a caspase-3 inhibitor, reversed the cytotoxic effects and apoptotic characteristics induced by ABP in HL-60 cells. Furthermore, we confirmed that ABP could obviously inhibit the solid cancer growth of leukemia HL-60 in tumor xenograft model. These data demonstrated that ABP effectively induced the apoptosis of HL-60 cells via a signaling cascade of mitochondrial caspase-3-dependent pathway.

  9. Seguridad contra incendios en edificios con atrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faller, George

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Atria are commonly used in the design of buildings to improve the environment of the space. Nevertheless the current Spanish codes do not address the fire safety concerns associated with this type of building. A new draft code, the "Código Técnico de la Edificación .. (CTE, proposes a series of measures to address the issue of fire safety in atria, based on the approach adopted by the British atrium codeo. In order to simplify the application of the measures, buildings are classified according to use and appropriate measures are presented in a tabulated format. As could be expected from such an approach, the simplification of the pro cess imposes limits on design flexibility, and given a set of prescribed solutions, the designer would often not be able to achieve the ideal building form. This article discusses the limits of a prescriptive approach to fire safety in buildings with atria , and describes an alternative approach based on fire engineering principles that offers the architect more design flexibilty .Cada vez se utilizan más atrios para mejorar el ambiente dentro de los edificios. Sin embargo, las normativas actualmente vigentes en España no ofrecen soluciones para abordar los riesgos -en caso de incendio- en este tipo de edificios. El borrador del nuevo Código Técnico de la Edificación (CTE plantea una serie de medidas de seguridad contra incendios en atrios, basada en el planteamiento seguido en por las normas británicas. Para simplificar la aplicación de dichas medidas, se fijan algunas características del edificio y se ofrecen soluciones basadas en medidas obtenidas de una tabla . Como es era de esperar con este tipo de planteamiento, la facilidad de aplicación va en detrimento de la flexibilidad, y resulta que con las soluciones prescritas el diseñador no puede conseguir la forma deseada en el edificio. Este artículo trata de ilustrar las restricciones que conllevan un planteamiento prescriptivo para la seguridad

  10. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: a new potential biocontrol agent of Ralstonia solanacearum, causal agent of potato brown rot

    OpenAIRE

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Diepeningen, van, A.D.; Farag, N.S.; Abdallah, S.A.; Janse, J.D.; Bruggen, van, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was isolated from the rhizosphere of eggplant in the Nile Delta of Egypt, and its antagonistic potential against Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2, the causal agent of potato brown rot, was in vitro evaluated on KB agar medium and in vivo on potato plants. In vitro, four isolates of S. maltophilia (PD3531, PD3532, PD3533, and PD3534) appeared antagonistic. The isolate (PD3533) was screened as the most promising antagonist for the in vivo tests. In the greenho...

  11. Cloning and Expression of a Ralstonia eutropha HF39 Gene Mediating Indigo Formation in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewlo, Sascha; Brämer, Christian O.; Madkour, Mohamed; Mayer, Frank; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    On complex medium Escherichia coli strains carrying hybrid plasmid pBEC/EE:11.0, pSKBEC/BE:9.0, pSKBEC/PP:3.3, or pSKBEC/PP:2.4 harboring genomic DNA of Ralstonia eutropha HF39 produced a blue pigment characterized as indigo by several chemical and spectroscopic methods. A 1,251-bp open reading frame (bec) was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of bec showed only weak similarities to short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenases, and the gene product catalyzed formation of indoxyl, a reactive preliminary stage for production of indigo. PMID:11282658

  12. Isolation, purification and identification of three peptaibols from Trichoderma koningii with antibiotic activity against Ralstonia solancearum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Qing-tao; CHEN Xiu-lan; SUN Cai-yun; ZHANG Yu-zhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ The use of microorganisms for biological purposes has become an effective alternative to control plant pathogens. Trichoderma koningii Smf2 was chosen from eight Trichoderma strains for its thermostatic metabolites with antibiotic activity against Ralstonia solancearum Smith. Exclusion chromatography (LH20) was used twice to partially purify targeted metabolites combined with biological test. LC/ESI-MS, a powerful tool for rapid identification and sequence determination of peptides, identified these metabolites as three peptaibols named Trichokonin Ⅵ, Ⅶ and Ⅷ, and their sequences were confirmed with NMR.

  13. Futuro de las vacunas contra hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de la Hoz Restrepo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Las hepatitis virales representan una de las amenazas más importantes para la salud del hombre. Más de 350 millones de personas son portadoras del virus de la hepatitis B (VHB y más de 900 millones han sido infectados alrededor del mundo. En este momento se cuenta con una vacuna recombinante segura y efectiva contra este virus, la cual es producida en células de levadura y contiene el antígeno de superficie del VHB como inmunogeno. En Colombia han recibido la vacuna mas de 5 millones de personas, especialmente menores de 15 años, mientras que en el mundo llega a más de 500 millones de personas. Muchos han sido los países donde la introducción de la vacuna ha llevado a una dramática reducción de los niveles de endemicidad de VHB y entre ellos pueden contarse algunas zonas endémicas de nuestro país. En esos sitios se ha constatado que la prevalencia de la infección y de portadores, se ha reducido en más de un 70% después de la introducción de la vacuna e incluso en Taiwán se ha demostrado ya, una reducción en la incidencia de carcinoma hepatocelular.

    Pese a estos éxitos, algunas características epidemiológicas de la hepatitis B como el alto número de portadores y la posibilidad de transmisión intrauterina, hacen pensar que la eliminación de la infección por VHB está lejos todavía. Adicionalmente hay una proporción de personas, que no desarrolla anticuerpos protectores contra el virus a pesar de recibir un esquema de vacunación adecuado. Debido a ello se ha avanzado en el diseño de vacunas contra VHB mejoradas en su capacidad inmunogénica, tales como vacunas que contienen combinaciones de antígeno de superficie (HBsAg y de otras dos proteínas de la envoltura, las pre S. Otra variación de la vacuna que está en desarrollo, es la incorporación de antígenos mutantes

  14. Characterization and DNA-binding specificities of Ralstonia TAL-like effectors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lixin

    2013-07-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas sp. have been used as customizable DNA-binding modules for genome-engineering applications. Ralstonia solanacearum TALE-like proteins (RTLs) exhibit similar structural features to TALEs, including a central DNA-binding domain composed of 35 amino acid-long repeats. Here, we characterize the RTLs and show that they localize in the plant cell nucleus, mediate DNA binding, and might function as transcriptional activators. RTLs have a unique DNA-binding architecture and are enriched in repeat variable di-residues (RVDs), which determine repeat DNA-binding specificities. We determined the DNA-binding specificities for the RVD sequences ND, HN, NP, and NT. The RVD ND mediates highly specific interactions with C nucleotide, HN interacts specifically with A and G nucleotides, and NP binds to C, A, and G nucleotides. Moreover, we developed a highly efficient repeat assembly approach for engineering RTL effectors. Taken together, our data demonstrate that RTLs are unique DNA-targeting modules that are excellent alternatives to be tailored to bind to user-selected DNA sequences for targeted genomic and epigenomic modifications. These findings will facilitate research concerning RTL molecular biology and RTL roles in the pathogenicity of Ralstonia spp. © 2013 The Author.

  15. Ralstonia insidiosa serves as bridges in biofilm formation by foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in fresh produce processing facilities might play a role in foodborne outbreaks by providing protective microniches for pathogenic bacteria. Our previous study showed that a strain of Ralstonia insidiosa isolated from a fresh produce processing plant could enhan...

  16. Effects of ecological factors on the survival and physiology of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in agricultural drainage water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsas, van J.D.; Kastelein, P.; Vries, de P.M.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of Ralstonia solanacearum bv. 2, the causative agent of brown rot in potato, in aquatic habitats of temperate climate regions is still poorly understood. In this study, the population dynamics and the physiological response of R. solanacearum bv. 2 were tested in sterile pure water and in a

  17. Effects of soil type, management type and soil amendments on the survival of the potato brown rot bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Franz, E.; Janse, J.D.; Schoeman-Weerdesteijn, M.E.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Diepeningen, van A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Potato brown rot disease (Ralstonia solanacearum) is a serious economic problem in Egypt, partly due to an European Union requirement that potatoes for export to the EU should be grown in so-called pest free area's (PFA's), where fields are tested and infested fields are put under quarantine measure

  18. A polyphasic approach for studying the interaction between Ralstonia solanacearum and potential control agents in the tomato phytosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Cassidy, M.; Kozdroj, J.; Trevors, J.T.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, the causative agent of brown rot in potato, has been responsible for large crop losses in Northwest Europe during the last decade. Knowledge on the ecological behaviour of R. solanacearum and its antagonists is required to develop sound procedures for its control and

  19. Ralstonia solanacearum Delta PGI-1 Strain KZR-5 Is Affected in Growth, Response to Cold Stress and Invasion of Tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Patricia; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The survival and persistence of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in temperate climates is still poorly understood. To assess whether genomic variants of the organism show adaptation to local conditions, we compared the behaviour of environmental strain KZR-5, which underwent a deletion of the 17.6 kb

  20. The Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Elicits Medicinal Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation through Its Modulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Hetland

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill from the Brazilian rain forest has been used in traditional medicine and as health food for the prevention of a range of diseases, including infection, allergy, and cancer. Other scientists and we have examined whether there is scientific evidence behind such postulations. Agaricus blazei M is rich in the immunomodulating polysaccharides, β-glucans, and has been shown to have antitumor, anti-infection, and antiallergic/-asthmatic properties in mouse models, in addition to anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease patients. These effects are mediated through the mushroom's stimulation of innate immune cells, such as monocytes, NK cells, and dendritic cells, and the amelioration of a skewed Th1/Th2 balance and inflammation.

  1. The dynamics of 1.3-β-D-glucan given in the form of Agaricus blazei Murill powder to the body of white mice Sprague Dawley and effect of renal and hepatic histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misgiati Misgiati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of compound 1,3-β-glucan in Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM powder and the effect of renal and hepatic histopathology performed on 24 male rats aged 2 months, were randomly conducted in three treatments there are control, ABM powder, and the pure compound 1.3-β-glucan for 28 days. Provision of treatment given in the morning and then 1, 3, 8, 12, and 24 hours after administration of treatment blood was collected, while for urine and feces were collected every 8 hours. Giving treatment was continued until day 28. The results showed that the levels of 1,3-β-glucan in pure compounds is higher than the Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM powder. The effects on the kidneys and liver histopathology showed that cells necrosis more on pure compounds from the mushroom powder gods, both the kidneys and liver. This study shows that the use of pure compounds to be more careful than Agaricus Blazei Murill (ABM powder in determining the doses used.

  2. On Estonian Folk Culture: Pro et contra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piret Õunapuu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The year 2013 was designated the year of heritage in Estonia, with any kind of intangible and tangible heritage enjoying pride of place. Heritage was written and spoken about and revived in all kinds of ways and manners. The motto of the year was: There is no heritage without heir. Cultural heritage is a comprehensive concept. This article focuses, above all, on indigenous cultural heritage and, more precisely, its tangible (so-called object part. Was the Estonian peasant, 120 years back, with his gradually increasing self-confidence, proud or ashamed of his archaic household items? Rustic folk culture was highly viable at that time. In many places people still wore folk costumes – if not daily, then at least the older generation used to wear them to church. A great part of Estonians still lived as if in a museum. Actually, this reminded of the old times that people tried to put behind them, and sons were sent to school in town for a better and more civilised future. In the context of this article, the most important agency is peasants’ attitude towards tangible heritage – folk culture in the widest sense of the word. The appendix, Pro et contra, at the end of the article exemplifies this on the basis of different sources.

  3. Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by solid-state fermentation with Ralstonia eutropha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F C; Freire, D M G; Castilho, L R

    2004-12-01

    The use of solid-state fermentation is examined as a low-cost technology for the production of poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) by Ralstonia eutropha. Two agroindustrial residues (babassu and soy cake) were evaluated as culture media. The maximum poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) yield was 1.2 mg g(-1) medium on soy cake in 36 h, and 0.7 mg g(-1) medium on babassu cake in 84 h. Addition of 2.5% (w/w) sugar cane molasses to soy cake increased PHB production to 4.9 mg g(-1) medium in 60 h. Under these conditions, the PHB content of the dry biomass was 39% (w/w). The present results indicate that solid-state fermentation could be a promising alternative for producing biodegradable polymers at low cost.

  4. Coupling System for Food Wastes Anaerobic Digestion and Polyhydroxyalkanoates Production with Ralstonia eutropha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new technology was developed to couple the anaerobic digestion of food wastes with production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Acetic, propionic, butyric and lactic acids were produced during food wastes anaerobic digestion and their concentrations reached 5.5, 1.8, 27.4 and 32.7 g/L, respectively under appropriate digestion conditions. The fermentative acids were transferred through a dialysis membrane to an air-lift reactor for PHA synthesis by Ralstonia eutropha. Dry cell concentration and PHA content reached 22.7 g/L and 72.6%, respectively. The obtained PHA was a copolymer of (-hydroxybutyrate (HB) and (-hydroxyvalerate (HV) with 2.8% (mole ratio) of HV units in polymer.

  5. Antibacterial enzymes from the functional screening of metagenomic libraries hosted in Ralstonia metallidurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Hala A; Craig, Jeffrey W; Brady, Sean F

    2014-05-01

    Phenotype-based screening of bacterial metagenomic libraries provides an avenue for the discovery of novel genes, enzymes, and metabolites that have a variety of potential clinical and industrial uses. Here, we report the identification of a functionally diverse collection of antibacterially active enzymes from the phenotypic screening of 700 000 cosmid clones prepared from Arizona soil DNA and hosted in Ralstonia metallidurans. Environmental DNA clones surrounded by zones of growth inhibition in a bacterial overlay assay were found, through bioinformatics and functional analyses, to encode enzymes with predicted peptidase, lipase, and glycolytic activities conferring antibiosis. The antibacterial activities observed in our R. metallidurans-based assay could not be replicated with the same clones in screens using Escherichia coli as a heterologous host, suggesting that the large-scale screening of metagenomic libraries for antibiosis using phylogenetically diverse hosts should be a productive strategy for identifying enzymes with functionally diverse antibacterial activities.

  6. Genome sequence of the bioplastic-producing "Knallgas" bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Anne; Fricke, Wolfgang Florian; Reinecke, Frank; Kusian, Bernhard; Liesegang, Heiko; Cramm, Rainer; Eitinger, Thomas; Ewering, Christian; Pötter, Markus; Schwartz, Edward; Strittmatter, Axel; Voss, Ingo; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Steinbüchel, Alexander; Friedrich, Bärbel; Bowien, Botho

    2006-10-01

    The H(2)-oxidizing lithoautotrophic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a metabolically versatile organism capable of subsisting, in the absence of organic growth substrates, on H(2) and CO(2) as its sole sources of energy and carbon. R. eutropha H16 first attracted biotechnological interest nearly 50 years ago with the realization that the organism's ability to produce and store large amounts of poly[R-(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate] and other polyesters could be harnessed to make biodegradable plastics. Here we report the complete genome sequence of the two chromosomes of R. eutropha H16. Together, chromosome 1 (4,052,032 base pairs (bp)) and chromosome 2 (2,912,490 bp) encode 6,116 putative genes. Analysis of the genome sequence offers the genetic basis for exploiting the biotechnological potential of this organism and provides insights into its remarkable metabolic versatility.

  7. New type IV pili-related genes involved in early stages of Ralstonia solanacearum potato infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, María Inés; Sanabria, Analía; Boucher, Christian; Pianzzola, María Julia

    2014-07-01

    This study provides insights into the pathogenesis of Ralstonia solanacearum, in particular with regards to strains belonging to phylotype IIB, sequevar 1 (IIB-1) and their interaction with potato, its natural host. We performed a comparative genomic analysis among IIB-1 R. solanacearum strains with different levels of virulence in order to identify candidate virulence genes. With this approach, we identified a 33.7-kb deletion in a strain showing reduced virulence on potato. This region contains a cluster of six genes putatively involved in type IV pili (Tfp) biogenesis. Functional analysis suggests that these proteins contribute to several Tfp-related functions such as twitching motility and biofilm formation. In addition, this genetic cluster was found to contribute to early bacterial wilt pathogenesis and colonization fitness of potato roots.

  8. Large scale extraction of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 using sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Daniel; Madkour, Mohamed H; Al-Ghamdi, Mansour A; Shabbaj, Ibraheem I; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-11-19

    Isolation of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from bacterial cell matter is a critical step in order to achieve a profitable production of the polymer. Therefore, an extraction method must lead to a high recovery of a pure product at low costs. This study presents a simplified method for large scale poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(3HB), extraction using sodium hypochlorite. Poly(3HB) was extracted from cells of Ralstonia eutropha H16 at almost 96% purity. At different extraction volumes, a maximum recovery rate of 91.32% was obtained. At the largest extraction volume of 50 L, poly(3HB) with an average purity of 93.32% ± 4.62% was extracted with a maximum recovery of 87.03% of the initial poly(3HB) content. This process is easy to handle and requires less efforts than previously described processes.

  9. PVC-piping promotes growth of Ralstonia pickettii in dialysis water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowsky, Matthias; Kirschner, Alexander; Sommer, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms forming inside dialysis water treatment systems are one of the main sources of microbiological contamination. Among the bacteria found in biofilms, Ralstonia pickettii is frequently encountered in dialysis water treatment systems and has been shown to develop extreme oligotrophic talents. In Austria, R. pickettii was exclusively detected in high numbers in dialysis water treatment facilities equipped with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) piping. In this laboratory study it was shown that PVC-C effectively promotes growth of R. pickettii biofilms, while residual organic carbon in purified dialysis water is sufficient for promoting substantial growth of planktic R. pickettii. This provides evidence that PVC-C is an unsuitable material for piping in dialysis water treatment systems.

  10. Incidence and function of sigma factors in Ralstonia metallidurans and other bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Dietrich H

    2004-04-01

    Bacterial sigma factors are essential for directing the bacterial RNA polymerase to promoter regions during transcription initiation. Genomic sequencing of the highly heavy-metal-resistant beta-proteobacterium Ralstonia metallidurans strain CH34 revealed 17 candidate genes for sigma factors. This review compares the sigma factor machinery of R. metallidurans to that of other bacteria. The sigma factors of 105 bacterial genomes were assigned to sigma factor clusters and families formed around the factors from Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and R. metallidurans. Genes for between 1 and 65 sigma-factor-related proteins were found in these genomes. Although prediction of sigma factor function from sequence comparisons can be misleading, organization of the R. metallidurans sigma factors into clusters and protein families, together with a discussion of the physiological function of members of these clusters, might yield insight into the cellular roles of bacterial sigma factors and the genes that depend on them for their expression.

  11. HOSPEDANTES DE Ralstonia solanacearum EN PLANTACIONES DE BANANO Y PLÁTANO EN COLOMBIA HOSTS OF Ralstonia solanacearum ON BANANA AND PLANTAIN PLANTATIONS IN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Obregón Barrios

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad del “Moko” causada por la bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum Raza 2, es uno de los problemas fitopatológicos más limitantes en la producción de plátano y banano en las regiones productoras. La bacteria cuenta con un amplio rango de hospederos, cerca de 50 familias botánicas y más de 200 especies. En plantaciones de banano y plátano de Colombia la bacteria se asocia con arvenses que se encuentran en altas poblaciones contribuyendo a su sobrevivencia y permanencia en el campo. Para la determinación de los hospedantes silvestres sintomáticos y asintomáticos en áreas afectadas en plantaciones de plátano y banano del Valle del Cauca, Quindío y Urabá, se realizó la colección de arvenses frecuentes en los focos afectados y el aislamiento en medio semiselectivo SMSA de la bacteria. 124 aislamientos fueron sometidos a pruebas bioquímicas y de patogenicidad en plantas de banano y plátano bajo condiciones similares a las de Urabá y Valle del Cauca. En las pruebas de patogenicidad 67 de 124 aislamientos evaluados fueron positivos, reproduciendo los síntomas típicos de la enfermedad como flacidez, clorosis, amarillamiento de hojas y muerte de las plantas. Se encontraron nuevas especies de arvenses hospedantes de la bacteria que corresponden a Chaptalia nutans, Seneciodes cinerea, Tripogandra glandulosa, Plenax hirtus, Peperomia pellucida, Tripogandra cumanenses, Desmodium sp, y Cissus sicyoides esta última perteneciente a la familia Vitaceae, la cual corresponde al registro de una nueva familia como hospedera. Se confirmó la presencia de la bacteria en hospedantes silvestres previamente mencionados.The moko disease caused by the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum race 2, is one of the most limiting phytosanitary problem to deal with in plantain and banana production in Colombia . The bacterium has a wide host range, nearly 50 botanical families and over two hundred species. In plantain and banana plantations in Colombia

  12. Bacterial wilt of potato (Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2): disease management, pathogen survival and possible eradication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messiha, N.A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Potato brown rot, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 (Phylovar II, sequevar 1), is a serious endemic disease in the Nile Delta of Egypt. It is a quarantine disease in the EU, and export of potatoes fromEgypt

  13. PERAN PEG 400 DALAM PEMBUATAN LEMBARAN BIOPLASTIK POLOHIDROKSIALKANOAT YANG DIHASILKAN OLEH RALSTONIA EUTROPHA DARI SUBSTRAT HIDROLISAT PATI SAGU

    OpenAIRE

    Khaswar Syamsu; Liesbetini Hartoto; Anas Miftah Fauzi; Ani Suryani; Dede Rais

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of PEG 400 addition on the characteristics of bioplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). PHA was obtained by cultivating Ralstonia eutropha on hydrolysed sago starch substrate using fed batch method for approximately 96 hours. The biomass concentration obtained was 4 g/L with PHA yield 20-30% of dry cell weight. The bioplastic was formed with solution casting method in which chloroform was used as solvent and PEG 400 was used as plastici...

  14. Vacunas contra el virus dengue: desarrollo histórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Aguilar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre del Dengue (FD y la Fiebre Hemorrágica del Dengue (FHD han emergido como la principal enfermedad viral transmitida por artrópodos que afecta al hombre. Las características de la enfermedad, la ausencia de drogas antivirales contra la misma, el incremento en el número de enfermos, de países afectados y la dificultad para el control del vector han convertido el desarrollo de vacunas contra el dengue en una prioridad para la salud pública mundial. Los intentos para lograr este objetivo datan de mediados del siglo pasado para lo cual han sido exploradas diferentes estrategias. A pesar de los avances realizados al respecto mucho queda por aclarar y definir para disponer de un inmunógeno contra el virus.

  15. Cleaning-resistant Cupriavidus and Ralstonia bacteria contaminating spacecrafts and the ultra clean rooms they are assembled in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, N.; Dams, A.; Bossus, A.; Provoost, A.; Venkateswaran, K.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Planetary Protection is preventing microbial contamination of both the target planet and the Earth when sending spacecrafts on interplanetary space mission It is important to preserve the natural conditions of other planets and to not bring with robots earthly microbes forward contamination when looking for spores of extra terrestrial life Spacecrafts and the ultra clean rooms they are assembled in are routinely monitored for microbial contamination It was shown that the floor air and surfaces of such spacecraft assembly rooms often contain Cupriavidu s and Ralstonia bacteria These bacteria not only contaminated the clean rooms but have also been found prior-to-flight on surfaces of space robots such as the Mars Odyssey Orbiter La Duc et al 2003 and even in-flight in ISS cooling water and Shuttle drinking water unpublished Aim In this study several Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains isolated from space craft assembling rooms and spacecrafts were characterized and analysed in detail Results The analysis showed that all the Cupriavidus and Ralstonia clean-room isolates are able to use a wide variety of substrates as carbon sources including ethanol and acetone In addition they all have accumulated moderate resistances to an extraordinary collection of physical and chemical antimicrobial agents Some of the test strains were able to form biofilms on plastic and metal materials used for space robots a nutritional and

  16. The influence of substrate source on the growth of Ralstonia eutropha, aiming at the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marangoni C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of producing polyhydroxyalkanoates, a study of the influence of culture conditions (nitrogen and carbon sources and temperature on the growth of Ralstonia eutropha in stirred flasks was carried out and the use of some low-cost sources (hydrolyzed lactose, inverted sugar and corn steep liquor as evaluated. The best specific growth rate was obtained when inverted sugar was utilized as the substrate (mumax = 0.26 h-1. Two different phases in the assimilation of the carbon source were observed when hydrolyzed lactose was present, suggesting the assimilation first of glucose and then of galactose. To confirm the growth of Ralstonia eutropha using galactose as the only carbon source, experiments were carried out and the results showed that this bacterium is able to grow in the presence of this sugar at a growth rate of 0.13 h-1. The use of galactose by Ralstonia eutropha for its growth has not been reported in the literature until now. Corn steep liquor was found to be a viable alternative nitrogen source to ammonium sulfate. The results of experiments carried out at 30°C and 34°C were similar.

  17. La violencia contra la mujer en la prensa

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    Dra. Encarnación Pérez Salicio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen de la tesis doctoral "La violencia sobre la mujer y su tratamiento en la prensa vasca", que analiza los textos sobre violencia contra la mujer aparecidos en la prensa vasca durante los años 1995, 1996 y 1997 y que viene a demostrar que existe en la prensa, al igual que en el resto de la sociedad, una forma de entender las relaciones de género que permite entender y justificar la violencia contra la mujer.

  18. Bibliografía: violencias contra las mujeres

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Vásquez, Lya Yaneth

    2001-01-01

    La violencia contra las mujeres, en sus diferentes manifestaciones, pero en particular la violencia intrafamiliar o doméstica y la violencia sexual, constituyen hoy en día en Colombia y en el mundo "cuestiones" de interés público. En efecto, en los años 90 estos tipos de agresión contra las mujeres se colocaron en las agendas tanto internacionales, como nacionales. La campaña de los diferentes organismos de las Naciones Unidas: Una vida sin violencia, un derecho nuestro, lanzada en 1998 para ...

  19. Mecanismo da contração muscular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Levy

    1960-09-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam uma síntese dos conceitos atuais sôbre o mecanismo da contração muscular. Inicialmente estabelecem o conceito de membrana polarizada e despolarizada. Salientam a importância da substância contrátil (actomiosina e da energia fornecida pelo ácido adenosintrifosfórico. São discutidas também as reações químicas que se processam para a formação dessas substâncias, bem como o papel da mioglobina na contração muscular.

  20. Las Violencias contra las Mujeres en una Sociedad en Guerra

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Gómez, Olga Amparo

    2008-01-01

    Las violencias contra las mujeres exceden los acontecimientos violentos, y abarcan su producción y reproducción como fenómeno social y discursivo. Los hechos violentos y los discursos sobre la violencia aparecen entrelazados, especialmente si se piensa en papel que juega la cultura patriarcal en el desarrollo, perpetuación y validación de las violencias contra las mujeres. “A las mujeres nos violan, nos asaltan y nos golpean, nos ultrajan, nos humillan, nos deshumanizan, nos manosean, nos ase...

  1. Optimization of Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats(ISSR) Reaction System for Agaricus blazei%姬松茸ISSR特异扩增体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林新坚; 江秀红; 蔡海松; 郑永标; 林陈强

    2007-01-01

    为了建立稳定的姬松茸(Agaricus blazei Murill)简单序列重复区间(Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats,ISSR)分子标记技术体系,笔者通过单因子试验分别研究了模板DNA、Mg2+浓度、dNTP、引物浓度和Taq酶用量对姬松茸ISSR-PCR扩增的影响,确定了姬松茸ISSR分析的最佳PCR条件为:25μL反应体系中,模板DNA 20 ng,引物0.75μmol/L,dNTP 200μmol/L,Mg2+2.0 mmol/L,Taq DNA polymerase 1.5 U.并应用该优化体系筛选到6个适合姬松茸ISSR-PCR扩增的引物,为利用ISSR标记技术研究姬松茸的种质资源提供了参考.

  2. Oral Treatment with Extract of Agaricus blazei Murill Enhanced Th1 Response through Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Suppressed OVA-Sensitized Allergy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Bouike

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the mechanism of the antiallergic activity of Agaricus blazei Murill extract (ABME, the present paper used an in vivo allergy model and an in vitro intestinal gut model. During OVA sensitization, the serum IgE levels decreased significantly in ABME group. Interleukin (IL-4 and -5 produced from OVA-restimulated splenocytes was significantly decreased, and anti-CD3ε/CD28 antibody treatment also reduced IL-10, -4, and -5 production and increased IFN-γ production in ABME group. These results suggest that oral administration of ABME improves Th1/Th2 balance. Moreover, a coculture system constructed of Caco-2 cells and splenocytes from OT-II mice or RAW 264.7 cells indicated that the significant increases in IFN-γ production by ABME treatment. Therefore, it was concluded that the antiallergic activity of ABME was due to the activation of macrophages by epithelial cells and the promotion of the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1 cells in the immune.

  3. Blood parameters of sheep with high infection of Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei

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    Gabriela Almeida Bastos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood and parasitological parameters of sheep experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus and treated with “mushroom of the sun” (Agaricus blazei were assessed. Lambs infected with the nematode were divided into three groups: treated with basidiocarp powder from the fungus, wormed with trichlorfon, and a control group that did not receive anthelmintic. Split-plot design analysis was performed where the treatments were defined as plots and four periods of collection were defined as subplots. Interaction between the treatments and the collection periods for the fecal egg counts per gram of feces (FEC was observed. Treatment with “mushroom of the sun” showed anthelmintic efficacies ranging from 28.6 to 54.2%. Similar performances to weight gain were observed among the groups. A significant interaction between treatments and evaluation periods was observed for erythrocyte counts, hematocrit value, and serum concentrations of albumin and urea. The values of the mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte distribution width, and leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil counts, as well as the mean platelet volume, varied among the collection days. The administration of “mushroom of the sun” significantly reduced the FEC, did not influence on the erythrocyte count and hematocrit value, which remained within normal limits. However it increased the serum concentrations of albumin.

  4. Simple sequence repeats and compositional bias in the bipartite Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 genome

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    Vandamme Peter

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ralstonia solanacearum is an important plant pathogen. The genome of R. solananearum GMI1000 is organised into two replicons (a 3.7-Mb chromosome and a 2.1-Mb megaplasmid and this bipartite genome structure is characteristic for most R. solanacearum strains. To determine whether the megaplasmid was acquired via recent horizontal gene transfer or is part of an ancestral single chromosome, we compared the abundance, distribution and compositon of simple sequence repeats (SSRs between both replicons and also compared the respective compositional biases. Results Our data show that both replicons are very similar in respect to distribution and composition of SSRs and presence of compositional biases. Minor variations in SSR and compositional biases observed may be attributable to minor differences in gene expression and regulation of gene expression or can be attributed to the small sample numbers observed. Conclusions The observed similarities indicate that both replicons have shared a similar evolutionary history and thus suggest that the megaplasmid was not recently acquired from other organisms by lateral gene transfer but is a part of an ancestral R. solanacearum chromosome.

  5. A novel alkaline lipase from Ralstonia with potential application in biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hah-Young; Simkhada, Jaya Ram; Cho, Seung Sik; Park, Don Hee; Kim, Seung Wook; Seong, Chi Nam; Yoo, Jin Cheol

    2011-05-01

    With the aim of isolating a biocatalyst able to catalyze biodiesel production from microbial source, Ralstonia sp. CS274 was isolated and a lipase from the strain (RL74) was purified. Molecular weight of RL74 was estimated to be 28,000 Da by SDS-PAGE. The activity was highest at 50-55°C and pH 8.0-9.5 and was stable at pH 7.0-12.0 and up to 45°C. It was resistant to oxidizing and reducing agents and the activity was enhanced by detergents. RL74 was 1,3 specific and K(m) and V(max) for p-nitrophenyl palmitate were 2.73 ± 0.6mM and 101.4 ± 1.9 mM/min mg, respectively. N-terminal amino acid sequence showed partial homology with that of Penicillium lipases. RL74 produced biodiesel more efficiently in palm oil than in soybean oil; and the production was highest at pH 8.0, at 5% methanol and at 20% water content.

  6. Ethanedisulfonate is degraded via sulfoacetaldehyde in Ralstonia sp. strain EDS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denger, K; Cook, A M

    2001-07-01

    Aerobic enrichment cultures (11) yielded three cultures able to utilise ethane-1,2-disulfonate as sole source of carbon and energy in salts medium. Two pure cultures were obtained and we worked with strain EDS1, which was assigned to the genus Ralstonia on the basis of its 16S rDNA sequence and simple taxonomic tests. Strain EDS1 utilised at least seven alkane(di)sulfonates, ethane-1,2-disulfonate, taurine, isethionate, sulfoacetate, sulfoacetaldehyde and propane-1,3-disulfonate, as well as methanesulfonate and formate. Growth with ethanedisulfonate was concomitant with substrate disappearance and the formation of 2 mol sulfate per mol substrate. The growth yield, 7 g protein (mol C)(-1), indicated quantitative utilisation of the substrate. Ethanedisulfonate-dependent oxygen uptake of whole cells during growth rose to a maximum before the end of growth and then sank rapidly; this was interpreted as evidence for an inducible desulfonative oxygenase that was not active in cell extracts. Inducible sulfoacetaldehyde sulfo-lyase was detected at high activity. Inducible degradation of taurine or isethionate or sulfoacetate via sulfoacetaldehyde sulfo-lyase is interpreted from the data.

  7. Elicitor-Induced Defense Responses in Solanum lycopersicum against Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhamoy Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated on important parameters of induced resistance in hydroponic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum against Ralstonia solanacearum using the elicitors chitosan (CHT, salicylic acid (SA, and jasmonic acid (JA. The increase in total phenolic content of roots by the elicitors was significantly higher than control. Most pronounced increase in lignin synthesis was triggered by SA followed by CHT. At 24 h post-elicitation (hpe, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase was 4.5 times higher than control elicited by CHT. The peroxidase activity was about 86 nkat/mg protein at 24 hpe in case of SA and 78 nkat/mg protein in case of CHT. The activity of polyphenol oxidase increased several folds by the elicitors. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity increased to the maximum at 48 hpe under the influence of CHT. The results indicate that the elicitors SA and CHT induced effective defense responses in tomato plants against R. solanacearum. This was evident from reduced vascular browning and wilting symptoms of tomato plants treated with SA and CHT and challenged subsequently with R. solanacearum. This reduced disease incidence in tomato by SA and CHT may be a result of cell wall strengthening through deposition of lignin and the coincident induction of defense enzymes.

  8. New Insights into the Antibacterial Activity of Hydroxycoumarins against Ralstonia solanacearum

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    Liang Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coumarins are important plant-derived natural products with wide-ranging bioactivities and extensive applications. In this study, we evaluated for the first time the antibacterial activity and mechanisms of action of coumarins against the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, and investigated the effect of functional group substitution. We first tested the antibacterial activity of 18 plant-derived coumarins with different substitution patterns, and found that daphnetin, esculetin, xanthotol, and umbelliferone significantly inhibited the growth of R. solanacearum. Daphnetin showed the strongest antibacterial activity, followed by esculetin and umbelliferone, with MICs of 64, 192, and 256 mg/L, respectively, better than the archetypal coumarin with 384 mg/L. We further demonstrated that the hydroxylation of coumarins at the C-6, C-7 or C-8 position significantly enhanced the antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum. Transmission electron microscope (TEM and fluorescence microscopy images showed that hydroxycoumarins may interact with the pathogen by mechanically destroying the cell membrane and inhibiting biofilm formation. The antibiofilm effect of hydroxycoumarins may relate to the repression of flagellar genes fliA and flhC. These physiological changes in R. solanacearum caused by hydroxycoumarins can provide information for integral pathogen control. The present findings demonstrated that hydroxycoumarins have superior antibacterial activity against the phytopathogen R. solanacearum, and thus have the potential to be applied for controlling plant bacterial wilt.

  9. Diversity of Ralstonia solanacearum in French Guiana expands knowledge of the "emerging ecotype".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deberdt, P; Guyot, J; Coranson-Beaudu, R; Launay, J; Noreskal, M; Rivière, P; Vigné, F; Laplace, D; Lebreton, L; Wicker, E

    2014-06-01

    Although bacterial wilt remains a major plant disease throughout South America and the Caribbean, the diversity of prevalent Ralstonia solanacearum populations is largely unknown. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of R. solanacearum strains in French Guiana was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reactions and sequence-based (egl and mutS) genotyping on a 239-strain collection sampled on the families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae, revealing an unexpectedly high diversity. Strains were distributed within phylotypes I (46.9%), IIA (26.8%), and IIB (26.3%), with one new endoglucanase sequence type (egl ST) found within each group. Phylotype IIB strains consisted mostly (97%) of strains with the emerging ecotype (IIB/sequevar 4NPB). Host range of IIB/4NPB strains from French Guiana matched the original emerging reference strain from Martinique. They were virulent on cucumber; virulent and highly aggressive on tomato, including the resistant reference Hawaii 7996; and only controlled by eggplant SM6 and Surya accessions. The emerging ecotype IIB/4NPB is fully established in French Guiana in both cultivated fields and uncultivated forest, rendering the hypothesis of introduction via ornamental or banana cuttings unlikely. Thus, this ecotype may have originated from the Amazonian region and spread throughout the Caribbean region.

  10. Biodegradation kinetics of 4-fluorocinnamic acid by a consortium of Arthrobacter and Ralstonia strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed A; Wietzes, Piet; Janssen, Dick B

    2012-02-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain G1 is able to grow on 4-fluorocinnamic acid (4-FCA) as sole carbon source. The organism converts 4-FCA into 4-fluorobenzoic acid (4-FBA) and utilizes the two-carbon side-chain for growth with some formation of 4-fluoroacetophenone as a dead-end side product. We also have isolated Ralstonia sp. strain H1, an organism that degrades 4-FBA. A consortium of strains G1 and H1 degraded 4-FCA with Monod kinetics during growth in batch and continuous cultures. Specific growth rates of strain G1 and specific degradation rates of 4-FCA were observed to follow substrate inhibition kinetics, which could be modeled using the kinetic models of Haldane-Andrew and Luong-Levenspiel. The mixed culture showed complete mineralization of 4-FCA with quantitative release of fluoride, both in batch and continuous cultures. Steady-state chemostat cultures that were exposed to shock loadings of substrate responded with rapid degradation and returned to steady-state in 10-15 h, indicating that the mixed culture provided a robust system for continuous 4-FCA degradation.

  11. Extract from Maize (Zea mays L.: Antibacterial Activity of DIMBOA and Its Derivatives against Ralstonia solanacearum

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    Bing Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cereals accumulate hydroxamic acids involved in defense of plant against various fungi, bacteria, and insects. 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazine-3-one, commonly known as DIMBOA, is one of the principal cyclic hydroxamic acids in aqueous extracts of maize. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the isolated DIMBOA and its derivatives 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA, 6-chloro-2-benzoxazolinone (CDHB, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT against Ralstonia solanacearum. MBT showed the strongest antibacterial activity, followed by CDHB and DIMBOA, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 50, 100 and 200 mg/L, respectively, better than the BOA with 300 mg/L. These compounds also significantly affect bacterial growth, reduce biofilm formation, and inhibit swarming motility within 24 h. This paper is the first to report the anti-R. solanacearum activity of DIMBOA from Z. mays. The bioassay and pot experiment results suggested that DIMBOA and its derivatives exhibit potential as a new matrix structure of designing target bactericide or elicitor for controlling tobacco bacterial wilt. Further studies must evaluate the efficacy of DIMBOA and its derivatives in controlling bacterial wilt under natural field conditions where low inoculum concentrations exist.

  12. Enhancement of the Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles against Phytopathogenic Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum by Stabilization

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    Juanni Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the enhanced antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs against the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum after stabilization using selected surfactants (SDS, SDBS, TX-100, and Tween 80 was examined, in comparison with silver ion. Tween 80 was found to be the most preferable stabilizer of AgNPs due to the beneficial synergistic effects of the AgNPs and surfactant. However, all the surfactants nearly had no effects on the antibacterial activity of Ag+. In vitro, Tween 80-stabilized AgNPs showed the highest bactericidal activity against R. solanacearum. Further measurements using TEM, fluorescence microscopy, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE revealed that though Ag+ and Tween 80-Ag+ induced high toxicity, Tween 80-stabilized AgNPs displayed most severe damage when in direct contact with cells, causing mechanistic injury to the cell membrane and strongly modifying and destructing the cellular proteins. Meanwhile, in vivo, the pot experiments data indicated that the control efficiency of Tween 80-stabilized AgNPs on tobacco bacterial wilt was 96.71%, 90.11%, and 84.21%, at 7 days, 14 days, and 21 days, respectively. Based on the results evidencing their advantageous low dosage requirements and strong antimicrobial activity, Tween 80-stabilized AgNPs are a promising antibacterial agent for use in alternative crop disease control approaches.

  13. Dynamic mathematical models for biodegradation of formaldehyde by Ralstonia eutropha in a batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Alireza; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2013-11-15

    Degradation of formaldehyde by Ralstonia eutropha was studied in a batch bioreactor operated in recycling mode (30 °C, initial pH of 6.5, aeration rate 0.5 vvm, and a recycling flow rate of 6 mL min(-1)). Growth kinetics equations were described using four substrate inhibition models, and the initial formaldehyde concentration ranged from 54.5 to 993.0 mg L(-1). In each case, model parameters were estimated interactively using nonlinear regression analysis and on the basis of the goodness of fit, the fitness of the model to the experimental data was obtained (i.e., the coefficient of determination and the percent of standard deviation). The estimated parameters according to the Luong equation were μmax = 0.101 h(-1), KS = 54.1 mg L(-1), Sm = 1329 mg L(-1), and n = 2.07. According to the maintenance energies explained by Pirt, cell maintenance was quantified with q = Aμ + B; where A and B are the associated and non-associated growth parts of substrate consumption, respectively. The importance of these terms was verified using the developed models, which would efficiently describe the dynamic nature of growth and formaldehyde biodegradation.

  14. Production of Poly (3-Hydroxybutyric Acid) by Ralstonia eutropha in a Biocalorimeter and its Thermokinetic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Subramanian Mohanakrishnan; Leelaram, Santharam; Surianarayanan, Mahadevan

    2016-07-01

    Bioplastic production from microbial sources is an emerging area which provides opportunities even to convert the wastes into bioplastics. Poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid), commonly called as PHB, is a bioplastic, which is stored as intracellular cytoplasmic inclusions in microorganisms. The objectives of this study are to calorimetrically monitor the PHB production and evaluate the thermokinetic data in a bioreaction calorimeter (BioRC1e). Thus, a well-known PHB-producing bacteria Ralstonia eutropha was selected for batch process in a bioreaction calorimeter. The metabolic heat generated was found to be correlated with the biomass, substrate consumption, oxygen uptake rate (OUR), carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) and PHB production. The OUR pattern explained the oxidative metabolism of the strain R. eutropha. The heat yields due to biomass and glucose consumption during PHB production were found to be 12.56 and 13.56 kJ/g, respectively. The oxycalorific value obtained for the PHB production was 443.80 kJ/mol of O2. The concentration of PHB obtained in BioRC1e was 4.33 g/L with a production rate of 0.09 g/L/h. The chemical structure of the extracted PHB by R. eutropha was confirmed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis.

  15. PRODUCCIÓN DE POLI-β -HIDROXIBUTIRATO (PHB β POR Ralstonia eutropha ATCC 17697

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    Barbosa Marcela

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia eutropha es la bacteria más utilizada en la producción de poli-β-hidroxibutirato (PHB por su capacidad de acumular polímero hasta en un 80% de su peso seco. En el presente trabajo se realizaron fermentaciones por lote alimentado en dos etapas a escala 3 litros usando tres concentraciones de fructosa (5, 10 y 15 g/l. En la primera etapa, manteniendo constante la relación carbono-nitrógeno en 6.85 g C/g N, se buscó obtener una alta concentración celular; en la segunda etapa las células obtenidas se limitaron en la fuente de nitrógeno para permitir la acumulación del biopolímero. La mejor concentración para producir el material es 5 g/l en la cual se obtuvo un porcentaje de acumulación del 66.2%, una velocidad de crecimiento específico inicial de 0.5171 h-1 y una productividad de 0.1245 g PHB/ l h.

  16. Functional Analysis by Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the NAD+-Reducing Hydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Tanja; De Lacey, Antonio L.; Friedrich, Bärbel

    2002-01-01

    The tetrameric cytoplasmic [NiFe] hydrogenase (SH) of Ralstonia eutropha couples the oxidation of hydrogen to the reduction of NAD+ under aerobic conditions. In the catalytic subunit HoxH, all six conserved motifs surrounding the [NiFe] site are present. Five of these motifs were altered by site-directed mutagenesis in order to dissect the molecular mechanism of hydrogen activation. Based on phenotypic characterizations, 27 mutants were grouped into four different classes. Mutants of the major class, class I, failed to grow on hydrogen and were devoid of H2-oxidizing activity. In one of these isolates (HoxH I64A), H2 binding was impaired. Class II mutants revealed a high D2/H+ exchange rate relative to a low H2-oxidizing activity. A representative (HoxH H16L) displayed D2/H+ exchange but had lost electron acceptor-reducing activity. Both activities were equally affected in class III mutants. Mutants forming class IV showed a particularly interesting phenotype. They displayed O2-sensitive growth on hydrogen due to an O2-sensitive SH protein. PMID:12399498

  17. Recent trends in control methods for bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliar; Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have described the development of control methods against bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. This review focused on recent advances in control measures, such as biological, physical, chemical, cultural, and integral measures, as well as biocontrol efficacy and suppression mechanisms. Biological control agents (BCAs) have been dominated by bacteria (90%) and fungi (10%). Avirulent strains of R. solanacearum, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Streptomyces spp. are well-known BCAs. New or uncommon BCAs have also been identified such as Acinetobacter sp., Burkholderia sp., and Paenibacillus sp. Inoculation methods for BCAs affect biocontrol efficacy, such as pouring or drenching soil, dipping of roots, and seed coatings. The amendment of different organic matter, such as plant residue, animal waste, and simple organic compounds, have frequently been reported to suppress bacterial wilt diseases. The combined application of BCAs and their substrates was shown to more effectively suppress bacterial wilt in the tomato. Suppression mechanisms are typically attributed to the antibacterial metabolites produced by BCAs or those present in natural products; however, the number of studies related to host resistance to the pathogen is increasing. Enhanced/modified soil microbial communities are also indirectly involved in disease suppression. New promising types of control measures include biological soil disinfection using substrates that release volatile compounds. This review described recent advances in different control measures. We focused on the importance of integrated pest management (IPM) for bacterial wilt diseases.

  18. Metabolic engineering of Ralstonia eutropha for the biosynthesis of 2-hydroxyacid-containing polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si Jae; Jang, Young-Ah; Lee, Hyuk; Park, A-Reum; Yang, Jung Eun; Shin, Jihoon; Oh, Young Hoon; Song, Bong Keun; Jegal, Jonggeon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-11-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bio-based and biodegradable polyesters synthesized by numerous microorganisms. PHAs containing 2-hydroxyacids as monomer units have attracted much attention, but their production has not been efficient. Here, we metabolically engineered Ralstonia eutropha strains for the in vivo synthesis of PHAs containing 2-hydroxyacids as monomers. This was accomplished by replacing the R. eutropha phaC gene in the chromosome with either the R. eutropha phaC S506G A510K gene, which contains two point mutations, or the Pseudomonas sp. MBEL 6-19 phaC1437 gene. In addition, the R. eutropha phaAB genes in the chromosome were replaced with the Clostridium propionicum pct540 gene. All of the engineered R. eutropha strains produced PHAs containing 2-hydroxyacid monomers, including lactate and 2-hydroxybutyrate (2HB), along with 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and/or 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV), when they were cultured in nitrogen-free medium containing 5 g/L lactate or 4 g/L 2HB and 20 g/L glucose as carbon sources. Expression of the Escherichia coli ldhA gene in engineered R. eutropha strains allowed production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-lactate) [P(3HB-co-LA)] from glucose as the sole carbon source. This is the first report on the production of 2-hydroxyacid-containing PHAs by metabolically engineered R. eutropha.

  19. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production with Ralstonia eutropha from low quality waste animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Jahns, Stefan; Koenig, Steven; Bock, Martina C E; Brigham, Christopher J; Bader, Johannes; Stahl, Ulf

    2015-11-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters considered as alternatives to petroleum-based plastics. Ralstonia eutropha is a model organism for PHA production. Utilizing industrially rendered waste animal fats as inexpensive carbon feedstocks for PHA production is demonstrated here. An emulsification strategy, without any mechanical or chemical pre-treatment, was developed to increase the bioavailability of solid, poorly-consumable fats. Wild type R. eutropha strain H16 produced 79-82% (w/w) polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) per cell dry weight (CDW) when cultivated on various fats. A productivity of 0.3g PHB/(L × h) with a total PHB production of 24 g/L was achieved using tallow as carbon source. Using a recombinant strain of R. eutropha that produces poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(HB-co-HHx)], 49-72% (w/w) of PHA per CDW with a HHx content of 16-27 mol% were produced in shaking flask experiments. The recombinant strain was grown on waste animal fat of the lowest quality available at lab fermenter scale, resulting in 45 g/L CDW with 60% (w/w) PHA per CDW and a productivity of 0.4 g PHA/(L × h). The final HHx content of the polymer was 19 mol%. The use of low quality waste animal fats as an inexpensive carbon feedstock exhibits a high potential to accelerate the commercialization of PHAs.

  20. Establishing a diagnostic system for detecting Ralstonia solanacearum and genetic differentiation using RAPD molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisson Chavarro Mesa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic test (PCR has been developed for amplifying a región and obtaining a 292 bp product by using specific 16S rDNA primers for the rapid and precise identification of the causative agent (Ralstonia solanacearum of bacterial withering of potato in asymptomatic tubers. The bacteria was isolated from potato tubers and banana fruit using culturing techniques and immunological and molecular ELISA-NCM and PCR tests, respectively. PCR detected the presence of R. solanacearum on asymptomatic tubers by contrast with ELISA-NCM which did not detect this pathogen. Analysing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD led to differentiating and grouping R. solanacearum by geographical región and bacterial strain, suggesting that differences exist amongst existing collections according to their place of origin, presenting high genetic variability. The results showed that PCR is a sensitive and specific test for detecting R. solanacearum and can therefore be implemented as a method for controlling this pathogen in seed production and certification programmes in áreas free of the disease. The pathogen has been shown to be genetically heterogeneous according to the samples' geographical área thereby hampering control in áreas of Colombia experiencing phytosanitary problems with R. solanacearum in potato crops Key words: bacterial withered, moko, PCR-16S rADN, ELISA-NCM, PCR-RAPD.

  1. Evaluation of Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato Genetic Resources at Seedling Stage

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    Sang Gyu Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt of tomatoes caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease that limits the production of tomato in Korea. The best way to control this disease is using genetically resistant tomato plant. The resistance degree to R. solanacearum was evaluated for 285 tomato accessions conserved in the National Agrobiodiversity Center of Rural Development Administration. These accessions of tomato were originated from 23 countries. Disease severity of tomato accessions was investigated from 7 days to 14 days at an interval of 7 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. A total of 279 accessions of tomato germplasm were susceptible to R. solanacearum, resulting in wilt and death in 70 to 90% of these plants. Two tomato accessions were moderately resistant to R. solanacearum. Only four accessions showed high resistance against R. solanacearum. No distinct symptom of bacterial wilt appeared on the resistant tomato germplasms for up to 14 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Microscopy of resistant tomato stems infected with R. solanacearum revealed limited bacterial spread with thickening of pit membrane and gum production. Therefore, these four resistant tomato germplasms could be used in tomato breeding program against bacterial wilt.

  2. Evaluation of Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato Genetic Resources at Seedling Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Gyu; Hur, On-Sook; Ro, Na-Young; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Rhee, Ju-Hee; Sung, Jung Sook; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul; Lee, Sok-Young; Baek, Hyung Jin

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial wilt of tomatoes caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease that limits the production of tomato in Korea. The best way to control this disease is using genetically resistant tomato plant. The resistance degree to R. solanacearum was evaluated for 285 tomato accessions conserved in the National Agrobiodiversity Center of Rural Development Administration. These accessions of tomato were originated from 23 countries. Disease severity of tomato accessions was investigated from 7 days to 14 days at an interval of 7 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. A total of 279 accessions of tomato germplasm were susceptible to R. solanacearum, resulting in wilt and death in 70 to 90% of these plants. Two tomato accessions were moderately resistant to R. solanacearum. Only four accessions showed high resistance against R. solanacearum. No distinct symptom of bacterial wilt appeared on the resistant tomato germplasms for up to 14 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Microscopy of resistant tomato stems infected with R. solanacearum revealed limited bacterial spread with thickening of pit membrane and gum production. Therefore, these four resistant tomato germplasms could be used in tomato breeding program against bacterial wilt.

  3. Violence against Amazon women Violencia contra mujeres amazónicas Violência contra mulheres amazônicas

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    Vera Lúcia de Azevedo Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.Este es un estudio exploratorio de naturaleza cualitativa, que se realizó con el objetivo de analizar la violencia contra mujeres amazónicas, presentada en los periódicos, según el tipo y su gravedad, y citación de encuadramiento del agresor en la Ley Maria de la Penha. Fueron consultados 181 ejemplares de un periódico regional. A partir del análisis de contenido, fueron seleccionadas 164 notas sobre violencias contra mujeres, de ellas 46 fueron incluidas como corpus de análisis. Los resultados fueron reunidos en tres grupos temáticos: mujeres asesinadas con crueldad, la violencia sexual contra mujeres no tiene edad y la violencia contra mujeres y el límite de la Ley Maria de la Penha. La violencia contra esas mujeres presentó variación en cuanto a la forma y a la gravedad, ocurriendo inclusive homicidios. Las mujeres son sometidas a violencia sexual desde la infancia hasta la edad adulta. El encuadramiento legal del agresor demuestra a la comunidad un medio para enfrentamiento de ese fenómeno social.Este é um estudo exploratório de natureza qualitativa, com o objetivo de analisar a viol

  4. Avaliação da resistência de clones e cultivares de batata à murcha bacteriana (Ralstonia solanacearum)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Neto, Artur Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    Cultivares e clones de batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) foram avaliados de 2002 a 2004 na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília-DF, para resistência à murcha bacteriana em campo naturalmente infestado com a raça 1, biovar 1 de Ralstonia solanacearum. Os testes de avaliação foram conduzidos com as cultivares atualmente mais plantadas no Brasil e com conjuntos de clones relatados como resistentes no Brasil e em outras partes do mundo. Em todos os experimentos, a doença foi avaliada pela incidência de plant...

  5. In Vivo Detection of the Cyclic Osmoregulated Periplasmic Glucan of Ralstonia solanacearum by High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieruszeski, J.-M.; Bohin, A.; Bohin, J.-P.; Lippens, G.

    2001-07-01

    We investigate the mobility of the osmoregulated periplasmic glucans of Ralstonia solanacearum in the bacterial periplasm through the use of high-resolution (HR) NMR spectroscopy under static and magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions. Because the nature of periplasm is far from an isotropic aqueous solution, the molecules could be freely diffusing or rather associated to a periplasmic protein, a membrane protein, a lipid, or the peptidoglycan. HR MAS NMR spectroscopy leads to more reproducible results and allows the in vivo detection and characterization of the complex molecule.

  6. Inmunidad contra los nematodos gastrointestinales: la historia caprina

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Jacinto Aguilar-Caballero; J. F. J. Torres-Acosta; R. Cámara Sarmiento; Hoste, H.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es describir el estado del arte de la inmunidad de los caprinos contra los nematodos gastrointestinales. Las bases teóricas de la inmunidad se apoyan en la literatura disponible en rumiantes particularmente en las ovejas. Se presentan los hallazgos sobre la inmunidad innata y adquirida en los caprinos, los mecanismos efectores y los factores que influyen sobre el establecimiento de la respuesta inmune (humoral y celular) publicados en la literatura.

  7. TRADICION CONTRA NOVEDAD, O LAS ANTIMONIAS DE LA ESPANA LIBERAL

    OpenAIRE

    García Guirao, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Reaccionarios contra revolucionarios. Historia de las Cruzadas del siglo XIX. Para ayudar a nuestra imaginación a proyectar una idea rotunda y sintética sobre lo más importante del período de la Historia de España (también de Europa) que se extiende por todo el siglo XIX, podríamos utilizar diferentes elementos, si bien creemos pertinente empezar con el que sigue

  8. Phytobiocidal management of bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Yabuuchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Din, N.; Ahmad, M.; Siddique, M.; Ali, A.; Naz, I.; Ullah, N.; Ahmad, F.

    2016-11-01

    Phytobiocides are a good alternative to chemicals in managing bacterial diseases including bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. In the present research study, finely ground dried powders of seven widely available medicinal plants/weeds species viz., Peganum harmala (esfand or wild rue), Calotropis procera (sodom apple), Melia azedarach (white cedar), Allium sativum (garlic), Adhatoda vasica (malabar nut), Tagetes patula (marigold) and Nerium oleander (oleander) were assessed for their anti-microbial activity, both in-vitro (10% w/v) and in-vivo (10, 20, 30, and 40 g/kg of potted soil) against R. solanacearum. Aqueous extracts (prepared as 10% w/v, soaking for 48-72 h and filtering) of C. procera, A. vasica, and T. patula inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterial pathogen over 60% of that produced by the standard antibiotic streptomycin. A. sativum, N. oleander and P. harmala aqueous extracts were less effective while M. azedarach showed no effect against R. solanacearum. The higher dose (40 g/kg of soil) of C. procera, A. vasica and T. patula decreased disease severity quite effectively and increased yield and plant growth characters as much as the standard antibiotic did. No phytotoxicity of medicinal plants powder was observed on tomato plants. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids were detected in the aqueous extracts of T. patula and A. vasica whereas C. procera was found to have only alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. Our data suggest that dried powders of T. patula, C. procera and A. vasica (40 g/kg of soil) could be used as an effective component in the integrated disease management programs against bacterial wilt of tomato. (Author)

  9. A duplex PCR assay for the detection of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II strains in Musa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Cellier

    Full Text Available Banana wilt outbreaks that are attributable to Moko disease-causing strains of the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs remain a social and economic burden for both multinational corporations and subsistence farmers. All known Moko strains belong to the phylotype II lineage, which has been previously recognized for its broad genetic basis. Moko strains are paraphyletic and are distributed among seven related but distinct phylogenetic clusters (sequevars that are potentially major threats to Musaceae, Solanaceae, and ornamental crops in many countries. Although clustered within the Moko IIB-4 sequevar, strains of the epidemiologically variant IIB-4NPB do not cause wilt on Cavendish or plantain bananas; instead, they establish a latent infection in the vascular tissues of plantains and demonstrate an expanded host range and high aggressiveness toward Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Although most molecular diagnostic methods focus on strains that wilt Solanaceae (particularly potato, no relevant protocol has been described that universally detects strains of the Musaceae-infecting Rs phylotype II. Thus, a duplex PCR assay targeting Moko and IIB-4NPB variant strains was developed, and its performance was assessed using an extensive collection of 111 strains representing the known diversity of Rs Moko-related strains and IIB-4NPB variant strains along with certain related strains and families. The proposed diagnostic protocol demonstrated both high accuracy (inclusivity and exclusivity and high repeatability, detected targets on either pure culture or spiked plant extracts. Although they did not belong to the Moko clusters described at the time of the study, recently discovered banana-infecting strains from Brazil were also detected. According to our comprehensive evaluation, this duplex PCR assay appears suitable for both research and diagnostic laboratories and provides reliable detection of phylotype II Rs strains that infect Musaceae.

  10. Phytobiocidal management of bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith Yabuuchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseerud Din

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiocides are a good alternative to chemicals in managing bacterial diseases including bacterial wilt of tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. In the present research study, finely ground dried powders of seven widely available medicinal plants/weeds species viz., Peganum harmala (esfand or wild rue, Calotropis procera (sodom apple, Melia azedarach (white cedar, Allium sativum (garlic, Adhatoda vasica (malabar nut, Tagetes patula (marigold and Nerium oleander (oleander were assessed for their anti-microbial activity, both in-vitro (10% w/v and in-vivo (10, 20, 30, and 40 g/kg of potted soil against R. solanacearum. Aqueous extracts (prepared as 10% w/v, soaking for 48-72 h and filtering of C. procera, A. vasica, and T. patula inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterial pathogen over 60% of that produced by the standard antibiotic streptomycin. A. sativum, N. oleander and P. harmala aqueous extracts were less effective while M. azedarach showed no effect against R. solanacearum. The higher dose (40 g/kg of soil of C. procera, A. vasica and T. patula decreased disease severity quite effectively and increased yield and plant growth characters as much as the standard antibiotic did. No phytotoxicity of medicinal plants powder was observed on tomato plants. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and terpenoids were detected in the aqueous extracts of T. patula and A. vasica whereas C. procera was found to have only alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. Our data suggest that dried powders of T. patula, C. procera and A. vasica (40 g/kg of soil could be used as an effective component in the integrated disease management programs against bacterial wilt of tomato.

  11. In planta comparative transcriptomics of host-adapted strains of Ralstonia solanacearum

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    Florent Ailloud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ralstonia solanacearum is an economically important plant pathogen with an unusually large host range. The Moko (banana and NPB (not pathogenic to banana strain groups are closely related but are adapted to distinct hosts. Previous comparative genomics studies uncovered very few differences that could account for the host range difference between these pathotypes. To better understand the basis of this host specificity, we used RNAseq to profile the transcriptomes of an R. solanacearum Moko strain and an NPB strain under in vitro and in planta conditions.Results. RNAs were sequenced from bacteria grown in rich and minimal media, and from bacteria extracted from mid-stage infected tomato, banana and melon plants. We computed differential expression between each pair of conditions to identify constitutive and host-specific gene expression differences between Moko and NPB. We found that type III secreted effectors were globally up-regulated upon plant cell contact in the NPB strain compared with the Moko strain. Genes encoding siderophore biosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation genes were highly up-regulated in the NPB strain during melon pathogenesis, while denitrification genes were up-regulated in the Moko strain during banana pathogenesis. The relatively lower expression of oxidases and the denitrification pathway during banana pathogenesis suggests that R. solanacearum experiences higher oxygen levels in banana pseudostems than in tomato or melon xylem.Conclusions. This study provides the first report of differential gene expression associated with host range variation. Despite minimal genomic divergence, the pathogenesis of Moko and NPB strains is characterized by striking differences in expression of virulence- and metabolism-related genes.

  12. Metabolic engineering of Ralstonia eutropha for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si Jae; Jang, Young-Ah; Noh, Won; Oh, Young Hoon; Lee, Hyuk; David, Yokimiko; Baylon, Mary Grace; Shin, Jihoon; Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-03-01

    A sucrose utilization pathway was established in Ralstonia eutropha NCIMB11599 and R. eutropha 437-540 by introducing the Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E sacC gene that encodes β-fructofuranosidase. These engineered strains were examined for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-lactate) [P(3HB-co-LA)], respectively, from sucrose as a carbon source. It was found that β-fructofuranosidase excreted into the culture medium could hydrolyze sucrose to glucose and fructose, which were efficiently used as carbon sources by recombinant R. eutropha strains. When R. eutropha NCIMB11599 expressing the sacC gene was cultured in nitrogen-free chemically defined medium containing 20 g/L of sucrose, a high P(3HB) content of 73.2 wt% could be obtained. In addition, R. eutropha 437-540 expressing the Pseudomonas sp. MBEL 6-19 phaC1437 gene and the Clostridium propionicum pct540 gene accumulated P(3HB-co-21.5 mol% LA) to a polymer content of 19.5 wt% from sucrose by the expression of the sacC gene and the Escherichia coli ldhA gene. The molecular weights of P(3HB) and P(3HB-co-21.5 mol%LA) synthesized in R. eutropha using sucrose as a carbon source were 3.52 × 10(5) (Mn ) and 2.19 × 10(4) (Mn ), respectively. The engineered R. eutropha strains reported here will be useful for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from sucrose, one of the most abundant and relatively inexpensive carbon sources.

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Cool Virulence Factors of Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3 Biovar 2.

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    Fanhong Meng

    Full Text Available While most strains of the plant pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum are tropical, the race 3 biovar 2 (R3bv2 subgroup attacks plants in cooler climates. To identify mechanisms underlying this trait, we compared the transcriptional profiles of R. solanacearum R3bv2 strain UW551 and tropical strain GMI1000 at 20°C and 28°C, both in culture and during tomato pathogenesis. 4.2% of the ORFs in the UW551 genome and 7.9% of the GMI1000 ORFs were differentially expressed by temperature in planta. The two strains had distinct transcriptional responses to temperature change. GMI1000 up-regulated several stress response genes at 20°C, apparently struggling to cope with plant defenses. At the cooler temperature, R3bv2 strain UW551 up-regulated a cluster encoding a mannose-fucose binding lectin, LecM; a quorum sensing-dependent protein, AidA; and a related hypothetical protein, AidC. The last two genes are absent from the GMI1000 genome. In UW551, all three genes were positively regulated by the adjacent SolI/R quorum sensing system. These temperature-responsive genes were required for full virulence in R3bv2. Mutants lacking lecM, aidA, or aidC were each significantly more reduced in virulence on tomato at 20°C than at 28°C in both a naturalistic soil soak inoculation assay and when they were inoculated directly into tomato stems. The lecM and aidC mutants also survived poorly in potato tubers at the seed tuber storage temperature of 4°C, and the lecM mutant was defective in biofilm formation in vitro. Together, these results suggest novel mechanisms, including a lectin, are involved in the unique temperate epidemiology of R3bv2.

  14. Ralstonia solanacearum strains from Martinique (French West Indies) exhibiting a new pathogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Emmanuel; Grassart, Laurence; Coranson-Beaudu, Régine; Mian, Danièle; Guilbaud, Caroline; Fegan, Mark; Prior, Philippe

    2007-11-01

    We investigated a destructive pathogenic variant of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum that was consistently isolated in Martinique (French West Indies). Since the 1960s, bacterial wilt of solanaceous crops in Martinique has been caused primarily by strains of R. solanacearum that belong to either phylotype I or phylotype II. Since 1999, anthurium shade houses have been dramatically affected by uncharacterized phylotype II strains that also affected a wide range of species, such as Heliconia caribea, cucurbitaceous crops, and weeds. From 1989 to 2003, a total of 224 R. solanacearum isolates were collected and compared to 6 strains isolated in Martinique in the 1980s. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of selected strains from Martinique were assessed (multiplex PCRs, mutS and egl DNA sequence analysis) and compared to the genetic diversity and phylogenetic position of 32 reference strains covering the known diversity within the R. solanacearum species complex. Twenty-four representative isolates were tested for pathogenicity to Musa species (banana) and tomato, eggplant, and sweet pepper. Based upon both PCR and sequence analysis, 119 Martinique isolates from anthurium, members of the family Cucurbitaceae, Heliconia, and tomato, were determined to belong to a group termed phylotype II/sequevar 4 (II/4). While these strains cluster with the Moko disease-causing strains, they were not pathogenic to banana (NPB). The strains belonging to phylotype II/4NPB were highly pathogenic to tomato, eggplant, and pepper, were able to wilt the resistant tomato variety Hawaii7996, and may latently infect cooking banana. Phylotype II/4NPB constitutes a new pathogenic variant of R. solanacearum that has recently appeared in Martinique and may be latently prevalent throughout Caribbean and Central/South America.

  15. Enhancement of glycerol utilization ability of Ralstonia eutropha H16 for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Toshiaki; Mukoyama, Masaharu; Orita, Izumi; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a well-studied bacterium with respect to biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), which has attracted attentions as biodegradable bio-based plastics. However, this strain shows quite poor growth on glycerol of which bulk supply has been increasing as a major by-product of biodiesel industries. This study examined enhancement of glycerol assimilation ability of R. eutropha H16 by introduction of the genes of aquaglyceroporin (glpF) and glycerol kinase (glpK) from Escherichia coli. Although introduction of glpFK Ec into the strain H16 using a multi-copy vector was not successful, a recombinant strain possessing glpFK Ec within the chromosome showed much faster growth on glycerol than H16. Further analyses clarified that weak expression of glpK Ec alone allowed to establish efficient glycerol assimilation pathway, indicating that the poor growth of H16 on glycerol was caused by insufficient kination activity to glycerol, as well as this strain had a potential ability for uptake of extracellular glycerol. The engineered strains expressing glpFK Ec or glpK Ec produced large amounts of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] [P(3HB)] from glycerol with much higher productivity than H16. Unlike other glycerol-utilizable wild strains of R. eutropha, the H16-derived engineered strains accumulated P(3HB) with no significant decrease in molecular weights on glycerol, and the polydispersity index of the glycerol-based P(3HB) synthesized by the strains expressing glpFK Ec was lower than those by the parent strains. The present study demonstrated possibility of R. eutropha H16-based platform for production of useful compounds from inexpensive glycerol.

  16. Kidney Function Indices in Mice after Long Intake of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelia (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens Produced by Solid State Cultivation

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    Dalla S. O. Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agaricus brasiliensis (=Agaricus blazei, Agaricus subrufescens or Sun mushroom has widespread use for potential health benefits such anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects. Studies detected that others edible mushrooms affected renal metabolism and despite the widespread use of A. brasiliensis there are no studies that address biological effects on the renal function indices after their oral administration. Therefore, this study had as objective to verify the effects on kidney function indices after long intake of A. brasiliensis mycelium. Approach: Wheat grains was cultured during 18 days with Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium by solid state culture and used for chown formulation. Groups of female Swiss mice (20 per group were fed during 14 weeks with 100 and 50% of the formulated feed denominated A100 and A50, respectively. Control group received formulated chown with wheat grains without mycelium. The water intake and excreted urine volume; the physic chemistry analysis of the urine and the serum levels of glucose, proteins, urea, creatinin and uric acid was determined (Meditron Junior-Boehringer, reagent strips Combur 10; microscopy and ADVIA 1650 Bayer. Results: A100 and A50 groups ingested 19.1 and 15.8% more water compared to C group, respectively. The urine and serum analysis showed that the verified parameters remained invariables for all groups, including glucose levels, which resulted in a 10% reduction of A100 group, without statistical difference (p>0.05 Vs C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The prolonged intake of supplemented feed with A. brasiliensis mycelium didn’t result in indicative alterations in the kidney function indices. The preventive use of the mushroom did not show any deleterious effects on kidney; however complementary studies are necessary to guarantee complete safety; possible correlation between increase of urinary excretion and hypotensive effect

  17. Inventorying the molecular potential of Cupriavidus and Ralstonia strains surviving harsh space-related environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijnendonckx, Kristel; van Houdt, Rob; Provoost, Ann; Bossus, Albert; Ott, C. Mark; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Leys, Natalie

    The craving of modern man to explore life beyond earth presents a lot of challenges. The control of microbial contamination of the confined manned spacecraft is an important aspect that has to be taken into account in this journey. Because the human body contains a huge amount of microorganisms, the crew itself is the most important contamination source. But contamination can also originate from residing environmental microorganisms or from materials that are supplied from the Earth. These microbial contaminations can cause problems for the astronauts -well documented to have a decreased immunity -and the infrastructure of the space station. In this study, 14 different Cupriavidus metallidurans and Ralstonia pickettii strains, isolated from such space-related environments, where characterised in detail. These unique strains were isolated from drinking water that returned from ISS (3), from the cooling water system of the American ISS segment (4), from a swab sample of the Mars Odyssey Orbitor surface prior to flight (4), and from an air sample taken in the space assembly facility PHSF during Mars exploration Rover assembly (3). Their resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics was screened. The C. metallidurans isolates were more resistant to Zn2+ and Hg+ but more sensitive to Ni2+ than the R. pickettii strains. The MIC values for Cu2+ ranged from 1,5mM to 12mM, for Co2+ from 1,58mM to 12,63mM and for Cd2+ from 0,25mM to 1mM. For Ni2+ , the MIC values were between 2 and 8mM, except for the strain C. metallidurans IV (0502478) that was able to grow on Ni+2 concentrations up to 48mM. A metal of special interest was Ag+ because it is used to sanitize ISS drinking water. The strains isolated from air and surface samples showed a MIC value ranging from 0,35µM to 4µM. The isolates from the water samples had MIC values from 0,3µM to 2µM, which is lower than (or comparable with) the lowest limit of the silver concentration used in the ISS (1,9µM -4,6µM). However, all

  18. Nuevos avances y retos en la lucha contra el terrorismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Escribano Úbeda-Portugués

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno del Terrorismo tiene un carácter eminentemente de consecución de objetivos políticos, lo cual diferencia tal actividad ilícita respecto a las actividades ilícitas propias de la Delincuencia Organizada. Aunque en la financiación del Terrorismo, los grupos terroristas realizan actividades ilícitas propias de la Delincuencia Organizada como el tráfico ilícito de drogas, el tráfico ilícito de armas o el Blanqueo de Capitales.La evolución normativa contra el Terrorismo es amplia, habiéndose desarrollado proyectos de instrumentos jurídico internacionales ya en el Derecho Internacional Clásico.En cuanto al marco jurídico actual, cabe resaltar que la obra de Naciones Unidas al respecto es amplia. Existen actualmente 13 Convenios sobre las distintas manifestaciones del Terrorismo. De ellos hay cuatro Convenios sobre Terrorismo Aéreo; dos sobre el Terrorismo Marítimo; dos sobre el Terrorismo Nuclear; uno sobre el Terrorismo contra personas internacionalmente protegidas; uno contra el Terrorismo de toma de rehenes; uno sobre explosivos plásticos; uno sobre atentados terroristas con bombas, y por último, un Convenio Internacional contra la financiación del Terrorismo.La obra de Naciones Unidas al respecto es amplia, pero está fragmentada en torno a cada una de las manifestaciones del Terrorismo. Bien es verdad que Naciones Unidas ha conseguido crear órganos ad hoc en el marco del Consejo de Seguridad o que ha realizado numerosas Resoluciones al respecto tanto del Consejo de Seguridad, como a nivel de la Asamblea General. Estamos, por tanto, ante un carácter fragmentario del marco jurídico actual en la lucha contra el Terrorismo en el plano de Naciones Unidas por falta de consenso sobre el concepto mismo de “ Terrorismo “.El problema de definir de forma consensuada el concepto se encuentra en la dificultad de trazar la línea divisoria entre actividades terroristas y movimientos de liberación nacional. Por ello se

  19. A computer program for fast and easy typing of partial endoglucanase gene sequence into phylotypes and sequevars 1&2 (select agents) of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is a species complex that contains a subset of strains that are quarantined or select agent pathogens. An unidentified R. solanacearum strain is considered a select agent in the US until proven otherwise, which can be done by phylogenetic analysis of a partia...

  20. Ralstonia solanacearum ¿PGI-1 Strain KZR-5 Is Affected in Growth, Response to Cold Stress and Invasion of Tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, P.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2011-01-01

    The survival and persistence of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in temperate climates is still poorly understood. To assess whether genomic variants of the organism show adaptation to local conditions, we compared the behaviour of environmental strain KZR-5, which underwent a deletion of the 17.6 kb

  1. Incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in biofilms with Ralstonia insidiosa, a primary localizer for the development of heterogeneous biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is hypothesized that the presence of strong biofilm forming microflora could potentially enhance the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) in harsh environment. In this study, a strong biofilm forming bacterium, Ralstonia insidiosa, previously isolated from a fresh-cut produce plant was c...

  2. Incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dual-species biofilms with Ralstonia insidiosa, a primary colonizer for the development of heterogeneous biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of strong biofilm forming microflora could potentially enhance the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157) in harsh environment. One strain of Ralstonia insidiosa isolated from produce processing environments, previously displayed a synergistic interaction with EcO157 in dual-spec...

  3. Characterization and modification of enzymes in the 2-ketoisovalerate biosynthesis pathway of Ralstonia eutropha H16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, JN; Brigham, CJ; Plassmeier, JK; Sinskey, AJ

    2014-08-01

    2-Ketoisovalerate is an important cellular intermediate for the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids as well as other important molecules, such as pantothenate, coenzyme A, and glucosinolate. This ketoacid can also serve as a precursor molecule for the production of biofuels, pharmaceutical agents, and flavor agents in engineered organisms, such as the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha. The biosynthesis of 2-ketoisovalerate from pyruvate is carried out by three enzymes: acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS, encoded by ilvBH), acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase (AHAIR, encoded by ilvC), and dihydroxyacid dehydratase (DHAD, encoded by ilvD). In this study, enzymatic activities and kinetic parameters were determined for each of the three R. eutropha enzymes as heterologously purified proteins. AHAS, which serves as a gatekeeper for the biosynthesis of all three branched-chain amino acids, demonstrated the tightest regulation through feedback inhibition by l-valine (IC50 = 1.2 mM), l-isoleucine (IC50 = 2.3 mM), and l-leucine (IC50 = 5.4 mM). Intermediates in the valine biosynthesis pathway also exhibit feedback inhibitory control of the AHAS enzyme. In addition, AHAS has a very weak affinity for pyruvate (K-M = 10.5 mu M) and is highly selective towards 2-ketobutyrate (R = 140) as a second substrate. AHAIR and DHAD are also inhibited by the branched-chain amino acids, although to a lesser extent when compared to AHAS. Experimental evolution and rational site-directed mutagenesis revealed mutants of the regulatory subunit of AHAS (IlvH) (N11S, T34I, A36V, T104S, N11F, G14E, and N29H), which, when reconstituted with wild-type IlvB, lead to AHAS having reduced valine, leucine, and isoleucine sensitivity. The study of the kinetics and inhibition mechanisms of R. eutropha AHAS, AHAIR, and DHAD has shed light on interactions between these enzymes and the products they produce; it, therefore, can be used to engineer R. eutropha strains with optimal production of 2

  4. The methylcitric acid pathway in Ralstonia eutropha: new genes identified involved in propionate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brämer, C O; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    From Ralstonia eutropha HF39 null-allele mutants were created by Tn5 mutagenesis and by homologous recombination which were impaired in growth on propionic acid and levulinic acid. From the molecular, physiological and enzymic analysis of these mutants it was concluded that in this bacterium propionic acid is metabolized via the methylcitric acid pathway. The genes encoding enzymes of this pathway are organized in a cluster in the order prpR, prpB, prpC, acnM, ORF5 and prpD, with prpR transcribed divergently from the other genes. (i) prpC encodes a 2-methylcitric acid synthase (42720 Da) as shown by the measurement of the respective enzyme activity, complementation of a prpC mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and high sequence similarity. (ii) For the translational product of acnM the function of a 2-methyl-cis-aconitic acid hydratase (94726 Da) is proposed. This protein and also the ORF5 translational product are essential for growth on propionic acid, as revealed by the propionic-acid-negative phenotype of Tn5-insertion mutants, and are required for the conversion of 2-methylcitric acid into 2-methylisocitric acid as shown by the accumulation of the latter, which could be purified as its calcium salt from the supernatants of these mutants. In contrast, inactivation of prpD did not block the ability of the cell to use propionic acid as carbon and energy source, as shown by the propionic acid phenotype of a null-allele mutant. It is therefore unlikely that prpD from R. eutropha encodes a 2-methyl-cis-aconitic acid dehydratase as proposed recently for the homologous prpD gene from S. enterica. (iii) The translational product of prpB encodes 2-methylisocitric acid lyase (32314 Da) as revealed by measurement of the respective enzyme activity and by demonstrating accumulation of methylisocitric acid in the supernatant of a prpB null-allele mutant. (iv) The expression of prpC and probably also of the other enzymes is regulated and is induced during

  5. Identification and characterization of chemosensors for d-malate, unnatural enantiomer of malate, in Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunchai, Mattana; Hida, Akiko; Oku, Shota; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Tajima, Takahisa; Kato, Junichi

    2017-02-01

    Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum Ps29 is attracted by nonmetabolizable d-malate, an unnatural enantiomer. Screening of a complete collection of single-mcp-gene deletion mutants of Ps29 revealed that the RSc1156 homologue is a chemosensor for d-malate. An RSc1156 homologue deletion mutant of Ps29 showed decreased but significant responses to d-malate, suggesting the existence of another d-malate chemosensor. McpM previously had been identified as a chemosensor for l-malate. We constructed an RSc1156 homologue mcpM double deletion mutant and noted that this mutant failed to respond to d-malate; thus, the RSc1156 homologue and McpM are the major chemosensors for d-malate in this organism. To further characterize the ligand specificities of the RSc1156 homologue and McpM, we constructed a Ps29 derivative (designated K18) harbouring deletions in 18 individual mcp genes, including mcpM and RSc1156. K18 harbouring the RSc1156 homologue responded strongly to l-tartrate and d-malate and moderately to d-tartrate, but not to l-malate or succinate. K18 harbouring mcpM responded strongly to l-malate and d-tartrate and moderately to succinate, fumarate and d-malate. Ps29 utilizes l-malate and l-tartrate, but not d-malate. We therefore concluded that l-tartrate and l-malate are natural ligands of the RSc1156 homologue and McpM, respectively, and that chemotaxis toward d-malate is a fortuitous response by the RSc1156 homologue and McpM in Ps29. We propose re-designation of the RSc1156 homologue as McpT. In tomato plant infection assays, the mcpT deletion mutant of highly virulent R. pseudosolanacearum MAFF106611 was as infectious as wild-type MAFF106611, suggesting that McpT-mediated chemotaxis does not play an important role in tomato plant infection.

  6. Regulation of phasin expression and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granule formation in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötter, Markus; Madkour, Mohamed H; Mayer, Frank; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2002-08-01

    Regulation of expression of the phasin PhaP, which is the major protein at the surface of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules in Ralstonia eutropha H16, was studied and analysed at the molecular level. The regulation of PhaP expression is achieved by an autoregulated repressor, which is encoded by phaR in R. eutropha. The occurrence of PhaR homologues and the organization of phaR genes was analysed in detail in 29 different bacteria. Three kinds of molecule to which PhaR binds were identified in cells of R. eutropha, as revealed by gel-mobility-shift assays, DNaseI footprinting, cell fractionation, immunoelectron microscopy studies employing anti-PhaR antibodies raised against purified N-terminal hexahistidine-tagged PhaR and in vitro binding studies employing artificial PHA granules. PhaR binds upstream of phaP at two sites comprising the transcriptional start site plus the -10 region and a region immediately upstream of the -35 region of the sigma(70) promoter of phaP, where two imperfect 12 bp repeat sequences (GCAMMAAWTMMD) were identified on the sense and anti-sense strands. PhaR also binds 86 bp upstream of the phaR translational start codon, where the sigma(54)-dependent promoter was identified. PhaR also binds to the surface of PHA granules. In the cytoplasm of a phaROmegaKm mutant of R. eutropha H16, increased quantities of PhaP were detected and the cells formed by this strain were much smaller and had many more PHA granules present than the wild-type. These data support the following model for the regulation of phaP expression. Under cultivation conditions not permissive for PHA biosynthesis or in mutants defective in PHA biosynthesis, PhaR binds to the phaP promoter region and represses transcription of this gene. After the onset of PHA biosynthesis, under conditions that are permissive for the formation of nascent granules, PhaR binds to PHA granules and phaP is transcribed. At the later stages of PHA accumulation, PhaR no longer binds to the granules

  7. Efeito protetor do aleitamento materno contra a obesidade infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaban Geni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão da literatura sobre a hipótese de que o aleitamento materno teria um efeito protetor contra a obesidade infantil, a plausibilidade biológica dessa hipótese e os mecanismos potencialmente envolvidos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Informações coletadas a partir de artigos publicados em revistas científicas indexadas, livros e teses de pós-graduação. A maioria dos artigos foi identificada a partir das bases de dados MEDLINE e Scielo, usando as palavras-chave "aleitamento materno", "sobrepeso", "obesidade", "crianças" e "adolescentes". O período pesquisado foi de 1980 a 2002. Outros artigos foram identificados a partir das referências bibliográficas citadas nos primeiros artigos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A maioria dos estudos revisados relatou um efeito protetor do aleitamento materno contra a obesidade infantil; alguns estudos não encontraram associação entre aleitamento materno e obesidade; um estudo, com um pequeno tamanho amostral, relatou maior adiposidade entre as crianças que receberam aleitamento materno. Diferentes definições de exposição e desfecho dificultam a comparação entre os estudos. Imprinting metabólico foi sugerido como um mecanismo potencialmente envolvido para explicar a associação. Aspectos comportamentais também podem estar envolvidos. CONCLUSÃO: O aleitamento materno parece ter um efeito protetor contra a obesidade infantil, porém essa questão merece uma investigação mais aprofundada.

  8. Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Sierra- Fernandez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias siendo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño. Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente.

  9. Uso de polímeros em formulações para preservação de Pectobacterium atrosepticum e Ralstonia solanacearum Formulation with polymers for the Pectobacterium atrosepticum e Ralstonia solanacearum

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    Andréia Iraci Tumelero

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A sobrevivência de Pectobacterium atrosepticum e de Ralstonia solanacearum foi avaliada em veículo à base de goma xantana (GX, um polímero biológico, e de goma xantana acrescida de polivinilpirrolidona (PVP, um polímero sintético. As culturas, após crescimento até 10(11 ufc mL-1 foram injetadas junto a essas formulações e a sobrevivência avaliada em diferentes condições de armazenamento: em temperatura ambiente, em refrigerador (4ºC e em freezer (-20ºC, por 36 meses. A concentração de células viáveis foi realizada através de diluições seriadas. A patogenicidade foi avaliada em plantas hospedeiras e em iscas. Os resultados permitem observar que a concentração de células viáveis decresceu ao longo do tempo, mantendo-se entre 10³ e 10(4 ufc mL-1 ao final de três anos, exceto para a formulação à base de GX e armazenamento à -20°C, que se mostrou ineficiente para ambas as bactérias. Conclui-se, que os polímeros avaliados mostraram-se eficientes em preservar e manter as características bioquímicas e fisiológicas das bactérias Pectobacterium atrosepticum e de Ralstonia solanacearum.The survival of Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Ralstonia solanacearum was evaluated in biopolymer carrier xanthan gum (GX and xanthan gum together with polymer synthetic polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. The cultures after growing up to 10(11 ufc mL-1 were injected into the plolymers carriers. The survival of the bacteria was evaluated at room temperature, refrigerator (4ºC and freezer (-20ºC for 36 months. The evaluation of viability of the preserved bacteria was carried through seriate dilutions using drop method. The pathogenicity was observed in plant hosts and through baits. The results allow observing that the concentration of viable cells decreased along the time mainting to 10³ and 10(4 ufc mL-1 for three years with exception, of the formulation to the base of GX and storage the -20°C, that was inefficient for preservation of

  10. Nuevos avances y retos en la lucha contra el terrorismo

    OpenAIRE

    José Escribano Úbeda-Portugués

    2009-01-01

    El fenómeno del Terrorismo tiene un carácter eminentemente de consecución de objetivos políticos, lo cual diferencia tal actividad ilícita respecto a las actividades ilícitas propias de la Delincuencia Organizada. Aunque en la financiación del Terrorismo, los grupos terroristas realizan actividades ilícitas propias de la Delincuencia Organizada como el tráfico ilícito de drogas, el tráfico ilícito de armas o el Blanqueo de Capitales.La evolución normativa contra el Terrorismo es amplia, habié...

  11. Una vacuna contra la tuberculosi, provada en cabres

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez del Val, Bernat

    2012-01-01

    Investigadors del CReSA han dut a terme el primer estudi de vacunació contra la tuberculosi utilitzant com a model experimental la cabra domèstica, que reprodueix amb molta similitud la resposta a la tuberculosi en humans. La vacuna, anomenada AdAg85A, ha estat dissenyada per investigadors de McMaster University (Canadà) per prevenir la tuberculosi en humans, i actualment es troba en fase I d’assajos clínics. De moment, aquest estudi mostra que la inoculació d’aquesta nova vacuna, com a refor...

  12. TALE-like Effectors are an Ancestral Feature of the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex and Converge in DNA Targeting Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Schandry

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum, a species complex of bacterial plant pathogens divided into four monophyletic phylotypes, causes plant diseases in tropical climates around the world. Some strains exhibit a broad host range on solanaceous hosts, while others are highly host-specific as for example some banana-pathogenic strains.Previous studies showed that transcription activator-like (TAL effectors from Ralstonia, termed RipTALs, are capable of activating reporter genes in planta, if these are preceded by a matching effector binding element (EBE. RipTALs target DNA via their central repeat domain, where one repeat pairs with one DNA-base of the given EBE. The repeat variable diresidue dictates base repeat specificity in a predictable fashion, known as the TALE code.In this work, we analyze RipTALs across all phylotypes of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. We find that RipTALs are prevalent in phylotypes I and IV but absent from most phylotype III and II strains (10/12, 8/14, 1/24 and 1/5 strains contained a RipTAL, respectively.RipTALs originating from strains of the same phylotype show high levels of sequence similarity (>98% in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions, while RipTALs isolated from different phylotypes show 47-91% sequence similarity in those regions, giving rise to four RipTAL classes. We show that, despite sequence divergence, the base preference for guanine, mediated by the N-terminal region, is conserved across RipTALs of all classes.Using the number and order of repeats found in the central repeat domain, we functionally sub-classify RipTALs, introduce a new simple nomenclature, and predict matching EBEs for all seven distinct RipTALs identified. We experimentally study RipTAL EBEs and uncover that some RipTALs are able to target the EBEs of other RipTALs, referred to as cross-reactivity. In particular, RipTALs from strains with a broad host range on solanaceous hosts cross-react on each other’s EBEs.Investigation of

  13. TALE-Like Effectors Are an Ancestral Feature of the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex and Converge in DNA Targeting Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schandry, Niklas; de Lange, Orlando; Prior, Philippe; Lahaye, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, a species complex of bacterial plant pathogens divided into four monophyletic phylotypes, causes plant diseases in tropical climates around the world. Some strains exhibit a broad host range on solanaceous hosts, while others are highly host-specific as for example some banana-pathogenic strains. Previous studies showed that transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Ralstonia, termed RipTALs, are capable of activating reporter genes in planta, if these are preceded by a matching effector binding element (EBE). RipTALs target DNA via their central repeat domain (CRD), where one repeat pairs with one DNA-base of the given EBE. The repeat variable diresidue dictates base repeat specificity in a predictable fashion, known as the TALE code. In this work, we analyze RipTALs across all phylotypes of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. We find that RipTALs are prevalent in phylotypes I and IV but absent from most phylotype III and II strains (10/12, 8/14, 1/24, and 1/5 strains contained a RipTAL, respectively). RipTALs originating from strains of the same phylotype show high levels of sequence similarity (>98%) in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions, while RipTALs isolated from different phylotypes show 47–91% sequence similarity in those regions, giving rise to four RipTAL classes. We show that, despite sequence divergence, the base preference for guanine, mediated by the N-terminal region, is conserved across RipTALs of all classes. Using the number and order of repeats found in the CRD, we functionally sub-classify RipTALs, introduce a new simple nomenclature, and predict matching EBEs for all seven distinct RipTALs identified. We experimentally study RipTAL EBEs and uncover that some RipTALs are able to target the EBEs of other RipTALs, referred to as cross-reactivity. In particular, RipTALs from strains with a broad host range on solanaceous hosts cross-react on each other’s EBEs. Investigation of sequence divergence

  14. TALE-Like Effectors Are an Ancestral Feature of the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex and Converge in DNA Targeting Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schandry, Niklas; de Lange, Orlando; Prior, Philippe; Lahaye, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, a species complex of bacterial plant pathogens divided into four monophyletic phylotypes, causes plant diseases in tropical climates around the world. Some strains exhibit a broad host range on solanaceous hosts, while others are highly host-specific as for example some banana-pathogenic strains. Previous studies showed that transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Ralstonia, termed RipTALs, are capable of activating reporter genes in planta, if these are preceded by a matching effector binding element (EBE). RipTALs target DNA via their central repeat domain (CRD), where one repeat pairs with one DNA-base of the given EBE. The repeat variable diresidue dictates base repeat specificity in a predictable fashion, known as the TALE code. In this work, we analyze RipTALs across all phylotypes of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. We find that RipTALs are prevalent in phylotypes I and IV but absent from most phylotype III and II strains (10/12, 8/14, 1/24, and 1/5 strains contained a RipTAL, respectively). RipTALs originating from strains of the same phylotype show high levels of sequence similarity (>98%) in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions, while RipTALs isolated from different phylotypes show 47-91% sequence similarity in those regions, giving rise to four RipTAL classes. We show that, despite sequence divergence, the base preference for guanine, mediated by the N-terminal region, is conserved across RipTALs of all classes. Using the number and order of repeats found in the CRD, we functionally sub-classify RipTALs, introduce a new simple nomenclature, and predict matching EBEs for all seven distinct RipTALs identified. We experimentally study RipTAL EBEs and uncover that some RipTALs are able to target the EBEs of other RipTALs, referred to as cross-reactivity. In particular, RipTALs from strains with a broad host range on solanaceous hosts cross-react on each other's EBEs. Investigation of sequence divergence between

  15. Direitos humanos e violência contra as mulheres: uma luta contra a sociedade patriarcal-racista-capitalista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirla Cisne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é  problematizar a importância da luta por direitos humanos no combate às violências contras as mulheres, inserindo essa luta nos limites e contradições de uma sociedade que têm a desigualdade e a exploração de classe, raça/etnia e sexo como elementos constituintes. Nesse entendimento, as múltiplas formas de violência contra a mulher, seja ela física, psicológica, sexual, obstétrica, patrimonial ou social, não resultam das relações individuais isoladamente, mas, sobretudo, são estruturadas pelas relações sociais de sexo, classe, raça/etnia que consubstanciam a sociedade patriarcal-racista-capitalista. São essas relações sociais que dão base à ideologia que naturaliza situações de violências às mulheres. É essa sociedade permeada por relações de opressão, exploração e também apropriação sobre as mulheres que promove cotidianamente situações de violência permeadas e potencializadas pela desigualdade de classe, pelo sexismo e pelo racismo, o que não apenas provoca a demanda pela luta por direitos humanos, mas a exige.  Falar em direitos humanos para as mulheres é falar na necessidade de lutar por uma sociedade sem violência e sem as apropriações, explorações e opressões que dão corpo as múltiplas violências contra as mulheres.

  16. Colonização radicular de plantas cultivadas por Ralstonia solanacearum biovares 1, 2 e 3 Root colonization of cultivated plants inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 1, 2 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Magno Martins Bringel

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana causada por Ralstonia solanacearum é considerada a principal doença de origem bacteriana no mundo. Centenas de espécies de plantas pertencentes a mais de 50 famílias botânicas têm sido relatadas como hospedeiras. Foi avaliada, em condições de casa de vegetação, a colonização radicular de alface, arroz, cebolinha, ervilha, pepino e soja, por seis isolados de Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs, biovares 1, 2 e 3. Estirpes dos isolados de Rs com resistência múltipla aos antibióticos estreptomicina, rifampicina e cloranfenicol foram utilizadas. A colonização foi avaliada 45 dias após a inoculação, através do plaqueamento de suspensão de trituração em meio de cultura semi-seletivo. A ervilha comportou-se como hospedeira de todos os isolados mas, apenas um isolado da biovar 3 foi patogênico a esta espécie. A soja apresentou populações elevadas de quatro isolados distribuídos entre as três biovares e o pepino, de apenas dois isolados das biovares 1 e 3. Exceto para o isolado que foi patogênico à ervilha, as plantas não apresentaram sintomas da doença, comportando-se como hospedeiras não suscetível. O arroz apresentou populações muito baixas de todos os isolados. Alface e cebolinha não hospedaram nenhum dos isolados inoculados. Os resultados mostram a capacidade de Rs colonizar e sobreviver em diferentes espécies de plantas como rizobactérias.Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is considered the main plant disease of bacterial origin in the world, where hundreds of plant species in more than 50 botanical families are host plants. Root colonization of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, rice (Oryza sativa, spring onion (Allium fistulosum, pea (Pisum sativum, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, and soybean (Glycine max by six isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs biovars 1, 2 and 3 was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Bacterial strains resistant to streptomycin, rifampicin and chloranfenicol were used

  17. Un compromiso compartido para la Misión contra el Cáncer

    Science.gov (United States)

    En la reunión anual de la AACR, el vicepresidente Biden habló acerca de la Iniciativa Nacional de la Misión contra el Cáncer y del papel crítico que tendrá toda la comunidad investigadora en acelerar el progreso contra el cáncer.

  18. La violencia sexual como un atentado contra la dignidad de la mujer

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Millan, Maximiliana

    2015-01-01

    La violencia sexual contra la mujer es la manifestación extrema de la desigualdad y del sometimiento en el que viven las mujeres en el mundo. Constituye un atentado contra el derecho a la vida, a la libertad, y la dignidad de las mujeres. Por tanto, para

  19. MECANISMOS INVOLUCRADOS EN LA RESPUESTA CONTRA PROTEINAS CITRULINADAS EN ARTRITIS REUMATOIDE.

    OpenAIRE

    CATALAN MARTINA, DIEGO FRANCISCO

    2010-01-01

    La artritis reumatoide (AR) es una enfermedad autoinmune, cuya patogenia está orquestada por linfocitos T CD4+ específicos contra proteínas propias o autoantígenos. La descripción de anticuerpos dirigidos contra una variedad de proteínas citrulinadas (ACP 192p.

  20. Study on the Response of some Solanaceous Plants to Ralstonia solanacearum Biovars 2A and 2T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Hasabi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is a very destructive bacterial plant pathogen that causes wilt disease in solanaceae crops. To study the response of potato, tomato, eggplant and petunia to bacterial wilt disease, two isolates representing biovars 2A and 2T of R. solanacearum were evaluated for their pathogenicity aggressiveness and tobacco hypersensitivity response (HR at two different temperature regimes. The response of plants was estimated by appearance of wilting symptoms and bacterial density in the xylems of inoculated plants over a four weeks period. The results indicated that isolates representing biovar 2T caused less disease in all the species and cultivars compared to isolates biovar 2A, at both temperature conditions and also, there were significant differences in susceptibility to biovars 2A and 2T of R. solanacearum among tomato, eggplant and petunia and potato cultivars.

  1. Estado actual de la vacuna conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Sierra- Fernandez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones por Streptococcus pneumoniae son frecuentes en la población pediátrica especialmente en los niños menores de 2 años. El S. pneumoniae puede producir infecciones invasoras con una alta tasa de mortalidad y morbilidad como lo son las meningitis bacterianas, la neumonía y bacteremias siendo a la vez el agente que con mayor frecuencia se detecta en el oído medio de niños con otitis media. En la actualidad existe una vacuna conjugada contra esta bacteria que protege contra los siete serotipos de S. pneumoniae más frecuentes en el mundo y que a su vez son los mismos serotipos que presentan una mayor incidencia de resistencia a los antibioticos de uso frecuente. La vacuna no solo protege contra este tipo de infecciones sino que se ha demostrado que disminuye la colonización nasofaringea de los niños que han recibido la vacuna produciendo a su vez, una reducción en el numero de infecciones, por esta bacteria, en poblaciones de personas mayores de 5 años, incluyendo adultos y personas mayores a los 65 años (efecto rebaño. Con base en los serotipos aislados en niños costarricenses con otitis media, se puede calcular que la cobertura de esta vacuna en Costa Rica sería de aproximadamente un 74% e incluyendo mayoritariamente, los serotipos que presentan resistencia antimicrobriana más frecuentemente.The heptavalent S. pneumoniae conjugate vaccine has shown to be safe and effective in preventing pediatric invasive infections and otitis media caused by S. pneumoniae. The routine use of these vaccines has dramatically reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases in children younger than 2 years old and because of a reduction in colonization of the children’s nasopharynx, the transmission from child to adult has been reduced and the number of secondary S. pneumoniae infections in adults. Another benefit of the routine use of this vaccine has been the reduction of vaccine-type antimicrobial resistant strains. Based on

  2. Violencia contra sindicalistas en medio del conflicto armado colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Echandía Castilla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la violencia contra sindicalistas en medio del conflicto armado colombiano pone al descubierto el carácter selectivo y sistemático de una violencia deliberada que busca debilitar, neutralizar, desarticular o cooptar a las organizaciones sociales, reducir su capacidad de presión y acallar sus reivindicaciones. Los homicidios de sindicalistas se han reducido en los últimos años debido a la desmovilización de parte del componente de las autodefensas y al repliegue de las guerrillas, y a su salida de zonas que disputaban con los paramilitares. Las bandas criminales también asesinan sindicalistas, pero en menor número.

  3. La lucha contra la pobreza, un problema internacional

    OpenAIRE

    Hillenkamp, Isabelle; Servet,, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    El artículo revisa siete décadas de ayuda al desarrollo y de lucha contra la pobreza, entendida primero a través de una comprensión global de los países «pobres» y luego en el contexto de una creciente conciencia de las disparidades entre países y de las desigualdades sociales internas. Se cubren así sucesivamente periodos tan diferentes como los inicios de la Guerra Fría y la descolonización, las grandes décadas del desarrollo de los años 1960 y 1970, bajo la influencia de las ideas keynesia...

  4. Batallas contra la lepra: estado, medicina y ciencia en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Miranda Canal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Diana Obregón Torres. Batallas contra la lepra: Estado, medicina y ciencia en Colombia, Medellín: Banco de la República / EAFIT, 2002, pp. 436. La historia de las ciencias y de la medicina en Colombia tiene sus orígenes en dos obras que aparecen en el siglo XIX: la Memoria sobre el estudio de la batán/ca en la Nueva Granada de Florentino Vezga (incluida en el primer número del Boletín de la Sociedad de Naturalistas Neogranadinos, en 1860 y las Memorias para la historia de la medicina en Santafé de Bogotá de Pedro María Ibáñez (publicada por la Imprenta de Vapor de Zalamea Hermanos, en 1884.

  5. Tratamiento contra la rabia humana: un poco de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión histórica del tratamiento utilizado contra la rabia humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el momento actual. Pretende hacer una analogía entre el concepto de causa predominante en la época y el tipo de tratamiento utilizado. Los griegos antiguos tenían la diosa Artemisa como sanadora de la rabia y ya utilizaban la cauterización de la herida. Los pueblos del siglo I conocían la capacidad infecciosa en la saliva de perros rabiosos, llamando a ese material de veneno virus (en latín. En la Edad Media, cuando prevalecía un concepto mágico y religioso de la salud, el gran protector era San Humberto. Con el Renacimiento surgen nuevamente muchos experimentos y avances en el conocimiento de la enfermedad, que sentaron las bases para los importantes hallazgos en el futuro próximo. En esa época predominaba la teoría miasmática y del contagio. Pasteur fue un grande opositor de la espontaneidad de la rabia. A finales del siglo XIX, con los descubrimientos microbianos, Pasteur hizo la gran revolución científica en relación al tratamiento contra la rabia, que es la vacuna. Las vacunas pueden actualmente ser de tipo nervioso o no, variando también el numero de dosis recomendadas. Se han desarrollado muchos estudios sobre vacunas, siendo la más utilizada en América Latina del tipo Fuenzalida y Palacios, y la recomendada actualmente por la OMS es la de cultivo celular.

  6. Tratamiento contra la rabia humana: un poco de su historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Maria Cristina

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión histórica del tratamiento utilizado contra la rabia humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el momento actual. Pretende hacer una analogía entre el concepto de causa predominante en la época y el tipo de tratamiento utilizado. Los griegos antiguos tenían la diosa Artemisa como sanadora de la rabia y ya utilizaban la cauterización de la herida. Los pueblos del siglo I conocían la capacidad infecciosa en la saliva de perros rabiosos, llamando a ese material de veneno virus (en latín. En la Edad Media, cuando prevalecía un concepto mágico y religioso de la salud, el gran protector era San Humberto. Con el Renacimiento surgen nuevamente muchos experimentos y avances en el conocimiento de la enfermedad, que sentaron las bases para los importantes hallazgos en el futuro próximo. En esa época predominaba la teoría miasmática y del contagio. Pasteur fue un grande opositor de la espontaneidad de la rabia. A finales del siglo XIX, con los descubrimientos microbianos, Pasteur hizo la gran revolución científica en relación al tratamiento contra la rabia, que es la vacuna. Las vacunas pueden actualmente ser de tipo nervioso o no, variando también el numero de dosis recomendadas. Se han desarrollado muchos estudios sobre vacunas, siendo la más utilizada en América Latina del tipo Fuenzalida y Palacios, y la recomendada actualmente por la OMS es la de cultivo celular.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Highly Virulent Race 4/Biovar 3 of Ralstonia solanacearum CaRs_Mep Causing Bacterial Wilt in Zingiberaceae Plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Vibhuti; Sheoran, Neelam; Prameela, Thekkan Puthiyaveedu; Suseelabhai, Rajamma; Aggarwal, Rashmi; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Eapen, Santhosh J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome of Ralstonia solanacearum CaRs_Mep, a race 4/biovar 3/phylotype I bacterium causing wilt in small cardamom and other Zingiberaceae plants, was sequenced. Analysis of the 5.7-Mb genome sequence will aid in better understanding of the genetic determinants of host range, host jump, survival, pathogenicity, and virulence of race 4 of R. solanacearum. PMID:28057749

  8. Performance and Internal Flow of Sirocco Fan Using Contra-Rotating Rotors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Fukutomi; T.Shigemitsu; T. Yasunobu

    2008-01-01

    A sirocco fan using contra-rotating rotors in which an inner rotor is settled inside the sirocco fan rotor end each rotor rotates in an opposite direction was proposed for the purpose of getting the higher pressure and making the structure of a sirocco fan more compact. If the high discharge pressure is obtained with the adoption of the contra-rotating rotors, it could be used for various purposes. Pressure coefficient of a sirocco fan with contra-rotating rotors is 2.5 times as high as the conventional sirocco fan and the maximum efficiency point of contra-rotating rotors shifts to larger flow rate than a conventional sirocco fan. On the other hand, it was clarified from the flow measurement results that circumferential velocity component at the outlet of the outer rotor of contra-rotating rotors becomes larger than a conventional one. In the present paper, the performance of a conventional sirocco fan and a sirocco fan with contra-rotating rotors are shown and the internal flow field at the outlet of outer rotor of both cases is clarified. Then, the effect of different kind of contra-rotating rotors on the performance and internal flow field is investigated and the rotor design with higher performanco would be discussed.

  9. GOL CONTRA! MAS... CONTRA QUEM? A LINGÜÍSTICA DE CORPUS E OS EQUIVALENTES DE TRADUÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Almeida Seemann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo é mostrar como a Lingüística de Corpus pode ajudar o tradutor na busca por equivalentes tradutórios entre dois idiomas através de corpora comparáveis. Para exemplificar, procuramos equivalentes em espanhol para o termo “gol contra”, usado no Brasil com o sentido de o gol que um jogador de futebol faz contra o próprio time. Os corpora compostos de textos publicados em jornais do Brasil, da Espanha e da Argentina forneceram exemplos reais de uso, extraídos com o auxílio de ferramentas eletrônicas, e revelaram as formas como espanhóis e argentinos se referem ao “gol contra”.

  10. 姬松茸60Co辐射新菌株J3营养成分与农药残留分析%Analysis on Nutrients and Pesticide Residues in Strain J3 Agaricus blazei Murill Irradiated by 60Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁伯琦; 江枝和; 肖淑霞; 雷锦桂; 王义祥; 唐翔虬

    2011-01-01

    通过常规生产床栽,对比研究姬松茸Co辐射新菌株J和原菌株J在营养品质以及重金属含量和农药残留情况.结果表明,姬松茸Co辐射新菌株J子实体中鲜味氨基酸总量(56.5 g·kg)、甜味氨基酸总量(52.4g·kg)、硫氨基酸总量(15.8 g·kg)、支链氨基酸总量(38.1 g·kg)、芳香族氨基酸总量(16.1 g·kg)、儿童氨基酸总量(17.8 g·kg)、必需氨基酸总量(95 g·kg),分别占氨基酸总量(221.7 g·kg)的25.48%、23.64%、7.13%、17.19%、7.26%、8.03%和42.85%,分别比姬松茸J高28.12%、12.93%、0%、14.41%、12.59%、16.34%和11.76%.J的多不饱和脂肪酸(76.15%)和不饱和脂肪酸(77.55%)分别比姬松茸原菌株J高4.39%和3.82%.J子实体含镉(3.86 mg·kg)、汞(0.42 mg·kg)和砷(0.09 mg·kg),也分别比原菌株J低45.86%、32.25%和18.18%;其铅含量符合国家食用菌卫生标准GB 7096-2003;砷含量符合国家绿色食品食用菌NY/T749-2003的标准.子实体中联苯菊酯、溴氰菊酯、百菌清、六六六、多菌灵、阿维菌素、甲基托布津、甲胺磷、毒死蜱、滴滴涕和二氧化硫含量均符合国家绿色食品食用菌NY/T 749-2003的标准.%A garicus blazei Murill as rare edible fungi was adored by more and more customers.But with the increasing attention of food hygiene quality, it was important guidance of the safety production of Agaricus blazei to understand the health status of Agaricus blazei in the actual cultivation.This paper studied the difference in terms of nutritional quality, heavy metal contents and pesticide residues between strain J3 and J1.The results showed that the contents of delicious amino acid(56.5 g· kg-1), sweet amino acid(52.4 g· kg-1), sulfur amino acid( 15.8 g·kg-1), branched chain amino acid(38.1 g· kg-1), aromatic amino acid( 16.1 g·kg-1), children amino acid( 17.8 g·kg-1), necessary amino acid (95.0 g·kg-1)in the fruit bodies ofAgaricus blazei J3, occupied 25.48%, 23.64%, 7.13%, 17.19%, 7.26

  11. A computer program for fast and easy typing of a partial endoglucanase gene sequence into genospecies and sequevars 1&2 of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, Michael J; Huang, Qi

    2016-04-01

    The phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is a species complex that contains race 3 biovar 2 strains belonging to phylotype IIB sequevars 1 and 2 that are quarantined or select agent pathogens. Recently, the R. solanacearum species complex strains have been reclassified into three genospecies: R. solanacearum, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum and Ralstonia syzygii. An unidentified R. solanacearum strain is considered a select agent in the US until proven to be a non-race 3 biovar 2 (non-phylotype IIB sequevars 1&2). Currently, sequevars of R. solanacearum species complex strains can only be determined by phylogenetic analysis of a partial endoglucanase (egl) sequence of approximately 700-bp in length. Such analysis, however, requires expert knowledge to properly trim the sequence, to include the correct reference strains, and to interpret the results. By comparing GenBank egl sequences of representative R. solanacearum species-complex strains, we identified genospecies- and sequevar 1 and 2-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also designed primers to amplify a shorter, 526-bp, egl fragment from R. solanacearum species complex strains for easy sequencing of the amplicon, and to facilitate direct and specific amplification of egl from R. solanacearum-infected plant samples without the need of bacterial isolation. We wrote a computer program (Ralstonia solanacearum typing program) that analyzes a minimum 400-bp user-input egl sequence from a R. solanacearum strain for egl homology and SNP content to determine 1) whether it belongs to the R. solanacearum species complex, 2) if so, to which genospecies, and 3) whether it is of the sequevar type (sequevars 1 and 2) associated with the select agent/quarantined R. solanacearum strain. The program correctly typed all 371 tested egl sequences with known sequevars, obtained either from GenBank or through personal communication. Additionally, the program successfully typed 25 R. solanacearum strains in our

  12. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinskey, Anthony J. [MIT; Worden, Robert Mark [Michigan State University MSU; Brigham, Christopher [MIT; Lu, Jingnan [MIT; Quimby, John Westlake [MIT; Gai, Claudia [MIT; Speth, Daan [MIT; Elliott, Sean [Boston University; Fei, John Qiang [MIT; Bernardi, Amanda [MIT; Li, Sophia [MIT; Grunwald, Stephan [MIT; Grousseau, Estelle [MIT; Maiti, Soumen [MSU; Liu, Chole [MSU

    2013-12-16

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide

  13. Prevención contra las drogas Prevention against drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Jiménez Herrera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Explorar de manera general algunos aspectos relacionados al tema de la prevención contra las drogas. Metodología: Identificación y revisión de artículos de las bases de datos: EBRARY, E-Libro, EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct y Springer Link, con la intención de organizar la información encontrada en las secciones siguientes: contexto general, factores involucrados en el uso y abuso de las drogas, acciones - políticas - prevención contra las drogas y hacia dónde va la investigación. Resultados: Aunque existe una variedad de conceptos relacionados con las drogas, algunos de ellos siguen en discusión dados los múltiples factores involucrados en el proceso. En los últimos años han ocurrido pocos cambios en la oferta y la demanda, pero el consumo entre hombres y mujeres tiende a igualarse, mientras el consumo inicia a edades más tempranas. Se sabe que existen factores protectores y de riesgo que median el uso, abuso y dependencia de las drogas, pero los jóvenes representan el grupo más vulnerable a los efectos de las drogas. Se realizan esfuerzos en muchos sectores pero de una manera no homogénea ni armónica y aunque ha habido esfuerzos por lograr prevención, en especial en el escenario educativo, hay factores que dificultan esta labor. Se evidencia la necesidad de contar con más investigación que permita orientar las distintas acciones para sopesar los efectos dentro del complejo mundo de las drogas Conclusión: Ante el complejo fenómeno de las drogas, se requiere conocer los distintos componentes involucrados para que puedan ser abordados de manera integral. La revisión permitió realizar un acercamiento al tema de prevención contra las drogas.Objective: To explore of general way some aspects related to the subject of the prevention against drugs. Methodology: Identification and article revision of the data bases: EBRARY, E-Libro, EBSCO, ProQuest, Science Direct and Springer Link, with the intention to organize

  14. Una aproximación al concepto de crímenes contra la humanidad

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    José Manuel Díaz Soto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo explora el concepto de “crímenes contra la humanidad”, a partir de una revisión histórica y del análisis de los distintos instrumentos internacionales que han consagrado esta categoría normativa. De igual modo, pretende ilustrar al lector acerca de la teoría de los crímenes contra la humanidad formulada por el profesor de la Universidad de Georgetown David J. Luban, para quien el rasgo definidor de estos delitos es que atentan contra la naturaleza política del ser humano. Por último, se destaca la influencia del pensamiento de Luban en la reciente jurisprudencia de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de Colombia acerca de los crímenes contra la humanidad.

  15. Papel de los anticuerpos en la protección contra micobacterium tuberculosis

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    Nesty Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Convencionalmente se asume que la defensa del hospedero contra Mycobacterium tuberculosis se basa en los mecanismos de inmunidad celular exclusivamente y se descarta el papel de los anticuerpos en la protección. En este trabajo se analizan evidencias recientes que retan este dogma y sugieren la importancia de considerar la manipulación de la respuesta inmune humoral como una alternativa en la investigación de vacunas contra la tuberculosis.

  16. Efectividad del tratamiento de la violencia contra la pareja en pacientes drogodependientes

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    Javier Fernández-Montalvo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la efectividad de los programas de tratamiento psicológico para drogodependientes, que presentan conductas violentas contra la pareja. Para ello, se revisan, en primer lugar, los estudios que valoran la influencia del tratamiento habitual sobre las adicciones y la reducción de las conductas violentas contra la pareja. En segundo lugar, se analizan los resultados de los programas de intervención conjunta que se han desarrollado hasta la fecha, en el ámbito internacional, en los centros de tratamiento para la adicción con drogodependientes que ejercen, además, violencia contra la pareja. Los resultados muestran, por una parte, que la intervención con pacientes adictos produce una disminución importante en la tasa de violencia contra la pareja asociada a la adicción. Por otra parte, los programas de intervención con adicciones constituyen un marco de gran utilidad para aplicar, de forma conjunta, tratamientos específicos para aquellos adictos con un problema asociado de violencia contra la pareja. Los resultados de estos programas de intervención muestran los mejores datos en la reducción de la tasa de violencia contra la pareja de los pacientes adictos. Se comentan las implicaciones de todo ello para la práctica clínica y para las investigaciones futuras.

  17. The effector AWR5 from the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of the TOR signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Crina; Li, Liang; Gil, Sergio; Tatjer, Laura; Hashii, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Mitsuaki; Coll, Núria S; Ariño, Joaquín; Valls, Marc

    2016-06-03

    Bacterial pathogens possess complex type III effector (T3E) repertoires that are translocated inside the host cells to cause disease. However, only a minor proportion of these effectors have been assigned a function. Here, we show that the T3E AWR5 from the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum is an inhibitor of TOR, a central regulator in eukaryotes that controls the switch between cell growth and stress responses in response to nutrient availability. Heterologous expression of AWR5 in yeast caused growth inhibition and autophagy induction coupled to massive transcriptomic changes, unmistakably reminiscent of TOR inhibition by rapamycin or nitrogen starvation. Detailed genetic analysis of these phenotypes in yeast, including suppression of AWR5-induced toxicity by mutation of CDC55 and TPD3, encoding regulatory subunits of the PP2A phosphatase, indicated that AWR5 might exert its function by directly or indirectly inhibiting the TOR pathway upstream PP2A. We present evidence in planta that this T3E caused a decrease in TOR-regulated plant nitrate reductase activity and also that normal levels of TOR and the Cdc55 homologues in plants are required for R. solanacearum virulence. Our results suggest that the TOR pathway is a bona fide T3E target and further prove that yeast is a useful platform for T3E function characterisation.

  18. Characterization of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) produced from Ralstonia eutropha using an alkali-pretreated biomass feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratale, Ganesh D; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline pretreatment using NaOH, KOH, or NaOCl has been applied to various types of waste biomass to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Pretreatment (2% NaOH, 121 °C, 30 min) of rice paddy straw (PS) resulted in a maximum yield of 703 mg of reducing sugar per gram of PS with 84.19% hydrolysis yield after a two-step enzymatic hydrolysis process. Ralstonia eutropha ATCC 17699 was tested for its ability to synthesize poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) using PS hydrolysates as its sole carbon source. It is noteworthy that dry cell weight, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation and PHB yield with the use of laboratory-grade sugars were similar to those achieved with PS-derived sugars. Under optimized conditions, we observed maximal PHA accumulation (75.45%) and PHB production (11.42 g/L) within 48 h of fermentation. After PHB recovery, the physicochemical properties of PHB were determined by various analytical techniques, showed the results were consistent with the characteristics of a standard polymer of PHB. Thus, the PS hydrolysate proved to be an excellent cheap carbon substrate for PHB production.

  19. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for the Rapid Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype I Mulberry Strains in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Jingsheng; Wang, Shuai; Kong, Xiangjiu; Ding, Wei; Xu, Jin; Feng, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype I mulberry strains are causative agent of bacterial wilt of mulberry. Current diagnostic methods are not adopted to the mulberry wilt disease. In this study, we developed a rapid method, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to detect R. solanacearum phylotype I mulberry strains. A set of six primers was designed to target the clone MG67 sequence in this LAMP detection which can be completed in 20 min at 64°C. The results of the LAMP reaction could be observed with the naked eye due to magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate produced during the reaction or the color change after adding SYBR Green I. The specificity of the LAMP was confirmed using DNA from 46 representative strains of R. solanacearum and 7 other soil-borne bacteria strains. This method was also of high sensitivity and could be used to detect the presence of less than 160 fg genomic DNA or 2.2 × 102 CFU/ml of bacterial cells per 25 μl reaction volume, moreover, the presence of plant tissue fluid did not affect the sensitivity. Since it does not require expensive equipment or specialized techniques, this LAMP-based diagnostic method has the potential to be used under field conditions to make disease forecasting more accurate and efficient.

  20. Lipid and fatty acid metabolism in Ralstonia eutropha: relevance for the biotechnological production of value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Lu, Jingnan; Stahl, Ulf; Brigham, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    Lipid and fatty acid metabolism has been well studied in model microbial organisms like Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The major precursor of fatty acid biosynthesis is also the major product of fatty acid degradation (β-oxidation), acetyl-CoA, which is a key metabolite for all organisms. Controlling carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis and from β-oxidation allows for the biosynthesis of natural products of biotechnological importance. Ralstonia eutropha can utilize acetyl-CoA from fatty acid metabolism to produce intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). R. eutropha can also be engineered to utilize fatty acid metabolism intermediates to produce different PHA precursors. Metabolism of lipids and fatty acids can be rerouted to convert carbon into other value-added compounds like biofuels. This review discusses the lipid and fatty acid metabolic pathways in R. eutropha and how they can be used to construct reagents for the biosynthesis of products of industrial importance. Specifically, how the use of lipids or fatty acids as the sole carbon source in R. eutropha cultures adds value to these biotechnological products will be discussed here.

  1. Evaluation of the gene encoding the enzyme βHPMEH for the bacterial wilt inhibition caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

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    Elizabeth Fernandez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of the devastating bacterial wilt disease that attacks important agricultural crops such as potato, tomato, banana, among others, causing serious yield losses. Control of R. solanacearum is difficult because of its wide range of alternate hosts, its long survival in soil, its biological and genetic variation, the lack of natural resistance sources and the insufficiency of the appropriate chemical control measures. Quorum sensing is the term that describes the phenomenon whereby the accumulation of molecules allows bacteria to know the number of bacteria found in the environment (population density. R. solanacearum has a quorum sensing system for the regulation of the expression of virulence genes; the molecule 3-OH-PAME is the self-regulatory signal. The molecule ΒHPMEH hydrolyzes 3-OH-PAME nullifying the signal of virulence, and thus, the quorum sensing communication in R. solanacearum. In order to evaluate the βhpmeh gene we designed two vectors that express this gene under the control of two different promoters. Both vectors were verified by restriction analysis and sequencing. Agroinfiltration assays were used to analyze gene expression and the effect against R. solanacearum in potato (Solanum tuberosum leaves. The results of the transient expression experiments showed that the expression of gene βhpmeh caused a delay in the appearance of symptoms of bacterial wilt and thus is a good candidate for whole genetic plant transformation.

  2. PERAN PEG 400 DALAM PEMBUATAN LEMBARAN BIOPLASTIK POLOHIDROKSIALKANOAT YANG DIHASILKAN OLEH RALSTONIA EUTROPHA DARI SUBSTRAT HIDROLISAT PATI SAGU

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    Khaswar Syamsu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of PEG 400 addition on the characteristics of bioplastic polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA. PHA was obtained by cultivating Ralstonia eutropha on hydrolysed sago starch substrate using fed batch method for approximately 96 hours. The biomass concentration obtained was 4 g/L with PHA yield 20-30% of dry cell weight. The bioplastic was formed with solution casting method in which chloroform was used as solvent and PEG 400 was used as plasticizer. The concentrations of PEG 400added were 10, 20, and 30% (w/w, respectively. Bioplastic properties which were tested were tensile strength, elongation to break, density, thermal properties, cristalinity, and functional group. The addition of plastisizer tend to increase tensile strength and elongation to break, but decrease density, cristalinity and melting point. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 addition gave the best results. Bioplastic with 30% PEG 400 gave a value of tensile strength of 0.083 MPa; elongation to break of 0.881%; density of 0.7881 g/cm3; melting point of 158.95 ac; and cristalinity of 44.58%. With these properties, the resulted bioi plastic may be used for surgical strings

  3. Simplified recovery process of Ralstonia solanacearum-synthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates via chemical extraction complemented by liquid-liquid phase separation

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    Karine L. Macagnan

    Full Text Available Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is the most studied thermoplastic biopolymer belonging to the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA family, the main features of which include rapid biodegradability and biocompatibility. The bioplastic recovery process is an important step during production and can directly influence the characteristics of PHAs. However, more efficient methods for the production of P(3HB are necessary to make it economically viable. The aim of the present study was to improve the standard, chloroform-based, extraction step for the recovery of P(3HB. The polymer was produced using a Ralstonia solanacearum strain. The following parameters were improved in the recovery process: heating time, separation method (filtration or liquid-liquid phase separation, biomass state (fresh or dry cell concentrate and the solvent:biomass ratio. By improving the chemical extraction of P(3HB we recovered 98% of the cumulative polymer and reduced the heating time by 75%. Furthermore, we improved the separation process and developed an extraction solution that was faster and more economical.

  4. Genomic Analysis of Phylotype I Strain EP1 Reveals Substantial Divergence from Other Strains in the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wang, Dechen; Yan, Jinli; Zhou, Jianuan; Deng, Yinyue; Jiang, Zide; Cao, Bihao; He, Zifu; Zhang, Lianhui

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating group of phytopathogens with an unusually wide host range and broad geographical distribution. R. solanacearum isolates may differ considerably in various properties including host range and pathogenicity, but the underlying genetic bases remain vague. Here, we conducted the genome sequencing of strain EP1 isolated from Guangdong Province of China, which belongs to phylotype I and is highly virulent to a range of solanaceous crops. Its complete genome contains a 3.95-Mb chromosome and a 2.05-Mb mega-plasmid, which is considerably bigger than reported genomes of other R. solanacearum strains. Both the chromosome and the mega-plasmid have essential house-keeping genes and many virulence genes. Comparative analysis of strain EP1 with other 3 phylotype I and 3 phylotype II, III, IV strains unveiled substantial genome rearrangements, insertions and deletions. Genome sequences are relatively conserved among the 4 phylotype I strains, but more divergent among strains of different phylotypes. Moreover, the strains exhibited considerable variations in their key virulence genes, including those encoding secretion systems and type III effectors. Our results provide valuable information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of diversified virulences and host range of R. solanacearum species. PMID:27833603

  5. The involvement of the PilQ secretin of type IV pili in phage infection in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narulita, Erlia; Addy, Hardian Susilo; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2016-01-22

    PilQ is a member of the secretin family of outer membrane proteins and specifically involved in type IV secretion. Here we report the effects of pilQ mutation in Ralstonia solanacearum on the host physiology including susceptibility to several phage types (Inoviridae, Podoviridae and Myoviridae). With three lines of cells, namely wild type, ΔpilQ and pilQ-complemented cells, the cell surface proteins, twitching motility and sensitivity to phages were compared. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the major TFP pilin (PilA) was specifically lost in pilQ mutants and was recovered in the complemented cells. Drastically inactivated twitching motility in pilQ mutants was recovered to the wild type level in the complemented cells. Several phages of different types including those of Inoviridae, Podoviridae, and Myoviridae that infect wild type cells could not form plaques on pilQ mutants but showed infectivity to pilQ-complemented cells. These results indicate that PilQ function is generally required for phage infection in R. solanacearum.

  6. Phylogeny and population structure of brown rot- and Moko disease-causing strains of Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, G; Remenant, B; Chiroleu, F; Lefeuvre, P; Prior, P

    2012-04-01

    The ancient soilborne plant vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum has evolved and adapted to cause severe damage in an unusually wide range of plants. In order to better describe and understand these adaptations, strains with very similar lifestyles and host specializations are grouped into ecotypes. We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate three particular ecotypes in the American phylotype II group: (i) brown rot strains from phylotypes IIB-1 and IIB-2, historically known as race 3 biovar 2 and clonal; (ii) new pathogenic variants from phylotype IIB-4NPB that lack pathogenicity for banana but can infect many other plant species; and (iii) Moko disease-causing strains from phylotypes IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIA-6, historically known as race 2, that cause wilt on banana, plantain, and Heliconia spp. We compared the genomes of 72 R. solanacearum strains, mainly from the three major ecotypes of phylotype II, using a newly developed pangenomic microarray to decipher their population structure and gain clues about the epidemiology of these ecotypes. Strain phylogeny and population structure were reconstructed. The results revealed a phylogeographic structure within brown rot strains, allowing us to distinguish European outbreak strains of Andean and African origins. The pangenomic CGH data also demonstrated that Moko ecotype IIB-4 is phylogenetically distinct from the emerging IIB-4NPB strains. These findings improved our understanding of the epidemiology of important ecotypes in phylotype II and will be useful for evolutionary analyses and the development of new DNA-based diagnostic tools.

  7. Moko Disease-Causing Strains of Ralstonia solanacearum from Brazil Extend Known Diversity in Paraphyletic Phylotype II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Greecy M R; Santos, Liliana A; Felix, Kátia C S; Rollemberg, Christtianno L; Silva, Adriano M F; Souza, Elineide B; Cellier, Gilles; Prior, Philippe; Mariano, Rosa L R

    2014-11-01

    The epidemic situation of Moko disease-causing strains in Latin America and Brazil is unclear. Thirty-seven Ralstonia solanacearum strains from Brazil that cause the Moko disease on banana and heliconia plants were sampled and phylogenetically typed using the endoglucanase (egl) and DNA repair (mutS) genes according to the phylotype and sequevar classification. All of the strains belonged to phylotype II and a portion of the strains was typed as the Moko disease-related sequevars IIA-6 and IIA-24. Nevertheless, two unsuspected sequevars also harbored the Moko disease-causing strains IIA-41 and IIB-25, and a new sequevar was described and named IIA-53. All of the strains were pathogenic to banana and some of the strains of sequevars IIA-6, IIA-24, and IIA-41 were also pathogenic to tomato. The Moko disease-causing strains from sequevar IIB-25 were pathogenic to potato but not to tomato. These results highlight the high diversity of strains of Moko in Brazil, reinforce the efficiency of the egl gene to reveal relationships among these strains, and contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of paraphyletic Moko disease-causing strains of the R. solanacearum species complex, where the following seven distinct genetic clusters have been described: IIA-6, IIA-24, IIA-41, IIA-53, IIB-3, IIB-4, and IIB-25.

  8. Development of the sensitive lateral flow immunoassay with silver enhancement for the detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in potato tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panferov, Vasily G; Safenkova, Irina V; Varitsev, Yury A; Drenova, Natalia V; Kornev, Konstantin P; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2016-05-15

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a dangerous and economically important pathogen of potatoes and other agricultural crops. Therefore, rapid and sensitive methods for its routine diagnostics are necessary. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid control method for R. solanacearum with a low limit of detection (LOD) based on a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) with silver enhancement. To minimize the LOD, the membrane type, antibody amount for conjugation with gold nanoparticles, conjugate concentration and antibody concentration in the analytical zone were optimized. Silver enhancement was used to decrease the LOD of the LFIA. For silver enhancement, release fiberglass membranes with pre-absorbed silver lactate and hydroquinone were placed on the analytical zone, and a drop of silver lactate was added. The LFIA with silver enhancement was found to be 10-fold more sensitive (LOD 2×10(2) CFU/mL; 20 min) in comparison with the common analysis (LOD 2×10(3) CFU/mL; 10 min). The specificity of the developed LFIA was studied using different strains of R. solanacearum (54 samples) and other widespread bacterial pathogens (18 samples). The LFIA detected all tested strains, whereas non-specific reactions were not observed. The developed tests were used for the control of bacteria in extracts of infected and non-infected potato tubers, and the quantitative analysis results (based on the densitometry of line colouration) were confirmed by ELISA with a correlation coefficient equal to 0.965.

  9. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of specific endoglucanase gene sequence for detection of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

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    Rok Lenarčič

    Full Text Available The increased globalization of crops production and processing industries also promotes the side-effects of more rapid and efficient spread of plant pathogens. To prevent the associated economic losses, and particularly those related to bacterial diseases where their management relies on removal of the infected material from production, simple, easy-to-perform, rapid and cost-effective tests are needed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assays that target 16S rRNA, fliC and egl genes were compared and evaluated as on-site applications. The assay with the best performance was that targeted to the egl gene, which shows high analytical specificity for diverse strains of the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, including its non-European and non-race 3 biovar 2 strains. The additional melting curve analysis provides confirmation of the test results. According to our extensive assessment, the egl LAMP assay requires minimum sample preparation (a few minutes of boiling for the identification of pure cultures and ooze from symptomatic material, and it can also be used in a high-throughput format in the laboratory. This provides sensitive and reliable detection of R. solanacearum strains of different phylotypes.

  10. Ralstonia solanacearum extracellular polysaccharide is a specific elicitor of defense responses in wilt-resistant tomato plants.

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    Annett Milling

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum, which causes bacterial wilt of diverse plants, produces copious extracellular polysaccharide (EPS, a major virulence factor. The function of EPS in wilt disease is uncertain. Leading hypotheses are that EPS physically obstructs plant water transport, or that EPS cloaks the bacterium from host plant recognition and subsequent defense. Tomato plants infected with R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strain UW551 and tropical strain GMI1000 upregulated genes in both the ethylene (ET and salicylic acid (SA defense signal transduction pathways. The horizontally wilt-resistant tomato line Hawaii7996 activated expression of these defense genes faster and to a greater degree in response to R. solanacearum infection than did susceptible cultivar Bonny Best. However, EPS played different roles in resistant and susceptible host responses to R. solanacearum. In susceptible plants the wild-type and eps(- mutant strains induced generally similar defense responses. But in resistant Hawaii7996 tomato plants, the wild-type pathogens induced significantly greater defense responses than the eps(- mutants, suggesting that the resistant host recognizes R. solanacearum EPS. Consistent with this idea, purified EPS triggered significant SA pathway defense gene expression in resistant, but not in susceptible, tomato plants. In addition, the eps(- mutant triggered noticeably less production of defense-associated reactive oxygen species in resistant tomato stems and leaves, despite attaining similar cell densities in planta. Collectively, these data suggest that bacterial wilt-resistant plants can specifically recognize EPS from R. solanacearum.

  11. Improving a PCR-Based Method for Identification of Ralstonia solanacearum in Natural Sources of West Malaysia

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    Reza Khakvar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum, a soil-borne plant pathogen, causes lethal wilting disease of more than 200 plants worldwide. This very wide host range covers both monocots and dicots, extending from annual plants to trees and shrubs. Although generally its considered as a plant pathogen, R. solanacearum behaves primarily as a saprophytic bacterium able to survive for long periods of time in various natural habitats such as surface waters and different types of soils. Epidemiological and ecological studies on pathogen distribution in the environment are seriously hindered by the lack of efficient detection method especially when the concentration of the pathogen is either very low or is present in a latent, dormant or non-culturable state. With due attention to importance of R. solanacearum in Malaysia and several irreparable losses that every year caused by this bacterium, this is prompted current study to develop a sensitive PCR-Based method to improve the detection of R. solanacearum in natural sources. We selected the previously reported primers (OLI1;OLI2; Y2; JE2 for their sensitivity and specificity detection of the bacterium in water and soil by a modification of PCR assay.

  12. Immunomodulatory Effects of the Agaricus blazei Murrill-Based Mushroom Extract AndoSan in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing High Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized, Double Blinded Clinical Study

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    Jon-Magnus Tangen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to undergo high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support were randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive adjuvant treatment with the mushroom extract AndoSan, containing 82% of Agaricus blazei Murrill (19 patients or placebo (21 patients. Intake of the study product started on the day of stem cell mobilizing chemotherapy and continued until the end of aplasia after high dose chemotherapy, a period of about seven weeks. Thirty-three patients were evaluable for all study endpoints, while all 40 included patients were evaluable for survival endpoints. In the leukapheresis product harvested after stem cell mobilisation, increased percentages of Treg cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were found in patients receiving AndoSan. Also, in this group, a significant increase of serum levels of IL-1ra, IL-5, and IL-7 at the end of treatment was found. Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR genes, and HLA genes in the Agaricus group. Furthermore, AndoSan displayed a concentration dependent antiproliferative effect on mouse myeloma cells in vitro. There were no statistically significant differences in treatment response, overall survival, and time to new treatment. The study was registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970021.

  13. Freqüência de biovares de Ralstonia solanacearum em diferentes cultivares e épocas de cultivo de batata no Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel, Joao Leodato Nunes; Duarte, Valmir; Silveira,José Ricardo Pfeifer; Van der Sand, Sueli Terezinha

    2001-01-01

    A presença das biovares I e/ou II de Ralstonia solanacearum em uma lavoura de batatas (Solanum tuberosum) tem influência direta no sucesso das medidas adotadas para controlar a murcha bacteriana. As biovares diferem entre si em relação à agressividade, latência e sobrevivência. Assim, um experimento de campo foi conduzido em uma área naturalmente infestada em duas épocas de cultivo com os objetivos de verificar (1) a incidência de biovares I e/ou II, (2) a relação entre biovar e época de plan...

  14. Pros y contras de la creación del Hospital contra el Cáncer en Costa Rica

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    Grettel Carolina Alfaro Campo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La relevancia que representa para el país la creación del hospital oncológico es controversial, porque se ha recibido amplia cobertura de los noticieros, donde se han hecho muy importantes denuncias, y parte de las poblaciones estudiadas para este trabajo, están en contra de este proyecto, 25 % de los médicos no le encuentra el beneficio directo. En cuanto a quien debería manejar dicho hospital, ambas poblaciones (medicas y civiles concordaron que la CCSS es el organismo que debe encargarse del manejo. Al ICCC ( Instituto Costarricense Contra el Cáncer se le ha relacionado solamente con la construcción del edificio del hospital que atienda el cáncer, pero la ley 7765 lo establece como órgano encargado de la investigación, capacitación, prevención y tratamiento de esta enfermedad, por lo que es necesario llevar a cabo un análisis financiero de costos que dé a conocer cuáles serían los beneficios y qué cambios implicaría la creación de un hospital oncológico, pero para que las cosas funcionen en orden, la transparencia y la comunicación se vuelven imprescindibles. A pesar de todo, es probable que la creación de este centro especializado en cáncer implique una diferencia significativa en la situación de salud del paciente con cáncer en nuestro país.The relevance that represents to the country the creation of the oncological hospital is controversial, because it has received a wide coverage by the news, where important denounces have been made, and part of the populations studied for this essay are against this project, 25 % of the medical doctors do not find a direct benefit. As to who has to lead the project, both populations (medical and civilian agree that the CCSS has to lead it. The ICCC (Costa Rican Institute Against Cancer has been associated with the construction of the facilities of the hospital that give attendance, but the law 7765 establishes it like the organism in charge of the investigation, capacitating

  15. Desarrollo de vacunas contra el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1: Relevancia de la inmunidad celular contra subtipos

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    Ana María Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Han pasado casi 30 años de la detección de los primeros casos de infección con HIV-1 y aún no se ha conseguido desarrollar una vacuna efectiva y segura. A pesar del impacto positivo sobre la pandemia que se ha conseguido gracias a los avances en la terapia antirretroviral (TARV, el HIV/sida sigue constituyendo un grave problema para la salud pública, especialmente en los países en desarrollo, donde es difícil el acceso al tratamiento. En el mundo, 33 millones de personas viven con el virus del sida, mientras que en la Argentina se calcula que habría unos 120 000 infectados. Uno de los desafíos para lograr una vacuna contra el HIV es la variabilidad viral. El grupo M, responsable de la pandemia, se encuentra dividido en 10 subtipos y varios sub-subtipos, además de las 48 formas recombinantes circulantes y más de cien formas recombinantes únicas. La epidemia de HIV en nuestro país es tan compleja como en el resto del mundo, con la co-circulación principalmente de virus pertenecientes al subtipo B y recombinantes BF (CRF12_BF y derivadas. A pesar de la cantidad de trabajos dedicados a la caracterización de la respuesta inmune y al desarrollo de vacunas, no queda claro cuál es el impacto de la variabilidad en la elección del antígeno. Trabajos realizados en nuestro laboratorio demuestran el papel que juega la inmunidad celular con respecto a las variantes recombinantes BF, tanto en humanos como en modelos animales. Estos resultados son de importancia en el desarrollo de futuras vacunas para nuestra región.

  16. Escaping Underground Nets: Extracellular DNases Degrade Plant Extracellular Traps and Contribute to Virulence of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tuan Minh; MacIntyre, April; Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn

    2016-06-01

    Plant root border cells have been recently recognized as an important physical defense against soil-borne pathogens. Root border cells produce an extracellular matrix of protein, polysaccharide and DNA that functions like animal neutrophil extracellular traps to immobilize pathogens. Exposing pea root border cells to the root-infecting bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum triggered release of DNA-containing extracellular traps in a flagellin-dependent manner. These traps rapidly immobilized the pathogen and killed some cells, but most of the entangled bacteria eventually escaped. The R. solanacearum genome encodes two putative extracellular DNases (exDNases) that are expressed during pathogenesis, suggesting that these exDNases contribute to bacterial virulence by enabling the bacterium to degrade and escape root border cell traps. We tested this hypothesis with R. solanacearum deletion mutants lacking one or both of these nucleases, named NucA and NucB. Functional studies with purified proteins revealed that NucA and NucB are non-specific endonucleases and that NucA is membrane-associated and cation-dependent. Single ΔnucA and ΔnucB mutants and the ΔnucA/B double mutant all had reduced virulence on wilt-susceptible tomato plants in a naturalistic soil-soak inoculation assay. The ΔnucA/B mutant was out-competed by the wild-type strain in planta and was less able to stunt root growth or colonize plant stems. Further, the double nuclease mutant could not escape from root border cells in vitro and was defective in attachment to pea roots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that extracellular DNases are novel virulence factors that help R. solanacearum successfully overcome plant defenses to infect plant roots and cause bacterial wilt disease.

  17. Expression of a wheat MYB gene in transgenic tobacco enhances resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum, and to drought and salt stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxia; Zhou, Xianyao; Dong, Na; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Zengyan

    2011-09-01

    MYB transcription factors play diverse roles in plant growth, developmental processes and stress responses. A full-length cDNA sequence of a MYB gene, namely TaPIMP1, was isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The TaPIMP1 transcript level was significantly up-regulated by inoculation with a fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana and by drought treatment. TaPIMP1 encodes the MYB protein TaPIMP1 consisting of 323 amino acids. TaPIMP1 contains two MYB DNA binding domains (R2, R3), two putative nuclear localization sites and two putative transcription activation domains. TaPIMP1 is a new member of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor subfamily. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells of GFP fused with TaPIMP1 proved that subcellular localization of TaPIMP1 occurred in the nucleus. The TaPIMP1 gene was transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultivar W38 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After screening through PCR and RT-PCR analyses, transgenic tobacco lines expressing TaPIMP1 were identified and evaluated for pathogen resistance, and drought and salt tolerance. Compared to untransformed tobacco host plants, TaPIMP1 expressing plants displayed significantly enhanced resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum and exhibited improved tolerances to drought and salt stresses. In these transgenic lines, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased relative to wild-type tobacco plants. The results suggested that the wheat R2R3-MYB transcription factor plays an important role in modulating responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  18. Optimal Medium Composition to Enhance Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate Production by Ralstonia eutropha Using Cane Molasses as Sole Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozorg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the costs associated with Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, growth and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production of Ralstonia eutropha were studied in batch culture on different carbon sources. Experiments were designed and conducted to not only lower the cost of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production by using inexpensive substrates, but also to increase Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production by optimizing the culture medium composition. Low cost, abundant carbon sources, including cane molasses, beet molasses, soya bean, and corn steep liquor were used to investigate the possibility of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production in such renewable carbon sources. Based on the experimental results, cane molasses with production of 0.49 g/L Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate was selected as the most efficient carbon source. To improve bacterial growth and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, different chemicals were then used to pretreat the cane molasses. Sulfuric acid, with 33% enhancement in Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, revealed the highest efficiency in removing heavy metals and suspended impurities and was used to pretreat cane molasses in the subsequent experiments. Additionally, to make the process even more efficient and ultimately more effective, urea and corn steep liquor were used as nitrogen/minerals and vitamin sources, respectively. Using the Response Surface Methodology and through a 2n factorial Central Composite Design, the medium composition was then optimized, and maximum biomass concentration of 5.03 g/L and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.63 g/L were obtained.

  19. Catalytic properties of the isolated diaphorase fragment of the NAD-reducing [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Lauterbach

    Full Text Available The NAD+-reducing soluble hydrogenase (SH from Ralstonia eutropha H16 catalyzes the H₂-driven reduction of NAD+, as well as reverse electron transfer from NADH to H+, in the presence of O₂. It comprises six subunits, HoxHYFUI₂, and incorporates a [NiFe] H+/H₂ cycling catalytic centre, two non-covalently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN groups and an iron-sulfur cluster relay for electron transfer. This study provides the first characterization of the diaphorase sub-complex made up of HoxF and HoxU. Sequence comparisons with the closely related peripheral subunits of Complex I in combination with UV/Vis spectroscopy and the quantification of the metal and FMN content revealed that HoxFU accommodates a [2Fe2S] cluster, FMN and a series of [4Fe4S] clusters. Protein film electrochemistry (PFE experiments show clear electrocatalytic activity for both NAD+ reduction and NADH oxidation with minimal overpotential relative to the potential of the NAD+/NADH couple. Michaelis-Menten constants of 56 µM and 197 µM were determined for NADH and NAD+, respectively. Catalysis in both directions is product inhibited with K(I values of around 0.2 mM. In PFE experiments, the electrocatalytic current was unaffected by O₂, however in aerobic solution assays, a moderate superoxide production rate of 54 nmol per mg of protein was observed, meaning that the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS observed for the native SH can be attributed mainly to HoxFU. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for aerobic functioning of the SH and possible control mechanism for the direction of catalysis.

  20. Production of fatty acids in Ralstonia eutropha H16 by engineering β-oxidation and carbon storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice S. Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a facultatively autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium capable of producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB-based bioplastics. As PHB’s physical properties may be improved by incorporation of medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs, and MCFAs are valuable on their own as fuel and chemical intermediates, we engineered R. eutropha for MCFA production. Expression of UcFatB2, a medium-chain-length-specific acyl-ACP thioesterase, resulted in production of 14 mg/L laurate in wild-type R. eutropha. Total fatty acid production (22 mg/L could be increased up to 2.5-fold by knocking out PHB synthesis, a major sink for acetyl-CoA, or by knocking out the acyl-CoA ligase fadD3, an entry point for fatty acids into β-oxidation. As ΔfadD3 mutants still consumed laurate, and because the R. eutropha genome is predicted to encode over 50 acyl-CoA ligases, we employed RNA-Seq to identify acyl-CoA ligases upregulated during growth on laurate. Knockouts of the three most highly upregulated acyl-CoA ligases increased fatty acid yield significantly, with one strain (ΔA2794 producing up to 62 mg/L free fatty acid. This study demonstrates that homologous β-oxidation systems can be rationally engineered to enhance fatty acid production, a strategy that may be employed to increase yield for a range of fuels, chemicals, and PHB derivatives in R. eutropha.

  1. Effect of Seed Treatment by Cold Plasma on the Resistance of Tomato to Ralstonia solanacearum (Bacterial Wilt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiafeng; Lu, Yufang; Li, Jiangang; Li, Ling; He, Xin; Shao, Hanliang; Dong, Yuanhua

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cold plasma seed treatment on tomato bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (R. solanacearum), and the regulation of resistance mechanisms. The effect of cold plasma of 80W on seed germination, plant growth, nutrient uptake, disease severity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and activities of peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.7), polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.2) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC 4.3.1.5) were examined in tomato plants. Plasma treatment increased tomato resistance to R. solanacearum with an efficacy of 25.0%. Plasma treatment significantly increased both germination and plant growth in comparison with the control treatment, and plasma-treated plants absorbed more calcium and boron than the controls. In addition, H2O2 levels in treated plants rose faster and reached a higher peak, at 2.579 µM gFW−1, 140% greater than that of the control. Activities of POD (421.3 U gFW−1), PPO (508.8 U gFW−1) and PAL (707.3 U gFW−1) were also greater in the treated plants than in the controls (103.0 U gFW−1, 166.0 U gFW−1 and 309.4 U gFW−1, respectively). These results suggest that plasma treatment affects the regulation of plant growth, H2O2 concentration, and POD, PPO and PAL activity in tomato, resulting in an improved resistance to R. solanacearum. Consequently, cold plasma seed treatment has the potential to control tomato bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum. PMID:24840508

  2. Phosphotransferase protein EIIANtr interacts with SpoT, a key enzyme of the stringent response, in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Katja; Zschiedrich, Christopher P; Bowien, Botho; Stülke, Jörg; Görke, Boris

    2014-04-01

    EIIA(Ntr) is a member of a truncated phosphotransferase (PTS) system that serves regulatory functions and exists in many Proteobacteria in addition to the sugar transport PTS. In Escherichia coli, EIIA(Ntr) regulates K(+) homeostasis through interaction with the K(+) transporter TrkA and sensor kinase KdpD. In the β-Proteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16, EIIA(Ntr) influences formation of the industrially important bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). PHB accumulation is controlled by the stringent response and induced under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. Knockout of EIIA(Ntr) increases the PHB content. In contrast, absence of enzyme I or HPr, which deliver phosphoryl groups to EIIA(Ntr), has the opposite effect. To clarify the role of EIIA(Ntr) in PHB formation, we screened for interacting proteins that co-purify with Strep-tagged EIIA(Ntr) from R. eutropha cells. This approach identified the bifunctional ppGpp synthase/hydrolase SpoT1, a key enzyme of the stringent response. Two-hybrid and far-Western analyses confirmed the interaction and indicated that only non-phosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) interacts with SpoT1. Interestingly, this interaction does not occur between the corresponding proteins of E. coli. Vice versa, interaction of EIIA(Ntr) with KdpD appears to be absent in R. eutropha, although R. eutropha EIIA(Ntr) can perfectly substitute its homologue in E. coli in regulation of KdpD activity. Thus, interaction with KdpD might be an evolutionary 'ancient' task of EIIA(Ntr) that was subsequently replaced by interaction with SpoT1 in R. eutropha. In conclusion, EIIA(Ntr) might integrate information about nutritional status, as reflected by its phosphorylation state, into the stringent response, thereby controlling cellular PHB content in R. eutropha.

  3. Production of fatty acids in Ralstonia eutropha H16 by engineering β-oxidation and carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Janice S.; Colón, Brendan; Dusel, Brendon; Ziesack, Marika; Torella, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a facultatively autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium capable of producing polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based bioplastics. As PHB’s physical properties may be improved by incorporation of medium-chain-length fatty acids (MCFAs), and MCFAs are valuable on their own as fuel and chemical intermediates, we engineered R. eutropha for MCFA production. Expression of UcFatB2, a medium-chain-length-specific acyl-ACP thioesterase, resulted in production of 14 mg/L laurate in wild-type R. eutropha. Total fatty acid production (22 mg/L) could be increased up to 2.5-fold by knocking out PHB synthesis, a major sink for acetyl-CoA, or by knocking out the acyl-CoA ligase fadD3, an entry point for fatty acids into β-oxidation. As ΔfadD3 mutants still consumed laurate, and because the R. eutropha genome is predicted to encode over 50 acyl-CoA ligases, we employed RNA-Seq to identify acyl-CoA ligases upregulated during growth on laurate. Knockouts of the three most highly upregulated acyl-CoA ligases increased fatty acid yield significantly, with one strain (ΔA2794) producing up to 62 mg/L free fatty acid. This study demonstrates that homologous β-oxidation systems can be rationally engineered to enhance fatty acid production, a strategy that may be employed to increase yield for a range of fuels, chemicals, and PHB derivatives in R. eutropha. PMID:26664804

  4. Escaping Underground Nets: Extracellular DNases Degrade Plant Extracellular Traps and Contribute to Virulence of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Minh Tran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant root border cells have been recently recognized as an important physical defense against soil-borne pathogens. Root border cells produce an extracellular matrix of protein, polysaccharide and DNA that functions like animal neutrophil extracellular traps to immobilize pathogens. Exposing pea root border cells to the root-infecting bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum triggered release of DNA-containing extracellular traps in a flagellin-dependent manner. These traps rapidly immobilized the pathogen and killed some cells, but most of the entangled bacteria eventually escaped. The R. solanacearum genome encodes two putative extracellular DNases (exDNases that are expressed during pathogenesis, suggesting that these exDNases contribute to bacterial virulence by enabling the bacterium to degrade and escape root border cell traps. We tested this hypothesis with R. solanacearum deletion mutants lacking one or both of these nucleases, named NucA and NucB. Functional studies with purified proteins revealed that NucA and NucB are non-specific endonucleases and that NucA is membrane-associated and cation-dependent. Single ΔnucA and ΔnucB mutants and the ΔnucA/B double mutant all had reduced virulence on wilt-susceptible tomato plants in a naturalistic soil-soak inoculation assay. The ΔnucA/B mutant was out-competed by the wild-type strain in planta and was less able to stunt root growth or colonize plant stems. Further, the double nuclease mutant could not escape from root border cells in vitro and was defective in attachment to pea roots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that extracellular DNases are novel virulence factors that help R. solanacearum successfully overcome plant defenses to infect plant roots and cause bacterial wilt disease.

  5. Maus tratos contra crianças e adolescents Malos tratos contra niños y adolescentes Maltreatmens against children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Os maus-tratos contra a criança e o adolescente têm sido reconhecidos como um fenômeno crescente no mundo, mas cujo conhecimento ainda está em processo de construção em função de sua complexidade. O estudo apresenta uma revisão bibliográfica, cujo objetivo foi conhecer e divulgar os dados epidemiológicos acerca da violência praticada contra menores, bem como discutir o conhecimento da magnitude desses eventos, os fatores relacionados e as consequências para as vítimas. A literatura aponta para a abrangência e magnitude da violência praticada contra crianças e adolescentes e enfatiza a importância de se conhecer a natureza e a realidade acerca destes eventos a fim de se formar um diagnóstico que auxilie na elaboração e implantação de estratégias de prevenção e intervenção.Los malos tratos contra niños y adolescentes están recibiendo cada vez más atención debido a su creciente e inquietante papel en la morbimortalidad en diferentes partes del mundo. El estudio tuvo como objetivo presentar una revisión bibliográfica de los datos epidemiologicos acerca de la violencia contra niños y adolescentes, discutir la magnitud, factores relacionados e consecuencias para la víctimas. La literatura apunta para la magnitud de la violencia contra niños y adolescentes e enfatizan, aún, la importancia de conocer la naturaleza y la realidad acerca de los eventos a fin de formar un diagnóstico que dé auxilio en la elaboración e implantación de estrategias específicas de prevención e intervención.The maltreatments against children and adolescents are admitted as a crescent phenomenon in world, but its knowledge are in building process due to its complexity. This study show a revising the literature with aims know and publicise epidemiological data about the violence against children and adolescents, discuss the knowledge about magnitude of this violence, the related factors and the consequences for victims. The literature

  6. Internal Flow of Contra-Rotating Small Hydroturbine at Off- Design Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIGEMITSU, Toru; TAKESHIMA, Yasutoshi; OGAWA, Yuya; FUKUTOMI, Junichiro

    2016-11-01

    Small hydropower generation is one of important alternative energy, and enormous potential lie in the small hydropower. However, efficiency of small hydroturbines is lower than that of large one. Then, there are demands for small hydroturbines to keep high performance in wide flow rate range. Therefore, we adopted contra-rotating rotors, which can be expected to achieve high performance. In this research, performance of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine with 60mm casing diameter was investigated by an experiment and numerical analysis. Efficiency of the contra-rotating small hydroturbine was high in pico-hydroturbine and high efficiency could be kept in wide flow rate range, however the performance of a rear rotor decreased significantly in partial flow rates. Then, internal flow condition, which was difficult to measure experimentally, was investigated by the numerical flow analysis. Then, a relation between the performance and internal flow condition was considered by the numerical analysis result.

  7. Vacinas contra o Papilomavirus humano Vaccines against human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Infecção pelo HPV é mais comum entre indivíduos jovens e sexualmente ativos e é tão prevalente que 75 a 80% da população será infectada durante sua vida. A maioria das lesões cede espontaneamente ao ponto de não ser detectada nem com os métodos mais sensíveis. Preocupam as infecções persistentes com os HPV oncogênicos, que aumentam o risco da neoplasia intraepitelial e do câncer. Duas formas de prevenção foram propostas: o rastreamento das lesões precursoras e a imunização contra o HPV, para evitá-las. Embora a incidência do câncer genital venha diminuindo devido aos métodos de rastreamento, seu custo é elevado e os resultados anormais provocam significantes distúrbios emocionais. Logo, a prevenção das doenças relacionadas ao vírus deveria ser disponível sob a forma de vacinação. Na década passada, iniciaram-se os testes clínicos com várias vacinas que tinham como alvo os tipos comuns do HPV. As vacinas profiláticas evitam a infecção pelo HPV e suas doenças associadas e as terapêuticas induzem a regressão das lesões pré-cancerosas e a remissão do câncer invasivo. As primeiras são compostas pela proteína capsídeo L1 do HPV que se auto-reproduz em partículas virus-like (VLP quando expressa em sistemas recombinantes, induzindo forte resposta humoral com anticorpos neutralizadores. Determinam 100% de proteção contra a infecção pelos tipos específicos do HPV e impedem o aparecimento de neoplasias intraepiteliais de alto grau até pelo menos 5 anos após a imunização. A eficácia das vacinas feitas com as proteínas E6 e E7 também vem sendo pesquisada em modelos animais. As vacinas vêm mostrando maior efetividade quando administradas antes do início da atividade sexual e as campanhas de vacinação deverão ter como alvo as mulheres adolescentes e as pré-adolescentes. Espera-se, com o uso disseminado da vacina, que 70% dos cânceres cervicais sejam evitados, bem como a proporção das

  8. Effects of environmental parameters on the dual-species biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut processing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofilm forming bacteria resident to food processing facilities are a food safety concern due to the potential of biofilms to harbor foodborne bacterial pathogens. When cultured together, Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm former frequently isolated from produce processing environments, has been ...

  9. Efficient biological conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and for utilization in bioplastic production by Ralstonia eutropha through the display of an enzyme complex on the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-06-25

    An enzyme complex for biological conversion of CO to CO2 was anchored on the cell surface of the CO2-utilizing Ralstonia eutropha and successfully resulted in a 3.3-fold increase in conversion efficiency. These results suggest that this complexed system may be a promising strategy for CO2 utilization as a biological tool for the production of bioplastics.

  10. ¿Vinculadas al narco? Mujeres presas por delitos contra la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Carrillo Hernández

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la manera en que la ofensiva del Estado mexicano contra el narcotráfico incidió en el orden de género de procuración de justicia. Esto se observó en el incremento de encarcelamientos de mujeres por delitos contra la salud al ser consideradas agentes significativos de la cadena delictiva del narcotráfico. El resultado fue el endurecimiento de las penas imputadas y la negación de los beneficios de preliberación que establece la ley. Estas mujeres han sido juzgadas ba...

  11. Guerra contra las drogas, consumidores de marihuana y legalización

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Parra, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    El artículo analiza, a partir del caso colombiano, las implicaciones políticas de la presencia pública de las manifestaciones colectivas a favor de la legalización de la marihuana en el marco actual de discusión sobre la pertinencia de la guerra contra las drogas ilegales. La conjetura central del texto es que esas manifestaciones colectivas expresan una forma de acción ciudadana. Para sustentar la argumentación, el artículo aborda tres aspectos: la guerra contra las drogas y s...

  12. Intervención interdisciplinar en la adolecencia contra la violencia de género

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    [ES] Desde que en la Conferencia Mundial de la Mujer (México, 1975), se reconoció por primera vez la gravedad de la violencia contra las mujeres, todas las conferencias internacionales han propuesto medidas para que los diferentes estados impulsen políticas preventivas e integrales contra la violencia de género. Este tipo de violencia tiene su raíz en el entramado cultural de nuestras sociedades. Los esfuerzos para su erradicación deben orientarse a construir una sociedad igualita...

  13. Pensando la violencia que ejercen los hombres contra sus parejas: problemas y cuestionamientos

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Ramírez Rodríguez

    2002-01-01

    Este artículo se propone problematizar algunos aspectos sobre la violencia doméstica masculina contra la pareja. En primer término se presentan a reflexión algunos datos de encuestas sobre la violencia doméstica masculina contra la pareja, en las que se incluye a los hombres como unidades de análisis. A partir de estos datos se introducen algunos puntos sobre la percepción estereotipada de los géneros. En segundo lugar se hace una breve anotación sobre las orientaciones que se utilizan en psi...

  14. Aceptabilidad de la vacuna contra el virus papiloma humano en padres de adolescentes, en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesner,Carolina; Piñeros, Marion; Cortés, Claudia; Jaime Ardila, Jaime Ardila

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo La vacuna contra el VPH es una nueva tecnología disponible para el control del cáncer de cuello uterino. Se espera, que en el menor tiempo posible esta vacuna pueda tener cobertura universal. Este artículo presenta la aceptabilidad que tiene los padres de adolescentes en Colombia hacia la vacuna contra el VPH y hace una aproximación a sus determinantes. Métodos Estudio cualitativo en cuatro regiones en Colombia. Se realizaron 17 grupos focales con padres de niñas y niños entre 11 a 1...

  15. La violencia de género contra las mujeres en Yucatán

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Janet Paredes Guerrero; Rodrigo Llanes Salazar; Nayelli Torres Salas; Alejandra Pamela España Paredes

    2016-01-01

    Se analizan los tipos de violencia: doméstica, institucional y feminicida, usando el concepto de “violencia de género contra las mujeres”, en combinación con las dimensiones de la violencia propuestas por Johan Galtung: interpersonal, estructural y cultural/simbólica, para demostrar que la violencia de género contra las mujeres en el estado de Yucatán, México, se ejerce no sólo en el hogar, sino también en las instituciones y en las representaciones colectivas, espacios en los que todavía se ...

  16. México: violencia criminal y "guerra contra el narcotráfico"

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Pereyra

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo analiza las relaciones de poder que condicionan en México la violencia actual empleada por los grupos ilegales de la droga y la guerra contra el narcotráfico declarada por el gobierno de Felipe Calderón. A partir del análisis de la coexistencia de dos modalidades del poder (soberanía y gubernamentalidad), se busca entender la lógica del poder del narcotráfico y de la lucha militarizada que el gobierno lleva a cabo contra las organizaciones de la droga. Se discuten también los ...

  17. Quick adaptation of Ralstonia Solanacearum to copper stress to recover culturability and growth in water and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Daniel Moreira Ascarrunz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cells of Ralstonia solanacearum were exposed to Cu in distilled water, and the resulting Cu-stressed non-culturable cells were inoculated to natural (non-pasteurized and pasteurized soils in order to examine their culturability and recovery. Exposing the cells to 20 µM CuSO4 produced transitory non-culturable cells, which exhibited a remarkable recovery in culturability after incubation in the solution for 36 h, reaching a density near the initial level by 108 h. To determine whether such non-culturable cells actually "resuscitated" or multiplied after adapting to Cu toxicity, growth curves were constructed in order to contrast the rates of increase in culturable cell numbers between Cu-stressed or non-stressed inocula. Additionally, fresh non-stressed cells were exposed to CuSO4 in the presence of nalidixic acid by adding the antibiotic at different times after the onset of Cu stress to verify any cell multiplication during the population increase. The results revealed that the non-culturable cells surviving Cu toxicity adapted very quickly to Cu and began multiplying within 12 h, because only the Cu-stressed cells that were increasing in the exponential growth phase, but not those in the stationary phase, were killed by the antibiotic. Such cells exhibited an apparent tolerance to this metal when inoculated to a freshly prepared solution of CuSO4, and also detoxified the ion in the solution in which they grew. The presence of nutrients greatly counteracted the effect of Cu in water microcosms, since culturable cells were detected and increased in number even when exposed to 40 µM CuSO4. In contrast, when inoculated to non-pasteurized soil, Cu-stressed cells showed no such recoveries. However, when the soil was pasteurized before inoculation or added with nutrients, culturable cells were recovered and increased in number. This indicates that increased nutrient availability in soil allows Cu-stressed cells to quickly overcome the stress and

  18. Impact of Ralstonia eutropha's poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) Depolymerases and Phasins on PHB storage in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Jessica; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    The model organism for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis, Ralstonia eutropha H16, possesses multiple isoenzymes of granules coating phasins as well as of PHB depolymerases, which degrade accumulated PHB under conditions of carbon limitation. In this study, recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strains were used to study the impact of selected PHB depolymerases of R. eutropha H16 on the growth behavior and on the amount of accumulated PHB in the absence or presence of phasins. For this purpose, 20 recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3) strains were constructed, which harbored a plasmid carrying the phaCAB operon from R. eutropha H16 to ensure PHB synthesis and a second plasmid carrying different combinations of the genes encoding a phasin and a PHB depolymerase from R. eutropha H16. It is shown in this study that the growth behavior of the respective recombinant E. coli strains was barely affected by the overexpression of the phasin and PHB depolymerase genes. However, the impact on the PHB contents was significantly greater. The strains expressing the genes of the PHB depolymerases PhaZ1, PhaZ2, PhaZ3, and PhaZ7 showed 35% to 94% lower PHB contents after 30 h of cultivation than the control strain. The strain harboring phaZ7 reached by far the lowest content of accumulated PHB (only 2.0% [wt/wt] PHB of cell dry weight). Furthermore, coexpression of phasins in addition to the PHB depolymerases influenced the amount of PHB stored in cells of the respective strains. It was shown that the phasins PhaP1, PhaP2, and PhaP4 are not substitutable without an impact on the amount of stored PHB. In particular, the phasins PhaP2 and PhaP4 seemed to limit the degradation of PHB by the PHB depolymerases PhaZ2, PhaZ3, and PhaZ7, whereas almost no influence of the different phasins was observed if phaZ1 was coexpressed. This study represents an extensive analysis of the impact of PHB depolymerases and phasins on PHB accumulation and provides a deeper insight into the complex interplay

  19. New Insights in PhaM-PhaC-mediated Localization of PHB Granules in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresan, Stephanie; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2017-04-07

    Formation and localization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules in Ralstonia eutropha is controlled by PhaM that interacts both with the PHB synthase (PhaC) and with the bacterial nucleoid. Here, we studied the importance of proline and lysine residues of two C-terminal PAKKA motifs in PhaM for their importance to attach PHB granules to DNA by in vitro and in vivo methods. Substitution of the lysine residues but not of the proline residues resulted in a detachment of formed PHB granules from the nucleoid. Instead, a formation of PHB granule clusters at polar regions of the rod-shaped cells and an unequal distribution of PHB granules to daughter cells was observed. The formation of PHB granules was studied by the expression of chromosomally anchored gene fusions of fluorescent proteins with PhaM and PhaC in different backgrounds. PhaM and PhaC fusions showed a distinct co-localization at formed PHB granules in the nucleoid region of the wild type. In a ΔphaC background, PhaM and the catalytically inactive PhaC(C319A) proteins were not able to form fluorescent foci indicating that correct positioning requires the formation of PHB. Furthermore, time-lapse experiments revealed that PhaC and PhaM proteins detach at later stages from formed PHB granules resulting in an inhomogeneous population of PHB granules. This could explain why growth of individual PHB granules stops under PHB permissive conditions at a certain size.Importance PHB granules are storage compounds for carbon and energy in many prokaryotes. Equal distribution of accumulated PHB granules during cell division is therefore important for optimal fitness of the daughter cells. In R. eutropha, PhaM is responsible for maximal activity of PHB synthase, for initiation of PHB granule formation at discrete regions in the cells and for association of formed PHB granules to the nucleoid. Here we found out that four lysine residues of C-terminal PhaM sequence motifs are essential for association of PHB granules to

  20. Field research concerning contra-flow as a measure for massive evacuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S.; Brookhuis, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study concerns a practice test that aimed at investigating to what extent contra flow or reverse laning (Dutch: tegenverkeer) works well in the Netherlands and how participating car drivers evaluate it. Reverse laning may be a solution for a capacity problem in case all lanes of roads ar

  1. Aspectos relevantes del uso de Mycobacterium´habana´ como candidato vacunal contra la tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Valdés

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La eficacia protectora de la actual vacuna (BCG contra la tuberculosis, para contrarrestar las formas pulmonares de esta enfermedad y su reactivación, resulta variable o poco eficiente, lo cual impone la búsqueda urgente de nuevas alternativas profilácticas contra esta enfermedad. Basados en las ventajas inmunogénicas que ofrece el uso de vacunas vivas, se han encaminado diferentes estrategias de este tipo empleando mutantes auxotróficos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis , BCG recombinante o micobacterias no tuberculosas. Existen evidencias experimentales acerca de la protección conferida tras la vacunación con cepas vivas, inactivadas o fracciones proteicas de Mycobacterium'habana' TMC-5135 contra la infección por Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Esta respuesta protectora parece ir aparejada de escasos signos de virulencia en los modelos animales ensayados, lo cual coloca a M.´habana´ dentro de los posibles candidatos vacunales contra la tuberculosis al ajustarse a la condición que impone una vacuna clásica de reproducir la infección y los eventos inmunes que le suceden lo más fielmente posible a como ocurren de manera natural, sin causar extensos daños en el receptor.

  2. 75 FR 13301 - Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Los Vaqueros Reservoir Expansion, Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, CA AGENCY... Register on February 20, 2009 (74 FR 7922). The written comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended on April... Area, the central and south Delta, and service areas of San Francisco Bay Area water agencies....

  3. Una oportunidad para la lucha contra la pobreza y la exclusión social

    OpenAIRE

    Allende Robredo, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Análisis de las actuaciones de la UE ante la pobreza y la exclusión social y propuestas de la Red Europea contra la Pobreza y la Exclusión Social Analysis of EU actions against poverty and social exclusion and new proposals from European Network against Poverty and Social Exclusion

  4. Representações sociais da violência contra a mulher na perspectiva da enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Cezar Leal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A violência contra a mulher constitui grave problema de Saúde Pública; ocorre no mundo inteiro em todas as classes sociais. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer as representações sociais da violência contra a mulher na perspectiva de enfermeiras alunas de uma Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Lisboa/Portugal. Realizou-se pesquisa exploratória com respaldo das representações sociais, da qual participaram cento e cinquenta enfermeiras, sendo os dados coletados por meio de questionário. Para análise, utilizou-se o software DataVic 4.3. Resultados apontam que as representações sociais da violência contra a mulher estão restritas ao universo consensual pelo qual são produzidas, constituído, sobretudo, pela conversação informal e pela vida cotidiana. Apontam, também, que a violência não é entendida como um problema de saúde. Considera-se que o embasamento teórico sobre o tema e o envolvimento institucional dos Serviços de Saúde contribuirão para a inserção da violência contra a mulher na agenda da Saúde Pública.

  5. La imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Sánchez Patrón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La ratificación del Convenio sobre la imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes de guerra y de los crímenes de lesa humanidad por parte de Uruguay, constituye un primer paso dirigido a limitar la impunidad de los partícipes en la comisión de estas infracciones internacionales. Para la consecución de esta misma finalidad, el Estado Uruguayo ha dado un segundo paso, consistente en la ratificación del Estatuto de la Corte Penal Internacional, lo que ha llevado a efecto casi un año después del anterior. Ambas decisiones demuestran la intención de Uruguay de comprometerse Internacionalmente con el fin de evitar la impunidad de los responsables de la comisión de determinadas figuras delictivas, especialmente los crímenes de guerra y los crímenes contra la humanidad, ya que en tomo a estas dos infracciones internacionales gravitan los convenios internacionales a los que nos acabamos de referir.Contenido: imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el pasado. Imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el presente. Imprescriptibilidad de los crímenes contra la humanidad en el futuro. Conclusiones

  6. Violência contra o professor nas representações sociais de docentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Beltrão Soares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-795X.2014v32n1p333 Este artigo analisa as representações sociais de violência contra o professor no espaço de escolas públicas e privadas da Região Metropolitana do Recife, enfatizando as formas ou tipos de violência que afetam esse grupo profissional e o modo como os docentes lidam com o fenômeno. Tomou-se como referencial a Teoria das Representações Sociais, de Serge Moscovici, especialmente a Teoria do Núcleo Central, idealizada por Jean-Claude Abric. Participaram desta etapa da investigação 20 professores, sendo 10 de escolas públicas estaduais e 10 de escolas privadas. Foram realizadas entrevistas com esses professores através de pranchas indutoras, o material foi tratado a partir da Análise de Conteúdo. Os resultados do estudo indicam a dimensão prática das representações desses professores, ou seja, o modo como lidam com a violência contra si no interior da escola e sala de aula, expresso através das origens da violência contra o professor, das manifestações da violência contra ele e das atitudes de enfrentamento diante do fenômeno.

  7. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates myeloid derived suppressor cell differentiation from M2 to M1 type, which mediates inhibition of tumour immune-evasion via the Toll-like receptor 2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, WenWei; Gong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and play a critical negative role during tumor immunotherapy. Strategies for inhibition of MDSCs are expected to improve cancer immunotherapy. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill (pAbM) has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism of this is poorly understood. Here, pAbM directly activated the purified MDSCs through inducing the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD86, MHC II, and pSTAT1 of it, and only affected natural killer and T cells in the presence of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) monocytic MDSCs. On further analysis, we demonstrated that pAbM could selectively block the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signal of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs and increased their M1-type macrophage characteristics, such as producing IL-12, lowering expression of Arginase 1 and increasing expression of iNOS. Extensive study showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs by pAbM treatment had less ability to convert the CD4(+) CD25(-) cells into CD4(+) CD25(+) phenotype. Moreover, result from selective depletion of specific cell populations in xenograft mice model suggested that the anti-tumour effect of pAbM was dependent on Gr-1(+ ) CD11b(+) monocytes, nether CD8(+) T cells nor CD4(+) T cells. In addition to, pAbM did not inhibit tumour growth in TLR2(-/-) mice. All together, these results suggested that pAbM, a natural product commonly used for cancer treatment, was a specific TLR2 agonist and had potent anti-tumour effects through the opposite of the suppressive function of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs.

  8. Detection and Evaluation on Levels of Heavy Metals in Brazilian Mushroom (Agaricus blazei) in Funan, Anhui Province%安徽阜南巴西菇重金属含量的检测和评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炎炘; 李能树; 王彩云; 彭玲芳

    2015-01-01

    为摸清安徽阜南县生产巴西菇(Agaricus blazei)的食用安全性,对其菌盖和菌柄样品中汞、砷、镉、铬的含量进行了检测.发现菌盖重金属含量分别为汞0.019 mg·kg-1、砷0.414 mg· kg-1、镉0.022 mg·kg-1、铬1.246mg· kg-1;菌柄重金属含量分别为汞0.043 mg·kg-1、砷0.402 mg·kg-1、镉0.226 mg· kg-1、铬1.501 mg·kg-1.与国家标准比对结果表明:菌盖和菌柄内汞、砷、镉含量没有超标,而菌柄中铬的单因素污染指数为1.001.通过单因子污染指数法对巴西菇的重金属污染状况进行评价,确认样品菌盖、菌柄中汞、砷、镉的污染等级属非污染,菌柄中铬污染为轻微污染.

  9. Diazinon degradation by a novel strain Ralstonia sp. DI-3 and X-ray crystal structure determination of the metabolite of diazinon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GUANGLI WANG; YUAN LIU

    2016-09-01

    Diazinon is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide often detected in the environment. A highly effectivediazinon-degrading Ralstonia sp. strain DI-3 was isolated from agricultural soil. Strain DI-3 can utilize dimethoateas its sole carbon source for growth and degrade an initial concentration of 100 mg·L^{−1} diazinon to non-detectablelevels within 60 h in liquid culture. A small amount of second carbon source as co-substrate could slightly enhance thebiodegradation of diazinon. In addition, a less toxic metabolic intermediate formed during the degradation of diazinonmediated by strain DI-3 was purified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and identified based on single-crystal Xraydiffraction analysis, allowing a degradation pathway for diazinon by pure culture to be proposed. Finally, this isthe first providing authentic evidence to describe the metabolite.

  10. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinskey, Anthony J. [MIT; Worden, Robert Mark [Michigan State University MSU; Brigham, Christopher [MIT; Lu, Jingnan [MIT; Quimby, John Westlake [MIT; Gai, Claudia [MIT; Speth, Daan [MIT; Elliott, Sean [Boston University; Fei, John Qiang [MIT; Bernardi, Amanda [MIT; Li, Sophia [MIT; Grunwald, Stephan [MIT; Grousseau, Estelle [MIT; Maiti, Soumen [MSU; Liu, Chole [MSU

    2013-12-16

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide

  11. The Effect of Fluorescent Pseudomonads Application on the Resistance of Chili Plants Against the Attack of Ralstonia Solanacearum and Fusarium Oxysporum in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuryandari Yenny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chili (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the vegetable commodities with high economic value. Until now, the necessity rate of chili is still high but the production is still low. One of the obstacles, which highly influence chili production, is wilt disease due to Ralstonia solanacearum and Fusarium oxysporum. This study aims at identifying the best fluorescent pseudomonads isolate in suppressing the development of the primary wilt disease due to Ralstonia solanacearum and F. oxysprorum in the field. This study employs Completely Randomized Design that comprises 3 treatments. The three treatments are the type of fluorescent pseudomonads which is Pf-122 isolate, Pf-160 isolate, and Pf-B isolate. The observation parameter on suppressing the disease development is perceived from incubation period of the initial appearance of symptoms, disease index and the change of stem tissue color. The result of the study shows that the longest incubation period is treatment with fluorescent pseudomonads of Pf-122 isolate and Pf-160 isolate. The chili is treated with fluorescent pseudomonads of Pf-122 isolate and Pf-160 isolate, the initial appearance of symptoms at the 8th day after inoculation. In the treatment with fluorescent pseudomonads of Pf-122 isolate and Pf-160 isolate compared to control, is able to delay the appearance of symptom for 3 days. The disease development starts from 10th to 30th day, the treatment with Pf-122 isolate shows the slowest development compared to other treatment and control. In the last observation, the disease index with treatment of Pf-122 isolate is the lowest which is 37%, then it is followed by Pf-B and Pf-160 which are 39% and 40% respectively, whereas in the control it reaches 67%. For the color change on stem tissue, there is no real difference of the three treatments of fluorescent pseudomonads application but it differs and smaller from the control.

  12. Eletromiografia do bíceps braquial em contrações dinâmicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucenildo Silva Cerqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A reprodutibilidade da atividade eletromiográfica de superfície (EMG é mais estudada em protocolos que envolvem contrações isométricas. Alguns fatores relacionados às contrações dinâmicas podem contribuir para a instabilidade do sinal mioelétrico e dificultar a reprodutibilidade da medida da EMG. OBJETIVO: Determinar a reprodutibilidade teste-reteste e quantificar o erro técnico da medida da frequência mediana (FM e da amplitude (root mean square, RMS da EMG, em contrações dinâmicas e estáticas. MÉTODOS: Dez sujeitos foram testados em dois dias, sendo a atividade EMG registrada na maior porção do bíceps braquial. No primeiro dia foi feito o teste de uma repetição máxima (1RM e de contração voluntária máxima (CVM. No segundo dia foram realizadas duas séries de 10 contrações dos flexores do cotovelo com 75% de 1RM, entremeadas por 1 h em repouso. Antes de cada série foi realizada uma CVM. RESULTADOS: Para a FM e RMS foi observado alto coeficiente de correlação intraclasse para o sinal do bíceps braquial (CCI = 0,90-0,98 para a FM; CCI = 0,89-0,94 para o RMS e de baixo para moderado coeficiente de variação (CV = 2,5-6,2% para a FM; CV = 14,6-16,3% para o RMS em ambos os testes. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre teste e reteste (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A FM e o RMS apresentam alta confiabilidade e baixo a moderado erro em contrações estáticas e dinâmicas, possibilitando o uso da EMG para investigação da fadiga e de desordens neuromusculares.

  13. La violencia de género contra las mujeres en Yucatán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Janet Paredes Guerrero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los tipos de violencia: doméstica, institucional y feminicida, usando el concepto de “violencia de género contra las mujeres”, en combinación con las dimensiones de la violencia propuestas por Johan Galtung: interpersonal, estructural y cultural/simbólica, para demostrar que la violencia de género contra las mujeres en el estado de Yucatán, México, se ejerce no sólo en el hogar, sino también en las instituciones y en las representaciones colectivas, espacios en los que todavía se concibe a la mujer como un símbolo objeto, lo cual condiciona la aparición de conductas de violencia extrema que potencialmente desembocan en feminicidio.

  14. Digital database of microfossil localities in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Kristin; Block, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The eastern San Francisco Bay region (Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, California) is a geologically complex area divided by faults into a suite of tectonic blocks. Each block contains a unique stratigraphic sequence of Tertiary sediments that in most blocks unconformably overlie Mesozoic sediments. Age and environmental interpretations based on analysis of microfossil assemblages are key factors in interpreting geologic history, structure, and correlation of each block. Much of this data, however, is distributed in unpublished internal reports and memos, and is generally unavailable to the geologic community. In this report the U.S. Geological Survey microfossil data from the Tertiary sediments of Alameda and Contra Costa counties are analyzed and presented in a digital database, which provides a user-friendly summary of the micropaleontologic data, locality information, and biostratigraphic and ecologic interpretations.

  15. La violencia contra la mujer y los derechos sexuales y reproductivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Bermúdez Valdivia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo formula algunas reflexiones en torno a las intersecciones que existen entre la violencia contra la mujer y los derechos sexuales y reproductivos, desde un enfoque de derechos humanos. A tal efecto, analiza tres manifestaciones de violencia contra la mujer: la violencia sexual en el matrimonio, prácticas compulsivas de control reproductivo y la violación sexual como crimen de lesa humanidad. Todas ellas, implican una vulneración directa de sus derechos sexuales y reproductivos y proponen algunas experiencias positivas que pueden servir de pauta orientadora para el diseño de políticas públicas sobre la materia.

  16. La guerra contra el narcotráfico: ¿una guerra perdida?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Pérez Lara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre los problemas derivados del narcotráfico en México, por lo que se realiza un estudio de los resultados que ha tenido la guerra frontal emprendida por el presidente Calderón con base en datos proporcionados por instancias oficiales, como la Procuraduría General de la República, y organizaciones civiles, como México Unido Contra la Delincuencia, y en datos internacionales proporcionados por el Índice de Incidencia Delictiva. Todo ello con el propósito de analizar tanto los avances obtenidos contra el narcotráfico como la percepción ciudadana de la eficacia de la estrategia implementada.

  17. Perspectiva psicosocial en adolescentes acusados por delitos contra la salud y robo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Salazar Estrada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro objetivo en este estudio es identificar condiciones de vida de los sujetos adolescentes acusados de cometer delitos contra la salud y robo, desde una perspectiva psicosocial. Se estudiaron un total de 122 expedientes, de los cuales el 50% son acusados y acusadas por delitos contra la salud, y el otro 50% por robo; el 70% de los hombres y el 68.2% de las mujeres han consumido un tipo drogas, un 66 % del total de la muestra presentó poca tolerancia a la frustración, el 60 % tiene un manejo inadecuado de la afectividad, con una diferencia significativa cuando se estudia por tipo de delito. Entre las diferencias encontradas, las condiciones psicológicas como la personalidad, están más asociadas a la delincuencia juvenil.

  18. Ciberativismo: a guerra da WikiLeaks contra os segredos de Estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Ferreira da Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1806-5023.2012v9n1p90 Resenha do livro WikiLeaks: a guerra de Julian Assange contra os Segredos de Estado (Editora Verus, 2011, 336 p., no qual os repórteres investigativos do The Guardian, David Leigh e Luke Harding, contam os bastidores do maior vazamento da história, que revelou ao mundo detalhes obscuros da diplomacia mundial e das guerras do Afeganistão e do Iraque. A partir da análise do livro-reportagem sobre a organização WikliLeaks, pretendemos refletir sobre os mecanismos de resistência e atuação contra-hegemônica no contexto das redes abertas pelas tecnologias digitais.

  19. Movilización social contra la violencia política: sus determinantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Sabucedo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis de las principales causas de la movilización social que se llevó a cabo en España en julio de 1997 como protesta contra el acto criminal cometido por ETA contra Miguel Ángel Blanco, un concejal del Partido Popular. La movilización social se basó en dos elementos: las creencias previas que deslegitimaban la violencia y apelaban a la movilización ciudadana, y el papel de los medios masivos de comunicación y otros agentes sociales que convirtieron el acto criminal en un tema de gran significación cognitiva para los ciudadanos.

  20. Análisis de un movimiento social femenino contra el hambre y la miseria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alejandra Navarro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretendió analizar la emergencia de un movimiento social femenino de defensa contra el hambre y la miseria a través de diferentes conceptos teóricos, particularmente tomados de autores como De Ipola, Jelin y Evers. El eje central del ensayo es la acción colectiva de un grupo de mujeres que abrieron un comedor comunitario para satisfacer las necesidades básicas alimentarias del barrio.

  1. Performance Test and Flow Measurement of Contra-Rotating Axial Flow Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akinori Furukawa; Toru Shigemitsu; Satoshi Watanabe

    2007-01-01

    An application of contra-rotating rotors has been proposed against a demand for developing higher specific speed axial flow pump. In the present paper, the advantage and disadvantage of using contra-rotating rotors are described in comparison with conventional type of rotor-stator, based on theoretical and experimental investigations. The advantages are as follows: (1) The pump is inherently designed as smaller sized and at lower rotational speed. (2) A stable head-characteristic curve for flow rate with negative slope appears. (3)As the rear rotor rotational speed is varied as independent control of front rotor, the wider range of high performance operation is obtained by rear rotor speed control in addition to front rotor speed control. The disadvantages are as follows: (1) The structure of double shaft system becomes complex. (2) The pump performance is inferior at over flow rate as the rear rotor loading is weakened. (3) The blade rows interaction from rear rotor to front rotor more strongly appears. Then the rear rotor design is a key to achieve higher pump performance. Some methods to overcome these disadvantages will be discussed in more details toward wider usage of contra-rotating axial flow pump in various industrial fields.

  2. Effect of the Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSanTM, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Crohn's Disease in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Palm Therkelsen

    Full Text Available Ingestion of AndoSanTM, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously shown an anti-inflammatory effect through reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with Crohn's disease (CD. In this randomized single-blinded placebo-controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSanTM also resulted in clinical effects.50 patients with symptomatic CD were randomized for oral daily consumption of AndoSanTM or placebo for a 21-day experimental period, in this per-protocol study. Patients reported validated scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSanTM group (n = 25 symptoms improved from baseline (day 0 to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI of 5.52 (4.64-6.40, 4.48 (3.69-5.27 and 4.08 (3.22-4.94 (p<0,001. We found significant improvements in symptom score for both genders in the AndoSanTM group, and no significant changes in the placebo (n = 25 group. There were however no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.106, although a marginal effect in symptom score for men (p = 0.054. There were comparable improvements in physical, mental and total fatigue for both groups. HRQoL versus baseline were at day 21 improved for bodily pain and vitality in the AndoSanTM group and for vitality and social functioning in the placebo group. No crucial changes in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin were detected.The results from this single-blinded randomized clinical trial shows significant improvement on symptoms, for both genders, in the AndoSanTM group, but no significant differences between the study groups. The results on fatigue, HRQoL, fecal calprotectin and blood samples were quite similar compared with placebo. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSanTM. CD patients with mild to moderate symptoms may have beneficiary

  3. Effect of a Medicinal Agaricus blazei Murill-Based Mushroom Extract, AndoSan™, on Symptoms, Fatigue and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in a Randomized Single-Blinded Placebo Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Palm Therkelsen

    Full Text Available Ingestion of AndoSan™, based on the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill, has previously been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects because of reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in healthy individuals and patients with ulcerative colitis. In this randomized single-blinded placebo controlled study we examined whether intake of AndoSan™ also resulted in clinical effects.50 patients with symptomatic ulcerative colitis were block-randomized and blinded for oral daily intake of AndoSan™ or placebo for the 21 days' experimental period. The patients reported scores for symptoms, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQoL at days 0, 14 and 21. Fecal calprotectin and general blood parameters were also analyzed. In the AndoSan™ group (n = 24 symptoms improved from baseline (day 0 to days 14 and 21, with respective mean scores (95% CI of 5.88 (4.92-6.83, 4.71 (3.90-5.52 (p = 0.002 and 4.50 (3.70-5.30 (p = 0.001. Corresponding improved mean scores (±SD for total fatigue were 16.6 (5.59, 14.1 (4.50 (p = 0.001 and 15.1 (4.09 (p = 0.023. These scores in the placebo group (n = 26 were not improved. When comparing the two study groups using mixed model statistics, we found significant better scores for the AndoSan™-patients. HRQoL for dimensions bodily pain, vitality, social functioning and mental health improved in the AndoSan™ group. There were no alterations in general blood samples and fecal calprotectin.Beneficiary effects on symptoms, fatigue and HRQoL from AndoSan™ consumption were demonstrated in this per-protocol study, supporting its use as a supplement to conventional medication for patients with mild to moderate symptoms from ulcerative colitis. The patients did not report any harms or unintended effects of AndoSan™ in this study.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01496053.

  4. Violência contra os idosos: análise documental Violencia contra los ancianos: análisis documental Violence against the aged: documental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacy Aurélia Vieira de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os dados de violência e maus-tratos contra os idosos por meio de documentos oficiais, em Fortaleza-CE. Estudo retrospectivo, documental realizada em uma instituição de referência do Ceará, oficializada em denúncias de violência contra idosos. A coleta de dados ocorreu no primeiro semestre de 2005. Dos 424 documentos analisados, 284(67% identificou-se como abandono dos idosos. Quanto ao agressor, 207(49% era filho da vítima. Dentre os casos de violências, 161 (38% foi negligência, seguido por apropriação indébita de aposentadoria, 114 (27%; agressão verbal, 79(19% e física 68(16%. Tais eventos foram registrados por meio de denúncias, principalmente, ao serviço Alô-Idoso, 306(77%. Pôde-se verificar a importância de serviços voltados para essa questão, porém torna-se fundamental que políticas públicas enfoquem o papel social do idoso e privilegiem o cuidado e a proteção dessa parcela populacional em suas famílias e instituições.Lo estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar los datos sobre violencia contra los ancianos en la contexto familiar. Se realizó un estudio documental retrospectivo en una institución de referencia de Ceará, con oficialización en reclamaciones de violencia contra los ancianos. Se coletaron los datos en enero a julio de 2005. Se compilaron 424 datos. Se constató que 284 (67%, caso de violencia ocurrieron a los ancianos de sexo femenino. Con relación a los agresores, 207 (49%, eran hijos de las víctimas. Entre los tipos de violencia, 161(38% son negligencia, 114 (27%, la apropiación indebida de lo jubilación; la agresión verbal, 79 (19%, y la agresión físico, 68 (16%. Se ha podido identificar la importancia de servicio a cerca de la cuestión, no obstante, se resulta fundamental que políticas públicas de ese porcentaje de la población proyecten la función social del anciano, a sí convalorar el cuidado y la protección de ese porcentaje poblacional en sus

  5. Evaluación y evidencia para la vacunación contra rotavirus y vacunación contra Streptococcus pneumonia en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Morales Vargas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron y compararon dos posibles intervenciones en salud pública para ser aplicadas en Costa Rica: a vacunación contra el rotavirus y b vacunación contra el Streptococcus pneumonia. Se utilizó la técnica de revisión de la literatura impresa y electrónica usando como marco de referencia para la evaluación las recomendaciones de la International Network of Agencies of Health Care Technology Assessment -(INHATA y las recomendaciones de la OPS/OMS sobre evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias para países en desarrollo. Se utilizaron los criterios de seguridad, eficacia, efectividad, utilidad y costo-beneficio de ambas intervenciones, así como su impacto organizacional, ético y social. Se escogieron como grupos en riesgo las personas menores de 5 años y los mayores de 65 años. Se emplearon datos económicos publicados por otros autores sobre costos sanitarios y los precios de mercado para las vacunas. Considerando los aspectos anteriores, así como la calidad y amplitud de la literatura sobre ambas intervenciones, se concluye que la intervención contra el rotavirus podría ser una intervención de mayor impacto en cuanto a número de casos evitables en Costa Rica, por lo que se recomienda realizar estudios nacionales de Fase III para evaluar su efectividad. Si bien la intervención contra el Streptococcus pneumonia (C/B =2,4 es una intervención más favorable económicamente que la del rotavirus (C/B =2,7 en términos de costo/beneficio en el mediano y largo plazo, esta conclusión se revertiría si sólo se consideran los costos anuales luego del primer año. Resultados de la evaluación global, utilizando los criterios anteriores, propuesta por el autor, favorece la intervención ante el rotavirus.Two posible health interventions were evaluated and compared for application in Costa Rica: a vaccination against Rotavirus, and b vaccination against Streptococcus pneumonia. Analysis of existing printed and electronic literature was

  6. Reforma ou contra-reforma na proteção social à saúde Reform or contra-reform in health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Elias

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Discutem-se as mudanças no sistema de saúde brasileiro em período recente da ótica das políticas sociais. A partir do enunciado da exclusão social como questão central a ser enfrentada pelas políticas sociais e da noção de contra-reforma em oposição à reforma virtuosa e necessária do Estado, analisam-se as políticas de saúde, privilegiando a denominada Reforma Sanitária e a implementação do SUS. O artigo sustenta a exigência de se promover a articulação das reformas do sistema de saúde com as políticas econômicas de modo a apontar para um novo padrão de desenvolvimento, com sólidas bases sociais e orientado ética e politicamente para a inclusão.Changes in the Brazilian health system are discussed from the point of view of social policies. Taking social exclusion as the central question to be faced by social policies and contra-reform as the opposite of the virtuous and necessary reform of the State, the article analyzes Brazilian health policies, chiefly regarding the so-called Sanitary Reform and the National Health Service (SUS. It is argued that the articulation between the reforms of the health system and economic policies should be promoted having in view a new development pattern, with strong social foundations and ethically and politically oriented towards social inclusion.

  7. Toxicity test of four fungicides againstRalstonia solanacearum%四种杀菌剂对烟草青枯病菌的毒力比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄保宏; 高正良; 周本国; 陈方旭; 许大凤; 王芳

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of four fungicides againstRalstonia solanacearumwas measured by improved inhibition zone method in order to find which fungicide boasted the best inhibitory effect. Results indicated that inhibition rates gradually rose with the increase of concentration. Inhibition rates of Qingkuling, Agricultural streptomycin sulfate and Zhongshenguycin reached 94.3%, 89.1% and 84.4% in 72 h under the concentration of 1450, 310 and 700 mg·L-1, respectively. The inhibition rate of Xinjunan acetate was as high as 78.1% in 48 h. The toxicity level of four fungicides was in the following order: Agricultural streptomycin sulfate>Xinjunan acetate>Qingkuling>Zhongshenguycin. The toxicity of Agricultural streptomycin sulfate and Xinjunan acetate was higher than that of Qingkuling and Zhongshenguycin. The EC50 of Agricultural streptomycin sulfate and Xinjunan acetate was 274.57 ug·L-1 and 148.25 ug·L-1, respectively. It was concluded that Agricultural streptomycin sulfate and Xinjunan acetate were ideal fungicides for prevention ofRalstonia solanacearum.%为筛选对烟草青枯病菌更具抑菌作用的杀菌剂,采用“改良抑菌圈法”测定了4种杀菌剂对烟草青枯病菌的毒力。结果表明:4种杀菌剂抑菌率随浓度提高,青枯灵、农用硫酸链霉素和克菌康在1450.0、310.0和700.0 mg·L-1浓度下,72 h时抑菌率分别达到94.3%、89.1%和84.4%,辛菌胺醋酸盐的抑菌率在48 h时达到最高78.1%。4种药剂对烟草青枯病菌的毒力大小依次为农用硫酸链霉素>辛菌胺醋酸盐>青枯灵>克菌康,前两者EC50分别为274.57 mg·L-1和148.25 mg·L-1。表明辛菌胺醋酸盐和农用硫酸链霉素是防控烟草青枯病较为理想的杀菌剂。

  8. O que o reumatologista deve saber sobre a vacina contra febre amarela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Vanderley Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Os pacientes portadores de doenças reumáticas são mais suscetíveis à infecção, quer seja pela própria doença de base ou pelo tratamento empregado. É papel do reumatologista prevenir as infecções nesse grupo de pacientes e, dentre as estratégias empregadas, encontra-se a vacinação. No grupo das doenças infecciosas que podem ser prevenidas está a febre amarela. Sua vacina é segura e eficaz na população em geral, mas, assim como as vacinas contendo organismos vivos atenuados, deve ser evitada sempre que possível em portadores de doenças reumáticas em uso de medicamentos imunossupressores. Sendo a febre amarela endêmica em grande parte do Brasil, e estando a vacinação contra essa doença indicada para a população residente em extensa parte do território nacional (além dos viajantes para essas regiões, torna-se essencial que o reumatologista tenha conhecimento da doença, das indicações e contraindicações da vacina contra a febre amarela. Nosso artigo tem o objetivo de destacar os principais aspectos que o reumatologista precisa conhecer sobre a vacina contra a febre amarela, para decidir por sua indicação ou contraindicação após avaliação do risco-benefício em situações específicas.

  9. Asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Elorriaga Guadalupe de los A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Precisar si existe asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado en la Unidad de Investigación en Inmunología e Infectología -Hospital de Infectología del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza (CMNR- y en el Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular y Asistencia Circulatoria, del Hospital General del CMNR, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, de agosto de 1998 a abril de 2000. Se determinaron anticuerpos IgG e IgM contra C. psittaci, C. trachomatis y C. pneumoniae mediante microinmunofluorescencia, en suero de 70 pacientes con ECV hospitalizados en el CMNR, mayores de 30 años, de uno u otro sexo, y se compararon con 140 sanos, pareados por edad y sexo. Se utilizaron muestras aleatorias simples, con un tamaño poblacional de 110, una prevalencia de 50% y un nivel de confianza de 99%. Para establecer la diferencia entre las proporciones de los títulos se utilizó ji cuadrada y se calculó la razón de momios. Resultados. El 94.3% (66/70 de los pacientes presentó IgG en contra de C. pneumoniae vs 37% (52/140 de los individuos sanos (p<0.001. Conclusiones. Existe una fuerte asociación entre anticuerpos IgG hacia C. pneumoniae y ECV.

  10. Is seeking bad mood cognitively demanding? Contra-hedonic orientation and working-memory capacity in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Schmiedek, Florian; Wagner, Gert G; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-06-01

    Hedonism, or wanting to feel good, is central to human motivation. At times, however, people also seek to maintain or enhance negative affect or to dampen positive affect, and this can be instrumental for the later attainment of their goals. Here, we investigate the assumption that such contra-hedonic orientation is cognitively more demanding than prohedonic orientation, above and beyond the effects of momentary affective experience. We provided 378 participants with mobile phones that they carried with them for 3 weeks while pursuing their daily routines. The phones prompted participants at least 54 times to report their current affect-regulation orientation and to work on two trials of a cognitively demanding working memory task. As expected, contra-hedonic orientation was substantially less prevalent than prohedonic orientation. It was reported in 15% of the measurement occasions. Participants who reported on average more contra-hedonic orientation showed lower average working memory performance throughout the study interval. Further, controlling for the effects of accompanying affective experiences, momentary occurrences of contra-hedonic orientation were associated with temporary declines in working memory performance within individuals, and this could neither be explained by lacking task compliance nor by other characteristics of the individual or the situation. Prohedonic orientation showed a considerably smaller association with working memory performance. These findings are consistent with the view that contra-hedonic orientation is accompanied by momentarily more diminished cognitive resources than is prohedonic orientation.

  11. Ambassadors for the Kingdom of God or for America? Christian Nationalism, the Christian Right, and the Contra War

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    Lauren Frances Turek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses the concept of Christian nationalism to explore the religious dynamics of the Contra war and U.S.–Nicaraguan relations during Ronald Reagan’s presidency. Religious organizations and individuals played crucial roles on both sides in the war in Nicaragua and in the debates in the United States over support for the Contras. Evangelistic work strengthened transnational ties between Christians, but also raised the stakes of the war; supporters of the Sandinistas and Contras alike alleged a victory by their adversary imperiled the future of Christianity in Nicaragua. Christian nationalism thus manifested itself and intertwined in both the United States and Nicaragua. Examining how evangelicals and Catholics in the United States and Nicaragua, as well as the Reagan administration, the Contras, and the Sandinistas, used Christian nationalism to build support for their policy objectives sheds light on both the malleability and the power of identifying faith with the state. Having assessed Christian nationalism as a tool and a locus of conflict in the Contra war, the essay then steps back and considers the larger methodological implications of using Christian nationalism as a category of analysis in U.S. foreign relations history.

  12. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus Vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Jiménez, Eva; Larraga, Vicente; Esteban, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis. Los vectores de la invención contienen secuencias codificantes de la proteína LACK, preferentemente insertadas en el locus de hemaglutinina del virus y bajo el control de un promotor que permite su expresión a lo largo del ciclo de infección del virus. Son vectores seguros, estables, que dan lugar a una potente respuesta inmune que confiere protección frente a la leishmaniasis,...

  13. Factores de empoderamiento y protección de las mujeres contra la violencia

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Casique

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza la relevancia de la disponibilidad de recursos económicos, sociales y educativos en la definición de los niveles de poder de decisión de las mexicanas en el hogar. También explora la vinculación entre la posesión de estos recursos y el riesgo de violencia de pareja contra la mujer. El análisis se basa en información proveniente de la Hendiré 2003.

  14. Nordic Walking, modalidad terapéutica contra la fatiga relativa al cáncer

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina González Castro

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia de que el ejercicio físico puede mejorar los síntomas de los pacientes y supervivientes de cáncer y en especial la fatiga relativa al cáncer (FRC). El Nordic Walking (NW) es una novedosa forma de ejercicio físico que presenta ventajas fisiológicas y psicológicas significativas respecto de la marcha normal. Este artículo propone el NW como tratamiento terapéutico alternativo contra la FRC. 

  15. Asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    García-Elorriaga Guadalupe de los A; Calderón-Abbo Moisés; González-Bonilla César R

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo. Precisar si existe asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado en la Unidad de Investigación en Inmunología e Infectología -Hospital de Infectología del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza (CMNR)- y en el Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular y Asistencia Circulatoria, del Hospital General del CMNR, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), de agosto de 1998 a abril de 2000. Se d...

  16. Descolonizando las noticias. Un acercamiento a las narrativas de la violencia contra las mujeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fundamental de este artículo es compartir una reflexión teórica y metodológica acerca de las narrativas mediáticas de la violencia contra las mujeres desde una perspectiva feminista descolonial. Este documento es el resultado del diálogo entre el trabajo empírico en el análisis de noticias y las corrientes teóricas que articulan feminismo y comunicación.

  17. Comunicado de la Plataforma contra el Préstamo de Pago. Mayo de 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Lagarde, Micol

    2008-01-01

    El Día del Libro de 2007, la Plataforma contra el Préstamo de Pago en Bibliotecas decidió iniciar una campaña de recogida de firmas para que las personas que rechazaron el pago de un canon por el préstamo de libros en bibliotecas pudieron pedir a la Unión Europea la derogación de la Directiva 2006/115/CE (antes Directiva 92/100/CEE), que regula dicho canon.

  18. La violencia conyugal contra las mujeres en la ciudad de Pasto, 1890-1936

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Tapia de Villota, Martha Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Con las nuevas formas de hacer historia, se aborda el estudio del maltrato conyugal en contra de la mujer, con el único anhelo de contribuir al desarrollo social y cultural, pero fundamentalmente con el anhelo de hacer conocer aquella historia oculta de un grupo de la población tradicionalmente discriminado historia que hace poco ha empezado a escribirse por cuanto no se permitía y en ocasiones era intransigente. El escribir sobre este tema permite conocer como se desarrollaba la sociedad en ...

  19. El laberinto de las sombras: desaparecer en el marco de la guerra contra las drogas

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Robledo Silvestre

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se propone un análisis de la desaparición de personas como un hecho sociohistórico que se ha transformado sustancialmente en las últimas dos décadas en México, tanto en la práctica como en el discurso, con el paso de un contexto de guerra sucia a un contexto de guerra contra las drogas. Las desapariciones, que antes se explicaban bajo el marco de la represión política, hoy ofrecen contornos menos claros sobre motivos y actores asociados al fenómeno. Este documento es fruto de...

  20. Terapia génica con citocinas contra cáncer cervicouterino

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Hugo Bermúdez-Morales; Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza; Vicente Madrid-Marina

    2005-01-01

    La terapia génica es una excelente alternativa para el tratamiento de muchas enfermedades. La capacidad para manipular el DNA ha permitido dirigir la terapia génica para corregir la función de un gen alterado, aumentar la expresión de un gen o activar la respuesta inmune. Así, se puede proponer el uso del DNA como un medicamento capaz de controlar, corregir o curar una enfermedad. La terapia génica contra cáncer tiene un potencial enorme, y en la última década se han obtenido resultados muy a...

  1. El pronunciamiento de Huelva contra el General Espartero y el Sitio de Sevilla de 1843

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    En el verano de 1843 se produjeron en Andalucía pronunciamientos contra la Regencia del general Espartero. En Huelva la Junta Central establecida intentó organizar y dirigir la insurrección. En julio de 1843 Sevilla se prepara para sufrir el asedio del general Van Halen y Huelva acude a ayudar a la capital bombardeada. Más de 600 bombas cayeron sobre la ciudad. Finalmente, se logra el fin de la Regencia y el establecimiento del reinado de Isabel II (1843-1868)...

  2. La contra revolucion imaginaria: novela y film en Mexico (1910-1965)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Sebastiao Guilherme Albano da

    2010-01-01

    COSTA, S. G. A. La contra Revolucion imaginaria: novela y film en Mexico (1910-1965). Revista Mediterranea de Comunicacion, n. 1, p.71-97, 2010. Disponivel em:. Acesso em: 04 nov. 2010. Este estudio busca señalar la tipología discursiva propiciada por la Revolución Mexicana y sus políticas culturales, además de la apropiación de los medios de comunicación de los estímulos que la gesta propuso a otros artes. Aquí se describe algunas constantes narrativas de parte de las novelas y los films ...

  3. Vacunas terapéuticas recombinantes contra el cáncer del cuello uterino

    OpenAIRE

    BERUMEN JAIME; VILLEGAS NICOLÁS

    1997-01-01

    Durante el desarrollo del cáncer cervicouterino se inducen mecanismos para evadir el sistema inmune, como son la disminución de la expresión de moléculas de antígeno mayor de histocompatibilidad I y la secreción de citocinas por las células tumorales. Como consecuencia de ello, la estimulación de linfocitos T citotóxicos (LTC) y cooperadores (TC), de células asesinas naturales (AN) y macrófagos es muy deficiente. Para inducir una respuesta inmune efectiva contra el tumor, se requiere la estim...

  4. La violencia doméstica contra mujeres y niñas

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

    2000-01-01

    Este número del Innocenti Digest afronta el tema de la violencia doméstica, una de las formas de violencia contra mujeres y niñas más difundidas a nivel mundial, aunque suele permanecer relativamente oculta e ignorada. La violencia doméstica es un problema que afecta numerosos campos: la sanidad, la justicia, la economia, la educación, el desarollo y, sobre todo, los derechos humanos. El Digest examina las dimensiones y el carácter universal de la violencia doméstica, como asimismo la repercu...

  5. Rivalidades en las redes de poder de Manila: el golpe contra el gobernador Diego de Salcedo

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    Antoni Picazo Muntaner

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En la segunda mitad del siglo XVII Filipinas vivió un inusitado golpe de mano contra su gobernador y capitán general Diego de Salcedo, el cual fue detenido por la Inquisición de las islas y procesado. Proceso que fue el final de una confrontación como nunca se había vivido entre diferentes redes de poder y que acabó con la intervención de la Corte y la condena unánime de todos los participantes en aquellos acontecimientos. 

  6. La vacunación contra pertussis: Estado actual y perspectivas futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pérez-Bolaños

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La tosferina o pertussis es una enfermedad producida por la bacteria Gram negativa Bordetella pertussis y constituye actualmente un problema de salud a escala mundial, siendo la población infantil la más vulnerable dentro de los grupos de riesgo. Suele ser fatal en niños menores de un año, debido a que la tos paroxística característica bloquea las vías respiratorias, lo cual provoca la asfixia y la muerte. Adicionalmente, se observan eventos adversos o complicaciones serias de la enfermedad tales como neumonías bacterianas secundarias, epilepsias, encefalopatía, apnea e hipertensión pulmonar. En la actualidad se aplican programas extensivos de vacunación contra pertussis en todo el mundo, de modo que la enfermedad está considerada como relativamente bien controlada. Según informes de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, cerca del 82 % de toda la población infantil mundial recibió las tres dosis de la vacuna de pertussis en 2008. La vacunación global contra pertussis en ese año evitó cerca de 687 000 muertes por la enfermedad. Sin embargo, se ha observado que ocurre un resurgimiento de ella a escala mundial, así como una prevalencia en zonas del mundo donde la vacunación es pobre. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo presentar una revisión acerca de los problemas inherentes a la vacunación contra esta enfermedad en el contexto actual de su resurgimiento a escala universal, la forma de enfocarlos y resolverlos, para su aplicación en Cuba en caso necesario. La vacunación contra pertussis necesita de nuevos enfoques dirigidos a la eliminación de un flagelo que afecta primordialmente a la población infantil, que es el futuro de la humanidad. La solución del problema parece ser la búsqueda de nuevas vacunas más eficaces y la extensión de los esquemas de vacunación a la población de adolescentes y adultos que rodean a los infantes, así como a las mujeres en estado de gestación y a los recién nacidos.

  7. MEJORAMIENTO DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE UNA VACUNA OLEOSA CONTRA ESTOMATITIS VESICULAR BIVALENTE

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    El presente estudio calculó diferentes MI (Multiplicidad de Infección) para la producción de cultivos industriales de virus de Estomatitis Vesicular (EV) y evaluó el efecto de la cantidad de glicoproteína G en la inducción de respuesta de anticuerpos neutralizantes contra el virus de EV en cobayos inmunizados con una vacuna oleosa bivalente (Indiana (I) y New Jersey (NJ)). Al establecer el MI más eficiente se logró mejorar la cinética de infección de los cultivos industriales disminuyendo los...

  8. Response of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum to the volatile organic compounds produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Ling, Ning; Yang, Liudong; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-04-22

    It is important to study the response of plant pathogens to the antibiosis traits of biocontrol microbes to design the efficient biocontrol strategies. In this study, we evaluated the role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9 on the growth and virulence traits of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). The VOCs of SQR-9 significantly inhibited the growth of RS on agar medium and in soil. In addition, the VOCs significantly inhibited the motility traits, production of antioxidant enzymes and exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation and tomato root colonization by RS. The strain SQR-9 produced 22 VOCs, but only nine VOCs showed 1-11% antibacterial activity against RS in their corresponding amounts; however, the consortium of all VOCs showed 70% growth inhibition of RS. The proteomics analysis showed that the VOCs of SQR-9 downregulated RS proteins related to the antioxidant activity, virulence, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein folding and translation, while the proteins involved in the ABC transporter system, amino acid synthesis, detoxification of aldehydes and ketones, methylation, protein translation and folding, and energy transfer were upregulated. This study describes the significance and effectiveness of VOCs produced by a biocontrol strain against tomato wilt pathogen.

  9. Ethylene emission and PR protein synthesis in ACC deaminase producing Methylobacterium spp. inoculated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Woojong; Seshadri, Sundaram; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Gillseung; Sa, Tongmin

    2013-06-01

    Bacteria of genus Methylobacterium have been found to promote plant growth and regulate the level of ethylene in crop plants. This work is aimed to test the induction of defense responses in tomato against bacterial wilt by stress ethylene level reduction mediated by the ACC deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse conditions, the disease index value in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated tomato plants was lower than control plants. Plants treated with Methylobacterium sp. challenge inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) showed significantly reduced disease symptoms and lowered ethylene emission under greenhouse condition. The ACC and ACO (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) accumulation in tomato leaves were significantly reduced with Methylobacterium strains inoculation. While ACC oxidase gene expression was found higher in plants treated with R. solanacearum than Methylobacterium sp. treatment, PR proteins related to induced systemic resistance like β-1,3-glucanase, PAL, PO and PPO were increased in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated plants. A significant increase in β-1,3-glucanase and PAL gene expression was found in all the Methylobacterium spp. treatments compared to the R. solanacearum treatment. This study confirms the activity of Methylobacterium sp. in increasing the defense enzymes by modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and suggests the use of methylotrophic bacteria as potential biocontrol agents in tomato cultivation.

  10. Bacillus volatiles adversely affect the physiology and ultra-structure of Ralstonia solanacearum and induce systemic resistance in tobacco against bacterial wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Hafiz Abdul Samad; Gu, Qin; Wu, Huijun; Niu, Yuedi; Huo, Rong; Gao, Xuewen

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by various bacteria have significant potential to enhance plant growth and to control phytopathogens. Six of the most effective antagonistic Bacillus spp. were used in this study against Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsc) TBBS1, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease in tobacco. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and Bacillus artrophaeus LSSC22 had the strongest inhibitory effect against Rsc. Thirteen VOCs produced by FZB42 and 10 by LSSC22 were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Benzaldehyde, 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2 H)-one and 1,3-butadiene significantly inhibited the colony size, cell viability, and motility of pathogens and negatively influenced chemotaxis. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed severe morphological and ultra-structural changes in cells of Rsc. Furthermore, VOCs altered the transcriptional expression level of PhcA (a global virulence regulator), type III secretion system (T3SS), type IV secretion system (T4SS), extracellular polysaccharides and chemotaxis-related genes, which are major contributors to pathogenicity, resulting in decreased wilt disease. The VOCs significantly up-regulated the expression of genes related to wilt resistance and pathogen defense. Over-expression of EDS1 and NPR1 suggest the involvement of SA pathway in induction of systemic resistance. Our findings provide new insights regarding the potential of antibacterial VOCs as a biocontrol tool against bacterial wilt diseases. PMID:28091587

  11. Expression and activity of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle transcriptional regulator CbbR from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in Ralstonia eutropha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza, Mario; Jedlicki, Eugenia; Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S

    2015-08-01

    Autotrophic fixation of carbon dioxide into cellular carbon occurs via several pathways but quantitatively, the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle is the most important. CbbR regulates the expression of the cbb genes involved in CO2 fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle in a number of autotrophic bacteria. A gene potentially encoding CbbR (cbbR(AF)) has been predicted in the genome of the chemolithoautotrophic, extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. However, this microorganism is recalcitrant to genetic manipulation impeding the experimental validation of bioinformatic predictions. Two novel functional assays were devised to advance our understanding of cbbR(AF) function using the mutated facultative autotroph Ralstonia eutropha H14 ΔcbbR as a surrogate host to test gene function: (i) cbbR(AF) was expressed in R. eutropha and was able to complement ΔcbbR; and (ii) CbbR(AF) was able to regulate the in vivo activity of four A. ferrooxidans cbb operon promoters in R. eutropha. These results open up the use of R. eutropha as a surrogate host to explore cbbR(AF) activity.

  12. Characterization of two novel alcohol short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases from Ralstonia eutropha H16 capable of stereoselective conversion of bulky substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magomedova, Zalina; Grecu, Andreea; Sensen, Christoph W; Schwab, Helmut; Heidinger, Petra

    2016-03-10

    Biocatalysis has significant advantages over organic synthesis in the field of chiral molecule production and several types of stereoselective enzymes are already in use in industrial biotechnology. However, there is still a high demand for new enzymes capable of transforming bulky molecules with sufficient operability. In order to reveal novel high-potential biocatalysts, the complete genome of the β-proteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 was screened for potential short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs). We were able to identify two (S)-enantioselective SDRs named A5 and B3. These showed clear preference towards long-chain and aromatic secondary alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, with diaryl diketone benzil as one of the best substrates. In addition the phylogenetic analysis of all enzyme types, which are known to facilitate benzil reduction, revealed at least two separate evolutionary clusters. Our results indicate the biotechnological potential of SDRs A5 and B3 for the production of chiral compounds with potential commercial value.

  13. Use of a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube to study kinetics of naphthalene degradation by Ralstonia eutropha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilnejad, Elham; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    Biodegradation of naphthalene by Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) in a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube (PBALR-nd) was studied; the Kissiris pieces were the packing material. The reactor hydrodynamics has been characterized under abiotic conditions and the dependencies of the superficial gas velocity (U G) on the gas holdup (εG), liquid mixing time, and mass transfer coefficient were determined. The improving role of the net draft tube in this small column reactor (height 42 cm, ID 5 cm) was confirmed. The flow regime was described using the εG α U G (n) expression, and bubbly flow was observed in PBALR-nd at U G kinetics of biodegradation was modeled using the Haldane and Aiba equations. The fitting of the experimental results to the models were done according to the nonlinear least square regression technique. The biokinetic constants (q m, K s, and K i) were estimated and q m as the specific biodegradation rate was equaled to 0.415 and 0.24 mgnaph./mgcell h for the Haldane and Aiba equations, respectively. The goodness of fit reported as R (2) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) showed the adequate fitness of the Haldane and Aiba models in predicting naphthalene biodegradation kinetics. On the basis of the HPLC results, a hypothetical pathway for the biodegradation was presented.

  14. Whole-Genome Microarray and Gene Deletion Studies Reveal Regulation of the Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production Cycle by the Stringent Response in Ralstonia eutropha H16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigham, CJ; Speth, DR; Rha, C; Sinskey, AJ

    2012-10-22

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production and mobilization in Ralstonia eutropha are well studied, but in only a few instances has PHB production been explored in relation to other cellular processes. We examined the global gene expression of wild-type R. eutropha throughout the PHB cycle: growth on fructose, PHB production using fructose following ammonium depletion, and PHB utilization in the absence of exogenous carbon after ammonium was resupplied. Our results confirm or lend support to previously reported results regarding the expression of PHB-related genes and enzymes. Additionally, genes for many different cellular processes, such as DNA replication, cell division, and translation, are selectively repressed during PHB production. In contrast, the expression levels of genes under the control of the alternative sigma factor sigma(54) increase sharply during PHB production and are repressed again during PHB utilization. Global gene regulation during PHB production is strongly reminiscent of the gene expression pattern observed during the stringent response in other species. Furthermore, a ppGpp synthase deletion mutant did not show an accumulation of PHB, and the chemical induction of the stringent response with DL-norvaline caused an increased accumulation of PHB in the presence of ammonium. These results indicate that the stringent response is required for PHB accumulation in R. eutropha, helping to elucidate a thus-far-unknown physiological basis for this process.

  15. 姬松茸“福姬J77”新菌株选育研究%A Brief Report on Breeding of agaricus blazei Strain "FUJI J77"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋虎; 陈爱华; 江枝和; 雷锦桂; 王义祥; 翁伯琦

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a strain of agaricus blazei named J1 was used as original strain. Using 60Co-UV compound mutation, a mutant strain was got that had significant differences with J1 in morphology. The result of fruiting experiment showed that the agronomic characters of the mutant strain including color of fruiting body, the average weight per fruitbody, the diameter of pileus, the thickness of pileus, the diameter of stalk, the height of stalk, and so on, was significantly different with J1 , and the yield increased significantly. Biological characteristic research indicated:the mycelium growth rate of mutant strain and J1 has significant differences in different temperature, pH and ratio of material to water. The mycelium of mutant strain and J1 were observed by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy, and the results showed that the mycelium of mutant strain with pariculate on surface was thinner than J1. The analysis of SSR marks fingerprint showed that the mutant strain and J1 had obvious differences. Series of studies showed that the mutant strain which was named "FUJI J77" is a new strain that has great potential for development.%以姬松茸J1为出发菌株,采用60Co-紫外线复合诱变,得到1株与原菌株形态差异显著的姬松茸诱变菌株.经出菇试验,诱变菌株在子实体颜色、朵重、盖直径、盖厚、柄直径、柄长度等农艺形状与原菌株均有明显差异,产量大幅提高.生物学特性研究表明,诱变菌株在不同温度、不同pH及不同料水比情况下菌丝的生长速度与姬松茸J1均有很大差异.用扫描电镜观察诱变菌株及出发菌株的菌丝体,诱变菌株菌丝变细,表面有颗粒物,与原菌株有显著差异.经过SSR标记的指纹图谱分析,诱变菌株与原菌株也存在明显差异.研究结果表明,该诱变菌株为一个具有很大开发潜力的新菌株,命名为福姬J77.

  16. A compact, high efficiency contra-rotating generator suitable for wind turbines in the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, J.D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Mellor, P.H.; Wrobel, R.; Drury, D. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2010-09-15

    This paper is concerned with the design, development and performance testing of a permanent magnet (PM) generator for wind turbine applications in urban areas. The radially interacting armature windings and magnet array are carried on direct drive, contra-rotating rotors, resulting in a high torque density and efficiency. This topology also provides improved physical and mechanical characteristics such as compactness, low starting torque, elimination of gearboxes, low maintenance, low noise and vibration, and the potential for modular construction. The design brief required a 50 kW continuous rated prototype generator, with a relative speed at the air-gap of 500 rpm. A test rig has been instrumented to give measurements of the mechanical input (torque and speed) and electrical output (voltage, current and power) of the generator, as well as temperature readings from inside the generator using a wireless telemetry device. Peak power output was found to be 48 kW at a contra-rotating speed of 500 rpm, close to the design target, with an efficiency of 94%. It is anticipated that the generator will find application in a wide range of wind turbine designs suited to the urban environment, e.g. types sited on the top of buildings, as there is growing interest in providing quiet, low cost, clean electricity at point of use. (author)

  17. Vacunas terapéuticas recombinantes contra el cáncer del cuello uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERUMEN JAIME

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el desarrollo del cáncer cervicouterino se inducen mecanismos para evadir el sistema inmune, como son la disminución de la expresión de moléculas de antígeno mayor de histocompatibilidad I y la secreción de citocinas por las células tumorales. Como consecuencia de ello, la estimulación de linfocitos T citotóxicos (LTC y cooperadores (TC, de células asesinas naturales (AN y macrófagos es muy deficiente. Para inducir una respuesta inmune efectiva contra el tumor, se requiere la estimulación simultánea de múltiples componentes del sistema inmune: por vía sistémica la estimulación de LTC y TC contra epítopos del virus del papiloma humano, y en un nivel local, la inducción de la secreción de citocinas por el tumor, para aumentar el procesamiento y la presentación de blancos tumorales, así como la estimulación de los linfocitos, AN y macrófagos que infiltran el tumor.

  18. VIOLÊNCIA CONTRA A MULHER POR PARCEIRO ÍNTIMO: (IN VISIBILIDADE DO PROBLEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ferreira Acosta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue identificar las razones que llevan a la violencia contra la mujer y describir los actos perpetrados por su pareja. Investigación documental, cualitativa realizada en el Servicio de Policía Especializada en Atención a Mujeres. Se analizaron 902 informes registrados entre Agosto/2009 y Diciembre/2011, cuyas víctimas tenían al menos dieciocho años. Se recolectaron los datos de las ocurrencias, describiendo literalmente, las historias de las víctimas y su tratamiento fue a través del análisis de contenido. Fue identificados como factores desencadenantes de la violencia: la supremacía masculina como generadora de sufrimiento y sumisión, los problemas derivados del uso de drogas, los problemas relacionados con los niños y la división de los bienes. La gravedad fue escalada por las consecuencias a la víctima y su familia. El personal de enfermería como parte de la red de apoyo, debe entender este fenómeno como un problema de salud y esforzarse por romper las barreras que impidan el servicio eficaz y eficiente, auxiliando en el fortalecimiento de la autonomía de las mujeres, incluyendo a los hombres en acciones de combate y prevención de la violencia contra las mujeres.

  19. Legislación y justicia contra blasfemos. (Cataluña, siglos XV-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelabertó Vilagrán, Martí

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The repression against the sins of the language is a subject of intense attention from the law and courts of justice in Europe from the low Middle Ages. In Spain there were enacted severe civil and religious laws against the crime of blasphemy by an unequal application. In Catalonia the secular and ecclesiastical judges participated in the repressive politics favoring deterrence springs of moral coercion wit little recourse to physical coercion.La represión contra los pecados de la lengua es importante objeto de atención por parte de la legislación y los tribunales de justicia en Europa desde la Baja Edad Media. En España se promulgaron severas leyes civiles y religiosas contra el delito de blasfemia con una desigual aplicación. En Cataluña los jueces laicos y eclesiásticos participaron de la política represiva privilegiando los resortes disuasorios de la coacción moral sin apenas recurrir a la coerción física.

  20. Un regimen sanitatis contra la peste: el tratado del licenciado Vázquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Barroso, Efrén

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The regimina pestis or plague treatises are the main literary genre where late medieval doctors reflected their medical concern about plague and pestilences. These medical texts, in which some practical recommendations were given to people to avoid and/or cure the effects of epidemic disease of high letality, were developed since the outbreak of the epidemic in 1348. The text now presented is a treatise on plague written by the «licenciado Vázquez», a converso from the archbishopric of Toledo who was tried by the Inquisition at the beginning of the 16th Century.Los regimientos o tratados contra la peste o pestilencia son expresión del modo en que los médicos universitarios bajomedievales hicieron frente a la enfermedad epidémica de alta letalidad. Estos textos médicos, que consistían en un repertorio más o menos amplio de recomendaciones prácticas para prevenir y/o tratar dicha enfermedad, experimentaron un notable desarrollo a partir de la peste negra de 1348. El texto que se ofrece a continuación es un tratado inédito contra la peste escrito por el licenciado Vázquez, un judeoconverso toledano que fue procesado por el Tribunal de la Inquisición a principios del siglo XVI.

  1. Thomas Mann: um escritor contra o nazismo Thomas Mann: a writer against nazism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Dayan-Herzbrun

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O combate que Thomas Mann travou contra o nazismo a partir de 1922 é exemplar, pois é o de um escritor apaixonado pela liberdade e não o de um militante. Ele privilegia a ficção e o mito como meios de luta contra o fascínio exercido pelo nazismo e afirma a permanência de uma Alemanha cultural, cosmopolita, fonte de uma universalidade estranha a todos os particularismos étnicos. Goethe, com quem ele se identifica e no qual se projeta, é a figura de proa dessa Alemanha.Thomas Mann's attack, from 1922 onwards, against Nazism is exemplar in the sense that it was promoted by a writer committed to the defence of liberty and not by a militant. He underlines fiction and myth as ways of fighting against the charms of Nazism and proclaims the permanence of a cultural, cosmopolitan Germany, a source of a universality which is alien to all kinds of ethnic particularities. Goethe, someone he is identified with, is the prominent figure of this Germany.

  2. Potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o isolados de Fusarium sp., in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anthony Hoffmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo – O uso discriminado de agrotóxicos acarreta em uma grande prejuízo a saúdes das pessoas e do meio ambiente. O uso de novos métodos de combate a pragas se faz necessário para o equilíbrio da cadeia produtiva. A utilização de microrganismos no combate a pragas se faz como uma boa alternativa. O trabalho objetivou-se em avaliar o potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o patógeno Fusarium sp. in vitro. Para isso foi utilizado os métodos de confronto direto, pareamento de culturas e de metabólitos voláteis. Os experimentos foram realizados na incubadora de empresas da Universidade Federal do Tocantins – UFT Campus de Gurupi, seguiram com três repetições. Foram testados 15 isolados do antagonista em confronto direto com o patógeno e os mesmos isolados e patógeno foram testados em metabólitos voláteis ambos utilizando o meio de cultura BDA. Todos os isolados apresentaram antagonismo in vitro contra o patógeno.

  3. Frequência de anticorpos contra Leptospira spp. e Trypanosoma cruzy em primatas neotropicais mantidos em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Faz um levantamento sorológico para anticorpos contra Leptospira spp e Trypanosoma cruzi em primatas neotropicais mantidos em cativeiro. Amostras de 94 primatas neotropicais adultos, machos e fêmeas de diferentes espécies pertencentes ao criatório do Centro Nacional de Primatas (CENP)-Ananindeua-PA, coletadas para a realização da Soroaglutinação Microscópica (SAM), na qual foram utilizadas 84 amostras sorológicas, em que 35 (41,67%) apresentaram anticorpos contra leptospira e 49 (58,...

  4. Efectividad de la vacuna VA-MENGOC-BC® contra cepas heterólogas de meningococo B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Ochoa-Azze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La efectividad de las vacunas de vesículas de membrana externa de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B ha sido cuestionada por algunos investigadores, limitándola a la cepa vacunal. VA-MENGOC-BC® es una vacuna antimeningocócica basada en dicha tecnología. Presentamos un metaanálisis de estudios realizados en diferentes contextos epidemiológicos, evaluando su efectividad contra cepas heterólogas de meningococo B en varios grupos de edades. Se demuestra que la vacuna es efectiva contra cepas homólogas, heterólogas y de diferentes complejos clonales.

  5. Fototerapia na doença enxerto contra hospedeiro Phototherapy in the graft versus host disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Duarte

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A doença enxerto contra hospedeiro é um dos obstáculos ao sucesso do transplante de medula óssea, e o envolvimento cutâneo é freqüente. A fototerapia é utilizada devido à intensa atividade imunomoduladora local, sendo opção terapêutica adjuvante para as lesões cutâneas resistentes à terapia convencional. OBJETIVO: Realizar análise descritiva do tratamento da doença enxerto contra hospedeiro com fototerapia (Puva ou UVB de faixa estreita. MÉTODOS: Foram atendidos nove pacientes com manifestação cutânea da doença enxerto contra hospedeiro aguda ou crônica. Seis foram tratados com Puva, terapia de primeira escolha, e três com UVB de faixa estreita. As sessões foram realizadas três vezes por semana, e a resposta terapêutica avaliada após 12 sessões. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes com doença enxerto contra hospedeiro aguda mostraram melhora, com desaparecimento do eritema e do edema. Naqueles com doença crônica, observaram-se involução das lesões liquenóides e melhora da mobilidade daqueles com a forma esclerodermiforme. Dois pacientes apresentaram doença de evolução grave e foram a óbito. CONCLUSÃO: A fototerapia mostrou-se efetiva no tratamento das manifestações cutâneas da doença enxerto contra hospedeiro aguda e crônica. A Puva permite o controle da doença, podendo a UVB de faixa estreita ser opção para pacientes impossibilitados de usar medicação sistêmica.BACKGROUND: Graft versus host disease is one of the obstacles to successful bone marrow transplantation. It often affects the skin. Phototherapy has been used because of its strong local immunomodulatory activity and it is an option for adjuvant therapy for skin lesions of graft versus host disease resistant to conventional therapy. OBJECTIVE: To make a descriptive analysis of treating graft versus host disease with phototherapy (PUVA or narrowband UVB. Methods - Nine patients with cutaneous manifestation of acute or chronic

  6. Soporte social percibido en cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mauricio Puerto Pedraza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El cáncer se reconoce como un problema universal que afecta a las personas de cualquier edad, género, cultura y situación económica, además impone fuertes cargas financieras y sociales para la persona enferma al igual que su familia. El objetivo fue determinar el Soporte social percibido en enfermedad crónica en los cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, se entrevistaron 75 cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer a los cuales se les aplicó el instrumento "Soporte social percibido en enfermedad crónica". El análisis se realizó mediante estadística descriptiva y estratificación de la escala Soporte social percibido. Resultados: Los cuidadores familiares son en mayoría mujeres de estratos socioeconómicos 1 y 2, de escolaridad primaria incompleta el (37,3%, en relación al estado civil se informó estar casados o en unión libre (66,7%, de ocupación hogar (50,7%, con una mediana de 18 horas de cuidado. Los cuidadores familiares presentan una percepción media del soporte social percibido de (36%. Las subescalas del instrumento reportan puntajes medios en la interacción personal (42,7%, guía (40%, retroalimentación (41,3% ayuda tangible (28%, interacción social (45,3%. Discusión: Se hace necesario abordar el soporte social desde una perspectiva holística donde las interrelaciones de salud física, emocional, funcionamiento familiar y social respondan a las necesidades de los cuidadores familiares. Conclusiones: El soporte social es conocido por ser la fuerza más grande y poderosa que facilita el éxito cuando una persona y su cuidador se ven amenazadas por el cáncer. Cómo citar este artículo: Puerto HM. Soporte social percibido en cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer. Rev Cuid. 2017; 8(1:1407-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v8i1.345

  7. Notificações de violência sexual contra a mulher no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracyelle Alves Remigio Moreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentar o quadro de violência sexual contra a mulher no Brasil, com base nas notificações realizadas no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa, que analisou informações referentes às notificações de violência sexual contra a mulher, no período de 2009 a 2013, considerando a unidade da federação, perfil das mulheres, características da ocorrência e encaminhamentos realizados pelo setor saúde. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva, sendo apresentados números absolutos e relativos derivados das notificações. Resultados: No Brasil, foram registradas 21.871 notificações no período estudado. Observaram-se maiores taxas de registros no ano de 2013 e na região Norte. Predominou o ciclo de vida de 10 a 19 anos (10.806/49,4%, as raças branca (8.894/40,7% e parda (8.535/39,0%, e a escolaridade ensino fundamental incompleto (5.444/24,9%. Os casos de violência sexual ocorreram com maior frequência na residência da mulher (13.259/60,6%, com agressor conhecido (5.649/25,8% e sem suspeita do uso de álcool (9.249/42,3%. A maior parte do atendimento no setor saúde foi de nível ambulatorial (15.842/72,6%, e os casos evoluíram para alta (16.879/77,2%. Conclusão: As notificações cresceram progressivamente no período estudado, e a violência sexual contra a mulher no país, registrada pelo setor saúde, atingiu, principalmente, adolescentes, no ambiente doméstico e com agressor conhecido.

  8. Gênero e violência contra a mulher na literatura de enfermagem: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Cardoso Duarte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Na produção científica sobre desigualdades na relação homens e mulheres destacam-se estudos sobre violência contra a mulher e a premência do seu reconhecimento como problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: considerando o potencial da Enfermagem para um olhar ampliado desta temática, pretendeu-se conhecer o que está sendo veiculado sobre gênero e violência contra a mulher nas principais revistas de enfermagem brasileiras. Método: realizou-se revisão integrativa, de publicações online, entre 2000 e 2012. Dos 138 artigos selecionados, 25 tratavam gênero e violência contra a mulher como construtos sociais. Resultados: predominaram as abordagens qualitativas (60%, investigações empíricas (60%, acadêmicas (100%, autorias envolvendo enfermeira(os (96%, violências conjugal (32% e doméstica (20%. A violência contra a mulher à luz de gênero foi associada em apenas 32% das publicações. Conclusão: há necessidade de incremento de estudos em parceria com o serviço e a ampliação das discussões que envolvem dinâmicas de poder e de resistência, que constituem a base do conceito de gênero.

  9. La plataforma de afectados por la hipoteca y la lucha contra los desahucios en el Estado español

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero Miramar, José Luis; Amodio, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    La Plataforma de Afectados por la Hipoteca (PAH), dedicada a la lucha contra los desahucios, se ha convertido en uno de los principales movimientos sociales del Estado Español. Tratamos de explicar el por qué y el cómo de su aparición.

  10. Contra-públicos: Arte participativo como manifestación de un espacio público

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, E.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Las prácticas de artistas-activistas en el espacio público pueden ser entendidas como generadoras de un contra-público en el sentido de Hirschkind (2006) porque construyen un espacio para la participación política alternativa. El espacio público entonces no se debe entender como algo preexistente, a

  11. Tone and Broadband Noise Separation from Acoustic Data of a Scale-Model Contra-Rotating Open Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, Dave; Stephens, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in contra-rotating open rotor technology for aircraft propulsion application has prompted the development of advanced diagnostic tools for better design and improved acoustical performance. In particular, the determination of tonal and broadband components of open rotor acoustic spectra is essential for properly assessing the noise control parameters and also for validating the open rotor noise simulation codes. The technique of phase averaging has been employed to separate the tone and broadband components from a single rotor, but this method does not work for the two-shaft contra-rotating open rotor. A new signal processing technique was recently developed to process the contra-rotating open rotor acoustic data. The technique was first tested using acoustic data taken of a hobby aircraft open rotor propeller, and reported previously. The intent of the present work is to verify and validate the applicability of the new technique to a realistic one-fifth scale open rotor model which has 12 forward and 10 aft contra-rotating blades operating at realistic forward flight Mach numbers and tip speeds. The results and discussions of that study are presented in this paper.

  12. Contra el documento. Apuntes para una metodología de la Crítica de Arte

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Carrasco, Javier

    2002-01-01

    575 p. Ni la documentación escrita ni la oral son soportes fiables para el crítico de arte. Este debe enfrentarse al juicio con su casi exclusivo conocimiento y percepción; así la Crítica de Arte es una disciplina que se manifiesta implicitamente contra el documento

  13. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santatra Ravelomanantsoa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening

  14. Defining the Metabolic Functions and Roles in Virulence of the rpoN1 and rpoN2 Genes in Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Lundgren

    Full Text Available The alternative sigma factor RpoN is a unique regulator found among bacteria. It controls numerous processes that range from basic metabolism to more complex functions such as motility and nitrogen fixation. Our current understanding of RpoN function is largely derived from studies on prototypical bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida. Although the extent and necessity of RpoN-dependent functions differ radically between these model organisms, each bacterium depends on a single chromosomal rpoN gene to meet the cellular demands of RpoN regulation. The bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum is often recognized for being the causative agent of wilt disease in crops, including banana, peanut and potato. However, this plant pathogen is also one of the few bacterial species whose genome possesses dual rpoN genes. To determine if the rpoN genes in this bacterium are genetically redundant and interchangeable, we constructed and characterized ΔrpoN1, ΔrpoN2 and ΔrpoN1 ΔrpoN2 mutants of R. solanacearum GMI1000. It was found that growth on a small range of metabolites, including dicarboxylates, ethanol, nitrate, ornithine, proline and xanthine, were dependent on only the rpoN1 gene. Furthermore, the rpoN1 gene was required for wilt disease on tomato whereas rpoN2 had no observable role in virulence or metabolism in R. solanacearum GMI1000. Interestingly, plasmid-based expression of rpoN2 did not fully rescue the metabolic deficiencies of the ΔrpoN1 mutants; full recovery was specific to rpoN1. In comparison, only rpoN2 was able to genetically complement a ΔrpoN E. coli mutant. These results demonstrate that the RpoN1 and RpoN2 proteins are not functionally equivalent or interchangeable in R. solanacearum GMI1000.

  15. Differential Space-Time Expression of StLTPb1 Gene Between Resistant and Susceptible Potato Genotypes in Response to Ralstonia solanacearum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Gang; JIN Li-ping; XIE Kai-yun; QU Dong-yu

    2008-01-01

    This study is to investigate the role of lipid transfer protein (LTP1) gene of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) resistance. A novel cDNA clone encoding nsLTP was isolated from cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) infected with R. solanacearum by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The temporal and spatial expression of StLTPb1 was studied during the early stages of potato-R. solanacearum interaction by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and Northern blotting. The sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA, named StLTPb1, showed 691 bp which encoded a type 1 nsLTP of 91 amino acids. Construction of a phylogenic tree showed that StLTPb1 is well conserved in the coding region with high identity at the amino acid level with other Solanaceae nsLTPs. The temporal and spatial expression of StLTPb1 was studied during the early stages of potato-R, solanacearum interaction. StLTPb1 transcription is induced faster and transcripts accumulate to higher concentrations in resistant compared with susceptible genotypes by the pathogen. Dominant differences in the pathogen-induced gene expression pattern between the upper and lower leaves and stems were observed within the same genotypes. In situ hybridization results showed that the StLTPb1 mRNA was localized in phloem cells of vascular tissues in potato leaf and stem tissues after pathogen infection. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and abscisic acid could induce StLTPb1 gene expression without significant difference between the upper and lower tissues. These abiotic elicitors could produce a long-lasting effect on the StLTPb1 during early stages of potato-R. solanacearum interaction. Differential expression of StLTPb1 gene between resistance and susceptible potato genotypes in response to R. solanacearum suggests that this gene plays a key role in plant defense mechanisms.

  16. A novel multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing scheme for African phylotype III strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelomanantsoa, Santatra; Robène, Isabelle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Guérin, Fabien; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Reliable genotyping that provides an accurate description of diversity in the context of pathogen emergence is required for the establishment of strategies to improve disease management. MultiLocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a valuable genotyping method. It can be performed at small evolutionary scales where high discriminatory power is needed. Strains of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) are highly genetically diverse. These destructive pathogens are the causative agent of bacterial wilt on an unusually broad range of host plants worldwide. In this study, we developed an MLVA scheme for genotyping the African RSSC phylotype III. Methods. We selected different publicly available tandem repeat (TR) loci and additional TR loci from the genome of strain CMR15 as markers. Based on these loci, a new phylotype III-MLVA scheme is presented. MLVA and multiLocus sequence typing (MLST) were compared at the global, regional, and local scales. Different populations of epidemiologically related and unrelated RSSC phylotype III strains were used. Results and Discussion. Sixteen polymorphic TR loci, which included seven microsatellites and nine minisatellites, were selected. These TR loci were distributed throughout the genome (chromosome and megaplasmid) and located in both coding and intergenic regions. The newly developed RS3-MLVA16 scheme was more discriminative than MLST. RS3-MLVA16 showed good ability in differentiating strains at global, regional, and local scales, and it especially highlighted epidemiological links between closely related strains at the local scale. RS3-MLVA16 also underlines genetic variability within the same MLST-type and clonal complex, and gives a first overview of population structure. Overall, RS3-MLVA16 is a promising genotyping method for outbreak investigation at a fine scale, and it could be used for outbreak investigation as a first-line, low-cost assay for the routine screening of RSSC

  17. Abundance of Dioxygenase Genes Similar to Ralstonia sp. Strain U2 nagAc Is Correlated with Naphthalene Concentrations in Coal Tar-Contaminated Freshwater Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisi, Hebe M.; Chewning, Christopher S.; Morgan, Katherine H.; Menn, Fu-Min; Easter, James P.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2004-01-01

    We designed a real-time PCR assay able to recognize dioxygenase large-subunit gene sequences with more than 90% similarity to the Ralstonia sp. strain U2 nagAc gene (nagAc-like gene sequences) in order to study the importance of organisms carrying these genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that this real-time PCR assay was specific and able to detect a variety of nagAc-like gene sequences. One to 100 ng of contaminated-sediment total DNA in 25-μl reaction mixtures produced an amplification efficiency of 0.97 without evident PCR inhibition. The assay was applied to surficial freshwater sediment samples obtained in or in close proximity to a coal tar-contaminated Superfund site. Naphthalene concentrations in the analyzed samples varied between 0.18 and 106 mg/kg of dry weight sediment. The assay for nagAc-like sequences indicated the presence of (4.1 ± 0.7) × 103 to (2.9 ± 0.3) × 105 copies of nagAc-like dioxygenase genes per μg of DNA extracted from sediment samples. These values corresponded to (1.2 ± 0.6) × 105 to (5.4 ± 0.4) × 107 copies of this target per g of dry weight sediment when losses of DNA during extraction were taken into account. There was a positive correlation between naphthalene concentrations and nagAc-like gene copies per microgram of DNA (r = 0.89) and per gram of dry weight sediment (r = 0.77). These results provide evidence of the ecological significance of organisms carrying nagAc-like genes in the biodegradation of naphthalene. PMID:15240274

  18. Cometabolic degradation of ethyl mercaptan by phenol-utilizing Ralstonia eutropha in suspended growth and gas-recycling trickle-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Zamir, Seyed Morteza; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The degradability of ethyl mercaptan (EM), by phenol-utilizing cells of Ralstonia eutropha, in both suspended and immobilized culture systems, was investigated in the present study. Free-cells experiments conducted at EM concentrations ranging from 1.25 to 14.42 mg/l, showed almost complete removal of EM at concentrations below 10.08 mg/l, which is much higher than the maximum biodegradable EM concentration obtained in experiments that did not utilize phenol as the primary substrate, i.e. 2.5 mg/l. The first-order kinetic rate constant (kSKS) for EM biodegradation by the phenol-utilizing cells (1.7 l/g biomass/h) was about 10 times higher than by cells without phenol utilization. Immobilized-cells experiments performed in a gas recycling trickle-bed reactor packed with kissiris particles at EM concentrations ranging from 1.6 to 36.9 mg/l, showed complete removal at all tested concentrations in a much shorter time, compared with free cells. The first-order kinetic rate constant (rmaxKs) for EM utilization was 0.04 l/h for the immobilized system compared to 0.06 for the suspended-growth culture, due to external mass transfer diffusion. Diffusion limitation was decreased by increasing the recycling-liquid flow rate from 25 to 65 ml/min. The removed EM was almost completely mineralized according to TOC and sulfate measurements. Shut down and starvation experiments revealed that the reactor could effectively handle the starving conditions and was reliable for full-scale application.

  19. Defining the Metabolic Functions and Roles in Virulence of the rpoN1 and rpoN2 Genes in Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Benjamin R; Connolly, Morgan P; Choudhary, Pratibha; Brookins-Little, Tiffany S; Chatterjee, Snigdha; Raina, Ramesh; Nomura, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor RpoN is a unique regulator found among bacteria. It controls numerous processes that range from basic metabolism to more complex functions such as motility and nitrogen fixation. Our current understanding of RpoN function is largely derived from studies on prototypical bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida. Although the extent and necessity of RpoN-dependent functions differ radically between these model organisms, each bacterium depends on a single chromosomal rpoN gene to meet the cellular demands of RpoN regulation. The bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum is often recognized for being the causative agent of wilt disease in crops, including banana, peanut and potato. However, this plant pathogen is also one of the few bacterial species whose genome possesses dual rpoN genes. To determine if the rpoN genes in this bacterium are genetically redundant and interchangeable, we constructed and characterized ΔrpoN1, ΔrpoN2 and ΔrpoN1 ΔrpoN2 mutants of R. solanacearum GMI1000. It was found that growth on a small range of metabolites, including dicarboxylates, ethanol, nitrate, ornithine, proline and xanthine, were dependent on only the rpoN1 gene. Furthermore, the rpoN1 gene was required for wilt disease on tomato whereas rpoN2 had no observable role in virulence or metabolism in R. solanacearum GMI1000. Interestingly, plasmid-based expression of rpoN2 did not fully rescue the metabolic deficiencies of the ΔrpoN1 mutants; full recovery was specific to rpoN1. In comparison, only rpoN2 was able to genetically complement a ΔrpoN E. coli mutant. These results demonstrate that the RpoN1 and RpoN2 proteins are not functionally equivalent or interchangeable in R. solanacearum GMI1000.

  20. Induction of the viable but nonculturable state of Ralstonia solanacearum by low temperature in the soil microcosm and its resuscitation by catalase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Gi Kong

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt on a wide variety of plants, and enters a viable but nonculturable (VBNC state under stress conditions in soil and water. Here, we adopted an artificial soil microcosm (ASM to investigate the VBNC state of R. solanacearum induced by low temperature. The culturability of R. solanacearum strains SL341 and GMI1000 rapidly decreased at 4°C in modified ASM (mASM, while it was stably maintained at 25°C in mASM. We hypothesized that bacterial cells at 4°C in mASM are viable but nonculturable. Total protein profiles of SL341 cells at 4°C in mASM did not differ from those of SL341 culturable cells at 25°C in mASM. Moreover, the VBNC cells maintained in the mASM retained respiration activity. Catalase treatment effectively restored the culturability of nonculturable cells in mASM, while temperature increase or other treatments used for resuscitation of other bacteria were not effective. The resuscitated R. solanacearum from VBNC state displayed normal level of bacterial virulence on tomato plants compared with its original culturable bacteria. Expression of omp, oxyR, rpoS, dps, and the 16S rRNA gene quantified by RT-qPCR did not differ significantly between the culturable and VBNC states of R. solanacearum. Our results suggested that the VBNC bacterial cells in mASM induced by low temperature exist in a physiologically unique state.

  1. Reduction of unusual iron-sulfur clusters in the H2-sensing regulatory Ni-Fe hydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Löscher, Simone; Lenz, Oliver; Schlodder, Eberhard; Zebger, Ingo; Andersen, Lars K; Hildebrandt, Peter; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Dau, Holger; Friedrich, Bärbel; Haumann, Michael

    2005-05-20

    The regulatory Ni-Fe hydrogenase (RH) from Ralstonia eutropha functions as a hydrogen sensor. The RH consists of the large subunit HoxC housing the Ni-Fe active site and the small subunit HoxB containing Fe-S clusters. The heterolytic cleavage of H(2) at the Ni-Fe active site leads to the EPR-detectable Ni-C state of the protein. For the first time, the simultaneous but EPR-invisible reduction of Fe-S clusters during Ni-C state formation was demonstrated by changes in the UV-visible absorption spectrum as well as by shifts of the iron K-edge from x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the wild-type double dimeric RH(WT) [HoxBC](2) and in a monodimeric derivative designated RH(stop) lacking the C-terminal 55 amino acids of HoxB. According to the analysis of iron EXAFS spectra, the Fe-S clusters of HoxB pronouncedly differ from the three Fe-S clusters in the small subunits of crystallized standard Ni-Fe hydrogenases. Each HoxBC unit of RH(WT) seems to harbor two [2Fe-2S] clusters in addition to a 4Fe species, which may be a [4Fe-3S-3O] cluster. The additional 4Fe-cluster was absent in RH(stop). Reduction of Fe-S clusters in the hydrogen sensor RH may be a first step in the signal transduction chain, which involves complex formation between [HoxBC](2) and tetrameric HoxJ protein, leading to the expression of the energy converting Ni-Fe hydrogenases in R. eutropha.

  2. An evaluation of the wilt-causing bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum as a potential biological control agent for the alien Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) in Hawaiian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Kahili ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum) is an invasive weed in tropical forests in Hawaii and elsewhere. Bacterial wilt caused by the ginger strain of Ralstonia(=Pseudomonas) solanacearum systemically infects edible ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ornamental gingers (Hedychium spp.), causing wilt in infected plants. The suitability of R. solanacearum as a biological control agent for kahili ginger was investigated by inoculating seedlings and rooted cuttings of native forest plants, ornamental ginger, and solanaceous species to confirm host specificity. Inoculation via stem injection or root wounding with a bacterial–water suspension was followed by observation for 8 weeks. Inoculations on H. gardnerianum were then carried out in ohia-lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) wet forests of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park to determine the bacterium's efficacy in the field. No native forest or solanaceous species developed wilt or other symptoms during the study. The bacterium caused limited infection near the inoculation site on H. coronarium, Z. zerumbet, Heliconia latispatha, and Musa sapientum. However, infection did not become systemic in any of these species, and normal growth resumed following appearance of initial symptoms. All inoculated H. gardnerianum plants developed irreversible chlorosis and severe wilting 3–4 weeks following inoculation. Systemic infection also caused death and decay of rhizomes. Most plants were completely dead 16–20 weeks following inoculation. The destructiveness of the ginger strain of R. solanacearum to edible ginger has raised questions regarding its use for biological control. However, because locations of kahili ginger infestations are often remote, the risk of contaminating edible ginger plantings is unlikely. The ability of this bacterium to cause severe disease in H. gardnerianum in the field, together with its lack of virulence in other ginger species, contributes to its potential as a biological control agent.

  3. Effects of volatile organic compounds produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the growth and virulence traits of tomato bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Wang, Jichen; Wu, Yuncheng; Ling, Ning; Wei, Zhong; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by microbes is an important characteristic for their selection as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. In this study, we identified the VOCs produced by the biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens T-5 and evaluated their impact on the growth and virulence traits of tomato bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. The results showed that the VOCs of strain T-5 significantly inhibited the growth of R. solanacearum in agar medium and in soil. In addition, VOCs significantly inhibited the motility traits, root colonization, biofilm formation, and production of antioxidant enzymes and exopolysaccharides by R. solanacearum. However, no effect of VOCs on the production of hydrolytic enzymes by R. solanacearum was observed. The strain T-5 produced VOCs, including benzenes, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes, acids, and one furan and naphthalene compound; among those, 13 VOCs showed 1-10 % antibacterial activity against R. solanacearum in their produced amounts by T-5; however, the consortium of all VOCs produced on agar medium, in sterilized soil, and in natural soil showed 75, 62, and 85 % growth inhibition of R. solanacearum, respectively. The real-time PCR analysis further confirmed the results when the expression of different virulence- and metabolism-related genes in R. solanacearum cells was decreased after exposure to the VOCs of strain T-5. The results of this study clearly revealed the significance of VOCs in the control of plant pathogens. This information would help to better comprehend the microbial interactions mediated by VOCs in nature and to develop safer strategies to control plant disease.

  4. CaWRKY58, encoding a group I WRKY transcription factor of Capsicum annuum, negatively regulates resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuna; Dang, Fengfeng; Liu, Zhiqin; Wang, Xu; Eulgem, Thomas; Lai, Yan; Yu, Lu; She, Jianju; Shi, Youliang; Lin, Jinhui; Chen, Chengcong; Guan, Deyi; Qiu, Ailian; He, Shuilin

    2013-02-01

    WRKY transcription factors are encoded by large gene families across the plant kingdom. So far, their biological and molecular functions in nonmodel plants, including pepper (Capsicum annuum) and other Solanaceae, remain poorly understood. Here, we report on the functional characterization of a new group I WRKY protein from pepper, termed CaWRKY58. Our data indicate that CaWRKY58 can be localized to the nucleus and can activate the transcription of the reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene driven by the 35S core promoter with two copies of the W-box in its proximal upstream region. In pepper plants infected with the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, CaWRKY58 transcript levels showed a biphasic response, manifested in an early/transient down-regulation and late up-regulation. CaWRKY58 transcripts were suppressed by treatment with methyl jasmonate and abscisic acid. Tobacco plants overexpressing CaWRKY58 did not show any obvious morphological phenotypes, but exhibited disease symptoms of greater severity than did wild-type plants. The enhanced susceptibility of CaWRKY58-overexpressing tobacco plants correlated with the decreased expression of hypersensitive response marker genes, as well as various defence-associated genes. Consistently, CaWRKY58 pepper plants silenced by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) displayed enhanced resistance to the highly virulent R. solanacearum strain FJC100301, and this was correlated with enhanced transcripts of defence-related pepper genes. Our results suggest that CaWRKY58 acts as a transcriptional activator of negative regulators in the resistance of pepper to R. solanacearum infection.

  5. Overexpression of CaWRKY27, a subgroup IIe WRKY transcription factor of Capsicum annuum, positively regulates tobacco resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Fengfeng; Wang, Yuna; She, Jianju; Lei, Yufen; Liu, Zhiqin; Eulgem, Thomas; Lai, Yan; Lin, Jing; Yu, Lu; Lei, Dan; Guan, Deyi; Li, Xia; Yuan, Qian; He, Shuilin

    2014-03-01

    WRKY proteins are encoded by a large gene family and are linked to many biological processes across a range of plant species. The functions and underlying mechanisms of WRKY proteins have been investigated primarily in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. The roles of these transcription factors in non-model plants, including pepper and other Solanaceae, are poorly understood. Here, we characterize the expression and function of a subgroup IIe WRKY protein from pepper (Capsicum annuum), denoted as CaWRKY27. The protein localized to nuclei and activated the transcription of a reporter GUS gene construct driven by the 35S promoter that contained two copies of the W-box in its proximal upstream region. Inoculation of pepper cultivars with Ralstonia solanacearum induced the expression of CaWRKY27 transcript in 76a, a bacterial wilt-resistant pepper cultivar, whereas it downregulated the expression of CaWRKY27 transcript in Gui-1-3, a bacterial wilt-susceptible pepper cultivar. CaWRKY27 transcript levels were also increased by treatments with salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethephon (ETH). Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing CaWRKY27 exhibited resistance to R. solanacearum infection compared to that of wild-type plants. This resistance was coupled with increased transcript levels in a number of marker genes, including hypersensitive response genes, and SA-, JA- and ET-associated genes. By contrast, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CaWRKY27 increased the susceptibility of pepper plants to R. solanacearum infection. These results suggest that CaWRKY27 acts as a positive regulator in tobacco resistance responses to R. solanacearum infection through modulation of SA-, JA- and ET-mediated signaling pathways.

  6. Aplicación de la técnica de PCR en la detección de Ralstonia solanacearum en campos paperos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía Sanabria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La murchera de la papa causada por Ralstonia solanacearum es una amenaza permanente para el cultivo con consecuencias devastadoras en condiciones predisponentes. La incidencia de esta enfermedad en Uruguay es variable; desde la década de 1970 se registran brotes agudos periódicos difíciles de prevenir y controlar. Se ha detectado a R. solanacearumen todas las regiones de producción, lo que dificulta el mantenimiento de áreas libres de patógeno y la continuidad del cultivo. Dado que no existen agentes químicos efectivos, las estrategias de control apuntan a la prevención, recomendando la rotación de cultivos, la desinfección de herramientas y el uso de semilla certificada libre del patógeno. En este trabajo se optimizó la detección molecular de R. solanacearum en suelo mediante PCR con el objetivo de conocer la persistencia del patógeno en el campo. El método se aplicó al análisis de tres campos con diferentes antecedentes de murchera, y se demostró que el patógeno es capaz de permanecer viable por más de 10 años. También se determinaron las ventajas y limitaciones de esta metodología en su aplicación a muestras complejas. Estos resultados constituyen un importante aporte que genera conocimiento que permitirá a los productores delinear mejores estrategias para el manejo de la enfermedad al momento de planificar los cultivos.

  7. PrhN, a putative marR family transcriptional regulator, is involved in positive regulation of type III secretion system and full virulence of Ralstonia solanacearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang eYong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The MarR-family of transcriptional regulators are involved in various cellular processes, including resistance to multiple antibiotics and other toxic chemicals, adaptation to different environments and pathogenesis in many plant and animal pathogens. Here, we reported a new MarR regulator PrhN, which was involved in the pathogenesis of Ralstonia solanacearum. prhN mutant exhibited significantly reduced virulence and stem colonization compared to that of wild type in tomato plants. prhN mutant caused identical hypersensitive response (HR on resistant plants to the wild type. Deletion of prhN gene substantially reduced the expression of type III secretion system (T3SS in vitro and in planta (mainly in tomato plants, which is essential for pathogenicity of R. solanacearum, and the complemented PrhN could restore its virulence and T3SS expression to that of wild type. T3SS is directly controlled by AraC-type transcriptional regulator HrpB, and the transcription of hrpB is activated by HrpG and PrhG. HrpG and PrhG are homologues but are regulated by the PhcA positively and negatively respectively. Deletion of prhN gene also abolished the expression of hrpB and prhG, but didn't change the expression of hrpG and phcA. Together, these results indicated that PrhN positively regulates T3SS expression through PrhG and HrpB. PrhN and PhcA should regulate prhG expression in a parallel way. This is the first report on the pathogenesis of MarR regulator in R. solanacearum, and this new finding will improve our understanding on the various biological functions of MarR regulator and the complex regulatory network on hrp regulon in R. solanacearum.

  8. Resultados de la Policía Nacional en la lucha contra el crimen, 2011

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    Ervyn Norza Céspedes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo contiene la descripción de los resultados obtenidos por la Policía Nacional en el desarrollo de estrategias orientadas a garantizar la seguridad y la convivencia ciudadana en Colombia durante el 2011, entre los cuales están las capturas por todos los delitos consagrados en el Código Penal, el rescate de personas secuestradas, la desactivación de artefactos explosivos, la recuperación de vehículos y la incautación y recuperación de mercancía, entre otras actividades de repercusión nacional e internacional en la lucha contra el crimen.

  9. Fatores motivadores dos ilíctos contra o patrimônio

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Valdir Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar os fatores motivadores que influenciam a decisão de cometer ilícitos contra o patrimônio, após esgotados todos os recursos de prevenção, e a percepção do indivíduo que cometeu ilícito, no momento posterior à imposição da pena. Recorreu-se a Gary Becker ( 1968) e Erick Fromm (1976), para o desenvolvimento teórico da pesquisa que metodologicamente caracteriza-se como empírica, pela sua natureza de buscar fatos da realidade...

  10. Investigation on the wake evolution of contra-rotating propeller using RANS computation and SPIV measurement

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    Paik Kwang-Jun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wake characteristics of Contra-Rotating Propeller (CRP were investigated using numerical simulation and flow measurement. The numerical simulation was carried out with a commercial CFD code based on a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations solver, and the flow measurement was performed with Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV system. The simulation results were validated through the comparison with the experiment results measured around the leading edge of rudder to investigate the effect of propeller operation under the conditions without propeller, with forward propeller alone, and with both forward and aft propellers. The evolution of CRP wake was analyzed through velocity and vorticity contours on three transverse planes and one longitudinal plane based on CFD results. The trajectories of propeller tip vortex core in the cases with and without aft propeller were also compared, and larger wake contraction with CRP was confirmed.

  11. La Guerra contra las Drogas en Colombia y México: estrategias fracasadas

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Rosen, Jonathan; Zepeda Martínez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las estrategias y resultados de la guerra contra las drogas en Colombia y México, por medio de iniciativas como el Plan Colombia y la Iniciativa Mérida.Metodología: se recurre al método cualitativo con el fin de analizar los programas de cooperación antinarcóticos en las Américas, en especial entre Estados Unidos, Colombia y México. El análisis se concentra en laproducción y tráfico de drogas; organizaciones criminales o cárteles del narcotráfico y los niveles de violencia. ...

  12. La seguridad jurídica frente a sentencias definitivas. Tutela contra sentencias

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    Manuel Fernando Quinche-Ramírez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito trabaja los temas de la seguridad jurídica y la tutela contra sentencias. Pretende mostrar dos cosas: en primer lugar, que el Estado de inseguridad jurídica que padece Colombia no tiene origen en las sentencias que profieren los jueces de tutela, sino en las prácticas normativas irregulares del Congreso y de la Presidencia de la República. En segundo lugar evidencia, desde las prácticas del Sistema Interamericano de Protección de los Derechos Humanos, del que Colombia forma parte y, que resulta conforme con la Convención Americana sobre Derechos Humanos, el examen judicial de las sentencias proferidas por los jueces locales.

  13. The politics of presidential illness. Ronald Reagan and the Iran-Contra Scandal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the likelihood that the Iran-Contra scandal was shaped heavily by the effects of Ronald Reagan's cancer surgery in summer, 1985. During the President's hospitalization and in the period soon after, he took several actions--which he apparently did not remember--that launched a policy that was unwise, counterproductive, and a failure. These damaged both his Administration and his standing in history. The 25th Amendment afforded Reagan the means by which his involvement in these events could easily have been avoided. However, the President and his aides determined that he would resume the powers and duties of the presidency only hours after undergoing extensive cancer surgery. This decision contributed materially to the most damaging episode of Reagan's eight-year presidency.

  14. An Integrative Biosensor Based on Contra-Directional Coupling Two-dimensional Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xiao-Yu; YAO Di-Bi; ZHAO Ling-Yun; HUANG Yi-Dong; ZHANG Wei; PENG Jiang-De

    2008-01-01

    We propose an integrative biochemical sensor utilizing the dip in the transmission spectrum of a normal singleline defect photonic crystal(PC)waveguide,which has a contra-directional coupling with another PC waveguide.When the air holes in the PC slab are filled with a liquid analyte with different refractive indices,the dip has a wavelength shift.By detecting the output power variation at a certain fixed wavelength,a sensitivity of 1.2×10-4is feasible.This structure is easy for integration due to its plane waveguide structure and omissible pump source.In addition,high signal to noise ratio can be expected because signal transmits via a normal single-line defect PC waveguide instead of the PC hole area or analyte.

  15. VIOLÊNCIA CONTRA MULHERES: REFLEXÕES TEÓRICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Casique Casique; Antonia Regina Ferreira Furegato

    2006-01-01

    A violência manifesta-se de diferentes formas, em distintas circunstâncias e com diversos tipos de atos violentos dirigidos a crianças, mulheres, idosos e outros indefesos. Violência doméstica, violência de gênero e violência contra mulheres são termos utilizados para denominar este grave problema que degrada a integridade da mulher. A violência de gênero pode manifestar-se através de violência física, violência psicológica, violência sexual, violência econômica e violência no trabalho. A vio...

  16. Violencia contra las mujeres en tres ciudades de Colombia: Pasto, Cartagena y Cali. 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Londoño Toro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que evidencia la gravedad de la situación de violencia contra la mujer con un examen específico de este fenómeno en las relaciones de pareja. El aporte de las investigadoras radica en la documentación de los principales problemas referidos a la dinámica de las vulneraciones, tipologías de agresores, formas de violencia e incluso períodos en que se incrementan estos fenómenos a partir de las cifras de los Observatorios Regionales de Cali, Pasto y Cartagena (Colombia. Finaliza con unas propuestas relacionadas con el fortalecimiento de las políticas públicas, respuesta estatal e institucional y diseño de mecanismos de acceso a la justicia para las mujeres.

  17. Violência contra migrantes em trânsito pelo México

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Essa pesquisa se dá no contexto das migrações internacionais contemporâneas, especialmente da migração indocumentada para os Estados Unidos. O ponto de partida é a violência contra migrantes na travessia pelo México, e as perguntas centrais são: se o migrante sabe do risco que corre com a violência no trânsito, por quê continua indo para os Estados Unidos? Como atuam as redes sociais na reprodução dos fluxos migratórios? Qual o vínculo existente entre a política migratória e a violência? Por ...

  18. Hombres contra la violencia de género: replanteando la masculinidad en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    England, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es entender cómo los hombres activistas que participan en campañas contra la violencia de género en Guatemala interpretan las causas de este tipo de violencia, el papel que desempeña la masculinidad en su perpetuación, así como cuál es la mejor manera de comunicar estas ideas a otros hombres. La investigación se basó en entrevistas a ocho hombres involucrados en activismo de equidad de género en Guatemala y en la observación de talleres enfocados a propagar la igu...

  19. A cidade e a palavra: considerações sobre Sete contra Tebas

    OpenAIRE

    Paoli, Beatriz de

    2010-01-01

    Nos versos iniciais da tragédia Sete contra Tebas, Etéocles reconhece a necessidade de pronunciar palavras adequadas como um de seus deveres enquanto dirigente e defensor da cidade de Tebas. A preocupação de Etéocles com o que deve ou não ser dito frente à iminência do ataque inimigo advém de uma percepção da linguagem como uma forma divina do mundo, o que fundamenta a crença entre os gregos de que palavra possui um nume que nela reside e que faz com que ela se cumpra, sendo, desse modo, prof...

  20. MEDICINA Y CRIMEN CONTRA LA HUMANIDAD. EL LEGADO DE LA DOCTORA ADÉLAÏDE HAUTVAL

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    EMILIA BEA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se aborda el testimonio de la doctora alsaciana, Adélaïde Hautval, sobre la pseudomedicina practicada en el Lager y sobre su negativa a colaborar en el crimen contra la humanidad. A través de su diario de la deportación y de las actas de un peculiar juicio a Auschwitz celebrado en Londres en 1964, nos adentramos en los dilemas ético-profesionales que tuvieron que afrontar los médicos prisioneros en aquel escenario y que, en su caso, dieron lugar a acciones de resistencia ante la barbarie, de desobediencia a sus superiores y de solidaridad con las víctimas capaces de iluminar la actitud a tomar ante los dispositivos biopolíticos contemporáneos.

  1. ¿Cómo informar de la Guerra contra el Terrorismo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dinges

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El atentado contra las Torres Gemelas y el Pentágono dejó de ser un acto de terrorismo y llegó a ser un acto de guerra, pues su impacto fue igual o mayor que el incidente que comenzó la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Tenemos entonces un reto periodístico porque estamos frente a una guerra, no frente a reportajes sobre terrorismo como estábamos acostumbrados en el pasado y eso nos pone ante tres grandes desafíos: cómo descubrir la historia humana en la tragedia; cómo cubrir el Gobierno en su parte militar, diplomática y en la inteligencia, y cómo cubrir el Medio Oriente, porque hemos entendido muy mal lo que es esta parte del mundo.

  2. Fatores associados à violência contra mulheres profissionais do sexo de dez cidades brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Sueli da Silva Lima

    Full Text Available Resumo: No Brasil, há um limitado número de estudos sobre violência contra mulheres profissionais do sexo, tema que vem instigando pesquisadores em todo o mundo, estimulados principalmente por possíveis associações desta com o HIV. Este trabalho objetiva estimar a prevalência de violência contra mulheres profissionais do sexo, segundo natureza e perpetrador, e identificar os fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com dados de 2.523 mulheres profissionais do sexo de dez cidades brasileiras, recrutadas pelo método respondent-driven sampling (RDS. Os resultados mostraram que a prevalência de violência verbal foi de 59,5%; violência física 38,1%; sexual 37,8%. Violência física por parceiro íntimo, 25,2%; por clientes, 11,7%. Dentre os fatores associados à violência física estão: idade < 30 anos (ORa = 2,27; IC95%: 1,56-3,29; uso de drogas (ORa = 2,02; IC95%: 1,54-2,65; valor do programa até R$ 29,00 (ORa = 1,51; IC95%: 1,07-2,13. Conclui-se que as mulheres profissionais do sexo brasileiras vivenciam uma carga desproporcional de violência. Identificar fatores de vulnerabilidade é fundamental para as intervenções que garantam direitos humanos e controle do HIV.

  3. A violência contra a mulher no discurso diplomático brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izadora Xavier do Monte

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute as políticas brasileiras sobre violência contra a mulher em perspectiva com as discussões sobre o temano âmbito do Conselho de Direitos Humanos das Nações Unidas, pautadas pelo trabalho da relatora especial da ONU sobre causas e conseqüências da violência contra a mulher. O objetivo é demonstrar que existe um alinhamento entre o foco das políticas para as mulheres recentemente definidas do governo Dilma, o discurso diplomático brasileiro em direitos humanos e a perspectiva da relatora especial das Nações Unidas. Esse alinhamento é em parte tributário do fortalecimento das posições políticas da terceira onda feminista e abre espaço para uma aliança mutuamente benéfica entre atuação diplomática brasileira, no nível internacional, e avanço da agenda feminista, no nível doméstico.   The article discusses Brazilian policies against gender violence in perspective with the UN Human Rights Council discussion based on the work of the special rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences. It aims at showing an alignment between policies for women recently defined by the government of Dilma Roussef, traditional Brazilian diplomatic discourse and the point of view of the special rapporteur. This alignment ows much to third wave feminism and allows for an alliance, mutually beneficial, though rare, between Brazilian diplomatic action, on the international level, and the advancement of a feminist agenda, on the national level.

  4. VIOLÊNCIA CONTRA GESTANTES EM DELEGACIAS ESPECIALIZADAS NO ATENDIMENTO À MULHER DE TERESINA-PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Gomes dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La violencia contra la mujer es definida como cualquier acción o conducta basada en violencia de género, que cause muerte, daño o sufrimiento físico, sexual o psicológico. El objetivo fue medir el fenómeno de la violencia doméstica contra las mujeres embarazadas mediante la denuncia de maltrato en Comisarías Especializadas en Atención a la Mujer, en Teresina- -PI. Investigación cuantitativa del tipo análisis documental, retrospectivo. Para recolectar datos se utilizó un formulario semiestructurado. La muestra estuvo conformada por 71 notificaciones policiales de mujeres embarazadas violadas en 2008 en dos Comisarías de la Mujer de Teresina-PI. Se observó que 42,3% de las embarazadas era ama de casa; 31,0% tenía entre 22 y 26 años de edad; los principales responsables por la violencia fueron sus compañeros (38,0%, maridos (18,3% y ex- -compañeros (18,3%; se destacaron los tipos de violencia física (32,5%, psicológica (31,7% y moral (30%. Se concluyó que la población de embarazadas que denunció a su pareja no fue significativa, probablemente por tornarse más manejables ante las promesas del compañero de no volver a agredirla.

  5. Análisis del fenómeno de la violencia contra los ancianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celín Pérez Nájera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre el impacto social de la violencia contra los ancianos, desde la óptica criminológica. En el trabajo se utilizó como método investigativo el enfoque dialéctico-materialista de la realidad, que facilitó el engranaje de toda la investigación en diferentes etapas. Las valoraciones generalizadoras y sistematizadoras se elaboraron desde los enfoques modelativo y sistémico-estructural. Luego de analizar la diversidad de conceptos de violencia, se estableció una definición desde una formación social e histórica; existen dos principios que distinguen sus características: uno que la concibe como un fenómeno de carácter social y el teórico-ecológico, que consiste en el empleo de la fuerza física, económica o política, e implica el abuso de poder cómo único método para resolver el conflicto. Así mismo, se examinó el comportamiento de la violencia contra los ancianos en diversos países: España, Estados Unidos, Perú, Brasil, Panamá, Argentina, Colombia, Chile y Cuba. En general, son alarmantes las cifras de incidencia del fenómeno. De igual forma, en Cuba crece la victimización sobre los ancianos. Se aprecia como manifestación fundamental la violencia psicológica o emocional. Aunque existen mecanismos de denuncia, falta de divulgación y sistematicidad de acciones, que permitan enfrentar la incidencia de este mal social, que afecta a dicho grupo de riesgo de la violencia.

  6. Counterintuitive publicity and the rebound effect A publicidade contra-intuitiva e o efeito ricochete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Leite

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Counterintuitive publicity and the rebound effect — This paper shares with the reader some conceptual ideas of counterintuitive advertising, observing its possible effects on the reevaluation and deconstruction of beliefs and social stereotypes in the cognitive make-up of the viewer. The ironic rebound effect is singled out among the probable reflexes, according to the theory propounded by Daniel M. Wegner. This theory is applied taking as an example Fiat's commercial "The Driver", which was part of an advertising campaign in Brazil called "Review your concepts" to introduce its new Palio 2002 car model. The authors are currently engaged in a laboratory experiment to measure the above described theory in a consistent manner. O propósito deste artigo é compartilhar com o leitor algumas noções conceituais de publicidade contra-intuitiva e observar seus possíveis efeitos na reavaliação, desconstrução de crenças e estereótipos sociais, na estrutura cognitiva do indivíduo receptor. Destaca-se entre os reflexos provavelmente gerados o irônico efeito ricochete, segundo a teoria desenvolvida por Daniel M. Wegner. A aplicação para se discutir o cruzamento da narrativa contra-intuitiva e o efeito ricochete será, neste primeiro momento, pela exemplificação do filme Motorista, peça integrante da campanha publicitária da Fiat do Brasil "Reveja seus conceitos", para o lançamento do automóvel Palio 2002. Um experimento laboratorial está sendo desenvolvido pelos autores para se mensurar de maneira consistente a apresentação teórico-conceitual exposta.

  7. La contra-reforma del Estado y el trabajo en salud en los servicios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia MARCH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio objetiva contribuir para a análise da relação entre o Estado brasileiro e os trabalhadores de saúde em uma conjuntura de contra-reforma do Estado a partir de uma análise das proposições dos governos Fernando Henrique Cardoso e Luis Inácio Lula da Silva. Parto do pressuposto de que está em curso desde o primeiro governo Fernando Henrique Cardoso um processo de contra-reforma no setor saúde sutil, gradual e informal. Particularmente no que diz respeito à relação entre o Estado e os trabalhadores do setor público de saúde, durante os governos de Fernando Henrique Cardoso a proposição de Organizações Sociais (OS e a proposta de Emprego Público, dentre outras atingiram direitos dos trabalhadores. Durante o período, a precarização das relações de trabalho se generalizou na administração pública. Na seqüência, o governo Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, ainda que sob a retórica de combate à precarização do trabalho em saúde no setor público, apresenta ao Congresso Nacional a projeto de criação das Fundações Estatais de Direito Privado (FEDP para as políticas sociais, as quais possuem extrema semelhança com as OS, com destaque para a flexibilização dos direitos dos trabalhadores do serviço público.

  8. Anticuerpos séricos contra la enfermedad de Newcastle e Influenza Aviar en aves rapaces de Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos contra los virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle (ENC e Influenza aviar (IA, para comprender la contribución de las aves silvestres en la transmisión de estos virus en Chile. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 63 aves pertenecientes a los órdenes Falconiformes y Strigiformes desde centros de rehabilitación de aves de las zonas central y sur de Chile. Se realizaron las pruebas de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación (IHA para detectar anticuerpos contra el virus ENC e inmunodifusión en gel agar (IDGA y ELISA para IA. Resultados. Se detectaron 14 aves positivas (22.2% para anticuerpos séricos contra el virus de la ENC. En cambio, no se registraron anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos para el virus de la IA. Conclusiones. La presencia de aves rapaces positivas en los centros de rescate a los anticuerpos séricos contra el virus de la ENC puede ser explicada por el consumo de carne de pollos que han sido vacunados contra ENC o consumo de aves que han adquirido directamente el virus vacunal a través de los distintos procedimientos de administración (aerosoles, bebederos de la vacuna o por el ingreso a los centros de rescate de aves rapaces migratorias, las que podrían facilitar la diseminación de la infección desde los países de origen, hecho que debe ser investigado.

  9. Violence against women: theoretical reflections Violencia contra mujeres: reflexiones teóricas Violência contra mulheres: reflexões teóricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Casique Casique

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence appears in different forms and circumstances and involves distinct kinds of violent acts against children, women, elderly and other defenseless persons. This serious problem, which degrades women's integrity, is denoted by terms like domestic violence, gender violence and violence against women. Gender violence can appear as physical, psychological, sexual, economic violence, as well as violence at work. Violence against women committed by their intimate partners can be analyzed through the Ecological Model, which explains the close relation between individuals and their environment. Factors influencing people's behavior towards this violence should be analyzed with a view to establishing help programs.La violencia se manifiesta de diferentes formas, en distintas circunstancias y con diversos tipos de actos dirigidos a niños, mujeres, ancianos y otras personas indefensas. Violencia domestica, violencia de genero y violencia contra mujeres son términos utilizados para denominar este grave problema que degrada la integridad de la mujer. La violencia de género puede manifestarse a través de violencia física, violencia psicológica, violencia sexual, violencia económica y violencia en el trabajo. La violencia sufrida por la mujer por parte de su compañero íntimo puede ser analizada a través del Modelo Ecológico que explica la estrecha relación entre el individuo y su entorno. Se concluyo que es importante analizar los factores que influyen en el comportamiento de las personas frente a la violencia para establecer programas de ayuda.A violência manifesta-se de diferentes formas, em distintas circunstâncias e com diversos tipos de atos violentos dirigidos a crianças, mulheres, idosos e outros indefesos. Violência doméstica, violência de gênero e violência contra mulheres são termos utilizados para denominar este grave problema que degrada a integridade da mulher. A violência de gênero pode manifestar-se através de viol

  10. Efecto in vitro e in vivo de los análogos alquilfosfolípidos (APLs) en el desarollo de nuevos compuestos contra Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Yepes Victoria, Edward

    2015-01-01

    [ES]El fármaco de elección para tratar la esquistosomosis es el praziquantel, aunque su falta de eficacia contra formas juveniles y la generación de resistencias sobre todo tras los tratamientos masivos que se realizan en áreas edémicas, nos sugiere, disponer de otros fármacos activos contra esta enfermedad. Los análogos Alquilfosfolípidos (APLs) son compuestos con acción antitumoral que han mostrado eficacia contra parasitosis, principalmente leishmaniosis y tripanosomosis. Por tanto, nuestr...

  11. A produção de contra-argumentos na escrita infantil Counterargument in children’s writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Leitão

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sobre a produção de textos argumentativos mostram que antecipar contra-argumentos e reagir a estes é uma das principais dificuldades na escrita deste tipo de texto. Este estudo investigou a habilidade de 157 crianças (segunda, quarta e sétima séries gerarem contra-argumentos nos textos que produziam. Observou-se que, embora contra-argumentos apareçam ocasionalmente nos escritos da segunda série, só a partir da quarta essa presença se torna sistemática. Progressos relacionados à idade e escolaridade foram também registrados quanto ao número de contra-argumentos examinados num mesmo texto. A estrutura global dos textos produzidos (narrativo vs. opinativo e o tema discutido não parecem ter afetado a produção de contra-argumentos pelas crianças, embora efeitos destes fatores tenham sido notados sobre o número de idéias usadas pelas mesmas para justificarem suas própria posições. Na discussão destes resultados examina-se o papel de fatores pragmáticos no desenvolvimento de contra-argumentos em textos escritos.Studies on argumentative text writing have shown that anticipating counterargument and reacting to them is one of the hardest demands of argumentative writing. The present study focused on second, fourth, and seventh graders’ ability to generate counterarguments in their writings. The results showed that, although counterarguments appear in some of the second graders’ writings, it is only after the fourth grade that their presence is systematically observed in children’s writing. Age- and schooling-related effects were also noted on the number of counterarguments examined per text. The global structure of the texts produced (a narrative vs. an opinion text did not affect the production of counterargument by children, although a main effect of such factors was noted on the number of ideas children used to justify their own views. The role of pragmatic factors in the development of counterargument in

  12. Physiological conditions conducive to high cell density and high cyanophycin content in Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 possessing a KDPG aldolase gene-dependent addiction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaichien; Elbahloul, Yasser; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    The recombinant strain of Ralstonia eutropha H16-PHB(-)4-∆eda (pBBR1MCS-2::cphA (6308)/eda (H16)) presenting a 2-keto-3-desoxy-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase (eda) gene-dependent catabolic addiction system for plasmid maintenance when using gluconate or fructose as sole carbon source was used in this study. The effects of the initial pH, the nitrogen-to-carbon ratio, the inorganic components of medium, the oxygen supply, and the different carbon and nitrogen sources on the cell dry matter (CDM) and the cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP) content of the cells were studied in a mineral salts medium (MSM) without any additional amino acids or CGP precursor substrates. The experiments were designed to systematically find out the optimal conditions for growth of cells to high densities and for high CGP contents of the cells. Maximum contents of water-insoluble CGP and water-soluble CGP, contributing to 47.5% and 5.8% (w/w) of CDM, respectively, were obtained at the 30-L scale cultivation when cells were cultivated in MSM medium containing sufficient supplements of fructose, NH(3), K(2)SO(4), MgSO(4)[Symbol: see text]7H(2)O, Fe(Ш)NH(4)-citrate, CaCl(2)[Symbol: see text]2H(2)O, and trace elements (SL6). The molecular masses of water-insoluble and water-soluble CGP ranged from 25 to 31 kDa and from 15 to 21 kDa, respectively. High cell densities of up to 82.8 g CDM/L containing up to 37.8% (w/w) water-insoluble CGP at the 30-L scale cultivation were also obtained. This is by far the best combination of high cell density and high cellular CGP contents ever reported, and it showed that efficient production of CGP at the industrial scale in white biotechnology could be achieved.

  13. Modification of β-oxidation pathway in Ralstonia eutropha for production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) from soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomphun, Chayatip; Mifune, Jun; Orita, Izumi; Numata, Keiji; Nakamura, Satoshi; Fukui, Toshiaki

    2014-02-01

    Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a useful platform for metabolic engineering aiming at efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanaotes being attracted as practical bioplastics. This study focused on bifunctional (S)-specific 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase/(S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase encoded by fadB to obtain information regarding β-oxidation in this bacterium and to achieve compositional regulation of poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HHx)] synthesized from soybean oil. In addition to two FadB homologs (FadB1 and FadB') encoded within the previously identified β-oxidation gene clusters on the chromosome 1, a gene of third homolog (FadB2) was found on chromosome 2 of R. eutropha. The fadB homologs were disrupted in R. eutropha strain NSDG expressing a mutant gene of PHA synthase from Aeromonas caviae. The gene disruptions affected neither growth nor PHA production on fructose. On soybean oil, fadB' deletion led to reduction of PHA quantity attributed to decrease of 3HB unit, while fadB1 deletion slightly increased 3HHx composition without serious negative impact on both cell growth and PHA biosynthesis. Double deletion of fadB1 and fadB' significantly impaired the cell growth and PHA biosynthesis, indicating the major roles of fadB1 and fadB' in β-oxidation. When fadB1 was deleted in several engineered strains of R. eutropha possessing additional (R)-enoyl-CoA hydratase gene(s), the net amounts of 3HHx unit in the PHA fractions showed 6-21% increase probably due to slightly enhanced supply of medium-chain-length 2-enoyl-CoAs through the partially impaired β-oxidation. These results demonstrated that modification of β-oxidation by fadB1 deletion was effective for increasing 3HHx composition in the copolyesters produced from soybean oil.

  14. Screening and Identifying of Antagonistic Actinomycetes against Ralstonia Solancearum%烟草青枯菌拮抗放线菌的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆铮铮; 彭丽娟; 丁海霞; 左希; 彭杰; 蒋选利

    2013-01-01

    In order to select effective antagonistic actinomycetes against Ralstonia solanacearum, we isolated 56 strains of actinomycetes from healthy tobacco rhizosphere soils. By pairing culture on plate method to screen antagonistic actinomycetes, we attained 3 strains of antagonistic actinomycetes, whose average inhibition diameters were more than 20 mm. We identified 3 strains of actinomycetes according to culture characteristics on differential culture mediums, spore and spore chain morphology, physiological and biochemical, molecular biology methods. The results showed that the 3 strains of actinomycetes were Streptomyces roseofulvus, Streptomyces olivaceoviridis and Streptomyces corchorusii. Among them, the best was S. roseofulvus, and average inhibition diameter was 54.66 mm. Average inhibition diameter of S.olivaceoviridis was 43.20 mm, and average inhibition diameter of S. corchorusii was 20.34 mm.%  为筛选出烟草青枯菌的有效拮抗菌,本研究从烟草根围土壤中分离了97株放线菌,通过平板对峙培养法筛选出抑菌圈直径均达20 mm以上的拮抗放线菌3株。根据其在鉴别培养基上的培养特征、孢子和孢子链的形态特征,生理生化特性以及16SrDNA序列分析对这3株拮抗放线菌进行鉴定。结果表明,3株拮抗放线菌都属于链霉菌属(Streptomyces),分别为粉红孢类群中的玫瑰暗黄链霉菌(S. roseofulvus Preobrazhenskaya)、绿色类群中的橄榄绿链霉菌(S. olivaceoviridis Preobrazhenskaya)和灰褐类群中的黄麻链霉菌(S. corchorusii Ahmed)。其中,玫瑰暗黄链霉菌菌株对青枯劳尔氏菌的拮抗效果最好,其平均抑菌圈直径可达54.66 mm;橄榄绿链霉菌菌株的拮抗效果次之,其平均抑菌圈直径为43.20 mm;黄麻链霉菌平均抑菌圈直径为20.34 mm。

  15. Publicidad Contra la Violencia: Un Estudio de Recepción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Elena Giraldo Villegas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha estado emitiendo en la televisión nacional de Colombia spots publicitarios generalmente conocidos como mensajes institucionales cuyos contenidos van en contra de las distintas formas de violencia, lo cual marca el inicio de campañas que incentivan la tolerancia y la convivencia pacífica. No obstante, es necesario conocer el resultado de esos mensajes, si han logrado su propósito, y si existe indiferencia ante la violencia real de los telespectadores. La emisión de estos spots pone de relieve la situación que el país ha vivido durante más de 50 años, sumido en la violencia guerrillera, paramilitar y de otras índoles, y se presume que estos mensajes deben propiciar una cultura ciudadana, una política de la inclusión con tolerancia, y facilitar escenarios de reconciliación familiar. El artículo se propone describir los diferentes impactos que generaron cuatro spots emitidos por Telecaribe, los cuales trataron de mostrar la violencia ejercida en niños-as, mujeres, ancianos-as y discapacitados, y en hombres adultos de las comunas 5 y 6 de la ciudad de Santa Marta.Palabras Clave: Publicidad contra la violencia; estudios de recepción; spots publicitarios; impacto; videos; constructivismo; cultura; cotidianidad; reconocimiento. Advertising violence: A Study of ReceptionAbstractRecently, publicity spots generally known as institutional messages with contents against the different forms of violence have been emitted in national television. This marks the beginning of campaigns that encourage tolerance and pacific coexistence. However, it’s necessary to know the result of those messages, if they have achieved their purpose, and if there is any indifference before the audience’s real violence. The broadcast of these spots highlights the country’s situation throughout more than 50 years of guerilla, paramilitary and other sources of violence; and it is presumed to propitiate tolerance culture, peace or civic culture

  16. Estado y nación durante el golpe contra Hugo Chávez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coronil, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two objetives. In the first place, it is a discussion of the development of the coup d’etat against Hugo Chávez during April 11th at 14th of 2002, focusing on the competing views of the opposition and supporters of the government in relation to three processes: the march against the violation of “meritocracia” in the oil industry (corporate criteria for selecting the managers of the state’s oil company, the massacre that took place on April 11th, and the act of proclamation of Pedro Carmona as president on April 12th. The essay examines in particular the choreography of these events and the changing conceptions of the nation and the state involved in these processes. Secondly, on the basis of this examination, the essay concludes with some theoretical observations concerning the state, its constitution, and the manner in which it exerts its hegemony.

    Este ensayo tiene dos objetivos. En primer lugar, es una discusión sobre el golpe de Estado contra Hugo Chávez que se desarrolló entre el 11 y el 14 de abril de 2002. Se enfoca en las contrapuestas visiones de la oposición y de los partidarios del gobierno en relación con tres procesos: la marcha en protesta contra la violación de la meritocracia petrolera, la masacre del 11 de abril y el acto de proclamación de Pedro Carmona como presidente el 12 de abril. Examina en particular la coreografia de estos eventos y la transformación de las concepciones de la nación y el Estado involucradas en estos procesos. En segundo lugar, sobre la base de esta examinación, el ensayo concluye con algunas observaciones teóricas sobre el Estado, su constitución y la forma como ejerce su hegemonía.

  17. VACUNACIÓN CONTRA EL VIRUS DEL PAPILOMA HUMANO Y AUTOINMUNIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Manuel Anaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMEN
    El desarrollo de enfermedades autoinmunes es un tema de suma importancia cuando de vacunas se trata, dado el riesgo que pueden tener éstas de favorecer fenómenos de autoinmunidad en individuos susceptibles. La relación riesgo/beneficio de desarrollar enfermedades autoinmunes luego de la vacunación contra el virus del papiloma humano (VPH aún no se ha resuelto. Los datos disponibles son limitados para ofrecer conclusiones definitivas. Dado el aumento reciente de reporte de efectos adversos, se espera que estudios con suficiente tamaño muestral, en diversas poblaciones, confirmen la seguridad de la vacunación contra el VPH en niñas con enfermedades autoinmunes. Un análisis personalizado de cada paciente, que incluya la evaluación de autoinmunidad personal y familiar, podría ser sugerido, aunque no hay estudios que demuestren que sea costo-efectivo. Por lo tanto, la farmacovigilancia permanente de esta vacuna sigue siendo de suma importancia.

    Palabras clave: Virus del papiloma humano VPH, vacunación, autoinmunidad, efectos colaterales.

    VACCINATION AGAINST HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND AUTOIMMUNITY

    ABSTRACT
    Development of autoimmune diseases is a very important issue in relation to vaccines, because there is a risk that they might promote autoimmune phenomena in susceptible individuals. The risk: benefit ratio of developing autoimmune diseases after human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination has not yet been resolved. Data available are limited to provide definitive conclusions. Given the recent increase of adverse effect reports, studies with sufficient sample size are expected in various populations, aimed to confirm the safety of HPV vaccination in children with autoimmune diseases. A personalized analysis of each individual, including evaluation of personal and familial autoimmunity, may be suggested; however, there are no studies showing that this policy is cost

  18. Calidad de vida en cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Mauricio Puerto Pedraza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Describir la calidad de vida de los cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer, en la Unidad de Oncología y Radioterapia del Hospital Universitario de Santander en Bucaramanga, durante el primer semestre del 2013. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal: Se evaluaron 75 cuidadores familiares. Se utilizó el instrumento que toma el concepto del modelo de Calidad de vida versión familiar propuesto por Betty Ferrell. Para el análisis se utilizó estadística descriptiva y la regla de estratificación de Dalhenius y Hodges. Resultados: Los cuidadores son en mayoría mujeres de estratos socioeconómicos 1 y 2, de escolaridad primaria incompleta el 37,3%, el estado civil el 66,7% informó estar casados o en unión libre, de ocupación hogar 50,7%, con una mediana de 18 horas de cuidado a la persona con cáncer. La Calidad de vida global infiere que los cuidadores presentan una percepción de la calidad de vida media en (41,3%. Para las dimensiones del instrumento se reportó: puntajes medios para la salud física en (48%, psicológica (42%, social (45,3% y espiritual (44%. Discusión y Conclusiones: Es posible que los cuidadores familiares no se identifiquen por sus labores asistenciales como un cuidador más y no perciban ninguna alteración en su calidad de vida, a pesar que tengan manifestaciones físicas relacionadas a la carga de asistencia y cuidado.  Cómo citar este artículo: Puerto HM. Calidad de vida en cuidadores familiares de personas en tratamiento contra el cáncer. Rev Cuid. 2015; 6(2: 1029-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v6i2.154 

  19. Imunogenicidade da vacina brasileira contra hepatite B em adultos Inmunogenicidad de la vacuna brasilera contra hepatitis B en adultos Immunogenicity of the Brazilian hepatitis B vaccine in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cássio de Moraes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a imunogenicidade e segurança da vacina contra hepatite B, após o aumento na concentração do antígeno HBsAg para 25 μg, em comparação à vacina de referência. MÉTODOS: Ensaio com alocação aleatória e mascaramento simples, comparando a VrHB-IB (Instituto Butantan com a vacina de referência (Engerix B®, Glaxo Smith Kline. Os voluntários, entre 31 e 40 anos de idade (n=419, foram alocados aleatoriamente ao grupo experimental (n=216 ou ao grupo controle (n=203, e receberam três doses de vacina. A primeira dose foi administrada no momento do recrutamento, a segunda e terceira 30 e 180 dias depois respectivamente, entre 2004 e 2005. Amostras de sangue foram colhidas para análise sorológica antes da randomização, e após a segunda e terceira doses. Foi realizada a vigilância ativa de eventos adversos durante os cinco primeiros dias após a vacinação. As diferenças foram avaliadas pelos testes do qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Não se observaram eventos adversos graves. A soroporteção foi confirmada em 98,6% (213/216 dos voluntários do grupo experimental, em comparação a 95,6% (194/203 do grupo controle. Os títulos geométricos médios foram de 12.557 e 11.673, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: A vacina brasileira foi considerada equivalente à vacina de referência e seu uso recomendado para adultos.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la inmunogenicidad y seguridad de la vacuna contra hepatitis B, posterior al aumento en la concentración del antígeno HBsAg para 25mg, en comparación a la vacuna de referencia. MÉTODOS: Ensayo con distribución aleatoria y enmascaramiento simple, comparando la VrHB-IB (Instituto Butantan con la vacuna de referencia (Engerix BÒ, Glaxo Smith Kline. Los voluntarios, entre 31 y 40 años de edad (n=419, fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en el grupo experimental (n=216 o en el grupo control (n=203, y recibieron tres dosis de la vacuna. La primera

  20. La ciencia jovial: un ejercicio del derroche frente a la “guerra santa” contra el animal

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Beatriz Cragnolini

    2012-01-01

    Para el artículo, la noción de ciencia jovial permite pensar otros modos de vinculación con el viviente animal, en la línea de una deconstrucción de los mecanismos apropiadores de la vida. Si la “guerra santa” contra el animal es, como muestra el texto, una “guerra contra el derroche”, una “ciencia generosa”, como la gaya ciencia, supone otro modo de encarar la relación con el viviente animal y con el animal que somos. En este sentido, se afirma que la “gaya ciencia” podría ser pensada, en un...

  1. La ciencia jovial: un ejercicio del derroche frente a la “guerra santa” contra el animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Beatriz Cragnolini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Para el artículo, la noción de ciencia jovial permite pensar otros modos de vinculación con el viviente animal, en la línea de una deconstrucción de los mecanismos apropiadores de la vida. Si la “guerra santa” contra el animal es, como muestra el texto, una “guerra contra el derroche”, una “ciencia generosa”, como la gaya ciencia, supone otro modo de encarar la relación con el viviente animal y con el animal que somos. En este sentido, se afirma que la “gaya ciencia” podría ser pensada, en un sentido político, como otra perspectiva para considerar las formas de ubicarnos en comunidad con todo lo viviente.

  2. Numerical analysis of head degrade law under cavitation condition of contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D.; Pan, Z. Y.

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the flow-head characteristic curve, the SST turbulence model, homogeneous multiphase model and Rayleigh-Plesset equation were applied to simulate the cavitation characteristics in contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump under different conditions based on ANSYS CFX software. The distribution of cavity, pressure coefficient of the blade at the design point under different cavitation conditions were obtained. The analysis results of flow field show that the vapour volume distribution on the impeller indicates that the vapour first appears at the leading edge of blade and then extends to the outlet of impeller with the reduction of Net Positive Suction Head Allowance (NPSHA). The present study illustrates that the main reason for the decline of the pump performance is the development of cavitation, and the simulation can truly reflect the cavitation performance of the contra-rotating axial flow waterjet pump.

  3. Vacinação contra influenza e pneumococo na insuficiência cardíaca: uma recomendação pouco aplicada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolney de Andrade Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC cursa com frequentes descompensações e admissões ao serviço de emergência. Vacinação contra Influenza (INF e Pneumococo (PNM são recomendadas nas diretrizes, entretanto, as infecções respiratórias são a terceira causa de hospitalização na IC. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência da vacinação contra INF e PNM em pacientes com IC na rede pública. MÉTODOS: Em estudo observacional realizado em Teresópolis, região serrana fluminense, foram utilizadas três estratégias: (I estudo das requisições para vacina contra INF e/ou PNM na Secretaria Municipal de Saúde, entre 2004 e 2006; (II inquérito direto a 61 pacientes com IC atendidos na atenção básica sobre sua situação vacinal contra INF e PNM; (III inquérito direto sobre situação vacinal contra INF e PNM a 81 pacientes com IC crônica descompensada atendidos na única emergência aberta à rede pública. RESULTADOS: Na estratégia I, a vacinação contra INF e/ou PNM foi de 15,3% daqueles com indicações por doenças cardiovasculares e respiratórias. A mediana do tempo entre a indicação e a vacinação foi de 32 dias. Na estratégia II, o percentual de vacinados contra INF, com idade > 60 anos, foi de 23,1%, e de 24,6% contra PMN em todas as idades. Na estratégia III, o percentual de pacientes vacinados contra INF foi de 35,8% e contra PNM foi de 2,5%. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de vacinação contra INF e PNM em pacientes com IC é muito baixa e ainda menor naqueles descompensados atendidos em serviço de emergência.

  4. CONTRA: Improving the performance of dynamic investigations in natural abundance organic solids by mirror-symmetric constant-time CODEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Detlef; Pascui, Ovidiu; Bonagamba, Tito J.; Belton, Peter; Schmidt, Asher; deAzevedo, Eduardo Ribeiro

    2008-03-01

    We present a minor but essential modification to the CODEX 1D-MAS exchange experiment. The new CONTRA method, which requires minor changes of the original sequence only, has advantages over the previously introduced S-CODEX, since it is less sensitive to artefacts caused by finite pulse lengths. The performance of this variant, including the finite pulse effect, was confirmed by SIMPSON calculations and demonstrated on a number of dynamic systems.

  5. Produção e caracterização de anticorpos policlonais contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi a produção de anticorpos policlonais contra Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola e sua caracterização pelo método Elisa indireto. Os resultados apontaram a qualidade dos anticorpos policlonais produzidos, os quais mostraram-se altamente reativos e específicos para o patovar com potencial para ser empregado no diagnóstico da doença e em programas de certificação.

  6. LA VIOLENCIA CONTRA LAS MUJERES EN LAS PRODUCCIONES DE LA COMISIÓN Y LA CORTE INTERAMERICANA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Clérico

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available l trabajo identifica y analiza los estándares que surgen de las producciones de la CIDH y de la Corte IDH respecto de: la definición de violencia contra las mujeres/de género; la calificación de los actos u omisiones que implican violaciones a los derechos humanos y como expresión de la desigualdad de poder; las obligaciones estatales y medidas reparatorias para erradicar la violencia de género. El análisis identifica avances en la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en las producciones del SIDH; sin embargo, asimismo devela que aún es restringida la concepción de violencia contra las mujeres aplicada por la Corte IDH al estar aún muy centrada en la violencia sexual y no ampliarse a otros aspectos; también alerta que el énfasis puesto en la medida reparatoria de acceso a la justicia opaca pensar en otras acciones adecuadas para la erradicación de la violencia contra las mujeres.

  7. Meios de comunicação impressos, representações sociais e violência contra idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Rúbia de Albuquerque Saraiva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se apreender as representações sociais da violência e dos maus-tratos contra os idosos divulgadas pela mídia impressa paulista e paraibana. Foi realizada uma pesquisa documental com 126 notícias dos jornais Folha de S. Paulo e O Norte (Paraíba, cujos textos foram analisados pelas classificações hierárquicas descendente e ascendente processadas pelo software Alceste. As representações sociais sobre a violência contra os idosos apresentaram-se polarizadas entre os dois jornais: no paraibano destacaram-se as temáticas dos direitos e das políticas públicas, e no paulista, emergiu a concepção de violência, em relação aos idosos, como vítimas, e em relação aos seus agressores, como uma questão policial. Infere-se que a produção e difusão de conhecimentos por intermédio dos jornais desvelam nas representações sociais hegemônicas da sociedade certa pressão sobre os sujeitos sociais, demandando intervenções psicossociais em diversos segmentos desta sociedade, principalmente em se tratando de um fenômeno extremamente complexo como o é a violência contra idosos.

  8. La educación social contra la exclusión: la interculturalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Bedmar Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las circunstancias sociales que generan la exclusión, ocasionada por la grandes desigualdades que se dan, tanto entre los países ricos y pobres como dentro de una inisnia sociedad, entre sus diferentes clases. Una de sus consecuencias es el fénomeno de la inmigración hacia el Primer Mundo, en busca de unas condiciones de vida favorables. Se trata del papel que desempeña la Educación Social como medio de integración, para luchar contra la doble exclusión a que se ven sometidos los inmigrantes en los países de acogida, donde se generan problemas de convivencia entre la población, que muestra actitudes xenofobas y falta de respeto a otras culturas, por lo que necesita ser educada socialmente, para generar actitudes de solidaridad, tolerancia y convivencia. Se muestran experiencias de educación intercultural que fomentan la solidaridad y el respeto mutuo, al mismo tiempo que facilitan la integración social de los inmigrantes, con programas integrates que fomentan ademas el empleo, la salud, la vivienda, el asesoramiento jurídico, etc. donde actúan coordinadamente centros de educación de adultos y ONG.

  9. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  10. Contra-thermodynamic behavior in intermolecular hydrogen transfer of alkylperoxy radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaendtner, Jim; Broadbelt, Linda J

    2007-09-17

    Quantum chemical investigation of bimolecular hydrogen transfer involving alkylperoxy radicals, a key reaction family in the free-radical oxidation of hydrocarbons, was performed to establish structure-reactivity relationships. Eight different reactions were investigated featuring four different alkane substrates (methane, ethane, propane and isobutane) and two different alkylperoxy radicals (methylperoxy and iso-propylperoxy). Including forward and reverse pairs, sixteen different activation energies and enthalpies of reaction were used to formulate structure-reactivity relationships to describe this chemistry. We observed that the enthalpy of formation of loosely bound intermediate states has a strong inverse correlation with the overall heat of reaction and that this results in unique contra-thermodynamic behavior such that more exothermic reactions have higher activation barriers. A new structure-reactivity relationship was proposed that fits the calculated data extremely well: E(A)=E(o)+alphaDeltaH(rxn) where alpha=-0.10 for DeltaH(rxn)0 and E(o)=3.05 kcal mol(-1).

  11. Los nuevos escenarios para la cooperación en la lucha contra el terrorismo internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorasio, Denise

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El terrorismo constituye una de las amenazas mas serias para la democracia, para el libre ejercicio de los derechos del hombre y para el desarrollo económico y social. Los acontecimientos del 11 de septiembre mostraron que el terrorismo es una amenaza real a nivel mundial y que cualquier país podía ser afectado por ataques terroristas. Es un verdadero reto para el mundo y para Europa. La Unión Europea se fijó como objetivo en el tratado de la UE «ofrecer a los ciudadanos un alto grado de seguridad dentro de un espolio de libertad, seguridad y justicia elaborando una acción en común entre los Estados miembros en los ámbitos de la cooperación policial y judicial en materia penal...». Este objetivo ha de lograrse mediante la prevención y la lucha contra la delincuencia, organizada o no, en particular el terrorismo a través de una mayor cooperación entre las fuerzas policiales, las autoridades aduaneras y otras autoridades competentes de los Estados miembros, como entre les autoridades judiciales y, también, por la aproximación, cuando proceda, de las normas de los Estados miembro en materia penal.

  12. Violência contra a mulher e políticas públicas

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    Blay Eva Alterman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available DIFERENTEMENTE dos inúmeros estudos existentes, de excelente qualidade, esta pesquisa busca investigar não apenas a chamada violência doméstica mas os vários tipos de homicídio - tentativa ou consumação - de mulheres, de todas as faixas etárias. Ela investigou e procurou comparar como este crime era tratado: 1. pela mídia (especialmente jornais de 1991 e de 2000; pelo rádio e televisão; 2. nos Boletins de Ocorrência das Delegacias de Policia da capital de São Paulo (do ano de 1998; 3. nos Processos Judiciais, através de uma amostra representativa dos cinco Tribunais do Júri da Capital de São Paulo (de 1997. Desejava saber como a mídia tão resistente a principio se comportava na passagem do século XXI face à violência contra a mulher, o que os BOs registravam e como eram julgados os assassinos/as de mulheres. Os complexos resultados obtidos revelaram mudanças em alguns segmentos e um concomitante mecanismo que retroalimenta a antiga violência nas relações sociais de gênero. Concluindo propõe-se a implantação de uma política transversal de gênero para enfrentar a violência.

  13. ARGUMENTOS CONTRA LA TORTURA Y LOS TRATOS CRUELES, INHUMANOS Y DEGRADANTES

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    Fernando M. Machado Pelloni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación persigue trasladar situaciones tratadas por la jurisprudencia de la Corte Europea de Derechos Humanos en lo que hace a la prohibición de tortura, tratos crueles, inhumanos y degradantes, al ámbito regional del MERCOSUR, especialmente desde Argentina y Brasil. En tal sentido, luego de ubicar disposiciones internacionales y puntos básicos en el tema, se persiguen respuestas sobre tres focos de atención: la teoría de la pena, la ejecución penitenciaria y la investigación. Desde aquí se introducen los análisis más recientes y más permeables contra una regla que se juzga absoluta y se los critica. La esfera política y jurídica, como la internas y externa son estudiadas en el objetivo de alcanzar en el presente y en el futuro, igual rechazo que en el pasado.

  14. Predictores Psicosociales de Delitos contra la Seguridad Vial: Un Estudio con Internos de un Centro Penitenciario

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    Félix Herraiz Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Penitenciario de Hombres de Barcelona ha habido un aumento creciente de ingresos por delitos contra la seguridad vial. El objetivo de esta investigación es obtener un perfil psicológico en una muestra de 115 internos, analizar cuáles son los predictores en la conducción agresiva, y finalmente contrastar la posible existencia de diferentes tipologías, en función de la ausencia o presencia de otros delitos, con o sin componentes agresivos. Los resultados muestran que las causas o estados que causan irritación, los antecedentes familiares de conducción agresiva y la presencia de trastornos psiquiátricos son predictores de la conducta agresiva en la conducción, así como la agresividad física es también un predictor de los accidentes. No hay diferencias en internos que también presentan otras tipologías delictivas.

  15. Violência sexual contra adolescentes em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyana Conceição Lemes Justino

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a situação da violência sexual contra adolescentes. Métodos Estudo transversal com análise espacial, abrangendo 172 fichas de notificação, de janeiro de 2009 a janeiro de 2013, em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul. Para a análise espacial, os dados foram agrupados por bairro. A análise estatística dos dados foi descritiva. Resultados Os adolescentes em situação de violência foram majoritariamente meninas (94,8% e de cor branca (37,8%. Predominou a violência intrafamiliar (51,7% e com um perpetrador (66,9%. A gravidez (8,7% foi uma das consequências. Os casos tiveram distribuição homogênea no município, sem padrão espacial preferencial e sem distinção de estrato social. Conclusões Apesar da subnotificação de casos de violência sexual, a frequência e as consequências individuais e coletivas desta são suficientemente graves para torná-la uma questão de saúde pública.

  16. Agentes protectores contra hongos asociados a la semilla de pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth

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    Carlos Arroyo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agentes protectores contra hongos asociados a la semilla de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. Se presenta un estudio de alternativas no tradicionales, para el control del ataque fungoso a las semillas de pejibaye durante el proceso de germinación. Se evaluó el efecto de 13 agentes protectores: Vitavax + Benomil, Bayletón, NaCl, Cloro, Kilol, Alcohol, H2O2, Aserrín, H2O, Gasolina, Diesel, Kerosene y Chile picante. De las sustancias probadas, la inmersión en kerosene y gasolina, mostraron un comportamiento tan efectivo como los fungicidas triadimefom (Bayletón y la mezcla de carboxin + benomyl. Esto debido al efecto fungicida y su posterior evaporación, no interfiriendo con la respiración, como fue el caso del aceite diesel. Se encontró además que el peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2, tuvo un efecto acelerador de la germinación, pero no actuó como buen fungicida. El kilol, mostró un efecto fungicida prometedor a concentración superior a los 10 cc/l de agua

  17. Habilidades sociais: fator de proteção contra transtornos alimentares em adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Giron Uzunian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo desse estudo foi revisar a literatura a cerca da relação entre transtornos alimentares e habilidades sociais em adolescentes. Pesquisou-se as bases de dados Medline, SciELO e Lilacs, cruzando os descritores “transtornos alimentares”, “anorexia nervosa”, “bulimia nervosa” e “comportamento alimentar”, com os descritores “psicologia social” e “isolamento social”, e com as palavras chave “competência social”, “habilidade social” e “relação interpessoal”. Incluiu-se estudos com adolescentes, nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol, e publicações realizadas entre os anos de 2007 a 2012. A busca resultou em 63 artigos, sendo incluídos 50 nesta revisão. A maioria dos estudos foi conduzido no Brasil e nos Estados Unidos. Do total, 43 eram artigos originais. Os estudos visavam compreender como o estado emocional poderia influenciar no estabelecimento dos transtornos alimentares, assim como as relações interpessoais e a relação entre os pares. Os artigos também discutiram a influência da mídia e da sociedade neste processo. A partir da análise dos estudos, observou-se que quanto maior o repertório de habilidades sociais dos adolescentes, maior será o fator de proteção contra o desenvolvimento de transtornos alimentares.

  18. Nordic Walking, modalidad terapéutica contra la fatiga relativa al cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina González Castro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Existe evidencia de que el ejercicio físico puede mejorar los síntomas de los pacientes y supervivientes de cáncer y en especial la fatiga relativa al cáncer (FRC. El Nordic Walking (NW es una novedosa forma de ejercicio físico que presenta ventajas fisiológicas y psicológicas significativas respecto de la marcha normal. Este artículo propone el NW como tratamiento terapéutico alternativo contra la FRC. 

  19. Campesinos contra campesinos: conflictos agrarios y lucha por la tierra en Comoapan, Veracruz (1925-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Jiménez Marce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es mostrar las gestiones que los campesinos de Comoapan, Veracruz, una congregación dependiente en ese momento de San Andrés Tuxtla, hicieron ante las autoridades agrarias para tratar de que les dotara de las fértiles tierras que se dedicaban al cultivo del tabaco, situación que generó un enfrentamiento contra la familia Carrión, misma que era una de las principales productoras de la hoja en la región de los Tuxtlas. Para conservar sus tierras, los Carrión apoyaron la formación de una agrupación campesina, conformada por sus peones y campesinos que no tenían derecho a obtener tierra ejidal, y que se convirtió en antagonista de la que pedía las tierras. Se busca entender los complejos procesos que se vivieron en Comoapan y las interrelaciones que se establecieron entre ejidatarios y no ejidatarios, a fin de mostrar que el reparto agrario no constituyó un proceso carente de problemáticas.

  20. Efecto antibacteriano in vitro de exudados foliares de tabaco contra dos bacterias fitopatógenas

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    Yanelis Karina Capdesuñer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: In vitro antibacterial effect of tobacco leaf exudates against two bacterial plant pathogensTítulo corto: Efecto antibacteriano in vitro de exudados foliares de tabacoResumen: Los productos naturales son una alternativa para el control de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades en los cultivos. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar diferentes solventes para la obtención de extractos crudos a partir de exudados foliares de líneas de tabaco, y el efecto in vitro de estos extractos contra dos bacterias fitopatógenas: Xanthomonas campestris (Xc y Pectobacterium carotovorum (Pc. Se evaluaron solventes con polaridades entre 3.1 y 6.2 (diclorometano,  n-butanol,  acetato de etilo,  metanol y  etanol 90 %. El etanol 90 % se seleccionó como mejor solvente y como sustituto del diclorometano por su mayor rendimiento. Los extractos etanólicos crudos se obtuvieron a partir de exudados foliares de diez líneas de tabaco seleccionadas.  La diversidad de la composición química de los extractos etanólicos se reveló por cromatografía en capa delgada. La actividad antibacteriana se evaluó por el método de difusión en agar con discos de papel de filtro y la medición del diámetro del halo de inhibición. Se observó inhibición para todos los extractos contra Xc destacándose los correspondientes a las líneas Nic 1061 “TI 1738” y Nic 1016 “Incekara” hasta 5 µg de extracto crudo seco /disco, con un mayor rendimiento para la línea Nic 1061. El extracto de la línea Nic 1015 fue el único con actividad contra Pc hasta 5 µg de extracto crudo seco  por disco. Estos resultados sugieren un uso potencial de los extractos crudos de las líneas Nic 1061 y Nic 1015 “TI 1341” como un agente efectivo para la protección de cultivos contra estas bacterias.Palabras clave: fitopatógenos, Nicotiana tabacum, protección de cultivos, solventes, superficie foliar.Abstract: Natural products are an alternative to control

  1. Las residencias frustradas. El juez Domingo de Irazusta contra el cabildo de Salta

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    Ana Mar\\u00EDa Lorandi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo plantea los problemas derivados de una tenaz resistencia emprendida por el Cabildo de Salta entre 1724 y 1734, para impedir que el Juez Don Domingo de Irazusta y Orozco tomase las residencias del gobernador Urízar y de sus sucesores y de todos los funcionarios que acompañaron esas gestiones. El conflicto se ventila en la Audiencia de Charcas, en Lima y en el Consejo de Indias. El Cabildo acusa al juez de haber provocado facciones en la ciudad, de ser enemigo capital de la mayoría de sus miembros y aducen que no pueden pagar las multas que les impone el Juez a causa de los ingentes gastos que deben afrontar por la guerra contra las tribus del Chaco. La trama del conflicto revela los enconos existentes entre los grupos que dominan el Cabildo de Salta, y sobre todo el rechazo a acatar la nueva política borbónica, que intentaba ejercer un control más estrecho sobre la vida institucional de sus colonias. Los cabildos reflejan los intereses locales y la fuerte competencia establecida con el poder metropolitano.

  2. La lucha contra la poliomielitis: una alianza médico-social, Buenos Aires, 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Edelvis Testa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo analiza el surgimiento de una de las organizaciones voluntarias de asistencia social que tuvo una activa participación en la atención sanitaria de la poliomielitis en Argentina: la Asociación para la Lucha contra la Parálisis Infantil. Esta institución fue conformada en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, en 1943, por un grupo de mujeres de sectores sociales altos y medios. En un contexto de incertidumbre biomédica la entidad movilizó recursos materiales y simbólicos para dar respuesta al problema de la rehabilitación de las afecciones físicas permanentes que la enfermedad provocaba en sus víctimas. Utilizando como fuente las memorias institucionales de la organización, se muestra cómo médicos y filántropas constituyeron una alianza médico-social y desarrollaron el interés fundamental de practicar una modalidad de tratamiento –en un contexto donde todo estaba por hacerse- sostenidos en un andamiaje que amalgamaba ideas cristianas con innovaciones de la medicina y la rehabilitación.

  3. El papel de la prensa norteamericana en la Guerra contra Irak

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    Fernando Escobar Giraldo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La objetividad periodística resultó herida de gravedad en la guerra contra Irak. Estados Unidos planeó su guerra desde todos los frentes y uno de ellos fue el informativo. Ante la presión de los grandes medios de comunicación, el gobierno aceptó, contrario a lo que sucedió en la guerra del Golfo Pérsico, que un grupo de periodistas acompañara a las tropas, pero sometidos a ciertas reglas con las cuales, aparentemente, no se coartaba la libertad de expresión, pero sí había ciertas condiciones que a la larga limitaban la cobertura. El pueblo norteamericano terminó viendo una guerra diferente a la que se observó en otros países, una guerra de un solo bando, en la que primó el patriotismo frente a la verdad de la información.

  4. La Guerra contra las Drogas y la Cooperación internacional: el caso de Colombia

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    Jonathan D. Rosen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la política exterior de los Estados Unidos (EE.UU. hacia Colombia con respecto al narcotráfico. El análisis se centra no solo en la Guerra contra las Drogas en Colombia sino también en los intereses de los EE.UU. en este país y en la región. La posición de Washington frente a este problema revela la política exterior de los EE.UU. hacia otros países en la región sobre el narcotráfico y el crimen organizado. Este trabajo analiza la cooperación entre los EE.UU. y Colombia en los esquemas señalados. Al final se hace un balance tanto del tipo de cooperación entre EE.UU. y Colombia, como a los resultados al tipo de cooperación.

  5. Homens, gênero e violência contra a mulher Men, gender and violence against women

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    Daniel Costa Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o compromisso do Estado brasileiro de coibir e prevenir a violência contra a mulher, firmado em várias conferências internacionais e tendo em vista a promulgação da Lei 11.340/06 - a Lei Maria da Penha -, este artigo tem como objetivo realizar uma reflexão sobre a incorporação dos homens e da perspectiva de gênero nos esforços de prevenção e atenção à violência contra as mulheres. Apesar do crescente interesse da literatura científica e da intervenção em saúde com o envolvimento dos homens, em especial, no campo dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos, comparativamente, reflexões e intervenções com homens autores de violência contra a mulher têm recebido bem menos atenção de órgãos governamentais, não-governamentais e pela academia. O artigo apresenta alguns conceitos e dados sobre a violência contra as mulheres e descreve um panorama sobre a conexão entre gênero, saúde e masculinidades; analisa trabalhos que abordam os temas homens e violência contra as mulheres e apresenta algumas ações voltadas à prevenção dessa forma de violência junto à população masculina; e por fim tece algumas considerações finais sobre o tema.Considering the commitment made by the Brazilian Government to restrain and prevent violence against women, signed in various international conferences, and in view of the promulgation of the Law 11.340/06 - Lei Maria da Penha -, this article intends to develop a reflection on the incorporation of men and of the gender perspective in efforts to prevent and attend to violence against women. Despite the increasing interest of scientific literature and health intervention in the involvement of men, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive rights, comparatively, reflections and interventions directed at men who have committed violence against women have received far less attention from governmental and non-governmental institutions, and from the academy. The article

  6. Vacina contra o papilomavirus humano. O que é preciso saber? Human papillomavirus vaccines. What we must know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Roberto Nadal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As vacinas contra o Papilomavirus Humano (HPV já estão disponíveis para consumo. Temos dois tipos: a bivalente, que determina imunidade contra os tipos oncogênicos 16 e 18, os mais relacionados com os carcinomas anogenitais e da orofaringe, a quadrivalente, que além desses, imuniza contra os tipos 6 e 11, que provocam as verrugas anogenitais. Estão mais indicadas para mulheres dos 10 aos 25 anos, antes do início da vida sexual ou naquelas que não tiveram contato com os tipos virais envolvidos. As vacinas não têm efeito em quem já possui lesões provocadas pelos tipos virais imunizáveis. Podem ser usadas nas imunodeprimidas por qualquer causa, naquelas que estão amamentando, mas são contra-indicadas durante a gravidez. O uso em homens, guardando as mesmas indicações, foi liberado pelo FDA (Food and Drugs Administration norte-americano, porém ainda não pela ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, o correspondente brasileiro. Para aqueles que já estão contaminados pelos tipos virais envolvidos, resta esperar pela vacina terapêutica que permanece em avaliação com ensaios clínicos.Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV are already available for use. There are two of them: bivalent, that provokes immunity against oncogenic types 16 and 18, the most involved in anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas, and the quadrivalent, that includes these types and the non-oncogenic types 6 and 11, responsible for most of anogenital warts. They are indicated for women from 10 to 25 years old, before sexual life beginning or to those that did not have been infected with HPV types of the vaccines. These vaccines have no therapeutic effects against pre-existing HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions. They can be used in immunosuppressed persons, in those who are breast feeding, but are contra-indicated during pregnancy. Their use in males, with the same indications, is already approved by the north-american FDA (Food and

  7. Identification of the mcpA and mcpM Genes, Encoding Methyl-Accepting Proteins Involved in Amino Acid and l-Malate Chemotaxis, and Involvement of McpM-Mediated Chemotaxis in Plant Infection by Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum (Formerly Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotypes I and III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Akiko; Oku, Shota; Kawasaki, Takeru; Tajima, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Sequence analysis has revealed the presence of 22 putative methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (mcp) genes in the Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum GMI1000 genome. PCR analysis and DNA sequencing showed that the highly motile R. pseudosolanacearum strain Ps29 possesses homologs of all 22 R. pseudosolanacearum GMI1000 mcp genes. We constructed a complete collection of single mcp gene deletion mutants of R. pseudosolanacearum Ps29 by unmarked gene deletion. Screening of the mutant collection revealed that R. pseudosolanacearum Ps29 mutants of RSp0507 and RSc0606 homologs were defective in chemotaxis to l-malate and amino acids, respectively. RSp0507 and RSc0606 homologs were designated mcpM and mcpA. While wild-type R. pseudosolanacearum strain Ps29 displayed attraction to 16 amino acids, the mcpA mutant showed no response to 12 of these amino acids and decreased responses to 4 amino acids. We constructed mcpA and mcpM deletion mutants of highly virulent R. pseudosolanacearum strain MAFF106611 to investigate the contribution of chemotaxis to l-malate and amino acids to tomato plant infection. Neither single mutant exhibited altered virulence for tomato plants when tested by root dip inoculation assays. In contrast, the mcpM mutant (but not the mcpA mutant) was significantly less infectious than the wild type when tested by a sand soak inoculation assay, which requires bacteria to locate and invade host roots from sand. Thus, McpM-mediated chemotaxis, possibly reflecting chemotaxis to l-malate, facilitates R. pseudosolanacearum motility to tomato roots in sand. PMID:26276117

  8. Vacinas contra varicela e vacina quádrupla viral Varicella vaccines and measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine

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    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada sobre os estudos de eficácia, eventos adversos e esquema vacinal da vacina contra varicela e a nova apresentação combinada com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão bibliográfica utilizando a base de dados MEDLINE e LILACS no período de 1999 a 2006. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A vacina contra varicela tem uma eficácia entre 70 a 90% contra a infecção e 95 a 98% de proteção contra as formas graves. É uma vacina bem tolerada e pouco reatogênica. Após o seu licenciamento, foram comprovados apenas três casos de transmissão do vírus vacinal de pessoas previamente saudáveis para contatos domiciliares, que desenvolveram doença leve. Apesar das evidências de que a proteção conferida pela vacina pode diminuir com o passar dos anos, ainda não é possível afirmar que seja necessário, no momento, a aplicação de uma segunda dose, tendo em vista a exposição ao vírus selvagem. Após a vacinação universal, as chances de estímulo natural deverão diminuir, e muito provavelmente será necessário a aplicação de doses de reforço. Recentemente foi licenciada a vacina quádrupla viral, um produto combinado com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba, rubéola e varicela com elevadas taxas de soroconversão. CONCLUSÃO:A vacina contra varicela é recomendada pela Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP para as crianças a partir de 1 ano de idade. Esperamos que, em breve, a vacina quádrupla viral esteja disponível no Brasil, pois o uso de vacinas combinadas possibilita uma maior cobertura vacinal.OBJECTIVES: To present an up-to-date review of studies investigating the efficacy, adverse events and vaccination regimens of the varicella vaccine and the new presentation combined with the vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella. SOURCES OF DATA: Bibliographic review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases covering the period 1999 to 2006 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The varicella

  9. Potential reproduction of invasive Asian carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp. in Lake Balaton: pro and contra evidences

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    Attila Mozsár

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis × silver carp H. molitrix had been introduced into Lake Balaton (Hungary from 1972 to increase fishery yields and as a biological control of algal blooms. Although the stocking was stopped by 1983, the biomass of Asian carps is still high in the lake, constituting about one-third of the total fish biomass. Our analyses revealed that the present Asian carp stock cannot have originated directly from the last official stockings. The origin of the present stock is undefined, and there are two potential explanations for the source of recruitment. First, it is possible that Asian carps escape from the nearby fishery ponds and get into Lake Balaton periodically. The second explanation is that Asian carps spawn in the lake. However, preceding studies suggested that Asian carps are not able to reproduce in lacustrine environments. In this study, our aim was to contrast the pro and contra evidences of natural Asian carp reproduction in Lake Balaton. We studied the reproductive parameters and genetic pools of 58 Asian carps, sampled between March−November 2011 and 2013. Mature vitellogenic oocytes and post-ovulatory follicles were found in the posterior segments of gonads. This suggests that a fraction of mature eggs was released from the ovaries during the year, but does not necessary imply successful reproduction. Considerable seasonal variations in gonado-somatic indexes (GSI were observed, fluctuating between 6−28% in 2011 and 12−29% in 2013. However, the within-year dynamics of GSI changes suggest that fish do not release significant amounts of milt during the potential spawning period. Rather, the resorption of nutrients allocated to eggs seems probable during autumn. Genetic analyses showed remarkable deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium within the stock, which indicates that Asian carps do not constitute a closed, self-sustaining population in Lake Balaton.

  10. RESISTÊNCIA DE DUAS ESPÉCIES DE BAMBU TRATADAS CONTRA FUNGOS XILÓFAGOS

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    Rogy Frigeri Tiburtino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de bambus das espécies Bambusa vulgaris e Dendrocalamus giganteus após serem expostos a três métodos de tratamentos químicos preservativos, contra a ação dos fungos Postia placenta e Polyporus fumosus. Os métodos de tratamento empregados foram o de transpiração (diafragma íntegro e rompido, imersão prolongada e Boucherie modificado. As hastes de bambu foram transformadas em colmos de 2,0 m de comprimento e tratadas em solução de 1 ou 3% de ingredientes ativos (i.a. de um produto comercial à base de cobre, cromo e boro (CCB. Nos métodos por transpiração e imersão prolongada, os colmos foram expostos nas soluções por períodos de 5, 10 ou 15 dias, enquanto no método de Boucherie modificado não houve segregação do tratamento entre tempos de tratamento. Para avaliar a eficiência dos tratamentos, foram empregados os fungos Postia placenta e Polyporus fumosus. A partir dos resultados, observou-se que, em média, em ambas as espécies de bambu tratadas e métodos empregados, a perda de massa das amostras de bambu, depois de submetidas ao ataque dos fungos, foi baixa, tendo variado de 2,44 a 14,26%.

  11. Resistindo ao desenvolvimento neocolonial: a luta do povo de Andalgalá contra projetos megamineiros

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    Maria Ceci Misoczky

    Full Text Available A América Latina vem experimentando uma nova era de declarada fé dos governos no mito do desenvolvimento, em articulação com a expansão de políticas extrativistas exportadoras em um contexto de renovada dependência. A face mais dramática do extrativismo na região tem sido a crescente presença de corporações mineiras transnacionais apoiadas por governos nacionais e regionais e por instituições internacionais financeiras e de apoio ao desenvolvimento, e intensamente resistidas por movimentos sociais populares. Neste artigo apresentamos o caso de Andalgalá (uma pequena cidade na Província de Catamarca, na Argentina e as lutas do povo contra corporações mineiras transnacionais e seus aliados. Na tradição da Filosofia da Libertação e do método ana-dialético de Dussel, nos engajamos com o que tem sido denominado "comunidades argentinas do NÃO", expressando sua oposição a formas neocoloniais de desenvolvimento e gestão. Neste artigo estamos especificamente interessados em compreender como dois dispositivos gerencialistas usados pelas corporações mineiras, responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC e pactos de governança, impactam a luta do povo. Acima de tudo, este artigo oferece instantâneos de batalhas na linha de frente do extrativismo. Esperamos ter dado voz àquelas pessoas que normalmente não são ouvidas, criando um espaço para suas visões sobre um tipo diferente de desenvolvimento.

  12. EXPRESIÓN DE DOS GENES CANDIDATOS A RESISTENCIA CONTRA LA BACTERIOSIS VASCULAR EN YUCA

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    LOPEZ CAMILO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae es el cuarto cultivo en importancia a nivel mundial como fuente de calorías para la población humana y cuya producción se ve afectada por la bacteriosis vascular, enfermedad ocasionada por Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam. La resistencia a enfermedades en plantas depende de la presencia de genes de resistencia (R, los cuales reconocen a los patógenos y simultáneamente permiten desencadenar la respuesta de defensa. A pesar de recientes esfuerzos encaminados a la identificación de genes R en yuca, aún no se ha logrado clonar el primer gen R en este cultivo. En el presente trabajo se estudió el perfil de expresión de dos Genes Candidatos a Resistencia (RGCs asociados a QTLs de defensa contra la bacteriosis vascular en yuca. A partir de la técnica transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR se evaluó la expresión de los genes RXam1 y RXam2 en tallos y hojas de las variedades resistentes SG107-35 y MBRA685 de yuca, después de ser inoculadas con la cepa CIO151 de Xam. Se observó que RXam1 es inducido a partir de los cinco días post-inoculación tanto en tallos como hojas de las dos variedades, mientras que RXam2 es expresado de manera constitutiva en la variedad MBRA685.

  13. Los programas de mejora de la ciudad informal, herramientas de lucha contra la pobreza

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    Colavidas, Felipe

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a discussion of the chief approachesand objectives of new policies for improving precariousLatin American barrios implemented by multilateral,national and/or municipal organizations. With a census of25 million extremely precarious living quarters, theseneighbourhoods have a combined population of 125million. A precise estimate of the investment required toimprove, enlarge and/or refurbish this sub-standardhousing amounts to US$170 billion. In this vein, therelevance and specific contribution of three programmes(“Chile Barrio”, “Favela Barrio” and “Obras con SaldoPedagógico” are critically reviewed from the standpointof their utility as tools for combating poverty.Se presentan los principales enfoques y objetivos de lasnuevas políticas de mejora de barrios precarios enLatinoamérica emprendidas por organismos multilaterales,nacionales y/o municipales. Barrios, en los que secontabilizan más de 25 millones de soluciones habitacionalesextremadamente precarias, en las que se alojan unos 125millones de habitantes. Se ha estimado de forma precisa, quela inversión necesaria para el mejoramiento, ampliacióny/o dotación de estas infraviviendas supondría unos 170.000millones de $USA. Igualmente, se presenta una síntesiscrítica de tres programas (Chile Barrio, Favela Barrio yObras con Saldo Pedagógico, desde la óptica de supertinencia y aportes concretos como herramientas para lalucha contra la pobreza.

  14. La lucha contra el cierre de Altos Hornos del Mediterráneo de Sagunto (Valencia

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    Enrique González de Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La lucha de los trabajadores de Altos Hornos del Mediterráneo (AHM de Sagunto (Valencia contra el cierre de la cabecera entre los años 1983 y 1984 constituyó un hito en toda regla. El Gobierno del PSOE propuso una reconversión industrial en la que los principales afectados serían los trabajadores del sector. Las formas de organización con que se dotó el pueblo de Sagunto inmediatamente posibilitaron que la participación fuera muy amplia y extensa, lo que presionó, a su vez, a los directivos de la siderurgia, al Gobierno, a los sindicatos y a los partidos de izquierda, siendo una constante a lo largo de todo el conflicto. Las innumerables huelgas, concentraciones, marchas a Valencia y a la capital de España mostraron la enorme disposición de la clase trabajadora por defender los puestos de trabajo. Sin embargo, aquella demostración no echó atrás los planes previstos.The struggle of workers in the Altos Hornos del Mediterráneo (AHM Sagunto (Valencia against the closure of the head between 1983 and 1984 was a landmark in the whole rule. The PSOE Government’s proposed industrial restructuring in which the main victims were workers. The town of Sagunto took such organization measures that people participation was very broad and extensive, and, consequently, management of iron and steel industry, government, trade unions and left-wing political parties were pressurized. It was a constant throughout the conflict. The numerous strikes, rallies and marches to Valencia and the Spanish capital showed the enormous willingness of the working class to defend jobs. However, that demonstration didn’t stop the plans.

  15. Influence of manufacturing procedure on stability of Unguentum contra perniones preparations

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    Bošković Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Application of various technological procedures for the manufacture of officinal preparation ointment against chilblains (Unguentum contra perniones produce essential variations in the quality and stability of the final product. Changing the sequence of admixing active substances into the ointment base indicated the presence of incompatibility between the active substances, as well as between the active substances and the ointment base components. The aim was to examine the influence of various technological manufacturing procedures on quality and stability of the preparation. Methods. Changes in the samples of ointments and aqueous solutions of active substances were analyzed microscopically. Results. Microscopic analysis of hydrosoluble active substance solutions demonstrated destruction of ichthammol, induced by an acidic medium due to the dissolution of tannin and resorcinol, which is well known from the literature. It also demonstrated the destruction of tannin and resorcinol in aqueous solution, which had not been described in the literature. Application of the prescribed procedure for the manufacturing of ointment against chilblains, conceals the incompatibility reactions due to a slow dissolution of the tannin suspended in the officinal ointment base Unguentum cera lanae. Admixture of an ready-made aqueous solution of tannin caused an instant contact between ichthammol and the acidic medium, which caused the destruction or the complete absence of the formation of emulsion droplets. The problem of incompatibility reactions between lanolin alcohols in the ointment base and ichthammol and resorcinol, as well as the reaction between Peruvian balsam and sulfur from the ichthammol sulfate ion was observed. Numerous incompatibility reactions of ointment against chilblains, components indicated that it was necessary to introduce alterations in both the qualitative and quantitative composition of the preparation. Conclusion. Excipient

  16. Efectos del entrenamiento contra resistencias o resistance training en diversas patologías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Domínguez

    Full Text Available La fuerza influye directamente en el estado de salud y en la capacidad de fitness, motivo por el que el entrenamiento contra resistencias o resistance training (RT se incluye dentro de aquellos programas de ejercicio encaminados a mejorar la salud y calidad de vida. Debido a que muchas enfermedades cursan con alteración de la masa y funcionalidad muscular y a que el RT es la principal modalidad de ejercicio encaminada a mejorar la función muscular, el objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica ha sido exponer las evidencias actuales sobre las adaptaciones del RT, así como su posible aplicación en patologías como la obesidad, diabetes, dislipemia, hipertensión, cáncer, Parkinson, esclerosis múltiple o fibromialgia. El RT en estas enfermedades puede aumentar los niveles de masa muscular, disminuyendo los niveles de masa grasa, los niveles de ácidos grasos en sangre y la glucemia, incrementando la sensibilidad a la insulina, y disminuyendo los niveles de citokinas inflamatorias. El RT, además, mejora el gasto cardiaco y la funcionalidad endotelial, regulando la tensión arterial e incrementando el consumo de oxígeno. Las ganancias de fuerza muscular mejoran la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida, especialmente en población con una afectación neuromuscular grave, como pudieran ser los enfermos de esclerosis múltiple, fibromialgia o Parkinson. Por ello, el RT debe ser incorporado como parte del tratamiento en las personas que presentan determinado tipo de patologías.

  17. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow between shrouded contra-rotating disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Xian Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent flow between shrouded contra-rotating disks was numerically studied with a two-layer turbulence model and a modified Launder–Sharma low-Reynolds number k-ε model. The dissipation rate decrease caused by solid body rotation was considered in the second model. The comparisons of the effectiveness between these two turbulence models for capturing the critical radius of flow structure transition and reproducing the flow velocity measurements data were presented. For the flow between shrouded disks rotating at the same speed but in opposite senses, that is, the angular velocity ratio of the two disks equals to −1, the Stewartson-type flow structure is found in the cavity. For the flow with one disk rotating more slowly than the other, Stewartson-type flow coexists with Batchelor-type flow, that is, Batchelor-type flow occurs radially outward of the stagnation point where two opposing boundary layer flows meet, and Stewartson-type flow occurs radially inward. The stagnation points near the slower disk move radially outward as the angular velocity ratio decreases toward −1. Theory of rotating fluids with the presence of centrifugal and Coriolis forces stemming from the disk rotation is employed to manifest the flow structure transition mechanisms as the rotation ratio of the disks is varied. The source of the earlier transition to turbulent flow in counter-rotating disk cavity compared with rotor-stator disk cavity is also explained through the research of instability of the flowing free shear layer formed by the counter secondary circulations. With the aid of the numerical results obtained from the two turbulence models, it is found that a more turbulent flow in the core can destroy the Batchelor-type flow and creates a larger Stewartson-type flow region.

  18. A POLÍTICA DE CONTRA-REFORMA AGRÁRIA DO BANCO MUNDIAL NO CEARÁ

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    Alexandra Maria de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available renda capitalizada da terra por proprietários de terras rentistas. Os assentamentos enquanto Este artigo analisa a política de crédito fundiário no Ceará praticada pelos governos estadual e federal, em parceria com o Banco Mundial, a partir de 1996. A forma pela qual o Estado foi levado a dar início e desenvolver a “reforma agrária de mercado” no Ceará, recoloca problemas importantes, tais como: a questão da reforma agrária e o acesso à terra pelos sem terra, e o problema da estrutura fundiária no Ceará e no Nordeste. A reflexão sobre a contra-reforma agrária do Banco Mundial passa pela discussão acerca da concepção do desenvolvimento territorial contraditório (desigual e combinado no interior da Geografia Agrária. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida a partir de estudo realizado em oito assentamentos criados em decorrência dos projetos São José e Cédula da Terra. A implementação da “reforma agrária de mercado” no Ceará traz consigo o re-significado da apropriação da frações do território conquistado, constituíram, por sua vez, em uma forma de propriedade diferente da propriedade privada capitalista.

  19. Vacina acelular contra pertússis para adolescentes Acellular pertussis vaccine for adolescents

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    Aroldo P. de Carvalho

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A utilização da vacina de células inteiras contra coqueluche levou a uma redução significativa na incidência da enfermidade na criança. Essa mudança no perfil epidemiológico resultou em aumento no número de casos em adolescentes e adultos, conseqüente à perda da imunidade conferida pela doença ou por vacina após cerca de 10 anos, e em lactentes não imunizados ou incompletamente imunizados. O licenciamento da vacina tríplice bacteriana contra difteria, tétano e coqueluche acelular, com formulação específica para maiores de 10 anos de idade (dTpa, apontou para a possibilidade do controle da coqueluche na população das faixas etárias mais acometidas nos últimos anos. FONTE DE DADOS: As informações foram coletadas na base de dados MEDLINE. A pesquisa foi limitada ao período compreendido entre janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2006. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Estão licenciadas em alguns países duas vacinas dTpa para a faixa etária maior de 10 anos de idade, uma delas contendo cinco componentes imunogênicos da Bordetella pertussis: toxina pertússis, hemaglutinina filamentosa, fimbrias 2 e 3 e pertactina, e a outra contendo três componentes: pertactina, hemaglutinina filamentosa e toxina pertússis inativada, sendo esta a única apresentação licenciada até o momento no Brasil. Embora a composição das duas vacinas seja diferente, os estudos mostram que a imunogenicidade e a eficácia são semelhantes. Entretanto, alguns autores enfatizam que existem dificuldades para a realização de uma avaliação mais precisa da resposta imunológica à vacina e sua duração. Vários países já recomendam de rotina o uso da vacina dTpa para adolescentes. O Canadá ampliou a população alvo até 54 anos de idade. A orientação é de que esse grupo receba uma dose da vacina como reforço do esquema básico de imunização. Isso é fundamentado em resultados de estudos que mostram que a duração da imunidade induzida pela

  20. The meaning of the rubella vaccine for pregnant women El significado de la vacuna contra la rubeola para las mujeres gestantes O significado da vacina contra rubéola para as mulheres grávidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Tonzar Ristori Ozaki

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at describing the meaning of the rubella vaccine to women who were discovered pregnant after having received the measles-rubella vaccine during the 2001 campaign against rubella, and who lived in 10 cities within the region of DIR XX from São João da Boa Vista. The theory of Social Representation was used as a reference framework for the research, and data were collected through the Collective Subject Discourse technique, involving 18 women who either were pregnant or became pregnant within 30 days after having received the vaccine. Through their discourse, it was possible to unveil the diversity of meanings the rubella vaccine has when dispensed during pregnancy, characterized as a threat to their and their children's physical integrity and to their conjugal relationship. The meanings constitute an important source of information that allows health professionals and administrators to reflect, so they can reconsider their role as health promoters.Se trató de describir el significado de la vacuna contra la rubeola para las mujeres que se enteraron del embarazo después de recibir la vacuna dupla viral, debido a la campaña contra la rubeola-2001, en la DIR XX de São João da Boa Vista. Fue adoptada como referencia la Teoría de la Representaciones Sociales. La colección de datos fue realizada a través de la técnica de Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo con 18 gestantes y mujeres embarazadas hasta 30 días después de la aplicación de la vacuna, consideradas suceptibles a la rubeola, habitantes de 10 municipios de la región. Considerando los discursos de las mujeres, fue posible detectar los diferentes resultados de la vacuna contra la rubeola cuando es aplicada durante la gestación, representada como amenaza a su integridad, a la de su hijo y a su relación conyugal. Esos significados se constituyen en importante fuente de información que brinda a los profesionales de la salud y gestores una reflexión sobre desempe

  1. 姬松茸多糖对铅中毒大鼠铅代谢及体内铜、钙、锌、铁、锰含量的影响%EFFECTS OF AGARICUS BLAZEI MUILL POLYSACCHARIDES ON LEAD METABOLISM AND THE CONTENTS OF COPPER, CALCIUM, ZINC, IRON AND MANGANESE IN LEAD-POISONING RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程红艳; 冯翠萍; 王伟娟; 常明昌; 孟俊龙; 冯两蕊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解姬松茸多糖(Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides,ABP)对Pb中毒大鼠体内Pb、Cu、Ca、Zn、Fe、Mn含量的影响.方法 选择健康45日龄SD大鼠48只,随机分为6组,每组8只,雌雄各半,分别为正常对照组、Pb中毒组、多糖组、Pb中毒+低剂量多糖干预组、Pb中毒+中剂量多糖干预组和Pb中毒+高剂量多糖干预组.Pb中毒组和Pb中毒+多糖干预组都给予0.2%醋酸铅溶液,自由饮用,其它组给予蒸馏水.多糖、低剂量、中剂量及高剂量组分别按每天每只100、50、100、200mg/kg体重灌服姬松茸多糖液,各组灌服液体积相等,为1ml.正常对照组和Pb中毒组每天每只灌胃2ml的生理盐水.饲养60d后,取大鼠肝脏、肾脏、心脏和血,分别测定Pb、Cu、Ca、Zn、Fe、Mn含量.结果 (1)与正常对照组比较,Pb中毒组各组织和三个多糖干预组中肝脏、肾脏和血中Pb含量升高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01),Pb中毒组心脏中的Ca、血中的Fe含量升高(P<0.05或P<0.01),其余均下降(P<0.05或P<0.01),多糖组中肾脏和心脏中的Ca,血中的Fe略有下降,其余均略有升高,差异无统计学意义.(2)与Pb中毒组比较,低剂量多糖显著降低血铅含量(P<0.01),中剂量多糖显著降低心脏中铅含量(P<0.01),其他组织铅含量差异无统计学意义,随着ABP剂量的升高,三个多糖干预组中心脏中的Ca和血中的Fe的含量逐渐降低,而其他指标均逐渐升高,当ABP剂量达到200mg/kg时,显著下降或升高(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 姬松茸多糖促进Pb的排出,对Pb致大鼠微量元素失衡具有调节作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of Agaricus blazei Murrill polysaccharides (ABP) on Pb metabolism and the contents of Pb, Cu, Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn in lead-poisoning rats. Method Forty eight healthy 45 d SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (female ; male=1:1): control group, ABP group, lead-poisoning group, lead+low-dose ABP group

  2. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  3. Encefalitis asociada a anticuerpos contra los receptores NMDA: Reconocimiento de un nuevo síndrome neuropsiquiátrico.

    OpenAIRE

    Revilla, Fredy J.; McMasters, Matthew D.; Kobet, Christopher A.; Espay, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Los síndromes paraneoplásicos se caracterizan por la presencia de signos y síntomas que ocurren lejos del sitio deltumor o de sus metástasis. Muchos de estos síndromes son mediados por hormonas, citoquinas, u otras sustanciassecretadas por células tumorales, así como por una respuesta inmune contra el tumor. La presencia de anticuerposgenerados para combatir el tumor puede resultar en un síndrome neurológico si las células del sistema nervioso sonafectadas. Las primeras descripciones de tales...

  4. Anticuerpos séricos contra la enfermedad de Newcastle e Influenza Aviar en aves rapaces de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel González-Acuña; Álvaro Gaete; Lucila Moreno; Karen Ardiles; Fabiola Cerda-Leal; Christian Mathieu; René Ortega

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Detectar la presencia de anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos contra los virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle (ENC) e Influenza aviar (IA), para comprender la contribución de las aves silvestres en la transmisión de estos virus en Chile. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 63 aves pertenecientes a los órdenes Falconiformes y Strigiformes desde centros de rehabilitación de aves de las zonas central y sur de Chile. Se realizaron las pruebas de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación (IHA) p...

  5. El delito de tortura y su relación con otros atentados contra la integridad moral

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Torres, María José

    2013-01-01

    1. OBJETIVOS La elección de la tortura como tema de investigación tiene por objetivo probar que, en la lucha contra el terrorismo internacional, se ha devuelto a la actualidad esta institución, abriendo de nuevo el debate jurídico y político sobre su utilidad en el proceso penal del siglo XXI, ahora, desde postulados funcionalistas como los defendidos por JAKOBS en la teoría del “Derecho penal del enemigo”. 2. MÉTODO Se ha utilizado un método dogmático en el estudio del Derecho po...

  6. Haz que tu bebé nazca protegido contra la tosferina (Born with Protection against Whooping Cough)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-13

    Este podcast provee información acerca de la tosferina, una enfermedad que puede ser mortal para los bebés, y la recomendación de los CDC de que todas las mujeres reciban la vacuna Tdap durante el tercer trimestre de cada embarazo para que su bebé nazca con protección contra esta grave enfermedad.  Created: 4/13/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 4/13/2015.

  7. Desarrollo de vacunas basadas en bacterias lácticas para inducir inmunidad en mucosas contra VIH

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se desarrolló un nuevo sistema de expresión de la proteína gp120 del VIH basado en bacterias lácticas, induciendo inmunidad humoral. Nuestros datos indican que la administración oral de L. lactis modificada para expresar la gp120 induce anticuerpos sistémicos y locales (a nivel de mucosas) específicos, así como también estimulan la producción de linfocitos específicos contra el VIH y se asocia a un incremento en la expresión de CD4 y de Mac en...

  8. La eficacia de la legislación contra el crimen organizado: Brasil y España

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La moderna delincuencia se caracteriza por su transnacionalidad, esta nueva criminalidad que actúa con base en un modelo "empresarial" presenta múltiples problemas jurídicos ya que para combatir eficazmente contra el crimen deben flexibilizarse varios principios fundamentales del Derecho. Analizar los problemas a que se enfrenta el sistema penal no es una tarea sencilla ya que adolece de ciertas deficiencias, sobre todo en la parte dogmática. El objetivo de este estudio es aportar el poder de...

  9. Producción y evaluación serológica de una bacterina contra la leptospirosis bovina

    OpenAIRE

    Edna Sánchez C; Benito Gutiérrez; Cindy Fernández; Janeth Arias P

    2007-01-01

    Objetivo. Producir una bacterina contra leptospirosis bovina. Materiales y métodos. La producción de la bacterina se realizó a partir de cultivos de L. pomona, L. grippotyphosa, L. hardjobovis, L. hardjoprajitno, L. icterohaemorrhagiae y L. canicola con concentraciones entre 1x108 y 1x1010 células/ml. Las leptospiras se inactivaron con formol y se adsorbieron en hidróxido de aluminio para formular la vacuna. La concentración final de cada serovar fue de 1x108 Leptospiras/ml. Para realizar la ...

  10. La Asociación Europea contra la Poliomielitis y los programas europeos de vacunación

    OpenAIRE

    Porras,María Isabel; Báguena, José; Ballester, Rosa; de las Heras, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    La búsqueda de una respuesta europea al problema planteado por los brotes epidémicos de poliomielitis en las décadas centrales del siglo XX, desembocó en la creación de un organismo nuevo, la Asociación Europea contra la Poliomielitis en 1951. Los mecanismos de funcionamiento interno y las conexiones internacionales de dicha Asociación fueron subsidiarios de un determinado contexto socio-político que propiciaba este tipo de consorcios. Como muestra este trabajo, su labor en los dieciocho años...

  11. ORGANIZANDO LA ESPERANZA: UTOPÍAS CONCRETAS PLURIVERSALES CONTRA Y MÁS ALLÁ DE LA FORMA VALOR

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: ¿Cuál es la forma que adopta la utopía hoy? Mediante el establecimiento de una afinidad electiva entre autonomía y el principio de esperanza de Bloch, la autora de este trabajo define autonomía como 'el arte de organizar la esperanza'. Esa es una utopía concreta que desafía los parámetros de legibilidad de la realidad dada: niega, crea, entra en contradicción con, contra, y más allá del Estado, y produce un 'excedente' intraducible en el lenguaje capitalista, patriarcal y colonial. E...

  12. Sobriedade e embriaguez: a luta dos soldados de Cristo contra as festas dos tupinambás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Azevedo Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a luta dos missionários cristãos, em especial os jesuítas, contra as festas e as bebidas alcoólicas dos tupinambás. Eles perceberam que, nestas festas, a cultura tupinambá, principal obstáculo à evangelização, se renovava e se reafirmava constantemente. O artigo também explora as principais estratégias usadas pelos europeus para alcançar o objetivo de extinguir as festas dos índios.

  13. Trombosis cerebral en presencia de un inhibidor especifico contra el factor xii de la coagulación

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Betancur, Octavio; López de Goenaga, Inés

    2011-01-01

    El presente informe determina la especificidad de un inhibidor de la coagulación dirigido contra el factor XII, activador intrínseco de la fibrinólisis plasmática, en un paciente con un evento oclusivo vascular cerebral agudo de tipo trombótico, sobre un transfondo de múltiples infartos cerebrales antiguos. Se excluyó la presencia de anticoagulante lúpico mediante la prueba de neutralización de plaquetas. Como resultado de la inhibición del factor XII, se demostró la ausencia de actividad fib...

  14. Profissionais de saúde e violência intrafamiliar contra a criança e adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cristina Brandt; Sarti, Cynthia Andersen [UNIFESP; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Compreender o modo como os profissionais de saúde abordam as situações envolvidas na violência intrafamiliar contra a criança e o adolescente. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa de natureza qualitativo, na modalidade de estudo de caso, realizado com 30 profissionais de saúde. RESULTADOS: Os profissionais mostraram-se preocupados com a falta de resolução dos problemas. Revelaram que as medidas empreendidas priorizam a punição em lugar do atendimento e que a estrutura de trabalho não lhes permitia exp...

  15. Desarrollo de marcadores funcionales ligados a la resistencia genética contra la roya del café

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Guerrero, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    La presente investigación se orientó al desarrollo de marcadores moleculares funcionales TRAP (por Target Region Amplification Polymorphism) en Coffea arabica L. El trabajo implicó la caracterización fenotípica, la búsqueda de polimorfismo y el posterior mapeo de la resistencia contra la roya anaranjada (Hemileia vastatrix) sobre una población de 80 plantas F2 del cruzamiento entre un genotipo susceptible (var. Caturra) y uno resistente (DI.200). La evaluación fenotípica se llevó a cabo en...

  16. VIOLENCIA CONTRA LAS MUJERES EN LOS MEDIOS DE COMUNICACIÓN. UN ESTUDIO EN LOS INFORMATIVOS DE TVE

    OpenAIRE

    Felicidad Loscertales Abril; Eduardo Fernández Jiménez; Zulaima Higazi Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis de 55 noticias de violencia contra las mujeres, seleccionadas del conjunto total de las noticias emitidas en el primer semestre de 2005 en los informativos de las dos cadenas de la televisión pública española. Aplicando la técnica del Análisis de Contenido, se hatrabajado sobre una doble base: por una parte la estructura que presentan las noticias y, por otra, el contenido del que tratan estas noticias. Con respecto a l...

  17. Mago contra falsario: un duelo de insultos entre Calvino y Servet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tausiet, María

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The trial of the Spanish theologian and physician Miguel Servet, charged with heresy and blasphemy by the Council of Geneva in 1553, led to a long and abstruse debate between two apparently irreconcilable standpoints. In an attempt to clarify the terms of discussion on such crucial areas as the Trinity, divine immanence and the immortality of the soul, Calvin and Servet embarked on a three-day written debate (15-17 September 1553. In what ultimately became a genuine «duel to the death», what stands out, over and above the actual argumentation, is their use of insults as rhetorical weapons. Given that both adversaries were equally convinced that they were defending the «true faith», most of their attacks were aimed at demonstrating the false nature of their opponent. Thus, according to Servet, Calvin was nothing but an impostor (a latter-day «Simon Magus», while Calvin branded the Spaniard a slanderer and «falsifier».

    El proceso contra el teólogo y médico español Miguel Servet, acusado por el consistorio de Ginebra de hereje y blasfemo en 1553, dio lugar a un largo y abstruso debate teológico entre dos posturas aparentemente irreconciliables. Con la intención de clarificar los términos de la discusión acerca de temas tan cruciales como la Trinidad e inmanencia divinas, o la inmortalidad del alma, Calvino y Servet acordaron mantener una discusión por escrito en latín que duró tres días (15-17 septiembre de 1553. En el contexto de un enfrentamiento que acabó convirtiéndose en un auténtico «duelo a muerte», si algo destaca por encima de cualquier argumentación es la utilización del insulto como arma retórica. Teniendo en cuenta que ambos contendientes estaban convencidos de defender la «verdadera fe», la mayoría de las descalificaciones expresaban la idea de falsedad del contrario. De este modo, según Servet, Calvino no era sino un impostor (un nuevo «Simon Magus», mientras que éste tildó al español de

  18. COP 21: Acuerdo contra el cambio climático en Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Bulege Gutiérrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La Cumbre de París cierra un acuerdo histórico contra el cambio climático. Era la señal que muchos esperaban desde que los responsables de la mayoría de países del mundo comenzaron a discutir sobre el cambio climático hace más de dos décadas. Del mismo modo, era la señal que muchos inversores, atrapados ahora entre las dudas, querían oír para saber hacia dónde dirigir su dinero (1. El presidente francés, Fancois Hollande, manifiesta que se trata del “primer acuerdo universal de la historia de las negociaciones climáticas” y de la mejor oportunidad para “cambiar el mundo” (2, y el presidente de Estados Unidos, Barack Obama, considera que es la decisión más ambiciosa de la historia, porque “establece el marco sostenible que el mundo necesita para resolver la crisis climática” (3. Este acuerdo, definido también como convención internacional y que entrará en vigor a partir de 2020, tiene por objeto, conforme con su artículo 2, reforzar la respuesta mundial a la amenaza del cambio climático, en el contexto del desarrollo sostenible y de los esfuerzos por erradicar la pobreza, y para ello plantea: a mantener el aumento de la temperatura media mundial muy por debajo de 2 °C con respecto a los niveles preindustriales, y proseguir los esfuerzos para limitar ese aumento de la temperatura a 1,5 °C con respecto a los niveles preindustriales, reconociendo que ello reduciría considerablemente los riesgos y los efectos del cambio climático; b aumentar la capacidad de adaptación a los efectos adversos del cambio climático y promover la resiliencia al clima y un desarrollo con bajas emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, de un modo que no comprometa la producción de alimentos; y c elevar las corrientes financieras a un nivel compatible con una trayectoria que conduzca a un desarrollo resiliente al clima y con bajas emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

  19. Indicações da vacina contra o papilomavirus humano Indications for human papillomavirus vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roberto Manzione Nadal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que 20% da população adulta esteja contaminada pelo Papilomavírus humano (HPV e que anualmente surjam 500 mil novos casos de câncer da cérvix uterina, 70% deles em países em desenvolvimento, além de inúmeros casos de carcinoma anal, quase todos relacionados ao vírus em questão. Esses dados indicam a necessidade de reforçar a prevenção desses tumores e suas lesões precursoras, e as vacinas oferecem essa oportunidade. Dispomos de produtos que imunizam contra os tipos virais 16 e 18, mais freqüentes nos carcinomas, e 6 e 11, relacionados às verrugas anogenitais. Estão indicados em mulheres dos 11 aos 25 anos de idade desde que não tenham contato prévio com a infecção viral. Conferem imunidade superior à da imunização naturalmente adquirida, embora o tempo de duração dessa imunidade não está bem estabelecido. Por enquanto, não é indicada para homens. A vacinação não afasta a necessidade dos exames periódicos para rastreamento do câncer anogenital.Many studies estimate that 20% of people are infected by human papillomavirus (HPV worldwide, and 500.000 new cases of cervical carcinoma appear yearly, 70% in developing countries, almost all associated to this virus, as so several cases of anal carcinoma. These data indicate the necessity of reinforced screening for anogenital carcinomas and their precursors, and vaccines offer this opportunity. Nowadays, there is vaccination against viral types 16/18, the most associated to neoplasia, and 6/11 that provoke condylomas. Vaccines are indicated to women among 11 and 25 years old since they did not have previous contact with HPV. Vaccines induce immunization superior to that naturally acquired, although, its duration period is not well established. They are not yet indicated to males. Vaccination does not exclude necessity for periodical screening tests for anogenital cancer.

  20. Anticorpos contra LDL-ox e síndrome coronariana aguda Anticuerpos contra LDL-ox y síndrome coronario agudo Antibodies against OxLDL and acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Brito Medeiros

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A oxidação da lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL-ox induz à formação de epítopos imunogênicos na molécula. A presença de autoanticorpos contra a LDL-ox tem sido demonstrada no soro de pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Contudo, o papel desses autoanticorpos na fisiopatologia das síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCA e o seu significado clínico permanecem indefinidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre autoanticorpos contra a LDL-ox e SCA. MÉTODOS: Os títulos de imunoglobulina G autoanticorpos contra a LDL-ox por cobre (antiLDL-ox e contra o peptídeo sintético D derivado da apolipoproteína B (antipeptD foram determinados por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA em 90 pacientes, nas primeiras 12h de SCA (casos e em 90 pacientes com DAC crônica (controles. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que os títulos de antiLDL-ox foram significativamente mais elevados (p = 0,017 nos casos (0,40 ± 0,22, do que nos controles (0,33 ± 0,23. Por outro lado, os títulos de antipeptD foram significativamente menores (p FUNDAMENTO: La oxidación de la lipoproteína de baja densidad (LDL-ox induce a la formación de epítopos inmunogénicos en la molécula. La presencia de autoanticuerpos contra la LDL-ox ha sido demostrada en el suero de pacientes con enfermedad arterial coronaria (EAC. No obstante eso, el papel de esos autoanticuerpos en la fisiopatología de los síndromes coronarios agudos (SCA y su significado clínico permanecen indefinidos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre autoanticuerpos contra la LDL-ox y SCA. MÉTODOS: Los títulos de inmunoglobulina G autoanticuerpos contra la LDL-ox por cobre (antiLDL-ox y contra el péptido sintético D derivado de la apolipoproteína B (antipeptD fueron determinados por ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA en 90 pacientes, en las primeras 12h de SCA (casos y en 90 pacientes con EAC crónica (controles. RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron que los títulos de antiLDL-ox fueron

  1. A arte e violência no olhar: Activismo feminista e desconstrução da violência contra as mulheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Magalhães

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo vem na continuação do texto de Angélica Lima Cruz, retomando‑se a questão da construção de um olhar que integra ou denuncia uma cultura de violência contra as mulheres. Aqui, explora‑se como a crítica feminista da violência contra as mulheres desoculta os mecanismos da sua re/produção, mostrando também que a arte se pode constituir como processo de desconstrução desta violência. Para isso, apresentam‑se e analisam‑se algumas intervenções artísticas e instalações realizadas por feministas, quer no estrangeiro quer em Portugal, no activismo feminista do combate à violência contra as mulheres.

  2. Prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Brucella sp. En donantes del banco de sangre de un hospital de Lima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Ortega

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available El Perú es un país endémico de Brucelosis, por lo que existe el riesgo de transmisión a través de sangre donada por no ser parte del tamizaje regular que realizan los bancos de sangre. Para conocer la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Brucella en donantes del banco de sangre del Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins, se analizó 1003 muestras de suero. La prueba tamiz fue Rosa de Bengala (RB; las muestras positivas fueron evaluadas por las pruebas de aglutinación en tubo (AT y 2-Mercaptoetanol (2-ME. Dos donantes fueron positivos a RB, confirmados por AT y 2-ME, se encontró una prevalencia de 0,20% (IC99%: 0,01-0,92. Se demostró la presencia de donantes portadores de anticuerpos contra Brucella con posible Brucelosis activa, evidenciándose la posibilidad de transmisión de esta infección. Se debe realizar mayores estudios con la finalidad de conocer la realidad de otros bancos de sangre.

  3. Subalternidade de gênero: refletindo sobre a vulnerabilidade para violência doméstica contra a mulher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christina Macedo Piosiadlo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este artigo tem o objetivo de refletir sobre a violência de gênero praticada contra a mulher no espaço intrafamiliar, sobretudo, a relação entre a subalternidade de gênero no âmbito familiar e a vulnerabilidade para este tipo de violência. Resultados: A subalternidade de gênero e a violência contra mulher apresentam-se entrelaçadas na história e, conformam-se por meio da construção de gênero nas sociedades. As mulheres formam um grupo que é violentado, constantemente, e de diversas maneiras, como, agressões e abusos físicos, verbais e sexuais cometidos por parceiros ou ex-parceiros, familiares, amigos, desconhecidos, por instituições públicas ou pelo Estado. Conclusão: Para que os serviços de saúde possam se antecipar às doenças e agravos decorrentes da violência doméstica é essencial compreender os aspectos relacionados à vulnerabilidade da mulher para a violência, como um indicador da iniquidade e da desigualdade social que supera o conceito probabilístico de risco.

  4. Optimization Correction Strength Using Contra Bending Technique without Anterior Release Procedure to Achieve Maximum Correction on Severe Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Jabir Rahyussalim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Posterior-only approach with rod and screw corrective manipulation to add strength of contra bending manipulation has correction achievement similar to that obtained by conventional combined anterior release and posterior approach. It also avoids the complications related to the thoracic approach. We reported a case of 25-year-old male adult idiopathic scoliosis with double curve. It consists of main thoracic curve of 150 degrees and lumbar curve of 89 degrees. His curve underwent direct contra bending posterior approach using rod and screw corrective manipulation technique to achieve optimal correction. After surgery the main thoracic Cobb angle becomes 83 degrees and lumbar Cobb angle becomes 40 degrees, with 5 days length of stay and less than 800 mL blood loss during surgery. There is no complaint at two months after surgery; he has already come back to normal activity with good functional activity.

  5. Propiedad molusquicida de Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra Biomphalaria glabrata Say hospedador intermediario de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Mogollón-Morales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina, los caracoles de Biomphalaria glabrata (Planorbidae son hospedadores intermediarios del parasito Schistosoma mansoni, agentes causantes de la schistosomiasis, una parasitosis que afecta a millones de personas en el mundo. El presente trabajo evalúa el papel de la especie Euphorbia laurifolia A. Juss (Euphorbiaceae contra B. glabrata. La actividad molusquicida se evaluó de acuerdo a los parámetros sugeridos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se utilizaron caracoles de B. glabrata criados en el laboratorio. Se realizaron diferentes bioensayos utilizando extractos metanólico crudo, en n-hexano, en acetato de etilo y en metanol de las partes aéreas de E. laurifolia a diferentes concentraciones. Los resultados demostraron que esta especie posee una potente actividad letal con todos los extractos estudiados contra caracoles de B. glabrata, considerándose el mejor el extracto de acetato de etilo, el cual presentó una DL50 de 5,57 ppm.

  6. VIOLÊNCIA CONTRA CRIANÇA E ADOLESCENTE: REFLEXÃO SOBRE POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUITÉRIA CLARICE MAGALHÃES CARVALHO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La violencia ocupa un destacado lugar en la sociedad moderna y se configura como un problema de salud pública. El objetivo fue narrar sobre las políticas relacionadas a la violencia contra el niño y el adolescente. Estudio documental, reflexivo, entre los años 1982 a 2006. A través de los datos se formuló la siguiente categoría: las políticas públicas frente a la violencia contra niños y adolescentes. Se deduce que la manera como los mismos han sido tratados, oscila entre la negligencia, punición y medidas puramente asistenciales. Los estatutos, los códigos y las leyes existen, aparentemente hacen falta medidas enérgicas, para que los mismos se tornen efectivos. Es imprescindible el desarrollo de actividades que ofrezcan a los niños y a los adolescentes posibilidades de una vida plena de respeto. El fenómeno de la violencia debe remitir a la sociedad a la lucha incansable para el ejercicio de la democracia. Entre los elementos sociales, se distingue el enfermero, siempre presente en los diversos ambientes de atención al niño y al adolescente, pudiendo contribuir de manera significativa en la detección, prevención y notificación de tal fenómeno.

  7. Hacia una comprensión de los “crímenes contra la humanidad” a partir de Nuremberg

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    Rainer Huhle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un análisis histórico de la forma en la que los crímenes contra la humanidad se convierten en delitos autónomos de los crímenes de guerra y de agresión desde el momento en que este conceptose introduce en las discusiones que tuvieron los Aliados cuando se estaba creando el Tribunal Militar Internacional de Nuremberg. El texto describe la manera como este concepto se ha desarrollado y discutido en diversas instancias internacionales hasta llegar al Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional. En el artículose muestra cómo los Juicios de Nuremberg tienen un significadojurídico e histórico trascendental puesto que logran institucionalizar la responsabilidad individual ante un tribunal internacional para una nueva categoría de crímenes. Igualmente, da cuenta de cómo, luego de los Juicios de Nuremberg, los crímenes contra la humanidad fueron gradualmente retirados del ámbito de la soberanía estatal y pasaron a ser un asunto de la comunidad internacional de naciones.

  8. Percepciones de las mujeres sobre la violencia contra la mujer: una revisión integradora de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciéle Marabotti Costa Leite

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las evidencias encontradas en la literatura acerca de las percepciones de las mujeres sobre la violencia contra la mujer. Para esta revisión fueron identificados 12 artículos que conforman la muestra del estudio, a partir de las bases de datos BDENF, LILACS, MEDLINE, CINAHL, y PubMed. Se encontraron tres categorías: reconociendo y conviviendo con la violencia; sentimientos atribuidos y percepción de los motivos de la violencia. Los resultados apuntan a la baja percepción de las mujeres al respecto de las situaciones vividas como violentas siendo, muchas veces, complacientes y tolerantes a la violencia cometida por el compañero íntimo, percibiéndola como cultural y religiosa. Se comprende que es necesario ampliar los estudios sobre este tema, en los diferentes estados brasileños, una vez que la violencia contra la mujer constituye un fenómeno que alcanza todo el Brasil y que es percibido de forma multifacética y heterogénea.

  9. Prevalência da violência contra o idoso no Brasil: revisão analítica

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    Inayara Oliveira de Santana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo consiste en una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica sobre la prevalencia de la violencia contra ancianos en el contexto brasileño. Para esto, se realizó un recuento bibliográfico, por medio de estrategia de búsqueda de artículos publicados en las bases de datos LILACS, Periódicos CAPES, PubMed e PsycINFO, entre los años de 2008 y 2013. Se utilizaron los términos “Epidemiology”, “Prevalence” y “Frequency” combinados con “Elder abuse”. De los 2359 artículos recuperados, 06 cumplieron con los criterios de selección establecidos. Los tipos de violencia más prevalentes fueron psicológica, física y robo. En el ámbito regional, las estimativas oscilaron. Se verifica la necesidad de desarrollar más investigaciones sobre la prevalencia de la violencia contra ancianos en ámbito nacional y regional.

  10. Movimientos sociales y medios de comunicación: el cambio en el tratamiento de la violencia contra las mujeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carballido González

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios de la última década en la consideración social de la violencia contra las mujeres en España no pueden entenderse sin la atención que el problema ha merecido por parte del movimiento feminista y de los medios de comunicación. En este artículo se revisa la intervención de ambos en el proceso de construcción de la violencia contra las mujeres como un problema social. Finalmente se intentarán trazar las líneas de confluencia de ambos agentes en el tratamiento del fenómeno.The changes achieved during the last decade in Spain as regards the social consideration of violence against women cannot be understood without considering the attention it has received from the feminist movement and the media. This article examines the role that both play in the process of constructing violence against women as a social problem. Finally, it attempts to draw the lines of confluence between feminist movements and the media when dealing with the issue. 

  11. La resistencia como forma de hacer política del zapatismo ante la IV guerra mundial contra la humanidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sandoval Álvarez

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de la Cuarta Guerra Mundial contra la humanidad y la extraordinaria articulación de la resistencia y la rebeldía que se teje contra la globalización neoliberal, resulta relevante reconocer las nuevas formas de hacer política que en los últimos diez años han desplegado sujetos tan diversos en todo el planeta y que se identifican como parte del esfuerzo por crear un mundo donde quepan muchos mundos. La resistencia como forma de hacer política tiene en el Zapatismo un referente que desde 1994 ha generado iniciativas políticas y organizativas que hoy trasciende tanto en lo local como en el ámbito internacional. El objetivo de este ensayo es realizar un acercamiento que da cuenta de cómo el Zapatismo ha pensado y construido una forma de hacer política que tiene en la resistencia, la dignidad y la autonomía, la base de lo que ellos llaman el Método Zapatista de hacer política: el caminar preguntando, el mandar obedeciendo, el autogobierno, etc.

  12. La excepción de incumplimiento del (y contra el contratante débil en el derecho italiano

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    Alberto Benedetti

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La cláusula solve et repete autoriza una disparidad de poderes entre las partes contratantes, porque una parte acepta no poder servirse inmediatamente de la excepción de incumplimiento: el autor analiza críticamente los límites que la jurisprudencia y la doctrina han construido alrededor del art. 1462 c.c. para posteriormente detenerse, en particular, en el caso de la cláusula solve et repete prevista en un contrato entre un profesional y un consumidor. Si se quiere impedir el acceso del consumidor a la excepción de incumplimiento, la respectiva cláusula debe considerarse viciada de nulidad porque de ella derivaría un desequilibrio significativo a cargo del consumidor o usuario (literal r, inciso 2º, art. 33, Código del Consumo; si, en cambio, la excepción de incumplimiento es usada contra el consumidor o usuario por parte del contratante más fuerte, el juicio de buena fe previsto por el inciso 2º del art. 1460 c.c., debe tener en cuenta la debilidad de la parte contra quien la excepción es interpuesta y la naturaleza primaria del interés del consumidor o usuario que mediante el cumplimiento de la prestación se pretende satisfacer.

  13. La excepción de incumplimiento del (y contra el contratante débil en el derecho italiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benedetti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La cláusula solve et repete autoriza una disparidad de poderes entre las partes contratantes, porque una parte acepta no poder servirse inmediatamente de la excepción de incumplimiento: el autor analiza críticamente los límites que la jurisprudencia y la doctrina han construido alrededor del art. 1462 c.c. para posteriormente detenerse, en particular, en el caso de la cláusula solve et repete prevista en un contrato entre un profesional y un consumidor. Si se quiere impedir el acceso del consumidor a la excepción de incumplimiento, la respectiva cláusula debe considerarse viciada de nulidad porque de ella derivaría un desequilibrio significativo a cargo del consumidor o usuario (literal r, inciso 2º, art. 33, Código del Consumo; si, en cambio, la excepción de incumplimiento es usada contra el consumidor o usuario por parte del contratante más fuerte, el juicio de buena fe previsto por el inciso 2º del art. 1460 c.c., debe tener en cuenta la debilidad de la parte contra quien la excepción es interpuesta y la naturaleza primaria del interés del consumidor o usuario que mediante el cumplimiento de la prestación se pretende satisfacer.

  14. La lucha de la UE contra el actual crimen organizado: un reto esencial… pero difícil

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    Claudia Jiménez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Si la lucha contra la delincuencia organizada requiere en general de un elevado grado de cooperación entre los estados, en el caso de la Unión Europea, con un espacio interior sin fronteras para casi todo, esto resulta insoslayable. Los estados miembros, conscientes de ello, han hecho esfuerzos por avanzar juntos en esta lucha. La creación de nuevas herramientas de cooperación y el uso de organismos autónomos como las agencias han sido pasos importantes, pero están lejos de ser suficientes. Para progresar en este sentido, es imprescindible superar el recelo derivado de la defensa de una soberanía hoy en día más imaginaria que real y, sobre todo, es necesaria una mayor armonización de estándares de seguridad, protección de derechos fundamentales y garantías del Estado de derecho que permitan un mayor grado de confianza mutua, imprescindible para una acción conjunta más eficaz contra este tipo de delincuencia.

  15. La militarización neoliberal de la seguridad y la guerra contra el narcotráfico en México

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Este texto propone la hipótesis de que la “guerra contra el narcotráfico” es una submodalidad doméstica de otra modalidad de guerra global. El objetivo de esta guerra no es la droga o su red de tráfico sino la sociedad. La “guerra contra el narcotráfico” es una violencia estatal que tiene como objetivos ocupar, despoblar y reordenar territorios; dislocar contenidos comunitarios en un contexto de confiscación a gran escala de patrimonios; e introducir la figura de un enemigo, que justifique el...

  16. Violência sexual contra crianças na mídia impressa: gênero e geração

    OpenAIRE

    Landini,Tatiana Savoia

    2006-01-01

    O presente trabalho objetiva resgatar o que foi publicado sobre violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes por um jornal de grande circulação, O Estado de S.Paulo. A pesquisa abrangeu o século XX e cobre as diversas formas de violência sexual: incesto, crimes violentos cometidos por estranhos, crimes contra a honra, lenocínio e prostituição, pornografia infantil e pedofilia. Apresento o material em dois blocos: o primeiro reporta ao início do século e o segundo ao final do período, procu...

  17. Pesquisa de IgA contra o antígeno recombinante HspX de Mycobacterium tuberculosis no diagnóstico de tuberculose pleural

    OpenAIRE

    Limongi,Loanda Carvalho Sant' Ana; Olival,Liliane; Conde, Marcus Barreto; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acurácia da dosagem de IgA contra o antígeno recombinante HspX no líquido pleural e no soro de pacientes com derrame pleural para o diagnóstico de tuberculose pleural. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de teste diagnóstico. Amostras de líquido pleural e de soro de pacientes com derrame pleural e suspeita de tuberculose pleural foram avaliadas para a determinação da densidade óptica de IgA contra HspX utilizando ELISA indireto. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas amostras de líquido pleu...

  18. Evaluación de un programa de lucha contra la pobreza extrema en México desde una perspectiva cualitativa y microsociológica

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Arzate Salgado

    2006-01-01

    El fenómeno de la pobreza es hoy en día un gran problema para América Latina, ante lo cual los gobiernos han venido desarrollando diversas alternativas de política social para tratar de reducir sus efectos. Por tanto, es necesario plantear alternativas metodológicas para evaluar el funcionamiento y efectos de los programas de lucha contra la pobreza. En este sentido, el artículo presenta una experiencia de evaluación de un programa de lucha contra pobreza extrema desde una perspectiva cualita...

  19. Sistema de protección contra incendios de un parque de almacenamiento de líquidos petrolíferos

    OpenAIRE

    Esono Eyenga, Plácida

    2015-01-01

    Los procesos relacionados con el almacenamiento y manipulación de productos petrolíferos, conllevan siempre determinados riesgos de incendio que dependen básicamente de las propiedades físicas y químicas de los productos, y hacen indispensable la adopción de importantes medidas de seguridad contra incendios. Esto es debido a que las consecuencias previsibles en caso de la producción y expansión del incendio son tan graves que aconsejan la instalación de medios más potentes de lucha contra inc...

  20. Tipología y factores de invisibilización de la violencia sexual contra mujeres y varones en contextos de conflicto armado

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Moreno, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    La violencia sexual, como manifestación de la violencia de género, es un crimen en sí mismo que se incrementa en conflictos armados, siendo un medio para perpetrar crímenes de odio, genocidio, contra la humanidad o de guerra. Esto ocurre especialmente cuando se focaliza contra mujeres, personas identificadas con identidades LGTBI o cuando se utilizan como prácticas ofensivas entre dos varones. En estos casos subyace la misoginia y la homofobia/transfobia del grupo dominante. Generalmente s...

  1. Las campañas de vacunación contra la poliomielitis en Jerez de la Frontera (1963-1965)

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera-Rodríguez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    En el presente artículo nos hemos planteado como objetivo estudiar las dos fases de la campaña de vacunación contra la poliomielitis de los años 1963 y 1964, con la vacuna oral Sabin, en la ciudad de Jerez de la Frontera (Cádiz). Asimismo exponemos datos de la campaña de vacunación del año 1965 contra la poliomielitis, la difteria, la tos ferina y el tétanos en la referida ciudad. Hemos utilizado en nuestro estudio fuentes documentales originales del Archivo Municipal de Jerez y de otros arch...

  2. Colonization and infection of Ralstonia Solanacearum in weed roots%烟草青枯菌在杂草根部的定殖和传病作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方树民; 顾钢; 陈玉森; 黄春梅; 陈顺辉

    2013-01-01

    Parasitism and saprophytism of Ralstonia Solanacearum in different weeds were studied to provide basis for preventing tobacco bacterial wilt. Growth and decline trends and infectivity ability of the bacteria in winter were monitored. Disease was induced by inoculating tobacco seedlings with rifampicin-resistant R. solanacearum. Bacteria in 49 weed roots in tobacco planting land. Weed roots from infected soil in winter were determined using a selective culture medium containing rifampicin. The occurrence of tobacco bacterial wilt was monitored by planting tobacco seedlings in pots with uninfected soil. 7 weeds such as Polygonum plebeium R.Br and Cyperus rotundus L. were susceptible, 18 such as Pospalum orbiculare Forst. and Solanum mgrum L. were moderately susceptible, while 24 weeds such as Youngia japonica (Linn.) DC and Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. were low susceptible. R.Solanacearum were just noted on the root surface of Bidens bipinnata L. and Phytolacca acinosa Raxb. , but were both noted in vivo and in vitro of 6 weed roots such as Poa annua L. and Pospalum orbiculare Forst..3 weeds, i.e. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn and Portutulaca oleracea. R.Solanacearum was highly saprophytic in 8 rotten roots such as Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn and Polygonum hydropiper L., moderately saprophytic in 7 rotten roots such as Pospalum orbiculare Forst. and Soliva anthemifolia (Juss), low saprophytic in 6 rotten roots such as Ranunculus sceleratus L. and Siegesbeckia orientalis L. Result showed R.Solanacearum can overwinter in roots of 6 annual weeds and then cause tobacco bacterial wilt in the following year. The disease occurrence can be induced by 7 weeds, while the disease was early and serious in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. 4 weeds such as Polygonum orientale L. and Altemanthera philoxeroides(Mart) Griseb had the strongest infectivity ability, the morbidity was 85.7% ~ 100%. R. Solanacearum can colonize in weed roots, then proliferate during root decay and overwinter

  3. Vacinação contra influenza e pneumococo na insuficiência cardíaca: uma recomendação pouco aplicada Vacunación contra influenza y neumococo en la insuficiencia cardíaca: una recomendación poco aplicada Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in heart failure: a little applied recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolney de Andrade Martins

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC cursa com frequentes descompensações e admissões ao serviço de emergência. Vacinação contra Influenza (INF e Pneumococo (PNM são recomendadas nas diretrizes, entretanto, as infecções respiratórias são a terceira causa de hospitalização na IC. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência da vacinação contra INF e PNM em pacientes com IC na rede pública. MÉTODOS: Em estudo observacional realizado em Teresópolis, região serrana fluminense, foram utilizadas três estratégias: (I estudo das requisições para vacina contra INF e/ou PNM na Secretaria Municipal de Saúde, entre 2004 e 2006; (II inquérito direto a 61 pacientes com IC atendidos na atenção básica sobre sua situação vacinal contra INF e PNM; (III inquérito direto sobre situação vacinal contra INF e PNM a 81 pacientes com IC crônica descompensada atendidos na única emergência aberta à rede pública. RESULTADOS: Na estratégia I, a vacinação contra INF e/ou PNM foi de 15,3% daqueles com indicações por doenças cardiovasculares e respiratórias. A mediana do tempo entre a indicação e a vacinação foi de 32 dias. Na estratégia II, o percentual de vacinados contra INF, com idade > 60 anos, foi de 23,1%, e de 24,6% contra PMN em todas as idades. Na estratégia III, o percentual de pacientes vacinados contra INF foi de 35,8% e contra PNM foi de 2,5%. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de vacinação contra INF e PNM em pacientes com IC é muito baixa e ainda menor naqueles descompensados atendidos em serviço de emergência.FUNDAMENTO: La insuficiencia cardíaca (IC cursa con frecuentes descompensaciones y admisiones al servicio de emergencia. Vacunación contra Influenza (INF y Neumococo (PNM son recomendadas en las directrices, entre tanto, las infecciones respiratorias son la tercera causa de hospitalización en la IC. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la frecuencia de la vacunación contra INF y PNM en pacientes con IC en la red pública. MÉTODOS: En

  4. Recubrimientos contra la corrosión a alta temperatura para componentes de turbinas de gas

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    Agüero, A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Hot section gas turbine components are made of superalloys, developed to withstand high temperatures in conditions in which mechanical stresses are high and that require high surface stability. However, during the 50s it became evident that compositions resulting in high mechanical strength for these materials were not compatible with those offering optimal protection from the working environments. The idea of employing protective coatings over materials with high mechanical strength resulted therefore from this situation. Presently, both aeronautic and power generation turbines operate at temperatures within the 900-1400 °C, thanks to these coatings, indispensable for their correct operation. In this work, the principal degradation mechanisms in these operating conditions and the different type of coatings presently employed by the industrial sector are described, beginning by the oldest Ni or Co aluminides, following with the addition of other metals such as Pt, Cr, etc. to the former coatings in order to increase their useful life, continuing with the overlay MCrAlY coatings and finishing with the thermal barrier coating systems. Moreover, the corresponding deposition techniques industrially employed to deposit these coatings are described, and finally, an insight of the latest research lines currently being developed is also included.

    Los componentes de las zonas calientes de las turbinas de gas están hechos de superaleaciones desarrolladas para soportar altas temperaturas, en condiciones en que las tensiones mecánicas son relativamente altas y en las que se requiere una alta estabilidad superficial. Sin embargo, durante la década de 1950-60, se hizo evidente que las composiciones que aumentaban la resistencia mecánica de estos materiales y aquellas que ofrecían una óptima protección contra ambientes agresivos no eran compatibles. Esto, condujo a la idea de emplear recubrimientos protectores sobre materiales con alta

  5. Prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Leptospira en personas asintomáticos y en perros de Chancay, Lima 2001

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    Manuel Céspedes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Leptospiras en personas asintomáticas dedicadas a la agricultura, pesca y comercio y en perros domésticos de localidades de Chancay (Huaral, Lima. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal analítico, se tomó muestras de suero de 268 pobladores de tres localidades, en quienes se evaluó la presencia de anticuerpos totales contra Leptospiras por el método de ELISA IgG y la prueba de microaglutinación (MAT. Se buscaron los factores asociados con la positividad a Leptospiras calculando el OR con su intervalo de confianza al 95%. De la misma manera, se tomó muestras de suero de 241 perros a los que se realizó la prueba de MAT. Resultados. La prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Leptospira en población asintomática fue de 10,1% (IC95%: 6,3-13,9, la cual estuvo asociada con el abastecimiento de agua para consumo en quebrada o pozo (OR: 3,48, IC95%: 1,39-8,74, con el antecedente de nadar en el río o acequia (OR: 4,75, IC95%: 1,51-14,92 y con tener una edad entre 21-40 años (OR: 2,47, IC95%: 1,10-5,52. Los serovares más frecuentes fueron Icterohaemorrhagiae y Canicola según MAT. En canes, 27,8% (67/241 tuvieron serología positiva a leptospiras. Conclusiones. Existe una mediana prevalencia de serología positiva para Leptospiras en la población general asintomática y condiciones favorables para la presencia de Leptospiras en las localidades estudiadas. En estas zonas se recomienda realizar actividades educativas preventivas frecuentes, tomando en cuenta los resultados de este estudio y el personal de salud debe sospechar de la leptospirosis como una causa de enfermedad febril.

  6. Violência contra idosos: uma questão nova? Violence against aged people: a new issue?

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    Ana Paula R. Amadio Sanches

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento da população mundial é um fato concreto e de conhecimento público. O Brasil inicia seu processo de transição demográfica seguindo o padrão mundial: o aumento do número de idosos com possibilidade de atingir elevadas faixas etárias, o que traz a necessidade de pesquisas nesse campo, devido à demanda apresentada por essa nova parcela da população. A questão da violência doméstica contra idosos tem se ampliado e sugere necessidade de maior campo de investigação nessa área, dado o risco suposto ao qual essa população mais idosa está submetida. O objetivo deste artigo é verificar os estudos relacionados ao tema já realizados no Brasil e em diferentes países, com enfoque epidemiológico. O trabalho apresenta diversos pontos de abordagem da violência contra idosos, considerando questões relacionadas à cultura do envelhecimento, ações de políticas públicas, atuação de equipes de saúde, definição do termo abordado, aspectos legais e éticos da violência contra o idoso. Tal estudo permite ao pesquisador analisar os diferentes aspectos que envolvem a temática, demonstrando a necessidade de pesquisas específicas direcionadas ao tema.The world population is getting older and this is a very well known fact. The demographic transition of the Brazilian population is just beginning, and follows the world pattern: an increase in the number of older persons with an actual chance of reaching higher ages. As a consequence, there is the need of new studies to supply data about this new aspect of the population demands. Household violence against old persons has been growing and this strongly recommends that special research studies should be conducted, in view of the risk to which these individuals are exposed. The objective of this study is to list and analyze Brazilian and international studies related to aged persons, in light of an epidemiological point of view. The article presents many ways of approaching

  7. La violencia contra mujeres en comunidades transnacionales de San Luis Potosí, México: un problema de salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesica Yolanda Rangel Flores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La violencia contra las mujeres es un problema mundial, dado el impacto que tiene en la calidad de vida de quienes la viven, bajo la complicidad de una cultura patriarcal y un Estado que la invisibiliza. Este artículo busca hacer visibles los contextos de violencia en que viven mujeres "parejas de migrantes" en las localidades de origen, problematizando cómo atentan contra su salud física y mental. Se trató de un estudio cualitativo con enfoque en la antropología interpretativa, con 21 mujeres de localidades rurales y urbanas de San Luis Potosí, México; se aplicaron entrevistas desde el marco de historia de la vida cotidiana y análisis de discurso. Los resultados muestran que las mujeres viven mayor violencia cuando sus parejas migran, nuevas formas de violencia se cometen contra ellas, y los ámbitos en que la sufren incluyen el doméstico y el comunitario. La violencia contra las mujeres constituye un problema de salud pública que debe atenderse desde un marco sensible a las dinámicas sociales y culturales que caracterizan los contextos en que se aplican los programas de salud.

  8. 水煮和微波处理对巴西蘑菇营养品质及抗氧化能力的影响%Effect of boiling and microwaving treatments on nutritional characteristics and antioxidant activities of mushroom(Agaricus blazei Murril)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐; 孙丽平; 翟庆娇; 常佳驹; 庄永亮

    2012-01-01

    The effects of boiling and microwaving on nutritional compositions and antioxidant activities of fresh and frozen A.blazei Murril(AbM) were evaluated and compared.The results showed that the contents of crude protein,ash,total soluble protein,total soluble sugar,vitamin C,and total phenolics decreased by both cooking treatments,but no significant changes were observed in lipids.Boiling and microwaving significantly changed the compositions of amino acids and decreased the contents of glucose,galactose and mannose,and the effect of boiling was higher than that of microwaving.Furthermore,boiling and microwaving significantly decreased the DPPH· scavenging activity and reducing power of AbM.Analysis of the relations between the antioxidant activities and total phenolic concentrations testified that the cooking treatments not only decreased the total phenolic contents,but also changed the types and relative amounts of phenolic compounds of AbM.%研究了水煮和微波加热处理对新鲜巴西蘑菇营养成分及其抗氧化能力的影响。结果表明,水煮和微波加热处理不同程度上降低了总蛋白质、灰分、可溶性蛋白质、可溶性多糖、总酚和VC的含量,而对脂肪的含量没有显著性变化。另外,加热处理明显改变了巴西蘑菇氨基酸和单糖的组成,微波处理的损失率显著低于水煮处理。加热处理对巴西蘑菇的还原力和清除DPPH·能力的影响显示,水煮和微波处理不仅降低了巴西蘑菇总酚含量,而且改变了其总酚的组成,水煮处理对其抗氧化能力的破坏能力明显高于微波处理。研究可为消费者日常生活合理烹调巴西蘑菇提供科学依据。

  9. Evaluación de anticuerpos contra enfermedades prevenibles por vacunas en el binomio madre–recién nacido en hospitales de Ciudad de La Habana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Felipe Ochoa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available El sistema inmune es inmaduro en los recién nacidos, lo que los hace susceptibles a las enfermedades infecciosas, sin embargo, pueden ser parcialmente protegidos por los anticuerpos adquiridos a través de la placenta. Por ello, nos propusimos evaluar la transferencia transplacentaria de anticuerpos contra algunas enfermedades prevenibles por vacunas. Se realizó un ensayo prospectivo, aleatorio, en el binomio madre–recién nacido. Para ello se analizó un total de 96 pares de muestras de suero, tomadas en el salón de preparto y al nacimiento en hospitales de Ciudad de La Habana, durante el año 2004. Se emplearon técnicas inmunoenzimáticas para determinar los niveles de antitoxina tetánica (ATT, antitoxina diftérica (ATD y anticuerpos contra proteínas de membrana externa del meningococo B (PME, contra el polisacárido capsular del meningococo C (PSC y contra el polisacárido Vi de Salmonella Typhi. Se detectó un nivel apropiado de ATT, tanto en las madres como en los recién nacidos, predominando los valores correspondientes a la protección de larga duración (>1 UI/mL, con 88,54% y 92,71%, respectivamente. Se observó niveles de ATD inferiores a 0,1 UI/mL, límite para una protección confiable, en el 54,17% y 45,83% de las madres y los recién nacidos. El 90,63% de las madres y el 96,88% de los recién nacidos presentaron concentraciones de anticuerpos contra PME superiores a 2 µg/mL, así como el 38,54% y el 41,67% para anticuerpos contra PSC. La seroprotección contra la Salmonella Typhi (>1 µg/mL fue de 5,21% y 8,33%, respectivamente. La mayoría de los recién nacidos presentaron títulos superiores de anticuerpos al de sus madres, lo cual demuestra que la transferencia transplacentaria de anticuerpos es un mecanismo eficiente.

  10. Effects of environmental parameters on the dual-species biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut produce processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nancy T; Nou, Xiangwu; Bauchan, Gary R; Murphy, Charles; Lefcourt, Alan M; Shelton, Daniel R; Lo, Y Martin

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm-forming bacteria resident to food processing facilities are a food safety concern due to the potential of biofilms to harbor foodborne bacterial pathogens. When cultured together, Ralstonia insidiosa, a strong biofilm former frequently isolated from produce processing environments, has been shown to promote the incorporation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into dual-species biofilms. In this study, interactions between E. coli O157:H7 and R. insidiosa were examined under different incubating conditions. Under static culture conditions, the incorporation of E. coli O157:H7 into biofilms with R. insidiosa was not significantly affected by either low incubating temperature (10°C) or by limited nutrient availability. Greater enhancement of E. coli O157:H7 incorporation in dual-species biofilms was observed by using a continuous culture system with limited nutrient availability. Under the continuous culture conditions used in this study, E coli O157:H7 cells showed a strong tendency of colocalizing with R. insidiosa on a glass surface at the early stage of biofilm formation. As the biofilms matured, E coli O157:H7 cells were mostly found at the bottom layer of the dual-species biofilms, suggesting an effective protection by R. insidiosa in the mature biofilms.

  11. Superdosagem da vacina 17DD contra febre amarela, em uma região do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Carneiro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A febre amarela é uma arbovirose prevenível por uma vacina eficaz e segura. MÉTODOS: Acompanhamento clínico prospectivo de 49 pessoas que receberam uma superdosagem equivocada de vacina contra febre amarela, durante o surto de 2009, em uma localidade rural do Vale do Rio Pardo, no interior do Rio Grande do Sul. RESULTADOS: Durante os 45 dias de acompanhamento clínico, em apenas 1 (2,1% caso houve a manifestação de um possível viscerotropismo agudo leve, como evento adverso pós-vacinal. CONCLUSÕES: No grupo de pessoas acompanhadas, após a superdosagem de vacina antiamarílica, percebeu-se a quase total inexistência de eventos adversos.

  12. La comunicación gubernamental de la guerra contra el narcotráfico en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Jahaziel Reyes Tiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda la estrategia de seguridad planteada por el presidente Felipe Calderón Hinojosa en contra del narcotráfico y la manera en que la manejó desde el terreno de la comunicación. Esto con el objetivo de analizar en qué aspectos dentro de la comunicación gubernamental se debió prestar mayor atención para lograr legitimar ante la población esta acción y de esta manera lograr una percepción favorable en la opinión pública sobre la imagen del presidente y de su estrategia.

  13. La comunicación gubernamental de la guerra contra el narcotráfico en México

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Jahaziel Reyes Tiro; José Antonio O\\u2019Quinn Parrales

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo aborda la estrategia de seguridad planteada por el presidente Felipe Calderón Hinojosa en contra del narcotráfico y la manera en que la manejó desde el terreno de la comunicación. Esto con el objetivo de analizar en qué aspectos dentro de la comunicación gubernamental se debió prestar mayor atención para lograr legitimar ante la población esta acción y de esta manera lograr una percepción favorable en la opinión pública sobre la imagen del presidente y de su estrategia....

  14. LAS UNIONES MARITALES DE HECHO ENTRE PAREJAS DEL MISMO SEXO, UNA LUCHA INCONCLUSA CONTRA LA DISCRIMINACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Sarmiento E.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la investigación realizada en las notarías de Bogotá sobre la implementación de la Sentencia C-075 de 2007 de la Corte Constitucional, que permite la declaración de unión marital de hecho entre parejas homosexuales, se argumenta que, pese al amplio margen de aplicación de esta sentencia, alguna de estas oficinas ejercen formas de violencia simbólica y discriminación y rechazan de las parejas que intentan realizar dicho trámite. Ello permite constatar que las uniones maritales de hecho están lejos de construir un espacio que atenúa la discriminación contra la diversidad sexual.

  15. Femicidio/Feminicidio: Una Salida Emergente de las Mujeres Frente a la Violencia Ejercida en Contra de Ellas

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    Nayibe Paola Jiménez Rodríguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El femicidio/feminicidio nace en el marco de la violencia extrema contra las mujeres, como concepto que la visibiliza, y se ha desarrollado con la fundamentación de las corrientes feministas posicionándolo políticamente a tal punto que obtuvo la sanción y protección de instrumentos internacionales; igualmente, en razón a la preocupación de los Estados por este fenómeno ysus repercusiones. Países latinoamericanos han desarrollado legislaciones internas en el campo penal para evitar estas conductas; sin embargo, Colombia no ha sido una de ellas, y actualmente, aunque ha implementado varias normas en pro de la protección de las mujeres, se encuentra en el debate y asimilación de dicho concepto.

  16. La violencia de género contra las mujeres mayores. Un acercamiento socio-jurídico

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia Ibáñez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    A pesar de la imagen arquetípica que parece identificar a las víctimas de la violencia de género con una mujer joven o de mediana edad, existe evidencia empírica que demuestra que también las mujeres mayores son víctimas de violencia en el marco de sus relaciones de pareja. En este artículo, más allá de la regulación legal contenida en la Ley Orgánica 1/2004, de 28 de diciembre, de Medidas de Protección Integral contra la Violencia de Género, se argumenta la necesidad de una...

  17. Violência sexual doméstica contra crianças e adolescentes na imprensa

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Josenita Luiz da

    2007-01-01

    O presente estudo consiste numa análise qualitativa, através do método da análise de conteúdo, sobre a forma como a imprensa escrita publiciza as notícias de violência sexual doméstica contra crianças e adolescentes (VSDCCA) do sexo feminino e os valores ideológicos que estão ocultos nas notícias. A hipótese fundamental que orientou a nossa pesquisa parte do princípio de que a forma como a imprensa publiciza estas notícias não obedece aos princípios éticos em defesa dos direitos humanos das c...

  18. Assessment of Geometry and In-Flow Effects on Contra-Rotating Open Rotor Broadband Noise Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Nark, Douglas M.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Application of previously formulated semi-analytical models for the prediction of broadband noise due to turbulent rotor wake interactions and rotor blade trailing edges is performed on the historical baseline F31/A31 contra-rotating open rotor configuration. Simplified two-dimensional blade element analysis is performed on cambered NACA 4-digit airfoil profiles, which are meant to serve as substitutes for the actual rotor blade sectional geometries. Rotor in-flow effects such as induced axial and tangential velocities are incorporated into the noise prediction models based on supporting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results and simplified in-flow velocity models. Emphasis is placed on the development of simplified rotor in-flow models for the purpose of performing accurate noise predictions independent of CFD information. The broadband predictions are found to compare favorably with experimental acoustic results.

  19. VACUNAS CONTRA EL HERPESVIRUS BOVINO-1: UNA MIRADA DESDE EL PASADO HACIA EL FUTURO DE LA INMUNIZACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIÁN RUIZ-SAENZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El herpesvirus Bovino-1 (BHV-1 es uno de los principales patógenos que afecta el ganado; la infección primaria se acompaña de varias manifestaciones clínicas tales como la rinotraqueitis, aborto, vulvovaginitis/balanopostitis pustular y en algunos casos, enfermedad neurológica. Luego de la recuperación, la infección persiste durante toda la vida del individuo en un estado de latencia en ganglios nervioso trigémino o sacro. La Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE reporta que la vacunación contra el BHV-1 puede ser efectiva en reducir las manifestaciones clínicas y en consecuencia las pérdidas económicas, pero no logra proteger completamente de la infección. Es por esto que durante los últimos años se han desarrollado gran cantidad de agentes vacunales que van desde las vacunas clásicas inactivadas hasta aquellas que usan tecnología de DNA recombinante. El presente artículo se enfoca en presentar una actualización acerca de las vacunas más usadas desde hace ya varios años y resumir los avances más importantes en la generación de nuevas vacunas contra el BHV-1; tratando así de abrir un nuevo panorama para la generación de vacunas en Colombia.

  20. VACUNAS CONTRA EL HERPESVIRUS BOVINO-1: UNA MIRADA DESDE EL PASADO HACIA EL FUTURO DE LA INMUNIZACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Saenz Julian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El herpesvirus Bovino-1 (BHV-1 es uno de los principales patógenos que afecta el
    ganado; la infección primaria se acompaña de varias manifestaciones clínicas tales
    como la rinotraqueitis, aborto, vulvovaginitis/balanopostitis pustular y en algunos
    casos, enfermedad neurológica. Luego de la recuperación, la infección persiste durante
    toda la vida del individuo en un estado de latencia en ganglios nervioso trigémino o
    sacro. La Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal (OIE reporta que la vacunación
    contra el BHV-1 puede ser efectiva en reducir las manifestaciones clínicas y en consecuencia
    las pérdidas económicas, pero no logra proteger completamente de la infección.
    Es por esto que durante los últimos años se han desarrollado gran cantidad
    de agentes vacunales que van desde las vacunas clásicas inactivadas hasta aquellas que
    usan tecnología de DNA recombinante. El presente artículo se enfoca en presentar una
    actualización acerca de las vacunas más usadas desde hace ya varios años y resumir los
    avances más importantes en la generación de nuevas vacunas contra el BHV-1;
    tratando así de abrir un nuevo panorama para la generación de vacunas en Colombia.

  1. Actividad antimicrobiana y cinética de fermentación de Weissella confusa contra Xanthomonas albilineans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serna-Cock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana de Weissella confusa, una bacteria ácido láctica, contra Xanthomonas albilineans, microrganismo productor de la escaldadura de la hoja en la caña de azúcar. Se midió la cinética de fermentación de la bacteria ácido láctica en sustrato comercial (MRS y en residuos agrícolas de cosecha de caña de azúcar (RAC provenientes de semilleros con 7 meses de edad. Se realizaron fermentaciones sumergidas a 32 °C, cada hora hasta 4 horas, a pH 6 y 100 r.p.m. de agitación. Cada hora se midieron la producción de biomasa, el consumo de sustrato y actividad antimicrobiana. Weissella confusa presentó actividad antimicrobiana contra la bacteria fitopatógena X. albilineans en ambos sustratos, los halos de inhibición presentaron diámetros de 18.94 y 16.77 mm, respectivamente. Weissella confusa, aunque no fue aislada de caña de azúcar, mostró excelente crecimiento en el sustrato RAC comparado con el sustrato comercial MRS; por tanto, puede ser un posible biocontrolador para la escaldadura de la hoja de caña de azúcar, no obstante, se deben evaluar sus mecanismos de acción e impactos biológico y económico en la producción de biomasa ácido láctica.

  2. Building Economic Security Today: making the health-wealth connection in Contra Costa county's maternal and child health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Padmini; Dailey, Dawn E; Young, Maria-Elena D; Lam, Carrie; Pies, Cheri

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, maternal and child health professionals have been seeking approaches to integrating the Life Course Perspective and social determinants of health into their work. In this article, we describe how community input, staff feedback, and evidence from the field that the connection between wealth and health should be addressed compelled the Contra Costa Family, Maternal and Child Health (FMCH) Programs Life Course Initiative to launch Building Economic Security Today (BEST). BEST utilizes innovative strategies to reduce inequities in health outcomes for low-income Contra Costa families by improving their financial security and stability. FMCH Programs' Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC) conducted BEST financial education classes, and its Medically Vulnerable Infant Program (MVIP) instituted BEST financial assessments during public health nurse home visits. Educational and referral resources were also developed and distributed to all clients. The classes at WIC increased clients' awareness of financial issues and confidence that they could improve their financial situations. WIC clients and staff also gained knowledge about financial resources in the community. MVIP's financial assessments offered clients a new and needed perspective on their financial situations, as well as support around the financial and psychological stresses of caring for a child with special health care needs. BEST offered FMCH Programs staff opportunities to engage in non-traditional, cross-sector partnerships, and gain new knowledge and skills to address a pressing social determinant of health. We learned the value of flexible timelines, maintaining a long view for creating change, and challenging the traditional paradigm of maternal and child health.

  3. PURIFICACIÓN DE IgY CONTRA LA SUBUNIDAD NR3 DEL RECEPTOR NMDA DE CEREBRO DE RATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Méndez C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Obtener anticuerpos tipo IgY contra péptidos sintéticos de las subunidades NR3A y NR3B del receptor NMDA de ratas, para reconocer y seguir la expresión de estas subunidades en extractos de cerebro de rata de diferentes edades. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñaron dos péptidos empleando los sistemas de la base de datos Entrez y el programa ClustalW-PBIL de alineamientos múltiples contra las subunidades NR3A y NR3B del receptor NMDA; una vez sintetizados por el método SSPS-fmoc fueron utilizados para inocular gallinas (Gallus gallus, variedad Hy Line Brown de 16 semanas de edad; al cabo de 57 días postinoculación se purificó IgY específica y se enfrentaron a extractos de cerebro de rata postnatal y adulta. Resultados. Se detectaron las subunidades NR3A y NR3B y se relacionó su expresión con la edad del animal; siendo mayor la expresión de la subunidad NR3A en extracto de cerebro de rata postnatal. No se encontró diferencia marcada en la expresión de la subunidad NR3B en las edades mencionadas. Conclusiones. Esta es la primera investigación que emplea proteína nativa para el reconocimiento de la subunidad NR3 del receptor NMDA, lo cual muestra la especificidad de los anticuerpos generados y contribuye con el entendimiento de las funciones de este receptor y su relación con la regulación de la memoria espacial.

  4. Recomendaciones en la prescripción del entrenamiento con pesas (contra resistencia para diabéticos e hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessenia Hernández Elizondo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El organismo humano es capaz de mantener un control bastante preciso de los niveles de glucosa sanguínea durante el reposo y en condiciones de ejercicio, sin embargo las concentraciones de insulina en personas con diabetes no responden al ejercicio de manera normal, y el equilibrio entre la utilización de glucosa periférica y hepática se puede alterar. A pesar de lo anterior, se ha considerado que el ejercicio físico es un elemento clave que provee grandes beneficios a la persona diabética. Por otra parte, una de las patologías que está muy asociada con la diabetes es la hipertensión o presión arterial alta (Hipertensión. Cuando queremos prescribir ejercicio en personas hipertensas debemos recordar que el entrenamiento con pesas no mejora la condición cardiovascular, pero sí hace que los músculos y huesos sean más fuertes y se incremente el metabolismo. El presente trabajo se realizó con el propósito de dar a conocer a los profesionales en Educación Física y en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano, los ejercicios de pesas (contra resistencia que no se recomiendan en la prescripción de programas para personas que padecen de diabetes e hipertensión. Además de proveer una herramienta descriptiva y útil para la educación de todas las personas interesadas en la actividad física y especialmente para aquellos que realizan entrenamiento contra resistencia

  5. Desarrollo de una vacuna profiláctica de segunda generación contra el papilomavirus humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Leonardo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los papilomavirus humanos (HPV son el agente etiológico del cáncer cervical (CC, la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer en mujeres. Se estima que medio millón de nuevos cánceres se diagnostica cada año, ocurriendo la mayoría de ellos en países en vías de desarrollo debido a la ausencia o ineficiencia de los programas masivos de detección temprana. Recientemente se han introducido en el mercado dos vacunas profilácticas contra las principales cepas oncogénicas de HPV, la cepa 16 y 18, responsables por el 80% de todos los CC. Estas vacunas se obtienen en forma recombinante y han demostrado ser extremadamente seguras y eficaces. Sin embargo, su impacto inmediato en la incidencia de la infección por HPV en países en vías de desarrollo será mínimo, debido principalmente al alto costo de las mismas. Existe la necesidad de contar con vacunas de segunda generación, de bajo costo y de aplicación masiva que permitan disminuir sensiblemente el número de CC en la población. Con este objetivo hemos desarrollado una plataforma de expresión recombinante que permite obtener partículas tipo virus (VLPs con las cuales es posible formular vacunas efectivas y accesibles contra la infección por HPV.

  6. Arte, cultura y lucha contra el cáncer en Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ernesto Pérez Reyes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Los avances científicos de hoy están permitiendo que el cáncer no se convierta en una sentencia inexorable de muerte. La cronificación del tratamiento plantea retos a los sistemas sanitarios, en su compromiso por ofrecer al enfermo el apoyo para enfrentar su nueva situación y devolverlo a la vida normal. Las complicaciones producto de los tratamientos, los efectos físicos secundarios, la modificación de las rutinas y el sentir que se vive bajo una amenaza, desestabilizan el balance emocional de muchos enfermos. El arte puede captar los más personales aspectos en la experiencia del cáncer. La creación artística puede unir a pacientes, familiares, amigos, al equipo sanitario y a la comunidad en su conjunto, aportando nuevos caminos para ayudar al paciente. La labor artística puede proveer de otros modos de expresión que no se encuentran en las formas tradicionales de tratamiento, permitiendo explorar temas intrínsecos del enfermo de forma creativa y personal. El arte puede comunicar con los aspectos más silenciados de la enfermedad, ayudando a las personas con escasas posibilidades para confesar sus experiencias. Bajo esta premisa el recientemente fundado capítulo provincial de la Sociedad cubana de oncología, radioterapia y medicina nuclear ha efectuado en Las Tunas varias actividades a partir del día tres de febrero del actual año, comenzando con la inauguración de la Jornada provincial de lucha contra el cáncer. La estrategia divulgativa contó con la colaboración del Grupo provincial para el control del cáncer, el Centro provincial del cine y el proyecto FILOARTMED de la Universidad médica de Las Tunas, quienes se han interesado en elevar la producción científica de los profesionales de la salud, que luchan por controlar el cáncer en el territorio. En la sala cinematográfica Titón del Teatro Tunas, se dieron cita los miembros del capítulo provincial de la Sociedad cubana de oncología, radioterapia y medicina

  7. 罗尔斯顿菌(Ralstonia sp.)T6对三氯吡啶醇污染土壤的修复及能完全矿化毒死蜱工程菌株的构建%Remediation of 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol Polluted Soil With Ralstonia sp. T6 and Construction of a Chlor- pyrifos-Mineralizing Engineered Strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬; 王飞; 黄彦; 崔中利

    2014-01-01

    TCP is a kind of metabolic product of degradation of chlorpyrifos. Ralstonia sp. T6, a TCP ( 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) degrading strain of bacteria, was used in an experiment to explore its TCP degrading characteristics in soil. Results show that T6 degraded 80% of 50 mg·kg-1 TCP in 6 days. Temperature, inoculation rate and initial concentration of the substrate were factors affecting its degrading efficiency. The optimum temperature for T6 degrading TCP was 30℃;in soils lower than 10×108 CFU/kg in bacteria content, TCP biodegradation rate rose with rising bacteria content, while in soils higher than that, the rate did not rise, but fall instead with rising bacteria content. A methyl parathion hydrolase gene ( mpd) from Stenotrophomonas sp. DSP-1 was inserted into 16S rDNA of Ralstonia sp. T6 by conjugation and a genetically engineered T6-mpd that is supposed to be able to completely mineralize chlorpyrifos was obtained. Culturing tests show that T6-mpd and Ralstonia sp. T6 displayed similar growth characteristics. Chlorpyrifos degrading tests show that in LB medium, the chlorpyrifos hydrolysis efficiency of T6-mpd was basically the same as that of Stenotrophomonas sp. DSP-1, but in inorganic salt medium, T6-mpd′s 50 mg·L-1 chlorpyrifos hydrolysis rate in 60 h reached only 36%, significantly lower than DSP-1′s. Simulated in⁃situ soil remediation shows that T6-mpd, 10×108 CFU·kg-1 in content,could degrade 64% of 50 mg·kg-1 chlorpyrifos. It is, therefore, believed that strain T6-mpd is a promising tool for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos⁃contaminated environment.%以毒死蜱降解中间代谢产物3,5,6-三氯-2-吡啶醇(TCP)高效降解菌罗尔斯顿菌(Ralstonia sp.)T6为材料,研究其在土壤中对TCP的降解特性。结果表明,温度、接菌量和初始底物浓度对TCP的降解都有影响,T6菌株降解TCP的最适温度为30℃,当土壤含菌量〔以菌落形成单位(CFU)计〕小于10×108 kg-1

  8. Vacinas contra rotavírus e papilomavírus humano (HPV Vaccines against rotavirus and human papillomavirus (HPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Sintetizar as estratégias para a obtenção de uma vacina contra rotavírus e papilomavírus humano (HPV, enfatizando-se o estágio atual das investigações quanto à segurança, reatogenicidade, imunogenicidade e eficácia. FONTE DOS DADOS: Os artigos publicados de 1996 a 2006, particularmente ao longo dos últimos 5 anos, representaram a fonte primária (base de dados: MEDLINE, PubMed, NIH, EUA, conferindo-se destaque aos recentes estudos envolvendo uma vacina contendo rotavírus atenuado de origem humana e dois tipos de vacinas para HPV testadas em humanos: as profiláticas e as terapêuticas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Em relação às vacinas contra rotavírus, o contexto de estratégias compreendeu desde as preparações jennerianas até o advento da vacina com rotavírus atenuado de origem humana. Duas vacinas despontam como eficazes e seguras: uma, pentavalente, envolvendo vírus de bovinos e do homem; outra, de rotavírus atenuado oriundo da espécie humana, sendo que esta é avaliada em mais de 70.000 crianças no mundo. As vacinas contra HPV profiláticas visam impedir a infecção por esses vírus, enquanto que as vacinas terapêuticas pretendem tratar o indivíduo já infectado ou até o portador de uma lesão causada por HPV. As pesquisas com vacinas profiláticas começaram há alguns anos nos EUA e, hoje, aproximadamente 25.000 mulheres, em vários países, participam de estudos sobre essa vacina, que até o momento tem se mostrado segura, bem tolerada, altamente imunogênica e eficaz contra os tipos de HPV que causam as verrugas genitais e 70% dos casos de câncer do colo do útero. CONCLUSÕES:Uma vacina eficaz e segura contra rotavírus resultará em impacto significativo quanto à doença grave por esse enteropatógeno. Um programa global de imunizações que consiga atingir 60 a 80% das crianças durante os próximos 10 anos pode reduzir em pelo menos 50% as hospitalizações e a mortalidade por rotavírus. Antecipa

  9. Violência intrafamiliar: crimes contra a mulher na área metropolitana do Recife Violencia intra familiar: delitos contra la mujer en el area metropolitana de Recife Intrafamilial violence: criminal acts against women in Recife's metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria de Melo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa pretende analisar a relação entre a organização familiar e a criminalidade contra a mulher, perpetrada por companheiro ou membro de sua família. Utilizamos a análise quantitativa descritiva para o exame dos documentos e a qualitativa (análise do discurso para as entrevistas semidirigidas realizadas com as vítimas e seus familiares. Os documentos foram provenientes dos processos judiciais disponíveis nos Fóruns de Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Olinda e Recife no biênio 2004/2006. Os resultados revelaram aspectos relevantes à prática da violência, tais como: ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas, ciúmes, rompimento da relação matrimonial por iniciativa da esposa / companheira e rivalidade de gênero.Esta investigación aspira analizar la relación entre la organización familiar y la criminalidad contra perpretada por compañero o miembro de su familia. Hemos empleado la análises estadística describida. Para la análisis Documental y cualitativa. (análisis del discurso. Para las entrevistas semidirigidas realizadas con las victimas y suyos familiares. Los documentos fueron originados provenidos de los procesos judiciales disponibles en los foros de “ Jaboatao dos Guararapes, Olinda y Recife en el bienio 2004/2006. Los resultados hubieran relevado aspectos relevantes para la práctica de la violencia, tales como: Ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas, celos, rompimento de la relación conjugal por iniciativa de la mujer/compañera y rivalidad de género.This research intends to analyze the relation between the family organization and the criminal acts against women, perpetrated by the partner or other family member. We used a descriptive quantitative statistics for the documental analysis and a qualitative one (speech analysis for the semi conducted interviews with victims and their relatives. The documents were from judicial processes available in Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Olinda and Recife Forums, in the biennium 2004

  10. ELEMENTELE CONSTITUTIVE ŞI ELEMENTELE CIRCUMSTANŢIALE AGRAVANTE ALE INFRACŢIUNILOR CONTRA PATRIMONIULUI MILITAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu BRÎNZA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Articolul de faţă este dedicat analizei juridico-penale a infracţiunilor contra patrimoniului militar, prevăzute laart.379-381 CP RM. Sunt examinate elementele constitutive (obiectul, latura obiectivă, latura subiectivă şi subiectul,precum şi elementele circumstanţiale agravante ale acestor infracţiuni. Sunt propuse criterii de delimitare a infracţiunilorspecificate la art.379-381 CP RM în raport cu faptele conexe de factură penală sau nepenală. Printre aspectele de noutateale studiului de faţă trebuie remarcată revizuirea concepţiei de identificare a variantelor-tip şi a variantelor agravate în cazulinfracţiunilor prevăzute la art.379 CP RM. În rezultatul analizei efectuate se ajunge la concluzia că, datorită specificului lor,infracţiunile contra patrimoniului militar nu au victimă. De asemenea, se stabileşte că infracţiunile prevăzute la art.379-381CP RM sunt săvârşite pe calea acţiunii (şi sau inacţiunii. Se arată că, de cele mai dese ori, infracţiunile contra patrimoniului militar au o factură materială. Doar în situaţia infracţiunii prevăzute la alin.(1 art.381 CP RM se atestă existenţa semnelor atât ale unei infracţiuni materiale, cât şi ale unei infracţiuni formale. Se relevă că timpul de război este un semn secundarobligatoriu al laturii obiective în ipoteza infracţiunilor specificate la lit.a alin.(3 art.379, lit.a alin.(2 art.380, lit.a alin.(2şi lit.a alin.(4 art.381 CP RM. Se stabileşte că ambianţa infracţiunii (şi anume – condiţiile de luptă constituie un semnsecundar obligatoriu al laturii obiective în cazul infracţiunilor prevăzute la lit.b alin.(3 art.379, lit.b alin.(2 art.380, lit.balin.(2 şi lit.b alin.(4 art.381 CP RM. Se arată că infracţiunea specificată la art.380 CP RM este săvârşită din imprudenţă.În situaţii de altă natură, făptuitorul manifestă intenţie sau imprudenţă faţă de fapta prejudiciabilă şi numai impruden

  11. 青枯菌侵染广藿香的组织病理学研究%Histopathological Study of Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth.Infected with Ralstonia solanacearum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐燃; 贺红; 邓素坚; 李润美; 杨玉秀; 邓志成; 金华

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨青枯菌对广藿香的入侵过程及侵染后寄主植物的组织病理学特征.[方法]以青枯菌HX6为供试菌株,分别对伤根及不伤根的广藿香试管苗进行侵染试验.通过扫描电镜观察青枯菌从广藿香根部入侵的过程,并采用光学显微镜观察青枯菌侵染后广藿香的组织病理学变化.[结果]青枯菌侵染前期,伤根的植株比不伤根的植株发病更严重;侵染后期,两者的病情指数均为100.电镜观察发现侵染24 h后,青枯菌及其胞外分泌物在广藿香根部出现;48 h时后,在茎部导管出现.青枯菌入侵造成植株茎部导管离析、扭曲及破裂,随之,叶表皮组织也逐渐破坏,植株死亡.[结论]青枯菌对广藿香具有强的亲和性,侵染速度快,青枯菌及其胞外致毒素能直接破坏寄主维管组织,使得水分运输受阻,造成植株枯萎死亡.%Objective To investigate Ralstonia solanacearum infection process in Pogostemon cablin ( Blanco) Benth. and to observe the histopathological changes of the infected plants. Methods The test-tube plantlets of Pogostemon cablin were used as host plants, and Ralstonia solanacearum HX6 was used as infecting strain. Invasion and colonization of R. solanacearum from the root of host plants were observed under scanning electronic microscope ( SEM) , and changes of the stem vessel and leaf abaxial epidermis of infected plants were observed via optical microscopy. Results At the prophase of infection, the disease developed faster in the plants with wound root than in the plants without wound root. With the prolongation of infection time, all the plants with or without wound root showed wilting, the disease index being 100. Under SEM, the bacteria and their extracellular secretion occurred in root section at hour 24 after inoculation, and in the vessel of stems at hour 48 after inoculation. Observation of infected tissues by optical microscopy indicated that the stem vessels seperated

  12. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production by Ralstonia eutropha H16 fed by waste sludge anaerobic fermentative liquid%利用剩余污泥水解酸化液合成聚羟基脂肪酸酯的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛欣英; 熊惠磊; 孙润; 陈国强; 施汉昌; 张庆竹; 王慧

    2012-01-01

    以城市污水处理厂剩余污泥水解酸化产物为原料,研究了罗氏真养菌(Ralstonia eutropha)H16在水解酸化液中的生长规律和聚羟基脂肪酸酯(PHAs)积累特性,同时分析了H16对水解酸化液中各种有机酸组分的利用规律.结果表明,以剩余污泥52℃中温水解酸化48h的水解酸化液为培养基,在HAc水解酸化液(C/N/P=100/10/1,TOC=2881mg/L,乙酸占总有机酸含量36.1%)中,H16最先利用乙酸和正丁酸来进行自身的生长和PHAs的合成,合成的主要产物是聚羟基丁酸酯(PHB);随后开始利用丙酸和正戊酸,在此过程中聚羟基戊酸酯(PHV)的含量也逐步上升,菌体量同步增长,H16在40h左右处于平稳期,并且达到最大积累率为12.51%(占菌体干重);最后利用的是异丁酸和异戊酸,但是此时H16已经进入衰亡期,菌体量和PHAs合成率都在下降.当以HVa水解酸化液(C/N/P=100/10/1,TOC =2358mg/L,异戊酸占总有机酸含量29.0%)为培养基时,H16在18h达到生长的峰值,24h达到PHAs合成率的最大值为32.14%(占菌体干重),PHV为PHAs的主要形式.%Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulation and carbon consumption by Ralstonia eutropha H16 were investigated in anaerobic fermentative liquid (AFL) of waste activated sludge (WAS). The WAS was fermented at 52 ℃ with a sludge retention time (SRT) of 48 hours in hydrolysis reactor to form AFL, in which the volatile fatty acids(VFAs) were feasible carbon source for PHAs synthesis. When acetic acid was the predominant component of VFAs in the AFL (C/N/P≈ 100/10/1,TOC=2881mg/L, acetic acid/total VFAs=36.1%), R. eutropha H16 could utilize acetic acid and n-butyric prior to other VFAs for cell growth and PHAs synthesis, and the major monomer of PHAs was hydroxybutyrate (HB). Propionic and n-valeric acid were utilized at 20-40 hours after inoculation as hydroxyvalerate (HV) monomer content increasing. The maximum PHAs content detected in the cells was 12.51% (dry weight

  13. 番茄枯萎病和青枯病拮抗细菌的筛选、评价与鉴定%Screening, Evaluation and Identification of Antagonistic Bacteria against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Ralstonia solanacearum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘邮洲; 陈志谊; 梁雪杰; 朱剑花

    2012-01-01

    从宁夏银川、江苏沭阳和福建厦门的番茄、辣椒、西瓜等作物根际土壤中,分离纯化获得367株细菌菌株。以番茄枯萎病菌Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici和番茄青枯病菌Ralstonia solanacearum为靶标菌,从367株菌株中筛选出对两种病菌皆具有很强拮抗作用的菌株22株。拮抗细菌抑菌物质的研究结果表明:22株拮抗细菌均能分泌蛋白酶;不能分泌几丁质酶;3株细菌能分泌纤维素酶;3株细菌能分泌嗜铁素。盆栽试验结果表明:拮抗细菌PTS-394对番茄枯萎病和青枯病的防效最高,分别为77.4%和80%;菌株H-70、L-1和SJ-280对番茄枯萎病和青枯病的防效均大于60%。对上述4株拮抗细菌进行16S rRNA种属鉴定,均为枯草芽孢杆菌Bacillus subtilis。%Tomato Fusarium wilt and bacterial wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum are two common diseases throughout tomato-growing areas.Use of antagonistic bacteria to control the diseases can potentially reduce the negative effects of chemical fungicides on vegetable and the environment.Here,we screened and evaluated the control efficiencies of antagonistic bacteria against F.oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici and R.solanacearum in vitro.367 strains were isolated and purified from rhizosphere soil of tomato,pepper and watermelon plant’s in Ningxia,Jiangsu and Fujian provinces.Test on antagonistic ability revealed that 22 strains showed strong and steady antagonism against F.oxysporum and R.solanacearum.All the above 22 strains could produce protease,whereas they could not produce chitinase.Three strains could produce cellulase and siderophore,separately.In pot experiment,strains PTS-394 could control Fusarium wilt and bacterial wilt effectively,with control efficiency of 77.4% and 80%,respectively,and control efficiencies of strains H-70,L-1 and SJ-280 were all above 60%.16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the four strains were Bacillus subtilis.

  14. ESTRUCTURA MOLECULAR Y ANTIGÉNICA DE LA VACUNA CONTRA EL VIRUS DEL PAPILOMA HUMANO 16 (VPH 16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR ANDRÉS VANEGAS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La proteína L1 del Virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH constituye el 80% de la cápside viral. Las vacunas profilácticas contra el VPH son sintetizadas a partir de la proteína L1 ensamblada en Partículas similares al Virus (del inglés VLP, las cuales son altamente inmunogénicas generando anticuerpos específicos de tipo y en algunos casos pueden presentar reacción cruzada entre tipos de VPH filogenéticamente próximos. La estructura de la proteína L1 del VPH es importante porque confiere estabilidad a la cápside mediante el establecimiento de interacciones intra e intercapsoméricas lo que asegura la integridad viral y antigénicamente porque contiene los epítopes que inducen la respuesta inmune protectora. En estudios en los que se evaluó la antigenicidad de la proteína L1 se determinó que los epítopes inmunodominantes de la cápside viral se encuentran en los bucles B-C, D-E, F-G, H-I y en el extremo C-terminal. Estos bucles son poco conservados entre los diferentes genotipos y se encuentran en segmentos de la proteína expuestos en la superficie de la cápside. Los aminoácidos situados en los bucles B-C, F-G y H-I son primordiales para el reconocimiento por los anticuerpos neutralizantes. Los diferentes subtipos y variantes presentan cambios en estos aminoácidos o en residuos que conforman otros epítopes. En esta revisión se presentará un estado del arte de la proteína L1 del VPH genotipo 16, la estructura y su importancia en el desarrollo de vacunas contra la infección producida por este virus.

  15. Vaccines against papillomavirus infections and disease Vacunas contra el virus del papiloma humano y cáncer cervical invasor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Lina Villa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second cause of cancer-related deaths in women, the higher incidence being observed in developing countries. Infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the major risk factor for the development of malignancies in the uterine cervix. However, HPV is considered to be a necessary but not sufficient cause for cervical cancer and, therefore, other factors contribute to the carcinogenic process, both present in the environment and from the host. Studies performed in animals, and more recently in humans, indicate that vaccination against the capsid proteins of the virus can prevent efficiently from infection. Furthermore, therapeutic vaccines are under investigation aiming the regression of papillomavirus induced tumors. The scientific basis for the development of papillomavirus vaccines and present status of clinical trials will be addressed in this chapter.El cáncer de células escamosas del cérvix uterino es la segunda causa de muerte relacionada con cáncer en mujeres en el mundo; la incidencia más alta se ha observado en países en desarrollo. La infección con tipos oncogénicos de virus de papiloma humano es considerado el factor de riesgo principal para el desarrollo de malignidad en el cérvix uterino. Sin embargo, el virus es considerado una causa necesaria pero no suficiente para desarrollo de cáncer cervical y, por lo tanto, existen otros factores en el ambiente y en el huésped que contribuyen al proceso carcinogénico. Estudios desarrollados en animales, y más recientemente en humanos, indican que la vacunación en contra de la cápside de las proteínas del virus puede prevenir eficientemente la infección en forma profiláctica; además, las vacunas terapéuticas están bajo investigación con el propósito de promover regresión de los tumores inducidos por virus de papiloma humano. Las bases científicas de las vacunas desarrolladas contra este

  16. A unique DNA repair and recombination gene (recN) sequence for identification and intraspecific molecular typing of bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum and its comparative analysis with ribosomal DNA sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aundy Kumar; Thekkan Puthiyaveedu Prameela; Rajamma Suseelabhai

    2013-06-01

    Ribosomal gene sequences are a popular choice for identification of bacterial species and, often, for making phylogenetic interpretations. Although very popular, the sequences of 16S rDNA and 16-23S intergenic sequences often fail to differentiate closely related species of bacteria. The availability of complete genome sequences of bacteria, in the recent years, has accelerated the search for new genome targets for phylogenetic interpretations. The recently published full genome data of nine strains of R. solanacearum, which causes bacterial wilt of crop plants, has provided enormous genomic choices for phylogenetic analysis in this globally important plant pathogen. We have compared a gene candidate recN, which codes for DNA repair and recombination function, with 16S rDNA/16-23S intergenic ribosomal gene sequences for identification and intraspecific phylogenetic interpretations in R. solanacearum. recN gene sequence analysis of R. solanacearum revealed subgroups within phylotypes (or newly proposed species within plant pathogenic genus, Ralstonia), indicating its usefulness for intraspecific genotyping. The taxonomic discriminatory power of recN gene sequence was found to be superior to ribosomal DNA sequences. In all, the recN-sequence-based phylogenetic tree generated with the Bayesian model depicted 21 haplotypes against 15 and 13 haplotypes obtained with 16S rDNA and 16-23S rDNA intergenic sequences, respectively. Besides this, we have observed high percentage of polymorphic sites (S 23.04%), high rate of mutations (Eta 276) and high codon bias index (CBI 0.60), which makes the recN an ideal gene candidate for intraspecific molecular typing of this important plant pathogen.

  17. Reducción de poblaciones de Ralstonia solanacearum raza 2 (Smith en plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds con aplicación de extractos de Trichoderma sp. (Alexopoulus y Mims y bacterias antagonistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ceballos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El moko, enfermedad causada por Ralstonia solanacearum raza 2, afecta la producción de plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds en Colombia, ocasionando pérdidas hasta de 100%. In vitro, se evaluó el efecto de filtrados crudos de cepas de Trichoderma sp. y dos productos comerciales como posibles reductores de poblaciones de R. solanacearum. Para cada cepa de Trichoderma spp., se empleó filtrado (40% en solución acuosa y para R. solanacearum se utilizó una dilución de 10-4 por caja de petri, en un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones para determinar el número de unidades formadoras de colonia de R. solanacearum. En invernadero, se aplicaron suspensiones de T. harzianum (Agroguard®, T. viride 14PDA3A y Ecoterra® en plantas de plátano Dominico Hartón y 30 días después se inoculó R. solanacearum en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. La severidad del ataque de R. solanacearum se evaluó utilizando una escala de síntomas foliares de 0 a 6. In vitro, los extractos crudos de dos cepas y dos productos comerciales de Trichoderma spp. inhibieron el 100% de R. solanacearum. Los tratamientos con T. viride y Ecoterra® mostraron bajos niveles de control de R. solanacearum en plantas (0.63 y 1.88, respectivamente.

  18. Tratamiento contra la rabia humana: un poco de su historia Tratamento contra a raiva humana: um pouco de sua histária A historical review of the treatment of human rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión histórica del tratamiento utilizado contra la rabia humana, desde la antigüedad hasta el momento actual. Pretende hacer una analogía entre el concepto de causa predominante en la época y el tipo de tratamiento utilizado. Los griegos antiguos tenían la diosa Artemisa como sanadora de la rabia y ya utilizaban la cauterización de la herida. Los pueblos del siglo I conocían la capacidad infecciosa en la saliva de perros rabiosos, llamando a ese material de veneno virus (en latín. En la Edad Media, cuando prevalecía un concepto mágico y religioso de la salud, el gran protector era San Humberto. Con el Renacimiento surgen nuevamente muchos experimentos y avances en el conocimiento de la enfermedad, que sentaron las bases para los importantes hallazgos en el futuro próximo. En esa época predominaba la teoría miasmática y del contagio. Pasteur fue un grande opositor de la espontaneidad de la rabia. A finales del siglo XIX, con los descubrimientos microbianos, Pasteur hizo la gran revolución científica en relación al tratamiento contra la rabia, que es la vacuna. Las vacunas pueden actualmente ser de tipo nervioso o no, variando también el numero de dosis recomendadas. Se han desarrollado muchos estudios sobre vacunas, siendo la más utilizada en América Latina del tipo Fuenzalida y Palacios, y la recomendada actualmente por la OMS es la de cultivo celular.Trata-se de uma revisão histórica sobre o tratamento utilizado contra a raiva, desde a antigüidade até o momento atual. Pretende-se fazer uma analogia entre o conceito de causa predominante na época, com o tipo de tratamento preconizado. Os gregos antigos tinham a deusa Artemisa como sanadora da raiva e já utilizavam a cauterização da ferida. Os povos do século I conheciam a infecciosidade na saliva de cães raivosos, chamando esse material de veneno ("virus" en latin. Na Idade Média, com um conceito mágico e religioso da saúde, o

  19. El tratamiento del acuerdo por las libertades y en contra del Terrorismo en los Medios de Comunicación El tratamiento del acuerdo por las libertades y en contra del Terrorismo en los Medios de Comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar García Luengo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the capacity of mass media in general, and particularly the press, in the complex process of setting the political priorities. The specific context where this theoretical framework of reference (agenda-set ming is employed is the Basque conflict. Moreover, after the application of quantitative methodology, the objective is to verify to what extent the Treatv for Libertv and Against Terrorism, signed by the two main Spanish political forces in December 2000, is the political result of a media stimulus.Este trabajo de investigación analiza la capacidad de los medios de comunicación en general, y de la prensa escrita en concreto, en el complejo proceso de elaboración del orden del día político. El contexto donde cobra sentido la aplicación del cuerpo doctrinal de referencia, el de Las teorías del Agenda-Setting, está circunscrito al conflicto del País Vasco. En definitiva, lo que se trata de verificar, tras la aplicación de una metodología escorada a planteamientos cuantitativos, es en qué medida el Acuerdo por las Libertades y en contra del terrorismo, firmado por las dos fuerzas políticas principales en diciembre de 2000, fue la respuesta política a un estímulo mediático.

  20. La exégesis de la guerra global contra el terrorismo a través del cine y la televisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Malalana Ureña

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El artículo indaga en la representación audiovisual de la Historia reciente, principalmente de la Guerra contra el terror. Nuestra investigación se centrará en como “Hollywood” ha interpretado alguno de los acontecimientos / The article investigates the audiovisual representation of recent history, especially of the War on Terror. Our investigation will focus on how Hollywood has interpreted some of the some of the events. Palabras Clave: Guerra global contra el terrorismo, cine, series de televisión _________________________ The exegesis of The War on Terror through film and televisionAbstract: The article investigates the audiovisual representation of recent history, especially of the War on Terror. Our investigation will focus on how Hollywood has interpreted some of the some of the events.Keywords: The War on Terror. Cinema. TV Series. 

  1. Título da página eletrónica: Observatorio de la Violencia de Género contra la Mujer

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    Tatiana Moura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O Observatorio de la Violencia de Género contra la Mujer é da responsabilidade da Organização de Mulheres Salvadorenhas (ORMUSA, uma ONG feminista que trabalha, formalmente desde 1985, em prol da igualdade e justiça entre os sexos no país. Dedica‑se à sistematização e divulgação de dados sobre vários tipos de violência contra as mulheres em El Salvador (feminicídios, violência sexual, intrafamiliar e social, baseando‑se nos relatórios da polícia, do instituto de medicina legal e na observaç...

  2. Controle químico de fungos associados a sementes de sorgo e proteção contra fungos do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Nicésio Filadelfo Janssen de Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de alguns fungicidas no controle de fungos associados a sementes de sorgo cultivar CMS 182R e na proteção delas contra fungos do solo. A microbiota das sementes de sorgo, composta por Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium spp., Alternaria tenuis, Cladosporium spp. e Phoma sorghina, foi patogênica a essas sementes, e os fungos Pythium aphanidermatum e Sclerotium rolfsii, infectantes do solo de monocultivo de sorgo, também se mostraram patogênicos. Os fungicidas captan, thiram, captan + thiabendazole, thiram + thiabendazole, iprodione + thiram e tolylfluanid foram os mais eficientes no controle não só de toda a microbiota das sementes, como também na proteção das sementes contra Pythium aphanidermatum e Sclerotium rolfsii.

  3. La reducción al mínimo del amparo contra amparo a través del recurso de agravio constitucional

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Córdova, Luis

    2008-01-01

    La cuestión central que se intentará resolver a lo largo de estas páginas, es determinar hasta dónde es constitucionalmente posible la reducción de los supuestos de procedencia del amparo contra amparo para favorecer su empleo excepcional, y el papel que en esa reducción puede jugar el recurso de agravio constitucional.

  4. Los espejos no afectan de manera crónica variables psicológicas en mujeres que realizan un programa de entrenamiento contra resistencia o actividades pasivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaura Castillo Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del estudio fue examinar el efecto crónico de la presencia de espejos en el entorno en el que se realiza ejercicio contra resistencia o actividades pasivas, sobre variables psicológicas de ansiedad fisicosocial (AFS, consciencia corporal objetivada (inspección corporal, IPC; vergüenza corporal, VC; y creencias de control de la apariencia, CCA; y sobre algunas variables de la imagen corporal, como la satisfacción con las partes del cuerpo (SPC, la silueta actual, la silueta deseada, y la satisfacción corporal (SC. Participaron 52 mujeres (promedio de edad 22,6 ± 8,21 años, quienes fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a cuatro grupos experimentales: a 25 min de ejercicios contra resistencia al 70 % de 1 Repetición Máxima (1RM con espejo, b 25 min de ejercicios contra resistencia al 70  % de 1RM sin espejo, c 25 min de actividades pasivas con espejo y d 25 min. de actividades pasivas sin espejo. Las participantes realizaron una sesión semanal de tratamiento, durante seis semanas. No se encontraron interacciones dobles o triples importantes. Las pruebas de ANOVA revelaron efectos principales de la medición sobre la inspección corporal (p = 0,04, sobre la silueta deseada (p ≤ 0,001 y sobre la SC (p < 0,05; y del ejercicio sobre la silueta actual (p = 0,03. Se concluye que no se observa un efecto crónico de un programa de ejercicios contra resistencia o de actividades pasivas realizadas por mujeres en variables psicológicas cuando el ejercicio o las actividades se realizan en un contexto con y sin espejos.

  5. Abordagem profissional da violência familiar contra o idoso em uma unidade básica de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Nunes de Souza Wanderbroocke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo descrever a abordagem profissional da violência familiar contra idosos em uma unidade básica de saúde (UBS. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, com dados coletados por meio de observação participante com registro em diário de campo e entrevistas semiestruturadas. Participaram das entrevistas dez profissionais da UBS. Os dados foram analisados segundo o referencial da Grounded Theory e duas categorias foram discutidas: manejo profissional de situações de violência familiar contra o idoso e condições da UBS para atender a situações de violência familiar contra o idoso. Os dados apontam para dificuldades dos profissionais de identificar situações de violência e crenças relacionadas à impossibilidade de enfrentá-la. Em termos institucionais, os dados indicam fatores que desfavorecem a detecção e acompanhamento dos casos como a menor ênfase no trabalho interdisciplinar e rotinas voltadas para a saúde física. O estudo sugere a necessidade de oferecer aos profissionais oportunidade para a reflexão sobre violência e possibilidades de intervenção.

  6. Validación del ensayo Vibriocida colorimétrico para determinar anticuerpos séricos contra cepas candidatas vacunales de Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Cedré

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available El Instituto Finlay posee un grupo de cepas atenuadas candidatas a vacuna oral contra el cólera, las cuales fueron evaluadas desde el punto de vista de su capacidad inmunogénica mediante la determinación de anticuerpos por el método ELISA y principalmente por el ensayo Vibriocida. Este ensayo mide la funcionalidad de los anticuerpos estimulados por la cepa vacunal, por lo que se considera la herramienta más eficaz para medir el estado de la inmunidad en individuos vacunados contra el cólera y constituye el soporte analítico para el desarrollo de la vacuna anticolérica cubana. En este trabajo se evaluaron la precisión, la especificidad y la robustez del ensayo y los resultados obtenidos estuvieron dentro del criterio de aceptación de esta técnica (>50% de coincidencia. Se demostró que las variaciones entre las muestras negativas y positivas se debían precisamente al crecimiento de V. cholerae y que se pueden incorporar pequeños cambios al ensayo sin que esto traiga consigo variaciones en el título de la muestra ni falsos resultados. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, el mismo se considera apto para la evaluación de la respuesta inmune estimulada por un candidato vacunal contra el cólera.

  7. La historia sacra del Santísimo Sacramento contra las heregias destos tiempos"An iconographic study of the engravings illustrating the work

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    Calvo Portela, Juan Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace un estudio iconográfico de las dos estampas que ilustran el libro del dominico fray Alonso de Ribera, La Historia Sacra del Santissimo Sacramento contra las heregias destos tiempos, editado por Luis Sánchez en Madrid en 1626. En dichas estampas se plasman dos aspectos que van a ser fundamentales de la religiosidad contrarreformista española del siglo XVII, la defensa a ultranza de la Eucaristía y la lucha contra la herejía. In this article is made an iconographic study of the two prints that illustrate the book of the Dominican Fray Alonso de Ribera, La Historia Sacra del Santissimo Sacramento contra las heregias destos tiempos, edited by Luis Sanchez in Madrid in 1626. In these prints are reflected two aspects that are going to be essential on the religiosity Spanish Counterreform of the seventeenth century, the stubborn defense of the Eucharist and the fight against heresy.

  8. Estudo comparativo da capacidade de contração do assoalho pélvico em atletas de voleibol e basquetebol

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    Ariana Oliveira Reis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As modalidades esportivas de alto impacto podem produzir um aumento exagerado e frequente na pressão intra-abdominal, um dos fatores desencadeadores da incontinência urinária de esforço (IUE em atletas. Foi realizado um estudo com 20 atletas, sendo 10 de basquetebol e 10 de voleibol, do tipo quantitativo, observacional, transversal e comparativo, no qual foi comparada a capacidade de contração do assoalho pélvico (AP entre atletas de voleibol e basquetebol, e então correlacionadas com sintomas de IUE. A avaliação das atletas foi composta por um questionário, a avaliação funcional do assoalho pélvico (AFA e avaliação da capacidade de contração do AP através do Biofeedback Eletromiográfico Fênix®. Após a avaliação, não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante com relação à capacidade de contração do assoalho pélvico entre atletas de basquetebol e voleibol; porém, ambas as modalidades apresentaram atletas com relatos de perda involuntária de urina mediante esforço físico, com maior proporção no grupo de atletas de basquetebol.

  9. La ley española de medidas de protección integral contra la violencia de género

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    María Dolores Santos Fernández

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis de la respuesta que el Estado español ha dado a la violencia contra la mujer, a través de la “Ley de Protección integral contra la violencia de género”. Hay un reconocimiento de la violencia como delito contra otra persona en condiciones que le son desfavorables y pueden afectar seriamente su vida emocional y física. El Estado reconoce esa realidad como un asunto de derechos humanos, y por lo tanto es su obligación garantizarle a la mujer maltratada –y a sus niños– suficiente protección jurídica. De igual manera, se destaca la importancia de esta Ley para regular los espacios laborales, sociales, educativos, comunicativos y publicitarios, donde se pueda hacer una utilización mercantil de la figura femenina y sus valores en detrimento de la misma. La labor de sensibilización y de educación que debe cumplir el Estado a través de esta Ley implica el desarrollo de un programa general de educación ciudadana que permita concienciar tanto a hombres como mujeres de principios de paz y de tolerancia, con la finalidad de alcanzar una convivencia democrática entre todos.

  10. Violencias contra las mujeres. Debates parlamentarios ¿en el camino a la equidad de género?

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    Manuela Graciela González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En los años 2012 y 2013, se han sancionado en nuestro país una serie de leyes que pretenden dar respuesta a las violencias cotidianas, a veces visibles y a veces invisibles que sufren las mujeres por el sólo hecho de serlo. Nos proponemos realizar un análisis de los debates parlamentarios previos a la sanción de la ley 26.738 (2012 que suprime del Código Penal la institución del avenimiento, de la ley 26.791 (2012 que tipifica el femicidio, de la ley 26.842 (2012 que reforma la legislación sobre Prevención y Sanción de la Trata de Personas y Asistencia a sus Víctimas y de la ley 26.879 (2013 de creación del Registro Nacional de Datos Genéticos vinculados con delitos sexuales. El presente trabajo se propone describir y analizar los debates parlamentarios de leyes penales sancionadas como respuesta ante la creciente visibilización de las violencias contra las mujeres, indagando sobre la presencia o ausencia de perspectiva de género en el debate parlamentario y en la construcción discursiva del derecho desde una perspectiva feminista.

  11. Perfil de homens autores de violência contra mulheres detidos em flagrante: contribuições para o enfrentamento

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    Alexandra Bittencourt Madureira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Delinear o perfil de agressores detidos em flagrante delito e da violência que perpetraram contra mulheres no período de implantação e consolidação da lei Maria da Penha, em um município da região central do estado do Paraná. Métodos: Pesquisa retrospectiva documental, realizada mediante apreciação de 130 Autos de Prisão, analisados pela estatística descritiva. Resultados: Eram adultos jovens, casados, com baixa escolaridade e trabalho remunerado. 89,3% foram libertados sob pagamento de fiança. Eram, majoritariamente, cônjuges, que sob efeito de álcool, praticaram violência. Um número significativo já possuía outros registros de violência doméstica. Conclusão: A denúncia, como ação isolada, revelou-se insuficiente para interromper o ciclo da violência. É necessário voltar-se para além da denúncia, pela implantação de ações de enfrentamento articuladas entre os setores de saúde, educação, segurança, justiça e assistência social, voltadas à igualdade de gênero e a cultura de paz.

  12. Prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi en donadores de sangre del IMSS, Orizaba, Veracruz, México

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    Ramos-Ligonio Angel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi en donadores del Hospital General Regional del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS en la ciudad de Orizaba, Veracruz. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se examinaron muestras de donadores del banco de sangre del Hospital General Regional (HGRO del IMSS para la búsqueda de antiT. cruzi por ELISA, Western blot e IFI, utilizando una proteína recombinante (MBP::Hsp70 y un extracto crudo de epimastigotes. Las muestras fueron obtenidas entre los meses de octubre de 2001 a enero de 2002. RESULTADOS: Los 420 donadores de sangre analizados fueron seronegativos para HBV, HCV, BrA, VDRL y HIV. Después del tamizaje de los 420 donadores, se identificaron dos individuos seropositivos por las pruebas de ELISA, Western blot e IFI, con una seroprevalencia de 0.48%. CONCLUSIONES: En este estudio se muestran evidencias de seropositividad para T. cruzi en donadores de sangre del HGRO, lo que sugiere la existencia de riesgo de contaminación por transfusión sanguínea. Por tal motivo, es necesario aplicar programas para el tamizaje serológico a través de técnicas inmunológicas con alta sensibilidad y especificidad.

  13. Atuação da enfermagem frente à violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes

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    Lygia Maria Pereira da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou refletir sobre a violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes, focalizando a atuação do enfermeiro à luz da sua prática profissional e da legislação brasileira. Trata-se de estudo bibliográfico em que foram analisadas 31 publicações, abrangendo os anos de 2005 a 2008. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo, modalidade temática, evidenciando três núcleos temáticos: a atenção à saúde da criança e do adolescente, a notificação e a qualificação profissional. O enfermeiro deve estar apto a cuidar da criança e do adolescente com base nas leis que os protegem, sendo imperativo o envolvimento dos serviços de saúde, das entidades de classe e das universidades.

  14. La violencia intrafamiliar contra la mujer en Colombia: ¿Cuestión de género?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Vásquez Fruto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo tiene como objetivo general analizar la influencia de los asuntos de género en la problemática dela violencia intrafamiliar contra la mujer, a partir de una mirada a la forma en que las relaciones en la familia dancuenta de una interpretación de lo que es ser mujer o de lo que es ser hombre; de la forma en que las mujeresasumen su lugar de víctimas y permanecen en él sin poder salir del círculo de la violencia y de las justificacionesde los agresores fundamentadas en factores culturales relacionadas con el género. La problemática de la violenciaintrafamiliar como delito contra la familia y su relación con el género, se aborda desde la perspectiva sociojurídicay psicoanalítica. Se pretende demostrar que cada caso de violencia intrafamiliar contra la mujer, representa símbolose ideales construidos desde la cultura, en los primeros espacios de socialización, que encuentran tierra fértilen una estructura psíquica y una posición asumida, a partir de las expectativas de ser mujer o de ser hombre ode no saber que se es. Por ello se hace necesario descifrar la especificidad del caso para que la misma personaconstruya su saber sobre el sentido que tiene para ella su posición de víctima. A partir de algunos aportes realizadosdesde la perspectiva psicoanalítica, puede afirmarse que la estructura psíquica de las mujeres y hombresinvolucrados en situaciones de violencia en el hogar es determinante, pero está soportada igualmente en la culturacon sus imaginarios construidos sobre el comportamiento esperado por parte de hombres y mujeres y la forma derelacionarse entre ellos. Es por esa razón que a pesar de la existencia de una amplia normatividad vigente, quepretende contribuir a la solución de la violencia intrafamiliar contra la mujer, este problema persiste y las normasno bastan para enfrentarlo.Palabras claves: violencia intrafamiliar, género, víctima, estructura psíquica, normas, derechos humanos

  15. Apontamentos sobre preconceitos de gênero e a violência contra a mulher no Brasil

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    Claudia Ramos de Souza Bonfim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é qualitativo-bibliográfico. Fundamenta-se especialmente em Bonfim, Instituto Avon e na Legislação Brasileira. Objetiva-se abordar a influência da educação familiar, de origem machista-patriarcal na consolidação de preconceitos, desigualdades e  violências sofridas pelas mulheres. Questiona-se: Como a educação familiar influencia a  violência contra a mulher? Porque as muitas mulheres em situação de violência não denunciam as agressões sofridas? Afirma-se, que as experiências sócio-afetivas-culturais da vividas na infância e adolescência especialmente vivenciadas no âmbito familiar são basilares para a superação de preconceitos e violências de gênero, pois os filhos tendem a reproduzir, ainda que de maneira inconsciente, o comportamento e as atitudes de seus pais. Considera-se, que embora no âmbito legal, houve uma evolução do ordenamento jurídico brasileiro na tentativa de coibir as violências historicamente sofridas pelas mulheres, é a educação, especialmente familiar, pautada numa perspectiva humanizadora e emancipatória que contribui significativamente para a superação do machismo e da desigualdade de gênero.

  16. Reactogenicidad de la vacuna cubana trivalente contra la leptospirosis humana en un ensayo clínico de fase II

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    Raydel Martínez,

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la reactogenicidad de la vacuna cubana trivalente contra la leptospirosis humana (vax- SPIRAL en grupos de voluntarios sanos utilizando diferentes dosis, se realizó un ensayo clínico controlado, aleatorio y a doble ciego. Los voluntarios fueron distribuidos en dos grupos (vacunados y placebos para evaluar las reacciones adversas en diferentes concentraciones de dosis (0,25 y 0,5 mL. Los síntomas y signos locales evaluados fueron: dolor, rubor, infiltración local, prurito, necrosis y absceso, y generales: fiebre, febrícula, cefalea, lipotimia, náuseas, vómitos, rash y malestar general. No se presentaron eventos adversos serios tras la administración de la vacuna. La febrícula, el dolor local en el sitio de inyección y el malestar general fueron los signos y síntomas más frecuentes reportados en mayor proporción en los vacunados con dosis de 0,5 mL. La mayoría desaparecieron a las 72 horas. Los resultados del estudio demostraron que vax-SPIRAL es una vacuna segura y poco reactogénica para adultos humanos en las edades comprendidas en los ensayos clínicos realizados.

  17. Preparation of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) Membrane on Porous Polymeric Support via Contra-Diffusion Method

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Xiaoyu

    2016-05-18

    In the last decade, many attempts were made to put metal organic frameworks (MOFs) in industrial applications, but most of these efforts weren’t successfully. As one of the few MOFs produced on industrial scale, ZIF-8 has interesting pore size, huge internal surface area and great thermal and chemical stability. Therefore, ZIF-8 might become the first MOF, which will be applied in industrial separation processes. In this thesis, a synthesis study is presented, which leads to a cheap and convenient way to
fabricate defect-free and thin ZIF-8 membranes on porous polymeric supports showing high selectivity and high gas permeance. The ZIF-8 layers were produced via a contra-diffusion method. Several polymeric membranes were employed as support in this study, such as PAN, PEI, PSU, PA and PTSC. We studied the influence of the polymeric support properties for the ZIF-8 membrane preparation and optimized the ZIF-8 preparation conditions. The ZIF-8 membranes were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For gas permeation test, we chose a Wicke-Kallenbach apparatus to measure membrane’s gas permeance and selectivity. One of the best ZIF-8 membranes exhibited a hydrogen permeance of 3.45 × 10-8 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1 and
an ideal selectivity of hydrogen over propane of about 500.

  18. Violência doméstica contra a mulher: realidades e representações sociais

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    Denire Holanda da Fonseca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo buscou verificar representações sociais das mulheres que sofrem ou sofreram algum tipo de violência de seus companheiros, buscando entender a subjetivação desse fenômeno, como também verificar os principais prejuízos nas esferas sociais, psicológicas e ocupacionais dessas mulheres. 12 participantes responderam a entrevista semiestruturada, e foram feitas análises de conteúdo de Bardin (2002 e ancoradas na Teoria das Representações Sociais de Moscovici. Como resultado foi constatado que a maior prevalência é a violência psicológica, causando danos emocionais a longo prazo, trazendo sérios prejuízos nas esferas do desenvolvimento e da saúde psicológica da mulher. Verificou-se também que o ciclo de violência é alimentado pela tolerância e autoculpa e pela má compreensão da mesma. Propõem-se outros estudos nesta esfera com finalidade de maior compreensão do fenômeno da violência contra as mulheres.

  19. Violencia y masculinidad: una aproximación narrativa al problema de la violencia contra adolescentes varones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Schöngut Grollmus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda las diferentes construcciones de la masculinidad que hacen adolescentes víctimas de maltrato físico, por quienes se han constituido como modelos de masculinidad para ellos en algún sentido. Este artículo se enfoca en las prácticas de la violencia y el poder, que intentan mantener la estructura patriarcal, y consecuentemente la subordinación femenina y de las masculinidades no hegemónicas. En el caso de ciertas formas de violencia contra los adolescentes las prácticas de dominación se hacen explícitas, en tanto las formas de violencia manifiesta responden a legitimaciones de la subordinación y del poder. En el ejercicio de la violencia, los adolescentes víctimas de ésta quedan situados como masculinidades subordinadas. De ahí que el análisis de las masculinidades construidas por adolescentes en este contexto, a través de la construcción de narrativas, pueden dar cuenta de la relación poder-resistencia en la sociedad patriarcal, entre construcciones de masculinidad hegemónicas y no hegemónicas. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs140128

  20. O argumento do valor intrínseco da vida humana contra a morte de embriões humanos

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    Lincoln Frias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2012v11n3p239Normalmente se argumenta contra o descarte de embriões humanos defendendo a atribuição de direito à vida a eles. No entanto, os argumentos apresentados com esse intuito não têm sido bem sucedidos. Uma alternativa é dizer que o erro moral em matar embriões humanos é desrespeitar o valor intrínseco da vida humana. Esse artigo apresenta essa proposta e aponta suas deficiências. A conclusão é que, caso a vida dos embriões humanos contenham algum tipo de valor intrínseco, ele é insignificante porque não é específico da vida humana, não é o que torna errado matar pessoas adultas e porque ele seria muito pequeno, dadas as especificidades do embrião.

  1. Análisis del Informe del Comité contra la Tortura de Naciones Unidas de 2009 sobre Colombia

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    José Escribano Úbeda-Portugués

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El Comité contra la Tortura de Naciones Unidas en su Informe de 2009 sobre Colombia valora positivamente algunos avances del Estado colombiano en la ratificación de las normas del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos, aunque el Informe 2009 señala varios motivos de preocupación y recomendaciones para Colombia en temas como el reforzamiento de la independencia del Fiscal General de la Nación; la amnistía de facto; la amenaza a la independencia del Poder Judicial; las ejecuciones extrajudiciales; las desapariciones forzadas; la erradicación de detenciones masivas; la práctica de la tortura en centros penitenciarios; la violencia sexual como arma de guerra; la utilización militar de niños y niñas en el conflicto armado; o la reparación integral para las víctimas de tortura y otros tratos crueles, inhumanos o degradantes.

  2. Juan José Heydeck, un alemán en la corte de Carlos IV: experimentos contra la viruela

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    Ramírez Martín, Susana María

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available First years of the XIX century, Juan José Heydeck proposes the realization of the experiments with the pus of the goats instead of the pus of the cows, for combat the smallpox. This experiments require more childrens, where to be verified them. In Spain, the pus of the goats will be the one alternative to the pus of the cows. In this country is dificult fall in with the pus of the cows. This iniciative haven´t the hope results.

    En los primeros años del siglo XIX, Juan José Heydeck propone la realización de unos experimentos con el pus de cabras en lugar del pus de vacas, para luchar contra las viruelas naturales. Estos experimentos requerían un número indeterminado de niños donde verificarlos. En España, el pus de cabras sería una alternativa al pus de vaca. En estos territorios era difícil encontrar el pus de vacas. Esta iniciativa del pus hircino no tuvo el éxito esperado.

  3. La violencia sexual en contra de las mujeres como estrategia de despojo de tierras en el conflicto armado colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina-María Céspedes-Báez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo parte de la evidencia que ha sido recogida por diversas organizaciones, tanto nacionales como internacionales, en materia de la interrelación entre la violencia sexual en contra de las mujeres, el desplazamiento forzado y el despojo en el conflicto armado colombiano. Para el efecto, utiliza el concepto de regímenes de violencia sexual, a fin de realzar el que los fines perseguidos por la conducta no se agotan siempre en el simple consumo, sino que, dependiendo del contexto, pueden estar conectados con objetivos más amplios dentro del repertorio estratégico de los actores armados. Asimismo, el documento admite la dificultad de la prueba de esta correlación en las instancias judiciales pertinentes, por lo cual plantea la posibilidad de crear una presunción desvirtuable, en el ámbito del estado de cosas inconstitucional declarado por la sentencia T-025 de 2004, que morigere la carga de la prueba de las víctimas y sirva como un catalizador para promover nuevos arreglos de género.

  4. Violencia laboral contra jornaleras agrícolas en tres comunidades del noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Arellano Gálvez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las formas de violencia laboral contra mujeres jornaleras agrícolas en tres comunidades de Sinaloa, Sonora y Baja California, para lo que se utilizó una metodología cualitativa, a través de entrevistas grupales que se les hicieron a ellas. Los resultados señalan que las trabajadoras reconocen la violación a sus derechos laborales, como no contar con servicios médicos para ellas y sus hijos, ni ingresos por faltar al trabajo cuando éstos enferman y menos opciones laborales durante el embarazo. A diario viven el acoso y el hostigamiento ejercido por hombres posicionados en distintas jerarquías laborales, pero no son pasivas ante la violencia, ya que diseñan estrategias de autocuidado. Otras se organizan para brindar asesoría a mujeres sobre sus derechos laborales y las acompañan en los procesos de denuncia y búsqueda de justicia.

  5. La guerra de los Estados Unidos contra la inmigración. Efectos paradójicos1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen A finales de la década de los cincuenta, Estados Unidos permitía la entrada de aproximadamente medio millón de inmigrantes mexicanos al año, de los cuales 450.000 entraban con visados de trabajo temporal y 50.000 llegaban con visados de residentes permanentes. A mediados de los años sesenta, los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos realizados en nombre de los derechos civiles redujeron drásticamente las oportunidades de entrada legal a Estados Unidos. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a 20.000 por año. Con las oportunidades de entrada legal restringidas, los flujos migratorios ya establecidos simplemente continuaron, fuera de los límites legales, dando comienzo a una inesperada reacción en cadena de eventos que culminaron en una guerra total contra los inmigrantes y el rápido crecimiento -sin precedentes- de población residente no autorizada en Estados Unidos. El presente artículo demuestra que el aumento de inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos y el crecimiento de la población sin papeles son un producto de políticas migratorias y fronterizas mal concebidas. PMID:27076695

  6. Carlos Somigliana: sátira, ironía y parodia teatral contra la última dictadura argentina

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    Alba Saura Clares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación nos adentramos en la obra del dramaturgo Carlos Somigliana (1932-1987, una de las figuras más destacadas de la escena argentina del siglo XX. Con una producción marcada por la inestabilidad sociopolítica vivida en el país, profundizaremos en los textos que escribió durante la última dictadura militar argentina, el autodenominado Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (1976-1983. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es acercarnos a las obras de Somigliana para el festival Teatro Abierto, evento escénico contra la dictadura del Proceso, y a la estética elegida por el dramaturgo para las mismas, donde percibimos un predominio de la sátira, la ironía y la parodia unido al carácter político de los textos. Nuestro corpus lo compondrán El Nuevo Mundo (1981, El oficial primero (1982 y La democracia en el tocador (1984.

  7. Terminologia da Enfermagem caracterizadora da violência doméstica contra crianças e adolescentes

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    Lêda Maria Albuquerque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivo:identificar termos relacionados à prática de enfermagem direcionada à criança e ao adolescente em situação de violência doméstica.Método:pesquisa descritiva bibliográfica, que selecionou 40 artigos na base da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, no tema da violência doméstica contra a criança e o adolescente, suas manifestações, causas e consequências, articulado com as práticas de enfermagem para enfrentamento e prevenção; e extraiu termos com uso de ferramenta computacional.Resultados:Foram extraídos 17.365 termos que após a normalização e adequação, resultou numa lista de 915 termos.Conclusão:Os termos selecionados focalizam o nexo biopsíquico individual e a face histórica do fenômeno foi, em parte, identificada em termos de menor frequência de aparição nos artigos, explicitando a contradição entre a lógica formal de identificação dos termos e a lógica dialética que reconhece as raízes históricas e a dinamicidade dos fenômenos.

  8. ORGANIZANDO LA ESPERANZA: UTOPÍAS CONCRETAS PLURIVERSALES CONTRA Y MÁS ALLÁ DE LA FORMA VALOR

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    Ana Cecilia Dinerstein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: ¿Cuál es la forma que adopta la utopía hoy? Mediante el establecimiento de una afinidad electiva entre autonomía y el principio de esperanza de Bloch, la autora de este trabajo define autonomía como 'el arte de organizar la esperanza'. Esa es una utopía concreta que desafía los parámetros de legibilidad de la realidad dada: niega, crea, entra en contradicción con, contra, y más allá del Estado, y produce un 'excedente' intraducible en el lenguaje capitalista, patriarcal y colonial. El principio esperanza acerca las prácticas autónomas indígenas y no indígenas. Ambas son utopías pluriversales, que navegan en las venas abiertas del capital, oponiéndole a su existencia invisible otras realidades que 'todavía no han llegado a ser', pero pueden anticiparse, iluminando así la oscuridad del presente.

  9. Avaliação de discriminação contra idosos em contexto brasileiro - ageismo

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    Maria Clara P. de Paula Couto

    Full Text Available Buscou-se identificar os tipos predominantes de discriminação contra idosos que ocorrem no Brasil, bem como o nível de estresse que lhes está associado. Compararam-se também os resultados da amostra brasileira aos de duas amostras de referência, uma americana e uma portuguesa. Participaram 111 indivíduos, os quais responderam a um questionário biosociodemográfico e ao Ageism Survey, que integra itens relativos a estereótipos negativos, atitudes e comportamentos de discriminação face ao idoso. Os resultados revelaram que os tipos de discriminação predominantes foram os relativos aos contextos sociais e de saúde. Quanto ao nível de estresse, a maior parte dos itens apresentou uma baixa média de estresse. Isso pode indicar que a vivência de discriminação nem sempre se associa explicitamente ao estresse.

  10. Anticuerpos monoclonales contra la Gonadotropina Corionica Humana (HCG y su empleo en el diagnóstico precoz del embarazo.

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    Torres E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la obtención y caracterización de anticuerpos monoclonales contra la hormona gonadotropina cariónica humana (HCG, seleccionados de la inmunización subcutánea en ratones BALB/c. Se reporta también el desarrollo del sistema rápido HeberFast Line® Embarazo, para la detección de la hormona en muestras de orina, basado en los anticuerpos obtenidos y la tecnología del flujo lateral desarrollada en membranas de nitrocelulosa como soporte sólido. El nivel de sensibilidad alcanzado con este sistema diagnóstico es de 20 UI/L de HCG en muestra de orina, y no se observó reactividad cruzada en analitos similares conteniendo concentraciones de las glicohormonas relacionadas; 1000 IU de LH, 5000 IU de FSH, y 1000 µIU de TSH respectivamente. Los estudios de estabilidad arrojaron, que el diagnosticador mantine las características de funcionalidad por un tiempo de 15 meses a temperaturas entre 2 y 30 ºC, conformando este el tiempo de vigencia del sistema. De poseer en Farmacias, Consultorios Médicos de la Familia y Hospital Gineco-Obstétricos, un sistema rápido y sencillo como el establecido en este trabajo, se pueden evitar todos los riesgos e inconvenientes que acarrean los procesos de interrupción del embarazo en la mujer.

  11. El Impacto Psicológico de la Guerra Contra el Narcotráfico en Periodistas Mexicanos

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    ROGELIO FLORES MORALES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodistas mexicanos ( N =140 respondieron cinco instrumentos psicométricos para identifi - car síntomas de ansiedad, depresión y estrés pos - traumático, así como sus niveles en el consumo de alcohol y tabaco. El levantamiento de datos se realizó en un contexto nacional de guerra contra el narcotráfico en donde cotidianamente se presentan actos de extrema violencia (asesi - natos, matanzas, decapitaciones, etc.. Los re - sultados indican que los periodistas que cubren noticias de narcotráfico y crimen organizado presentan puntajes significativamente más altos que aquellos que trabajan en otro tipo de temas. Lo anterior sugiere que las coberturas periodís - ticas sobre narcotráfico representan un factor de riesgo psicológico que debe tomarse en cuenta para la creación de políticas públicas en México.

  12. Anafilaxia associada à vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola Anafilaxia asociada a la vacuna contra sarampión, varicela y rubéola Anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella

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    Iolanda Maria Novadzki

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo do tipo caso-controle cujo objetivo foi descrever os casos e as causas de anafilaxia associada à vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola. Foram estudados 22 casos notificados em crianças de Curitiba, PR, durante Campanha Nacional de Vacinação de 2004, que apresentaram manifestações mucocutâneas. Para o controle, foram selecionadas 66 crianças vizinhas dos casos, que não apresentaram sintomatologia após a aplicação vacinal. Foram realizadas dosagens séricas de anticorpos para os antígenos vacinais, IgE total e específicas para diversos alérgenos, e testes cutâneos. A resposta vacinal foi adequada, a dosagem de IgE específica e os testes cutâneos mostraram que os alérgenos potenciais constituintes da vacina e a atopia não foram relacionados às reações anafiláticas. Os testes cutâneos com a vacina e o dextrano foram positivos somente nos casos, sugerindo sensibilização por algum componente residual da vacina e possível reação cruzada com o dextrano.Estudio del tipo caso-control cuyo objetivo fue describir los casos y las causas de anafilaxia asociada a la vacuna contra sarampión, varicela y rubéola. Fueron estudiados 22 casos notificados en niños de Curitiba, Sureste de Brasil, durante Campaña Nacional de Vacunación de 2004, que presentaron manifestaciones mococutáneas. Para el control, fueron seleccionados 66 niños vecinos de los casos, que no presentaron sintomatología posterior a la aplicación vacunal. Fueron realizadas dosificaciones séricas de anticuerpos para los antígenos vacunales, IgE total y específicas para diversos alérgenos, y pruebas cutáneas. La respuesta vacunal fue adecuada, la dosificación de IgE específica y las pruebas cutáneas mostraron que los alérgenos potenciales constituyentes de la vacuna y la atopia no fueron relacionados a las reacciones anafilácticas. Las pruebas cutáneas con la vacuna y el dextrano fueron positivas solamente en los casos, sugiriendo

  13. Efeito da vacina contra coccidiose sobre a colonização de Salmonella enteritidis em frangos de corte tratados com microbiota cecal anaeróbia

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    Andreatti Filho R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da vacina contra coccidiose sobre a habilidade da microbiota cecal anaeróbia (MCA, administrada por diferentes vias (aves tratadas, em proteger pintos de corte da colonização por Salmonella enteritidis (Se. Utilizaram-se 120 aves assim divididas: grupo A, pulverização de MCA em aves vacinadas contra coccidiose e desafiadas com Se, grupo B, inoculação endoesofágica de MCA em aves vacinadas e desafiadas, grupo C, MCA na água de bebida de aves vacinadas e desafiadas, grupo D, aves não tratadas, vacinadas e desafiadas, grupo E, aves não tratadas, não vacinadas e desafiadas e, grupo F, aves não tratadas, não vacinadas e não desafiadas (controle negativo. Utilizaram-se como parâmetros a colonização do trato digestivo por Se e sua presença nas fezes, bem como o peso corporal das aves, avaliados aos dois, sete e 12 dias após o desafio. Nas aves tratadas com MCA, especialmente por meio de pulverização e inoculação endoesofágica, a colonização do ceco por Se e sua presença nas fezes foram menores, mostrando que a ação da MCA contra a colonização de ceco e excreção fecal não foi afetada pelo uso da vacina contra coccidiose em pintos de corte e que a associação MCA/vacina contra coccidiose pode ser utilizada sem que haja comprometimento na eficácia da MCA. Nos grupos que não receberam MCA, vacinados ou não contra coccidiose, houve aumento da colonização cecal, bem como excreção fecal da amostra desafio. O ceco foi o local de maior presença e persistência da Se. O resultado de administração de MCA pela água de bebida não foi tão eficiente, mas somente este tratamento resultou em peso corporal das aves significativamente superior ao das aves do grupo não tratado, não vacinado e desafiado, indicando que a presença de salmonelas paratifóides não interfere na produtividade de frangos de corte. Não se observou diferença no peso das aves dos grupos D (vacinados contra coccidiose e E (n

  14. Violencia contra la mujer en la pareja: determinantes y respuestas sociosanitarias Intimate partner violence: social and health determinants and responses

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    Isabel Ruiz-Pérez

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar una revisión del problema de la violencia contra la mujer en la pareja, así como determinar sus causas y consecuencias, analizando de forma específica el papel de los profesionales sanitarios. Frente al abordaje epidemiológico clásico de «factores de riesgo», Heise propone «un marco ecológico integrado» para el estudio y el conocimiento de la violencia contra la mujer. Este marco estudia los factores que actúan en 4 ámbitos: individual, familiar, comunitario y sociocultural. En España se presentó en enero de 2003 un total de 2.519 denuncias por violencia de género; entre enero y noviembre de 2003, se contabilizó un total de 69 mujeres muertas por esta causa. No parece existir un patrón geográfico en la mortalidad y la incidencia de denuncias, ni tampoco una relación entre las tasas de incidencia de denuncias y la mortalidad. La única encuesta de ámbito nacional publicada en España es la realizada por el Instituto de la Mujer en 1999, que da una prevalencia de maltrato en las mujeres del 9,2%. En Granada, en un centro de atención primaria, se obtuvo una frecuencia del 22,8%. Desde los servicios sanitarios, con los que la mayoría de las mujeres contactan en algún momento de su vida, se puede desempeñar un papel crucial para ayudar a las que son objeto de violencia. Las/los profesionales que están en los puestos de administración y gestión pueden contribuir a poner de manifiesto este problema de salud, teniendo presente que es una de las principales causas de mala salud e incapacidad. Es evidente que, más allá de las campañas de sensibilización y la detección precoz, se debería diseñar estrategias de salud pública dirigidas a prevenir este grave problema, cuyas causas pueden modificarse.The present study aims to review the problem of intimate partner violence, as well as its causes and consequences. It will also specifically analyze the role of health professionals. In

  15. Maus-tratos contra idosos no município de Camaragibe, Pernambuco Elder abuse in Camaragibe, Pernambuco

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    Victor Lopes de Melo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever a situação de maus-tratos contra idosos no município de Camaragibe, na região metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo de corte transversal com uma amostra representativa da população idosa do município, e submetida a questionário previamente elaborado conforme os objetivos do estudo. RESULTADOS: dos 315 idosos, 95,4% estavam na sexta e sétima década de vida, 65,2% eram mulheres e recebiam até dois salários mínimos (91,4%, 87,5% tinham casas próprias, com deficiente esgotamento sanitário (84,1% e baixo grau de escolaridade (97,1%. Sessenta e seis referiram sofrer maus-tratos. Desses, 65,2% eram do sexo feminino. O tipo de violência mais comum foi a psicológica (62,1%, seguida da física (31,8%, cometidas pelos próprios familiares dentro do próprio domicílio. As mulheres foram mais agredidas que os homens. 71,3% reagiram passivamente não sabendo a que órgão denunciar. No seu entendimento a comunidade era indiferente ao problema. CONCLUSÕES: os maus-tratos contra idosos apresentam-se como problema relevante para a saúde pública. Medidas educativas poderiam ser implementadas para esclarecê-los sobre direitos, facilitar a denúncia e a obtenção de apoio ou ajuda.OBJECTIVES: to describe the situation of abuse against the elderly in the municipality of Camaragibe, in the metropolitan region of Recife, Pernambuco. METHODS: cross sectional study with a representative sample of the elderly population in the municipality, subject to abuse and respondents to a previously designed questionnaire according to the objectives of the study. RESULTS: of the 315 elderly, 95.4% were in the sixth and seventh decade of life and 65.2% were women and received up to two minimum wages (91.4%, were house owners (87.5%, living in neighborhoods with deficient sewage systems (84.1% and low education level (97.1%. Seventy six claimed they were abused. Among these 65.2% were females. The most common type

  16. Presencia de anticuerpos sericos contra Neospora caninum en equinos en Chile Sera antibodies to Neospora caninum in Chilean horses

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    A.N. Patitucci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neospora sp. es un parásito protozoario causante de abortos y/o enfermedad del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC en caninos, bovinos, ciervos, caprinos, ovinos, equinos y otros. En equinos, se lo ha involucrado como causa de aborto, mortalidad neonatal y enfermedades del SNC y viscerales. La especie que infecta a los equinos es distinta a Neospora caninum y se denomina Neospora hughesi. En Chile no existe evidencia de infección en equinos, sin embargo, la enfermedad ha sido informada en bovinos y caninos, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue buscar anticuerpos contra la enfermedad en sueros equinos . Para ello se tomaron muestras de sangre a 145 equinos (87 de la IX Región y 58 de la VIII Región de Chile. Los sueros fueron analizados mediante Test de Aglutinación para Neospora (NAT. Cada suero se diluyó en 1:40 en solución salina tamponada (PBS pH 7.2 conteniendo 2- mercaptoetanol y fueron analizados en 1:40 y 1:80. Los sueros positivos a 1:80 fueron examinados a 1:160 y 1:320. Anticuerpos contra N.caninum (≥ 1:40 se encontraron en 32% (47/145 de los equinos estudiados. Debido a que N.caninum y N.hughesi dan reacción cruzada, ambos o uno de ellos podrían ser los responsables de la seropositividad. Estos resultados indican que equinos provenientes de la VIII y IX regiones de Chile son reaccionantes a la infección de Neospora, por lo que su diagnóstico presuntivo debería ser considerados ante la presencia de cuadros clínicos con sintomatología nerviosa y/o abortos en esta especie.Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that affects cattle and dogs, its infections seem to be widely prevalent in Chile. To date, nothing is known of the presence of N. caninum in horse population of the country. In South America, two seroprevalence studies have failed to find antibodies in Argentina and Brazil. The objective of the study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum exposure in horses of Chile. Sera from 145 asymptomatic horses (87

  17. Partidos Políticos como antídoto contra el populismo en América Latina

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    Patricio Navia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Definiendo populismo como un esfuerzo por debilitar las instituciones, en este artículo planteo que los partidos políticos pueden ser un antídoto contra el populismo. Mientras más fuertes y más accountable ante la población sean los partidos, menores serán las posibilidades que aparezcan nuevos líderes populistas en América Latina. En este trabajo defino partido político como grupo de políticos que siguen asociados en la misma organización después de perder una elección. De esta forma prescindo de variables ideológicas para definirlos. Además, esta definición me permite diferenciar partidos políticos de movimientos populistas temporales que se organizan electoralmente como partidos. La estabilidad del sistema político está determinada por la existencia de partidos políticos. Analizando casos históricos y recientes de Latinoamérica y ofreciendo datos electorales que validan estas afirmaciones, sugiero que los países donde existen formaciones partidarias estables y fuertes tienen menos riesgos de experimentar fenómenos populistas. También sugiero que las experiencias populistas en dichos países sólo aparecen asociadas al debilitamiento de los partidos políticos. Así, la existencia de verdaderos partidos políticos es una condición necesaria, no suficiente, para evitar la irrupción del populismo

  18. Avaliação genética das vacinas contra a brucelose bovina comercializadas no Brasil

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    Renata Bastos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A prevenção contra infecções causadas por Brucella abortus em bovinos é realizada por meio da administração das amostras vacinais B19 e RB51. Existem relatos de que estas vacinas podem causar aborto em fêmeas vacinadas. Portanto, toda a ocorrência de aborto em animais vacinados merece um estudo aprofundado sobre a causa. No Brasil, não há registro sobre a origem das amostras B19 e RB51 utilizadas na produção das vacinas comerciais. Assim, um estudo para verificar possíveis mutações em relação às amostras referência USDA B19 e USDA RB51 de B. abortus se faz necessário, devido às amostras vacinais poderem reverter a sua virulência. Objetivou-se com este estudo caracterizar genotipicamente as amostras vacinais B19 e RB51 comercializadas no Brasil. A metodologia utilizada foi a genotipagem de genes marcadores destas amostras vacinais, por meio da amplificação pela reação em cadeia da polimerase. Os resultados obtidos permitiram a identificação do genótipo das vacinas comerciais B19 e RB51 disponíveis e utilizadas em bovinos no Brasil. A ausência de mutações nas vacinas testadas corrobora com a qualidade genética das mesmas, quanto à estabilidade dos genes analisados.

  19. Factores asociados a una respuesta inadecuada a la vacunación contra la hepatitis B en personal sanitario

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    Tolosa Martínez Natividad

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: La vacuna recombinante contra la hepatitis B confiere inmunidad aproximadamente en el 95 % de los casos, pero existe un porcentaje que responde insuficientemente. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los factores que se asocian con una inadecuada respuesta inmunitaria. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio observacional y analítico en el que se sigue retrospectivamente una cohorte de sujetos vacunados frente al virus de la hepatitis B (VHB. Se recogieron las variables de interés del personal sanitario que cumplía los criterios de inclusión, del Área de Salud 9 de la Comunidad Valenciana (n=827. Tras la vacunación se determinó la titulación de anticuerpos de superficie (antiHBs para comprobar la respuesta, considerándose niveles protectores los superiores a 10 mUI/ml. RESULTADOS: Se produjo una adecuada seroconversión en el 94,4% de los vacunados. La baja o nula respuesta a la vacuna se asoció significativamente y de forma independiente con variables como el sexo masculino, la edad, el índice de masa corporal (IMC y el tabaquismo. El consumo de alcohol y los niveles de GPT, aunque no se relacionaron de forma significativa con la respuesta a la vacuna, actuaron como posibles factores de confusión. CONCLUSIONES: La inmunogenicidad de la vacuna es satisfactoria. Es importante cuantificar los niveles de antiHBs, sobretodo cuando hay factores predictivos de mala respuesta. De esta manera, es posible identificar a aquellos que precisan dosis de recuerdo y a los no respondedores, evitándose así situaciones de falsa sensación de protección frente al VHB.

  20. Selección de cepas de Shigella sonnei para el desarrollo de una vacuna efectiva contra la shigellosis

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    Olga M. Martínez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Instituto Finlay se desarrolló una metodología de trabajo que contribuyó a la selección de cepas de Shigella sonnei como posibles candidatos vacunales contra la shigellosis. Las cepas investigadas, donadas por el Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiología de Ciudad de La Habana, se caracterizaron según los métodos convencionales. La identificación del serogrupo y serotipo se realizó por aglutinación en láminas portaobjetos con antisueros comerciales; mientras que para el estudio de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se utilizó el DIRAMIC 10, un equipo semiautomatizado que proporcionó los resultados 4 horas después de su realización. Se investigó también la presencia de plásmidos de virulencia, por el crecimiento de Shigella spp. en medio de agar Triptona Soya con Rojo Congo al 0,025%, así como la expresión de las proteínas de la membrana externa en SDS-PAGE; para las pruebas de virulencia y potencia se emplearon los modelos animales (modelo ratón-pulmón y Test de Sereny. Los resultados obtenidos con la metodología utilizada permitieron la selección de la cepa de S. sonnei A-04 como la más adecuada para la obtención del posible candidato vacunal.