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Sample records for blazar seds based

  1. The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic SEDs of Southern Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Krauß, Felicia; Kadler, Matthias; Ojha, Roopesh; Schulz, Robert; Trüstedt, Jonas; Edwards, Philip G; Stevens, Jamie; Ros, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Wayne; Beuchert, Tobias; Blanchard, Jay; Buson, Sara; Carpenter, Bryce; Dauser, Thomas; Falkner, Sebastian; Gehrels, Neil; Gräfe, Christina; Gulyaev, Sergei; Hase, Hayo; Horiuchi, Shinji; Kreikenbohm, Annika; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Langejahn, Marcus; Leiter, Katharina; Lovell, Jim E J; Müller, Cornelia; Natusch, Tim; Nesci, Roberto; Pursimo, Tapio; Phillips, Chris; Plötz, Christian; Quick, Jonathan; Tzioumis, Anastasios K; Weston, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous broadband spectral and temporal studies of blazars are an important tool for investigating active galactic nuclei (AGN) jet physics. We study the spectral evolution between quiescent and flaring periods of 22 radio-loud AGN through multi-epoch, quasi-simultaneous broadband spectra. For many of these sources these are the first broadband studies. We use a Bayesian block analysis of \\Fermi/LAT light curves in order to determine time ranges of constant flux for constructing quasi-simultaneous SEDs. The shapes of the resulting 81 SEDs are described by two logarithmic parabolas and a blackbody spectrum where needed. For low states the peak frequencies and luminosities agree well with the blazar sequence, higher luminosity implying lower peak frequencies. This is not true for sources in a high state. The $\\gamma$-ray photon index in Fermi/LAT correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency in low and intermediate states. No correlation is present in high states. The black hole mass cannot be determined ...

  2. The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic SEDs of Southern Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Krauß, Felicia; Wilms, Joern; Kadler, Matthias; Ojha, Roopesh; Schulz, Robert; Trüstedt, Jonas; Edwards, Philip G.; Stevens, Jamie; Ros, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Wayne; Beuchert, Tobias; Blanchard, Jay; Buson, Sara; Carpenter, Bryce; Dauser, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous broadband spectral and temporal studies of blazars are an important tool for investigating active galactic nuclei (AGN) jet physics. We study the spectral evolution between quiescent and flaring periods of 22 radio-loud AGN through multi-epoch, quasi-simultaneous broadband spectra. For many of these sources these are the first broadband studies. We use a Bayesian block analysis of \\Fermi/LAT light curves in order to determine time ranges of constant flux for constructing quasi-si...

  3. Blazar Sequence in Fermi Era

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liang Chen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we review the latest research results on the topic of blazar sequence. It seems that the blazar sequence is phenomenally ruled out, while the theoretical blazar sequence still holds. We point out that black hole mass is a dominated parameter accounting for high-power-high-synchrotron-peaked and low-power-low-sychrotron-peaked blazars. Because most blazars have similar size of emission region, theoretical blazar sequence implies that the break of Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) is a cooling break in nature.

  4. The influence of the magnetic field on the spectral properties of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Rueda-Becerril, J M; Aloy, M A

    2013-01-01

    We explore the signature imprinted by dynamically relevant magnetic fields on the spectral energy distribution (SED) of blazars. It is assumed that the emission from these sources originates from the collision of ultrarelativistic and magnetized shells of cold plasma. A suitable analytic modeling, based on the numerical solution of Riemann problems, accounts for the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of the shell collisions. Using this dynamics we compute model SEDs including the most relevant radiative processes (synchrotron emission, synchrotron self-Compton and external inverse Compton scattering). To quantify the way in which the degree of magnetization shapes the SED, we scan a broad parameter space that encompasses a significant fraction of the commonly accepted values of not directly measurable physical properties. Starting from unmagnetized shell collisions, we reproduce the standard double hump SED found in blazar observations. We also show that the prototype double hump structure of blazars can also be r...

  5. Multiwavelength behavior of blazars in the AGILE era

    CERN Document Server

    Vercellone, S

    2009-01-01

    The AGILE gamma-ray satellite accumulated data over two years on several blazars. Moreover, for all of the sources detected by AGILE, we exploited multiwavelength observations involving both space and ground based telescopes and consortia, obtaining in several cases broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) which span from the radio wavelengths up to the TeV energy band. I will review both published and yet unpublished AGILE results on gamma-ray blazars, discussing their time variability, their gamma-ray flare durations and the theoretical modeling of the SEDs. I will also highlight the GASP-WEBT and Swift fundamental contributions to the simultaneous and long-term studies of gamma-ray blazars.

  6. Multifrequency variability of the blazar AO 0235+164. The WEBT campaign in 2004-2005 and long-term SED analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, C M; Kadler, M; Ibrahimov, M A; Kurtanidze, O M; Larionov, V M; al, et

    2006-01-01

    A huge multiwavelength campaign targeting the blazar AO 0235+164 was organized by the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) in 2003-2005 to study the variability properties of the source. Monitoring observations were carried out at cm and mm wavelengths, and in the near-IR and optical bands, while three pointings by the XMM-Newton satellite provided information on the X-ray and UV emission. We present the data acquired during the second observing season, 2004-2005, by 27 radio-to-optical telescopes. They reveal an increased near-IR and optical activity with respect to the previous season. Increased variability is also found at the higher radio frequencies, down to 15 GHz, but not at the lower ones. The radio (and optical) outburst predicted to peak around February-March 2004 on the basis of the previously observed 5-6 yr quasi-periodicity did not occur. The analysis of the optical light curves reveals now a longer characteristic time scale of 8 yr, which is also present in the radio data. The spectral energy di...

  7. The Spectral Energy Distributions of Fermi Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Luo, G. Y.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Y. H.; Xiao, H. B.; Zhou, A. Y.; Hua, T. X.; Pei, Z. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, multiwavelength data are compiled for a sample of 1425 Fermi blazars to calculate their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). A parabolic function, {{log}}{(ν {F}ν )={P}1({{log}}ν -{P}2)}2+{P}3, is used for SED fitting. Synchrotron peak frequency ({log}{ν }{{p}}), spectral curvature (P1), peak flux ({ν }{{p}}{F}{ν {{p}}}), and integrated flux (ν {F}ν ) are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars (461 flat-spectrum radio quasars [FSRQs], 620 BL Lacs [BLs], and 311 blazars of uncertain type [BCUs]; 999 sources have known redshifts). Monochromatic luminosity at radio 1.4 GHz, optical R band, X-ray at 1 keV and γ-ray at 1 GeV, peak luminosity, integrated luminosity, and effective spectral indices of radio to optical ({α }{{RO}}) and optical to X-ray ({α }{{OX}}) are calculated. The “Bayesian classification” is employed to log {ν }{{p}} in the rest frame for 999 blazars with available redshift, and the results show that three components are enough to fit the log {ν }{{p}} distribution; there is no ultra-high peaked subclass. Based on the three components, the subclasses of blazars using the acronyms of Abdo et al. are classified, and some mutual correlations are also studied. Conclusions are finally drawn as follows: (1) SEDs are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars. The fitted peak frequencies are compared with common sources from available samples. (2) Blazars are classified as low synchrotron peak sources if log {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 14.0, intermediate synchrotron peak sources if 14.0\\lt {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 15.3, and high synchrotron peak sources if {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})\\gt 15.3. (3) Gamma-ray emissions are strongly correlated with radio emissions. Gamma-ray luminosity is also correlated with synchrotron peak luminosity and integrated luminosity. (4) There is an anticorrelation between peak frequency and peak luminosity within the whole blazar sample. However, there is a marginally positive correlation for high

  8. 2WHSP: A catalog of HE and VHE gamma-ray blazars and blazar candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Aims. High Synchrotron Peaked blazars (HSPs) dominate the -ray sky at energies larger than a few GeV; however, only a few hundred blazars of this type have been catalogued so far. In this paper we present the 2WHSP sample, the largest and most complete list of HSP blazars available to date, which is an expansion of the 1WHSP catalog of gamma-ray source candidates off the Galactic plane. Methods. We cross-matched a number of multi-wavelength surveys (in the radio, infrared and X-ray bands) and applied selection criteria based on the radio to IR and IR to X-ray spectral slopes. To ensure the selection of genuine HSPs we examined the SED of each candidate and estimated the peak frequency of its synchrotron emission ($\

  9. CHARACTERIZING THE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF BRIGHT BLAZARS: VARIABILITY-BASED SELECTION OF FERMI ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ∼30% of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability τ, and driving amplitudes on short timescales σ-circumflex. Imposing cuts on minimum τ and σ-circumflex allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously associated optical counterparts to Fermi active galactic nuclei with E ≥ 88% and C = 88% in Fermi 95% confidence error ellipses having semimajor axis r < 8'. We find that the suggested radio counterpart to Fermi source 2FGL J1649.6+5238 has optical variability consistent with other γ-ray blazars and is likely to be the γ-ray source. Our results suggest that the variability of the non-thermal jet emission in blazars is stochastic in nature, with unique variability properties due to the effects of relativistic beaming. After correcting for beaming, we estimate that the characteristic timescale of blazar variability is ∼3 years in the rest frame of the jet, in contrast with the ∼320 day disk flux timescale observed in quasars. The variability-based selection method presented will be useful for blazar identification in time-domain optical surveys and is also a probe of jet physics.

  10. Tev Blazars: Status of Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Krennrich, F.; Biller, S. D.; Bond, I. H.; Boyle, P. J.; Bradbury, S. M.; Breslin, A. C.; J. H. Buckley(Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, USA); Burdett, A. M.; Bussons-Gordo, J.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Catanese, M.; Cawley, M. F.; Fegan, D. J.; Finley, J. P.; Gaidos, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    The close relation between ground-based TeV observations and satellite borne $\\gamma$-ray measurements has been important for the understanding of blazars. The observations which involve the TeV component in blazar studies are reviewed.

  11. Fatigue strength of Al7075 notched plates based on the local SED averaged over a control volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Filippo; Lazzarin, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    When pointed V-notches weaken structural components, local stresses are singular and their intensities are expressed in terms of the notch stress intensity factors (NSIFs). These parameters have been widely used for fatigue assessments of welded structures under high cycle fatigue and sharp notches in plates made of brittle materials subjected to static loading. Fine meshes are required to capture the asymptotic stress distributions ahead of the notch tip and evaluate the relevant NSIFs. On the other hand, when the aim is to determine the local Strain Energy Density (SED) averaged in a control volume embracing the point of stress singularity, refined meshes are, not at all, necessary. The SED can be evaluated from nodal displacements and regular coarse meshes provide accurate values for the averaged local SED. In the present contribution, the link between the SED and the NSIFs is discussed by considering some typical welded joints and sharp V-notches. The procedure based on the SED has been also proofed to be useful for determining theoretical stress concentration factors of blunt notches and holes. In the second part of this work an application of the strain energy density to the fatigue assessment of Al7075 notched plates is presented. The experimental data are taken from the recent literature and refer to notched specimens subjected to different shot peening treatments aimed to increase the notch fatigue strength with respect to the parent material.

  12. Relation between the "Double-Hump" Behavior in the Radio Band and the Broad-Line Luminosity for Blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Hua Xie; Hong Dai; Jian-Ming Hao; Lei-Ming Du; Xiong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The physics behind the spectral energy distribution (SED) of blazars remains open.We assembled 36 blazars to tackle the factors that control their SED. Now, many blazar spectra have the "double hump" feature in the radio and far-IR frequencies. For these a parameter,△, is created to characterize the behavior of the SED. We found a significant correlation between the broad-line luminosity (LBLR) and △. Because LBLR is an indicator of the accreting power of the source in blazars, we derived a linear correlation,△∝ (M)1/3. 18, which suggests that the SED of blazars may depend on the accretion rate, like that of BL Lac objects. We also found a significant correlation between (m) and△ for a sample of 11 blazars (out of one of 36)with available black hole masses. This implies the Eddington accretion ratio may influence the shape of the SED of blazars.

  13. Leptonic and Hadronic Modeling of Fermi-Detected Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böttcher Markus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe new implementations of leptonic and hadronic models for the broadband emission from relativistic jets in AGN in a temporary steady state. The new model implementations are used to fit snap-shot spectral energy distributions of a representative set of Fermi-LAT detected blazars from the first LAT AGN catalogue. We find that the leptonic model is capable of producing acceptable fits to the SEDs of almost all blazars with reasonable parameters close to equipartition between the magnetic field and the relativistic electron population. If charge neutrality in leptonic models is provided by cold protons, our fits indicate that the kinetic energy carried by the jet should be dominated by protons. We also find satisfactory representations of the snapshot SEDs of most blazars in our sample with the hadronic model presented here. All of our hadronic model fits require powers in relativistic protons in the range 1047 – 1049 erg/s. As a potential way to distinguish between the leptonic and hadronic high-energy emission models considered here, we suggest diagnostics based on the predicted X-ray and γ-ray polarization, which are drastically different for the two types of models.

  14. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Healey, S E; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Itoh, R; Jackson, M S; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kadler, M; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knodlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broad-band spectral properties of the \\gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical and other hard X-ray/gamma-ray data, collected within three months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars.The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual Log $\

  15. General physical properties of bright Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G; Foschini, L; Ghirlanda, G; Maraschi, L; Celotti, A

    2009-01-01

    We studied all blazars of known redshift detected by the Fermi satellite during its first three months survey. For the majority of them, pointed Swift observations ensures a good multiwavelength coverage, enabling us to to reliably construct their spectral energy distributions (SED). We model the SEDs using a one-zone leptonic model and study the distributions of the derived interesting physical parameters as a function of the observed gamma-ray luminosity. We confirm previous findings concerning the relation of the physical parameters with source luminosity which are at the origin of the blazar sequence. The SEDs allow to estimate the luminosity of the accretion disk for the majority of broad emitting line blazars, while for the line-less BL Lac objects in the sample upper limits can be derived. We find a positive correlation between the jet power and the luminosity of the accretion disk in broad line blazars. In these objects we argue that the jet must be proton-dominated, and that the total jet power is of...

  16. The blazar sequence 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    I discuss the spectral energy distribution (SED) of all blazars with redshift detected by the {\\it Fermi} satellite and listed in the 3LAC catalog. I will update the so called "blazar sequence" from the phenomenological point of view, with no theory or modelling. I will show that: i) pure data show that jet and accretion power are related; ii) the updated blazar sequence maintains the properties of the old version, albeit with a less pronounced dominance of the $\\gamma$--ray emission; iii) at low bolometric luminosities, two different type of objects have the same high energy power: low black hole mass flat spectrum radio quasars and high mass BL Lacs. Therefore, at low luminosities, there is a very large dispersion of SED shapes; iv) in low power BL Lacs, the contribution of the host galaxy is important. Remarkably, the luminosity distribution of the host galaxies of BL Lacs are spread in a very narrow range; v) a simple sum of two smoothly joining power laws can describe the blazar SEDs very well.

  17. Sed and Awk

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Dale

    1997-01-01

    sed & awk describes two text processing programs that are mainstays of the UNIX programmer's toolbox. sed is a "stream editor" for editing streams of text that might be too large to edit as a single file, or that might be generated on the fly as part of a larger data processing step. The most common operation done with sed is substitution, replacing one block of text with another. awk is a complete programming language. Unlike many conventional languages, awk is "data driven" -- you specify what kind of data you are interested in and the operations to be performed when that data is found

  18. The nature of transition blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, J. J.; Anderson, S. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Plotkin, R. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Burnett, T. H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States); Myers, A. D., E-mail: jruan@astro.washington.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy 3905, University of Wyoming, 1000 East University, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Blazars are classically divided into the BL Lacertae (BLL) and flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) subclasses, corresponding to radiatively inefficient and efficient accretion regimes, respectively, largely based on the equivalent width (EW) of their optical broad emission lines (BELs). However, EW-based classification criteria are not physically motivated, and a few blazars have previously transitioned' from one subclass to the other. We present the first systematic search for these transition blazars in a sample of 602 unique pairs of repeat spectra of 354 blazars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, finding six clear cases. These transition blazars have bolometric Eddington ratios of ∼0.3 and low-frequency synchrotron peaks, and are thus FSRQ-like. We show that the strong EW variability (up to an unprecedented factor of >60) is due to swamping of the BELs from variability in jet continuum emission, which is stronger in amplitude and shorter in timescale than typical blazars. Although these transition blazars appear to switch between FSRQ and BLL according to the phenomenologically based EW scheme, we show that they are most likely rare cases of FSRQs with radiatively efficient accretion flows and especially strongly beamed jets. These results have implications for the decrease of the apparent BLL population at high redshifts, and may lend credence to claims of a negative BLL redshift evolution.

  19. The ASDC SED Builder Tool description and Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Stratta, G.; Capalbi, M.; Giommi, P.; Primavera, R.; Cutini, S; Gasparrini, D.; team, on behalf of the ASDC

    2011-01-01

    The ASDC SED Builder (http://tools.asdc.asi.it/SED/) is a web based program developed at the ASI Science Data Center to produce and display the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of astrophysical sources. The tool combines data from several missions and experiments, both ground and space-based, together with catalogs and archival data. In the current version (v1.3) the obtained SEDs can be compared with theoretical expectations and with the sensitivity curve of several widely known instrument...

  20. Simultaneous Planck, Swift, and Fermi Observations of X-ray and Gamma-ray Selected Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Laehteenmaeki, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Capalbi, M.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Gonzalez, Nuevo, J.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Monte, C.; Perri, M.; Raino, S.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Verracchia, F.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, MF.; Angelakis, E.; Bastieri, D.; Berdyugin, A.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Lawrence, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    We present simultaneous Planck, Swift, Fermi, and ground-based data for 105 blazars belonging to three samples with flux limits in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and gamma-ray bands, with additional 5 GHz flux-density limits to ensure a good probability of a Planck detection. We compare our results to those of a companion paper presenting simultaneous Planck and multi-frequency observations of 104 radio-loud northern active galactic nuclei selected at radio frequencies. While we confirm several previous results, our unique data set allows us to demonstrate that the selection method strongly influences the results, producing biases that cannot be ignored. Almost all the BL Lac objects have been detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), whereas 30% to 40% of the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray selected samples are still below the gamma-ray detection limit even after integrating 27 months of Fermi-LAT data. The radio to sub-millimetre spectral slope of blazars is quite flat, with (alpha) approx 0 up to about 70GHz, above which it steepens to (alpha) approx -0.65. The BL Lacs have significantly flatter spectra than FSRQs at higher frequencies. The distribution of the rest-frame synchrotron peak frequency (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FSRQs is the same in all the blazar samples with (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) = 10(exp 13.1 +/- 0.1) Hz, while the mean inverse Compton peak frequency, (nu(sup IC)(sub peak)), ranges from 10(exp 21) to 10(exp 22) Hz. The distributions of nu(sup s)(sub peak) and nu(sup IC)(sub peak) of BL Lacs are much broader and are shifted to higher energies than those of FSRQs; their shapes strongly depend on the selection method. The Compton dominance of blazars. defined as the ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities, ranges from less than 0.2 to nearly 100, with only FSRQs reaching values larger than about 3. Its distribution is broad and depends

  1. Discovery of a wandering radio jet base after a large X-ray flare in the blazar Markarian 421

    CERN Document Server

    Niinuma, K; Doi, A; Hada, K; Nagai, H; Koyama, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the location of the radio jet bases ("radio cores") of blazars in radio images, and their stationarity by means of dense very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In order to measure the position of a radio core, we conducted 12 epoch astrometric observation of the blazar Markarian 421 with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry at 22 GHz immediately after a large X-ray flare, which occurred in the middle of 2011 September. For the first time, we find that the radio core is not stationary but rather changes its location toward 0.5 mas downstream. This angular scale corresponds to the de-projected length of a scale of $10^5$ Schwarzschild radii (Rs) at the distance of Markarian~421. This radio-core wandering may be a new type of manifestation associated with the phenomena of large X-ray flares.

  2. Variability of Spectral Energy Distribution of Blazar S5 0716+714

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. Rani; Alok C. Gupta; Paul J. Wiita

    2011-03-01

    The emission from blazars is known to be variable at all wavelengths. The flux variability is often accompanied by spectral changes. Spectral energy distribution (SED) changes must be associated with changes in the spectra of emitting electrons and/or the physical parameters of the jet. Meaningful modeling of blazar broadband spectra is required to understand the extreme conditions within the emission region. Not only is the broadband SED crucial, but also information about its variability is needed to understand how the highest states of emission occur and how they differ from the low states. This may help in discriminating between models. Here we present the results of our SED modeling of the blazar S5 0716+714 during various phases of its activity. The SEDs are classified into different bins depending on the optical brightness state of the source.

  3. Spectral and Polarization Signatures of Relativistic Shocks in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic shocks are one of the most plausible sites of the emission of strongly variable, polarized multi-wavelength emission from relativistic jet sources such as blazars, via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of relativistic particles. This paper summarizes recent results on a self-consistent coupling of diffusive shock acceleration and radiation transfer in blazar jets. We demonstrate that the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of blazars strongly constrain the nature of hydromagnetic turbulence responsible for pitch-angle scattering by requiring a strongly energy-dependent pitch-angle mean free path. The prominent soft X-ray excess ("Big Blue Bump") in the SED of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 can be modelled as the signature of bulk Compton scattering of external radiation fields by the thermal electron population, which places additional constraints on the level of hydromagnetic turbulence. It has further been demonstrated that internal shocks propagating in a jet pervaded by a helical ma...

  4. Broadband Observations of High Redshift Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Stalin, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 (z = 3.37), CGRaBS J0225+1846 (z = 2.69), BZQ J1430+4205 (z = 4.72), and 3FGL J1656.2‑3303 (z = 2.40) using quasi-simultaneous data from the Swift, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also archival XMM-Newton observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2‑3303, none of the sources were known as γ-ray emitters, and our analysis of ∼7.5 yr of LAT data reveals the first time detection of statistically significant γ-ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of NuSTAR observations and reproduce them using a one-zone leptonic emission model. The optical‑UV emission in all the objects can be explained by radiation from the accretion disk, whereas the X-ray to γ-ray windows of the SEDs are found to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering off the broad line region photons. All of them host black holes that are billions of solar masses. Comparing the accretion disk luminosity and the jet power of these sources with a large sample of blazars, we find them to occupy a high disk luminosity–jet power regime. We also investigate the X-ray spectral properties of the sources in detail with a major focus on studying the causes of soft X-ray deficit, a feature generally seen in high redshift radio-loud quasars. We summarize that this feature could be explained based on the intrinsic curvature in the jet emission rather than being due to the external effects predicted in earlier studies, such as host galaxy and/or warm absorption.

  5. 3C 279 in Outburst in June 2015: A Broadband-SED Study Based on the INTEGRAL Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bottacini, Eugenio; Pian, Elena; Collmar, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Blazars radiate from radio through gamma-ray frequencies thereby being ideal targets for multifrequency studies. Such studies allow constraining the properties of the emitting jet. 3C 279 is among the most notable blazars and therefore subject to extensive multifrequency campaigns. We report the results of a campaign ranging from near-IR to gamma-ray energies of an outburst of 3C 279 in June 2015. The overall spectral energy distribution from near-IR to gamma rays can be well represented by either a leptonic or a lepto-hadronic radiation transfer model. Even though the data are equally well represented by the two models, their inferred parameters challenge the physical conditions in the jet. In fact, the leptonic model requires parameters with a magnetic field far below equipartition with the relativistic particle energy density. On the contrary, equipartition may be achieved with the lepto-hadronic model, which however implies an extreme total jet power close to Eddington luminosity.

  6. Blazar Monitoring List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a compilation of sources in major blazar monitoring programs. This list contains all blazars known to be regularly monitored, plus all the MOJAVE- &...

  7. The Energy Spectrum of the Blazar Markarian 421 Above 130 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, J E; Ong, R A; Ball, J; Bramel, D A; Covault, C E; Driscoll, D; Fortin, P; Gingrich, D M; Hanna, D S; Lindner, T; Müller, C; Jarvis, A; Mukherjee, R; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J

    2006-01-01

    Markarian 421 (Mrk 421) was the first blazar detected at gamma-ray energies above 300 GeV, and it remains one of only twelve TeV blazars detected to date. TeV gamma-ray measurements of its flaring activity and spectral variability have placed constraints on models of the high-energy emission from blazars. However, observations between 50 and 300 GeV are rare, and the high-energy peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED), predicted to be in this range, has never been directly detected. We present a detection of Mrk 421 above 100 GeV as made by the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) during a multiwavelength campaign in early 2004. STACEE is a ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope using the wavefront sampling technique to detect gamma rays at lower energies than achieved by most imaging Cherenkov telescopes. We also outline a method for reconstructing gamma-ray energies using a solar heliostat telescope. This technique was applied to the 2004 data, and we present the differe...

  8. HIGH ENERGY POLARIZATION OF BLAZARS: DETECTION PROSPECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pavlidou, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Fields, B. D. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  9. Looking for High Energy Peaked Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Costamante, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Celotti, A.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.; Tagliaferri, G.; Wolter, A.; Chiaberge, M.; Fossati, G; Pian, E.; L. Maraschi(INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy); Tavecchio, F.; Treves, A.

    2000-01-01

    Blazars can be classified on the basis of their overall Spectral Energy Distribution (SED). BL Lac objects are usually divided in LBL or HBL (Low or High energy peaked BL Lacs), according to the peak frequency of the synchrotron emission, if in the optical or UV-soft-X band respectively. FSRQs instead are characterized by synchrotron peaks mainly at IR-optical frequencies, similarly to LBLs. Here we report on recent BeppoSAX observations which are unveiling the high energy branch of the range...

  10. A Comprehensive Statistical Description of Radio-Through-$\\gamma$-Ray Spectral Energy Distributions of All Known Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Peiyuan; Massaro, Francesco; Paggi, Alessandro; Cauteruccio, Joe; Künzel, Soren R

    2016-01-01

    We combined multi-wavelength data for blazars from the Roma-BZCAT catalog and analyzed hundreds of X-ray spectra. We present the fluxes and Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs), in 12 frequency bands from radio to $\\gamma$-rays, for a final sample of 2214 blazars. Using a model-independent statistical approach, we looked for systematic trends in the SEDs; the most significant trends involved the radio luminosities and X-ray spectral indices of the blazars. We used a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), to determine the basis vectors of the blazar SEDs and, in order to maximize the size of the sample, imputed missing fluxes using the K-nearest neighbors method. Using more than an order of magnitude more data than was available when Fossati et al. (1997, 1998) first reported trends of SED shape with blazar luminosity, we confirmed the anti-correlation between radio luminosity and synchrotron peak frequency, although with greater scatter than was seen in the smaller sample. The same trend can be seen between bolo...

  11. Time dependent approach of TeV blazars based on a model of inhomogeneous stratified jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the emission and variability mechanisms of TeV blazars has been the subject of intensive research for years. The homogeneous one-zone model commonly used is puzzling since it yields very high Lorentz factor, in contradiction with other observational evidences. In this work, I describe a new time dependent multi-zone approach, in the framework of the two-flow model. I compute the emission of a full jet, where relativistic electron-positron pairs distributed in pileup propagate. The evolution and the emission of the plasma is computed taking into account a turbulent heating term, some radiative cooling, and a pair production term due to photo-annihilation process. Applied to PKS 2155-304, the model allows the reproduction of the full spectra, as well as the simultaneous multi wavelength variability, with a relatively small Lorentz factor. The variability is explained by the instability of the pair creation process. Nonetheless, the value is still high to agree with other observational evidences in radio. Hence, I show in the last part of this work how to conciliate high Lorentz factor with the absence of apparent superluminal movement in radio, by taking into account the effect of the opening angle on the appearance of relativistic jets. (author)

  12. Spitzer and Herschel-based SEDs of 24um-bright z~0.3-3.0 starbursts and obscured quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Sajina, A; Fadda, D; Dasyra, K; Huynh, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we characterize the infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of mid-IR selected z~0.3-3.0 and L_IR~10^11-10^13Lsun galaxies, and study how their SEDs differ from those of local and high-z analogs. Our mid-IR flux-limited sample of 191 sources is unique in size, and spectral coverage, including Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy. Here we add Herschel photometry at 250um, 350um, and 500um, which allows us to obtain accurate total IR luminosities, as well as constrain the relative contributions of AGN and starbursts to those luminosities. Our sample constitutes ~23% AGN (i.e. where the AGN contributes >50% of L_IR), ~30% starbursts (where AGN contributes 1.2 AGN, but show SEDs that are extremely rare among local AGN. The SEDs of our z~2 starburst-dominated ULIRGs are much closer to those of local LIRGs than ULIRGs. This is consistent with our earlier finding that, unlike local ULIRGs, our high-z starbursts are typically only in the early stages of a merger. The SEDs of the composite sources are most...

  13. High redshift blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G

    2013-01-01

    Blazars are sources whose jet is pointing to us. Since their jets are relativistic, the flux is greatly amplified in the direction of motion, making blazars the most powerful persistent objects in the Universe. This is true at all frequencies, but especially where their spectrum peaks. Although the spectrum of moderate powerful sources peaks in the ~GeV range, extremely powerful sources at high redshifts peak in the ~MeV band. This implies that the hard X-ray band is the optimal one to find powerful blazars beyond a redshift of ~4. First indications strongly suggest that powerful high-z blazars harbor the most massive and active early black holes, exceeding a billion solar masses. Since for each detected blazars there must exist hundreds of similar, but misaligned, sources, the search for high-z blazars is becoming competitive with the search of early massive black holes using radio-quiet quasars. Finding how the two populations of black holes (one in jetted sources, the other in radio-quiet objects) evolve i...

  14. Modelling and interpretation of SEDs*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woitke Peter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circumstellar disks are mostly detected by larger continuum fluxes in the infrared to mm spectral regions as compared to naked stars (a flux excess. The analysis of the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED of that flux excess was crucial for the development of the first theories about protoplanetary disks, and even nowadays, it is still one of the major tools to physically characterise the disks in terms of their mass, inner holes and gaps, vertical extension & shape, dust properties, and evolutionary state. In this chapter, we will review some of the early simple theories, show some examples, discuss the influence of typical disk shape and dust size parameters in modern SED analysis, and discuss how degenerate the results can be.

  15. Fermi detected blazars seen by INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Soldi, S

    2009-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations are essential to constrain physical parameters of the blazars observed by Fermi/LAT. Among the 187 AGN significantly detected in public INTEGRAL data above 20 keV by the imager IBIS/ISGRI, 20 blazars were detected. 15 of these sources allowed significant spectral extraction. They show hard X-ray spectra with an average photon index of 2.1+-0.1 and a hard X-ray luminosity of L(20-100 keV) = 1.3e46 erg/s. 15 of the INTEGRAL blazars are also visible in the first 16 months of the Fermi/LAT data, thus allowing to constrain the inverse Compton branch in these cases. Among others, we analyse the LAT data of four blazars which were not included in the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample based on the first 3 months of the mission: QSO B0836+710, H 1426+428, RX J1924.8-2914, and PKS 2149-306. Especially for blazars during bright outbursts, as already observed simultaneously by INTEGRAL and Fermi (e.g. 3C 454.3 and Mrk 421), INTEGRAL provides unique spectral coverage up to several hundred keV. We pr...

  16. Multi-waveband Behavior of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marscher Alan P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews recent progress toward understanding blazars that multi-waveband monitoring observations have advanced. The primary techniques include the compilation of multi-waveband light curves, multi-epoch VLBI images at radio wavelengths, plots of linear polarization vs. time at radio through optical wavelengths, and spectral energy distributions (SEDs. Correlations and the coincidence or lag of events across wavebands and in the images indicate where the events take place relative to the “core” that lies ≳ 0.5 pc from the central engine. Rotations of the polarization electric vector suggest a helical geometry of the magnetic field upstream of the millimeter-wave core, while rapid fluctuations in degree and position angle of polarization imply that the jet plasma is turbulent in and downstream of the core. The author is developing a numerical model that simulates the emission from such turbulence as it interacts with a conical standing shock in the core region.

  17. Multiwavelength Emission from Blazars – Conference Summary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meg Urry

    2011-03-01

    Presentations at the Guangzhou Conference on Multiwave-length Emission from Blazars confirmed our understanding of blazars as relativistic jets closely aligned with the line of sight. Powerful new studies have been enabled by the Fermi gamma-ray satellite and new ground-based TeV facilities, which are an order of magnitude more sensitive than their predecessors. Combining gamma-ray data with VLBA radio and with optical/IR photometry has shed new light on the emission mechanisms and the jet geometry. This conference summary sets the context for the 4th blazar conference and presents some of the highlights from the meeting, as well as the questions that remain outstanding.

  18. Relativistic Beaming Effect in Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Fan; D. Bastieri; J. H. Yang; Y. Liu; D. X. Wu; S. H. Li

    2014-09-01

    The most identified sources observed by Fermi/LAT are blazars, based on which we can investigate the emission mechanisms and beaming effect in the -ray bands for blazars. Here, we used the compiled around 450 Fermi blazars with the available X-ray observations to estimate their Doppler factors and compared them with the integral -ray luminosity in the range of 1–100 GeV. It is interesting that the integral -ray luminosity is closely correlated with the estimated Doppler factor, log = (2.95 ± 0.09) log + 43.59 ± 0.08 for the whole sample. When the dependence of the correlation between them and the X-ray luminosity is removed, the correlation is still strong, which suggests that the -ray emissions are strongly beamed.

  19. Observations of Blazar S5 0716+714 With Ground Based Telescopes and the Spitzer Infrared Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jeffery; Lacy, M.; Morton, A.; Travagli, T.; Mulaveesala, M.; Santiago, J.; Rapp, S.; Stefaniak, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) to be launched in 2007 has a proposed observing list that includes AGNs and Polars bright enough to be observed optically by amateurs and students. This observing list is maintained by the Global Telescope Network (GTN). One of our targets, S5 0716+714, was observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS and IRAC instruments and also using ground based telescopes. Observations were made in seven infrared bands with Spitzer. Additional observations made from the ground by students, amateur astronomers, and college observatories in R,V, and I were nearly simultaneous with the Spitzer observations. This data were used to construct light curves over the course of the observation and the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of the target using all the sources. These data were compared to models of the dust emission from the torus, synchrotron emission from the radio core, and thermal emission from the accretion disk to determine the relative importance of the different emission mechanisms in this object as a function of wavelength. Results were compared to observations of 4C 29.45 made last year. This research was supported by the Spitzer Science Center, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and the California Department of Education's Specialized Secondary Program.

  20. Broadband Observations of High Redshift Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Paliya, Vaidehi S; Fabian, A C; Stalin, C S

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 ($z=3.37$), CGRaBS J0225+1846 ($z=2.69$), BZQ J1430+4205 ($z=4.72$), and 3FGL J1656.2$-$3303 ($z=2.40$), using the quasi-simultaneous data from {\\it Swift}, {\\it NuSTAR}, and {\\it Fermi}-Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also the archival {\\it XMM-Newton} observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2$-$3303, none of the sources were known as $\\gamma$-ray emitters and our analysis of $\\sim$7.5 years of LAT data reveals the first time detection of the statistically significant $\\gamma$-ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of {\\it NuSTAR} observations and reproduce them using a one zone leptonic emission model. The optical$-$UV emission in all the objects can be explained by the radiation from the accretion disk, whereas, X-ray to $\\gamma$-ray window of the SEDs are found to be dominated by the inverse Compton scattering off the broad line reg...

  1. 1WHSP: an IR-based sample of $\\sim$1,000 VHE $\\gamma$-ray blazar candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Arsioli, B; Giommi, P; Padovani, P; Marrese, P M

    2015-01-01

    Blazars are the dominant type of extragalactic sources at microwave and at $\\gamma$-ray energies. In the most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum (E>100GeV) a large fraction of high Galactic latitude sources are blazars of the High Synchrotron Peaked (HSP) type, that is BL Lac objects with synchrotron power peaking in the UV or in the X-ray band. HSP blazars are remarkably rare, with only a few hundreds of them expected to be above the sensitivity limits of currently available surveys. To find these very uncommon objects, we have devised a method that combines ALLWISE survey data with multi-frequency selection criteria. The sample was defined starting from a primary list of infrared colour-colour selected sources from the ALLWISE all sky survey database, and applying further restrictions on IR-radio and IR-X-ray flux ratios. Using a polynomial fit to the multi-frequency data (radio to X-ray) we estimated synchrotron peak frequencies and fluxes of each object. We assembled a sample including 992 sou...

  2. UPLAND EROSION MODELING WITH CASC2D-SED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre JULIEN; Rosalía ROJAS

    2002-01-01

    Developed at Colorado State University, CASC2D-SED is a physically-based model simulating the hydrologic response of a watershed to a distributed rainfall field. The time-dependent processes include:precipitation, interception, infiltration, surface runoff and channel routing, upland erosion, transport and sedimentation. CASC2D-SED is applied to Goodwin Creek, Mississippi. The watershed covers 21 km2and has been extensively monitored both at the outlet and at several internal locations by the ARS-NSL at Oxford, MS. The model has been calibrated and validated using rainfall data from 16 meteorological stations, 6 stream gauging stations and 6 sediment gauging stations. Sediment erosion/deposition rates by size fraction are predicted both in space and time. Geovisualization, a powerful data exploration technique based on GIS technology, is used to analyze and display the dynamic output time series generated by the CASC2D-SED model.

  3. Core Dominance Parameter for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. H. Li; J. H. Fan; D. X. Wu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we compiled 572 blazars that have known core dominance parameter (log ), out of which 121 blazars are -ray loud blazars. We compared log between 121 blazars and the rest with non -ray detections, and found that -ray loud blazars showed a different distribution, and their average value of log is greater than that for non -ray blazars. Our analysis suggests that the -ray emissions are strongly beamed.

  4. Theoretical Study Of The Effects Of Magnetic Field Geometry On The High-Energy Emission Of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Manasvita; Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the structure of the magnetic field inside a blazar jet, as deduced from polarization observations at radio to optical wavelengths, is closely related to the formation and propagation of relativistic jets that result from accretion onto supermassive black holes. However, a largely unexplored aspect of the theoretical understanding of radiation transfer physics in blazar jets has been the magnetic field geometry as revealed by the polarized emission and the connection between the variability in polarization and flux across the spectrum. Here, we explore the effects of various magnetic geometries that can exist inside a blazar jet: parallel, oblique, toroidal, and tangled. We investigate the effects of changing the orientation of the magnetic field, according to the above-mentioned geometries, on the resulting high-energy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and spectral variability patterns (SVPs) of a typical blazar. We use the MUlti-ZOne Radiation Feedback (MUZORF) model of Joshi et al. (201...

  5. Hadronic Modeling of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidinger Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing systematic search for sources of extragalactic gamma rays has now revealed many blazars in which the very high energy output can not consistently be described as synchrotron self-Compton radiation. In this paper a self consistent hybrid model is described, explaining the very high energy radiation of those blazars as proton synchrotron radiation accompanied by photo-hadronic cascades. As the model includes all relevant radiative processes it naturally includes the synchrotron self-Compton case as well, depending on the chosen parameters. This paper focuses on rather high magnetic fields to be present within the jet, hence the hadronically dominated case. To discriminate the hadronic scenario against external photon fields being upscattered within the jet to produce the dominating gamma-ray output, the temporal behavior of blazars may be exploited with the presented model. Variability reveals both, the highly non-linear nature caused by the photohadronic cascades and typical timescales as well as fingerprints in the inter-band lightcurves of the involved hadrons. The modeling of two individual sources is shown : 1 ES 1011+496, a high frequency peaked blazar at redshift z = 0.212, which is well described within the hybrid scenario using physically reasonable parameters. The short term variability of the second example, namely 3C 454.3, a Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar at z = 0.859, reveals the limitations of the gamma-rays being highly dominated by proton synchrotron radiation.

  6. Simultaneous Multiwavelength Observations of the Blazar 1ES 1959+650 at a Low TeV Flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results from a multiwavelength campaign on the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650, performed in 2006 May. Data from the optical, UV, soft- and hard-X-ray, and very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray (E > 100 GeV) bands were obtained with the Suzaku and Swift satellites, the MAGIC telescope, and other ground-based facilities. The source spectral energy distribution (SED), derived from Suzaku and MAGIC observations at the end of 2006 May, shows the usual double hump shape, with the synchrotron peak at a higher flux level than the Compton peak. With respect to historical values, during our campaign the source exhibited a relatively high state in X-rays and optical, while in the VHE band it was at one of the lowest level so far recorded. We also monitored the source for flux spectral variability on a time window of 10 days in the optical-UV and X-ray bands and 7 days in the VHE band. The source varies more in the X-ray than in the optical band, with the 2-10 keV X-ray flux varying by a factor of ∼2. The synchrotron peak is located in the X-ray band and moves to higher energies as the source gets brighter, with the X-ray fluxes above it varying more rapidly than the X-ray fluxes at lower energies. The variability behavior observed in the X-ray band cannot be produced by emitting regions varying independently and suggests instead some sort of 'standing shock' scenario. The overall SED is well represented by a homogeneous one-zone synchrotron inverse Compton emission model, from which we derive physical parameters that are typical of high-energy peaked blazars.

  7. The GTN-AAVSO Blazar Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominsky, L. R.; Spear, G. G.; Graves, T.; Slater, G.; Price, A.

    2004-08-01

    The GLAST Telescope Network (GTN) is a collaboration among students, teachers, amateur astronomers, small college observatories, and professional astronomers who will obtain observations of base-line activity levels and follow-up observations for bright blazars, one of the key science objectives for NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission. A key partner in the GTN is the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO, a non-profit international scientific and educational organization that has considerable experience with handling, processing, and displaying large amounts of data and with coordinating observers from every corner of the globe. The GTN-AAVSO blazar program will recommend observing sequences, and provide advice and mentoring for observing techniques and data reduction. The program will archive magnitude estimates using the AAVSO database system and lightcurve generator, as well as CCD images of blazar fields. The program will also employ the online image archiving system developed by the GTN. Images of blazar fields will be available for subsequent analysis by contributors to the program, and by the GLAST science team for mission planning and follow-up studies. We will present examples of the AAVSO lightcurve generator, examples of the GTN image archive system, plus examples of the data we are currently accumulating. The GTN-AAVSO collaboration is partially funded by the NASA's GLAST Education and Public Outreach Program.

  8. Blazar flares powered by plasmoids in relativistic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Maria; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Powerful flares from blazars with short ($\\sim$ min) variability timescales are challenging for current models of blazar emission. Here, we present a physically motivated ab initio model for blazar flares based on the results of recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic magnetic reconnection. PIC simulations demonstrate that quasi-spherical plasmoids filled with high-energy particles and magnetic fields are a self-consistent by-product of the reconnection process. By coupling our PIC-based results (i.e., plasmoid growth, acceleration profile, particle and magnetic content) with a kinetic equation for the evolution of the electron distribution function we demonstrate that relativistic reconnection in blazar jets can produce powerful flares whose temporal and spectral properties are consistent with the observations. In particular, our model predicts correlated synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton flares of duration of several hours--days powered by the largest and slowest moving plasmoids th...

  9. Infrared properties of blazars: putting the GASP-WEBT sources into context

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, C M; Carnerero, M I; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Larionov, V M; D'Ammando, F; Arévalo, M J; Arkharov, A A; Bueno, A Bueno; Di Paola, A; Efimova, N V; González-Morales, P A; Gorshanov, D L; Grinon-Marin, A B; Lázaro, C; Manilla-Robles, A; Yabar, A Pastor; Giménez, I Puerto; Velasco, S

    2014-01-01

    The infrared properties of blazars can be studied from the statistical point of view with the help of sky surveys, like that provided by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). However, these sources are known for their strong and unpredictable variability, which can be monitored for a handful of objects only. In this paper we consider the 28 blazars (14 BL Lac objects and 14 flat-spectrum radio quasars, FSRQs) that are regularly monitored by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) since 2007. They show a variety of infrared colours, redshifts, and infrared-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and thus represent an interesting mini-sample of bright blazars that can be investigated in more detail. We present near-IR light curves and colours obtained by the GASP from 2007 to 2013, and discuss the infrared-optical SEDs. These are analysed with the aim of understanding the interplay among different emission compon...

  10. VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM BLAZARS ON BLACK HOLE TIMESCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the variability properties of blazars in the GeV band using data from the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) telescope. We find that blazars exhibit variability down to the minimum timescale resolvable by Fermi; this variability is a function of the peak photon count rate in the LAT. This implies that the real minimum variability timescales for the majority of blazars are typically shorter than those resolvable by the LAT. We find that for several blazars these minimum variability timescales reach those associated with the blazar central engine, the supermassive black hole. At the same time, none of the blazars exhibits variability on a timescale shorter than the black hole horizon light-crossing time and/or the period of rotation around the last stable circular orbit. Based on this fact, we argue that the timing properties of the γ-ray signal could be determined by the processes in the direct vicinity of the supermassive black hole.

  11. The Proton Blazar

    OpenAIRE

    Mannheim, Karl

    1993-01-01

    Considering shock-accelerated protons in addition to electrons in a synchrotron radio jet naturally produces the observed X- through gamma ray continuum emission of flat-spectrum radio-loud AGN, whereas the corresponding shock-accelerated electrons produce the infrared through optical continuum. All of these emission components are rapidly variable on short time scales which can be accounted for by a common origin of the blazar emission in a relativistic sub-parsec scale jet. Moreover, neutri...

  12. Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Fan; Y. Liu; Y. Li; Q. F. Zhang; J. Tao; O. Kurtanidze

    2011-03-01

    Variability is one of the characteristics of blazars. The rapid variability is superposed on the long term variation. In this work, the variability on different time scales, such as intra-day (IDV), short-term (STV) and long-term (LTV) variations are presented for some sources. We also presented our own observations of some selected objects, for which the historical data were compiled for periodicity analysis using several methods. The parameters of the binary black hole system OJ 287 are determined.

  13. Chasing extreme blazars with INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Bassani, Loredana; Landi, R; Malizia, A; Bird, A J; Bazzano, A; Ubertini, P

    2013-01-01

    Within the blazar population, hard X-ray selected objects are of particular interest as they tend to lie at each end of the blazar sequence. In particular, flat spectrum radio quasars located at high redshifts display the most powerful jets, the largest black hole masses and the most luminous accretion disks: their spectral energy distribution has a Compton peak in the sub-MeV region which favours their detection by instruments like INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT. These sources are even more extreme than blazars selected in other wavebands, like, for example, the gamma-ray range explored by Fermi. Here we report on a sample of 12 high redshift blazars detected so far by INTEGRAL, including 3 newly identified objects. Some properties of the combined IBIS/BAT sample of high redshift blazars (z>2) are also compared to those of a similar similar sample obtained by Fermi.

  14. Dust SEDs in the era of Herschel and Planck: a Hierarchical Bayesian fitting technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Brandon C; Stutz, Amelia M; Kauffmann, Jens; Goodman, Alyssa A; Launhardt, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We present a hierarchical Bayesian method for fitting infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of dust emission to observed fluxes. Under the standard assumption of optically thin single temperature (T) sources the dust SED as represented by a power-law modified black body is subject to a strong degeneracy between T and the spectral index beta. The traditional non-hierarchical approaches, typically based on chi-square minimization, are severely limited by this degeneracy, as it produces an artificial anti-correlation between T and beta even with modest levels of observational noise. The hierarchical Bayesian method rigorously and self-consistently treats measurement uncertainties, including calibration and noise, resulting in more precise SED fits. As a result, the Bayesian fits do not produce any spurious anti-correlations between the SED parameters due to measurement uncertainty. We demonstrate that the Bayesian method is substantially more accurate than the chi-square fit in recovering the SED paramet...

  15. A model for periodic blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Sobacchi, Emanuele; Stamerra, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We describe a scenario to explain blazar periodicities with timescales of $\\sim$ few years. The scenario is based on a binary super-massive black hole (SMBH) system in which one of the two SMBH carries a jet. We discuss the various mechanisms that can cause the jet to precess and produce corkscrew patterns through space with a scale of $\\sim$ few pc. It turns out that the dominant mechanism responsible for the precession is simply the imprint of the jet-carrying SMBH orbital speed on the jet. Gravitational deflection and Lense-Thirring precession (due to the gravitational field of the other SMBH) are second order effects. We complement the scenario with a kinematical jet model which is inspired to the spine-sheath structure observed in M87. One of the main advantages of such a structure is that it allows the peak of the synchrotron emission to scale with frequency according to $\

  16. Fourier Analysis of Blazar Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Finke, Justin D

    2014-01-01

    Blazars display strong variability on multiple timescales and in multiple radiation bands. Their variability is often characterized by power spectral densities (PSDs) and time lags plotted as functions of the Fourier frequency. We develop a new theoretical model based on the analysis of the electron transport (continuity) equation, carried out in the Fourier domain. The continuity equation includes electron cooling and escape, and a derivation of the emission properties includes light travel time effects associated with a radiating blob in a relativistic jet. The model successfully reproduces the general shapes of the observed PSDs and predicts specific PSD and time lag behaviors associated with variability in the synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC), and external Compton (EC) emission components, from sub-mm to gamma-rays. We discuss applications to BL Lacertae objects and to flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), where there are hints that some of the predicted features have already been observed. We a...

  17. Gamma Rays From Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Tavecchio, F

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are high-energy engines providing us natural laboratories to study particle acceleration, relativistic plasma processes, magnetic field dynamics, black hole physics. Key informations are provided by observations at high-energy (in particular by Fermi/LAT) and very-high energy (by Cherenkov telescopes). I give a short account of the current status of the field, with particular emphasis on the theoretical challenges connected to the observed ultra-fast variability events and to the emission of flat spectrum radio quasars in the very high energy band.

  18. AGN Winds and Blazar Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2012-01-01

    The launch of {\\em Fermi} produced a significant number of AGN detections to allow statistical treatment of their properties. One of the first such systematics was the "Blazar Divide" in FSRQs and BL Lacs according to their gamma-ray spectral index and luminosity. Further data accumulation indicated this separation to be less clear than thought before. An MHD wind model which can model successfully the Seyfert X-ray absorber properties provides the vestiges of an account of the observed blazar classification. We propose to employ this model to model in detail the broad band blazar spectra and their statistical properties in terms of the physical parameters of these MHD winds.

  19. The Correlation between -Ray and Radio Emissions for the Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Yang; J. H. Fan

    2011-03-01

    Based upon the Fermi blazars sample, the radio and -ray emissions are compiled for a sample of 74 -ray loud blazars to calculate the radio to -ray effective spectrum index R . The correlations between R and -ray luminosity, and between radio and -ray luminosity are also investigated.

  20. The contribution of blazars to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mücke, A.; Pohl, M.; Dermer, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    We present results of a calculation of the blazar contribution to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background (EGRB) in the EGRET-energy range. Our model is based on the non-thermal emission processes known to be important in blazar jets, and on the unification scheme of radio-loud AGN. The...

  1. Blazar jets the spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G

    2000-01-01

    The radiation observed by blazars is believed to originate from the transformation of bulk kinetic energy of relativistic jets into random energy. A simple way to achieve this is to have an intermittent central power source, producing shells of plasma with different bulk Lorentz factors. These shells will collide at some distance from the center, producing shocks and then radiation. This scenario, called internal shock model, is thought to be at the origin of the gamma-rays observed in gamma-ray bursts and can work even better in blazars. It accounts for the observed key characteristics of these objects, including the fact that radiation must be preferentially produced at a few hundreds of Schwarzschild radii from the center, but continues to be produced all along the jet. At the kpc scale and beyond, the slowly moving parts of a (straight) jet can be illuminated by the beamed radiation of the core, while the fast parts of the jet will see enhanced cosmic microwave radiation. In both cases the Inverse Compton...

  2. AGILE and blazar studies

    CERN Document Server

    Marisaldi, M; Vercellone, S; Donnarumma, I; Bulgarelli, A; Chen, A W; Giuliani, A; Longo, F; Pacciani, L; Pucella, G; Tavani, M; Vittorini, V

    2009-01-01

    During the first two years of observation, AGILE detected several blazars at high significance: 3C 279, 3C 454.3, PKS 1510-089, S5 0716+714, 3C 273, W Comae, Mrk 421 and PKS 0537-441. We obtained long-term coverage of 3C 454.3, for a total of more than three months at energies above 100 MeV. 3C 273 was the first blazar detected simultaneously by the AGILE gamma-ray detector and by its hard X-ray monitor. S5 0716+714, an intermediate BL Lac object, exhibited a very fast and intense gamma-ray transient during an optical high-state phase, challenging the current theoretical models for energy extraction from a rotating black hole, while W Comae and Mkn 421 were detected during an AGILE Target of Opportunity (ToO) repointing, and were simultaneously detected by Cherenkov telescopes. Thanks to the rapid dissemination of our alerts, we were able to obtain multi-wavelength ToO data from other observatories such as Spitzer, Swift, RXTE, Suzaku, INTEGRAL, MAGIC, VERITAS, as well as radio-to-optical coverage by means of...

  3. Radio Band Observations of Blazar Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Margo F. Aller; Hugh D. Aller; Philip A. Hughes

    2011-03-01

    The properties of blazar variability in the radio band are studied using the unique combination of temporal resolution from single dish monitoring and spatial resolution from VLBA imaging. Such measurements now available in all four Stokes parameters, together with theoretical simulations, identify the origin of radio band variability and probe the characteristics of the radio jet where the broadband blazar emission originates. Outbursts in total flux density and linear polarization in the optical-to-radio bands are attributed to shocks propagating within the jet spine, in part, based on limited modelling invoking transverse shocks; new radiative transfer simulations allowing for shocks at arbitrary angle to the flow direction confirm this picture by reproducing the observed centimeter-band variations observed more generally, and are of current interest since these shocks may play a role in the -ray flaring detected by Fermi. Recent UMRAO multifrequency Stokes V studies of bright blazars identify the spectral variability properties of circular polarization for the first time and demonstrate that polarity flips are relatively common. All-Stokes data are consistent with the production of circular polarization by linear-to-circular mode conversion in a region that is at least partially selfabsorbed. Detailed analysis of single-epoch, multifrequency, all-Stokes VLBA observations of 3C 279 support this physical picture and are best explained by emission from an electron-proton plasma.

  4. The New Surprising Behaviour of the Two 'Prototype' Blazars PKS 2155-304 and 3C 279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costamante, Luigi; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Aharonian, Felix; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Buhler, Rolf; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Khangulyan, Dmitry; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Reimer, Anita; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Reimer, Olaf; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-21

    Recent VHE observations have unveiled a surprising behaviour in two well-known blazars at opposite sides of the blazar sequence. PKS 2155-304 have shown for the first time in an HBL a large Compton dominance, high {gamma}-ray luminosities and a cubic relation between X-ray and VHE fluxes. 3C 279 is the first FSRQ detected at VHE. The high luminosity required to overcome the significant absorption caused by the BLR emission cannot be easily reconciled with the historical and quasi-simultaneous SED properties. Both cases shed a new light on the structure and ambient fields of blazars. Contrary to previous claims, it is also shown that 3C 279 - as any FSRQ - cannot provide robust constraints on the EBL.

  5. Multi-frequency, multi-messenger astrophysics with Swift. The case of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    During its first 10 years of orbital operations Swift dedicated approximately 11% of its observing time to blazars, carrying out more than 12,000 observations of ~1,600 different objects, for a total exposure time of over 25 million seconds. This is probably the largest contribution to multi-frequency (optical, UV, soft and hard X-rays) and multi-temporal data archives about this type of sources. In this paper I briefly discuss the impact that Swift is having on blazar multi-frequency and time-domain astrophysics, as well as how it is contributing to the opening of the era of multi-messenger astronomy. Finally, I present some preliminary results from a systematic analysis of a very large number of Swift XRT observations of blazars. All the "science ready" data products that are being generated by this project will be publicly released. Specifically, deconvolved X-ray spectra and best fit spectral parameters will be available through the ASDC "SED builder" tool (https://tools.asdc.asi.it/SED) and by means of i...

  6. Unusual Flaring Activity in the Blazar PKS 1424-418 during 2008-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Buson, S; Larsson, S; Cutini, S; Finke, J; Ciprini, S; Ojha, R; D'Ammando, F; Donato, D; Thompson, D J; Desiante, R; Bastieri, D; Wagner, S; Hauser, M; Fuhrmann, L; Dutka, M; Müller, C; Kadler, M; Angelakis, E; Zensus, J A; Stevens, J; Blanchard, J M; Edwards, P G; Lovell, J E J; Gurwell, M A; Wehrle, A E; Zook, A

    2014-01-01

    Context. Blazars are a subset of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with jets that are oriented along our line of sight. Variability and spectral energy distribution (SED) studies are crucial tools for understanding the physical processes responsible for observed AGN emission. Aims. We report peculiar behaviour in the bright gamma-ray blazar PKS 1424-418 and use its strong variability to reveal information about the particle acceleration and interactions in the jet. Methods. Correlation analysis of the extensive optical coverage by the ATOM telescope and nearly continuous gamma-ray coverage by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is combined with broadband, time-dependent modeling of the SED incorporating supplemental information from radio and X-ray observations of this blazar. Results. We analyse in detail four bright phases at optical-GeV energies. These flares of PKS 1424-418 show high correlation between these energy ranges, with the exception of one large optical flare that coincides with relatively low gamma-ray a...

  7. ProSEDS Telemetry System Utilization of GPS Position Data for Transmitter Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Paul; Sims, Herb

    2000-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center will launch the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment in late 2000. ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system and will utilize a conducting wire tether to generate limited spacecraft power. This paper will provide an overview of the ProSEDS mission and will discuss the design, development and test of the spacecraft telemetry system which utilizes a custom designed GPS subsystem to determine spacecraft position relative to ground station location and to control transmitter on/off cycling based on spacecraft state vector and ground station visibility.

  8. SED peculiarities of protoplnetary disk with an embedded companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhozhay, Olga

    2016-07-01

    In our work we study the indicators of substellar and planetary companions formation in protoplanetary disks based on the spectral energy distribution (SED). Once companion reaches a stable orbit, it starts to clear a gap in the disk along its orbital motion. It is impossible to detect companion around the star by studying the SED, due to the big difference of their luminosities. But it is possible to suspect companion based on the parameters of the gap cleaned by it, that could be derived based on the analysis of SED profile. We establish that with this approach companion's maximum and the most probable mass can be derived. Using this masses and corresponding evolutionary models (like Baraffe et al. (1998, 2008), for example) additionally companion's temperature and radius can be determined, as far as presence of the disk and information about the physical condition of its material gives a good constrain about the age of the system. We will present the synthetic spectral energy distributions of the protoplanetary disks with embedded companions that are located at different distances and have masses down to few Jovian masses. The special emphasis will be paid to the wavelength regime at which the presence of companion is more evident.

  9. The Gamma-ray Blazar Quest: new optical spectra, state of art and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F; D'Abrusco, R; Landoni, M; Masetti, N; Ricci, F; Milisavljevic, D; Paggi, A; Chavushyan, V; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Strader, J; Chomiuk, L; La Franca, F; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G

    2016-01-01

    We recently developed a procedure to recognize gamma-ray blazar candidates within the positional uncertainty regions of the unidentified/unassociated gamma-ray sources (UGSs). Such procedure was based on the discovery that Fermi blazars show peculiar infrared colors. However, to confirm the real nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic data are necessary. Thus, we performed an extensive archival search for spectra available in the literature in parallel with an optical spectroscopic campaign aimed to reveal and confirm the nature of the selected gamma-ray blazar candidates. Here, we first search for optical spectra of a selected sample of gamma-ray blazar candidates that can be potential counterparts of UGSs using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR12). This search enables us to update the archival search carried out to date. We also describe the state-of-art and the future perspectives of our campaign to discover previously unknown gamma-ray blazars.

  10. The connection between radio and γ-ray emission in Fermi/LAT blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Liang Fan; Jin-Ming Bai; Hong-Tao Liu; Liang Chen; Neng-Hui Liao

    2012-01-01

    We collect the second Large Area Telescope AGN catalog (2LAC) and Monitor of Jets in AGN with VLBA Equipment (MOJAVE) quasi-simultaneous data to investigate the radio-γ connection of blazars.The cross sample contains 166 sources.The statistical analysis based on this sample confirms positive correlations between these two bands,but the correlations become weaker as the γ-ray energy increases.The statistical results between various parameters show negative correlations of γ-ray photon spectral index with γ-ray loudness for both Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacertae objects,positive correlations of γ-ray variability index with the γ-ray loudness for FSRQs,a negative correlation of the γ-ray variability index with the γ-ray photon spectral index for FSRQs,and negative correlations of γ-ray photon spectral index with γ-ray luminosity for FSRQs.These results suggest that the γ-ray variability may be due to changes inside the γ-ray emission region like the injected power,rather than changes in the photon density of the external radiation fields,and the variability amplitude tends to be larger as the γ-rays are closer to the high energy peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED).No correlation of variability index found for BL Lacertae objects implies that variability behavior may differ below and above the peak energy.

  11. Seed Photon Fields of Blazars in the Internal Shock Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Manasvita; Boettcher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We extend our approach of modeling spectral energy distribution (SED) and lightcurves of blazars to include external Compton (EC) emission due to inverse Compton scattering of an external anisotropic target radiation field. We describe the time-dependent impact of such seed photon fields on the evolution of multifrequency emission and spectral variability of blazars using a multi-zone time-dependent leptonic jet model, with radiation feedback, in the internal shock model scenario. We calculate accurate EC-scattered high-energy spectra produced by relativistic electrons throughout the Thomson and Klein-Nishina regimes. We explore the effects of varying the contribution of (1) a thermal Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk, (2) a spherically symmetric shell of broad-line clouds, the broad line region (BLR), and (3) a hot infrared emitting dusty torus (DT), on the resultant seed photon fields. We let the system evolve to beyond the BLR and within the DT and study the manifestation of the varying target photon fields o...

  12. Core shifts in blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Pjanka, Patryk; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of core shift in jets, which is the dependence of the position of the jet radio core on the frequency. We derive a new method to measure the jet magnetic field based on both the value of the shift and the observed flux, which compliments the standard method assuming equipartition. Using both methods, we re-analyse the blazar sample of Zamaninasab et al. We find that equipartition is satisfied only if the jet opening angle in the radio core region is close to the values found observationally, $\\simeq$0.1--0.2 divided by the bulk Lorentz factor, $\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$. Larger values, e.g., $1/\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$, would imply very strong departures from equipartition. A small jet opening angle implies in turn the magnetization parameter of $\\ll 1$. We determine the jet magnetic flux taking this effect into account. We find that the average jet magnetic flux is compatible with the model of jet formation due to black-hole spin energy extraction and accretion being magnetically arrested. We calculate the ...

  13. Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok C. Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Here we report our recent discoveries of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in blazars time series data in X-ray and optical electromagnetic bands. Any such detection can give important clues of the location and nature of the processes of emission mechanism. In the case of radio-quiet AGN, the detected QPOs are very likely to be associated with the accretion disk. But in the case of blazars, it may be associated with jets in the high and outburst states, and in the low-state, it is probably associated with the accretion disk. In this brief review, I summarize the recent QPO detections in blazars. There is one strong evidence of QPO detection in XMM–Newton time series data of narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396 about which we will also discuss briefly.

  14. Extragalactic radio source evolution & unification clues to the demographics of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, C A

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the demographics of the radio blazar population: (i) what are their parent (`unbeamed') sources and (ii) what magnitude and/or type of evolution have they undergone ? The discussion is based on models of radio source evolution and beaming based on a `dual population' unification paradigm. These models, developed from radio blazar properties in bright samples, predict blazar demographic trends at the lower flux-density levels; samples from deep mJy-level surveys (e.g. NVSS and FIRST) may now provide direct tests of these predictions.

  15. SEDS: THE SPITZER EXTENDED DEEP SURVEY. SURVEY DESIGN, PHOTOMETRY, AND DEEP IRAC SOURCE COUNTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arendt, R. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Barmby, P. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Barro, G.; Faber, S.; Guhathakurta, P. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Cattaneo, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Dave, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Egami, E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finlator, K. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, CK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Grogin, N. A., E-mail: mashby@cfa.harvard.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2013-05-20

    The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg{sup 2} to a depth of 26 AB mag (3{sigma}) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 {+-} 1.0 and 4.4 {+-} 0.8 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

  16. Blazars at Low Radio Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüstedt, J.; Kadler, M.; Brüggen, M.; Falcke, H.; Heald, G.; McKean, J.; Mueller, C.; Ros, E.; Schulz, R.; Wilms, J.

    We explore the low radio-frequency properties of the MOJAVE 1 blazar sample using the LOFAR Multi-Frequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). We find the characteristically flat blazar spectrum to extend down to the LOFAR bands, demonstrating that the emission at these low radio frequencies is still dominated by relativistically beamed emission. As most sources remain unresolved at the MSSS angular resolution, we are reimaging these data using LOFAR baselines beyond the standard MSSS uv-range resulting in an angular resolution of ~24 arcsec. We present first LOFAR images of MOJAVE sources from this project.

  17. -Rays Radiation of High Redshift Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W. G. Liu; S. H. Fu; X. Zhang; L. Ma; Y. B. Li; D. R. Xiong

    2014-09-01

    Based on the 31 high redshift ( > 2) Flat Spectral Radio Quasars (FSRQs), which is from the second Fermi-LAT AGNs catalogue (2LAC), we studied the correlation between flux densities (R, K, ) in the radio, infrared and -ray wave bands. We found that there is a significant positive correlation between and R, and a weak anticorrelation between and K in the average state. For high redshift blazars, we argue that the seed photon of -ray emission mainly comes from the jet itself and partially from the dusty torus.

  18. From the Blazar Sequence to the Blazar Envelope: Revisiting the Relativistic Jet Dichotomy in Radio-Loud AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Fossati, Giovanini; Georganopoulos, Markos; Lister, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the concept of a blazar sequence that relates the synchrotron peak frequency (Vpeak) in blazars with synchrotron peak luminosity (Lpeak, in vLv) using a large sample of radio-loud AGN. We present observational evidence that the blazar sequence is formed from two populations in the synchrotron Vpeak - Lpeak plane, each forming an upper edge to an envelope of progressively misaligned blazars, and connecting to an adjacent group of radio galaxies having jets viewed at much larger angles to the line of sight. When binned by jet kinetic power (Lkin; as measured through a scaling relationship with extended radio power), we find that radio core dominance decreases with decreasing synchrotron Lpeak, revealing that sources in the envelope are generally more misaligned. We find population-based evidence of velocity gradients in jets at low kinetic powers (approximately 10(exp 42) - 10(exp 44.5) erg s(exp -1)), corresponding to FR I radio galaxies and most BL Lacs. These low jet power 'weak jet' sources, thought to exhibit radiatively inefficient accretion, are distinguished from the population of non-decelerating, low synchrotron-peaking (LSP) blazars and FR II radio galaxies ('strong' jets) which are thought to exhibit radiatively efficient accretion. The two-population interpretation explains the apparent contradiction of the existence of highly core-dominated, low-power blazars at both low and high synchrotron peak frequencies, and further implies that most intermediate synchrotron peak (ISP) sources are not intermediate in intrinsic jet power between LSP and high synchrotron-peaking (HSP) sources, but are more misaligned versions of HSP sources with similar jet powers.

  19. The Lyman α forest in a blazar-heated Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchwein, Ewald; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Broderick, Avery E.; Chang, Philip

    2012-06-01

    It has been realized only recently that TeV emission from blazars can significantly heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) by pair-producing high-energy electrons and positrons, which in turn excite vigorous plasma instabilities, leading to a local dissipation of the pairs' kinetic energy. In this work, we use cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to model the impact of this blazar heating on the Lyman α forest at intermediate redshifts (z˜ 2-3). We find that blazar heating produces an inverted temperature-density relation in the IGM and naturally resolves many of the problems present in previous simulations of the forest that included photoionization heating alone. In particular, our simulations with blazar heating simultaneously reproduce the observed effective optical depth and temperature as a function of redshift, the observed probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the transmitted flux, and the observed flux power spectra, over the full redshift range 2 sum of thermally broadened individual lines, we find superb agreement with the observed lower cut-off of the linewidth distribution and abundances of neutral hydrogen column densities per unit redshift. Using the most recent constraints on the cosmic ultraviolet (UV) background, this excellent agreement with observations does not require rescaling the amplitude of the UV background - a procedure that was routinely used in the past to match the observed level of transmitted flux. We also show that our blazar-heated model matches the data better than standard simulations even when such a rescaling is allowed. This concordance between Lyman α data and simulation results, which are based on the most recent cosmological parameters, also suggests that the inclusion of blazar heating alleviates previous tensions on constraints for σ8 derived from Lyman α measurements and other cosmological data. Finally, we show that blazar heating dramatically alters the volume-weighted temperature PDF, implying an

  20. RCT photometry and HCT spectroscopy of blazar candidates in the Kepler field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Michael T.; Goyal, A.; Jose, J.

    2014-01-01

    The results of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of 9 blazar candidates in the Kepler field of view are presented. These sources were identified as blazar candidates based on their position in the so-called WISE blazar strip. Finding charts and comparison sequences were created using the NOMAD database. R band photometric monitoring was begun in spring 2013 with the Robotically Controlled Telescope(RCT), and spectroscopic observations of 7 of the sources were obtained with the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) in September, 2013. Light curves for all 9 sources and preliminary spectroscopic classifications for the 7 sources with spectra will be presented.

  1. Debeamed Sequence of LBAS Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bangrong Huang; Xiong Zhang; Dingrong Xiong; Haojin Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We have collected a sample of 71 -ray blazars selected from the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). The correlation between synchrotron peak luminosities p and synchrotron peak frequencies p have been studied and there is a weak negative correlation. But after correcting the effect of redshift and Doppler boosting, the relation between intrinsic 'p and 'p show significant positive correlation.

  2. Radio core dominance of Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhi-Yuan; Fan, Jun-Hui; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Yi-Hai; Cai, Wei; Xiao, Hu-Bing; Lin, Chao; Yang, Jiang-He

    2016-07-01

    During the first 4 years of mission, Fermi/LAT detected 1444 blazars (3FGL) (Ackermann et al. in Astrophys. J. 810:14, 2015). Fermi/LAT observations of blazars indicate that Fermi blazars are luminous and strongly variable with variability time scales, for some cases, as short as hours. Those observations suggest a strong beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars. In the present work, we will investigate the beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars using a core-dominance parameter, R = S_{core}/ S_{ext.}, where S_{core} is the core emission, while S_{ext.} is the extended emission. We compiled 1335 blazars with available core-dominance parameter, out of which 169 blazars have γ-ray emission (from 3FGL). We compared the core-dominance parameters, log R, between the 169 Fermi-detected blazars (FDBs) and the rest non-Fermi-detected blazars (non-FDBs), and we found that the averaged values are ext.} = 0.70 (a photon spectral index of α_{γ}^{ph}|_{ext.} = 1.70). Some discussions are also presented.

  3. Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne-Moench, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    of the individual objects shows a clear shift to positive values, a stacking method was applied to the sample. For the whole set of 20 objects, an excess of {gamma}-rays was found with a significance of 4.5 standard deviations in 349.5 hours of effective exposure time. For the first time a signal stacking in the VHE regime turned out to be successful. The measured integral flux from the cumulative signal corresponds to 1.4% of the Crab Nebula flux above 150 GeV with a spectral index {alpha}=-3.15{+-}0.57. None of the objects showed any significant variability during the observation time and therefore the detected signal can be interpreted as the baseline emission of these objects. For the individual objects lower limits on the broad-band spectral indices {alpha}{sub X-{gamma}} between the X-ray range at 1 keV and the VHE {gamma}- ray regime at 200 GeV were calculated. The majority of objects show a spectral behaviour as expected from the source class of HBLs: The energy output in the VHE regime is in general lower than in X-rays. For the stacked blazar sample the broad-band spectral index was calculated to {alpha}{sub X-{gamma}}=1.09, confirming the result found for the individual objects. Another evidence for the revelation of the baseline emission is the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) comprising archival as well as contemporaneous multi-wavelength data from the radio to the VHE band. The SEDs of known VHE {gamma}-ray sources in low flux states matches well the SED of the stacked blazar sample. (orig.)

  4. Discovery of a GeV Blazar Shining Through the Galactic Plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenbroucke, J.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellini, A.; /Padua U., Astron. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Bolte, M.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Cheung, C.C.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NAS, Washington, D.C.; Civano, F.; /Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ.; Donato, D.; /NASA, Goddard; Fuhrmann, L.; /Bonn, Max Planck Inst., Radioastron.; Funk, S.; Healey, S.E.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Hill, A.B.; /Joseph Fourier U.; Knigge, C.; /Southampton U.; Madejski, G.M.; Romani, R.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Santander-Garcia, M.; /IAC, La Laguna /Isaac Newton Group /Laguna U., Tenerife; Shaw, M.S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Steeghs, D.; /Warwick U.; Torres, M.A.P.; /Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ.; Van Etten, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Texas U., Astron. Dept.

    2011-08-11

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovered a new gamma-ray source near the Galactic plane, Fermi J0109+6134, when it flared brightly in 2010 February. The low Galactic latitude (b = -1.2{sup o}) indicated that the source could be located within the Galaxy, which motivated rapid multi-wavelength follow-up including radio, optical, and X-ray observations. We report the results of analyzing all 19 months of LAT data for the source, and of X-ray observations with both Swift and the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We determined the source redshift, z = 0.783, using a Keck LRIS observation. Finally, we compiled a broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) from both historical and new observations contemporaneous with the 2010 February flare. The redshift, SED, optical line width, X-ray obsorption, and multi-band variability indicate that this new Gev source is a blazar seen through the Galactic plane. Because several of the optical emission lines have equivalent width > 5 {angstrom}, this blazar belongs in the flat-spectrum radio quasar category.

  5. Reconciling models of luminous blazars with magnetic fluxes determined by radio core shift measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of magnetic field strength in relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN), obtained by measuring the frequency-dependent radio core location, imply that the total magnetic fluxes in those jets are consistent with the predictions of the magnetically-arrested disk (MAD) scenario of jet formation. On the other hand, the magnetic field strength determines the luminosity of the synchrotron radiation, which forms the low-energy bump of the observed blazar spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs of the most powerful blazars are strongly dominated by the high-energy bump, which is most likely due to the external radiation Compton (ERC) mechanism. This high Compton dominance may be difficult to reconcile with the MAD scenario, unless 1) the geometry of external radiation sources (broad-line region, hot-dust torus) is quasi-spherical rather than flat, or 2) most gamma-ray radiation is produced in jet regions of low magnetization, e.g., in magnetic reconnection layers or in fast jet spines.

  6. Collision-induced magnetic reconnection and a unified interpretation of polarization properties of GRBs and blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The jet composition and energy dissipation mechanism of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and Blazars are fundamental questions which remain not fully understood. One plausible model is to interpret the $\\gamma$-ray emission of GRBs and optical emission of blazars as synchrotron radiation of electrons accelerated from the collision-induced magnetic dissipation regions in Poynting-flux-dominated jets. The polarization observation is an important and independent information to test this model. Based on our recent 3D relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation of magnetically dominated blobs, here we perform calculations of the polarization properties of the emission in the dissipation region and apply the results to model the polarization observational data of GRB prompt emission and blazar optical emission. We show that the same numerical model with different input parameters can reproduce well the observational data of both GRBs and blazars, especially the $90^{\\circ}$ polarization angle (PA)...

  7. The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic spectral energy distributions of southern blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, F.; Wilms, J.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Schulz, R.; Trüstedt, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Stevens, J.; Ros, E.; Baumgartner, W.; Beuchert, T.; Blanchard, J.; Buson, S.; Carpenter, B.; Dauser, T.; Falkner, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gräfe, C.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Langejahn, M.; Leiter, K.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Müller, C.; Natusch, T.; Nesci, R.; Pursimo, T.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Quick, J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Simultaneous broadband spectral and temporal studies of blazars are an important tool for investigating active galactic nuclei (AGN) jet physics. Aims: We study the spectral evolution between quiescent and flaring periods of 22 radio-loud AGN through multiepoch, quasi-simultaneous broadband spectra. For many of these sources these are the first broadband studies. Methods: We use a Bayesian block analysis of Fermi/LAT light curves to determine time ranges of constant flux for constructing quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The shapes of the resulting 81 SEDs are described by two logarithmic parabolas and a blackbody spectrum where needed. Results: The peak frequencies and luminosities agree well with the blazar sequence for low states with higher luminosity implying lower peak frequencies. This is not true for sources in high states. The γ-ray photon index in Fermi/LAT correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency in low and intermediate states. No correlation is present in high states. The black hole mass cannot be determined from the SEDs. Surprisingly, the thermal excess often found in FSRQs at optical/UV wavelengths can be described by blackbody emission and not an accretion disk spectrum. Conclusions: The so-called harder-when-brighter trend, typically seen in X-ray spectra of flaring blazars, is visible in the blazar sequence. Our results for low and intermediate states, as well as the Compton dominance, are in agreement with previous results. Black hole mass estimates using recently published parameters are in agreement with some of the more direct measurements. For two sources, estimates disagree by more than four orders of magnitude, possibly owing to boosting effects. The shapes of the thermal excess seen predominantly in flat spectrum radio quasars are inconsistent with a direct accretion disk origin. Tables of the fluxes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or

  8. Gamma-Ray and Parsec-Scale Jet Properties of a Complete Sample of Blazars From the MOJAVE Program

    CERN Document Server

    Lister, M L; Aller, H; Hovatta, T; Kellermann, K I; Kovalev, Y Y; Meyer, E T; Pushkarev, A B; Ros, E; Ackermann, M; Antolini, E; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Boeck, M; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Chang, C S; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Finke, J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kadler, M; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Nishino, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Rainò, S; Readhead, A; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Richards, J L; Ritz, S; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Sgrò, C; Shaw, M S; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Zimmer, S

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Fermi LAT gamma-ray and 15 GHz VLBA radio properties of a joint gamma-ray- and radio-selected sample of AGNs obtained during the first 11 months of the Fermi mission (2008 Aug 4 - 2009 Jul 5). Our sample contains the brightest 173 AGNs in these bands above declination -30 deg. during this period, and thus probes the full range of gamma-ray loudness (gamma-ray to radio band luminosity ratio) in the bright blazar population. The latter quantity spans at least four orders of magnitude, reflecting a wide range of spectral energy distribution (SED) parameters in the bright blazar population. The BL Lac objects, however, display a linear correlation of increasing gamma-ray loudness with synchrotron SED peak frequency, suggesting a universal SED shape for objects of this class. The synchrotron self-Compton model is favored for the gamma-ray emission in these BL Lacs over external seed photon models, since the latter predict a dependence of Compton dominance on Doppler factor that would destroy any...

  9. Optical Spectral Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haritma Gaur

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that blazars show flux variations in the complete electromagnetic (EM) spectrum on all possible time scales ranging from a few tens of minutes to several years. Here, we report the review of optical flux and spectral variability properties of different classes of blazars on IDV and STV time-scales. Our analysis show HSPs are less variable in optical bands as compared to LSPs. Also, we investigated the spectral slope variability and found that the average spectral slopes of LSPs showed a good agreement with the synchrotron self-Compton loss-dominated model. However, spectra of the HSPs and FSRQs have significant additional emission components. In general, spectra of BL Lacs get flatter when they become brighter, while for FSRQs the opposite trend appears to hold.

  10. COLLISION-INDUCED MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND A UNIFIED INTERPRETATION OF POLARIZATION PROPERTIES OF GRBs AND BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui, E-mail: deng@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: hli@lanl.gov, E-mail: hz193909@ohio.edu [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    The jet composition and energy dissipation mechanism of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and blazars are fundamental questions that remain not fully understood. One plausible model is to interpret the γ-ray emission of GRBs and optical emission of blazars as synchrotron radiation of electrons accelerated from the collision-induced magnetic dissipation regions in Poynting-flux-dominated jets. The polarization observation is an important and independent information to test this model. Based on our recent 3D relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation of magnetically dominated blobs, here we perform calculations of the polarization properties of the emission in the dissipation region and apply the results to model the polarization observational data of GRB prompt emission and blazar optical emission. We show that the same numerical model with different input parameters can reproduce well the observational data of both GRBs and blazars, especially the 90° polarization angle (PA) change in GRB 100826A and the 180° PA swing in blazar 3C279. This supports a unified model for GRB and blazar jets, suggesting that collision-induced magnetic reconnection is a common physical mechanism to power the relativistic jet emission from events with very different black hole masses.

  11. FACT - Monitoring Blazars at Very High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, D; Bergmann, M; Biland, A; Balbo, M; Bretz, T; Buss, J; Einecke, S; Freiwald, J; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Hughes, G; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Mueller, S; Neise, D; Neronov, A; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Toscano, S; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Wilbert, A

    2015-01-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) was built on the Canary Island of La Palma in October 2011 as a proof of principle for silicon based photosensors in Cherenkov Astronomy. The scientific goal of the project is to study the variability of active galatic nuclei (AGN) at TeV energies. Observing a small sample of TeV blazars whenever possible, an unbiased data sample is collected. This allows to study the variability of the selected objects on timescales from hours to years. Results from the first three years of monitoring will be presented. To provide quick flare alerts to the community and trigger multi-wavelength observations, a quick look analysis has been installed on-site providing results publicly online within the same night. In summer 2014, several flare alerts were issued. Results of the quick look analysis are summarized.

  12. How does slope form affect erosion in CATFLOW-SED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelmann, Petra; Wienhöfer, Jan; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Erosion is a severe environmental problem in agro-ecosystems with highly erodible loess soils. It is controlled by various factors, e.g. rainfall intensity, initial wetness conditions, soil type, land use and tillage practice. Furthermore slope form and gradient have been shown to influence erosion amounts to a large extent. Within the last fifty years, various erosion models have been developed to describe the erosion process, estimate erosion amounts and identify erosion-prone areas. These models differ in terms of complexity, the processes which are considered, and the data required for model calibration and they can be categorised into empirical or statistical, conceptual, and physically-based models. CATFLOW-SED is a process-based hydrology and erosion model that can operate on catchment and hillslope scales. Soil water dynamics are described by the Richards equation including effective approaches for preferential flow. Evapotranspiration is simulated using an approach based on the Penman-Monteith equation. The model simulates overland flow using the diffusion wave equation. Soil detachment is related to the attacking forces of rainfall and overland flow, and the erosion resistance of soil. Sediment transport capacity and sediment deposition are related to overland flow velocity using the equation of Engelund and Hansen and the sinking velocity of grain sizes respectively. We performed a study to analyse the erosion process on different virtual hillslopes, with varying slope gradient and slope form, using the CATFLOW-SED model. We explored the role of landform on erosion and sedimentation, particularly we look for forms that either maximise or minimise erosion. Results indicate the importance to performing the process implementation within physically meaningful limits and choose appropriate model parameters respectively.

  13. Morphology of QSO host galaxies --- a look at the SED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, A.; Coelho, B.; Anton, S.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia Initial QSO Catalogue presents several characteristics of its 1,248,372 listed objects, among which the optical morphological type. From this a program studies the host galaxies of QSOs present in the SDSS up to its 8th release, based on retrieving a data bank of images in the five ugriz colors for the 105,783 objects spectroscopically found as QSOs. The first scope of this program is to study QSOs for which the isophotes of the host galaxy are not pronounced, so that the centroid determination is not affected for those fundamental grid-points of the Gaia Celestial Reference Frame. Since the target images come from relatively short exposures, we developed an approach to access disturbances of the target PSF relatively to the nearby stars. Here we focus on the first results for absolute magnitude of QSOs combining the SDSS colors and the SED library from Gaia.

  14. Inverse Compton light curves of blazars under non-linear, time-dependent synchrotron-self Compton cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Blazars exhibit flares with a doubling time scale on the order of minutes. Such rapid flares are theoretically challenging and several {models} have been put forward to explain the fast variability. In this paper we continue the discussion concerning the effects of non-linear, time-dependent synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) cooling. In previous papers we were able to show that the non-linearity{, introduced by a time-dependent electron injection,} has severe consequences for both the spectral energy distribution (SED) and the monochromatic synchrotron light curve. The non-linear cooling introduces novel breaks in the SED, which are usually explained by complicated underlying electron distributions, while the much faster cooling of the SSC process {causes significant differences in the synchrotron light curves}. In this paper we calculate the inverse Compton light curves, taking into account both the SSC and the external Compton process. The light curves are calculated from the monochromatic intensities by intro...

  15. Life Testing of the Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor for the ProSEDS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta 11 unmanned expendable booster. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta 11 second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma. A hollow cathode plasma contactor emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit with the ambient plasma. The current flowing through the tether generates thrust based on the Lorentz Force Law. The thrust will be generated opposite to the velocity vector, slowing down the spacecraft and causing it to de-orbit in approximately 14 days compared to the normal 6 months. A 10-km non-conductive tether is between the conductive tether and an endmass containing several scientific instruments. The ProSEDS mission lifetime was set at I day because most of the primary objectives can be met in that time. The extended ProSEDS mission will be for as many days as possible, until the Delta 11 second stage burns up or the tether is severed by a micrometeoroid or space debris particle. The Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) unit has been designed for a 12-day mission. Because of the science requirements to measure the background ambient plasma, the HCPC must operate on a duty cycle. Later in the ProSEDS mission, the HCPC is operated in a manner to allow charging of the secondary battery. Due to the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, a development unit of the HCPC was built for thorough testing. This developmental unit was tested for a simulated ProSEDS mission, with measurements of the ability to start and stop during the duty cycle. These tests also provided valuable data for the ProSEDS software requirements. Qualification tests of the HCPC flight hardware are also discussed.

  16. Blazar Jets Push Closer to Cosmic Speed Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    the three blazars as having potentially very high jet speeds based on VLBA observations in the mid-1990s. Piner and his colleagues observed the blazars again in 2002 and 2003 with much longer observations, and were able to confirm the high-speed motions in the faint blazar jets. Their measurements showed that features in the blazar jets were moving at apparent speeds more than 25 times greater than that of light. This phenomenon, called superluminal motion, is not real, but rather is an illusion caused by the fact that the material in the jet is moving at nearly the speed of light almost directly toward the observer. Because the jet features are moving toward Earth at almost the same speed as the radio waves they emit, they can appear to move across the sky at faster-than-light speeds. Scientists can correct for this geometrical effect to calculate a lower limit to the true speed of the features. "We typically see apparent speeds in blazar jets that are about five times the speed of light, and that corresponds to a true speed of more than 98 percent of light speed," Piner said. "Now, based on independent confirmation by two groups of astronomers, we see these three blazars with apparent speeds greater than 25 times that of light," Piner added. That apparent speed, the scientists said, corresponds to a true speed of greater than 99.9 percent of light speed, which is 186,282 miles per second. Based on other properties of blazars, the scientists believe that their interpretation of the data is accurate and that they have measured the extremely fast speeds in the three blazar jets. However, "we do have to be somewhat careful in interpreting these results, because it is possible that the observed motions represent the motion of some propagating disturbance in the plasma rather than the plasma itself, in the same way that a water wave can move across the surface of the ocean without physically transporting the water," Piner said. The VLBA is a system of ten radio

  17. Models for High-Energy Radiation from Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. E. Romero; M. M. Reynoso

    2011-03-01

    We discuss on the modelling of blazar jets as emitters of multiwavelength radiation with the implementation of a lepto-hadronic treatment. Assuming that injection of non-thermal electrons and protons can take place at the base of the jet, the stationary particle distributions can be found using an inhomogeneous one-dimensional transport equation with cooling and convection. The goal of this approach is to replace the widely used one-zone purely leptonic approximation by a more realistic model. We argue that the rapid variability observed in emission from blazars can be obtained as a result of interaction of the jet with obstacles, i.e., molecular clouds and stars. Long term variability is likely related to changes in the injection and physical conditions in the acceleration region.

  18. γ-RAY AND PARSEC-SCALE JET PROPERTIES OF A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF BLAZARS FROM THE MOJAVE PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the Fermi Large Area Telescope γ-ray and 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array radio properties of a joint γ-ray and radio-selected sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) obtained during the first 11 months of the Fermi mission (2008 August 4-2009 July 5). Our sample contains the brightest 173 AGNs in these bands above declination –30° during this period, and thus probes the full range of γ-ray loudness (γ-ray to radio band luminosity ratio) in the bright blazar population. The latter quantity spans at least 4 orders of magnitude, reflecting a wide range of spectral energy distribution (SED) parameters in the bright blazar population. The BL Lac objects, however, display a linear correlation of increasing γ-ray loudness with synchrotron SED peak frequency, suggesting a universal SED shape for objects of this class. The synchrotron self-Compton model is favored for the γ-ray emission in these BL Lac objects over external seed photon models, since the latter predict a dependence of Compton dominance on Doppler factor that would destroy any observed synchrotron SED-peak-γ-ray-loudness correlation. The high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are distinguished by lower than average radio core brightness temperatures, and none display large radio modulation indices or high linear core polarization levels. No equivalent trends are seen for the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in our sample. Given the association of such properties with relativistic beaming, we suggest that the HSP BL Lac objects have generally lower Doppler factors than the lower-synchrotron peaked BL Lac objects or FSRQs in our sample.

  19. Stochastic Particle Acceleration in Blazar Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The bulk kinetic energy of jets can be dissipated via generating tur bulent plasma waves. We examine stochastic particle acceleration in blazar jets to explain the emissions of all blazars. We show that acceleration of electrons by plasma turbulence waves with a spectrum W(k) ~ k-4/3 produces a nonthermal population of relativistic electrons whose peak frequency of synchrotron emission can fit the observational trends in the spectral energy distribution of all blazars.The plasma nonlinear processes responsible for the formation of turbulent spectrum are investigated. Increases in the interaction time of turbulent waves can produce a flatter speckrum leading to efficient particle acceleration.

  20. Sequence Variability in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Genes seb, sec, and sed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Johler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins preformed by Staphylococcus aureus in food leads to staphylococcal food poisoning, the most prevalent foodborne intoxication worldwide. There are five major staphylococcal enterotoxins: SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE. While variants of these toxins have been described and were linked to specific hosts or levels or enterotoxin production, data on sequence variation is still limited. In this study, we aim to extend the knowledge on promoter and gene variants of the major enterotoxins SEB, SEC, and SED. To this end, we determined seb, sec, and sed promoter and gene sequences of a well-characterized set of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains originating from foodborne outbreaks, human infections, human nasal colonization, rabbits, and cattle. New nucleotide sequence variants were detected for all three enterotoxins and a novel amino acid sequence variant of SED was detected in a strain associated with human nasal colonization. While the seb promoter and gene sequences exhibited a high degree of variability, the sec and sed promoter and gene were more conserved. Interestingly, a truncated variant of sed was detected in all tested sed harboring rabbit strains. The generated data represents a further step towards improved understanding of strain-specific differences in enterotoxin expression and host-specific variation in enterotoxin sequences.

  1. Observing Blazar Variability: The GTN-AAVSO Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, G.; Price, A.; Plait, P.; Graves, T.; Cominsky, L.; Mattei, J.

    2004-05-01

    The NASA/EPO group at Sonoma State University is creating the GLAST Ground-Based Telescope Network (GTN). The GTN is a series of telescopes and observers which will support the science and education goals of NASA's Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope. The GTN is a collaboration with the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO), other amateurs, schools, and professionals. GLAST will observe gamma rays from high-energy sources such as blazars. The ground-based telescopes will observe GLAST targets to provide a multi-year baseline of variability characteristics. During the mission the network will observe these targets simultaneously with GLAST to provided multi-wavelength coverage. Because of recent improvements in the sensitivity of CCD detectors and the improved reliability of computer controlled (robotic) telescopes, amateurs and students can now obtain professional quality data, and can make substantial contributions to the science goals of space observatories such as GLAST. Because of the unpredictability of blazar variability it is important to obtain as many observations as possible. A distributed network of committed observers is ideally suited. Indeed, such a network is essential to accumulate the data needed to ultimately understand the variability mechanism and the production of the gamma rays in this type of active galaxy. Amateurs are ideally suited to provide this type of coverage while professionals are finding it increasingly difficult to obtain telescope time on small telescopes. We will describe the resource materials and tutorials that are available through the GTN and the AAVSO, the GTN blazar image archive, the AAVSO international database of magnitudes, and the various levels of contributions to provide the required science data. We will also show comparisons of blazar data accumulated by professionals, by the AAVSO, and by students. Finally we will provide a status report for the 0.3 meter robotic telescope system being

  2. The power and production efficiency of blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Pjanka, Patryk; Sikora, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We use published data on the power and production efficiency of jets in blazars with double radio lobes in order to compare results obtained using different methods. In order to eliminate selection effects, we use cross-matched sub-samples containing only luminous blazars. We compare the three main existing methods, namely those based on the emission of radio lobes, on spectral fitting, and on radio core shift. We find the average jet power obtained for identical samples with the radio-lobe method is $\\sim10$ times lower than that from the spectral fitting. In turn, the power from spectral fitting is compatible with that from core-shift modelling for plausible parameters of the latter. We also consider a phenomenological estimator based on the {\\gamma}-ray luminosity. We examine uncertainties of those methods and discuss two alternative hypotheses. In one, the blazar-fit and core-shift methods are assumed to be correct, and the lower power from radio lobes is caused by intermittency of accretion. Long periods...

  3. The red blazar PMN J2345-1555 becomes blue

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G; Foschini, L; Bonnoli, G; Tagliaferri, G

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar PMN J2345-1555 is a bright gamma-ray source, that recently underwent a flaring episode in the IR, UV and gamma-ray bands. The flux changed quasi simultaneously at different frequencies, suggesting that it was produced by a single population of emitting particles, hence by a single and well localized region of the jet. While the overall Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) before the flare was typical of powerful blazars (namely two broad humps peaking in the far IR and below 100 MeV bands, respectively), during the flare the peaks moved to the optical-UV and to energies larger than 1 GeV, to resemble low power BL Lac objects, even if the observed bolometric luminosity increased by more than one order of magnitude. We interpret this behavior as due to a change of the location of the emission region in the jet, from within the broad line region, to just outside. The corresponding decrease of the radiation energy density as seen in the comoving frame of the jet allowed the relativist...

  4. 2WHSP: A multi-frequency selected catalog of VHE gamma-ray blazars and blazar candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu Lin; Arsioli, Bruno; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    High Synchrotron Peaked Blazars (HSPs) are extremely important for VHE astronomy. We built the largest existing catalog of High Synchrotron Blazars (2WHSP) based on multi-frequency data. The catalog is an extension of the 1WHSP list. We compared several general properties of HSPs such as the synchrotron peak, the redshift and IR the color-color diagram. We also built the logN-logS for the sources, trying to see the evolution and the deficiency of the catalog. The catalog will provide a unique sample of targets for VHE observations in future since the HSPs are the dominant extra-Galactic sources in VHE sky. This might help find more VHE sources later. In the future, we will use this catalog to estimate other VHE properties of HSPs.

  5. The RINGO2 and DIPOL Optical Polarisation Catalogue of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Jermak, H; Lindfors, E; Hovatta, T; Nilsson, K; Lamb, G P; Mundell, C; de Almeida, U Barres; Berdyugin, A; Kadenius, V; Reinthal, R; Takalo, L

    2016-01-01

    We present ~2000 polarimetric and ~3000 photometric observations of 15 gamma-ray bright blazars over a period of 936 days (11/10/2008 - 26/10/2012) using data from the Tuorla blazar monitoring program (KVA DIPOL) and Liverpool Telescope (LT) RINGO2 polarimeters (supplemented with data from SkyCamZ (LT) and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data). In 11 out of 15 sources we identify a total of 19 electric vector position angle (EVPA) rotations and 95 flaring episodes. We group the sources into subclasses based on their broadband spectral characteristics and compare their observed optical and gamma-ray properties. We find that (1) the optical magnitude and gamma-ray flux are positively correlated, (2) EVPA rotations can occur in any blazar subclass, 4 sources show rotations that go in one direction and immediately rotate back, (3) we see no difference in the gamma-ray flaring rates in the sample; flares can occur during and outside of rotations with no preference for this behaviour, (4) the average degree of polarisation (Do...

  6. Blazar candidates beyond redshift 4 observed with GROND

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarrato, T; Nardini, M; Tagliaferri, G; Greiner, J; Rau, A; Schady, P

    2013-01-01

    The search for extremely massive high redshift blazars is essential to put strong constraints on the supermassive black holes formation theories. Up to now, the few blazars known to have a redshift larger than 4 have been discovered serendipitously. We try a more systematic approach. Assuming radio-loudness as a proxy for the jet orientation, we select a sample of extremely radio-loud quasars. We measure their black hole masses with a method based on fitting the thermal emission from the accretion disc. We achieve a precision of a factor of two for our measures, thanks to the observations performed with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND). The infrared to optical GROND data allow us to observe directly the peak of the disc emission, thus constraining the overall disc luminosity. We obtain a small range of masses, that peaks at 10^{9.3}Msun. If some of our candidates will be confirmed as blazars, these results would introduce interesting constraints on the mass function of extremely mass...

  7. Shaping the GeV-spectra of bright blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, L.; Reimer, A.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: The non-thermal spectra of jetted active galactic nuclei (AGN) show a variety of shapes and degrees of curvature in their low- and high energy components. From some of the brightest Fermi-LAT blazars, prominent spectral breaks at a few GeV have been regularly detected, which is inconsistent with conventional cooling effects. We study the effects of continuous time-dependent injection of electrons into the jet with differing rates, durations, locations, and power-law spectral indices, and evaluate its impact on the ambient emitting particle spectrum that is observed at a given snapshot time in the framework of a leptonic blazar emission model. With this study, we provide a basis for analyzing ambient electron spectra in terms of injection requirements, with implications for particle acceleration modes. Methods: The emitting electron spectrum is calculated by Compton cooling the continuously injected electrons, where target photons are assumed to be provided by the accretion disk and broad line region (BLR). From this setup, we calculate the non-thermal photon spectra produced by inverse Compton scattering of these external target radiation fields using the full Compton cross-section in the head-on approximation. Results: By means of a comprehensive parameter study we present the resulting ambient electron and photon spectra, and discuss the influence of each injection parameter individually. We found that varying the injection parameters has a notable influence on the spectral shapes, which in turn can be used to set interesting constraints on the particle injection scenarios. By applying our model to the flare state spectral energy distribution (SED) of 3C 454.3, we confirm a previous suggestion that explained the observed spectral changes at a few GeV by a combination of the Compton-scattered disk and BLR radiation. We determine the required injection parameters for this scenario. We also show that this spectral turn-over can also be understood as Compton

  8. Time-Resolved Spectral Analysis of Blazar 0716+714

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rosamaria; Harp, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    As electromagnetic (EM) waves from sources such as blazars travel through the intergalactic medium (IGM), they are slowed by electrons; a phenomenon called dispersion delay [2]. We study the propagation effects in emissions of EM waves from blazar source BL 0716+714 by estimating the average electron density, or dispersion measure (DM), of the IGM on a line of sight to the blazar. Measuring the variations in these effects with time allow us to understand the properties of the intervening material. Toward this goal we analyzed months of archived observations of BL 0716+714 taken by the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). The ATA's correlator produces cross-power vs. frequency spectra for every baseline (distance between a pair of antennas) in ten-second intervals. To reduce this immense load of data we used a technique based on interferometry called bispectrum, which does not depend on complicated array calibration and simplifies our work. The bispectrum multiplies baselines, three at a time, so that they form a closed loop, then the cube root of spectra are averaged [1]. This technique is independent of phase errors associated with any individual antenna and has a better SNR ratio than simply taking the average of all the baselines. We developed a numerical analysis program that takes in archived blazar files containing correlation data, computes the bispectrum, and outputs FITS images for each day of observations. The results show that our observations do not have sufficient sensitivity to reveal blazar variations in the frequency ranges that were studied. It is suggested that future observations at higher frequencies and/or with another telescope having greater sensitivity would reveal the time/frequency dependence of emission structure that would allow measurements of electron content. This work shows that but bispectrum is a useful tool for rapid characterization of interferometer data that does not require interferometer caclibration which could introduce artifacts

  9. Multi-frequency monitoring of gamma-ray loud blazars: I. Light curves and spectral energy distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, U; Villata, M; Fuhrmann, L; Buemi, C S; Larionov, V M; Leto, P; Arkharov, A A; Coloma, J M; Di Paola, A; Dolci, M; Efimova, N; Forne, E; Ibrahimov, M A; Hagen-Thorn, V; Konstantinova, T; Kopatskaya, E; Lanteri, L; Kurtanidze, O M; Maccaferri, G; Nikolashvili, M G; Orlati, A; Ros, J A; Tosti, G; Trigilio, C; Umana, G

    2006-01-01

    Context: Being dominated by non-thermal emission from aligned relativistic jets, blazars allow us to elucidate the physics of extragalactic jets, and, ltimately, how the energy is extracted from the central black hole in radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Aims: Crucial information is provided by broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs), their trends with luminosity and correlated multi-frequency variability. With this study we plan to obtain a database of contemporaneous radio-to-optical spectra of a sample of blazars, which are and will be observed by current and future high-energy satellites. Methods: Since December 2004 we are performing a monthly multi-frequency radio monitoring of a sample of 35 blazars at the antennas in Medicina and Noto. Contemporaneous near-IR and optical observations for all our observing epochs are organised. Results: Until June 2006 about 4000 radio measurements and 5500 near-IR and optical measurements were obtained. Most of the sources show significant variability in all ...

  10. Constraining Emission Models of Luminous Blazar Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many luminous blazars which are associated with quasar-type active galactic nuclei display broad-band spectra characterized by a large luminosity ratio of their high-energy (γ-ray) and low-energy (synchrotron) spectral components. This large ratio, reaching values up to 100, challenges the standard synchrotron self-Compton models by means of substantial departures from the minimum power condition. Luminous blazars have also typically very hard X-ray spectra, and those in turn seem to challenge hadronic scenarios for the high energy blazar emission. As shown in this paper, no such problems are faced by the models which involve Comptonization of radiation provided by a broad-line-region, or dusty molecular torus. The lack or weakness of bulk Compton and Klein-Nishina features indicated by the presently available data favors production of γ-rays via up-scattering of infrared photons from hot dust. This implies that the blazar emission zone is located at parsec-scale distances from the nucleus, and as such is possibly associated with the extended, quasi-stationary reconfinement shocks formed in relativistic outflows. This scenario predicts characteristic timescales for flux changes in luminous blazars to be days/weeks, consistent with the variability patterns observed in such systems at infrared, optical and γ-ray frequencies. We also propose that the parsec-scale blazar activity can be occasionally accompanied by dissipative events taking place at sub-parsec distances and powered by internal shocks and/or reconnection of magnetic fields. These could account for the multiwavelength intra-day flares occasionally observed in powerful blazars sources.

  11. CONSTRAINING EMISSION MODELS OF LUMINOUS BLAZAR SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many luminous blazars which are associated with quasar-type active galactic nuclei display broadband spectra characterized by a large luminosity ratio of their high-energy (γ-ray) and low-energy (synchrotron) spectral components. This large ratio, reaching values up to 100, challenges the standard synchrotron self-Compton models by means of substantial departures from the minimum power condition. Luminous blazars also typically have very hard X-ray spectra, and those in turn seem to challenge hadronic scenarios for the high-energy blazar emission. As shown in this paper, no such problems are faced by the models which involve Comptonization of radiation provided by a broad-line region, or dusty molecular torus. The lack or weakness of bulk-Compton and Klein-Nishina features indicated by the presently available data favors the production of γ-rays via upscattering of infrared photons from hot dust. This implies that the blazar emission zone is located at parsec-scale distances from the nucleus, and as such is possibly associated with the extended, quasi-stationary reconfinement shocks formed in relativistic outflows. This scenario predicts characteristic timescales for flux changes in luminous blazars to be days/weeks, consistent with the variability patterns observed in such systems at infrared, optical, and γ-ray frequencies. We also propose that the parsec-scale blazar activity can be occasionally accompanied by dissipative events taking place at sub-parsec distances and powered by internal shocks and/or reconnection of magnetic fields. These could account for the multiwavelength intraday flares occasionally observed in powerful blazar sources.

  12. Constraining Emission Models of Luminous Blazar Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, Marek; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Stawarz, Lukasz; /Kipac, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ. /SLAC; Moderski, Rafal; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Madejski, Greg; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    Many luminous blazars which are associated with quasar-type active galactic nuclei display broad-band spectra characterized by a large luminosity ratio of their high-energy ({gamma}-ray) and low-energy (synchrotron) spectral components. This large ratio, reaching values up to 100, challenges the standard synchrotron self-Compton models by means of substantial departures from the minimum power condition. Luminous blazars have also typically very hard X-ray spectra, and those in turn seem to challenge hadronic scenarios for the high energy blazar emission. As shown in this paper, no such problems are faced by the models which involve Comptonization of radiation provided by a broad-line-region, or dusty molecular torus. The lack or weakness of bulk Compton and Klein-Nishina features indicated by the presently available data favors production of {gamma}-rays via up-scattering of infrared photons from hot dust. This implies that the blazar emission zone is located at parsec-scale distances from the nucleus, and as such is possibly associated with the extended, quasi-stationary reconfinement shocks formed in relativistic outflows. This scenario predicts characteristic timescales for flux changes in luminous blazars to be days/weeks, consistent with the variability patterns observed in such systems at infrared, optical and {gamma}-ray frequencies. We also propose that the parsec-scale blazar activity can be occasionally accompanied by dissipative events taking place at sub-parsec distances and powered by internal shocks and/or reconnection of magnetic fields. These could account for the multiwavelength intra-day flares occasionally observed in powerful blazars sources.

  13. Extended Radio Emission in MOJAVE Blazars: Challenges to Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Cooper, N. J.

    2010-02-01

    their parent population. It could also just be due to small number statistics. We find that the ratio of the radio core luminosity to the k-corrected optical luminosity (Rv ) appears to be a better indicator of orientation for this blazar sample than the traditionally used radio core prominence parameter (Rc ). Based on the assumption that the extended radio luminosity is affected by the kiloparsec-scale environment, we define the ratio of extended radio power to absolute optical magnitude (L ext/M abs) as a proxy for environmental effects. Trends with this parameter suggest that the parsec-scale jet speeds and the parsec-to-kiloparsec jet misalignments are not affected by the large-scale environment, but are more likely to depend upon factors intrinsic to the active galactic nucleus, or its local parsec-scale environment. The jet speeds could, for instance, be related to the black hole spins, while jet misalignments could arise due to the presence of binary black holes, or kicks imparted to black holes via black hole mergers, consistent with both radio morphologies resembling precessing jet models observed in some MOJAVE blazars and the signature of a 90° bump in the jet misalignment distribution, attributed to low-pitch helical parsec-scale jets in the literature. We suggest that some of the extremely misaligned MOJAVE blazar jets could be "hybrid" morphology sources, with an FRI jet on one side and an FRII jet on the other. It is tempting to speculate that environmental radio boosting (as proposed for Cygnus A) could be responsible for blurring the Fanaroff-Riley dividing line in the MOJAVE blazars, provided a substantial fraction of them reside in dense (cluster) environments.

  14. Anatomy of a blazar in the (sub-)millimeter: ALMA Observations of PKS 0521-365

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, S; Guerard, M; Villard, E; Hidayat, T; Flaquer, B Ocana; Vila-Vilaro, B

    2015-01-01

    We aim at analyzing the (sub-)millimeter emission in a nearby blazar, PKS 0521-365 , to study the synchrotron and thermal emission in the different components detected at low frequency. We analyze the archive public data of the ALMA Cycle 0 where PKS 0521-365 is used as a calibrator. A total of 13 projects with 23 dataset is analyzed in band 3, 6 and 7 and combined. The whole set of data is combined and wavelet filtered to obtain a deep image reaching a dynamic range of 47000. The individual emission flux is measured at different date over a period of 11 months in various components. Finally we analyze the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) in each different component, including the radio jet and counter jet. The point sources detected in the field follow a similar distribution to previous studies. The blazar flux shows large variation especially in band 3. Different components are observed: core, radio jet and newly detected counter jet, Hot Spot (HS) and a disky structure roughly perpendicular to the jet. T...

  15. Curvature of the spectral energy distribution, the dominant process for inverse Compton component and other jet properties in Fermi 2LAC blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, R; Du, L M; Wang, Z R; Xie, Z H; Yi, T F; Xiong, D R; Xu, Y B; Liu, W G; Yu, X L

    2016-01-01

    We fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of members of a large sample of Fermi 2LAC blazars to synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) models. Our main results are as follows. (i) As suggested by previous works, the correlation between peak frequency and curvature can be explained by statistical or stochastic particle acceleration mechanisms. For BL Lacs, we find a linear correlation between synchrotron peak frequency and its curvature. The slope of the correlation is consistent with the stochastic acceleration mechanisms and confirm previous studies. For FSRQs, we also find a linear correlation, but its slope cannot be explained by previous theoretical models. (ii) We find a significant correlation between IC luminosity and synchrotron luminosity. The slope of the correlation of FSRQs is consistent with the EC process. And the slope of the correlation of BL Lac is consistent with the SSC process. (iii) We find several significant correlations between IC curvature and several basic parameters of blazars (...

  16. Introduction to the Buildings Sector Module of SEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeForest, Nicholas; Bonnet, Florence; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2010-12-31

    SEDS is a stochastic engineering-economics model that forecasts economy-wide energy consumption in the U.S. to 2050. It is the product of multi-laboratory collaboration among the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Lumina Decision Systems. Among national energy models, SEDS is unique, as it is the only model written to explicitly incorporate uncertainty in its inputs and outputs. The primary purpose of SEDS is to estimate the impact of various US Department of Energy (DOE)R&D and policy programs on the performance and subsequent adoption rates of technologies relating to every energy consuming sector of the economy (shown below). It has previously been used to assist DOE in complying with the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA). The focus of LBNL research has been exclusively on develop the buildings model (SBEAM), which is capable of running as a stand-alone forecasting model, or as a part of SEDS as a whole. The full version of SEDS, containing all sectors and interaction is also called the 'integrated' version and is managed by NREL. Forecasts from SEDS are often compared to those coming from National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The intention of this document is to present new users and developers with a general description of the purpose, functionality and structure of the buildings module within the Stochastic Energy Deployment System (SEDS). The Buildings module, which is capable of running as a standalone model, is also called the Stochastic Buildings Energy and Adoption Model (SBEAM). This document will focus exclusively on SBEAM and its interaction with other major sector modules present within SEDS. The methodologies and major assumptions employed in SBEAM will also be discussed. The organization of this report will parallel the organization of the model itself, being divided into major

  17. High Energy Polarization of Blazars : Detection Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Nachiketa; Fields, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (wit...

  18. Models for Very Rapid High-Energy -Ray Variability in Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. E. Romero; M. M. Reynoso

    2014-09-01

    We present a family of models for rapid -ray variability in blazars based on a two-component jet. Fast variability occurs when relativistic electron–positron pairs interact with small-scale perturbations in the inner jet. These perturbations are produced by Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. We fit the minute-scale strong variability displayed by the blazar PKS 2155−304 and present synthetic light-curves of the kind that might be observed with forthcoming instruments such as the Cherenkov telescope array.

  19. Recent highlights in the X-ray study of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Pian, E

    2002-01-01

    Blazars exhibit flux and spectral variations of largest amplitude at the highest frequencies. Therefore, monitoring their variability at X- and gamma-rays is the most effective tool to peer into the mighty powerhouse of these sources. High energy observations of the brightest blazars with the latest generation of satellites have allowed a detailed study of their behavior and have critically improved our understanding of the physics of blazar jets. I will review some of the recent results of blazar multiwavelength monitoring with emphasis on the X-ray campaigns accomplished with BeppoSAX and I will describe some of the future programs for blazar investigation from space, particularly with INTEGRAL.

  20. Extragalactic background light inferred from AEGIS galaxy SED-type fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, A; Rosario, D J; Prada, F; Gilmore, R C; Faber, S M; Koo, D C; Somerville, R S; Perez-Torres, M A; Perez-Gonzalez, P; Huang, J -S; Davis, M; Guhathakurta, P; Barmby, P; Conselice, C J; Lozano, M; Newman, J A; Cooper, M C

    2011-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is of fundamental importance both for understanding the entire process of galaxy evolution and for gamma-ray astronomy. However, the overall spectrum of the EBL between 0.1 and 1000 microns has never been determined directly neither from observed luminosity functions (LFs), over a wide redshift range, nor from any multiwavelength observation of galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The evolving, overall spectrum of the EBL is derived here utilizing a novel method based on observations only. The changing fractions of quiescent galaxies, star-forming galaxies, starburst galaxies and active galactic nucleus (AGN) galaxies from redshift 0.2 to 1 are estimated, and two alternative extrapolations of SED types to higher redshifts are considered. This allows calculation of the evolving EBL. The EBL uncertainties in our modelling based directly on the data are quantified, and their consequences for attenuation of very-high-energy gamma-rays due to pair production on the ...

  1. On the recovery of galaxy properties from SED fitting solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Gladis, Magris C; Mateu, Cecilia; Bruzual, Gustavo; Cabrera-Ziri, Iván; Mejía-Narváez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    We explore the ability of four different inverse population synthesis codes to recover the physical properties of galaxies from their spectra by SED fitting. Three codes, DynBaS, TGASPEX, and GASPEX, have been implemented by the authors and are described in detail in the paper. STARLIGHT, the fourth code, is publicly available. DynBaS selects dynamically a different spectral basis to expand the spectrum of each target galaxy; TGASPEX uses an unconstrained age basis, whereas GASPEX and STARLIGHT use for all fits a fixed spectral basis selected a priori by the code developers. Variable and unconstrained basis reflect the peculiarities of the fitted spectrum and allow for simple and robust solutions to the problem of extracting galaxy parameters from spectral fits. We assemble a Synthetic Spectral Atlas of Galaxies (SSAG), comprising 100,000 galaxy spectra corresponding to an equal number of star formation histories based on the recipe of Chen et al. (2012). We select a subset of 120 galaxies from SSAG with a co...

  2. Powers and Magnetization of Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In this work I review the observational constraints imposed on the energetics and magnetisation of quasar jets, in the context of theoretical expectations. The discussion is focused on issues regarding the jet production efficiency, matter content, and particle acceleration. I show that if the ratio of electron-positron-pairs to protons is of order $15$, as is required to achieve agreement between jet powers computed using blazar spectral fits and those computed using radio-lobe calorimetry, the magnetization of blazar jets in flat-spectrum-radio-quasars (FSRQ) must be significant. This result favors the reconnection mechanism for particle acceleration and explains the large Compton-dominance of blazar spectra that is often observed, without the need to postulate very low jet magnetization.

  3. What determines the observational differences of blazars?

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xu-Liang; Mao, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    We examine the scenario that the Doppler factor determines the observational differences of blazars in this paper. Significantly negative correlations are found between the observational synchrotron peak frequency and the Doppler factor. After correcting the Doppler boosting, the intrinsic peak frequency further has a tightly linear relation with the Doppler factor. It is more interesting that this relation is consistent with the scenario that the black hole mass governs both the bulk Lorentz factor and the synchrotron peak frequency. In addition, the distinction of the kinetic jet powers between BL Lacs and FSRQs disappears after the boosting factor $\\delta^2$ is considered. The negative correlation between the peak frequency and the observational isotropic luminosity, known as the blazar sequence, also disappears after the Doppler boosting is corrected. We also find that the correlation between the Compton dominance and the Doppler factor exists for all types of blazars. Therefore, this correlation is unsui...

  4. TeV blazars and their distance

    CERN Document Server

    Prandini, Elisa; Maraschi, Laura; Mariotti, Mose'; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a new method to constrain the distance of blazars with unknown redshift using combined observations in the GeV and TeV regimes has been developed, with the underlying assumption that the Very High Energy (VHE) spectrum corrected for the absorption of TeV photons by the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) via photon-photon interaction should still be softer than the gamma-ray spectrum observed by Fermi/LAT. The constraints found are related to the real redshifts by a simple linear relation, that has been used to infer the unknown distance of blazars. The sample will be revised with the up-to-date spectra in both TeV and GeV bands, the method tested with the more recent EBL models and finally applied to the unknown distance blazars detected at VHE.

  5. High Energy Neutrinos from Recent Blazar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Halzen, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The energy density of cosmic neutrinos measured by IceCube matches the one observed by Fermi in extragalactic photons that predominantly originate in blazars. This has inspired attempts to match Fermi sources with IceCube neutrinos. A spatial association combined with a coincidence in time with a flaring source may represent a smoking gun for the origin of the IceCube flux. In June 2015, the Fermi Large Area Telescope observed an intense flare from blazar 3C 279 that exceeded the steady flux of the source by a factor of forty for the duration of a day. We show that IceCube is likely to observe neutrinos, if indeed hadronic in origin, in data that are still blinded at this time. We also discuss other opportunities for coincident observations that include a recent flare from blazar 1ES 1959+650 that previously produced an intriguing coincidence with AMANDA observations.

  6. Modeling the Emission Processes in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Böttcher, M

    2006-01-01

    Blazars are the most violent steady/recurrent sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission in the known Universe. They are prominent emitters of electromagnetic radiation throughout the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The observable radiation most likely originates in a relativistic jet oriented at a small angle with respect to the line of sight. This review starts out with a general overview of the phenomenology of blazars, including results from a recent multiwavelength observing campaign on 3C279. Subsequently, issues of modeling broadband spectra will be discussed. Spectral information alone is not sufficient to distinguish between competing models and to constrain essential parameters, in particular related to the primary particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms in the jet. Short-term spectral variability information may help to break such model degeneracies, which will require snap-shot spectral information on intraday time scales, which may soon be achievable for many blazars even in the gamma-ray ...

  7. A comparison of approaches in fitting continuum SEDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Liu; David Madlener; Sebastian Wolf; Hong-Chi Wang

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of two approaches,the use of a precalculated database and simulated annealing (SA),for fitting the continuum spectral energy distribution (SED) of astrophysical objects whose appearance is dominated by surrounding dust.While pre-calculated databases are commonly used to model SED data,only a few studies to date employed SA due to its unclear accuracy and convergence time for this specific problem.From a methodological point of view,different approaches lead to different fitting quality,demand on computational resources and calculation time.We compare the fitting quality and computational costs of these two approaches for the task of SED fitting to provide a guide to the practitioner to find a compromise between desired accuracy and available resources.To reduce uncertainties inherent to real datasets,we introduce a reference model resembling a typical circumstellar system with 10 free parameters.We derive the SED of the reference model with our code MC3D at 78 logarithmically distributed wavelengths in the range [0.3 μm,1.3 mm] and use this setup to simulate SEDs for the database and SA.Our result directly demonstrates the applicability of SA in the field of SED modeling,since the algorithm regularly finds better solutions to the optimization problem than a precalculated database.As both methods have advantages and shortcomings,a hybrid approach is preferable.While the database provides an approximate fit and overall probability distributions for all parameters deduced using Bayesian analysis,SA can be used to improve upon the results returned by the model grid.

  8. Probes of the inner jets of blazars.

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Marscher(Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, USA)

    1995-01-01

    I review models for the "inner jet" in blazars, the section that connects the central engine with the radio jet. I discuss how the structure and physics of the inner jet can be explored using millimeter-wave VLBI (very-long-baseline radio interferometry) as well as multiwaveband observations of blazars. Flares at radio to gamma-ray frequencies should exhibit time delays at different wavebands that can test models for both the high-energy emission mechanisms and the nature of the inner jet in ...

  9. Monitoring of bright blazars with MAGIC telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, C. C.; Satalecka, K.; Thom, M; Backes, M.; Bernardini, E.; Bonnoli, G.; Galante, N.; Goebel, F; Lindfors, E.; Majumdar, P.; Stamerra, A.; Wagner, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Blazars, a class of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) characterized by a close orientation of their relativistic outflows (jets) towards the line of sight, are a well established extragalactic TeV $\\gamma$-ray emitters. Since 2006, three nearby and TeV bright blazars, Markarian (Mrk) 421, Mrk 501 and 1ES 1959+650, are regularly observed by the MAGIC telescope with single exposures of 30 to 60 minutes. The sensitivity of MAGIC allows to establish a flux level of 30% of the Crab flux for each such o...

  10. Visual Method for Spectral Energy Distribution Calculation of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y. Huang; J. H. Fan

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we propose to use `The Geometer’s Sketchpad’ to the fitting of a spectral energy distribution of blazar based on three effective spectral indices, RO, OX, and RX and the flux density in the radio band. It can make us to see the fitting in detail with both the peak frequency and peak luminosity given immediately. We used our method to those sources whose peak frequency and peak luminosity are given and found that our results are consistent with those given in the work of Sambruna et al. (1996).

  11. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Yang; R. S. Yang; J. J. Nie; J. H. Fan

    2014-09-01

    Based on Fermi 1FGL and 2FGL data, a sample of 572 -ray loud blazars are selected, in which each source has both -ray flux and spectral index in 1FGL and 2FGL, respectively. Theoretic relation of spectral index changes depending on -ray brightness is obtained. The correlations between the ratio of -ray flux densities and the differences of the -ray spectral indices are discussed for the three subclasses of HBL, LBL and FSRQs. Results show that the ratio is related with the differences for the three subclasses. It is consistent with the theoretical result and it indicates that the spectrum becomes flat as the source brightens in the -ray band.

  12. Modeling the flaring activity of the high z, hard X-ray selected blazar IGR J22517+2217

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzuisi, G; Ghisellini, G; Ubertini, P; Panessa, F; Ajello, M; Bassani, L; Fukazawa, Y; D'Ammando, F

    2011-01-01

    We present new Suzaku and Fermi data, and re-analyzed archival hard X-ray data from INTEGRAL and Swift-BAT survey, to investigate the physical properties of the luminous, high-redshift, hard X-ray selected blazar IGR J22517+2217, through the modelization of its broad band spectral energy distribution (SED) in two different activity states. Through the analysis of the new Suzaku data and the flux selected data from archival hard X-ray observations, we build the source SED in two different states, one for the newly discovered flare occurred in 2005 and one for the following quiescent period. Both SEDs are strongly dominated by the high energy hump peaked at 10^20 -10^22 Hz, that is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the low energy (synchrotron) one at 10^11 -10^14 Hz, and varies by a factor of 10 between the two states. In both states the high energy hump is modeled as inverse Compton emission between relativistic electrons and seed photons produced externally to the jet, while the synchrotron self-Co...

  13. The far infra-red SEDs of main sequence and starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cowley, William I; Lagos, Claudia del P; Lacey, Cedric G; Baugh, Carlton M; Cole, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    We compare observed far infra-red/sub-millimetre (FIR/sub-mm) galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of massive galaxies ($M_{\\star}\\gtrsim10^{10}$ $h^{-1}$M$_{\\odot}$) derived through a stacking analysis with predictions from a new model of galaxy formation. The FIR SEDs of the model galaxies are calculated using a self-consistent model for the absorption and re-emission of radiation by interstellar dust based on radiative transfer calculations and global energy balance arguments. Galaxies are selected based on their position on the specific star formation rate (sSFR) - stellar mass ($M_{\\star}$) plane. We identify a main sequence of star-forming galaxies in the model, i.e. a well defined relationship between sSFR and $M_\\star$, up to redshift $z\\sim6$. The scatter of this relationship evolves such that it is generally larger at higher stellar masses and higher redshifts. There is remarkable agreement between the predicted and observed average SEDs across a broad range of redshifts ($0.5\\lesssim z\\lesss...

  14. Exploring the blazar zone in high-energy flares of FSRQs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacciani, L.; Donnarumma, I. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziale, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Tavecchio, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Stamerra, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Mexico, Luis E, Erro 1, Sta. Maria Tonantzintla, Puebla, CP 72840 (Mexico); Uemura, M., E-mail: luigi.pacciani@iaps.inaf.it [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2014-07-20

    The gamma-ray emission offers a powerful diagnostic tool to probe jets and their surroundings in flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). In particular, sources emitting at high energies (>10 GeV) give us the strongest constraints. This motivates us to start a systematic study of flares with bright emission above 10 GeV, examining archival data of the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray telescope. At the same time, we began to trigger Target of Opportunity observations to the Swift observatory at the occurrence of high-energy flares, obtaining a wide coverage of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for several FSRQs during flares. Among others, we investigate the SED of a peculiar flare of 3C 454.3, showing a remarkably hard gamma-ray spectrum, quite different from the brightest flares of this source, and a bright flare of CTA 102. We modeled the SED in the framework of the one-zone leptonic model, using also archival optical spectroscopic data to derive the luminosity of the broad lines and thus estimate the disk luminosity, from which the structural parameters of the FSRQ nucleus can be inferred. The model allowed us to evaluate the magnetic field intensity in the blazar zone and to locate the emitting region of gamma-rays in the particular case in which gamma-ray spectra show neither absorption from the broad-line region (BLR) nor the Klein-Nishina curvature expected in leptonic models assuming the BLR as the source of seed photons for the External Compton scenario. For FSRQs bright above 10 GeV, we were able to identify short periods lasting less than one day characterized by a high rate of high-energy gamma-rays and hard gamma-ray spectra. We discussed the observed spectra and variability timescales in terms of injection and cooling of energetic particles, arguing that these flares could be triggered by magnetic reconnection events or turbulence in the flow.

  15. Dust Processing in Supernova Remnants: Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John W.; Petre, Robert; Katsuda Satoru; Andersen, M.; Rho, J.; Reach, W. T.; Bernard, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS observations of 14 Galactic Supernova Remnants previously identified in the GLIMPSE survey. We find evidence for SNR/molecular cloud interaction through detection of [OI] emission, ionic lines, and emission from molecular hydrogen. Through black-body fitting of the MIPS SEDs we find the large grains to be warm, 29-66 K. The dust emission is modeled using the DUSTEM code and a three component dust model composed of populations of big grains, very small grains, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We find the dust to be moderately heated, typically by 30-100 times the interstellar radiation field. The source of the radiation is likely hydrogen recombination, where the excitation of hydrogen occurred in the shock front. The ratio of very small grains to big grains is found for most of the molecular interacting SNRs to be higher than that found in the plane of the Milky Way, typically by a factor of 2--3. We suggest that dust shattering is responsible for the relative over-abundance of small grains, in agreement with prediction from dust destruction models. However, two of the SNRs are best fit with a very low abundance of carbon grains to silicate grains and with a very high radiation field. A likely reason for the low abundance of small carbon grains is sputtering. We find evidence for silicate emission at 20 $\\mu$m in their SEDs, indicating that they are young SNRs based on the strong radiation field necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs.

  16. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; Le Novère, Nicolas; Nickerson, David; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    The number, size and complexity of computational models of biological systems are growing at an ever increasing pace. It is imperative to build on existing studies by reusing and adapting existing models and parts thereof. The description of the structure of models is not sufficient to enable the reproduction of simulation results. One also needs to describe the procedures the models are subjected to, as recommended by the Minimum Information About a Simulation Experiment (MIASE) guidelines. This document presents Level 1 Version 2 of the Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML), a computer-readable format for encoding simulation and analysis experiments to apply to computational models. SED-ML files are encoded in the Extensible Markup Language (XML) and can be used in conjunction with any XML-based model encoding format, such as CellML or SBML. A SED-ML file includes details of which models to use, how to modify them prior to executing a simulation, which simulation and analysis procedures to apply, which results to extract and how to present them. Level 1 Version 2 extends the format by allowing the encoding of repeated and chained procedures. PMID:26528560

  17. Estimating Black Hole Masses of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xue-Bing Wu; F. K. Liu; M. Z. Kong; R. Wang; J. L. Han

    2011-03-01

    Estimating black hole masses of blazars is still a big challenge. Because of the contamination of jets, using the previously suggested size–continuum luminosity relation can overestimate the broad line region (BLR) size and black hole mass for radio-loud AGNs, including blazars. We propose a new relation between the BLR size and emission line luminosity and present evidences for using it to get more accurate black hole masses of radio-loud AGNs. For extremely radio-loud AGNs such as blazars with weak/absent emission lines, we suggest the use of fundamental plane relation of their elliptical host galaxies to estimate the central velocity dispersions and black hole masses, if their velocity dispersions are not known but the host galaxies can be mapped. The black hole masses of some well-known blazars, such as OJ 287, AO 0235+164 and 3C 66B are obtained using these two methods and the – relation. The implications of their black hole masses on other related studies are also discussed.

  18. Testing the blazar sequence with the least luminous BL Lacs

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Claudia M

    2015-01-01

    In a previous paper, we proposed a new method to select low-power BL Lacs (LPBLs) based on mid-infrared emission and flux contrast through the Ca II spectral break; that study led to the selection of a complete sample formed by 34 LPBLs with 0.05SEDs) of these sources to investigate their nature and compare them with brighter BL Lacs. We find that the ratios between the X-ray and radio luminosities range from ~20 to ~30000 and that the synchrotron peak frequencies span a wide energy interval, from log(nu_peak)~13.5 to ~20 [Hz]. This indicates a broad variety of SED shapes and a mixture of BL Lac flavors. Indeed, although the majority of our LPBLs are high-energy peaked BL Lacs (HBLs), we find that a quarter of them are low-energy peaked BL Lacs (LBLs), despite the fact that the sample is biased against the selection of LBLs. The analysis of the median LPBL SED con...

  19. UV and X-ray Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok C. Gupta

    2011-03-01

    It is well established that the blazars show flux variations in the complete electromagnetic (EM) spectrum on all possible time scales ranging from a few tens of minutes to several years. Here we report the review of various UV and X-ray flux variability properties of blazars. Our analysis show that UV variability amplitude is smaller than X-rays, mostly soft X-rays hardness ratio show correlations with blazar luminosity and different modes of variability might be operating for different time scales and epochs. Quasi periodic oscillations are seen on a few occasions in blazars, higher fraction of high energy peaked blazars show intra day and short term variabilities in X-rays but variability duty cycle is much less in optical bands on intra day time scale compared to low energy peaked blazars. But these results are yet to be established.

  20. Rapid variability of blazar 3C 279 during flaring states in 2013-2014 with joint FERMI-LAT, NuSTAR, swift, and ground-based multi-wavelength observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashida, M.; Nalewajko, K.; Madejski, G. M.;

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a multiband observing campaign on the famous blazar 3C 279 conducted during a phase of increased activity from 2013 December to 2014 April, including first observations of it with NuSTAR. The γ-ray emission of the source measured by Fermi-LAT showed multiple distinct flar...

  1. Correlation Analysis of Multi-Wavelength Luminosity of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiongwei Bi; Wanquan He; Jiajin Tian; Zhimei Ding; Shuping Ge

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the correlations between luminosities (R, O, X, ) in radio, optical, X-ray and -ray wave bands for Fermi blazars, and found that there are significant correlations between R and , X and and O and for blazars, BL Lacs and FSRQs, but no correlation between and O for BL Lacs. These results suggest that for Fermi blazars, the high energy -ray emission can be related with radio, X-ray and optical emissions.

  2. Neutral Beams from Blazar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoyan, Armen M.; Dermer, Charles D.

    2003-03-01

    We treat the production of neutrons, photons, and neutrinos through photomeson interactions of relativistic protons with ambient photons in the compact inner jets of blazars. Internal synchrotron and external isotropic radiation due to scattered optical/UV accretion-disk radiation are considered as target photon fields. Protons are assumed to be accelerated to a maximum energy limited by the size scale and magnetic field of the jet, and by competing energy losses. We characterize the conditions when the photomeson interactions of ultrarelativistic protons become effective, and show that the presence of the external radiation field makes possible strong energy losses for protons with energies Ep>~1015 eV. Without this component, effective energy losses of protons begin at Ep>~1018 eV, and would rapidly disappear with expansion of the blob. We develop a model describing the production and escape of neutrons from a comoving spherical blob, which continue to interact with the ambient external radiation field on the parsec-scale broad-line region (BLR). Neutrons may carry ~10% of the overall energy of the accelerated protons with Ep>~1015 eV outside the BLR. Ultra-high-energy gamma rays produced by photomeson interaction of neutrons outside the blob can also escape the BLR. The escaping neutrons, gamma rays, and neutrinos form a collimated neutral beam with a characteristic opening angle θ~1/Γ, where Γ is the bulk Lorentz factor of the inner jet. Energy and momentum is deposited in the extended jet from the decay of neutrons at distances ld(En)~(En/1017eV) kpc, and through pair-production attenuation of gamma rays with energies Eγ>~1015 eV which propagate to ~10-100 kpc distances. In this scenario, neutral beams of ultra-high-energy gamma rays and neutrons can be the reason for straight extended jets, such as in Pictor A. Fluxes of neutrinos detectable with kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes are predicted from flat-spectrum radio quasars such as 3C 279.

  3. APEX sub-mm monitoring of gamma-ray blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, S; Weiss, A; Angelakis, E; Krichbaum, T P; Nestoras, I; Zensus, J A; Axelsson, M; Nilsson, D; Ryde, F; Hjalmarsdotter, L; Larsson, J; Lundgren, A; Mac-Auliffe, F; Parra, R; Siringo, G

    2012-01-01

    So far, no systematic long-term blazar monitoring programs and detailed variability studies exist at sub-mm wavelengths. Here, we present a new sub-mm blazar monitoring program using the APEX 12-m telescope. A sample of about 40 gamma-ray blazars has been monitored since 2007/2008 with the LABOCA bolometer camera at 345 GHz. First light curves, preliminary variability results and a first comparison with the longer cm/mm bands (F-GAMMA program) are presented, demonstrating the extreme variability characteristics of blazars at such short wavelengths.

  4. Spitzer Local Volume Legacy (LVL) SEDs and Physical Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David O; Johnson, Benjamin D; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C; Kennicutt, Robert C; Calzetti, Daniela; Staudaher, Shawn M; Engelbracht, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    We present the panchromatic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey which consists of 258 nearby galaxies ($D<$11 Mpc). The wavelength coverage spans the ultraviolet to the infrared (1500 $\\textrm{\\AA}$ to 24 $\\mu$m) which is utilized to derive global physical properties (i.e., star formation rate, stellar mass, internal extinction due to dust.). With these data, we find color-color relationships and correlated trends between observed and physical properties (i.e., optical magnitudes and dust properties, optical color and specific star formation rate, and ultraviolet-infrared color and metallicity). The SEDs are binned by different galaxy properties to reveal how each property affects the observed shape of these SEDs. In addition, due to the volume-limited nature of LVL, we utilize the dwarf-dominated galaxy sample to test star formation relationships established with higher-mass galaxy samples. We find good agreement with the star-forming "main-sequence" relationship, ...

  5. Through The Ring Of Fire: $\\gamma$-Ray Variability In Blazars By A Moving Plasmoid Passing A Local Source Of Seed Photons

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Nicholas R; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Joshi, Manasvita

    2015-01-01

    Blazars exhibit flares across the electromagnetic spectrum. Many $\\gamma$-ray flares are highly correlated with flares detected at optical wavelengths; however, a small subset appears to occur in isolation, with little or no variability detected at longer wavelengths. These "orphan" $\\gamma$-ray flares challenge current models of blazar variability, most of which are unable to reproduce this type of behavior. We present numerical calculations of the time-variable emission of a blazar based on a proposal by Marscher et al. (2010) to explain such events. In this model, a plasmoid ("blob") propagates relativistically along the spine of a blazar jet and passes through a synchrotron-emitting ring of electrons representing a shocked portion of the jet sheath. This ring supplies a source of seed photons that are inverse-Compton scattered by the electrons in the moving blob. The model includes the effects of radiative cooling, a spatially varying magnetic field, and acceleration of the blob's bulk velocity. Synthetic...

  6. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. IV. RESULTS OF THE 2014 FOLLOW-UP CAMPAIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Landoni, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); D’Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Tosti, G., E-mail: riccif@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    The extragalactic γ-ray sky is dominated by the emission arising from blazars, one of the most peculiar classes of radio-loud active galaxies. Since the launch of Fermi several methods were developed to search for blazars as potential counterparts of unidentified γ-ray sources (UGSs). To confirm the nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic observations are necessary. In 2013 we started a spectroscopic campaign to investigate γ-ray blazar candidates selected according to different procedures. The main goals of our campaign are: (1) to confirm the nature of these candidates, and (2) whenever possible, determine their redshifts. Optical spectroscopic observations will also permit us to verify the robustness of the proposed associations and check for the presence of possible source class contaminants to our counterpart selection. This paper reports the results of observations carried out in 2014 in the northern hemisphere with Kitt Peak National Observatory and in the southern hemisphere with the Southern Astrophysical Research telescopes. We also report three sources observed with the Magellan and Palomar telescopes. Our selection of blazar-like sources that could be potential counterparts of UGSs is based on their peculiar infrared colors and on their combination with radio observations both at high and low frequencies (i.e., above and below ∼1 GHz) in publicly available large radio surveys. We present the optical spectra of 27 objects. We confirm the blazar-like nature of nine sources that appear to be potential low-energy counterparts of UGSs. Then we present new spectroscopic observations of 10 active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources, classifying all of them as blazars. In addition, we present the spectra for five known γ-ray blazars with uncertain redshift estimates and three BL Lac candidates that were observed during our campaign. We also report the case for WISE J173052.85−035247.2, candidate counterpart of the

  7. Multi-Waveband Emission Maps of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alan Marscher; Svetlana G. Jorstad; Valeri M. Larionov; Margo F. Aller; Anne Lähteenmäki

    2011-03-01

    We are leading a comprehensive multi-waveband monitoring program of 34 -ray bright blazars designed to locate the emission regions of blazars from radio to -ray frequencies. The `maps’ are anchored by sequences of images in both total and polarized intensity obtained with the VLBA at an angular resolution of ∼ 0.1 milliarcseconds. The time-variable linear polarization at radio to optical wavelengths and radio to -ray light curves allow us to specify the locations of flares relative to bright stationary features seen in the images and to infer the geometry of the magnetic field in different regions of the jet. Our data reveal that some flares occur simultaneously at different wavebands and others are only seen at some of the frequencies. The flares are often triggered by a superluminal knot passing through the stationary `core’ on the VLBA images. Other flares occur upstream or even parsecs downstream of the core.

  8. Gravitational microlensing of gamma-ray blazars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Torres, Diego; E. Romero, Gustavo; F. Eiroa, Ernesto;

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effects of gravitational microlensing on compact and distant $\\gamma$-ray blazars. These objects have $\\gamma$-ray emitting regions which are small enough as to be affected by microlensing effects produced by stars lying in intermediate galaxies. We analyze...... the temporal evolution of the gamma-ray magnification for sources moving in a caustic pattern field, where the combined effects of thousands of stars are taken into account using a numerical technique. We propose that some of the unidentified $\\gamma$-ray sources (particularly some of those lying at high...... galactic latitude whose gamma-ray statistical properties are very similar to detected $\\gamma$-ray blazars) are indeed the result of gravitational lensing magnification of background undetected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs)....

  9. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rene Hudec

    2011-03-01

    There are about 3 million astronomical photographic plates around the globe, representing an important data source for various aspects of astrophysics. The main advantage is the large time coverage of 100 years or even more. Recent digitization efforts, together with the development of dedicated software, enables for the first time, effective data mining and data analyses by powerful computers with these archives. Examples of blazars proposed and/or investigated on the astronomical plates are presented and discussed.

  10. Blazar microvariability at hard X-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Foschini, L.; Gliozzi, M.; Pian, E.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Bianchin, V.; L. Maraschi(INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy); Sambruna, R. M.; Di Cocco, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Malaguti, G.; Tosti, G.; Treves, A.

    2007-01-01

    Blazars are known to display strong and erratic variability at almost all the wavelengths of electromagnetic spectrum. Presently, variability studies at high-energies (hard X-rays, gamma-rays) are hampered by low sensitivity of the instruments. Nevertheless, the latest generation of satellites (INTEGRAL, Swift) have given suggestions not yet fully confirmed of variability on intraday timescales. Some specific cases recently observed are presented and physical implications are discussed (e.g. ...

  11. Ringo2 Optical Polarimetry of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Jermak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present polarimetric and photometric observations from a sample of 15 γ-ray bright blazars with data from the Tuorla blazar monitoring program (KVA DIPOL and Liverpool Telescope (LT Ringo2 polarimeters (supplemented with γ-ray data from Fermi-LAT. We find that (1 The optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are positively correlated; (2 electric vector position angle rotations can occur in any blazar subclass; (3 there is no difference in the γ-ray flaring rates in the sample between subclasses; flares can occur during and outside of rotations with no preference for this behaviour; (4 the average degree of polarisation (P, optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are lower during a rotation compared with during non-rotation; (5 the number of observed flaring events and optical polarisation rotations are correlated and (6 the maximum observed P increases from ∼10% to ∼30% to ∼40% for subclasses with synchrotron peaks at high, intermediate and low frequencies respectively.

  12. The Spectral Index Distribution of EGRET Blazars: Prospects for GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venters, Tonia M.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; /SLAC

    2011-11-29

    The intrinsic distribution of spectral indices in GeV energies of gamma-ray-loud blazars is a critical input in determining the spectral shape of the unresolved blazar contribution to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background, as well as an important test of blazar emission theories. We present a maximum-likelihood method of determining the intrinsic spectral index distribution (ISID) of a population of {gamma}-ray emitters which accounts for error in measurement of individual spectral indices, and we apply it to EGRET blazars. We find that the most likely Gaussian ISID for EGRET blazars has a mean of 2.27 and a standard deviation of 0.20. We additionally find some indication that FSRQs and BL Lacs may have different ISIDs (with BL Lacs being harder). We also test for spectral index hardening associated with blazar variability for which we find no evidence. Finally, we produce simulated GLAST spectral index datasets and perform the same analyses. With improved statistics due to the much larger number of resolvable blazars, GLAST data will help us determine the ISIDs with much improved accuracy. Should any difference exist between the ISIDs of BL Lacs and FSRQs or between the ISIDs of blazars in the quiescent and flaring states, GLAST data will be adequate to separate these ISIDs at a significance better than 3{sigma}.

  13. Gamma-Ray and Multiwavelength Emission from Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meg Urry

    2011-03-01

    Blazars are now well understood as approaching relativistic jets aligned with the line of sight. The long-time uncertainty about the demographics of blazars is starting to become clearer: since the Fermi blazar sample includes a larger fraction of high-frequency peaked blazars (like the typical X-ray-selected blazars in, say, the Einstein Slew Survey sample) than did the higher-flux-limit EGRET blazar sample, these low-luminosity sources must be more common than their higher luminosity, low-frequency-peaked cousins. Blazar spectral energy distributions have a characteristic two-component form, with synchrotron radiation at radio through optical (UV, X-ray) frequencies and gamma-rays from X-ray through GeV (TeV) energies.Multiwavelength monitoring has suggested that gamma-ray flares can result from acceleration of electrons at shocks in the jet, and there appears to be an association between the creation of outflowing superluminal radio components in VLBI maps and the gamma-ray flares. In many cases, the gamma-ray emission is produced by inverse Compton upscattering of ambient optical-UV photons, although the contribution from energetic hadrons cannot be ruled out. The next few years of coordinated gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, infrared and radio monitoring of blazars will be important for characterizing jet content, structure, and total power.

  14. Searches for very high energy gamma rays from blazars with CANGAROO-III telescope in 2005-2009

    CERN Document Server

    Mizumura, Y; Nishijima, K; Bicknell, G V; Clay, R W; Edwards, P G; Gunji, S; Hara, S; Hayashi, S; Kabuki, S; Kajino, F; Kawachi, A; Kifune, T; Kiuchi, R; Kodani, K; Matsubara, Y; Mizukami, T; Mizumoto, Y; Mori, M; Muraishi, H; Naito, T; Ohishi, M; Yoshida, T; Yoshikoshi, T

    2012-01-01

    We have searched for very high energy (VHE) gamma rays from four blazars using the CANGAROO-III imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope. We report the results of the observations of H 2356-309, PKS 2155-304, PKS 0537-441, and 3C 279, performed from 2005 to 2009, applying a new analysis to suppress the effects of the position dependence of Cherenkov images in the field of view. No significant VHE gamma ray emission was detected from any of the four blazars. The GeV gamma-ray spectra of these objects were obtained by analyzing Fermi/LAT archival data. Non-simultaneous wide range (radio to VHE gamma-ray bands) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) including CANGAROO-III upper limits, GeV gamma-ray spectra, and archival data are discussed using a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model in combination with a external Compton (EC) radiation. The HBLs (H 2356-309 and PKS 2155-304) can be explained by a simple SSC model, and PKS 0537-441 and 3C 279 are well modeled by a combination of SSC and EC model. We find a...

  15. Star formation in Perseus: II. SEDs, classification and lifetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Hatchell, J.; Fuller, G.A.; Richer, J. S.; Harries, T. J.; Ladd, E. F.

    2006-01-01

    Working with the submillimetre continuum map of the Perseus molecular cloud (Hatchell et al. 2005), we aimed to determine the evolutionary stage of each submm core in Perseus, and investigate the lifetimes of these phases. We compile spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from 2MASS, Spitzer IRAC, Michelle, IRAS, SCUBA and Bolocam data. Sources are classified starless/protostellar on the basis of infrared and/or outflow detections and Class I/Class 0 on the basis of Tbol, Lbol/Lsmm and F_{3.6}/...

  16. Preliminary Study on SED Distribution of Tactile Sensation in Fingertip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For investigating the effects of stimuli on the deformations within the soft tissues of fingertips and the dependence of the tactile sensation on the deformations under pressure, in this paper, a finite element model is developed, to simulate the procedure of a fingertip touching a sharp wedge. Characteristics of the strain energy density (SED distribution within the soft issues are analyzed. Simulation results show that the soft tissues of fingertips are very sensitive to stimuli, and the spatial distribution characteristics of strain energy density within soft tissues can best explain the evoked charging rate of mechanoreceptors.

  17. Location and origin of gamma-rays in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, B; Hodgson, J A; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    One of the most intriguing and challenging quests of current astrophysics is to understand the physical conditions and processes responsible for production of high-energy particles, and emission of \\gamma-rays. A combination of high-resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) images with broadband flux variability measurements is a unique way to probe the emission mechanisms at the bases of jets. Our analysis of \\gamma-ray flux variability observed by the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) along with the parsec-scale jet kinematics suggests that the $\\gamma$-ray emission in blazar S5 0716+714 has a significant correlation with the mm-VLBI core flux and the orientation of jet outflow on parsec scales. These results indicate that the inner jet morphology has a tight connection with the observed $\\gamma$-ray flares. An overview of our current understanding on high-energy radiation processes, their origin, and location is presented here.

  18. Particle-acceleration timescales in TeV blazar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Tammi, Joni

    2008-01-01

    Observations of minute-scale flares in TeV Blazars place constraints on particle acceleration mechanisms in those objects. The implications for a variety of radiation mechanisms have been addressed in the literature; in this paper we compare four different acceleration mechanisms: diffusive shock acceleration, second-order Fermi, shear acceleration and the converter mechanism. When the acceleration timescales and radiative losses are taken into account, we can exclude shear acceleration and the neutron-based converted mechanism as possible acceleration processes in these systems. The first-order Fermi process and the converter mechanism working via SSC photons are still practically instantaneous, however, provided sufficient turbulence is generated on the timescale of seconds. We propose stochastic acceleration as a promising candidate for the energy-dependent time delays in recent gamma-ray flares of Markarian 501.

  19. Implications of very rapid TeV variability in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell C; Rees, Martin J

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the implications of rapid (few-minute) variability in the TeV flux of blazars, which has been observed recently with the HESS and MAGIC telescopes. The variability timescales seen in PKS 2155-304 and Mrk 501 are much shorter than inferred light-crossing times at the black hole horizon, suggesting that the variability involves enhanced emission in a small region within an outflowing jet. The enhancement could be triggered by dissipation in part of the black hole's magnetosphere at the base of the outflow, or else by instabilities in the jet itself. By considering the energetics of the observed flares, along with the requirement that TeV photons escape without producing pairs, we deduce that the bulk Lorentz factors in the jets must be >50. The distance of the emission region from the central black hole is less well-constrained. We discuss possible consequences for multi-wavelength observations.

  20. Extragalactic background light absorption signal in the 0.26-10 TeV spectra of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilev, V

    1999-01-01

    Recent observations of the TeV gamma-ray spectra of the two closest active galactic nuclei (AGNs), Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) and Markarian 421 (Mrk 421), by the Whipple and HEGRA collaborations have stimulated efforts to estimate or limit the spectral energy density (SED) of extragalactic background light (EBL) which causes attenuation of TeV photons via pair-production when they travel cosmological distances. In spite of the lack of any distinct cutoff-like feature in the spectra of Mrk 501 and Mrk 421 (in the interval 0.26-10 TeV) which could clearly indicate the presence of such a photon absorption mechanism, we demonstrate that strong EBL attenuation signal (survival probability of 10 TeV photon (~10^{-2}) may still be present in the spectra of these AGNs. This attenuation could escape detection due to a special form of SED of EBL and unknown intrinsic spectra of these blazars. Here we show how the proposed and existing experiments, VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC, STACEE and CELESTE may be able to detect or severely ...

  1. Development of SED Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (SQUEAN)

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sanghyuk; Lee, Hye-In; Park, Woojin; Ji, Tae-Geun; Hyun, Minhee; Choi, Changsu; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong

    2016-01-01

    We describe the characteristics and performance of a camera system, Spectral energy distribution Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (SQUEAN). It was developed to measure SEDs of high redshift quasar candidates (z $\\gtrsim$ 5) and other targets, e.g., young stellar objects, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts, and to trace the time variability of SEDs of objects such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). SQUEAN consists of an on-axis focal plane camera module, an auto-guiding system, and mechanical supporting structures. The science camera module is composed of a focal reducer, a customizable filter wheel, and a CCD camera on the focal plane. The filter wheel uses filter cartridges that can house filters with different shapes and sizes, enabling the filter wheel to hold twenty filters of 50 mm $\\times$ 50 mm size, ten filters of 86 mm $\\times$ 86 mm size, or many other combinations. The initial filter mask was applied to calibrate the filter wheel with high accuracy and we verified that the filter position is repea...

  2. Development of SED Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (SQUEAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghyuk; Jeon, Yiseul; Lee, Hye-In; Park, Woojin; Ji, Tae-Geun; Hyun, Minhee; Choi, Changsu; Im, Myungshin; Pak, Soojong

    2016-11-01

    We describe the characteristics and performance of a camera system, Spectral energy distribution Camera for Quasars in Early Universe (SQUEAN). It was developed to measure SEDs of high-redshift quasar candidates (z ≳ 5) and other targets, e.g., young stellar objects, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts, and to trace the time variability of SEDs of objects such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). SQUEAN consists of an on-axis focal plane camera module, an autoguiding system, and mechanical supporting structures. The science camera module is composed of a focal reducer, a customizable filter wheel, and a CCD camera on the focal plane. The filter wheel uses filter cartridges that can house filters with different shapes and sizes, enabling the filter wheel to hold 20 filters of 50 mm × 50 mm size, 10 filters of 86 mm × 86 mm size, or many other combinations. The initial filter mask was applied to calibrate the filter wheel with high accuracy, and we verified that the filter position is repeatable at much less than one pixel accuracy. We installed and tested 50 nm medium bandwidth filters of 600–1050 nm and other filters at the commissioning observation in 2015 February. We found that SQUEAN can reach limiting magnitudes of 23.3–25.3 AB mag at 5σ in a one-hour total integration time.

  3. Broad Band Spectral Index TeV Blazars Detected by Fermi LAT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong Juan Cha; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We collected the radio, K-band, optical, X-ray, and -ray data for 35 TeV blazars detected by Fermi LAT and studied the possible correlation between different broad band spectral indices (r.o, r.x, ir.o, ir.x, o., x.) in all states (average/high/low). Based on our results, we suggested that the seed photons of the -ray drive from the synchrotron radiation themselves.

  4. Multi-TeV flaring from blazars: Markarian 421 a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, Sarira; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    The TeV blazar Markarian 421 underwent multi-TeV flaring during April 2004 and simultaneously observed in x-ray and TeV energies. It was observed that the TeV outbursts had no counterparts in the lower energies, which implies that this might be an orphan flare. In the context of hadronic model, we have shown that this multi-TeV flaring can be produced due to the interaction of Fermi-accelerated protons of energy $\\lesssim 168$ TeV with the background photons in the low energy tail of the synchrotron self-Compton spectrum of the blazar jet. We fit very well the flaring spectrum with this model. Based on this study, we speculate that Mrk 501 and PG 1553+113 are possible candidates for orphan flaring in the future.

  5. Looking for blazars in a sample of unidentified high-energy emitting Fermi sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, E J; Chavushyan, V; Cellone, S A; Andruchow, I; Bassani, L; Bazzano, A; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Landi, R; Malizia, A; Palazzi, E; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Rodríguez-Castillo, G A; Stephen, J B; Ubertini, P

    2016-01-01

    Context. Based on their overwhelming dominance among associated Fermi gamma ray catalogue sources, it is expected that a large fraction of the unidentified Fermi objects are blazars. Through crossmatching between the positions of unidentified gamma ray sources from the First Fermi Catalog of gamma ray sources emitting above 10 GeV (1FHL) and the ROSAT and Swift XRT catalogues of X ray objects and between pointed XRT observations, a sample of 36 potential associations was found in previous works with less than 15 arcsec of positional offset. One third of them have recently been classified; the remainder, though believed to belong to the blazar class, still lack spectroscopic classifications. Aims. We study the optical spectrum of the putative counterparts of these unidentified gamma ray sources in order to find their redshifts and to determine their nature and main spectral characteristics. Methods. An observational campaign was carried out on the putative counterparts of 13 1FHL sources using medium resolutio...

  6. 基于启发式预测窗口的 UAV 实时航迹规划方法%Real-time method of UAV path planning baSed on heuriStic predictive window

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 张安; 张艳霞

    2015-01-01

    In view of moving target and moving threat,in accordance to the real-time information of target and threat acquired by airborne detector,a real-time method of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)path planning based on heuristic predictive window is proposed.Estimating predictive window based on friend or enemy situa-tion,the state of target and threat can be predicted by Kalman filtering.Objective function is established by using vector angle principle,which can evaluate threats and voyage costs and satisfy the UAV maneuvering con-straints.By negative gradient descent online optimization,a series of UAV heading angle can be gotten,and the path planning is accomplished.The simulation results show that the method can pursuit moving target and avoid moving threat efficiently,which can realize real-time path planning for UAV.%考虑移动目标及移动威胁,根据机载传感器实时获得的目标及威胁信息,提出一种基于启发式预测窗口的无人机实时航迹规划方法。根据敌我态势估算预测窗口,并结合卡尔曼滤波预测目标及威胁的状态,构建基于矢量夹角原理的目标函数,评估威胁及航程代价并满足无人机的机动约束。该方法通过最速下降法在线优化得到一系列的无人机航向角,完成航迹规划。仿真结果表明该方法可以有效追击移动目标,并规避移动威胁,实现无人机实时航迹规划。

  7. Correlation between -Ray and Radio Bands for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. X. Wu; J. H. Fan; S. H. Li

    2014-09-01

    The most identified sources observed by Fermi are blazars (Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacertae objects (BLs). In this paper, we obtained 124 -ray loud blazars with available -ray and radio (core and total) data. It is interesting that the -ray luminosity have a good correlation with the radio luminosity. This phenomenon exists in the core radio luminosity (c) and total radio luminosity (t). The correlation between the -ray and the radio luminosities is still stronger even after we eliminated the redshift effect, which suggests that the -ray radiations in the -ray loud blazars are strongly beamed.

  8. Joint Symbol detection and carrier phaSe recovery algorithm baSed on GibbS Sampler%吉布斯采样联合符号检测和相位恢复算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔良; 郑辉

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of symbol detection in the presence of the unknown carrier phase,a Bayesian de-tection algorithm is proposed based on the Gibbs sampler method.The proposed algorithm draws random samples from the conditional posterior distribution of all unknown quantities,so that the joint symbol detection and carrier phase re-covery is accomplished.A salient feature of the detection algorithm is that it has a soft-input soft-output structure. Therefore,it is well suited for iterative processing in a coded communication system,which allows the Bayesian symbol detector to improve its performance.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outpeforms the traditional non-data-aided (NDA)algorithm significantly.In a Turbo code system,the bit error rate performance gain of the pro-posed algorithm is more than 1 dB compared with the NDA algorithm.%针对未知载波相位的符号检测问题,基于吉布斯样本法处理框架,提出了一种贝叶斯符号检测算法。该算法通过对载波相位、发送符号等未知参数进行条件后验分布采样,实现了符号检测和相位估计的联合处理。该算法的一个显著特点是具有软输入软输出结构,因此在编码系统中可以与信道译码结合进行迭代处理,从而进一步改善符号检测的性能。计算机仿真的结果表明,该算法同传统的非数据辅助(non-data-aided,NDA)算法相比,具有明显的性能优势,在 Turbo 编码条件下,其误码性能相比于 NDA 算法具有大于1 dB 的增益。

  9. Multi-Wavelength Variability Properties of Fermi Blazar S5 0716+714

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N. H. Liao; J. M. Bai; H. T. Liu; S. S. Weng; Liang Chen; F. Li

    2014-09-01

    The multi-wavelength variability properties of blazar S5 0716 + 714 are reported. We construct multi-wavelength light curves of radio, optical, X-ray and -ray including our optical observation at Yunnan Observatories. In all the bands, the light curves show intense variabilities. The variability amplitudes in -ray and optical bands are larger than those in the hard X-ray and radio bands. The characteristic variability timescales at 14.5 GHz, optical, X-ray, and -ray bands are comparable. The variations of the hard X-ray and 14.5GHz emissions are correlated with zero lag, and so are the V band and -ray variations. The multi-wavelength variability behaviours can be naturally explained by the classic leptonic model. We model the average SED of S5 0716 + 714 by leptonic model. The SSC+ERC model using the external seed photons from hot dust or Broad Line Region (BLR) emission is probably favourable avoiding the extreme input parameters from the pure SSC model.

  10. FACT. Flare alerts from blazar monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    One of the major goals of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars. For more than three years, FACT has observed the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 and a few other sources on a regular basis. To understand these highly variable objects, simultaneous data at different wavelengths are very useful. FACT is not only taking part in multi-wavelength campaigns, but also sending alerts to other instruments in case of enhanced flux, to study flares within the multi-wavelength frame. To send fast alerts, an automatic quick look analysis was set up on site. Once the data are written on disk, they are automatically processed, and the analysis results are published on a website where other observers can monitor the activity of the source in the very high energy band. In addition, alerts are sent in case the flux is higher than a certain predefined value. In 2014, more than five alerts have been sent. Results from three years of monitoring are presented.

  11. Central black hole mass determination for blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yu-Hai; Fan Jun-Hui; Huang Yong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we use a method to determine some basic parameters for the (r)-ray loud blazars. The parameters include the central black mass (M), the boosting factor (δ), the propagation angle (φ), the distance along the axis to the site of the (r)-ray production (d). A sample including 32 (r)-ray loud blazars with available variability time scaleshas been used to discuss the above properties. In this method, the (r)-ray energy, the emission size and the property of the accretion disc determine the absorption effect. If we take the intrinsic(γ)-ray luminosity to be λ Times the Eddington luminosity, I.e. Lin(r) =λLedd, then we have the following results: the mass of the black hole is in the range of (0.59 - 67.99) ⊙ (λ= 1.0) or (0.90 - 104.13) ⊙ (λ = 0.1); the boosting factor (δ) in the range of 0.16 - 2.09(λ=1.0) or 0.24 - 2.86 (λ=0.1); the angle (φ) in the range of 9.53 (λ =1.0) or 7.36°=0.1); and the distance (d/Rg) in the range of 22.39 - 609.36 (λ= 1.0) or 17.54 - 541.88 (λ = 0.1).

  12. Superluminal Motion and Polarization in Blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hui Fan; Yong-Jiu Wang; Jiang-He Yang; Cheng-Yue Su

    2004-01-01

    A relativistic beaming model has been successfully used to explain the observed properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In this model there are two emission components, a boosted one and an unbeamed one, shown up in the radio band as the core and lobe components. The luminosity ratio of the core to the lobe is defined as the core-dominance parameter (R = LCore/LLobe) The de-beamed radio luminosity (Ldbjet) in the jet is assumed to be proportional to the unbeamed luminosity (Lub) in the co-moving frame, i.e., f = Ldbjet/Lub and f is determined in our previous paper. We further discuss the relationship between BL Lacertae objects(BLs) and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), which are subclasses of blazars with different degrees of polarization, using the calculated values of the ratio f for a sample of superluminal blazars. We found 1) that the BLs show smaller averaged Doppler factors and Lorentz factors, larger viewing angles and higher coredominance parameters than do the FSRQs, and 2) that in the polarization-core dominance parameter plot (P - log R) the BLs and FSRQs occupy a scattered region, but in a revised plot (logP/c(m) - logR), they gather around two different lines, suggesting that they have some different intrinsic properties.

  13. Detecting the Elusive Blazar Counter-Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Liodakis, I; Angelakis, E

    2016-01-01

    Detection of blazar pc scale counter-jets is difficult, but it can provide invaluable insight into the relativistic effects, radiative processes and the complex mechanisms of jet production, collimation and accelation in blazars. We build on recent populations models (optimized using the MOJAVE apparent velocity and redshift distributions) in order to derive the distribution of jet-to-counter-jet ratios and the flux densities of the counter-jet at different frequencies, in an effort to set minimum sensitivity limits required for existing and future telescope arrays in order to detect these elusive counter-jets. We find that: for the BL Lacs $5\\%$ of their counter-jets have a flux-density higher than 100mJy, $15\\%$ are higher than 10 mJy, and $32\\%$ have higher flux-density than 1 mJy, whereas for the FSRQs $8\\%$ have a flux-density higher than 10mJy, $17\\%$ are higher than 1 mJy, and $32\\%$ are higher than 0.1 mJy (at 15 GHz). Future telescopes like the SKA and newly operating like e-MERLIN and JVLA may detec...

  14. The blazar paradigm and its discontents

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, C D

    2014-01-01

    The standard blazar paradigm consists of a supermassive black hole that expels relativistic jets of magnetized plasma in our direction. This plasma entrains nonthermal synchrotron-emitting electrons that furthermore scatter internally-produced synchrotron photons as well as externally-produced photons from the accretion-disk, the broad-line region, and the infrared-emitting torus. This picture has been very successful in reproducing the two-humped blazar spectral energy distribution. Yet various discontents persist, including (1) ultra-short variability at TeV energies that is much shorter than the black hole's dynamical timescale; (2) very-high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) radiation from FSRQs; (3) evidence for a hard spectral component in high-synchrotron peaked objects, found when deabsorbing the measured VHE spectrum using conventional extragalactic background light (EBL) models; (4) an unusual slowly varying class of BL Lac objects; (5) location of the gamma-ray emission region. Some of these problems can be r...

  15. FACT. Flare alerts from blazar monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major goals of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars. For more than three years, FACT has observed the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 and a few other sources on a regular basis. To understand these highly variable objects, simultaneous data at different wavelengths are very useful. FACT is not only taking part in multi-wavelength campaigns, but also sending alerts to other instruments in case of enhanced flux, to study flares within the multi-wavelength frame. To send fast alerts, an automatic quick look analysis was set up on site. Once the data are written on disk, they are automatically processed, and the analysis results are published on a website where other observers can monitor the activity of the source in the very high energy band. In addition, alerts are sent in case the flux is higher than a certain predefined value. In 2014, more than five alerts have been sent. Results from three years of monitoring are presented.

  16. Case report 512: Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) in two siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziv, N.; Grunebaum, M.; Kornreich, L.; Mimouni, M.

    1989-01-01

    A pair of siblings are presented with the diagnosis of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SED) as a disorder in which the chondrocytes in the various growth plates of the long bones and in certain primary ossification centers (vertebral body) fail to mature. Typical features of enchondromatosis are noted. In addition, the spine shows platyspondyly and vertical radiolucent linear clefts just adjacent to the posterior margins of the vertebral bodies. A 'bubbly' appearance is noted in the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies with irregular sclerotic end plates and a tongue-like configuration of their anterior borders. All laboratory data were normal. The two children may be compared with Schorr's two children reported in 1976 with similar findings. Some degree of dwarfism exists in the children. The tabular summary of the case reported in this article and the two cases of Schorr are appended.

  17. 5 year Global 3-mm VLBI survey of Gamma-ray active blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, J A; Marscher, A P; Jorstad, S G; Marti-Vidal, I; Lindqvist, M; Bremer, M; Sanchez, S; de Vicente, P; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    The Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA) is a network of 14 3\\,mm and 7\\,mm capable telescopes spanning Europe and the United States, with planned extensions to Asia. The array is capable of sensitive maps with angular resolution often exceeding 50\\,$\\mu$as. Using the GMVA, a large sample of prominent $\\gamma$-ray blazars have been observed approximately 6 monthly from later 2008 until now. Combining 3\\,mm maps from the GMVA with near-in-time 7\\,mm maps from the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR program and 2\\,cm maps from the MOJAVE program, we determine the sub-pc morphology and high frequency spectral structure of $\\gamma$-ray blazars. The magnetic field strength can be estimated at different locations along the jet under the assumption of equipartition between magnetic field and relativistic particle energies. Making assumptions on the jet magnetic field configuration (e.g. poloidal or toroidal), we can estimate the separation of the mm-wave "core" and the jet base, and estimate the strength of the magnetic field there. The results ...

  18. Multi-TeV flaring from blazars: Markarian 421 as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sarira; Miranda, Luis Salvador [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rajpoot, Subhash [California State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The TeV blazar Markarian 421 underwent multi-TeV flaring during April 2004 and simultaneously observations in the X-ray and TeV energies were made. It was observed that the TeV outbursts had no counterparts in the lower energy range. One implication of this is that it might be an orphan flare. We show that Fermi-accelerated protons of energy ≤ 168 TeV can interact with the low energy tail of the background synchrotron self-Compton photons in the inner region of the blazar to produce the multi-TeV flare and our results fit very well with the observed spectrum. Based on our study, we predict that the blazars with a deep valley in between the end of the synchrotron spectrum and the beginning of the SSC spectrum are possible candidates for orphan flaring. Future possible candidates for this scenario are the HBLs Mrk 501 and PG 1553 + 113 objects. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of Anosognosia in Alzheimer's Disease Using the Symptoms of Early Dementia-11 Questionnaire (SED-11Q

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohko Maki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective is to propose a brief method to evaluate anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease (AD using the Symptoms of Early Dementia-11 Questionnaire (SED-11Q, a short informant-based screening questionnaire for identifying dementia. Methods: The participants were 107 elderly individuals: 13 with a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR of 0.5, 73 with mild AD of CDR 1, and 21 with moderate AD of CDR 2. The patients and caregivers answered the SED-11Q independently, and the degree of discrepancy indicated the severity of anosognosia. Results: The scores were as follows: caregiver scores were 2.46 ± 1.85 (mean ± SD in CDR 0.5, 6.36 ± 3.02 in CDR 1, and 9.00 ± 1.14 in CDR 2; patient scores were 2.00 ± 1.78, 2.55 ± 2.33, and 1.33 ± 2.46, respectively. Discrepancy was 0.46 ± 1.61, 3.81 ± 3.95, and 7.67 ± 2.87, respectively, and the caregiver assessments were significantly higher than the patient assessments in CDR 1 and CDR 2 (p Conclusion: The SED-11Q serves a dual purpose: caregiver assessment is useful for the screening of dementia, and any discrepancy between the patient and the caregiver assessment is considered as an indication of the severity of anosognosia; this can be informative for caregivers and essential for successful care.

  20. Broadband radio jet emission and variability of γ-ray blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestoras, Ioannis

    2015-07-01

    AGN (Active Galactic Nuclei) and in particular their subclass blazars, are among the most energetic objects observed in the universe, featuring extreme phenomenological characteristics such as rapid broadband flux density and polarization variability, fast super--luminal motion, high degree of polarization and a broadband, double-humped spectral energy distribution (SED). The details of the emission processes and violent variability of blazars are still poorly understood. Variability studies give important clues about the size, structure, physics and dynamics of the emitting region making AGN/blazar monitoring programs of uttermost importance in providing the necessary constraints for understanding the origin of energy production. In this framework the F-gamma program was initiated, monitoring monthly 60 fermi detected AGN/blazars at 12 frequencies between 2.6 and 345GHz since 2007. For the thesis in hand observations and data analysis were performed within the realms of the F-gamma program, using the Effelsberg (EB) 100m and Pico Veleta (PV) 30m telescopes at 10 frequency bands ranging from 2.64 to 142GHz. The cm to short-mm variability/spectral characteristics are monitored for a sample of 59 sources for a period of five years enabling for the first time a detailed study of the observed flaring activity in both the light curve and spectral domains for such a large number of sources and such high cadence. Also the observing systems and methods are introduced as well as the data reduction techniques. The thesis at hand is structured as follows: Chapter 3 presents the reduction methods and post measurement corrections applied to the data such as pointing offsets, gain--elevation and sensitivity corrections as well as specific corrections applied for each of the Effelsberg and Pico Veleta observing systems respectively. Chapter 4 presents the analysis tools and methods that were used such as: variability characteristics, flare amplitudes with a new method for

  1. Simultaneous Estimation of Photometric Redshifts and SED Parameters: Improved Techniques and a Realistic Error Budget

    CERN Document Server

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We seek to improve the accuracy of joint galaxy photometric redshift estimation and spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. By simulating different sources of uncorrected systematic errors, we demonstrate that if the uncertainties on the photometric redshifts are estimated correctly, so are those on the other SED fitting parameters, such as stellar mass, stellar age, and dust reddening. Furthermore, we find that if the redshift uncertainties are over(under)-estimated, the uncertainties in SED parameters tend to be over(under)-estimated by similar amounts. These results hold even in the presence of severe systematics and provide, for the first time, a mechanism to validate the uncertainties on these parameters via comparison with spectroscopic redshifts. We propose a new technique (annealing) to re-calibrate the joint uncertainties in the photo-z and SED fitting parameters without compromising the performance of the SED fitting + photo-z estimation. This procedure provides a consistent estimation of the mu...

  2. Cosmic ray loading and PeV neutrino production in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, B Theodore

    2016-01-01

    IceCube has reported the detection of PeV neutrinos, for which blazars are strong candidate sources. The stacking search of neutrinos for known individual blazars by IceCube, however, puts stringent upper limit to their neutrino flux. Here using the upper limit we constrain the cosmic ray loading factor in blazars, i.e., the ratio of the cosmic ray to bolometric radiation luminosity of blazar jets is $\\xi_{\\rm cr}\\la2$ for flat cosmic ray spectrum. Combined with the blazar density measured by Fermi-LAT, we compute the limit to the diffuse PeV neutrino flux produced by all-sky blazars, and find that blazars, dominated by flat spectrum radio quasars, can only contribute a fraction $\\la10\\%$ of the IceCube detected diffuse PeV neutrino flux. Thus blazars can hardly be the sources of the bulk PeV neutrinos.

  3. Cyclotron Maser Emission from Blazar Jets?

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, M C; Rees, Martin J; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Ergun, Robert E.; Rees, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the production of electron cyclotron maser emission by low-density, highly magnetized plasmas in relativistic jets. The population inversion required to drive cyclotron maser instability could occur in localized, transient sites where hydromagnetic instabilities, shocks, and/or turbulence lead to magnetic mirroring along current-carrying flux tubes. The maser is pumped as electrons are accelerated by the parallel electric field that develops as a result of the mirror. We estimate the maximum brightness temperatures that can be obtained in a single maser site and in an array of many masers operating simultaneously, under conditions likely to apply in blazar jets. Synchrotron absorption, by relativistic electrons within the jet, presents the largest obstacle to the escape of the maser radiation, and may render most of it invisible. However, we argue that a high brightness temperature could be produced in a thin boundary layer outside the synchrotron photosphere, perhaps in the shear layer along the ...

  4. BLAZAR MONITORING WITH THE WATCHER ROBOTIC TELESCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Tisdall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos informaci ́on sobre una intensa campa ̃na de obs ervaciones de blazars de rayos gamma en el ́optico que estamos llevando a cabo capaz de observar variabilidad ́ optica de corta y larga duraci ́on para fuentes del hemisferio sur. Diez fuentes est ́an siendo observadas dent ro de este programa con ́enfasis en PKS 2155-304 y PKS 2005-489 durante el invierno austral de 2013. Ambas fuen tes fueron observadas con 3 filtros (V, R e I obteniendo alrededor de 20,000 im ́agenes durante un period o de 5 meses. Un an ́alisis preliminar parcial de los datos indica que no hubo episodios de gran actividad en la ban da ́optica.

  5. The line emissions and polarization in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The correlations between broad-line emission,polarization,and core-dominance parameters are investigated for a sample of 148 blazars(BL Lacertae objects-BLs and flat spectrum radio quasars-FSRQs). An anti-correlation between the broad-line luminosity and the linear polarization is found. The broad-line and polarization relation can be explained by using a relativistic beaming model,which perhaps suggests that BL Lacs and FSRQs are a single class. We also investigated the relation between the ratio of the broad-line luminosity to the Eddington luminosity and linear polarization,and that between the ratio of the broad-line luminosity to the Eddington luminosity and the core-dominance parameter.

  6. INTEGRAL observations of the GeV blazar PKS1502+106 and of the hard X-ray bright Seyfert Galaxy Mkn841

    CERN Document Server

    Pian, E; Bazzano, A; Beckmann, V; Eckert, D; Ghisellini, G; Pursimo, T; Tagliaferri, G; Tavecchio, F; Tuerler, M; Bianchi, S; Bianchin, V; Hudec, R; Maraschi, L; Raiteri, C M; Soldi, S; Treves, A; Villata, M

    2010-01-01

    Extragalactic nuclear activity is best explored with observations at high energies, where the most extreme flux and spectral variations are expected to occur, witnessing changes in the accretion flow or in the kinematics of the plasma. In active galactic nuclei of blazar type, these variations are the most dramatic. By following blazar outbursts from their onset and by correlating the observed variations at many different wavelengths we can reconstruct the behavior of the plasma and map out the development of the flare within the jet. The advent of the Fermi satellite has allowed the start of a systematic and intensive monitoring program of blazars. Blazar outbursts are very effectively detected by the LAT instrument in the MeV-GeV domain, and these can be promptly followed up with other facilities. Based on a Fermi LAT detection of a high MeV-GeV state, we have observed the blazar PKS 1502+106 with the INTEGRAL satellite between 9 and 11 August 2008. Simultaneous Swift observations have been also accomplishe...

  7. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. VI. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS FROM TNG, WHT, OAN, SOAR, AND MAGELLAN TELESCOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard—Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Landoni, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Chavushyan, V.; Patiño-Álvarez, V. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Apartado Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico); Masetti, N. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Jiménez-Bailón, E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, 22800 Baja California, México (Mexico); Strader, J.; Chomiuk, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Katagiri, H.; Kagaya, M. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); D’Abrusco, R. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Napoli Federico II, via Cinthia 9, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Ricci, F.; La Franca, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-04-15

    Blazars, one of the most extreme classes of active galaxies, constitute so far the largest known population of γ-ray sources, and their number is continuously growing in the Fermi catalogs. However, in the latest release of the Fermi catalog there is still a large fraction of sources that are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs) for which optical spectroscopic observations are necessary to confirm their nature and their associations. In addition, about one-third of the γ-ray point sources listed in the Third Fermi-LAT Source Catalog (3FGL) are still unassociated and lacking an assigned lower-energy counterpart. Since 2012 we have been carrying out an optical spectroscopic campaign to observe blazar candidates to confirm their nature. In this paper, the sixth of the series, we present optical spectroscopic observations for 30 γ-ray blazar candidates from different observing programs we carried out with the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, William Herschel Telescope, Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope, and Magellan Telescopes. We found that 21 out of 30 sources investigated are BL Lac objects, while the remaining targets are classified as flat-spectrum radio quasars showing the typical broad emission lines of normal quasi-stellar objects. We conclude that our selection of γ-ray blazar candidates based on their multifrequency properties continues to be a successful way to discover potential low-energy counterparts of the Fermi unidentified gamma-ray sources and to confirm the nature of BCUs.

  8. BayeSED: A General Approach to Fitting the Spectral Energy Distribution of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Yunkun

    2014-01-01

    We present a newly developed version of BayeSED, a general Bayesian approach to the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting of galaxies. The new BayeSED code has been systematically tested on a mock sample of galaxies. The comparison between estimated and inputted value of the parameters show that BayeSED can recover the physical parameters of galaxies reasonably well. We then applied BayeSED to interpret the SEDs of a large Ks-selected sample of galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field with stellar population synthesis models. With the new BayeSED code, a Bayesian model comparison of stellar population synthesis models has been done for the first time. We found that the model by Bruzual & Charlot (2003), statistically speaking, has larger Bayesian evidence than the model by Maraston (2005) for the Ks-selected sample. Besides, while setting the stellar metallicity as a free parameter obviously increases the Bayesian evidence of both models, varying the IMF has a notable effect only on the Maraston (2005...

  9. Blazar Flaring Patterns (B-FlaP): Classifying Blazar Candidates of Uncertain type in the third Fermi-LAT catalog by Artificial Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaro, G; La Mura, G; Giroletti, M; Thompson, D J; Bastieri, D

    2016-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) is currently the most important facility for investigating the GeV $\\gamma$-ray sky. With Fermi LAT more than three thousand $\\gamma$-ray sources have been discovered so far. 1144 ($\\sim40\\%$) of the sources are active galaxies of the blazar class, and 573 ($\\sim20\\%$) are listed as Blazar Candidate of Uncertain type (BCU), or sources without a conclusive classification. We use the Empirical Cumulative Distribution Functions (ECDF) and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for a fast method of screening and classification for BCUs based on data collected at $\\gamma$-ray energies only, when rigorous multiwavelength analysis is not available. Based on our method, we classify 342 BCUs as BL Lacs and 154 as FSRQs, while 77 objects remain uncertain. Moreover, radio analysis and direct observations in ground-based optical observatories are used as counterparts to the statistical classifications to validate the method. This approach is of interest because of the increasing number ...

  10. Flux and spectral variability of the blazar PKS 2155 -304 with XMM-Newton: Evidence of particle acceleration and synchrotron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwan, Jai; Gupta, A. C.; Papadakis, I. E.; Wiita, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton observations of the high energy peaked blazar, PKS 2155 -304, made on 24 May 2002 in the 0.3-10 keV X-ray band. These observations display a mini-flare, a nearly constant flux period and a strong flux increase. We performed a time-resolved spectral study of the data, by dividing the data into eight segments. We fitted the data with a power-law and a broken power-law model, and in some of the segments we found a noticeable spectral flattening of the source's spectrum below 10 keV. We also performed "time-resolved" cross-correlation analyses and detected significant hard and soft lags (for the first time in a single observation of this source) during the first and last parts of the observation, respectively. Our analysis of the spectra, the variations of photon-index with flux as well as the correlation and lags between the harder and softer X-ray bands indicate that both the particle acceleration and synchrotron cooling processes make an important contribution to the emission from this blazar. The hard lags indicate a variable acceleration process. We also estimated the magnetic field value using the soft lags. The value of the magnetic field is consistent with the values derived from the broad-band SED modeling of this source.

  11. Frequency-dependent core shifts and parameter estimation in Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aditi

    2016-07-01

    We study the core shift effect in the parsec-scale jet of blazars using the 4.8-36.8 GHz radio light curves obtained from four decades of continuous monitoring. From a piecewise Gaussian fit to each flare, time lags between the observation frequencies and spectral indices (α) based on peak amplitudes (A) are determined. Index k is calculated and found to be ˜1, indicating equipartition between the magnetic field energy density and the particle energy density. A mean magnetic field strength at 1 pc (B1) and at the core (Bcore) are inferred which are found to be consistent with previous estimates. The measure of core position offset is also performed by averaging over all frequency pairs. Based on the statistical trend shown by the measured core radius as a function of frequency, we infer that the synchrotron opacity model may not be valid for all cases. A Fourier periodogram analysis yields power-law slopes in the range -1.6 to -3.5 describing the power spectral density shape and gives bend timescales. This result, and both positive and negative spectral indices, indicate that the flares originate from multiple shocks in a small region. Important objectives met in our study include: the demonstration of the computational efficiency and statistical basis of the piecewise Gaussian fit; consistency with previously reported results; evidence for the core shift dependence on observation frequency and its utility in jet diagnostics in the region close to the resolving limit of very long baseline interferometry observations.

  12. Blazars and gamma-ray cosmology: recent and prospective results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteau, Jonathan; Williams, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are dazzling gamma-ray beacons shedding light on some of the darkest mysteries of modern-day astroparticle physics. Some of these mysteries include the light content of the universe, including the UV-IR background, the emission of first stars and of organic molecules; large-scale magnetic fields and their potential primordial origin; spacetime structure, with the potential for Lorentz-invariance violations near the Planck scale; and the search for new interaction channels with photons, e.g. in the form of axion-like particles. These crucial scientific topics can be studied through the signatures of billion-year propagation of GeV-TeV gamma rays that reach Earth from astrophysical sources. We discuss how spectral imprints in data from ground-based and satellite experiments are beginning to answer some of the fundamental questions of gamma-ray cosmology. Recent results, obtained with increased datasets and advanced analysis techniques, are opening the path for future observatories. We examine the areas that remain to be explored, in particular by the proposed Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA.

  13. Radio Variability and Random Walk Noise Properties of Four Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a time series analysis of the long-term radio lightcurves of four blazars: 3C 279, 3C 345, 3C 446, and BL Lacertae. We exploit the data base of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO) monitoring program which provides densely sampled lightcurves spanning 32 years in time in three frequency bands located at 4.8, 8, and 14.5 GHz. Our sources show mostly flat or inverted (spectral indices -0.5 < alpha < 0) spectra, in agreement with optically thick emission. All lightcurves show strong variability on all time scales. Analyzing the time lags between the lightcurves from different frequency bands, we find that we can distinguish high-peaking flares and low-peaking flares in accord with the classification of Valtaoja et al. (1992). The periodograms (temporal power spectra) of the observed lightcurves are consistent with random-walk powerlaw noise without any indication of (quasi-)periodic variability. The fact that all four sources studied are in agreement with...

  14. Probing Acceleration and Turbulence at Relativistic Shocks in Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, Matthew G; Summerlin, Errol J

    2016-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is widely thought to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud active galactic nuclei such as blazars. Such acceleration can produce the non-thermal particles that emit the broadband continuum radiation that is detected from extragalactic jets. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-LAT spectroscopy to pin down the shape of the distribution of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This paper highlights how multi-wavelength spectra spanning optical to X-ray to gamma-ray bands can be used to probe diffusive acceleration in relativistic, oblique, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in blazar jets. Diagnostics on the MHD turbulence near such shocks are obtained using thermal and non-thermal particle distributions resulting from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of DSA. These probes are afforded by the characteristic property that the synchrotron $\

  15. Blazar origin of some IceCube events

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Luis Salvador; Sahu, Sarira

    2015-01-01

    Recently ANTARES collaboration presented a time dependent analysis to a selected number of flaring blazars to look for upward going muon events produced from the charge current interaction of the muon neutrinos. We use the same list of flaring blazars to look for possible positional correlation with the IceCube neutrino events. We observed that six FSRQs and two BL Lac objects from the list are within the error circles of eight IceCube events. We also observed that three FSRQs are within the error circles of more than one event. In the context of photohadronic model we propose that these neutrinos are produced within the nuclear region of the blazar where Fermi accelerated high energy protons interact with the background synchrotron/SSC photons.

  16. Monitoreo de blazares con el Telescopio Whipple de rayos gamma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel, A.; Rovero, A. C.

    Since September 2005, the Whipple 10 m Gamma-ray Telescope has been used primarily to monitor known TeV blazars. The five blazars that have been previously detected at Whipple: Markarian 421, H1426+428, Markarian 501, 1ES 1959+650 and 1ES 2344+514, are monitored each night that they are visible. Alerts are sent to VERITAS any time these objects are flaring to trigger ToO observations. The light curves for these blazars are produced and combined with observations in radio, optical and X-ray in the frame of Multiwavelengths Campaigns. We present here the results for the 2005-08 observations on Mrk421. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. Polarization Swings Reveal Magnetic Energy Dissipation in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haocheng; Boettcher, Markus; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The polarization signatures of the blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, sometimes large (> 180^o) polarization angle swings are observed. We suggest that such p henomena can be interpreted as arising from light-travel-time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change of its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization information in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic-field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.

  18. Observing Simulated Protostars with Outflows: How Accurate are Protostellar Properties Inferred from SEDs?

    CERN Document Server

    Offner, Stella S R; Hansen, Charles E; McKee, Christopher F; Klein, Richard I

    2012-01-01

    The properties of unresolved protostars and their local environment are frequently inferred from spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using radiative transfer modeling. We perform synthetic observations of realistic star formation simulations to evaluate the accuracy of properties inferred from fitting model SEDs to observations. We use ORION, an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) three-dimensional gravito-radiation-hydrodynamics code, to simulate low-mass star formation in a turbulent molecular cloud including the effects of protostellar outflows. To obtain the dust temperature distribution and SEDs of the forming protostars, we post-process the simulations using HYPERION, a state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. We find that the ORION and HYPERION dust temperatures typically agree within a factor of two. We compare synthetic SEDs of embedded protostars for a range of evolutionary times, simulation resolutions, aperture sizes, and viewing angles. We demonstrate that complex, asymmetric gas morphol...

  19. Krasotshnõje snõ Sed Arte Gallery / Irina Butjajeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Butjajeva, Irina

    2007-01-01

    Valgevene kunstnike Jelena Shlegeli, Vladimir Gontsharuki, Dmitri Zenkovitshi ja Dmitri Masli maalinäitus "Valgevene värvilised unenäod" Tallinna galeriis Aatrium. Näitust vahendas Sed Arte Gallery, galerist Olga Ljubaskina

  20. Do siblings always form and evolve simultaneously? Testing the coevality of multiple protostellar systems through SEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Murillo, Nadia M; Tobin, John J; Fedele, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicity is common in field stars and among protostellar systems. Models suggest two paths of formation: turbulent fragmentation and protostellar disk fragmentation. We attempt to find whether or not the coevality frequency of multiple protostellar systems can help to better understand their formation mechanism. The coevality frequency is determined by constraining the relative evolutionary stages of the components in a multiple system. SEDs for known multiple protostars in Perseus were constructed from literature data. Herschel PACS photometric maps were used to sample the peak of the SED for systems with separations >7", a crucial aspect in determining the evolutionary stage of a protostellar system. Inclination effects and the surrounding envelope and outflows were considered to decouple source geometry from evolution. This together with the shape and derived properties from the SED was used to determine each system's coevality as accurately as possible. SED models were used to examine the frequency of...

  1. On the origin of the soft photons of the high-synchrotron-peaked blazar PKS 1424+240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shi-Ju; Zheng, Yong-Gang; Wu, Qingwen; Chen, Liang

    2016-09-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a distant very-high-energy gamma-ray BL Lac object with redshift z = 0.601. It has been found that models utilizing pure synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes normally need extreme input parameters (e.g. a very low magnetic field intensity and an extraordinarily high Doppler factor) to explain this particular object spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In order to avoid these extreme model parameters, various other models have been proposed (e.g. the two-zone SSC model or lepto-hadronic model). In this work, we employ the traditional one-zone leptonic model after including a weak external Compton component in order to explore the simultaneous multiwavelength SEDs of PKS 1424+240 in both the high (2009) and the low (2013) state. We find that the input parameters of the magnetic field and Doppler factor are roughly consistent with those of other BL Lacs if a weak external photon field from either the broad line region (BLR) or the dust torus is assumed. However, the required energy density of seed photons from the BLR or torus is about three orders of magnitude lower than that the energy density estimated from the observations in luminous quasars (e.g. flat-spectrum radio quasars, FSRQs). This result suggests that the BLR/torus in BL Lacs is much weaker than that of luminous FSRQs (but has not fully disappeared), and that the inverse-Compton process of external photons from the BLR/torus may still play a role even in high-synchrotron-peaked blazars.

  2. Redshift estimation from low-resolution prism SEDs with an NGST MOS

    OpenAIRE

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Malumuth, Eliot; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kimble, Randy A.; Bowers, Charles W.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Fettig, Rainer K.; Wesenberg, Richard P.; Mentzell, John E.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the utility of a low resolution prism as a component of a Multi-Object Spectrometer for NASA's proposed Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Low resolution prism spectroscopy permits simultaneous observation of the 0.6-5micron wavelength regime at R~50. To such data we can apply the modern techniques in spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to determine source redshifts, sometimes called ``photometric redshifts''. Low resolution prism observations of galaxy SED's provide a ...

  3. Applying Relativistic Reconnection to Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and luminous flares of non-thermal radiation observed in blazars require an efficient mechanism of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in relativistic active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets. Particle acceleration in relativistic magnetic reconnection is being actively studied by kinetic numerical simulations. Relativistic reconnection produces hard power-law electron energy distributions N(gamma) = N_0 gamma^(-p) exp(-gamma/gamma_max) with index p -> 1 and exponential cut-off Lorentz factor gamma_max ~ sigma in the limit of magnetization sigma = B^2/(4 pi w) >> 1 (where w is the relativistic enthalpy density). Reconnection in electron-proton plasma can additionally boost gamma_max by the mass ratio m_p/m_e. Hence, in order to accelerate particles to gamma_max ~ 10^6 in the case of BL Lacs, reconnection should proceed in plasma of very high magnetization sigma_max >~ 10^3. On the other hand, moderate mean jet magnetization values are required for magnetic bulk acceleration of relativistic jets, sigma...

  4. -Ray Emission from the Extreme Blazar 1ES 0229+200

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Li; T. Kang; Y. G. Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Based on the traditional Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) model, we consider a secondary γ -ray emission component to an extreme blazar 1ES 0229 + 200 for the multiwavelength radiation. By assuming a suitable electron spectra and Inter-Galactic Magnetic Field (IGMF), we obtained excellent fits to observed spectra of the source. This indicated that the observed excess GeV -rays emission can be explained by secondary -rays produced through inverse Compton scattering of ± pairs against Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons.

  5. An Emerging Class of Gamma-ray Flares from Blazars: Beyond One-zone Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; Cavaliere, A.

    2015-11-01

    Blazars radiate from relativistic plasma jets with bulk Lorentz factors {{Γ }}∼ 10, closely aligned along our line of sight. In a number of blazars of the flat-spectrum radio quasar type, such as 3C 454.3 and 3C 279, gamma-ray flares have recently been detected with very high luminosity and few or no counterparts in the optical and soft X-ray bands. They challenge the current one-zone leptonic models of emissions from within the broad-line region (BLR). The latter envisage the optical/X-ray emissions to be produced as synchrotron radiation by the same population of highly relativistic electrons in the jet that would also yield the gamma rays by inverse Compton upscattering of surrounding soft photons. To meet the challenge, we present here a model based on primary synchrotron photons emitted in the BLR by a plasmoid moving out with the jet and scattered back toward the incoming plasmoid by an outer plasma clump acting as a mirror. We consider both a scenario based on a static mirror located outside the BLR and an alternative provided by a moving mirror geometry. We show that mirroring phenomena can locally enhance the density and anisotropy with associated relativistic boosting of soft photons within the jet, so as to trigger bright inverse Compton gamma-ray transients from nearly steady optical/X-ray synchrotron emissions. In this picture we interpret the peculiarly asymmetric light curves of the recently detected gamma-ray flares from 3C 279. Our scenario provides a promising start to understanding the widening class of bright and transient gamma-ray activities in blazars.

  6. Polarization Signatures of Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Shocks in the Blazar Emission Region - I. Force-free Helical Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui; Böttcher, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The optical radiation and polarization signatures in blazars are known to be highly variable during flaring activities. It is frequently argued that shocks are the main driver of the flaring events. However, the spectral variability modelings generally lack detailed considerations of the self-consistent magnetic field evolution modeling, thus so far the associated optical polarization signatures are poorly understood. We present the first simultaneous modeling of the optical radiation and polarization signatures based on 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of relativistic shocks in the blazar emission environment, with the simplest physical assumptions. By comparing the results with observations, we find that shocks in a weakly magnetized environment will largely lead to significant changes in the optical polarization signatures, which are seldom seen in observations. Hence an emission region with relatively strong magnetization is preferred. In such an environment, slow shocks may produce minor flares with ei...

  7. Multi-wavelength Study of Blazars Using Variability as a Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliyan, Kiran S.; Kaur, Navpreet; Chandra, Sunil; Sameer, Sameer; Ganesh, Shashikiran

    2016-09-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are too compact to be resolved by any existing optical telescope facility, making it difficult to understand their structure and the emission processes responsible for their huge energy output. However, variability, one of their characteristic properties, provides a tool to probe the inner regions of AGN. Blazars are the best candidates for such a study, and hence a considerable amount of effort is being made to investigate variability in these sources across the electromagnetic spectrum. Here, using the Mt. Abu infrared observatory (MIRO) blazar monitoring program, we present intra-night, inter-night, and long term aspects of the variability in S5 0716+71, 3C66A, and OJ 287. These stars show significant variability on short (a few tens of mins, to a few hours, to a few days) to long term (months to years) timescales. Based on the light travel time argument, the shortest variability timescales (micro-variability) provide upper limits to the size of the emission region. While S5 0716 shows a very high duty cycle of variability (> 80 %), 3C66A shows a much lower intra day variability (IDV) duty cycle (< 20 %). All three show rapid variations within 2.5 to 3.5 hr, which, perhaps, are generated near the vicinity of black holes. Assuming this, estimates of the masses of the black holes are made at 10^{9} , 8×10^{8}, and 2.7×10^{9} M⨀ for S5 0716+71, 3C66A, and OJ 287, respectively. Multi-wavelength light-curves for the blazar PKS 1510-089 are discussed to infer the emission processes responsible for the recent flaring episodes in this source.

  8. Measurement of the blazar Mrk421 flux above 60 GeV with the CELESTE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CELESTE experiment is based on an ancient solar plant that has been turned into a detector able to detect the particle showers triggered by the interactions of high energy cosmic photons with the earth atmosphere nuclei. The purpose of the CELESTE experiment is to study the emissions of photons by cosmic objects like supernovae remnants, pulsars or active cores of galaxies such as blazars. Blazars are very interesting objects to study because they allow us to investigate matter that is in extreme conditions and to probe a very far past. The aim of this work has been to develop methods for the analysis of the data collected by CELESTE and to validate them. A specific effort has been achieved for the selection of efficient hadronic rejection criteria in order to optimize the sensitivity of the detector. The physics of the detector is detailed from the particle showers to the data analysis. The detector acceptance has been assessed through Monte-Carlo simulations that have been shown that the detection threshold is 30 GeV at the triggering point and 60 GeV after the analysis cuts. The validation tests have been performed on the Crab nebula that is a standard in gamma astronomy for its stability and intensity. CELESTE has been operating since November 1999 in a satisfactory way and has accumulated data on 4 blazars among them Mrk421. Several bursts have been detected on Mrk421 and an average photon flux has been determined. A correlation has been deduced from the activity detected by CELESTE and the activities in the TeV and X ranges which agrees with the simulations

  9. Do siblings always form and evolve simultaneously? Testing the coevality of multiple protostellar systems through SEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, N. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tobin, J. J.; Fedele, D.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Multiplicity is common in field stars and among protostellar systems. Models suggest two paths of formation: turbulent fragmentation and protostellar disk fragmentation. Aims: We attempt to find whether or not the coevality frequency of multiple protostellar systems can help to better understand their formation mechanism. The coevality frequency is determined by constraining the relative evolutionary stages of the components in a multiple system. Methods: Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for known multiple protostars in Perseus were constructed from literature data. Herschel PACS photometric maps were used to sample the peak of the SED for systems with separations ≥7″, a crucial aspect in determining the evolutionary stage of a protostellar system. Inclination effects and the surrounding envelope and outflows were considered to decouple source geometry from evolution. This together with the shape and derived properties from the SED was used to determine each system's coevality as accurately as possible. SED models were used to examine the frequency of non-coevality that is due to geometry. Results: We find a non-coevality frequency of 33 ± 10% from the comparison of SED shapes of resolved multiple systems. Other source parameters suggest a somewhat lower frequency of non-coevality. The frequency of apparent non-coevality that is due to random inclination angle pairings of model SEDs is 17 ± 0.5%. Observations of the outflow of resolved multiple systems do not suggest significant misalignments within multiple systems. Effects of unresolved multiples on the SED shape are also investigated. Conclusions: We find that one-third of the multiple protostellar systems sampled here are non-coeval, which is more than expected from random geometric orientations. The other two-thirds are found to be coeval. Higher order multiples show a tendency to be non-coeval. The frequency of non-coevality found here is most likely due to formation and enhanced by

  10. A Catalog of Candidate High-redshift Blazars for GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Tersi M.; /SLAC /San Francisco State U.

    2006-09-27

    High-redshift blazars are promising candidates for detection by the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). GLAST, expected to be launched in the Fall of 2007, is a high-energy gamma-ray observatory designed for making observations of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy band extending from 10 MeV to more than 200 GeV. It is estimated that GLAST will find several thousand blazars. The motivations for measuring the gamma-ray emission from distant blazars include the study of the high-energy emission processes occurring in these sources and an indirect measurement of the extragalactic background light. In anticipation of the launch of GLAST we have compiled a catalog of candidate high-redshift blazars. The criteria for sources chosen for the catalog were: high radio emission, high redshift, and a flat radio spectrum. A preliminary list of 307 radio sources brighter than 70mJy with a redshift z {ge} 2.5 was acquired using data from the NASA Extragalactic Database. Flux measurements of each source were obtained at two or more radio frequencies from surveys and catalogs to calculate their radio spectral indices {alpha}. The sources with a flat-radio spectrum ({alpha} {le} 0.5) were selected for the catalog, and the final catalog includes about 200 sources.

  11. Long-term optical-infrared color variability of blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term optical and infrared color variability of blazars has been investigated with monitoring data from the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS). The sample in this study consists of 49 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 22 BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs). The fractional variability amplitudes of each source have been calculated in both optical R band and infrared J band. Overall, the variability amplitudes of FSRQs are larger than those of BL Lacs. The results also suggest that the variability amplitude of most FSRQs is larger at a lower energy band (J band) than at a higher one (R band), but the variability amplitude of BL Lacs is larger at the higher energy band. Both types of blazars display color variation along with variability in brightness. However, they show different variation behaviors in general. In the whole data set, 35 FSRQs exhibit redder-when-brighter trends, and 11 FSRQs exhibit opposite trends; 11 BL Lacs follow bluer-when-brighter trends, and seven BL Lacs follow opposite trends. A detailed examination indicates that there are 10 blazars showing redder-when-brighter trends in their low state, and bluer-when-brighter or stable-when-brighter trends in their high state. Some more complicated color behaviors have also been detected in several blazars. The non-thermal jet emission and the thermal emission from the accretion disk are employed to explain the observed color behaviors. (paper)

  12. Relation between Radio Polarization and Spectral Index of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuhai Yuan

    2014-09-01

    University Michigan RAdio Observatory (UMRAO) supply many radio photometries and polarimetries. We select a sample of 81 blazars from UMRAO and analyse the correlations between their spectral index and polarizations. Out of 35 BL Lacs and 46 FSRQs in the sample, 8 and 15 show strong correlation.

  13. Modeling Fermi Large Area Telescope and Multiwavelength Data from Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Finke, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets pointed at the Earth, making them extremely bright at essentially all wavelengths, from radio to gamma rays. I review the modeling of this broadband spectral energy distributions of these objects, and what we have learned, with a focus on gamma rays.

  14. New developments in Seafloor observatory technologies: the SED Module developed in the MONSOON project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italiano, Francesco; Caruso, Cinzia; Corbo, Andrea; Lazzaro, Gianluca; Nigrelli, Alessandra; Sprovieri, Mario; Oliveri, Elvira; Bagnato, Emanuela; Favali, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    In the main frame of the wide range of scientific and technological activities developed by EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory, www.emso-eu.org) Research Infrastructure. The MONSOON project (MONitoraggio SOttOmariNo for environmental and energetic purposes) is a FESR (i.e. European funds for social development) funded project by "Regione Siciliana" (industrial call). The final target of the project is to build up a prototype of a seafloor observatory named SED (Submarine Energy Device),.for which specific technological developments in terms of power consumption reduction, new data logger and new sensors have been planned. The SED observatory is planned to operate down to a water depth of 2000m in an extreme marine environment, with the presence of hydrothermal vents. SED is designed to operate as "stand-alone" or near-real-time observatory when connected to a buoy. The final version of the prototype it is planned to be released in June-July 2015 after tests completion. All the components of the observatory have been planned and laboratory-tested by the INGV and CNR public Research Institutions, while the executive plan and the manufacturing has been carried out by the industrial partnership (Eurobuilding SpA, Hitec2000 srl and Innova SpA). All the partners are going to take care of the tests in a real environment. The selected test site is located in the Aeolian islands where the shallow hydrothermal system off the coasts of the Panarea island provided an easy-to access extreme submarine environment with temperatures up to 140°C, pH less than 3 and electrical conductivity double of the normal sea-water. In this hostile environment we tested all the materials planned to be used to manufacture the different parts of the observatory, as well as all the sensors including those off-the-shelf and those planned within the MONSOON project: probes for acoustic signals, dissolved CO2 data, optical fibre-based temperature and pressure The

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Panchromatic SED of Herschel sources (Berta+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2016-06-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 micron spectral energy distributions of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near- infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected 10 restframe color space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multi-variate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the MAGPHYS code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-IR luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z~1 Lyα-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eight other popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather

  16. An Emerging Class of Gamma-Ray Flares from Blazars: Beyond One-Zone Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tavani, Marco; Cavaliere, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Blazars radiate from relativistic plasma jets with bulk Lorentz factors {\\Gamma} ~ 10, closely aligned along our line of sight. In a number of blazars of the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar type such as 3C 454.3 and 3C 279 gamma-ray flares have recently been detected with very high luminosity and little or no counterparts in the optical and soft X-ray bands. They challenge the current one-zone leptonic models of emissions from within the broad line region. The latter envisage the optical/X-ray emissions to be produced as synchrotron radiation by the same population of highly relativistic electrons in the jet that would also yield the gamma rays by inverse Compton up-scattering of surrounding soft photons. To meet the challenge we present here a model based on primary synchrotron photons emitted in the broad line region by a plasmoid moving out with the jet and scattered back toward the incoming plasmoid by an outer plasma clump acting as a mirror. We consider both a scenario based on a static mirror located outsid...

  17. Why Have Many of the Brightest Radio-loud Blazars Not Been Detected in Gamma-Rays by Fermi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, M. L.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Hovatta, T.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Ros, E.

    2015-09-01

    We use the complete MOJAVE 1.5 Jy sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to examine the gamma-ray detection statistics of the brightest radio-loud blazars in the northern sky. We find that 23% of these AGNs were not detected above 0.1 GeV by the Fermi-LAT during the four-year 3FGL catalog period partly because of an instrumental selection effect and partly due to their lower Doppler boosting factors. Blazars with synchrotron peaks in their spectral energy distributions located below {10}13.4 Hz also tend to have high-energy peaks that lie below the 0.1 GeV threshold of the LAT, and are thus less likely to be detected by Fermi. The non-detected AGNs in the 1.5 Jy sample also have significantly lower 15 GHz radio modulation indices and apparent jet speeds, indicating that they have lower than average Doppler factors. Since the effective amount of relativistic Doppler boosting is enhanced in gamma-rays (particularly in the case of external inverse-Compton scattering), this makes them less likely to appear in the 3FGL catalog. Based on their observed properties, we have identified several bright radio-selected blazars that are strong candidates for future detection by Fermi.

  18. Discovery of a Highly Polarized Optical Microflare in the Blazar S5 0716+714 During 2014 WEBT Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatta, Gopal; Ostrowski, Michal; Stawarz, Łukasz; Arkharov, A A; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Bachev, Rumen; Borman, Erika Benítez G A; Carosati, Daniele; Cason, Andy; Damljanovic, Goran; Dhalla, Sarah; Frasca, Antonio; Hiriart, David; Hu, Shao Ming; Itoh, Ryosuke; Jableka, Damian; Jorstad, Svetlana; Kawabata, Koji; Klimanov, Sergey; Kurtanidze, Omar; Larionov, Valeri; Laurence, Douglas; Leto, Giuseppe; Markowitz, Alex; Marscher, Alan P; Moody, J; Moritani, Yuki; Ohlert, Johannes; Di Paola, Andrea; Rizzi, Nicola; Sadun, Alberto; Sasada, Mahito; Sergeev, Sergey G; Strigachev, Anton; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Troitsky, Ivan; Ui, Takahiro; Villata, Massimo; Vince, Oliver; Webb, James; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Zola, Staszek

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of low-amplitude flux variations in blazars on hourly timescales, commonly known as microvariability, is still a widely debated subject in high-energy astrophysics. Several competing scenarios have been proposed to explain such occurrences, including various jet plasma instabilities leading to the formation of shocks, magnetic reconnection sites, and turbulence. In this letter we present the results of our detailed investigation of a prominent, five-hour-long optical microflare detected during recent WEBT campaign in 2014, March 2-6 targeting the blazar 0716+714. After separating the flaring component from the underlying base emission continuum of the blazar, we find that the microflare is highly polarized, with the polarization degree $\\sim (40-60)\\%$$\\pm (2-10)\\%$, and the electric vector position angle $\\sim (10 - 20)$deg$\\pm (1-8)$deg slightly misaligned with respect to the position angle of the radio jet. The microflare evolution in the $(Q,\\,U)$ Stokes parameter space exhibits a looping b...

  19. Lorentz factor distribution of blazars from the optical Fundamental plane of black hole activity

    CERN Document Server

    Saikia, Payaswini; Falcke, Heino

    2016-01-01

    Blazar radiation is dominated by a relativistic jet which can be modeled at first approximation using just two intrinsic parameters - the Lorentz factor $\\Gamma$ and the viewing angle $\\theta$. Blazar jet observations are often beamed due to relativistic effects, complicating the understanding of these intrinsic properties. The most common way to estimate blazar Lorentz factors needs the estimation of apparent jet speeds and Doppler beaming factors. We present a new and independent method of constructing the blazar Lorentz factor distribution, using the optical fundamental plane of black hole activity. The optical fundamental plane is a plane stretched out by both the supermassive black holes and the X-ray binaries, in the 3D space provided by their [OIII] line luminosity, radio luminosity and black hole mass. We use the intrinsic radio luminosity obtained from the optical fundamental plane to constrain the boosting parameters of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) blazar sample. We find a blazar b...

  20. The dust SED of dwarf galaxies I. The case of NGC 4214

    CERN Document Server

    Hermelo, Israel; Relaño, Monica; Tuffs, Richard J; Popescu, Cristina C; Groves, Brent

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to establish the physical origin of dust heating and emission based on radiation transfer models, which self-consistently connect the emission components from diffuse dust and the dust in massive star forming regions. NGC 4214 is a nearby dwarf galaxy with a large set of ancillary data, ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) to radio, including maps from SPITZER, HERSCHEL and detections from PLANCK. We mapped this galaxy with MAMBO at 1.2 mm at the IRAM 30 m telescope. We extract separate dust emission components for the HII regions (plus their associated PDRs on pc scales) and for the diffuse dust (on kpc scales). We analyse the full UV to FIR/submm SED of the galaxy using a radiation transfer model which self-consistently treats the dust emission from diffuse and SF complexes components, considering the illumination of diffuse dust both by the distributed stellar populations, and by escaping light from the HII regions. While maintaining consistency with the framework of this mode...

  1. Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ligong Mi; Xiang Liu

    2014-09-01

    We have carried out the Gaussian model-fitting to 15 GHz VLBAcores for a sample of blazars from the MOJAVE database, analysed the correlations in the model-fitted parameters and studied the variability properties for different group of sources. We found that the Fermi LAT-detected blazars have on an average higher position angle changes of cores than the non-LAT detected blazars, and that the LAT-detected ones are associated with more variable cores in flux density.

  2. Data reduction and analysis of the multiband optical images of the blazar Mrk180

    OpenAIRE

    M Sabzi Sarvestani; AR Aghaee

    2012-01-01

     Nearly simultaneous multiband monitoring of blazars is very limited and most studies reported in literature are conflicting, too. Although optical variability on intra-night timescales is now a well established phenomenon for blazars, its relationship to long-term variability remains unclear. Possible clues could come from monitoring the optical spectrum for correlation with brightness. The presence or absence of bluer color in blazar color index, when its luminosity is increased on intra-ni...

  3. Data reduction and analysis of the multiband optical images of the blazar Mrk180

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sabzi Sarvestani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  Nearly simultaneous multiband monitoring of blazars is very limited and most studies reported in literature are conflicting, too. Although optical variability on intra-night timescales is now a well established phenomenon for blazars, its relationship to long-term variability remains unclear. Possible clues could come from monitoring the optical spectrum for correlation with brightness. The presence or absence of bluer color in blazar color index, when its luminosity is increased on intra-night and inter-night timescales, can provide interesting clues to the origin of blazar variability from hourly to much longer timescales. Luminosity of blazars varies at all wavelengths over a variety of timescales. Various models have been proposed to explain blazar variability. However, the mechanism responsible for variability is not conclusively understood. One factor which can discriminate the various variability models is that of color (spectral index variations of blazars. This factor may help to better understand the mechanism of blazar variability. Therefore, it was initially proposed, by the second author of this paper to the OHP observatory, to carry out quasi-simultaneous multiband monitoring of one of the brightest blazer, Mrk180. Fortunately, it was accepted by the scientific team of the observatory and the 1.20m telescope time was allocated to the project from 23 to 28 April 2009. Because of the weather conditions, we could only monitor this blazar for three nights. Raw data processing and data reduction were performed using the standard system of Europe Southerner Observatory, ESO-MIDAS. We considered two reference stars and measured the magnitudes of the reference stars and the blazar Mrk 180 and then plotted the light curves and the color index diagrams. The light curves showed the optical variations of the blazar. The maximum amplitude value of its variations was 0.185 mag for the V filter. Investigating the blazar color index shows its

  4. Irradiation of Astrophysical Objects - Efficiency of Thermally Driven Winds on SED and Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Dyda, Sergei; Waters, Tim; Proga, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general method for the self consistent calculation of the hydrodynamics of an astrophysical object irradiated by a radiation field with an arbitrary strength and spectral energy distribution (SED). Using the XSTAR photoionization code we calculate heating and cooling rates as a function of gas photoionization parameter and temperature for several examples of SEDs: bremsstrahlung, blackbody, hard and soft state XRBs, Type 1 and Type 2 AGN. We numerically investigate the properties of a spherical object heated by a uniform radiation field using the MHD code Athena++. We find that in all cases explored a wind settles into a transonic, steady state. The wind evolves along the radiative heating equilibrium curve until adiabatic cooling effects become important and the flow departs from radiative equilibrium. The efficiency with which the radiation field transfers energy to the wind is dependent on the SED of the external source, particularly the relative flux of soft X-rays. If the flow is heated very...

  5. Peak of spectral energy distribution play an important role in intra-day variability of Blazars?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Alok C.; Kalita, Nibedita; Gaur, Haritma; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Blazars can be divided into two sub-classes namely high energy and low energy peaked blazars. In spectral energy distribution, the first synchrotron hump of the former class peaks in UV/X-rays and in IR/optical bands for the latter class. The peak of the spectral energy distribution seems to be responsible for variability properties of these classes of blazars in X-ray and optical bands. Since, in low energy peaked blazars, the X-ray bands lies well below the synchrotron hump, one expects tha...

  6. Search for neutrino emission of gamma-ray flaring blazars with the ANTARES telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Dornic, D

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. The background and point source sensitivity can be drastically reduced by selecting a narrow time window around the assumed neutrino production period. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei with their jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, the so- called blazars, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources, since they are among the most likely sources of the observed ultra high energy cosmic rays and therefore, neutrinos and gamma-rays may be produced in hadronic interactions with the surrounding medium. The gamma-ray light curves of blazars measured by the LAT instrument on-board the Fermi satellite reveal important time variability information. A strong correlation between the gamma-ray and the neutrino fluxes is expected in this scenario. An unbinned method based on the minimization of a likelihood ...

  7. SDSSJ14584479+3720215: A Benchmark JHK Blazar Light Curve from the 2MASS Calibration Scans

    CERN Document Server

    Davenport, James R A; Becker, Andrew C; Macleod, Chelsea L; Cutri, Roc M

    2015-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are well-known to exhibit flux variability across a wide range of wavelength regimes, but the precise origin of the variability at different wavelengths remains unclear. To investigate the relatively unexplored near-IR variability of the most luminous AGNs, we conduct a search for variability using well sampled JHKs-band light curves from the 2MASS survey calibration fields. Our sample includes 27 known quasars with an average of 924 epochs of observation over three years, as well as one spectroscopically confirmed blazar (SDSSJ14584479+3720215) with 1972 epochs of data. This is the best-sampled NIR photometric blazar light curve to date, and it exhibits correlated, stochastic variability that we characterize with continuous auto-regressive moving average (CARMA) models. None of the other 26 known quasars had detectable variability in the 2MASS bands above the photometric uncertainty. A blind search of the 2MASS calibration field light curves for AGN candidates based on fitting C...

  8. Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-04-15

    It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos. PMID:27127950

  9. Search for Neutrino Emission from Gamma-Ray Flaring Blazars with the ANTARES Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Adrián-Martínez, S; Albert, A; André, M; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; Astraatmadja, T; Aubert, J-J; Baret, B; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bigongiari, C; Bogazzi, C; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouhou, B; Bouwhuis, M C; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Camarena, F; Capone, A; Cârloganu, C; Carminati, G; Carr, J; Cecchini, S; Charif, Z; Charvis, Ph; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Core, L; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; Curtil, C; De Bonis, G; Decowski, M P; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti, Q; Drouhin, D; Eberl, T; Emanuele, U; Enzenhöfer, A; Ernenwein, J-P; Escoffier, S; Fehn, K; Fermani, P; Ferri, M; Ferry, S; Flaminio, V; Folger, F; Fritsch, U; Fuda, J-L; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Geyer, K; Giacomelli, G; Giordano, V; Gómez-González, J P; Graf, K; Guillard, G; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G; van Haren, H; Hartman, J; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Hößl, J; Hsu, C C; de Jong, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kavatsyuk, O; Kooijman, P; Kopper, C; Kouchner, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lambard, G; Larosa, G; Lattuada, D; Lefèvre, D; Lim, G; Presti, D Lo; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Louis, F; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Meli, A; Montaruli, T; Morganti, N; Moscoso, L; Motz, H; Neff, M; Nezri, E; Palioselitis, D; Păvălaş, G E; Payet, K; Payre, P; Petrovic, J; Piattelli, P; Picot-Clemente, N; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Presani, E; Racca, C; Reed, C; Riccobene, G; Richardt, C; Richter, R; Rivière, C; Robert, A; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Ruiz-Rivas, J; Rujoiu, M; Russo, G V; Salesa, F; Samtleben, D F E; Sapienza, P; Schöck, F; Schuller, J-P; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Shanidze, R; Simeone, F; Spies, A; Spurio, M; Steijger, J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Sánchez-Losa, A; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Toscano, S; Vallage, B; Vallée, C; Van Elewyck, V; Vannoni, G; Vecchi, M; Vernin, P; Visser, E; Wagner, S; Wijnker, G; Wilms, J; de Wolf, E; Yepes, H; Zaborov, D; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. Radio-loud active galactic nuclei with jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, the so-called blazars, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources. The all-sky monitor LAT on board the Fermi satellite probes the variability of any given gamma-ray bright blazar in the sky on time scales of hours to months. Assuming hadronic models, a strong correlation between the gamma-ray and the neutrino fluxes is expected. Selecting a narrow time window on the assumed neutrino production period can significantly reduce the background. An unbinned method based on the minimization of a likelihood ratio was applied to a subsample of data collected in 2008 (61 days live time). By searching for neutrinos during the high state periods of the AGN light curve, the sensitivity to these sources was improved by about a facto...

  10. Time-Dependent Electron Acceleration in Blazar Transients: X-Ray Time Lags and Spectral Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Tiffany R; Finke, Justin D

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation from blazar jets often displays strong variability, extending from radio to $\\gamma$-ray frequencies. In a few cases, this variability has been characterized using Fourier time lags, such as those detected in the X-rays from Mrk~421 using BeppoSAX. The lack of a theoretical framework to interpret the data has motivated us to develop a new model for the formation of the X-ray spectrum and the time lags in blazar jets based on a transport equation including terms describing stochastic Fermi acceleration, synchrotron losses, shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, and spatial diffusion. We derive the exact solution for the Fourier transform of the electron distribution, and use it to compute the Fourier transform of the synchrotron radiation spectrum and the associated X-ray time lags. The same theoretical framework is also used to compute the peak flare X-ray spectrum, assuming that a steady-state electron distribution is achieved during the peak of the flare. The model parameters are...

  11. Turbulent, Extreme Multi-Zone Model for Simulating Flux and Polarization Variability in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Marscher, Alan P

    2013-01-01

    The author presents a model for variability of the flux and polarization of blazars in which turbulent plasma flowing at a relativistic speed down a jet crosses a standing conical shock. The shock compresses the plasma and accelerates electrons to energies up to gamma(max) > 1E4 times their rest-mass energy, with the value of gamma(max) determined by the direction of the magnetic field relative to the shock front. The turbulence is approximated in a computer code as many cells, each with a uniform magnetic field whose direction is selected randomly. The density of high-energy electrons in the plasma changes randomly with time in a manner consistent with the power spectral density of flux variations derived from observations of blazars. The variations in flux and polarization are therefore caused by continuous noise processes rather than by singular events such as explosive injection of energy at the base of the jet. Sample simulations illustrate the behavior of flux and linear polarization versus time that su...

  12. Radiation and Polarization Signatures of 3D Multi-zone Time-dependent Hadronic Blazar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haocheng; Böttcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We present a newly developed time-dependent three-dimensional multi-zone hadronic blazar emission model. By coupling a Fokker-Planck based lepto-hadronic particle evolution code 3DHad with a polarization-dependent radiation transfer code, 3DPol, we are able to study the time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures of a hadronic blazar model for the first time. Our current code is limited to parameter regimes in which the hadronic $\\gamma$-ray output is dominated by proton synchrotron emission, neglecting pion production. Our results demonstrate that the time-dependent flux and polarization signatures are generally dominated by the relation between the synchrotron cooling and the light crossing time scale, which is largely independent of the exact model parameters. We find that unlike the low-energy polarization signatures, which can vary rapidly in time, the high-energy polarization signatures appear stable. As a result, future high-energy polarimeters may be able to distinguish such signatures from t...

  13. Optical flux behaviour of a sample of Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, E J; Cellone, S A; Combi, J A; Zibecchi, L; Martí, J; Romero, G E; Muñoz-Arjonilla, A J; Luque-Escamilla, P; Sánchez-Sutil, J R

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We aim at investigating the time-behaviour of a sample of gamma-ray blazars. We present the results from a 13 month-long optical photometry monitoring campaign of the blazars PKS 0048-097, PKS 0754+100, HB89 0827+243, PKS 0851+202, PKS 1253-055, PKS1510-089, PKS 1749+096, PKS 2230+114 and PKS 2251+158. Methods: We analyse the variability of each object, focusing on different time-scales (long term, short term, and microvariability), in an attempt to achieve a statistical comparison of the results. Results: After applying a geometric model to explain the variability results, we found that it is possible that a slight change in the direction of the jet generates the variations detected in some objects during this campaign.

  14. Properties of Blazar Jets Defined by an Economy of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, Maria; Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute power of a relativistic black hole jet includes the power in the magnetic field, the leptons, the hadrons, and the radiated photons. A power analysis of a relativistic radio/γ-ray blazar jet leads to bifurcated leptonic synchrotron-Compton (LSC) and leptohadronic synchrotron (LHS) solutions that minimize the total jet power. Higher Doppler factors with increasing peak synchrotron frequency are implied in the LSC model. Strong magnetic fields {B}\\prime ≳ 100 {{G}} are found for the LHS model with variability times ≲ {10}3 {{s}}, in accord with highly magnetized, reconnection-driven jet models. Proton synchrotron models of ≳ 100 {GeV} blazar radiation can have sub-Eddington absolute jet powers, but models of dominant GeV radiation in flat spectrum radio quasars require excessive power.

  15. QUASI-PERIODICITIES AT YEAR-LIKE TIMESCALES IN BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A. [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Covino, S. [INAF—Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Dotti, M. [Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  16. The disk-jet connection of Fermi 2LAC blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L. M.; Xie, Zh. H.; Yi, T. F.; Xue, R.; Xu, Y. B.; Liu, W. G.; Wang, X. H.

    2016-07-01

    In this article, an estimator of the radiative power for blazars is proposed and is used in the study of the link between the accretion disk power and jet power. The results lend support to the disk-jet symbiosis. Since the blazars are strongly beamed sources, our results suggest that the Doppler enhancement of the sources needs to be removed to obtain physically reasonable results in the disk-jet connection study. The results after de-beaming suggest that FSRQs are accreting in the radiatively efficient regime, while the BL Lac population shows a flatter dependence between jet power and disk power, possibly due to a mixture of sources in the radiatively efficient (the broad lined BL Lacs) and inefficient (the bulk of the BL Lac population) regimes.

  17. Extremely violent optical microvariability in blazars: fact or fiction?

    CERN Document Server

    Cellone, S A; Araudo, A T; Cellone, Sergio A.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Araudo, Anabella T.

    2006-01-01

    Variability amplitudes larger than 1 magnitude over time-scales of a few tens of minutes have recently been reported in the optical light-curves of several blazars. In order to independently verify the real occurrence of such extremely violent events, we undertook an observational study of a selected sample of three blazars: PKS 0048-097, PKS 0754+100, and PKS 1510-089. Possible systematic error sources during data acquisition and reduction were carefully evaluated. We indeed found flux variability at intra-night time-scales in all three sources, although no extremely violent behaviour, as reported by other authors, was detected. We show that an incorrect choice of the stars used for differential photometry will, under fairly normal conditions, lead to spurious variability with large amplitudes on short time-scales. Wrong results of this kind can be avoided with the use of simple error-control techniques.

  18. A BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO FLARE IN MRK 231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio monitoring of the broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) Mrk 231 from 13.9 GHz to 17.6 GHz detected a strong flat spectrum flare. Even though BALQSOs are typically weak radio sources, the 17.6 GHz flux density doubled in ≈150 days, from ≈135 mJy to ≈270 mJy. It is demonstrated that the elapsed rise time in the quasar rest frame and the relative magnitude of the flare is typical of some of the stronger flares in blazars that are usually associated with the ejection of discrete components on parsec scales. The decay of a similar flare was found in a previous monitoring campaign at 22 GHz. We conclude that these flares are not rare. The implication is that Mrk 231 seems to be a quasar in which the physical mechanism that produces the broad absorption line wind is in tension with the emergence of a fledgling blazar

  19. A BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO FLARE IN MRK 231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Cormac; Hurley-Walker, Natasha [ICRAR-Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia, 6102 (Australia); Punsly, Brian [1415 Granvia Altamira, Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 (United States); O' Dea, Christopher P., E-mail: brian.punsly1@verizon.net, E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com [Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    Radio monitoring of the broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) Mrk 231 from 13.9 GHz to 17.6 GHz detected a strong flat spectrum flare. Even though BALQSOs are typically weak radio sources, the 17.6 GHz flux density doubled in ≈150 days, from ≈135 mJy to ≈270 mJy. It is demonstrated that the elapsed rise time in the quasar rest frame and the relative magnitude of the flare is typical of some of the stronger flares in blazars that are usually associated with the ejection of discrete components on parsec scales. The decay of a similar flare was found in a previous monitoring campaign at 22 GHz. We conclude that these flares are not rare. The implication is that Mrk 231 seems to be a quasar in which the physical mechanism that produces the broad absorption line wind is in tension with the emergence of a fledgling blazar.

  20. Probing Acceleration and Turbulence at Relativistic Shocks in Blazar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Böttcher, Markus; Summerlin, Errol J.

    2016-09-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is widely thought to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud active galactic nuclei such as blazars. Such acceleration can produce the non-thermal particles that emit the broadband continuum radiation that is detected from extragalactic jets. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-LAT spectroscopy to pin down the shape of the distribution of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This paper highlights how multi-wavelength spectra spanning optical to X-ray to gamma-ray bands can be used to probe diffusive acceleration in relativistic, oblique, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in blazar jets. Diagnostics on the MHD turbulence near such shocks are obtained using thermal and non-thermal particle distributions resulting from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of DSA. These probes are afforded by the characteristic property that the synchrotron νFν peak energy does not appear in the gamma-ray band above 100 MeV. We investigate self-consistently the radiative synchrotron and inverse Compton signatures of the simulated particle distributions. Important constraints on the diffusive mean free paths of electrons, and the level of electromagnetic field turbulence are identified for three different case study blazars, Mrk 501, BL Lacertae and AO 0235+164. The X-ray excess of AO 0235+164 in a flare state can be modelled as the signature of bulk Compton scattering of external radiation fields, thereby tightly constraining the energy-dependence of the diffusion coefficient for electrons. The concomitant interpretations that turbulence levels decline with remoteness from jet shocks, and the probable significant role for non-gyroresonant diffusion, are posited.

  1. Storm-Time Strong Field-Aligned Ion Upflow in Region of the SED Plume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-Gang; DENG Xiao-Hua; WANG Jing-Fang

    2008-01-01

    report the observations from the GPS TEC and DMSP F-13 satellites showing that very strong upward field-aligned (FA) ion velocity and flux in the outer region of the storm-enhanced density (SED) occurred in the event of the geomagnetic storm on 29-31 May 2003. By a method of coordinate transformation, upward FA ion velocities in excess of 250m/s are obtained from the observations of the DMSP F-13 satellite. Further, an FA ion flux is estimated to be about 4.5×1013ions/m2s in the dusk sector. The estimated FA ion velocity and flux provide a powerful direct proof to support the scenario that there is a strong coupling of particles between the ionosphere and plasmasphere in the region of the SED plume. In the process, FA ion flux transports from the ionosphere to the plasmasphere in the region of the SED plume. Therefore, the plume of SED in the ionosphere provides an important source to the enhanced density of O+ in the storm-time plasmasphere.

  2. SED-dependent Galactic Extinction Prescription for Euclid and Future Cosmological Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Galametz, Audrey; Paltani, Stephane; Apostolakos, Nikolaos; Dubath, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The outcome of upcoming cosmological surveys will depend on the accurate estimates of photometric redshifts. In the framework of the implementation of the photo-z algorithm for Euclid, we are exploring new avenues to improve template-fitting methods. The paper focusses on the prescription of the extinction of source light by dust in the Milky Way. Since Galactic extinction strongly correlates with wavelength and photometry is commonly obtained in broad-band filters, the amount of absorption depends on the source SED, a point often neglected as the SED is not known a-priori. A consequence of this is that the observed E(B-V) (=A_B-A_V) will be different from the E(B-V) used to normalise the absorption law k_lambda (=A_lambda/E(B-V)). Band-pass corrections are required to renormalise the law for a given SED. We assess the band-pass corrections of a range of SEDs and find they vary by up to 20%. We investigate how dust-to-reddening scaling factors depend of the sources used for their calibration. We derive scalin...

  3. Fitting the full SED of galaxies to put constraints on dust attenuation and star formation determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buat, Veronique; Giovannoli, Elodie; Boquien, Mederic; Heinis, Sébastien

    2012-08-01

    The combination of far-IR and UV-optical rest-frame data has proved to be very efficient to extract physical parameters from the SEDs of galaxies. Using Herschel and ancillary data from the Herschel Reference Survey and GOODS-Herschel Key Projects, we show how dust attenuation properties can be estimated inside local galaxies as well as in the distant Universe.

  4. Localizing the $\\gamma$ rays from blazar PKS 1502+106

    CERN Document Server

    Karamanavis, Vassilis; Krichbaum, T P; Angelakis, E; Hodgson, J; Myserlis, I; Nestoras, I; Zensus, J A; Ungerechts, H; Sievers, A

    2015-01-01

    Blazars are among the most variable objects in the universe. They feature energetic jets of plasma that launch from the cores of these active galactic nuclei (AGN), triggering activity from radio up to gamma-ray energies. Spatial localization of the region of their MeV/GeV emission is a key question in understanding the blazar phenomenon. The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 1502+106 has exhibited extreme and correlated, radio and high-energy activity that triggered intense monitoring by the Fermi-GST AGN Multi-frequency Monitoring Alliance (F-GAMMA) program and the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) down to $\\lambda$3 mm (or 86 GHz), enabling the sharpest view to date towards this extreme object. Here, we report on preliminary results of our study of the gamma-ray loud blazar PKS 1502+106, combining VLBI and single dish data. We deduce the critical aspect angle towards the source to be $\\theta_{\\rm c} = 2.6^{\\circ}$, calculate the apparent and intrinsic opening angles and constrain the distance of the ...

  5. Blazars distance indications from Fermi and TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    Prandini, Elisa; Maraschi, Laura; Mariotti, Mose'; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    A new method to constrain the distance of blazars with unknown redshift using combined observations in the GeV and TeV regimes will be presented. The underlying assumption is that the Very High Energy (VHE) spectrum corrected for the absorption of TeV photons by the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) via photon-photon interaction should still be softer than the extrapolation of the gamma-ray spectrum observed by Fermi/LAT. Starting from the observed spectral data at VHE, the EBL-corrected spectra are derived as a function of the redshift z and fitted with power laws. Comparing the redshift dependent VHE slopes with the power law fits to the LAT data an upper limit to the source redshift can be derived. The method is applied to all TeV blazars detected by LAT with known distance and an empirical law describing the relation between the upper limits and the true redshifts is derived. This law can be used to estimate the distance of unknown redshift blazars: as an example, the distance of PKS 1424+240 is inferr...

  6. High redshift Fermi blazars observed by GROND and Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G; Tagliaferri, G; Greiner, J; Schady, P; Rau, A; Foschini, L; Tavecchio, F; Ghirlanda, G; Sbarrato, T

    2012-01-01

    We observed 5 gamma-ray loud blazars at redshift greater than 2 with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) onboard the Swift satellite, and the Gamma-Ray burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) instrument. These observations were quasi simultaneous, usually within a few hours. For 4 of these blazars the near-IR to UV data show the presence of an accretion disc, and we could reliably estimate its accretion rate and black hole mass. One of them, PKS 1348+007, was found in an extraordinarily high IR-optical state, almost two orders of magnitude brighter than at the epoch of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations. For all the 5 quasars the physical parameters of the jet emitting zone, derived by applying a one-zone emission model, are similar to that found for the bulk of other gamma-ray loud quasars. With our observations we have X-ray data for the full sample of blazars at z>2 present in the Fermi 2-yrs (2LAC) catalog. This allows to have a rather complete view of th...

  7. Blazar candidates beyond redshift 4 observed by Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarrato, T; Tagliaferri, G; Foschini, L; Nardini, M; Tavecchio, F; Gehrels, N

    2014-01-01

    We have selected SDSS J222032.50+002537.5 and SDSS J142048.01+120545.9 as best blazar candidates out of a complete sample of extremely radio-loud quasars at z>4, with highly massive black holes. We observed them and a third serendipitous candidate with similar features (PMN J2134-0419) in the X-rays with the Swift/XRT telescope, to confirm their blazar nature. We observed strong and hard X-ray fluxes in all three cases. This allowed us to classify our candidates as real blazars, being characterized by large Lorentz factors (~13) and very small viewing angles (~3deg). All three sources have black hole masses exceeding 10^9Msun and their classification provides intriguing constraints on supermassive black hole formation and evolution models. We confirm our earlier suggestion that there are different formation epochs of extremely massive black holes hosted in jetted (z~4) and non-jetted systems (z~2.5).

  8. pulSED: pulsed sonoelectrodeposition of fractal nanoplatinum for enhancing amperometric biosensor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, M; Schwalb, N; Rong, Y; Vanegas, D C; Garland, N; Tan, M; Yamaguchi, H; Claussen, J C; McLamore, E S

    2016-06-01

    For the first time, we combine pulsed electrodeposition with out-of-phase pulsed sonication for controlled synthesis of fractal nanoplatinum structures as the transducer layer in electrochemical sensing. We develop and test this technique, called bimodal pulsed sonoelectrodeposition (pulSED), as a simple approach for creating highly conductive transducer nanometals for use in sensing and biosensing. We first compared the efficiency of pulSED nanoplatinum to other pulsed electrodeposition techniques, and then explored the effect of duty cycle and plating time on electroactive surface area and nanoparticle size/morphology. The developed pulSED nanoplatinum displayed fractal features with a relatively homogenous size distribution (26.31 ± 1.3 nm) and extremely high electroactive surface (0.28 ± 0.04 cm(2)) relative to other electroplating techniques (up to one order of magnitude higher). A high duty cycle (900 mHz) promotes formation of stable nanostructures (including fractal nanostructures) and reduces amorphous structure formation due to bubble cavitation and enhanced mass transport of metal ions to the electrode surface. To demonstrate the applicability of the pulSED technique, non-enzymatic and enzymatic sensors were developed for measuring hydrogen peroxide and glucose. The sensitivity for non-enzymatic peroxide sensing (3335 ± 305 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)), non-enzymatic glucose sensing (73 ± 14 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)) and enzymatic glucose biosensing (155 ± 25 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)) was higher than, or similar to, other nanomaterial-mediated amperometric sensors reported in the literature. The pulSED technique is a one pot method for tunable synthesis of nanometal structures as a transducer layer in electrochemical sensing and biosensing that requires no precursors or capping agents, and can be carried out at room temperature with inexpensive hardware. PMID:27121177

  9. The Extremes in Intra-Night Blazar Variability: The S4 0954+65 Case

    CERN Document Server

    Bachev, Rumen; Semkov, Evgeni; Dimitrova, Rosa Victoria Muñoz; Latev, Georgi; Spassov, Borislav; Petrov, Blagovest

    2016-01-01

    We present results of optical observations of the extremely violently variable blazar S4 0954+65 on intra-night time scales. The object showed flux changes of up to 100% within a few hours. Time delays between optical bands, color changes and "rms-flux" relations are investigated and the results are discussed in terms of existing models of blazar variability.

  10. Correlation between Spectral Index and Doppler Factor for a Sample of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Tao; J. H. Fan; H. J. Pan; D. X. Wu; S. H. Li

    2014-09-01

    Relativistic beaming effect is important for blazars. In a very recent work, -ray Doppler factors were calculated for a sample of Fermi blazars (Fan et al. 2013). In this work, we investigated the correlation between the Doppler factor and the effective spectral index, 4OX, and found an anticorrelation between them.

  11. Synchrotron pair halo and echo emission from blazars in the cosmic web: application to extreme TeV blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Oikonomou, Foteini; Kotera, Kumiko

    2014-01-01

    High frequency peaked high redshift blazars, are extreme in the sense that their spectrum is particularly hard and peaks at TeV energies. Standard leptonic scenarios require peculiar source parameters and/or a special setup in order to account for these observations. Electromagnetic cascades seeded by ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) in the intergalactic medium have also been invoked, assuming a very low intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). Here we study the synchrotron emission of UHECR secondaries produced in blazars located in magnetised environments, and show that it can provide an alternative explanation to these challenged channels, for sources embedded in structured regions with magnetic field strengths of the order of $10^{-7}$ G. To demonstrate this, we focus on three extreme blazars: 1ES 0229+200, RGB J0710+591, and 1ES 1218+304. We model the expected gamma-ray signal from these sources through a combination of numerical Monte Carlo simulations and solving the kinetic equations of the particles...

  12. Systematic Study of Gamma-ray bright Blazars with Optical Polarization and Gamma-ray Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Uemura, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T; Kawabata, Koji S; Madejski, Grzegorz M; Schinzel, Frank K; Kanda, Yuka; Shiki, Kensei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Miho; Moritani, Yuki; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ohsugi, Takashi; Sasada, Mahito; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Takata, Koji; Ui, Takahiro; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are highly variable active galactic nuclei which emit radiation at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays. Polarized radiation from blazars is one key piece of evidence for synchrotron radiation at low energies and it also varies dramatically. The polarization of blazars is of interest for understanding the origin, confinement, and propagation of jets. However, even though numerous measurements have been performed, the mechanisms behind jet creation, composition and variability are still debated. We performed simultaneous gamma-ray and optical photopolarimetry observations of 45 blazars between Jul. 2008 and Dec. 2014 to investigate the mechanisms of variability and search for a basic relation between the several subclasses of blazars. We identify a correlation between the maximum degree of optical linear polarization and the gamma-ray luminosity or the ratio of gamma-ray to optical fluxes. Since the maximum polarization degree depends on the condition of the magnetic field (chaotic or ordered), thi...

  13. RoboPol: Unveiling the Physics of Blazar Jets from Skinakas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, V.

    2016-06-01

    Blazars are powered by relativistic jets and radiate exclusively through extreme, nonthermal particle interactions, energized by accretion onto supermassive black holes. Despite intensive observational and theoretical efforts over the last four decades, the details of blazar astrophysics remain elusive. The launch of NASA's Fermi Gammaray Space Telescope in 2008 provided an unprecedented opportunity for the systematic study of blazar jets and has prompted large-scale blazar monitoring efforts across wavelengths. In such a multi-wavelength campaign, a novel effect was discovered: fast changes in the optical polarization during gamma-ray flares. Optical emission from blazars is significantly polarized and the polarization probes the magnetic field structure in the jet. For this reason, such polarization rotations reveal important information about the evolution of disturbances responsible for blazar flares. The RoboPol program for the polarimetric monitoring of statistically complete samples of blazars was developed in 2013 to systematically study this class of events. RoboPol is a collaboration between the University of Crete, Caltech, the Max-Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in India, and the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Poland. Using a novel polarimeter operating at the 1.3m telescope of the Skinakas Observatory in Crete, it has succeeded in its 3 years of operation in taking optopolarimetric rotations of blazars from novelty status to a well-studied phenomenon that can be used to answer long-standing questions in our theoretical understanding of jets. We review the RoboPol program and its most important results in the classification of the optopolarimetric properties of blazars, the statistical properties of polarization rotations, and their relation to gamma-ray activity in blazar jets.

  14. First Study of Combined Blazar Light Curves with FACT and HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    For studying variable sources like blazars, it is crucial to achieve unbiased monitoring, either with dedicated telescopes in pointing mode or survey instruments. At TeV energies, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory monitors approximately two thirds of the sky every day. It uses the water Cherenkov technique, which provides an excellent duty cycle independent of weather and season. The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) monitors a small sample of sources with better sensitivity, using the imaging air Cherenkov technique. Thanks to its camera with silicon-based photosensors, FACT features an excellent detector performance and stability and extends its observations to times with strong moonlight, increasing the duty cycle compared to other imaging air Cherenkov telescopes. As FACT and HAWC have overlapping energy ranges, a joint study can exploit the longer daily coverage given that the observatories' locations are offset by 5.3 hours. Furthermore, the better sensitivity of FACT adds a fine...

  15. Ideological Cooperation versus Cold War Realpolitik - The SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valur Ingimundarson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relationship between the East German Socialist Unity Party (SED and the Icelandic Socialist Party (SEI during the Cold War. It details the structural limitations of ideological cooperation between the two parties – Iceland’s NATO membership and the U.S. military presence – as well as its possibilities, especially in the 1950s, through the governmental participation of the SEI. Special attention is devoted to the role played by Einar Olgeirsson, the chairman of the SEI 1939–1968, who was instrumental in forging and developing political, economic, and cultural ties with the SED and the German Democratic Republic. The article argues that this experiment in transnational solidarity between socialist parties from two radically different political systems failed in the end due to several factors, including ideological differences and the political and economic development in Iceland.

  16. Optical Spectroscopic Observations of γ-Ray Blazar Candidates. III. The 2013/2014 Campaign in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, M.; Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Masetti, N.; Smith, H. A.; Tosti, G.; Chomiuk, L.; Strader, J.; Cheung, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of our exploratory program carried out with the southern Astrophysical Research telescope aimed at associating counterparts and establishing the nature of the Fermi Unidentified γ-ray Sources (UGSs). We selected the optical counterparts of six UGSs from the Fermi catalog on the basis of our recently discovered tight connection between infrared and γ-ray emission found for the γ-ray blazars detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer in its all-sky survey. We perform for the first time a spectroscopic study of the low-energy counterparts of the Fermi UGSs, in the optical band, confirming the blazar-like nature of the whole sample. We also present new spectroscopic observations of six active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources which appear to be BL Lac objects. Finally, we report the spectra collected for six known γ-ray blazars belonging to the Roma BZCAT that were obtained to establish their nature or better estimate their redshifts. Two interesting cases of high redshift and extremely luminous BL Lac objects (z ≥ 1.18 and z ≥ 1.02, based on the detection of Mg ii intervening systems) are also discussed. Based on observations obtained at the southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  17. Disentangling protostellar evolutionary stages in clustered environments using Spitzer-IRS spectra and comprehensive SED modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Forbrich, Jan; Tappe, Achim; Robitaille, Thomas; Muench, August A.; Teixeira, Paula S.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Stolte, Andrea; Lada, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    When studying the evolutionary stages of protostars that form in clusters, the role of any intracluster medium cannot be neglected. High foreground extinction can lead to situations where young stellar objects (YSOs) appear to be in earlier evolutionary stages than they actually are, particularly when using simple criteria like spectral indices. To address this issue, we have assembled detailed SED characterizations of a sample of 56 Spitzer-identified candidate YSOs in the clusters NGC 2264 ...

  18. The Rest Frame UV to Optical Colors and SEDs of z~4-7 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Valentino; Labbe, Ivo; Illingworth, Garth; Oesch, Pascal; Franx, Marijn; Magee, Dan

    2011-01-01

    We use the ultra-deep HUDF09 and the deep ERS data from the HST WFC3/IR camera, along with the wide area Spitzer/IRAC data from GOODS-S to derive SEDs of star-forming galaxies from the rest-frame UV to the optical over a wide luminosity range (M_1500 ~ -21 to M_1500 ~ -18) from z ~ 7 to z ~ 4. The sample contains ~ 400 z ~ 4, ~ 120 z ~ 5, ~ 60 z ~ 6, and 36 prior z ~ 7 galaxies. Median stacking enables the first comprehensive study of very faint high-z galaxies at multiple redshifts (e.g., [3.6] = 27.4 +/- 0.1 AB mag for the M_1500 ~ -18 sources at z ~ 4). At z ~ 4 our faint median-stacked SEDs reach to ~ 0.06 L*(z=4) and are combined with recently published results at high luminosity L > L* that extend to M_1500 ~ -23. We use the observed SEDs and template fits to derive rest frame UV-to-optical colors (U - V) at all redshifts and luminosities. We find that this color does not vary significantly with redshift at a fixed luminosity. The UV-to-optical color does show a weak trend with luminosity, becoming redd...

  19. Lorentz factor distribution of blazars from the optical Fundamental Plane of black hole activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Payaswini; Körding, Elmar; Falcke, Heino

    2016-09-01

    Blazar radiation is dominated by a relativistic jet which can be modelled at first approximation using just two intrinsic parameters - the Lorentz factor Γ and the viewing angle θ. Blazar jet observations are often beamed due to relativistic effects, complicating the understanding of these intrinsic properties. The most common way to estimate blazar Lorentz factors needs the estimation of apparent jet speeds and Doppler beaming factors. We present a new and independent method of constructing the blazar Lorentz factor distribution, using the optical Fundamental Plane of black hole activity. The optical Fundamental Plane is a plane stretched out by both the supermassive black holes and the X-ray binaries, in the 3D space provided by their [O III] line luminosity, radio luminosity and black hole mass. We use the intrinsic radio luminosity obtained from the optical Fundamental Plane to constrain the boosting parameters of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey blazar sample. We find a blazar bulk Lorentz factor distribution in the form of a power law as N(Γ) ∝ Γ-2.1 ± 0.4 for the Γ range of 1-40. We also discuss the viewing angle distribution of the blazars and the dependence of our results on the input parameters.

  20. Target of Opportunity observations of blazars with H.E.S.S.$\\ $

    CERN Document Server

    Cerruti, M; Chakraborty, N; Davids, I D; Füßling, M; Jankowsky, F; Lenain, J P; Meyer, M; Prokoph, H; Wagner, S; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M

    2016-01-01

    The very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) sky is dominated by blazars, radio-loud active galactic nuclei whose relativistic jet is closely aligned with the line of sight. Blazars are characterized by rapid variability at all wavelengths and thus an important part of the H.E.S.S. blazar program is devoted to target of opportunity (ToO) observations. H.E.S.S. triggers blazar ToOs on the basis of publicly available blazar observations at longer wavelengths (optical, X-rays, and $\\gamma$-rays), from private optical observations with the ATOM telescope, and from private communications by $\\gamma$-ray partners in the context of MoUs. In 2015, about 70 hours of H.E.S.S. data were taken in the form of blazar ToOs, which represents ~15$\\%$ of all extragalactic observations. In this contribution, we present the H.E.S.S. blazar ToO status, and we focus on two major results from the 2015 season: the detection of VHE emission from 3C 279 during the June 2015 flare, and the discovery of PKS 0736+017 as a new VHE quasar.

  1. INTEGRAL and Swift Observations of Blazars in Outburst

    OpenAIRE

    Pian, Elena; Foschini, Luigi; Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    The blazars 3C 454.3, PKS 0537-441 and PKS 2155-304 are traditionally known to be among the most active sources of this class. They emit at all frequencies, up to the gamma-rays, and are good probes of multiwavelength nuclear variability. The first two have also luminous broad emission line regions. We have recently monitored them with various facilities, including Swift and INTEGRAL, and have interpreted their variations with models of non-thermal radiation from a relativistic jet. In partic...

  2. Optical and X-ray Variability of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, A C

    2015-01-01

    Here we report our recent results of variability studies in optical and X-ray bands of three blazars namely 3C 273, PKS 2155 - 304 and BL Lacertae with XMM-Newton. We found large amplitude optical to X-rays variability in 3C 273, and PKS 2155 - 304 on year time scale. In 3C 273, we noticed that synchrotron cooling and particle acceleration are at work at different epoch of observations. In PKS 2155 - 304, spectral energy distribution from optical to X-ray is fitted with LPPL (log parabolic + power law) model. In BL Lacertae, optical flux and degree of polarization were anti-correlated.

  3. Optical and X-ray Variability of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A. C.

    Here we report our recent results of variability studies in optical and X-ray bands of three blazars namely 3C 273, PKS 2155 -- 304 and BL Lacertae with XMM-Newton. We found large amplitude optical to X-rays variability in 3C 273, and PKS 2155 -- 304 on year time scale. In 3C 273, we noticed that synchrotron cooling and particle acceleration are at work at different epoch of observations. In PKS 2155 -- 304, spectral energy distribution from optical to X-ray is fitted with LPPL (log parabolic + power law) model. In BL Lacertae, optical flux and degree of polarization were anti-correlated.

  4. Photopolarimetry of Blazar 3C454.3 from MIRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliyan, Ks; Ganesh, S.; Chandra, Sunil; Joshi, Uc

    2009-12-01

    The Blazar 3C 454.3 has been active in Gamma-rays, optical and X- rays since Sept. 2009 ( Atel #2181, #2200, #2201). Very recently, it has been reported to be flaring up in the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray energy regimes(ATel #2322; #2325; #2326; #2328; #2329; #2330; #2332). In Atel #2333, Sasada et al report optical behaviour of this source on Dec 1.9 with brightness (V=14.06+/-0.02 and degree of polarization 6.0+/-0.1% on the same epoch.

  5. Inversion of Flow Depth and Speed from Tsunami Deposits using TsuSedMod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiske, M.; Weiss, R.; Roskosch, J.; Bahlburg, H.

    2008-12-01

    The global evolution of a tsunami wave train can be expressed by the sum of local effects along a tsunami- wave beam. The near-shore evolution of tsunami is very complex as the waves interact with the sea-bottom sediments. Filtered through offshore and onshore erosion and deposition, this evolution is recorded in the coastal area by topographical changes, local erosion and tsunami deposits. Recordable sedimentary on-site features include grain-size distributions and horizontal thickness trends. Immediately after an event, indicators of flow depth and run up extent, such as water marks on buildings and vegetation, debris and plastic bags caught in trees and swash lines, can be measured in the field. A direct measurement of the overland flow velocity is usually not possible. However, regarding recent tsunami events, videos of surveillance cameras or witness accounts helped to estimate the characteristics of overland flow. For historical and paleotsunami events such information is not directly available. Jaffe & Gelfenbaum (2007) developed an inversion model (TsuSedMod) to estimate flow depth and speed based upon the grain-size distribution and the thickness of onshore tsunami sediments. This model assumes a steady distribution of sediment in the water column, for which the appication of the Rouse equation is possible. Further simplifications, especially concerning the turbulence structure, are based on the mixing- length theory by Prandtl, the standard approximation in physical sedimentology. We calculated flow depths for sediments left behind by the 2004 Sumatra-Tsunami in India and Kenya (Weiss & Bahlburg, 2006; Bahlburg & Weiss, 2007) and by the 2006 Java-Tsunami on Java (Piepenbreier et al., 2007), using the model of Jaffe and Gelfenbaum (2007). Estimated flow depth were compared with measured data to extend the validation procedure. This extension is needed to gain confidence and understanding before the next step is taken to compute the near

  6. A FAST FLARE AND DIRECT REDSHIFT CONSTRAINT IN FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF THE BLAZAR S5 0716+714

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714 is one of the most studied blazars on the sky due to its active variability and brightness in many bands, including very-high-energy gamma rays. We present here two serendipitous results from recent far-ultraviolet spectroscopic observations by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). First, during the course of our 7.3 hr HST observations, the blazar increased in flux rapidly by ∼40% (–0.45 mag hr–1) followed by a slower decline (+0.36 mag hr–1) to previous FUV flux levels. We model this flare using asymmetric flare templates and constrain the physical size and energetics of the emitting region. Furthermore, the spectral index of the object softens considerably during the course of the flare from αν ≈ –1.0 to αν ≈ –1.4. Second, we constrain the source redshift directly using the ∼30 intervening absorption systems. A system at z = 0.2315 is detected in Lyα, Lyβ, O VI, and N V and defines the lower bound on the source redshift. No absorbers are seen in the remaining spectral coverage (0.2315 Lyα ∼< 0.47) and we set a statistical upper bound of z < 0.322 (95% confidence) on the blazar. This is the first direct redshift limit for this object and is consistent with literature estimates of z = 0.31 ± 0.08 based on the detection of a host galaxy.

  7. The gamma-ray Doppler factor determinations for a Fermi blazar sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hui Fan; Jiang-He Yang; Yi Liu; Jing-Yi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Observations suggest that γ-ray loud blazars are strongly beamed.The Fermi mission has detected many of blazars,which provide us with a good opportunity to investigate the emission mechanism and the beaming effect in the γ-ray region.We compiled the X-ray observations for 138 Fermi blazars (54 flat spectrum radio quasars,36 low-peaked BL Lacertae objects,and 48 high-peaked BL Lacertae objects) and calculated their Doppler factors,δγ.It is interesting that the calculated Doppler factors,δγ,are strongly correlated with the γ-ray luminosity.

  8. Radio Variability of First 3-Month Fermi Blazars at 5 GHz: Affected by Interstellar Scintillation?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X. Liu; Z. Ding; J. Liu; N. Marchili; T. P. Krichbaum

    2011-03-01

    Blazars from the first-three-months Fermi-AGN list were observed with the Urumqi 25-m radio telescope at 5 GHz in IDV (Intra-Day Variability) mode and inter-month observation mode. A significant correlation between the flux density at 5 GHz and the -ray intensity for the Fermi-LAT detected blazars is seen. There is a higher IDV detection rate in Fermi detected blazars than those reported for other samples. Stronger variability appears at lower galactic latitudes; IDV appears to be stronger in weaker sources, indicating that the variability is affected by interstellar scintillation.

  9. Historical-critical Re-integration of the SED's Annual Reports into ECOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolimund, Remo; Fäh, Donat

    2014-05-01

    With the establishment of the Swiss Earthquake Commission (SEC) as early as 1878, Switzerland has one of the oldest traditions of continual macroseismic data collection. Due to the use of a single intensity scale (Rossi-Forel) in a period spanning from the early 1880s into the 1960s this dataset might be considered as one of the most temporally extended stock of rather homogeneous macroseismic data. The work of the SEC and the Swiss Seismological Service (SED), established in 1914 as its successor organization, is relatively well documented in a series of annual reports (1879-1963; 1972-1974) which was assumed to have been adequately integrated in the original parametric catalogue version that had been compiled for the first Swiss Seismic Hazard map in the mid-1970s. For pragmatic reasons this earlier period of systematic scientific earthquake observation in Switzerland has thus not been addressed in-depth in the first phases of the historical-critical revision of the Earthquake Catalogue of Switzerland (ECOS-02; ECOS-09) and the reassessment process has mainly been limited to the complete revision of the damaging earthquakes with an assumed epicentral intensity of more than V (EMS-98). In the reassessment of events with a maximum intensity of less than VI (EMS) for the period 1878-1900 we have, however, realized that the wealth of macroseismic data gathered in the annuals is only incompletely integrated in ECOS. Moreover, from a methodological perspective, a significant part of the parametric information from the catalogue version compiled in the 1970s is questionable as the process of their determination is neither documented nor reproducible and thus lacking intersubjective traceability as a key criterion for qualitative research. Empirically, a considerable part of the catalogue data proved to be inconsistent with the critical examination of the information documented in the annual reports for example with regard to the appraisal of certainties. The comparison

  10. Discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the blazar 1ES 1727+502 with the MAGIC Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; Backes, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadamek, A; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Jankowski, F; Kadenius, V; Klepser, S; Knoetig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Masbou, J; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the Costamante & Ghisellini (2002) predictions we investigated if the blazar 1ES 1727+502 (z=0.055) is emitting very high energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma rays. We observed the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 in stereoscopic mode with the two MAGIC telescopes during 14 nights between May 6th and June 10th 2011, for a total effective observing time of 12.6 hours. For the study of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) we use simultaneous optical R-band data from the KVA telescope, archival UV/optical and X-ray observations by instruments UVOT and XRT on board of the Swift satellite and high energy (HE, 0.1 GeV - 100 GeV) gamma-ray data from the Fermi-LAT instrument. We detect, for the first time, VHE gamma-ray emission from 1ES 1727+502 at a statistical significance of 5.5 sigma. The integral flux above 150 GeV is estimated to be (2.1\\pm0.4)% of the Crab Nebula flux and the de-absorbed VHE spectrum has a photon index of (2.7\\pm0.5). No significant short-term variability was found in an...

  11. Through the Ring of Fire: A Study of the Origin of Orphan Gamma-ray Flares in Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Joshi, Manasvita

    2014-06-01

    Blazars exhibit flares across the electromagnetic spectrum. Many gamma-ray flares are highly correlated with flares detected at optical wavelengths; however, a small subset appear to occur in isolation, with no counterpart in the other wave bands. These "orphan" gamma-ray flares challenge current models of blazar variability, most of which are unable to reproduce this type of behavior. We present numerical calculations of the time variable emission of a blazar based on a proposal by Marscher et al. (2010) to explain such events. In this model, a plasmoid ("blob") consisting of a power-law distribution of electrons propagates relativistically along the spine of a blazar jet and passes through a synchrotron emitting ring of electrons representing a shocked portion of the jet sheath. This ring supplies a source of seed photons that are inverse-Compton scattered by the electrons in the moving blob. As the blob approaches the ring, the photon density in the co-moving frame of the plasma increases, resulting in an orphan gamma-ray flare that then dissipates as the blob passes through and then moves away from the ring. The model includes the effects of radiative cooling and a spatially varying magnetic field. Support for the plausibility of this model is provided by observations by Marscher et al.(2010) of an isolated gamma-ray flare that was correlated with the passage of a superluminal knot through the inner jet of quasar PKS 1510-089. Synthetic light-curves produced by this new model are compared to the observed light-curves from this event. In addition, we present polarimetric observations that point to the existence of a jet sheath in the quasar 3C 273. A rough estimate of the bolometric luminosity of the sheath results in a value of ~10^45 erg s^-1 10% of the jet luminosity). This inferred sheath luminosity indicates that the jet sheath in 3C 273 can provide a significant source of seed photons that need to be taken into account when modeling the non

  12. Correlated variability in the blazar 3C 454.3

    CERN Document Server

    Bonning, E W; Urry, C M; Buxton, M; Fossati, G; Maraschi, L; Coppi, P; Scalzo, R; Isler, J; Kaptur, A

    2008-01-01

    The blazar 3C 454.3 was revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to be in an exceptionally high flux state in July 2008. Accordingly, we performed a multi-wavelength monitoring campaign on this blazar using IR and optical observations from the SMARTS telescopes, optical, UV and X-ray data from the Swift satellite, and public-release gamma-ray data from Fermi. We find an excellent correlation between the IR, optical, UV and gamma-ray light curves, with a time lag of less than one day. The amplitude of the infrared variability is comparable to that in gamma-rays, and larger than at optical or UV wavelengths. The X-ray flux is not strongly correlated with either the gamma-rays or longer wavelength data. These variability characteristics find a natural explanation in the external Compton model, in which electrons with Lorentz factor gamma~10^(3-4) radiate synchrotron emission in the infrared-optical and also scatter accretion disk or emission line photons to gamma-ray energies, while much cooler electrons ...

  13. A Blazar-Like Radio Flare in Mrk 231

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Cormac; O'Dea, Christopher; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Wrobel, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Radio monitoring of the broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) Mrk 231 from 13.9 GHz to 17.6 GHz detected a strong flat spectrum flare. Even though BALQSOs are typically weak radio sources, the 17.6 GHz flux density doubled in ~150 days, from ~135 mJy to ~270 mJy. It is demonstrated that the elapsed rise time in the quasar rest frame and the relative magnitude of the flare is typical of some of the stronger flares in blazars that are associated with the ejection of discrete components on parsec scales. The decay of a similar flare was found in a previous monitoring campaign at 22 GHz. We conclude that these flares are not rare and indicate the likely ejection of a new radio component that can be resolved from the core with Very Long Baseline Interferometry. The implication is that Mrk 231 seems to be a quasar in which the physical mechanism that produces the BAL wind is in tension with the emergence of a fledgling blazar.

  14. Optical flux behaviour of a sample of Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, E. J.; Andruchow, I.; Cellone, S. A.; Combi, J. A.; Zibecchi, L.; Martí, J.; Romero, G. E.; Muñoz-Arjonilla, A. J.; Luque-Escamilla, P.; Sánchez-Sutil, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We aim at investigating the time-behaviour of a sample of gamma-ray blazars. We present the results from a 13 month-long optical photometry monitoring campaign of the blazars PKS 0048-097, PKS 0754+100, [HB89] 0827+243, PKS 0851+202, PKS 1253-055, PKS 1510-089, PKS 1749+096, PKS 2230+114 and PKS 2251+158. Methods: We analyse the variability of each object, focusing on different time-scales (long term, short term, and microvariability), in an attempt to achieve a statistical comparison of the results. Results: After applying a geometric model to explain the variability results, we found that it is possible that a slight change in the direction of the jet generates the variations detected in some objects during this campaign. Differential photometry results used in the statistical analysis reported in Table 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A21

  15. Shaping the GeV-spectra of bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Hunger, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The non-thermal spectra of jetted active galactic nuclei show a variety of shapes in their low- and high energy components. In some of the brightest Fermi-LAT blazars, prominent spectral breaks at a few GeV have been regularly detected, which is inconsistent with conventional cooling effects. We study the effects of continuous time-dependent injection of electrons into the jet with differing rates, durations, locations, and power-law spectral indices, and evaluate its impact on the ambient emitting particle spectrum at a given snapshot time in the framework of a leptonic blazar emission model. The emitting electron spectrum is calculated by Compton cooling the continuously injected electrons, where target photons are assumed to be provided by the accretion disk and broad line region. We calculate the non-thermal photon spectra produced by inverse Compton scattering of these external target radiation fields using the full Compton cross-section in the head-on approximation. By means of a comprehensive parameter...

  16. Long-term optical-infrared color variability of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bing-Kai; Zhao, Xiao-Yun; Dai, Ben-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The long-term optical and infrared color variability of blazars has been investigated with the SMARTS monitoring data. The sample in this study consists of 49 flat spectrum radio quasars and 22 BL Lac objects. The fractional variability amplitudes of each source have been calculated in both optical R band and infrared J band. Overall, the variability amplitudes of FSRQs are larger than those of BL Lac objects. The results also suggest that the variability amplitude of most FSRQs is larger at lower energy band (J band) than at higher one (R band), while the variability amplitude of BL Lacs are larger at higher energy band. Two types of blazars both display color variation along with the variability in brightness. However, they show different variation behaviors in general. With the whole data set, 35 FSRQs exhibit redder-when-brighter trends, and 11 FSRQs exhibit opposite trends; 11 BL Lacs follow bluer-when-brighter trends, and 7 BL Lacs follow opposite trends. The examination in detail shows that there are 1...

  17. Effect of Particle Acceleration Process on the Flare Characteristics of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Bhattacharyya; S. Sahayanathan; C. L. Kaul

    2002-03-01

    Following the kinetic equation approach, we study the flare processes in blazars in the optical-to-X-ray region, considering energy dependent acceleration time-scale of electrons and synchrotron and adiabatic cooling as their dominant energy loss processes.

  18. RoboPol: Do optical polarization rotations occur in all blazars?

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, D; Papadakis, I; Kiehlmann, S; Liodakis, I; Panopoulou, G V; Pearson, T J; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Hovatta, T; Joshi, V; King, O G; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Mahabal, A; Marecki, A; Myserlis, I; Paleologou, E; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderski, E; Prabhudesai, S; Ramaprakash, A; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present a new set of optical polarization plane rotations in blazars, observed during the third year of operation of RoboPol. The entire set of rotation events discovered during three years of observations is analysed with the aim of determining whether these events are inherent in all blazars. It is found that the frequency of the polarization plane rotations varies widely among blazars. This variation cannot be explained either by a difference in the relativistic boosting or by selection effects caused by a difference in the average fractional polarization. We conclude that the rotations are characteristic of a subset of blazars and that they occur as a consequence of their intrinsic properties.

  19. The jets-accretion relation, mass-luminosity relation in Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Haojing; Xiong, Dingrong; Li, Bijun; Cha, Yongjuan; Chen, Yongyun; Huang, Xia; Wang, Yuwei

    2015-05-01

    A sample of 111 Fermi blazars each with a well-established radio core luminosity, broad-line luminosity, bolometric luminosity and black hole mass has been compiled from the literatures. We present a significant correlation between radio core and broad-line emission luminosities that supports a close link between accretion processes and relativistic jets. Analysis reveals a relationship of which is consistant with theoretical predicted coefficient and supports that blazar jets are powered by energy extraction from a rapidly spinning Kerr black hole through the magnetic field provided by the accretion disk. Through studying the correlation between the intrinsic bolometric luminosity and the black hole mass, we find a relationship of which supports mass-luminosity relation for Fermi blazars derived in this work is a powerlaw relation similar to that for main-sequence stars. Finally, EVOLUTIONARY SEQUENCE OF BLAZARS is discussed.

  20. Patchy blazar heating: diversifying the thermal history of the intergalactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Lamberts, Astrid; Pfrommer, Christoph; Puchwein, Ewald; Broderich, Avery E; Shalaby, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    TeV-blazars potentially heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) as their gamma rays interact with photons of the extragalactic background light to produce electron-positron pairs, which lose their kinetic energy to the surrounding medium through plasma instabilities. This results in a heating mechanism that is only weakly sensitive to the local density, and therefore approximately spatially uniform, naturally producing an inverted temperature-density relation in underdense regions. In this paper we go beyond the approximation of uniform heating and quantify the heating rate fluctuations due to the clustered distribution of blazars and how this impacts on the thermal history of the IGM. We analytically compute a filtering function that relates the heating rate fluctuations to the underlying dark matter density field. We implement it in the cosmological code GADGET-3 and perform large scale simulations to determine the impact of inhomogeneous heating. We show that, because of blazar clustering, blazar heating is in...

  1. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the X-ray Light Curves of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paul J. Wiita

    2011-03-01

    Any quasi-periodic variations discovered in blazar light curves would contain important information on the location and nature of the processes within the emission regions. In non-blazar active galactic nuclei, particularly Seyfert galaxies, any such fluctuations are very likely to be associated with the accretion disks, but in blazars they would almost certainly have to emanate from jets. This brief review summarizes recent claims for the presence of quasi-periodic variability in the X-ray emission of several AGN, focusing on blazars. Although no individual claim of the presence of a QPO in AGN X-ray light curves is absolutely convincing, there are some good cases for the presence of QPOs, including the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy, RE J1034+396, the quasar, 3C 273 and the BL Lac, PKS 2155−304.

  2. Extremes of the jet-accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarrato, T; Tagliaferri, G; Perri, M; Madejski, G M; Stern, D; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    Hard X-ray observations are crucial to study the non-thermal jet emission from high-redshift, powerful blazars. We observed two bright z>2 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in hard X-rays to explore the details of their relativistic jets and their possible variability. S5 0014+81 (at z=3.366) and B0222+185 (at z=2.690) have been observed twice by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simultaneously with Swift/XRT, showing different variability behaviours. We found that NuSTAR is instrumental to explore the variability of powerful high-redshift blazars, even when no gamma-ray emission is detected. The two sources have proven to have respectively the most luminous accretion disk and the most powerful jet among known blazars. They are located at the extreme end of the jet-accretion disk relation previously found for gamma-ray detected blazars.

  3. Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations of blazar PKS 1510-089: a case for two blazar zones

    CERN Document Server

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg M; Exter, Katrina; Szostek, Anna; Szczerba, Ryszard; Kidger, Mark R; Lorente, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of observations of blazar PKS 1510-089 with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, together with multiwavelength data from Fermi/LAT, Swift, SMARTS and SMA. The source was found in a quiet state, and its far-infrared spectrum is consistent with a power-law with a spectral index of alpha ~ 0.7. Our Herschel observations were preceded by two 'orphan' gamma-ray flares. The near-infrared data reveal the high-energy cut-off in the main synchrotron component, which cannot be associated with the main gamma-ray component in a one-zone leptonic model. This is because in such a model the luminosity ratio of the External-Compton and synchrotron components is tightly related to the frequency ratio of these components, and in this particular case an unrealistically high energy density of the external radiation would be implied. Therefore, we consider a well-constrained two-zone blazar model to interpret the entire dataset. In this framework, the observed infrared emission is asso...

  4. Herschel PACS and SPIRE Observations of Blazar PKS 1510-089: A Case for Two Blazar Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Sikora, Marek; Madejski, Greg M.; Exter, Katrina; Szostek, Anna; Szczerba, Ryszard; Kidger, Mark R.; Lorente, Rosario

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of observations of blazar PKS 1510-089 with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, together with multiwavelength data from Fermi/LAT, Swift, SMARTS, and Submillimeter Array. The source was found in a quiet state, and its far-infrared spectrum is consistent with a power law with a spectral index of α ~= 0.7. Our Herschel observations were preceded by two "orphan" gamma-ray flares. The near-infrared data reveal the high-energy cutoff in the main synchrotron component, which cannot be associated with the main gamma-ray component in a one-zone leptonic model. This is because in such a model the luminosity ratio of the external-Compton (EC) and synchrotron components is tightly related to the frequency ratio of these components, and in this particular case an unrealistically high energy density of the external radiation would be implied. Therefore, we consider a well-constrained two-zone blazar model to interpret the entire data set. In this framework, the observed infrared emission is associated with the synchrotron component produced in the hot-dust region at the supra-parsec scale, while the gamma-ray emission is associated with the EC component produced in the broad-line region at the sub-parsec scale. In addition, the optical/UV emission is associated with the accretion disk thermal emission, with the accretion disk corona likely contributing to the X-ray emission.

  5. A Large NIR flare of the Blazar TXS 2241+406

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Gonzalez, R.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Chavushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the recent NIR flare of the Blazar BZBJ2244+4057 a high redshift blazar (z=1.171) associated with the Gamma-ray source 2FGLJ 2244.1+4059, On November 22nd, 2015 (JD 2457348.654), We determined the flux from this object to correspond to J = 13.414 +/- 0.04, H = 12.580 +/- 0.06 and Ks = 11.774 +/- 0.06.

  6. Are Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Blazar-like?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renyi Ma; Chong Ping

    2014-09-01

    The similarities between blazars and radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (RLNLS1s) have received much attention. In this paper, by using the magnetized slim disk model, we calculate the jet power and disk luminosity. It is found that the jet power is only a very small fraction of the disk luminosity, < 10%. This indicates that the jet orientation of RLNLS1 is close to the line-of-sight, which is similar to blazars.

  7. Amplified Sediment waves in the Irish Sea (AmSedIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Van Landeghem, K.; Besio, G.; Niemann, H.; Mellett, C.; Huws, D.; Steinle, L.; O'Reilly, S; Croker, P.; Hodgson, D; Williams, D

    2013-01-01

    Exceptionally high, straight-crested and trochoidal sediment waves have recently been observed on shelf seas world-wide, and reach heights of up to 36 m in the Irish Sea. It is uncertain how the interplay between geological, biogeochemical and hydrodynamic processes influences the migration and extreme growth of these sediment waves. The AmSedIS project thus sets out to (1) investigate the role of sediment granulometry and sedimentavailability on both “extreme” and “normal” sediment wave deve...

  8. A critical appraisal of the SED fitting method to estimate photometric redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Massarotti, M; Buzzoni, A

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the stability of the photometric redshift estimate obtained with the SED fitting method with respect to the choice of the galaxy templates. Within the observational uncertainty and photometric errors, we find satisfactory agreement among different sets of theoretical and empirical templates using the Hubble Deep Field North as a target galaxy sample. Our results suggest that, especially at high redshift, the description of the physical processes of photon absorption in the interstellar and intergalactic medium plays a dominant role in the redshift estimate. The specific choice of the template set, as long as this includes both normal and starburst galaxies, is in comparison a minor issue.

  9. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Giroletti, M; D'Abrusco, R; Lico, R; Burlon, D; Hurley-Walker, N; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Morgan, J; Pavlidou, V; Bell, M; Bernardi, G; Bhat, R; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A A; Ewall-Rice, A; Emrich, D; Gaensler, B M; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Hindson, L; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kratzenberg, E; Feng, L; Jacobs, D; Kurdryavtseva, N; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Pindor, B; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. We characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6,100 deg^2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by \\fermilat. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray bl...

  10. Major Optical Outburst of Two Blazars: 3C66A and OJ287

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, K. K.; Ramsey, B. D.; Soundararajaperumal, S.; Pukalenthi, S.; Rosario, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Differential CCD photometric observations of 3C66A and OJ287 were carried out on 16 and 35 nights between December 1995 and March 1996, at the Vainu Bappu Observatory, India, as part of the blazar monitoring program. During this period we detected major optical outbursts (brightness of 3C66A and OJ287 increased by 0.8 and 1 mag, respectively) of these two blazars on timescales of two months. Integrating the outburst profiles we find that both the blazars released around 10(exp 53) erg. Such large amount of energy may come from the release of binding energy of a compact star when tidally disrupted by a super-massive black hole at the center of these blazars. Also we extend this model to explain the observed multifrequency (radio through gamma-ray) outburst of these two blazars and show that this model will be able to explain the outburst phenomena of other blazars. These new results will be presented with a detailed discussion of the suggested model.

  11. Multi-frequency properties of synthetic blazar radio light curves within the shock-in-jet scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, C M; Perucho, M

    2014-01-01

    Blazars are among the most powerful extragalactic objects, as a sub-class of active galactic nuclei. They launch relativistic jets and their emitted radiation shows strong variability across the entire electro-magnetic spectrum. The mechanisms producing the variability are still controversial and different models have been proposed to explain the observed variations in multi-frequency blazar light curves.We investigate the capabilities of the classical shock-in-jet model to explain and reconstruct the observed evolution of flares in the turnover frequency turnover flux density plane and their frequency-dependent light curve parameters. With a detailed parameter space study we provide the framework for future, detailed comparisons of observed flare signatures with the shock-in-jet scenario. Based on the shock model we compute synthetic single-dish light curves at different radio frequencies (2.6 to 345 GHz) and for different physical conditions in a conical jet (e.g. magnetic field geometry and Doppler factor)...

  12. SDSS J102623.61+254259.5: the second most distant blazar at z=5.3

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarrato, T; Nardini, M; Tagliaferri, G; Foschini, L; Ghirlanda, G; Tavecchio, F; Greiner, J; Rau, A; Gehrels, N

    2012-01-01

    The radio-loud quasar SDSS J102623.61+254259.5, at a redshift z=5.3, is one of the most distant radio-loud objects. Since its radio flux exceeds 100 mJy at a few GHz, it is also one of the most powerful radio-loud sources. We propose that this source is a blazar, i.e. we are seeing its jet at a small viewing angle. This claim is based on the spectral energy distribution of this source, and especially on its strong and hard X-ray spectrum, as seen by Swift, very typical of powerful blazars. Observations by the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) and by theWide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) allow to establish the thermal nature of the emission in the near IR-optical band. Assuming that this is produced by a standard accretion disk, we derive that it emits a luminosity of L_d \\simeq 9 \\times 10^46 erg s^{-1} and that the black hole has a mass between 2 and 5 billion solar masses. This poses interesting constraints on the mass function of heavy (> 10^9 M_sun) black holes at high redshif...

  13. sedFlow - a tool for simulating fractional bedload transport and longitudinal profile evolution in mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, F. U. M.; Rickenmann, D.; Turowski, J. M.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Especially in mountainous environments, the prediction of sediment dynamics is important for managing natural hazards, assessing in-stream habitats and understanding geomorphic evolution. We present the new modelling tool {sedFlow} for simulating fractional bedload transport dynamics in mountain streams. sedFlow is a one-dimensional model that aims to realistically reproduce the total transport volumes and overall morphodynamic changes resulting from sediment transport events such as major floods. The model is intended for temporal scales from the individual event (several hours to few days) up to longer-term evolution of stream channels (several years). The envisaged spatial scale covers complete catchments at a spatial discretisation of several tens of metres to a few hundreds of metres. sedFlow can deal with the effects of streambeds that slope uphill in a downstream direction and uses recently proposed and tested approaches for quantifying macro-roughness effects in steep channels. sedFlow offers different options for bedload transport equations, flow-resistance relationships and other elements which can be selected to fit the current application in a particular catchment. Local grain-size distributions are dynamically adjusted according to the transport dynamics of each grain-size fraction. sedFlow features fast calculations and straightforward pre- and postprocessing of simulation data. The high simulation speed allows for simulations of several years, which can be used, e.g., to assess the long-term impact of river engineering works or climate change effects. In combination with the straightforward pre- and postprocessing, the fast calculations facilitate efficient workflows for the simulation of individual flood events, because the modeller gets the immediate results as direct feedback to the selected parameter inputs. The model is provided together with its complete source code free of charge under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) (www.wsl.ch/sed

  14. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. V. TNG, KPNO, AND OAN OBSERVATIONS OF BLAZAR CANDIDATES OF UNCERTAIN TYPE IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Ricci, F.; La Franca, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146, Roma (Italy); Landoni, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Chavushyan, V.; Torrealba, J. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Óptica y Electrónica, Apartado Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico); D’Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A. [Harvard—Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiménez-Bailón, E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 877, Ensenada, 22800 Baja California, México (Mexico); Latronico, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The extragalactic γ-ray sky is dominated by emission from blazars, a peculiar class of active galactic nuclei. Many of the γ-ray sources included in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs) because there are no optical spectra available in the literature to confirm their nature. In 2013, we started a spectroscopic campaign to look for the optical counterparts of the BCUs and of the unidentified γ-ray sources to confirm their blazar nature. Whenever possible we also determine their redshifts. Here, we present the results of the observations carried out in the northern hemisphere in 2013 and 2014 at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in San Pedro Mártir. In this paper, we describe the optical spectra of 25 sources. We confirmed that all of the 15 BCUs observed in our campaign and included in our sample are blazars and we estimated the redshifts for three of them. In addition, we present the spectra for three sources classified as BL Lacs in the literature but with no optical spectra available to date. We found that one of them is a quasar (QSO) at a redshift of z = 0.208 and the other two are BL Lacs. Moreover, we also present seven new spectra for known blazars listed in the Roma-BZCAT that have an uncertain redshift or are classified as BL Lac candidates. We found that one of them, 5BZB J0724+2621, is a “changing look” blazar. According to the spectrum available in the literature, it was classified as a BL Lac, but in our observation we clearly detected a broad emission line that led us to classify this source as a QSO at z = 1.17.

  15. FHSA-SED: Two-Locus Model Detection for Genome-Wide Association Study with Harmony Search Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouheng Tuo

    Full Text Available Two-locus model is a typical significant disease model to be identified in genome-wide association study (GWAS. Due to intensive computational burden and diversity of disease models, existing methods have drawbacks on low detection power, high computation cost, and preference for some types of disease models.In this study, two scoring functions (Bayesian network based K2-score and Gini-score are used for characterizing two SNP locus as a candidate model, the two criteria are adopted simultaneously for improving identification power and tackling the preference problem to disease models. Harmony search algorithm (HSA is improved for quickly finding the most likely candidate models among all two-locus models, in which a local search algorithm with two-dimensional tabu table is presented to avoid repeatedly evaluating some disease models that have strong marginal effect. Finally G-test statistic is used to further test the candidate models.We investigate our method named FHSA-SED on 82 simulated datasets and a real AMD dataset, and compare it with two typical methods (MACOED and CSE which have been developed recently based on swarm intelligent search algorithm. The results of simulation experiments indicate that our method outperforms the two compared algorithms in terms of detection power, computation time, evaluation times, sensitivity (TPR, specificity (SPC, positive predictive value (PPV and accuracy (ACC. Our method has identified two SNPs (rs3775652 and rs10511467 that may be also associated with disease in AMD dataset.

  16. Spectral evolution of flaring blazars from numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, C M; Mimica, P; Ros, E

    2016-01-01

    High resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) revealed traveling and stationary or quasi-stationary radio-components in several blazar jets. The traveling ones are in general interpreted as shock waves generated by pressure perturbations injected at the jet nozzle. The stationary features can be interpreted as recollimation shocks in non-pressure matched jets if they show a quasi-symmetric bump in the spectral index distribution. In some jets there may be interactions between the two kinds of shocks. These shock--shock interactions are observable with VLBI techniques, and their signature should also be imprinted on the single--dish light curves. We performed relativistic hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of over-pressured and pressure-matched jets. To simulate the shock interaction we injected a perturbation at the jet nozzle once a steady-state was reached. We computed the non-thermal emission (including adiabatic and synchotron losses) resulting from the ...

  17. SPIDER - V. Measuring Systematic Effects in Early-Type Galaxy Stellar Masses from Photometric SED Fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Swindle, R; La Barbera, F; de Carvalho, R R

    2011-01-01

    We present robust statistical estimates of the accuracy of early-type galaxy stellar masses derived from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting as functions of various empirical and theoretical assumptions. Using large samples consisting of 40,000 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, of which 5,000 are also in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.05 \\leq z \\leq 0.095, we test the reliability of some commonly used stellar population models and extinction laws for computing stellar masses. Spectroscopic ages (t), metallicities (Z), and extinctions (A) are also computed from fits to SDSS spectra using various population models. These constraints are used in additional tests to estimate the systematic errors in the stellar masses derived from SED fitting, where t, Z, and A are typically left as free parameters. We find reasonable agreement in mass estimates among stellar population models, with variation of the IMF and extinction law yielding systematic biases...

  18. Evolution of the stellar-merger red nova V1309 Scorpii: SED analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tylenda, R

    2016-01-01

    One very important object for understanding the nature of red novae is V1309 Sco. Its pre-outburst observations showed that, before its red-nova eruption in 2008, it was a contact binary quickly evolving to the merger of the components. It thus provided us with a direct evidence that the red novae result from stellar mergers. We analyse the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object and its evolution with time. From various optical and infrared surveys and observing programmes carried out with OGLE, HST, VVV, Gemini South, WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel we constructed observed SED in 2010 and 2012. Some limited data are also available for the red-nova progenitor in 2007. We analyse the data with our model of a dusty envelope surrounding a central star. Dust was present in the pre-outburst state of V1309 Sco. Its high temperature (900-1000 K) suggests that this was a freshly formed dust in a presumable mass-loss from the spiralling-in binary. Shortly after its 2008 eruption, V1309~Sco became almost complete...

  19. Through the Looking Glass: Faraday Conversion in Turbulent Blazar Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Roy MacDonald

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Faint levels of circular polarization (Stokes V have been detected in several relativistic jets. While typically less than a few percent, circular polarization can give us critical insight into the underlying nature of the jet plasma. Circular polarization can be produced through a process known as linear birefringence, in which initially linearly polarized emission produced in one region of the jet is altered by Faraday rotation as it propagates through other regions of the jet with distinct magnetic field orientations. Recently, Marscher has developed the Turbulent Extreme Multi-Zone (TEMZ model for blazar emission, in which turbulent plasma crossing a standing shock in the jet is represented by a collection of thousands of individual plasma cells, each with distinct magnetic field orientation. In order to test whether the TEMZ model can reproduce circularly polarized radiation at levels comparable to those observed in blazars, I have developed a numerical algorithm to solve the full Stokes equations of polarized radiative transfer. I have embedded this algorithm into the ray-tracing code RADMC3D (http://ascl.net/1202.015. RADMC3D was originally developed to model continuum radiative transfer in dusty media. This code, however, has been written in a modularized fashion that allows the user to specify the physics that is incorporated into the radiative transfer. I have replaced RADMC3D’s thermal emission and absorption coefficients with non-thermal coefficients pertaining to polarized synchrotron emission. This code is applied to ray-tracing through the 3-D TEMZ computational grid. Here I present a suite of synthetic polarized emission maps that highlight the effect that thousands of distinct cells of plasma within a jet can have on the observed linear and circular polarization.

  20. Monitoring TeV blazars with HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The recently completed High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) gamma-ray observatory has been taking data with a partial array for more than one year and is now operating with >95% duty cycle in its full configuration. With an instantaneous field of view of 2 sr, two-thirds of the sky is surveyed every day at gamma-ray energies between approximately 100 GeV and 100 TeV. Any source location in the field of view can be monitored each day, with an exposure of up to $\\sim$ 6 hours. These unprecedented observational capabilities allow us to continuously scan the highly variable extra-galactic gamma-ray sky. By monitoring the flaring behavior of Active Galactic Nuclei we aim to significantly increase the observational data base for characterizing particle acceleration mechanisms in these sources and for studying cosmological properties like the extra-galactic background light. In this work we present first studies of data taken between June 2013 and July 2014 with a partial array configuration. Flux light curves, binn...

  1. Relevance of the submillimeter fluxes on the SED modeling of debris disks. (Spanish Title: Importancia de los flujos submilimétricos en el modelado de las SED de discos debris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, L. H.; Gómez, M.

    The modeling of Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) is a generally used method to characterize the so-called debris disks. This technique requires reliable flux measurements in a wide range of wavelengths, including the IR and sub-mm regimes. However, fluxes at wavelengths larger than 100 microns are not always available. In this contribution we investigate how such measurements affect the derived parameters for a sample of 24 stars showing excesses in their SEDs. If the excesses at wavelengths larger than 70 microns exceed those for wavelengths larger than 100 microns, the sets of disks parameters derived from the SED modeling excluding and including fluxes for wavelengths larger than 100 microns roughly agree.

  2. Cell Surface Display and Characterization of Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in Pichia pastoris Using Sed1p as an Anchor Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqian; Shi, Hao; Ding, Huaihai; Wang, Liangliang; Zhang, Yu; Li, Xun; Wang, Fei

    2015-07-01

    It has been investigated to conduct the surface displaying of lipase from Rhizopus oryzae onto the cells of Pichia pastoris yeast using Sed1p as an anchor protein. A yeast cell surface display plasmid pPICZαA-rol-histag-sed1p was constructed by fusing rol and sed1p gene fragments into the plasmid pPICZαA, followed by introducing recombinant plasmid into P. pastoris cells. Surface display levels were monitored by Western Blot and immunofluorescence microscopy. The activity of displaying lipase obtained from recombinant mutS reached at 60 U/g-dry cell. In addition, the displaying lipase was stable in broad ranges of temperatures and pH, with the optimum temperature at 40 °C and pH 7.5. These results indicate that the P. pastoris displaying lipase may have potential in whole-cell biocatalyst. PMID:26013444

  3. A hydrodynamical model for the Fermi-LAT γ-ray light curve of blazar PKS 1510-089

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera J.I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A physical description of the formation and propagation of working surfaces inside the relativistic jet of the blazar PKS 1510-089 are used to model its γ -ray variability light curve using Fermi-LAT data from 2008 to 2012. The physical model is based on conservation laws of mass and momentum at the working surface as explained by Mendoza et al. (2009. The hydrodynamical description of a working surface is parametrized by the initial velocity and mass injection rate at the base of the jet. We show that periodic variations on the injected velocity profiles are able to account for the observed luminosity, fixing model parameters such as mass ejection rates of the central engine injected at the base of the jet, oscillation frequencies of the flow and maximum Lorentz factors of the bulk flow during a particular burst.

  4. ER-Golgi Transport Defects Are Associated with Mutations in the Sed5p-binding Domain of the COPII Coat Subunit, Sec24p

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Yiting; Barlowe, Charles; Schekman, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Selective cargo capture into ER-derived vesicles is driven by the Sec24p subunit of the COPII coat, which contains at least three independent cargo-binding sites. One of these, the “A-site,” interacts with a NPF motif found on the SNARE, Sed5p. We have characterized the Sec24p-Sed5p interaction through mutation of the putative ER export motifs of Sed5p and the cargo-binding A-site of Sec24p. Mutational analysis of Sed5p suggests that the NPF motif is the dominant ER export signal. Mutation of...

  5. Enhanced cell-surface display and secretory production of cellulolytic enzymes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sed1 signal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuma, Kentaro; Bamba, Takahiro; Ishii, Jun; Ito, Yoichiro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-11-01

    Recombinant yeast strains displaying aheterologous cellulolytic enzymes on their cell surfaces using a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring system are a promising strategy for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. A crucial step for cell wall localization of the enzymes is the intracellular transport of proteins in yeast cells. Therefore, the addition of a highly efficient secretion signal sequence is important to increase the amount of the enzymes on the yeast cell surface. In this study, we demonstrated the effectiveness of a novel signal peptide (SP) sequence derived from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SED1 gene for cell-surface display and secretory production of cellulolytic enzymes. Gene cassettes with SP sequences derived from S. cerevisiae SED1 (SED1SP), Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (GLUASP), and S. cerevisiae α-mating pheromone (MFα1SP) were constructed for cell-surface display of Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase (BGL1) and Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II (EGII). These gene cassettes were integrated into the S. cerevisiae genome. The recombinant strains with the SED1SP showed higher cell-surface BGL and EG activities than those with the conventional SP sequences (GLUASP and MFα1SP). The novel SP sequence also improved the secretory production of BGL and EG in S. cerevisiae. The extracellular BGL activity of the recombinant strains with the SED1SP was 1.3- and 1.9-fold higher than the GLUASP and MFα1SP strains, respectively. Moreover, the utilization of SED1SP successfully enhanced the secretory production of BGL in Pichia pastoris. The utilization of the novel SP sequence is a promising option for highly efficient cell-surface display and secretory production of heterologous proteins in various yeast species. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2358-2366. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27183011

  6. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Morgan, J.; Pavlidou, V.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Ewall-Rice, A.; Emrich, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Feng, L.; Jacobs, D.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. Aims: We characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. Methods: We cross-correlated the 6100 deg2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. Results: We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120-180 MHz) blazar spectral index is ⟨αlow⟩ = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Conclusions: Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population. Tables 5-7 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  7. Resolving the Extragalactic Background Light with gamma-ray spectra from distant blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonian, F; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ata, A; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubus, G; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Fontaine, G; Fuchs, Y; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Gillessen, S; Glicenstein, J F; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Khelifi, B; Klages, S; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Leroy, N; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau--, O; Huynh; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Raux, J; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V V; Sauge, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schuster, C; Schwanke, U; Siewert, M; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Theoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J

    2006-01-01

    The diffuse Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) contains unique information about the epochs of formation and the history of evolution of galaxies. Unfortunately, direct measurements are subject to large systematic uncertainties due to the difficulties in the accurate model-based subtraction of the bright foregrounds. An alternative approach is based on the detection and identification of EBL absorption features in high-energy spectra of objects of known redshift. Here we exploit this method on the blazars H 2356-309 (z=0.165) and 1ES 1101-232 (z=0.186), newly discovered at TeV energies by the H.E.S.S. Collaboration. They are the most distant sources with measured spectra known so far at these energies. Their hard spectra provide the most stringent upper limit to date on the EBL in the Opt--NIR band, which appears significantly lower than expected from the current "direct" estimates and very close to the absolute lower limit represented by the integrated light of resolved galaxies. In addition to important c...

  8. AGNfitter: SED-fitting code for AGN and galaxies from a MCMC approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistro Rivera, Gabriela; Lusso, Elisabeta; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Hogg, David W.

    2016-07-01

    AGNfitter is a fully Bayesian MCMC method to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and galaxies from the sub-mm to the UV; it enables robust disentanglement of the physical processes responsible for the emission of sources. Written in Python, AGNfitter makes use of a large library of theoretical, empirical, and semi-empirical models to characterize both the nuclear and host galaxy emission simultaneously. The model consists of four physical emission components: an accretion disk, a torus of AGN heated dust, stellar populations, and cold dust in star forming regions. AGNfitter determines the posterior distributions of numerous parameters that govern the physics of AGN with a fully Bayesian treatment of errors and parameter degeneracies, allowing one to infer integrated luminosities, dust attenuation parameters, stellar masses, and star formation rates.

  9. Peak of spectral energy distribution play an important role in intra-day variability of Blazars?

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Alok C; Gaur, Haritma; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Blazars can be divided into two sub-classes namely high energy and low energy peaked blazars. In spectral energy distribution, the first synchrotron hump of the former class peaks in UV/X-rays and in IR/optical bands for the latter class. The peak of the spectral energy distribution seems to be responsible for variability properties of these classes of blazars in X-ray and optical bands. Since, in low energy peaked blazars, the X-ray bands lies well below the synchrotron hump, one expects that the highest energy electrons available for the synchrotron emission would have slower effect of variability on X-ray intra-day timescale. In this paper, by taking the advantage of a sample of 12 low energy peaked blazars with total 50 observations from XMM$-$Newton since its launch, we confirm that this class is less variable in X-ray bands. We found that out of 50 observational light curves, genuine intra-day variability is present in only two of light curves i.e 4%. Similar results we obtained from our earlier optical...

  10. Mining the Herschel-ATLAS: submillimeter-selected blazars in equatorial fields

    CERN Document Server

    López-Caniego, M; Massardi, M; Bonavera, L; Herranz, D; Negrello, M; De Zotti, G; Carrera, F J; Danese, L; Fleuren, S; Hardcastle, M; Jarvis, M J; Klöckner, H -R; Mauch, T; Procopio, P; Righini, S; Sutherland, W; Auld, R; Baes, M; Buttiglione, S; Clark, C J R; Cooray, A; Dariush, A; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S; Hopwood, R; Hoyos, C; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Maddox, S; Valiante, E

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to search for blazars at sub-mm wavelengths. We cross-matched the FIRST radio source catalogue with the 11655 sources brighter than 35 mJy at 500{\\mu}m in the \\sim 135 square degrees of the sky covered by the H-ATLAS equatorial fields at 9 h and 15 h, plus half of the field at 12 h. We found that 379 of the H-ATLAS sources have a FIRST counterpart within 10 arcsec, including 8 catalogued blazars (plus one known blazar that was found at the edge of one the H-ATLAS maps). To search for additional blazar candidates we have devised new diagnostic diagrams and found that known blazars occupy a region of the log(S500{\\mu}m/S350{\\mu}m) vs. log(S500{\\mu}m/S1.4GHz) plane separated from that of the other sub-mm sources with radio counterparts. Using this diagnostic we have selected 12 further candidates that turn out to be scattered in the (r-z) vs. (u-r) plane or in the WISE colour-colour diagram proposed by Massaro ...

  11. Multi-Frequency Blazar Micro-Variability as a Tool to Investigate Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Webb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the past 12 years we have been studying optical micro-variability of a sample of 15 Blazars. We summarize the results of this study and draw some basic conclusions about the characteristics of micro-variability. The intermittency, the stochastic nature, and the similar profile shapes seen in micro-variations at different times and in different objects have led us to a possible model to explain the observed micro-variations. The model is based on a strong shock propagating down a relativistic jet and encountering turbulence which causes density or magnetic field enhancements. We use the theory of Kirk, Reiger, and Mastichiadis (1998 to describe the pulse of synchrotron emission emanating from individual density enhancements energized by the shock. By fitting these “pulses” to micro-variability observations, we obtain excellent fits to actual micro-variations. The model predicts that the spectral index changes as a function of pulse duration. This effect should be observable in multi-frequency micro-variability data. We present the theoretical model, model fits of our micro-variability light curves, and preliminary multi-frequency micro-variability observations that support this model. A further test that has yet to be carried out involves observing polarization changes in different pulses.

  12. Kepler light curve analysis of the blazar W2R 1926+42

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, P; Bachev, R; Strigachev, A

    2015-01-01

    We study the long term Kepler light curve of the blazar W2R 1926+42 ($\\sim$ 1.6 years) which indicates a variety of variability properties during different intervals of observation. The normalized excess variance, $F_{\\rm var}$ ranges from 1.8 % in the quiescent phase and 43.3 % in the outburst phase. We find no significant deviation from linearity in the $F_{\\rm var}$-flux relation. Time series analysis is conducted using the Fourier power spectrum and the wavelet analysis methods to study the power spectral density (PSD) shape, infer characteristic timescales and statistically significant quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). A bending power law with an associated timescale of $T_B = 6.2^{+6.4}_{-3.1}$ hours is inferred in the PSD analysis. We obtain a black hole mass of $M_\\bullet = (1.5 - 5.9) \\times 10^7 M_\\odot$ for the first time using $F_{\\rm var}$ and the bend timescale for this source. From a mean outburst lifetime of days, we infer a distance from the jet base $r \\leq 1.75$ pc indicating that the out...

  13. First broadband characterization and redshift determination of the VHE blazar MAGIC J2001+439

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; D'Ammando, F; Hovatta, T; Larionov, V M; Max-Moerbeck, W; Perri, M; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Sakamoto, T; Schwartz, R D; Verrecchia, F; Reyes, L C

    2014-01-01

    We aim to characterize the broadband emission from 2FGL J2001.1+4352, which has been associated with the unknown-redshift blazar MG4 J200112+4352. Based on its gamma-ray spectral properties, it was identified as a potential very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter. The source was observed with MAGIC first in 2009 and later in 2010 within a multi-instrument observation campaign. The MAGIC observations yielded 14.8 hours of good quality stereoscopic data. The object was monitored at radio, optical and gamma-ray energies during the years 2010 and 2011. The source, named MAGIC J2001+439, is detected for the first time at VHE with MAGIC at a statistical significance of 6.3 {\\sigma} (E > 70 GeV) during a 1.3-hour long observation on 2010 July 16. The multi-instrument observations show variability in all energy bands with the highest amplitude of variability in the X-ray and VHE bands. We also organized deep imaging optical observations with the Nordic Optical Telescope in 2013 to determine the source r...

  14. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE γ-RAY/OPTICAL LAGS IN LUMINOUS BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazars are strongly variable sources that occasionally show spectacular flares visible in various energy bands. These flares are often, but not always, correlated. In a number of cases, the peaks of optical flares are found to be somewhat delayed with respect to the γ-ray peaks. One notable example of such a delay was found in 3C 279 by Hayashida et al. and interpreted as a result of steeper drop with a distance of the energy density of an external radiation field than of the magnetic energy density. In this paper, we demonstrate that, in general, depending on the respective energy density profile along the jet, such lags can have both signs and that they can take place for any ratio of these energy densities. We study the dependence of such lags on the ratio of these energy densities at a distance of a maximal energy dissipation in a jet, on their gradients, as well as on the time profile of the relativistic electron injection within the moving source. We show how prominent such lags can be, and their expected timescales. We suggest that studies of such lags can provide a powerful tool to resolve the structure of relativistic jets and their radiative environment. As an example we model the lag observed in 3C 279, showing that in this object the flare is produced at a distance of a few parsecs from the central black hole, consistent with our previous inferences based on the spectra and optical polarization properties.

  15. AGILE detection of intense gamma-ray emission from the blazar PKS 1510-089

    CERN Document Server

    Pucella, G; D'Ammando, F; Tavani, M; Raiteri, C M; Villata, M; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Boffelli, F; Bulgarelli, A; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A W; Cocco, V; Costa, E; Del Monte, E; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Fiorini, M; Froysland, T; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Giuliani, A; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; Mereghetti, S; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Soffitta, P; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Antonelli, L A; Colafrancesco, S; Cutini, S; Gasparrini, D; Giommi, P; Pittori, C; Verrecchia, F; Salotti, L; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Carosati, D; Larionov, V M; Ligustri, R

    2008-01-01

    We report the detection by the AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero) satellite of an intense gamma-ray flare from the source AGL J1511-0909, associated with the powerful quasar PKS 1510-089, during ten days of observations from 23 August to 1 September 2007. During the observation period, the source was in optical decrease following a flaring event monitored by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT). The simultaneous gamma-ray, optical, and radio coverage allows us to study the spectral energy distribution and the theoretical models based on the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) emission mechanisms. AGILE observed the source with its two co-aligned imagers, the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector and the hard X-ray imager Super-AGILE sensitive in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 18 - 60 keV bands, respectively. Between 23 and 27 August 2007, AGILE detected gamma-ray emission from PKS 1510-089 when this source was located about 50 degrees off-axis, with an average flux o...

  16. Awakening of The High Redshift Blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341

    CERN Document Server

    Paliya, Vaidehi S; Stalin, C S; Fabian, A C; Ramya, S; Covino, S; Tagliaferri, G; Sahayanathan, S; Ravikumar, C D

    2015-01-01

    CGRaBS J0809+5341, a high redshift blazar at z = 2.144, underwent a giant optical outburst on 2014 April 19 when it brightened by $\\sim$5 mag and reached an unfiltered apparent magnitude of 15.7 mag. This implies an absolute magnitude of -30.5 mag, making it one of the brightest quasars in the Universe. This optical flaring triggered us to carry out observations during the decaying part of the flare covering a wide energy range using the {\\it Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array}, {\\it Swift}, and ground based optical facilities. For the first time, the source is detected in $\\gamma$-rays by the Large Area Telescope onboard the {\\it Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope}. A high optical polarization of $\\sim$10\\% is also observed. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, accretion disk luminosity and black hole mass are estimated as $1.5 \\times 10^{45}$ erg s$^{-1}$ and $10^{8.4}~M_{\\odot}$ respectively. Using a single zone leptonic emission model, we reproduce the spectral energy distribution of the source du...

  17. Multiwavelength Observations of a Dramatic High Energy Flare in the Blazar 3C 279

    CERN Document Server

    Wehrle, A E; Urry, C M; Maraschi, L; Ghisellini, G; Hartman, R C

    1997-01-01

    The blazar 3C 279, one of the brightest identified extragalactic objects in the gamma-ray sky, underwent a flare of a factor 10 amplitude in gamma-rays towards the end of a 3-week pointing by CGRO, in 1996 January-February. The flare peak represents the highest gamma-ray intensity ever recorded for this object. During the high state, extremely rapid gamma-ray variability was seen. Coordinated multifrequency observations were carried out with RXTE, ASCA, ROSAT and IUE and from many ground-based observatories, covering most accessible wavelengths. The well-sampled, simultaneous RXTE light curve shows an outburst of lower amplitude (factor of ~3) well correlated with the gamma-ray flare without any apparent lag. The optical-UV light curves, which are not well sampled during the high energy flare, exhibit more modest variations (factor of ~2) and a lower degree of correlation. The flux at millimetric wavelengths was near an historical maximum during the gamma-ray flare peak, with suggestion of a correlated decay....

  18. Blazar Studies with GLAST: Synchro-Compton Analysis of Flat Spectr um Radio Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D; Krug, Hannah; Boettcher, Markus

    2008-01-01

    We extend a method for modeling synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton radiations in blazar jets to include external Compton processes. The basic model assumption is that the blazar radio through soft X-ray flux is nonthermal synchrotron radiation emitted by isotropically-distributed electrons in the randomly directed magnetic field of outflowing relativistic blazar jet plasma. Thus the electron distribution is given by the synchrotron spectrum, depending only on the Doppler factor and mean magnetic field, given that the comoving emission region size scale. Generalizing the approach of Georganopoulos, Kirk, and Mastichiadis (2001) to arbitrary anisotropic target radiation fields, we use the electron spectrum implied by the synchrotron component to derive accurate Compton-scattered $\\gamma$-ray spectra throughout the Thomson and Klein-Nishina regimes for external Compton scattering (ECS) processes. We derive and calculate accurate $\\gamma$-ray spectra produced by relativistic electrons that Compton-scatter (...

  19. Resolving the blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341 in the presence of telescope systematics

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Iniyan; Zwart, Jonathan; Perkins, Simon; Smirnov, Oleg; van der Heyden, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    We analyse Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of the blazar CGRaBS J0809+5341 using Bayesian inference methods. The observation was carried out at 5 GHz using 8 telescopes that form part of the European VLBI Network. Imaging and deconvolution using traditional methods imply that the blazar is unresolved. To search for source structure beyond the diffraction limit, we perform Bayesian model selection between three source models (point, elliptical Gaussian, and circular Gaussian). Our modelling jointly accounts for antenna-dependent gains and system equivalent flux densities. We obtain posterior distributions for the various source and instrumental parameters along with the corresponding uncertainties and correlations between them. We find that there is very strong evidence (>1e9 :1) in favour of elliptical Gaussian structure and using this model derive the apparent brightness temperature distribution of the blazar, accounting for uncertainties in the shape estimates. To test the integrity of...

  20. Variability of Soft X-ray Spectral Shape in Blazars Observed by ROSAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In previous paper we have shown that the soft X-ray spectra of two types of Seyfert 1 galaxies behave statistically differently with increasing intensity.In order to see how the spectrum of blazars changes, we made plots of Hardness Ratio 1 versus Count Rates (HR1-Cts) for 18 blazars observed by ROSAT/PSPC.According to our criteria, ten showed a positive HR1-Cts correlation, two a negative correlation, and the remaining six, no clear correlation. Thus, most blazars of our sample show a hardening spectrum during overall flux increase, though some vary randomly. By investigating the photon index of these objects and different radiation theories, we argue that relative dominance between the synchrotron and inverse Compton emission in the soft X-ray band can well account for the differing spectral behaviours and that the different spectral variations might represent a sequence of synchrotron peaked frequency.

  1. FACT - Long-term Monitoring of Bright TeV-Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, D; Bretz, T; Buss, J; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Hildebrand, D; Knötig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Neise, D; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Walter, R; Weitzel, Q; Zänglein, M

    2013-01-01

    Since October 2011, the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) is operated successfully on the Canary Island of La Palma. Apart from the proof of principle for the use of G-APDs in Cherenkov telescopes, the major goal of the project is the dedicated long-term monitoring of a small sample of bright TeV blazars. The unique properties of G-APDs permit stable observations also during strong moon light. Thus a superior sampling density is provided on time scales at which the blazar variability amplitudes are expected to be largest, as exemplified by the spectacular variations of Mrk 501 observed in June 2012. While still in commissioning, FACT monitored bright blazars like Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 during the past 1.5 years so far. Preliminary results including the Mrk 501 flare from June 2012 will be presented.

  2. The relation between black hole masses and Lorentz factors of the jet components in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhou; Xin-Wu Cao

    2009-01-01

    We explore the relationship between black hole mass (MBH) and the motion of the jet components for a sample of blazars. The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) 2cm Survey and its continuation: Monitoring of Jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) have observed 278 radio-loud AGNs, of which 146 blazars have reliable measurements of their apparent velocities of the jet components. We calculate the minimal Lorentz factors for these sources from their measured apparent velocities, and their black hole masses ate estimated with their broad-line widths. A sig-nificant intrinsic correlation is found between black hole masses and the minimal Lorentz factors of the jet components. The Eddington ratio is only weakly correlated with the min-imal Lorentz factor, which may imply that the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne (BP) mechanism for the jet acceleration (at least) in blazars.

  3. Spectral trends in the Very High Energy blazar sample due to EBL absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Behera, B

    2009-01-01

    The absorption of gamma-rays in the intergalactic medium due to the EBL (Extragalactic Background Light) causes the observed blazar spectrum to be fainter and softer than their intrinsic state. It could thus be expected to see an effective spectral-softening trend with redshift. No such trend is evident in the sample of VHE blazars currently observed. To check which distributions of the properties of the parent blazar population could reproduce the observations, various simulations are done. The resulting subsamples that satisfy a generic detection criterion for the current generation of ACTs (Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope) are checked to identify whether any inherent correlations (of spectral properties with redshift) are required to explain the current observations.

  4. NUSTAR, SWIFT, and GROND Observations of the Flaring MEV Blazar PMN J0641-0320

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajello, M.; Ghisellini, G.; Paliya, V. S.;

    2016-01-01

    MeV blazars are a sub-population of the blazar family, exhibiting larger-than-average jet powers, accretion luminosities, and black hole masses. Because of their extremely hard X-ray continua, these objects are best studied in the X-ray domain. Here, we report on the discovery by the Fermi Large...... Area Telescope and subsequent follow-up observations with NuSTAR, Swift, and GROND of a new member of the MeV blazar family: PMN J0641-0320. Our optical spectroscopy provides confirmation that this is a flat-spectrum radio quasar located at a redshift of z = 1.196. Its very hard NuSTAR spectrum (power...

  5. Ultraviolet to Infrared SED (Spectral Energy Distribution) Analysis of Nearby Late-Stage Merging Galaxies Using CIGALE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Aaron; Ashby, Matthew; Martinez-Galarza, Juan Rafael; Hayward, Christopher C.; Hung, Chao-Ling; Lanz, Lauranne; Rosenthal, Lee; Smith, Howard Alan; Willner, Steven P.; Zezas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the fundamental properties of nearby merging galaxies based on in-depth analysis of their spectral energy distributions. Our new sample, which is based on the catalog of nearby merging galaxies from the SIGS sample (Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Sample; Lanz et al. 2013, 2014), cross-correlates the Revised IRAC-FSC Redshift Catalogue (Wang et al. 2014) with Galaxy Zoo, which builds on and extends the previous investigation by Lanz et al. in two ways. First it enlarges the sample considerably, increasing the statistical power of the analysis significantly. Second, it includes galaxies in the most advanced merger stage, filling a potential gap in the Lanz et al. sample. The cross-correlation gave 453 possible mergers, between 400 and 453 of which are interacting on some level. After more clearly defining the evolutionary stages of the merging process, these galaxies' stages were identified morphologically, and selected according to brightness () and stage (late stages 4-6), more than tripling the total late-stage sample to about 40 or 50 systems, 16 of which have sufficient observational data for a full SED analysis. These, along with the late-stage mergers found in the SIGS sample, have been photometered from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-infrared (FIR) and subsequently fit and analyzed by the newly revised and updated CIGALE (Code Investigating Galaxy Emission; Burgarella et al. 2005) in order to retrieve key physical properties of the galaxies including star-formation rate (SFR), AGN fraction, and stellar and dust mass, as well as identify any trends in terms of shape and physical properties of spectra within the evolutionary range of late-stage mergers.

  6. ER-Golgi transport defects are associated with mutations in the Sed5p-binding domain of the COPII coat subunit, Sec24p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Liu, Yiting; Barlowe, Charles; Schekman, Randy

    2005-08-01

    Selective cargo capture into ER-derived vesicles is driven by the Sec24p subunit of the COPII coat, which contains at least three independent cargo-binding sites. One of these, the "A-site," interacts with a NPF motif found on the SNARE, Sed5p. We have characterized the Sec24p-Sed5p interaction through mutation of the putative ER export motifs of Sed5p and the cargo-binding A-site of Sec24p. Mutational analysis of Sed5p suggests that the NPF motif is the dominant ER export signal. Mutation of the NPF binding pocket on Sec24p led to a dramatic reduction in the capture of Sed5p into COPII vesicles, whereas packaging of other ER-Golgi SNAREs was normal. Of all the cargoes tested, only Sed5p was depleted in vesicles made with Sec24p A-site mutants. Surprisingly, vesicles generated with the mutant Sec24p were unable to fuse with the Golgi apparatus. This inability to fuse was not the result of the lack of Sed5p, because vesicles specifically depleted of Sed5p generated by antibody inhibition targeted and fused normally. We propose that the A-site of Sec24p is a multipurpose cargo-binding site that must recognize additional unidentified cargo proteins, at least one of which is essential at a late stage of vesicle fusion. PMID:15930124

  7. SedWorks: A 3-D visualisation software package to help students link surface processes with depositional product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. A.; Edwards, A.; Boulton, P.

    2010-12-01

    Helping students to develop a cognitive and intuitive feel for the different temporal and spatial scales of processes through which the rock record is assembled is a primary goal of geoscience teaching. SedWorks is a 3-D virtual geoscience world that integrates both quantitative modelling and field-based studies into one interactive package. The program aims to help students acquire scientific content, cultivate critical thinking skills, and hone their problem solving ability, while also providing them with the opportunity to practice the activities undertaken by professional earth scientists. SedWorks is built upon a game development platform used for constructing interactive 3-D applications. Initially the software has been developed for teaching the sedimentology component of a Geoscience degree and consists of a series of continents or land masses each possessing sedimentary environments which the students visit on virtual field trips. The students are able to interact with the software to collect virtual field data from both the modern environment and the stratigraphic record, and to formulate hypotheses based on their observations which they can test through virtual physical experimentation within the program. The program is modular in design in order to enhance its adaptability and to allow scientific content to be updated so that the knowledge and skills acquired are at the cutting edge. We will present an example module in which students undertake a virtual field study of a 2-km long stretch of a river to observe how sediment is transported and deposited. On entering the field area students are able to observe different bedforms in different parts of the river as they move up- and down-stream, as well as in and out of the river. As they explore, students discover ‘hot spots’ at which particular tools become available to them. This includes tools for measuring the physical parameters of the flow and sediment bed (e.g. velocity, depth, grain size, bed

  8. Gamma-ray cosmology and fundamental physics with TeV blazars: results from 20 years of observations

    CERN Document Server

    Biteau, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Gamma rays from TeV blazars have been detected by ground-based experiments for more than two decades. We have collected the most extensive set of archival spectra from these sources in order to constrain the processes affecting gamma-ray propagation on cosmological distances. We discuss our results on the diffuse photon field that populates universe, called the extragalactic background light, on the expansion rate of the Universe, and on fundamental physics in the form of axion-like particles and Lorentz-invariance violation. Specifically, we present a spectrum of the extragalactic background light from 0.26 to 105 microns constructed from the gamma-ray observations, we measure a value of the Hubble constant compatible with other estimates, and we constrain the energy scale at which Lorentz-invariance violation impacts gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light to be larger than sixty percent of the Planck scale.

  9. A Search for QPOs in the Blazar OJ287: Preliminary Results from the 2015/2016 Observing Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the light curve in the R band of the blazar OJ287, gathered during the 2015/2016 observing season. We did a search for quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs using several methods over a wide range of timescales. No statistically significant periods were found in the high-frequency domain both in the ground-based data and in Kepler observations. In the longer-period domain, the Lomb–Scargle periodogram revealed several peaks above the 99% significance level. The longest one—about 95 days—corresponds to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO period of the more massive black hole. The 43-day period could be an alias, or it can be attributed to accretion in the form of a two-armed spiral wave.

  10. Peak of spectral energy distribution plays an important role in intra-day variability of blazars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok C.; Kalita, Nibedita; Gaur, Haritma; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-10-01

    Blazars can be divided into two sub-classes namely high energy and low energy peaked blazars. In spectral energy distribution, the first synchrotron hump of the former class peaks in UV/X-rays and in IR/optical bands for the latter class. The peak of the spectral energy distribution seems to be responsible for variability properties of these classes of blazars in X-ray and optical bands. Since, in low energy peaked blazars, the X-ray bands lies well below the synchrotron hump, one expects that the highest energy electrons available for the synchrotron emission would have slower effect of variability on X-ray intra-day time-scale. In this paper, by taking the advantage of a sample of 12 low energy peaked blazars with total 50 observations from XMM-Newton since its launch, we confirm that this class is less variable in X-ray bands. We found that out of 50 observational light curves, genuine intra-day variability is present in only two of light curves i.e 4 per cent. Similar results we obtained from our earlier optical intra-day variability studies of high energy peaked blazars where out of 144 light curves, only genuine intra-day variability was detected in 6 light curves i.e ˜4 per cent. Since, X-ray bands lie below the peak of the spectral energy distribution of LSPs where inverse Compton mechanism is dominating rather than synchrotron radiation at the peak of the optical band, leads to slower variability in the X-ray bands. Hence, reducing their intra-day variability in X-ray bands as compared to the variability in optical bands.

  11. Long term variability of the blazar PKS 2155-304

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Jill; Rieger, Frank; Maurin, Gilles; Lenain, Jean-Philippe; Lamanna, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Time variability of the photon flux is a known feature of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and in particular of blazars. The high frequency peaked BL Lac (HBL) object PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest sources in the TeV band and has been monitored regularly with different instruments and in particular with the H.E.S.S. experiment above 200 GeV for more than 11 years. These data together with the observations of other instruments and monitoring programs like SMARTS (optical), Swift-XRT/RXTE/XMM-Newton (X-ray) and Fermi-LAT (100 MeV < E < 300 GeV) are used to characterize the variability of this object in the quiescent state over a wide energy range. Variability studies are made by looking at the lognormality of the light curves and at the fractional root mean square (rms) variability Fvar in several energy bands. Lognormality is found in every energy range and the evolution of Fvar with the energy shows a similar increase both in X-rays and in TeV bands.

  12. Dissipation of jet bulk kinetic energy in powerful blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Katarzynski, K

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the dissipation of the bulk kinetic energy of a relativistic jet at different distances from the central power--house and analyse in detail how the dissipated energy is radiated away. We assume that the location of the dissipation region is a function of the bulk Lorentz factor Gamma of the jet, being closer to the center for smaller Gamma. This assumption is naturally fulfilled in the internal shock scenario. The dissipated energy is partially used to accelerate electrons and to amplify the magnetic field. This process creates a source inside the jet (blob). Such blobs may efficiently produce synchrotron and inverse Compton emission. We find that even if the blobs or shells responsible for the blazar activity carry the same energy (in bulk kinetic form), the fact that they move at different Gamma can produce dramatic variations in different bands, even if the bolometric luminosity is instead very similar. This is due to the relative importance of the synchrotron, self-Compton and external Comp...

  13. Spectroscopic monitoring of the Blazar 3C 454.3

    CERN Document Server

    Benítez, E; Raiteri, C M; Villata, M; Dultzin, D; Martínez, O; Perez-Camargo, B; Torrealba, J

    2009-01-01

    We performed an optical spectroscopic monitoring of the blazar 3C 454.3 from September 2003 to July 2008. Sixteen optical spectra were obtained during different runs, which constitute the first spectroscopic monitoring done in the rest-frame UV region (z=0.859). An overall flux variation of the MgII (2800 A) by a factor ~ 3 was observed, while the corresponding UV continuum (F_cont at 3000 A) changed by a factor ~ 14. The MgII emission lines respond proportionally to the continuum variations when the source is in a low-activity state. In contrast, near the optical outbursts detected in 2005 and 2007, the MgII emission lines showed little response to the continuum flux variations. During the monitored period the UV FeII flux changed by a factor ~ 6 and correlated with F_cont (r = 0.92). A negative correlation between EW(Mg II) and F_cont was found, i.e. the so-called "Intrinsic Baldwin Effect".

  14. An Investigation into the Spectral Properties of Bright Fermi Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Jonathan; Daniel, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the spectral properties of blazars detected with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the high energy regime 100 MeV - 100 GeV. We find that over long timescales a log-parabola provides an adequate description of the spectrum in almost all objects and in most cases is significantly better than a simple power law or broken power law description. Broken power law descriptions appear to arise from two causes: confusion with nearby sources and as an artifact of older LAT instrument response functions. We create a light curve for 2FGLJ2253.9+1609 (3C 454.3), the brightest of the objects investigated. During the quiescent state we find the spectrum to be fairly stable and well-described by a log-parabola. There is some evidence that, on average, the peak energy of the inverse Compton emission is lower in the quiescent state than in the time-averaged state, suggesting that increases in flux are due to changing parameters within the jet as opposed to changes in an external photon field. However, no ...

  15. Multi-Band Spectral Properties of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benzhong Dai; Dahai Yan

    2011-03-01

    The multi-band data covering optical, X-ray and -ray energy regions of 130 Fermi blazars in the First LAT AGN Catalog (1LAC) were collected to investigate the broadband spectral properties. The composite spectral indices show that HBLs have convex optical-to-X-ray continua and concave X-ray-to--ray continua, > 0 and < 0, while FSRQs and LBLs have < 0. The distribution of FSRQs and LBLs extends from negative to positive values. We suggest > 0 and < 0 could be considered as a criterion for HBLs. Moreover, HBLs have narrow distribution of peak interval of log $v^{\\text{ic}}_{\\text{p}}=\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$, and FSRQs have significant anti-correlation between log $v^{\\text{ic}}_{\\text{p}}-\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$ and $\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$. This indicates that SSC model is responsible for high energy emission of HBLs, while EC for FSRQs. Our results also indicate that FSRQs with larger break energy of electrons have smaller bulk Lorentz factor of dissipation region.

  16. On radiative acceleration in spine-sheath structured blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Chhotray, Atul; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Salafia, Om Sharan; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Lazzati, Davide

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that blazar jets are structured, with a fast spine surrounded by a slower sheath or layer. This structured jet model explains some properties of their emission and morphology. Because of their relative motion, the radiation produced by one component is seen amplified by the other, thus enhancing the inverse Compton emission of both. Radiation is emitted anisotropically in the comoving frames, and causes the emitting plasma to recoil. As seen in the observer frame, this corresponds to a deceleration of the fastest component (the spine) and an acceleration of the slower one (the layer). While the deceleration of the spine has already been investigated, here we study for the first time the acceleration of the sheath and find self-consistent velocity profile solutions for both the spine and the sheath while accounting for radiative cooling. We find that the sheath can be accelerated to the velocities required by the observations if its leptons remain energetic in the acceleration region, assu...

  17. On the classification of flaring states of blazar

    CERN Document Server

    Resconi, E; Gross, A; Costamante, L; Flaccomio, E

    2009-01-01

    The time evolution of the electromagnetic emission from blazars, in particular high frequency peaked sources (HBLs), displays irregular activity not yet understood. In this work we report a methodology capable of characterizing the time behavior of these variable objects. The Maximum Likelihood Blocks (MLBs) is a model-independent estimator which sub-divides the light curve into time blocks, whose length and amplitude are compatible with states of constant emission rate of the observed source. The MLBs yields the statistical significance in the rate variations and strongly suppresses the noise fluctuations in the light curves. We apply the MLBs for the first time on the long term X-ray light curves (RXTE/ASM) of Mkn~421,Mkn~501, 1ES 1959+650 and 1ES 2155-304, which consist of more than 10 years of observational data (1996-2007). Using the MLBs interpretation of RXTE/ASM data, the integrated time flux distribution is determined for each single source considered. We identify in these distributions the character...

  18. sedFlow – a tool for simulating fractional bedload transport and longitudinal profile evolution in mountain streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. U. M. Heimann

    2015-01-01

    floods. The model is intended for temporal scales from the individual event (several hours to few days up to longer-term evolution of stream channels (several years. The envisaged spatial scale covers complete catchments at a spatial discretisation of several tens of metres to a few hundreds of metres. sedFlow can deal with the effects of streambeds that slope uphill in a downstream direction and uses recently proposed and tested approaches for quantifying macro-roughness effects in steep channels. sedFlow offers different options for bedload transport equations, flow-resistance relationships and other elements which can be selected to fit the current application in a particular catchment. Local grain-size distributions are dynamically adjusted according to the transport dynamics of each grain-size fraction. sedFlow features fast calculations and straightforward pre- and postprocessing of simulation data. The high simulation speed allows for simulations of several years, which can be used, e.g., to assess the long-term impact of river engineering works or climate change effects. In combination with the straightforward pre- and postprocessing, the fast calculations facilitate efficient workflows for the simulation of individual flood events, because the modeller gets the immediate results as direct feedback to the selected parameter inputs. The model is provided together with its complete source code free of charge under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL (www.wsl.ch/sedFlow. Examples of the application of sedFlow are given in a companion article by Heimann et al. (2015.

  19. Highly Variable Objects in the Palomar-QUEST Survey: A Blazar Search using Optical Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Anne; Baltay, Charles; De Coppi, Paolo; Donalek, Ciro; Drake, Andrew; Djorgovski, S. G.; Ellman, Nancy; Glikman, Eilat; Graham, Matthew; Jerke, Jonathan; Mahabal, Ashish; Rabinowitz, David; Scalzo, Richard; Williams, Roy

    2009-01-01

    We identify 3113 highly variable objects in 7200 deg^2 of the Palomar-QUEST (PQ) Survey, which each varied by more than 0.4 mag simultaneously in two broadband optical filters on timescales from hours to roughly 3.5 years. The primary goal of the selection is to find blazars by their well-known violent optical variability. Because most known blazars have been found in radio and/or X-ray wavelengths, a sample discovered through optical variability may have very different selection effects, elu...

  20. TANAMI Blazars in the IceCube PeV Neutrino Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Krauß, F; Mannheim, K; Schulz, R; Trüstedt, J; Wilms, J; Ojha, R; Ros, E; Anton, G; Baumgartner, W; Beuchert, T; Blanchard, J; Bürkel, C; Carpenter, B; Eberl, T; Edwards, P G; Eisenacher, D; Elsässer, D; Fehn, K; Fritsch, U; Gehrels, N; Gräfe, C; Großberger, C; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; James, C; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kreikenbohm, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Langejahn, M; Leiter, K; Litzinger, E; Lovell, J E J; Müller, C; Phillips, C; Plötz, C; Quick, J; Steinbring, T; Stevens, J; Thompson, D J; Tzioumis, A K

    2014-01-01

    The IceCube Collaboration has announced the discovery of a neutrino flux in excess of the atmospheric background. Due to the steeply falling atmospheric background spectrum, events at PeV energies are most likely of extraterrestrial origin. We present the multiwavelength properties of the six radio brightest blazars positionally coincident with these events using contemporaneous data of the TANAMI blazar sample, including high-resolution images and spectral energy distributions. Assuming the X-ray to {\\gamma}-ray emission originates in the photoproduction of pions by accelerated protons, the integrated predicted neutrino luminosity of these sources is large enough to explain the two detected PeV events.

  1. Relation between X-Ray and -Ray Emissions for Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bijun Li; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Using -ray band data detected by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and X-ray band data for 78 blazars, we find a medium correlation between X-ray and -ray fluxes in the average state. A medium anticorrelation is also found between X-ray (1 KeV) mean spectral index and -ray mean spectral index for blazars. Our results suggest that the most likely radiation mechanism for the high energy -ray would be SSC. And that the -ray emission mechanism may be somewhat different for BL Lacs and FSRQs.

  2. A search of CO emission lines in blazars: the low molecular gas content of BL Lac objects compared to quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Michele; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Furniss, Amy; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Williams, David A.; Kaplan, Kyle; Hogan, Matthew

    2012-08-01

    BL Lacertae (Lac) objects that are detected at very high energies (VHE) are of fundamental importance to study multiple astrophysical processes, including the physics of jets, the properties of the extragalactic background light and the strength of the intergalactic magnetic field. Unfortunately, since most blazars have featureless optical spectra that preclude a redshift determination, a substantial fraction of these VHE extragalactic sources cannot be used for cosmological studies. To assess whether molecular lines are a viable way to establish distances, we have undertaken a pilot programme at the Institut of Millimétrique (IRAM) 30 m telescope to search for CO lines in three BL Lac objects with known redshifts. We report a positive detection of 12 MH_2 ˜ 3 × 10>8 M⊙ towards 1ES 1959+650, but due to the poor quality of the baseline, this value is affected by a large systematic uncertainty. For the remaining two sources, W Comae and RGB J0710+591, we derive 3σ upper limits at, respectively, H2 conversion factor α = 4 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1. If these low molecular gas masses are typical for blazars, blind redshift searches in molecular lines are currently unfeasible. However, deep observations are still a promising way to obtain precise redshifts for sources whose approximate distances are known via indirect methods. Our observations further reveal a deficiency of molecular gas in BL Lac objects compared to quasars, suggesting that the host galaxies of these two types of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are not drawn from the same parent population. Future observations are needed to assess whether this discrepancy is statistically significant, but our pilot programme shows how studies of the interstellar medium in AGN can provide key information to explore the connection between the active nuclei and the host galaxies. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  3. Joint anisotropy and source count constraints on the contribution of blazars to the diffuse gamma-ray background

    OpenAIRE

    Cuoco, Alessandro; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    We place new constraints on the contribution of blazars to the large-scale isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) by jointly analyzing the measured source count distribution (logN-logS) of blazars and the measured intensity and anisotropy of the IGRB. We find that these measurements point to a consistent scenario in which unresolved blazars make less than 20% of the IGRB intensity at 1-10 GeV while accounting for the majority of the measured anisotropy in that energy band. These results indica...

  4. Star forming galaxies in the AKARI Deep Field South: identifications and SEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Pollo, A; Bienias, P; Shirahata, M; Matsuura, S; Kawada, M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the nature and properties of far-infrared (FIR) sources from the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S), we performed an extensive search for the counterparts of 1000 ADF-S objects brighter than 0.0301 Jy in the WIDE-S (90 $\\mu$m) AKARI band in the public databases (NED and SIMBAD). We analyzed the properties of the resulting sample: statistic of the identified objects, number counts, redshift distribution and morphological types. We also made a crude analysis of the clustering properties of the sources and constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 47 selected objects with the best photometry. Among 1000 investigated ADF-S sources, 545 were identified at other wavelengths. From them, 518 are known galaxies, and 343 of them were not known previously as infra-red sources. We found redshifts of 48 extragalactic objects and morphological types of 77 galaxies. We conclude that the bright FIR point sources observed in the ADF-S are mostly nearby galaxies.Their properties are very similar to propert...

  5. Fabrication of hydrophilic paclitaxel-loaded PLA-PEG-PLA microparticles via SEDS process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping OUYANG; Yun-qing KANG; Guang-fu YIN; Zhong-bing HUANG; Ya-dong YAO; Xiao-ming LIAO

    2009-01-01

    In this work, chemically bonded poly(D, L-lactide)-polyethylene glycol-poly(D, L-lactide) (PLA-PEG-PLA) triblock copolymers with various PEG contents and PLA homopolymer were synthesized via melt polymerization, and were confirmed by FTIR and 1 H-NMR results. The molecular weight and polydispersity of the synthesized PLA and PLA-PEG-PLA copolymers were investigated by gel permeation chromatography. Hydro-philicity of the copolymers was identified by contact angle measurement. PLA-PEG-PLA and PLA microparticles loaded with and without PTX were then produced via solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SEDS) process. The effect of the PEG content on the particle size distribution, morphology, drug load, and encapsulation efficiency of the fabricated microparticles was also studied. Results indicate that PLA and PLA-PEG-PLA micropar-ticles all exhibit sphere-like shape with smooth surface, when PEG content is relatively low. The produced microparticles have narrow particle size distributions and small particle sizes. The drug load and encapsulation efficiency of the produced microparticles decreases with higher PEG content in the copolymer matrix. Moreover, high hydrophilicity is found when PEG is chemically attached to originally hydrophobic PLA, providing the produced drug-loaded microparticles with high hydrophi-licity, biocompatibility, and prolonged circulation time, which are considered of vital importance for vessel-circulating drug delivery system.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AGN torus models. SED library (Siebenmorgen+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenmorgen, R.; Heymann, F.; Efstathiou, A.

    2015-08-01

    There are 3600 ASCII tables files in two columns format. The first is the wavelength in microns, the second column is the flux in Jy. SEDs are computed for AGNs at a distance of 50Mpc and a luminosity of 1011L⊙. The file names include the five basic model parameters: a) th: The viewing angle corresponding to bins at 86, 80, 73, 67, 60, 52, 43, 33, and 19 degree measured from the pole (z-axis). thx= th1 ,.., th9 b) R : The inner radius of the dusty torus. R= 300, 514, 772, 1000, 1545 in units: (10^15 cm) c) Vc: The cloud volume filling factor. Vc= 1.5, 7.7, 38.5, 77.7 (%). d) Ac: The optical depth (in V) of the individual clouds. Ac= 0, 4.5, 13.5, 45. e) Ad: The optical depth (in V) of the disk midplane. Ad= 0, 30, 100, 300, 1000. Example: File notation. RxxxxVcxxxAcxxxx_Adxxxx.thx R1545Vc777Ac0135_Ad1000.th9 (2 data files).

  7. Self-consistent 2-phase AGN torus models: SED library for observers

    CERN Document Server

    Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We assume that dust near active galactic nuclei (AGN) is distributed in a torus-like geometry, which may be described by a clumpy medium or a homogeneous disk or as a combination of the two (i.e. a 2-phase medium). The dust particles considered are fluffy and have higher submillimeter emissivities than grains in the diffuse ISM. The dust-photon interaction is treated in a fully self-consistent three dimensional radiative transfer code. We provide an AGN library of spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Its purpose is to quickly obtain estimates of the basic parameters of the AGN, such as the intrinsic luminosity of the central source, the viewing angle, the inner radius, the volume filling factor and optical depth of the clouds, and the optical depth of the disk midplane, and to predict the flux at yet unobserved wavelengths. The procedure is simple and consists of finding an element in the library that matches the observations. We discuss the general properties of the models and in particular the 10mic. silic...

  8. Optical Spectroscopic Observations of Gamma-ray Blazar Candidates. V. TNG, KPNO, and OAN Observations of Blazar Candidates of Uncertain Type in the Northern Hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Crespo, N Álvarez; Ricci, F; Landoni, M; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Massaro, F; D'Abrusco, R; Paggi, A; Chavushyan, V; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Torrealba, J; Latronico, L; La Franca, F; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G

    2016-01-01

    The extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray sky is dominated by emission from blazars, a peculiar class of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Many of the $\\gamma$-ray sources included in Fermi -Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as a blazar candidate of uncertain type (BCU) because there is no optical spectra available in the literature to confirm their nature. In 2013 we started a spectroscopic campaign to look for the optical counterparts of the BCUs and of the Unidentified $\\gamma$-ray Sources. The main goal of our investigation is to confirm the blazar nature of these sources having peculiar properties as compact radio emission and/or selected on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Whenever possible we also determine their redshifts. Here we present the results of the observations carried out in the Northern hemisphere in 2013 and 2014 at Telescopio Nazionale Galilleo (TNG), Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and Observatorio Astron\\'omico Nacional (OAN) in San Pedro M\\'artir. In this ...

  9. Coeval Observations of a Complete Sample of Blazars with Effelsberg, IRAM 30m, and Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Rachen, Jörg P; Krichbaum, Thomas; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Nestoras, Ioannis; Zensus, Anton; Sievers, Albrecht; Ungerechts, Hans; Keihänen, Elina; Reinecke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We present the outline and first results of a project using the synergies of the long term blazar radiomillimetre monitoring program F-GAMMA, the continued scanning of the millimetre-submillimetre sky by the Planck satellite, together with several dedicated observing programs at the Effelsberg 100m telescope, to obtain a data sample unprecedented in both time resolution and frequency span.

  10. The physics and cosmology of TeV blazars in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, P

    2013-01-01

    The extragalactic gamma-ray sky at TeV energies is dominated by blazars, a subclass of accreting super-massive black holes with powerful relativistic outflows directed at us. Only constituting a small fraction of the total power output of black holes, blazars were thought to have a minor impact on the universe at best. As we argue here, the opposite is true and the gamma-ray emission from TeV blazars can be thermalized via beam-plasma instabilities on cosmological scales with order unity efficiency, resulting in a potentially dramatic heating of the low-density intergalactic medium. Here, we review this novel heating mechanism and explore the consequences for the formation of structure in the universe. In particular, we show how it produces an inverted temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium that is in agreement with observations of the Lyman-alpha forest. This suggests that blazar heating can potentially explain the paucity of dwarf galaxies in galactic halos and voids, and the bimodality of...

  11. The Evolution of Swift/BAT blazars and the origin of the MeV background

    CERN Document Server

    Ajello, M; Sambruna, R M; Gehrels, N; Chiang, J; Rau, A; Escala, A; Greiner, J; Tüller, J; Wall, J V; Mushotzky, R F

    2009-01-01

    We use 3 years of data from the Swift/BAT survey to select a complete sample of X-ray blazars above 15 keV. This sample comprises 26 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects detected over a redshift range of 0.03blazars. We find that, contrary to the Seyfert-like AGNs detected by BAT, the population of blazars shows strong positive evolution. This evolution is comparable to the evolution of luminous optical QSOs and luminous X-ray selected AGNs. We also find evidence for an epoch-dependence of the evolution as determined previously for radio-quiet AGNs. We interpret both these findings as a strong link between accretion and jet activity. In our sample, the FSRQs evolve strongly, while our best-fit shows that BL Lacs might not evolve at all. The blazar population accounts for 10-20 % (depending on the evolution of the BL Lacs) of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the 15--55 keV band. W...

  12. The extension of variability properties in gamma-ray bursts to blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Qingwen; Lei, Wei-Hua; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Liang, Enwen; Cao, Xinwu

    2015-01-01

    Both gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and blazars have relativistic jets pointing at a small angle from our line of sight. Several recent studies suggested that these two kinds of sources may share similar jet physics. In this work, we explore the variability properties for GRBs and blazars as a whole. We find that the correlation between minimum variability timescale (MTS) and Lorentz factor, $\\Gamma$, as found only in GRBs by Sonbas et al. can be extended to blazars with a joint correlation of $\\rm MTS\\propto\\Gamma^{-4.7\\pm0.3}$. The same applies to the $\\rm MTS\\propto \\it L_{\\gamma}^{\\rm -1.0\\pm0.1}$ correlation as found in GRBs, which can be well extended into blazars as well. These results provide further evidence that the jets in these two kinds of sources are similar despite of the very different mass scale of their central engines. Further investigations of the physical origin of these correlations are needed, which can shed light on the nature of the jet physics.

  13. RoboPol: First season rotations of optical polarization plane in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, D; Papadakis, I; Kiehlmann, S; Panopoulou, G; Liodakis, I; King, O G; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Das, H; Feiler, R; Fuhrmann, L; Hovatta, T; Khodade, P; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Myserlis, I; Modi, D; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Papamastorakis, I; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Ramaprakash, A; Reig, P; Readhead, A C S; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    We present first results on polarization swings in optical emission of blazars obtained by RoboPol, a monitoring program of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events. A possible connection of polarization swing events with periods of high activity in gamma rays is investigated using the dataset obtained during the first season of operation. It was found that the brightest gamma-ray flares tend to be located closer in time to rotation events, which may be an indication of two separate mechanisms responsible for the rotations. Blazars with detected rotations have significantly larger amplitude and faster variations of polarization angle in optical than blazars without rotations. Our simulations show that the full set of observed rotations is not a likely outcome (probability $\\le 1.5 \\times 10^{-2}$) of a random walk of the polarization vector simulated by a multicell model. Furthermore, it is highly unlikely ($\\sim 5 \\times 10^{-5}$) that none of o...

  14. Constraints on black hole massess with timescales of variations in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H T

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the issue of black hole masses and minimum timescales of jet emission for blazars. We proposed a sophisticated model that sets an upper limit to the central black hole masses $M_{\\bullet}$ with the minimum timescales $\\Delta t^{\\rm{ob}}_{\\rm{min}}$ of variations observed in blazars. The value of $\\Delta t^{\\rm{ob}}_{\\rm{min}}$ presents an upper limit to the size of blob in jet. The blob is assumed to be generated in the jet-production region in the vicinity of black hole, and then the expanding blob travels outward along the jet. We applied the model to 32 blazars, 29 of which were detected in gamma rays by satellites, and these $\\Delta t^{\\rm{ob}}_{\\rm{min}}$ are on the order of hours with large variability amplitudes. In general, these $M_{\\bullet}$ estimated with this method are not inconsistent with those masses reported in the literatures. This model is natural to connect $M_{\\bullet}$ with $\\Delta t^{\\rm{ob}}_{\\rm{min}}$ for blazars, and seems to be applicable to constrain...

  15. Multiwavelength Doppler factors for Fermi-detected gamma-ray loud blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou-Dun Zeng; Li Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We collect a sample of 51 Fermi-detected gamma-ray loud blazars with known radio Doppler factors and study properties of the Doppler factors of blazars at optical, X-ray and gamma-ray bands. A basic assumption is that the emission from the radio to gamma-ray bands of the blazars are produced by the nonthermal radiation of accelerated particles in a jet. Our results show that (1) the Doppler factors of blazars are a function of frequency, with the Doppler factor decreasing with frequency from the radio to X-ray regions, and then increasing from the X-ray to y-ray regions which are similar to results given by Zhang et al., and (2) there are marginal correlations between the Doppler factors at radio and X-ray bands and the synchrotron peak frequency, and a strong correlation between the Doppler factor in the gamma-ray band and the synchrotron peak frequency, but no correlation in the optical band.

  16. Frequency dependent core shifts and parameter estimation for the blazar 3C 454.3

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, P; Mangalam, A; Gupta, Alok C; Wiita, Paul J; Volvach, A E; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Gu, M F; Lahteenmaki, A; Tornikoski, M; Volvach, L N

    2015-01-01

    We study the core shift effect in the parsec scale jet of the blazar 3C 454.3 using the 4.8 GHz - 36.8 GHz radio light curves obtained from three decades of continuous monitoring. From a piecewise Gaussian fit to each flare, time lags $\\Delta t$ between the observation frequencies $\

  17. The Influence of Plasma Effects of Pair Beams on the Intergalactic Cascade Emission of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzler, Ulf; Schlickeiser, Reinhard

    2014-03-01

    The attenuation of TeV γ-rays from distant blazars by the extragalactic background light (EBL) produces relativistic electron-positron pair beams. It has been shown by Broderick et. al. (2012) and Schlickeiser et. al (2012) that a pair beam traversing the intergalactic medium is unstable to linear two-stream instabilities of both electrostatic and electromagnetic nature. While for strong blazars all free pair energy is dissipated in heating the intergalactic medium and a potential electromagnetic cascade via inverse-Compton scattering with the cosmic microwave background is suppressed, we investigate the case of weak blazars where the back reaction of generated electrostatic turbulence leads to a plateauing of the electron energy spectrum. In the ultra-relativistic Thomson limit we analytically calculate the inverse-Compton spectral energy distribution for both an unplateaued and a plateaued beam scenario, showing a peak reduction factor of Rpeak ≈ 0.345. This is consistent with the FERMI non-measurements of a GeV excess in the spectrum of EBL attenuated TeV blazars. Claims on the lower bound of the intergalactic magnetic field strengths, made by several authors neglecting plasma effects, are thus put into question.

  18. Coincidence of a high-fluence blazar outburst with a PeV-energy neutrino event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadler, M.; Krauß, F.; Mannheim, K.; Ojha, R.; Müller, C.; Schulz, R.; Anton, G.; Baumgartner, W.; Beuchert, T.; Buson, S.; Carpenter, B.; Eberl, T.; Edwards, P. G.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsässer, D.; Gehrels, N.; Gräfe, C.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; James, C. W.; Kappes, A.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Langejahn, M.; Leiter, K.; Litzinger, E.; Longo, F.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McEnery, J.; Natusch, T.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Quick, J.; Ros, E.; Stecker, F. W.; Steinbring, T.; Stevens, J.; Thompson, D. J.; Trüstedt, J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.; Wilms, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The astrophysical sources of the extraterrestrial, very high-energy neutrinos detected by the IceCube collaboration remain to be identified. Gamma-ray (γ-ray) blazars have been predicted to yield a cumulative neutrino signal exceeding the atmospheric background above energies of 100 TeV, assuming that both the neutrinos and the γ-ray photons are produced by accelerated protons in relativistic jets. As the background spectrum falls steeply with increasing energy, the individual events with the clearest signature of being of extraterrestrial origin are those at petaelectronvolt energies. Inside the large positional-uncertainty fields of the first two petaelectronvolt neutrinos detected by IceCube, the integrated emission of the blazar population has a sufficiently high electromagnetic flux to explain the detected IceCube events, but fluences of individual objects are too low to make an unambiguous source association. Here, we report that a major outburst of the blazar PKS B1424-418 occurred in temporal and positional coincidence with a third petaelectronvolt-energy neutrino event (HESE-35) detected by IceCube. On the basis of an analysis of the full sample of γ-ray blazars in the HESE-35 field, we show that the long-term average γ-ray emission of blazars as a class is in agreement with both the measured all-sky flux of petaelectronvolt neutrinos and the spectral slope of the IceCube signal. The outburst of PKS B1424-418 provides an energy output high enough to explain the observed petaelectronvolt event, suggestive of a direct physical association.

  19. Proletarische Virtuosen? Widersprüche und Verwerfungen in der Elitenpolitik der SED am Beispiel der Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse

    OpenAIRE

    Siebeneichner, Tilmann

    2013-01-01

    "The members of the 'Combat Groups of the Working Class' were considered as proletarian virtuosos because they voluntarily spent their leisure time for their commitment to the protection of the 'Socialist achievements'. This way representing Communist resilience, they were supposed to be particularly honoured and recognized. Already in the 1950s, however, it became obvious that praising violence as a political maxim was widely perceived as contradicting other programmatic aspects of SED rule....

  20. Development of a New Zealand SedNet model for assessment of catchment-wide soil-conservation works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, John R.; Herzig, Alexander; Basher, Les; Betts, Harley D.; Marden, Mike; Phillips, Chris J.; Ausseil, Anne-Gaelle E.; Palmer, David J.; Clark, Maree; Roygard, Jon

    2016-03-01

    Much hill country in New Zealand has been converted from indigenous forest to pastoral agriculture, resulting in increased soil erosion. Following a severe storm that hit the Manawatu-Wanaganui region in 2004 and caused 62,000 landslides, the Horizons Regional Council have implemented the Sustainable Land Use Initiative (SLUI), a programme of widespread soil conservation. We have developed a New Zealand version (SedNetNZ) of the Australian SedNet model to evaluate the impact of the SLUI programme in the 5850 km2 Manawatu catchment. SedNetNZ spatially distributes budgets of fine sediment in the landscape. It incorporates landslide, gully, earthflow erosion, surficial erosion, bank erosion, and flood-plain deposition, the important forms of soil erosion in New Zealand. Modelled suspended sediment loads compared well with measured suspended sediment loads with an R2 value of 0.85 after log transformation. A sensitivity analysis gave the uncertainty of estimated suspended sediment loads to be approximately plus or minus 50% (at the 95% confidence level). It is expected that by 2040, suspended sediment loads in targeted water management zones will decrease by about 40%. The expected decrease for the whole catchment is 34%. The expected reduction is due to maturity of tree planting on land at risk to soil erosion. The 34% reduction represents an annual rate of return of 20% on 20 million NZ of investment on soil conservation works through avoided damage to property and infrastructure and avoided clean-up costs.

  1. Tracing black hole accretion with SED decomposition and IR lines: from local galaxies to the high-z Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gruppioni, C; Spinoglio, L; Pereira-Santaella, M; Pozzi, F; Andreani, P; Bonato, M; De Zotti, G; Malkan, M; Negrello, M; Vallini, L; Vignali, C

    2016-01-01

    We present new estimates of AGN accretion and star-formation luminosity in galaxies obtained for the local 12-$\\mu$m sample of Seyfert galaxies (12MGS), by performing a detailed broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) decomposition including the emission of stars, dust heated by star formation and a possible AGN dusty torus. Thanks to the availability of data from the X-rays to the sub-millimetre, we constrain and test the contribution of the stellar, AGN and star-formation components to the SEDs. The availability of Spitzer-IRS low resolution mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectra is crucial to constrain the dusty torus component at its peak wavelengths. The results of SED-fitting are also tested against the available information in other bands: the reconstructed AGN bolometric luminosity is compared to those derived from X-rays and from the high excitation IR lines tracing AGN activity like [Ne V] and [O IV]. The IR luminosity due to star-formation (SF) and the intrinsic AGN bolometric luminosity are shown to ...

  2. The ISO-LWS map of the Serpens cloud core I. The SEDs of the IR\\/SMM sources

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, B; Menshikov, A B; Olofsson, G; Caux, E; Ceccarelli, C; Lorenzetti, D; Molinari, S; Nisini, B; Nordh, L H; Saraceno, P; Sibille, F; Spinoglio, L; White, G J

    2000-01-01

    ISO-LWS mapping observations of the Serpens molecular cloud core are presented. The spectral range is 50 - 200 micron and the map size is 8' X 8'. These observations suffer from severe source confusion at FIR wavelengths and we employ a Maximum Likelihood Method for the spectro-spatial deconvolution. The strong and fairly isolated source SMM1 FIRS1 presented a test case, whose modelled spectral energy distribution (SED), within observational errors, is identical to the observed one. The model results for the other infrared and submillimetre sources are therefore likely to represent their correct SEDs. Simulations demonstrating the reliability and potential of the developed method support this view. For the majority of sources the peak of the SEDs is found within the spectral range of the LWS and derived temperatures are generally higher (>30K) than have been found by earlier deconvolution attempts using IRAS data. SMM sizes are found to be only a few arcsec in diameter. In addition, the SMMs are generally opt...

  3. Modelling the Pan-Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies: IV The Controlling Parameters of the Starburst SED

    CERN Document Server

    Groves, B; Sutherland, R; Kewley, L; Fischera, J; Leitherer, C; Brandl, B; van Breugal, W

    2007-01-01

    We combine the the stellar spectral synthesis code Starburst99, the nebular modelling code MAPPINGSIII, and a 1-D dynamical evolution model of HII regions around massive clusters of young stars to generate improved models of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of starburst galaxies. We introduce a compactness parameter, C, which characterizes the specific intensity of the radiation field at ionization fronts in HII regions, and which controls the shape of the far-IR dust re-emission, often referred to loosely as the dust ``temperature''. We also investigate the effect of metallicity on the overall SED and in particular, on the strength of the PAH features. We provide templates for the mean emission produced by the young compact HII regions, the older (10 - 100 Myr) stars and for the wavelength-dependent attenuation produced by a foreground screen of the dust used in our model. We demonstrate that these components may be combined to produce a excellent fit to the observed SEDs of star formation dominated ga...

  4. MOJAVE. XII. ACCELERATION AND COLLIMATION OF BLAZAR JETS ON PARSEC SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, D. C. [Department of Physics, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023 (United States); Lister, M. L.; Richards, J. L. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Kovalev, Y. Y. [Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, A. B.; Savolainen, T.; Ros, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Kellermann, K. I., E-mail: homand@denison.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We report on the acceleration properties of 329 features in 95 blazar jets from the MOJAVE Very Long Baseline Array program. Nearly half the features and three-quarters of the jets show significant changes in speed and/or direction. In general, apparent speed changes are distinctly larger than changes in direction, indicating that changes in the Lorentz factors of jet features dominate the observed speed changes rather than bends along the line of sight. Observed accelerations tend to increase the speed of features near the jet base, ≲ 10-20 pc projected, and decrease their speed at longer distances. The range of apparent speeds at a fixed distance in an individual jet can span a factor of a few, indicating that shock properties and geometry may influence the apparent motions; however, we suggest that the broad trend of jet features increasing their speed near the origin is due to an overall acceleration of the jet flow out to deprojected distances of the order of 10{sup 2} pc, beyond which the flow begins to decelerate or remains nearly constant in speed. We estimate intrinsic rates of change of the Lorentz factors in the galaxy frame of the order of Γ-dot /Γ≃10{sup −3} to 10{sup –2} yr{sup –1}, which can lead to total Lorentz factor changes of a factor of a few on the length scales observed here. Finally, we also find evidence for jet collimation at projected distances of ≲ 10 pc in the form of the non-radial motion and bending accelerations that tend to better align features with the inner jet.

  5. Science with the ASTRI mini-array for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: blazars and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Giuliani, Andrea; Bigongiari, Ciro; Di Pierro, Federico; Stamerra, Antonio; Pareschi, Giovanni; Vercellone, Stefano; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium

    2016-05-01

    ASTRI (“Astronomia a Specchi con Tecnologia Replicante Italiana”) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research (MIUR), devoted to the realization, operation and scientific validation of an end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype is characterized by a dual mirror, Schwarzschild-Couder optical design and a compact camera based on silicon photo-multipliers. It will be sensitive to multi-TeV very high energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV, with a PSF ~ 6’ and a wide (9.6°) unaberrated optical field of view. Right after validation of the design in single-dish observations at the Serra La Nave site (Sicily, Italy) during 2015, the ASTRI collaboration will be able to start deployment, at the final CTA southern site, of the ASTRI mini-array, proposed to constitute the very first CTA precursor. Counting 9 ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, the ASTRI mini-array will overtake current IACT systems in differential sensitivity above 5 TeV, thus allowing unprecedented observations of known and predicted bright TeV emitters in this band, including some extragalactic sources such as extreme high-peaked BL Lacs with hard spectra. We exploited the ASTRI scientific simulator ASTRIsim in order to understand the feasibility of observations tackling blazar and cosmic ray physics, including discrimination of hadronic and leptonic scenarios for the VHE emission from BL Lac relativistic jets and indirect measurements of the intergalactic magnetic field and of the extragalactic background light. We selected favorable targets, outlining observation modes, exposure times, multi-wavelength coverage needed and the results expected. Moreover, the perspectives for observation of effects due to the existence of axion-like particles or to Lorentz invariance violations have been investigated.

  6. A Determination of the Gamma-ray Flux and Photon Spectral Index Distributions of Blazars from the Fermi-LAT 3LAC

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, J

    2015-01-01

    We present a determination of the distributions of gamma-ray photon flux -- the so called LogN-LogS relation -- and photon spectral index for blazars, based on the third extragalactic source catalog of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Large Area Telescope, and considering the photon energy range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV. The dataset consists of the 774 blazars in the so-called "Clean" sample detected with a greater than approximately seven sigma detection threshold and located above $\\pm$20 deg Galactic latitude. We use non-parametric methods verified in previous works to reconstruct the intrinsic distributions from the observed ones which account for the data truncations introduced by observational bias and includes the effects of the possible correlation between the flux and photon index. The intrinsic flux distribution can be represented by a broken power law with a high flux power-law index of -2.43$\\pm$0.08 and a low flux power-law index of -1.87$\\pm$0.10. The intrinsic photon index distribution can ...

  7. VERY HIGH ENERGY γ-RAYS FROM THE UNIVERSE’S MIDDLE AGE: DETECTION OF THE z = 0.940 BLAZAR PKS 1441+25 WITH MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Biland, A. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Ansoldi, S.; Biasuzzi, B. [Università di Udine, and INFN Trieste, I-33100 Udine (Italy); Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, A. [INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome (Italy); Antoranz, P. [Università di Siena, and INFN Pisa, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Babic, A. [Croatian MAGIC Consortium, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, University of Rijeka, University of Split and University of Zagreb (Croatia); Banerjee, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1\\AF Bidhannagar, Salt Lake, Sector-1, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bangale, P.; Almeida, U. Barres de; Borracci, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, D-80805 München (Germany); Barrio, J. A.; Bonnefoy, S. [Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Bednarek, W. [University of Łódź, PL-90236 Lodz (Poland); Bernardini, E. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Blanch, O. [IFAE, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bretz, T. [Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Carmona, E., E-mail: fabrizio.tavecchio@brera.inaf.it, E-mail: miguelnievas@ucm.es, E-mail: manganaro@iac.es, E-mail: josefa.becerra@nasa.gov [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Collaboration: MAGIC Collaboration; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; and others

    2015-12-20

    The flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1441+25 at a redshift of z = 0.940 is detected between 40 and 250 GeV with a significance of 25.5σ using the MAGIC telescopes. Together with the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 (z = 0.944), PKS 1441+25 is the most distant very high energy (VHE) blazar detected to date. The observations were triggered by an outburst in 2015 April seen at GeV energies with the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi. Multi-wavelength observations suggest a subdivision of the high state into two distinct flux states. In the band covered by MAGIC, the variability timescale is estimated to be 6.4 ± 1.9 days. Modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution with an external Compton model, the location of the emitting region is understood as originating in the jet outside the broad-line region (BLR) during the period of high activity, while being partially within the BLR during the period of low (typical) activity. The observed VHE spectrum during the highest activity is used to probe the extragalactic background light at an unprecedented distance scale for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy.

  8. Time-dependent injection as a model for rapid blazar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Time-dependent injection can cause non-linear cooling effects, which lead to a faster energy loss of the electrons in jets. The most obvious result is the appearance of unique breaks in the SED, which would normally be attributed to a complicated electron distribution. The knowledge of the observation time and duration is important to interpret the observed spectra, because of the non-trivial evolution of the SED. Intrinsic gamma-gamma absorption processes in the emission region are only of minor importance.

  9. The central black hole masses for the γ-ray loud blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST) provides an increase in sensitivity and has detected rapid variability of gamma-ray sources.The variability time scales detected from the gamma-ray loud blazars by LAT and EGRET,and gamma-ray luminosity are used to estimate the central black hole masses.In this work,we find that the lower limits of central black hole masses are in a range of (0.3-24)×107M⊙,which are compared with those obtained by other authors.Our results are consistent with other authors’ results.Also,the Lorentz factor,Γ,and the propagation angle,θ,are obtained for 18 blazars for which superluminal motions are known.

  10. A Diagnostic Test for Determining the Location of the GeV Emission in Powerful Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Amanda; Georganopoulos, Markos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Perlman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    An issue currently under debate in the literature is how far from the black hole is the Fermi-observed GeV emission of powerful blazars emitted. Here we present a clear diagnostic tool for testing whether the Ge V emission site is located within the sub-pc broad emission line (BLR) region or further out in the few pc scale molecular torus (MT) environment. Within the BLR the scatteri takes place at the onset of the Klein-Nishina regime, causing the electron cooling time to become almost energy independent and as a result, the variation of high-energy emission is expected to be achromatic. Contrarily, if the emission site is located outside the BLR, the expected GeY variability is energy-dependent and with amplitude increasing with energy. We demonstrate this using time-dependent numerical simulations of blazar variability.

  11. The relationship of extended radio power and broad emission line luminosity in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between broad line luminosity LBLR and extended radio power PE is investigated.In the log PE-log LBLR diagram,FSRQs populate the region of higher luminosity relative to BL Lacs,and FR II BL Lacs are between FSRQs and FR I BL Lacs.For these blazars,there is a significant correlation between LBLR and PE.The regression line scales as PE ∝ L0B.L87R ± 0.15.The slope of this scaling relation is consistent with that derived from the simple theoretical formulae.Thus,the unification of BL Lacs and FRSQs into a single population finds a statistical basis,and a disk-jet symbiosis in blazars is confirmed.FR II BL Lacs are probably at an intermediate stage in the sequence from FSRQs to BL Lacs with FR I BL Lacs at the end of this sequence.

  12. The estimations of four basic parameters for gamma-ray loud blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hui Fan; Yu-Hai Yuan; Yi Liu; Jing-Yi Zhang; Yi-Ping Qin; Hua Liu; Yong Huang; Jiang-He Yang; Hong-Guang Wang; Jiang-Shui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The method used in our previous papers is adopted to estimate four basic pa-rameters (the central black hole mass (M), the boosting factor (or Doppler factor) (δ), the (d)) for 59 γ-ray loud blazars (20 BL Lacertae objects and 39 fiat spectrum radio quasars).The central black hole masses estimated for this sample are in a range of from 107 M⊙to 109 M⊙. In the case of black hole mass, there is no clear difference between BL Lacertae objects and flat spectrum radio quasars, which is consistent with the previous results sug-gesting that the central black hole masses do not play an important role in the evolutionary sequence of blazars.

  13. RoboPol: optical polarization-plane rotations and flaring activity in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, D; Papadakis, I E; Hovatta, T; Pearson, T J; Liodakis, I; Panopoulou, G V; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Das, H; Khodade, P; Kiehlmann, S; King, O G; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Mahabal, A; Marecki, A; Modi, D; Myserlis, I; Paleologou, E; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Rajarshi, C; Ramaprakash, A; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of rotations of the optical polarization of blazars during the second year of operation of RoboPol, a monitoring programme of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events, and we analyse the large set of rotation events discovered in two years of observation. We investigate patterns of variability in the polarization parameters and total flux density during the rotation events and compare them to the behaviour in a non-rotating state. We have searched for possible correlations between average parameters of the polarization-plane rotations and average parameters of polarization, with the following results: (1) there is no statistical association of the rotations with contemporaneous optical flares; (2) the average fractional polarization during the rotations tends to be lower than that in a non-rotating state; (3) the average fractional polarization during rotations is correlated with the rotation rate of the polarization plane...

  14. GAMMA-RAY AND X-RAY EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY-LOUD BLAZARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XIONG; ZHAO GANG; XIE GUANG-ZHONG; ZHENG GUANG-SHENG; ZHANG LI

    2001-01-01

    We present a strong correlation of the gamma-ray (above 100 MeV) mean spectral indices aγ and X-ray (1 keV)mean spectral indices cX for 34 gamma-ray-loud blazars (16 BL Lac objects and 18 flat spectrum radio quasars). Astrong correlation is also found between the gamma-ray flux densities F-γ and X-ray flux densities Fx in the low state for 47 blazars (17 BL Lac and 30 flat spectrum radio quasars). Possible correlation on the gamma-ray emission mechanism is discussed. We suggest that the main gamma-ray radiation mechanism is probably the synchrotron process. The gamma-ray emission may be somewhat different from that of BL Lac objects and flat spectrum radio quasars.

  15. Electromagnetic cascade masquerade: a way to mimic $\\gamma$--ALP mixing effects in blazar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhatdoev, T A; Kircheva, A P; Lyukshin, A A

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies on extragalactic {\\gamma}-ray propagation performed up to now only accounted for primary gamma-ray absorption and adiabatic losses (absorption-only model). However, there is growing evidence that this model is oversimplified and must be modified in some way. (...) There are many hints that a secondary component from electromagnetic cascades initiated by primary $\\gamma$-rays or nuclei may be observed in the spectra of some blazars. We study the impact of electromagnetic cascades from primary $\\gamma$-rays or protons on the physical interpretation of blazar spectra obtained with imaging Cherenkov telescopes. We use the publicly-available code ELMAG to compute observable spectra of electromagnetic cascades from primary $\\gamma$-rays. For the case of primary proton, we develop a simple, fast, and reasonably accurate hybrid method to calculate the observable spectrum. (...) Electromagnetic cascades show at least two very distinct regimes labeled by the energy of the primary $\\gamma$-ray ($E_{0...

  16. The Evolution of Swift/BAT blazars and the origin of the MeV background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Costamante, L.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Sambruna, R.M.; Gehrels, N.; /NASA, Goddard; Chiang, J.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Rau, A.; /Caltech; Escala, A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Cerro Calan Observ.; Greiner, J.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Tueller, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Wall, J.V.; /British Columbia U.; Mushotzky, R.F.; /NASA, Goddard

    2009-10-17

    We use 3 years of data from the Swift/BAT survey to select a complete sample of X-ray blazars above 15 keV. This sample comprises 26 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects detected over a redshift range of 0.03 < z < 4.0. We use this sample to determine, for the first time in the 15-55 keV band, the evolution of blazars. We find that, contrary to the Seyfert-like AGNs detected by BAT, the population of blazars shows strong positive evolution. This evolution is comparable to the evolution of luminous optical QSOs and luminous X-ray selected AGNs. We also find evidence for an epoch-dependence of the evolution as determined previously for radio-quiet AGNs. We interpret both these findings as a strong link between accretion and jet activity. In our sample, the FSRQs evolve strongly, while our best-fit shows that BL Lacs might not evolve at all. The blazar population accounts for 10-20% (depending on the evolution of the BL Lacs) of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the 15-55 keV band. We find that FSRQs can explain the entire CXB emission for energies above 500 keV solving the mystery of the generation of the MeV background. The evolution of luminous FSRQs shows a peak in redshift (z{sub c} = 4.3 {+-} 0.5) which is larger than the one observed in QSOs and X-ray selected AGNs. We argue that FSRQs can be used as tracers of massive elliptical galaxies in the early Universe.

  17. On conservative models of "the pair-production anomaly" in blazar spectra at Very High Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhatdoev, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    For some blazars, the gamma-ray absorption features due to pair-production on the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) are fainter than expected. The present work reviews the main models that could explain this paradox, with emphasis on conservative ones, that do not include any new physics. The models that are intrinsic to the source, do allow a very hard primary spectrum, but fail to explain a regular redshift dependence of the anomaly starting energy. The model that includes a contribution...

  18. Searching for distant blazars with GLAST and the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carramiñana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Gran Telescopio Milimétrico estudiará el universo a altos corrimientos al rojo, incluyendo la formación de las primeras galaxias masivas y sus núcleos activos. El GTM puede ser usado en conjunto con GLAST en la búsqueda de los blazares más distantes para explorar la época de formación de los primeros hoyos negros.

  19. Tracing black hole accretion with SED decomposition and IR lines: from local galaxies to the high-z Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppioni, C.; Berta, S.; Spinoglio, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Pozzi, F.; Andreani, P.; Bonato, M.; De Zotti, G.; Malkan, M.; Negrello, M.; Vallini, L.; Vignali, C.

    2016-06-01

    We present new estimates of AGN accretion and star formation (SF) luminosity in galaxies obtained for the local 12 μm sample of Seyfert galaxies (12MGS), by performing a detailed broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) decomposition including the emission of stars, dust heated by SF and a possible AGN dusty torus. Thanks to the availability of data from the X-rays to the sub-millimetre, we constrain and test the contribution of the stellar, AGN and SF components to the SEDs. The availability of Spitzer-InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectra is crucial to constrain the dusty torus component at its peak wavelengths. The results of SED fitting are also tested against the available information in other bands: the reconstructed AGN bolometric luminosity is compared to those derived from X-rays and from the high excitation IR lines tracing AGN activity like [Ne V] and [O IV]. The IR luminosity due to SF and the intrinsic AGN bolometric luminosity are shown to be strongly related to the IR line luminosity. Variations of these relations with different AGN fractions are investigated, showing that the relation dispersions are mainly due to different AGN relative contribution within the galaxy. Extrapolating these local relations between line and SF or AGN luminosities to higher redshifts, by means of recent Herschel galaxy evolution results, we then obtain mid- and far-IR line luminosity functions useful to estimate how many star-forming galaxies and AGN we expect to detect in the different lines at different redshifts and luminosities with future IR facilities (e.g. JWST, SPICA).

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sample of Fermi Blazars (Chen+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-Y.; Zhang, X.; Xiong, D.-R.; Wang, S.-J.; Yu, X.-L.

    2016-04-01

    We tried to select a large number of blazars with reliable redshift, radio core and extended radio luminosity at 1.4GHz. Firstly, we considered the following samples of blazars to get the radio core luminosity and extended luminosity at 1.4GHz: Kharb et al. (2010, J/ApJ/710/764), Antonucci & Ulvestad (1985ApJ...294..158A), Cassaro et al. (1999A&AS..139..601C), Murphy et al. (1993MNRAS.264..298M), Landt & Bignall (2008MNRAS.391..967L), Caccianiga & Marcha (2004, Cat. J/MNRAS/348/973), Giroletti et al. (2004). We cross-correlated these samples with the Fermi LAT Third Source Catalog (3FGL), and we acquired the 3FGL spectral index and energy flux at 0.1-100GeV from clean sources in 3FGL (Fermi-LAT Collaboration 2015, J/ApJS/218/23) Using these catalogs, we compiled 201 Fermi blazars. (1 data file).

  1. Multiwavelength behaviour of the blazar OJ 248 from radio to {\\gamma}-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Carnerero, M I; Villata, M; Acosta-Pulido, J A; D'Ammando, F; Smith, P S; Larionov, V M

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the multiwavelength behaviour of the blazar OJ 248 at z = 0.939 in the period 2006-2013. We use low-energy data (optical, near-infrared, and radio) obtained by 21 observatories participating in the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT), as well as data from the Swift (optical-UV and X-rays) and Fermi (gamma-rays) satellites, to study flux and spectral variability and correlations among emissions in different bands. We take into account the effect of absorption by the Damped Lyman Alpha intervening system at z = 0.525. Two major outbursts were observed in 2006-2007 and in 2012-2013 at optical and near-IR wavelengths, while in the high-frequency radio light curves prominent radio outbursts are visible peaking at the end of 2010 and beginning of 2013, revealing a complex radio-optical correlation. Cross-correlation analysis suggests a delay of the optical variations after the gamma-ray ones of about a month, which is a peculiar behaviour in blazar...

  2. SMARTS optical and infrared monitoring of 12 gamma-ray bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Bonning, E W; Bailyn, C; Buxton, M; Chatterjee, R; Coppi, P; Fossati, G; Isler, J; Maraschi, L

    2012-01-01

    We present multiwavelength data for twelve blazars observed from 2008-2010 as part of an ongoing optical-infrared photometric monitoring project. Sources were selected to be bright, southern (dec < 20 deg) blazars observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, with daily and weekly gamma-ray fluxes made available from the start of the Fermi mission. Light curves are presented for the twelve blazars in BVRJK at near-daily cadence. We find that optical and infrared fluxes are well correlated in all sources. Gamma-ray bright flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in our sample have optical/infrared emission correlated with gamma-rays consistent with inverse Compton-scattering models for GeV emission. In FSRQs, the variability amplitude decreases towards optical/IR wavelengths, consistent with the presence of a thermal emission component from the accretion disk varying on significantly longer timescales than the jet synchrotron emission. In BL Lac objects, variability is mainly constant across wavelengths, cons...

  3. Evidence for the Secondary Emission as the Origin of Hard Spectra in TeV Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Y G

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model for a possible origin of hard very high energy spectra from a distant blazar. In the model, both the primary photons produced in the source and secondary photons produced outside the source contribute to the observed high energy $\\gamma$-rays emission. That is, the primary photons are produced in the source through the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process, and the secondary photons are produced outside the source through high energy protons interaction with the background photons along the line of sight. We apply the model to a characteristic case was the very high energy (VHE) $\\gamma$-ray emissions in distant blazar 1ES 1101-232. Assuming a suitable electron and proton spectra, we obtain excellent fits to observed spectra of distant blazar 1ES 1101-232. This indicated that the surprisingly low attenuation of high energy $\\gamma$-rays, especially for the shape of the very high energy $\\gamma$-rays tail of the observed spectra, can be explained by secondary $\\gamma$-rays produced in inter...

  4. HIGHLY VARIABLE OBJECTS IN THE PALOMAR-QUEST SURVEY: A BLAZAR SEARCH USING OPTICAL VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We identify 3113 highly variable objects in 7200 deg2 of the Palomar-QUEST (PQ) Survey, which each varied by more than 0.4 mag simultaneously in two broadband optical filters on timescales from hours to roughly 3.5 years. The primary goal of the selection is to find blazars by their well-known violent optical variability. Because most known blazars have been found in radio and/or X-ray wavelengths, a sample discovered through optical variability may have very different selection effects, elucidating the range of behavior possible in these systems. A set of blazars selected in this unusual manner will improve our understanding of the physics behind this extremely variable and diverse class of active galactic nucleus (AGN). The object positions, variability statistics, and color information are available using the PQ CasJobs server. The time domain is just beginning to be explored over large sky areas; we do not know exactly what a violently variable sample will hold. About 20% of the sample has been classified in the literature; over 70% of those objects are known or likely AGNs. The remainder largely consists of a variety of variable stars, including a number of RR Lyrae and cataclysmic variables.

  5. Spectral analysis of Fermi-LAT blazars above 50 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the intrinsic (unattenuated by the extragalactic background light, EBL) power-law spectral indices of 128 extragalactic sources detected up to z~2 with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) at very high energies (VHEs, E>50 GeV). The median of the intrinsic index distribution is 2.20 (versus 2.54 for the observed distribution). We also analyze the observed spectral breaks (i.e., the difference between the VHE and high energy, HE, 100 MeVblazar curvature and EBL attenuation. There is also no evidence of evolution with redshift of the physics that drives the photon emission in high-frequency synchrotron peak (HSP) blazars. This makes HSP blazars excellent probes of the EBL.

  6. Upper Limits on the Extragalactic Background Light from the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Schroedter, M

    2005-01-01

    The direct measurement of the extragalactic background light (EBL) is difficult at optical to infrared wavelengths because of the strong foreground radiation originating in the Solar System. Very high energy (VHE, E$>$100 GeV) gamma rays interact with EBL photons of these wavelengths through pair production. In this work, the available VHE spectra from six blazars are used to place upper limits on the EBL. These blazars have been detected over a range of redshifts and a steepening of the spectral index is observed with increasing source distance. This can be interpreted as absorption by the EBL. In general, knowledge of the intrinsic source spectrum is necessary to determine the density of the intervening EBL. Motivated by the observed spectral steepening with redshift, upper limits on the EBL are derived by assuming that the intrinsic spectra of the six blazars are $\\propto E^{-1.8}$. Upper limits are then placed on the EBL flux at discrete energies without assuming a specific spectral shape for the EBL. Thi...

  7. Multi-band optical variability of three TeV Blazars on Diverse Timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Alok C; Bhagwan, J; Strigachev, A; Bachev, R; Semkov, E; Gaur, H; Damljanovic, G; Vince, O; Wiita, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    We present our optical photometric observations of three TeV blazars, PKS 1510-089, PG 1553+113 and Mrk 501 taken using two telescopes in India, one in Bulgaria, one in Greece and one in Serbia during 2012 - 2014. These observations covered a total of 95 nights with a total of 202 B filter frames, 247 images in V band, 817 in R band while 229 images were taken in the I filter. This work is focused on multi-band flux and colour variability studies of these blazars on diverse timescales which are useful in understanding the emission mechanisms. We studied the variability characteristics of above three blazars and found all to be active over our entire observational campaigns. We also searched for any correlation between the brightness of the sources and their colour indices. During the times of variability, no significant evidence for the sources to display spectral changes correlated with magnitude was found on timescales of a few months. We briefly discuss the possible physical mechanisms most likely responsi...

  8. Coincidence of a high-fluence blazar outburst with a PeV-energy neutrino event

    CERN Document Server

    Kadler, M; Mannheim, K; Ojha, R; Müller, C; Schulz, R; Anton, G; Baumgartner, W; Beuchert, T; Buson, S; Carpenter, B; Eberl, T; Edwards, P G; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsässer, D; Gehrels, N; Gräfe, C; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; James, C W; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kreikenbohm, A; Kreter, M; Kreykenbohm, I; Langejahn, M; Leiter, K; Litzinger, E; Longo, F; Lovell, J E J; McEnery, J; Phillips, C; Plötz, C; Quick, J; Ros, E; Stecker, F W; Steinbring, T; Stevens, J; Thompson, D J; Trüstedt, J; Tzioumis, A K; Wilms, J; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of extraterrestrial very-high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube collaboration has launched a quest for the identification of their astrophysical sources. Gamma-ray blazars have been predicted to yield a cumulative neutrino signal exceeding the atmospheric background above energies of 100 TeV, assuming that both the neutrinos and the gamma-ray photons are produced by accelerated protons in relativistic jets. Since the background spectrum falls steeply with increasing energy, the individual events with the clearest signature of being of an extraterrestrial origin are those at PeV energies. Inside the large positional-uncertainty fields of the first two PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube, the integrated emission of the blazar population has a sufficiently high electromagnetic flux to explain the detected IceCube events, but fluences of individual objects are too low to make an unambiguous source association. Here, we report that a major outburst of the blazar PKS B1424-418 occurred in temporal and pos...

  9. Prominent Polarized Flares of the Blazars AO 0235+164 and PKS 1510-089

    CERN Document Server

    Sasada, Mahito; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kawabata, Koji S; Ikejiri, Yuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Sakimoto, Kiyoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Sato, Shuji; Kino, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    We report on multi-band photometric and polarimetric observations of the blazars AO 0235+164 and PKS 1510-089. These two blazars were active in 2008 and 2009, respectively. In these active states, prominent short flares were observed in both objects, having amplitudes of >1 mag within 10 d. The $V-J$ color became bluer when the objects were brighter in these flares. On the other hand, the color of PKS 1510-089 exhibited a trend that it became redder when it was brighter, except for its prominent flare. This redder-when-brighter trend can be explained by the strong contribution of thermal emission from an accretion disk. The polarization degree increased at the flares, and reached >25 % at the maxima. We compare these flares in AO 0235+164 and PKS 1510-089 with other short flares which were detected by our monitoring of 41 blazars. Those two flares had one of the largest variation amplitudes in both flux and polarization degree. Furthermore, we found a significant positive correlation between the amplitudes of...

  10. Upper limits from five years of blazar observations with the VERITAS Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Benbow, W; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Buchovecky, M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hütten, M; Hakansson, N; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kelley-Hoskins, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Krause, M; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nguyen, T; Nieto, D; De Bhróithe, A O'Faoláin; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Pichel, A; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Rovero, A C; Santander, M; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weiner, O M; Weinstein, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B; Fumagalli, M; Prochaska, J X

    2016-01-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) {\\gamma}-ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ~570 hours. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi-LAT catalog which are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have a spectroscopic distance estimate. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of fo...

  11. ANTARES Constrains a Blazar Origin of Two IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    CERN Document Server

    Adrián-Martínez, S; André, M; Anton, G; Ardid, M; Aubert, J -J; Baret, B; Barrios, J; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bogazzi, C; Bormuth, R; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouwhuis, M C; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Carr, J; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Core, L; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; De Rosa, G; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; De Bonis, G; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti, Q; Drouhin, D; Dumas, A; Eberl, T; Enzenhöfer, A; Escoffier, S; Fehn, K; Felis, I; Fermani, P; Folger, F; Fusco, L A; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Geißelsöder, S; Geyer, K; Giordano, V; Gleixner, A; Gómez-González, J P; Graf, K; Guillard, G; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Herrero, A; Hößl, J; Hofestädt, J; Hugon, C; James, C W; de Jong, M; Kalekin, O; Katz, U; Kießling, D; Kooijman, P; Kouchner, A; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lambard, E; Lambard, G; Lefèvre, D; Leonora, E; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Martini, S; Mathieu, A; Michael, T; Migliozzi, P; Neff, M; Nezri, E; Palioselitis, D; Păvălaş, G E; Pellegrino, C; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Racca, C; Riccobene, G; Richter, R; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Saldaña, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sánchez-Losa, A; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Schmid, J; Schnabel, J; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Sieger, C; Spies, A; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Tayalati, Y; Trovato, A; Vallage, B; Vallée, C; Van Elewyck, V; Visser, E; Vivolo, D; Wagner, S; de Wolf, E; Yatkin, K; Yepes, H; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J; :,; Krauß, F; Kadler, M; Mannheim, K; Schulz, R; Trüstedt, J; Wilms, J; Ojha, R; Ros, E; Baumgartner, W; Beuchert, T; Blanchard, J; Bürkel, C; Carpenter, B; Edwards, P G; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsässer, D; Fritsch, U; Gehrels, N; Gräfe, C; Großberger, C; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; Kappes, A; Kreikenbohm, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Langejahn, M; Leiter, K; Litzinger, E; Lovell, J E J; Müller, C; Phillips, C; Plötz, C; Quick, J; Steinbring, T; Stevens, J; Thompson, D J; Tzioumis, A K

    2015-01-01

    The source(s) of the neutrino excess reported by the IceCube Collaboration is unknown. The TANAMI Collaboration recently reported on the multiwavelength emission of six bright, variable blazars which are positionally coincident with two of the most energetic IceCube events. Such objects are prime candidates to be the source of the highest-energy cosmic rays, and thus of associated neutrino emission. We present an analysis of neutrino emission from the six blazars using observations with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The standard methods of the ANTARES candidate list search are applied to six years of data to search for an excess of muons - and hence their neutrino progenitors - from the directions of the six blazars described by the TANAMI Collaboration, and which are possibly associated with two IceCube events. Monte Carlo simulations of the detector response to both signal and background particle fluxes are used to estimate the sensitivity of this analysis for different possible source neutrino spectra. A...

  12. The jets-accretion relation, mass-luminosity relation in Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Haojing; Xiong, Dingrong; Li, Bijun; Cha, Yongjuan; Chen, Yongyun; Huang, Xia; Wang, Yuwei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 111 Fermi blazars each with a well-established radio core luminosity, broad-line luminosity, bolometric luminosity and black hole mass has been compiled from the literatures.We present a significant correlation between radio core and broad-line emission luminosities that supports a close link between accretion processes and relativistic jets. Analysis reveals a relationship of $\\rm{LogL_{BLR}\\sim(0.81\\pm0.06)LogL_{R}^{C}}$ which is consistant with theoretical predicted coefficient and supports that blazar jets are powered by energy extraction from a rapidly spinning Kerr black hole through the magnetic field provided by the accretion disk. Through studying the correlation between the intrinsic bolometric luminosity and the black hole mass, we find a relationship of $\\rm{{Log}\\frac{L_{in}}{L_{\\odot}}=(0.95\\pm0.26){Log}\\frac{M}{M_{\\odot}}+(3.53\\pm2.24)}$ which supports mass-luminosity relation for Fermi blazars derived in this work is a powerlaw relation similar to that for main-sequence stars. Fina...

  13. INTEGRAL observations of the blazar 3C454.3 in outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Pian, E; Beckmann, V; Pian, Elena; Foschini, Luigi; Beckmann, Volker

    2006-01-01

    In Spring 2005, the blazar 3C454.3 underwent a dramatic outburst at all wavelengths from mm to X-rays. This prompted INTEGRAL observations, accomplished in 15-18 May 2005. The source was detected by the INTEGRAL instruments from 3 to 200 keV in a bright state (~5 x 10E-10 cgs), at least a factor of 2-3 higher than previously observed. This is one of the brightest blazar detections achieved by INTEGRAL. During the 2.5 days of INTEGRAL monitoring, we detected a ~20% decrease in the hard X-rays (20-40 keV), indicating that we have sampled the decaying part of the flare. The decrease is less apparent in the soft X-rays (5-15 keV). The simultaneous optical variations are weakly correlated with those at soft X-rays, and not clearly correlated with those at hard X-rays. The spectral energy distribution exhibits two components, as typically seen in blazars, which can be modeled with synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering occurring in a region external to the broad line region.

  14. Intergalactic Magnetic Fields and Gamma Ray Observations of Extreme TeV Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Arlen, Timothy C; Weisgarber, Thomas; Wakely, Scott P; Shafi, S Yusef

    2012-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) can be indirectly probed through its effect on electromagnetic cascades initiated by a source of TeV gamma-rays, such as active galactic nuclei (AGN). AGN that are sufficiently luminous at TeV energies, extreme TeV blazars, can produce detectable levels of secondary radiation from Inverse Compton (IC) scattering of the electrons in the cascade, provided that the IGMF is not too large. We review recent work in the literature which utilizes this idea to derive constraints on the IGMF for three TeV-detected blazars-1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1218+304, and RGB J0710+591, and we also investigate four other hard-spectrum TeV blazars in the same context. Through a recently developed detailed Monte Carlo code, incorporating all major effects of QED and cosmological expansion, we research effects of major uncertainties such as the spectral properties of the source, uncertainty in the UV - far IR extragalactic background light (EBL), undersampled Very High Energy (VHE; energy > 100 GeV) c...

  15. Temporal Correlations Between Optical and Gamma-ray Activity in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Daniel P; Filippenko, Alexei V; Cenko, S Bradley; Lott, Benoit; Zheng, WeiKang; Li, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    We have been using the 0.76-m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in $\\gamma$-rays, being detected with high significance (test-statistic TS $> 100$, i.e., $\\ge 10\\sigma$) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the {\\it Fermi} Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a 3-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The $\\gamma$-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the 5-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have $>$100 optical measurements spanning the last three years. These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and $\\gamma$-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find str...

  16. THE FIRST FERMI MULTIFREQUENCY CAMPAIGN ON BL LACERTAE: CHARACTERIZING THE LOW-ACTIVITY STATE OF THE EPONYMOUS BLAZAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on observations of BL Lacertae during the first 18 months of Fermi LAT science operations and present results from a 48 day multifrequency coordinated campaign from 2008 August 19 to 2008 October 7. The radio to gamma-ray behavior of BL Lac is unveiled during a low-activity state thanks to the coordinated observations of radio-band (Metsaehovi and VLBA), near-IR/optical (Tuorla, Steward, OAGH, and MDM), and X-ray (RXTE and Swift) observatories. No variability was resolved in gamma rays during the campaign, and the brightness level was 15 times lower than the level of the 1997 EGRET outburst. Moderate and uncorrelated variability has been detected in UV and X-rays. The X-ray spectrum is found to be concave, indicating the transition region between the low- and high-energy components of the spectral energy distribution (SED). VLBA observation detected a synchrotron spectrum self-absorption turnover in the innermost part of the radio jet appearing to be elongated and inhomogeneous, and constrained the average magnetic field there to be less than 3 G. Over the following months, BL Lac appeared variable in gamma rays, showing flares (in 2009 April and 2010 January). There is no evidence for the correlation of gamma rays with the optical flux monitored from the ground in 18 months. The SED may be described by a single-zone or a two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, but a hybrid SSC plus external radiation Compton model seems to be preferred based on the observed variability and the fact that it provides a fit closest to equipartition.

  17. Discovery of off-axis jet structure of TeV blazar Mrk 501 with mm-VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, S; Giroletti, M; Doi, A; Giovannini, G; Orienti, M; Hada, K; Ros, E; Niinuma, K; Nagai, H; Savolainen, T; Krichbaum, T P; Pérez-Torres, M Á

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution millimeter wave very-long-baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) is an ideal tool for probing the structure at the base of extragalactic jets in detail. The TeV blazar Mrk 501 is one of the best targets among BL Lac objects for studying the nature of off-axis jet structures because it shows different jet position angles at different scales. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of the off-axis jet structure through high-resolution mm-VLBI images at the jet base and physical parameters such as kinematics, flux densities, and spectral indices. We performed Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations over six epochs from 2012 February to 2013 February at 43 GHz. Quasi-simultaneous Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) observations at 86 GHz were performed in May 2012. We discover a new jet component at the northeast direction from the core in all the images at 43 and 86 GHz. The new component shows the off-axis location from the persistent jet extending to the southeast. The 43 GHz ima...

  18. Optical archival spectra of blazar candidates of uncertain type in the 3$^{rd}$ Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Crespo, N Álvarez; D'Abrusco, R; Landoni, M; Masetti, N; Chavushyan, V; Jiménez-Bailón, E; La Franca, F; Milisavljevic, D; Paggi, A; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Ricci, F; Smith, Howard A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that blazars constitute the rarest class among active galactic nuclei (AGNs) they are the largest known population of associated $\\gamma$-ray sources. Many of the $\\gamma$-ray objects listed in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs), either because they show multifrequency behaviour similar to blazars but lacking optical spectra in the literature, or because the quality of such spectra is too low to confirm their nature. Here we select, out of 585 BCUs in the 3FGL, 42 BCUs which we identify as probable blazars by their WISE infrared colors and which also have optical spectra that are available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Six-Degree Field Galaxy Survey Database (6dFGS). We confirm the blazar nature of all of the sources. We furthermore conclude that 28 of them are BL Lacs, 8 are radio-loud quasars with flat radio spectrum and 6 are BL Lac whose emission is dominated by their host galaxy.

  19. Photopolarimetric monitoring of 41 blazars in the optical and near-infrared bands with the Kanata telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ikejiri, Y; Sasada, M; Sakimoto, K; Ito, R; Yamanaka, M; Arai, A; Fukazawa, Y; Ohsugi, T; Kawabata, K S

    2009-01-01

    Blazars are a kind of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in which a relativistic jet is considered to be directed along the line of sight. They are characterized by strong and rapid variability of the flux and high polarization. We performed a monitoring of 41 blazars in the optical and near-infrared regions from 2008 to 2009 using TRISPEC attached to the "Kanata" 1.5-m telescope. In this paper, we report the correlation of the flux, color and polarization using our data, and discuss universal features for blazars, which have not fully been established. Three blazars (3C 454.3, QSO 0454$-$234, and PKS 1510$-$089) tended to be redder when they were brighter, only during their faint states. This color behavior suggests that the contribution of a thermal component is strong in the faint states for those objects. Excluding this "redder-when-brighter" phase, we found that 24 blazars tended to be bluer when they were brighter. This number corresponds to 83% among well-observed objects which we observed for $>10$ nights. ...

  20. Optical archival spectra of blazar candidates of uncertain type in the 3rd Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Landoni, M.; Masetti, N.; Chavushyan, V.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; La Franca, F.; Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Ricci, F.; Smith, Howard A.

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that blazars constitute the rarest class among active galactic nuclei (AGNs) they are the largest known population of associated γ-ray sources. Many of the γ-ray objects listed in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs), either because they show multifrequency behavior similar to blazars but lacking optical spectra in the literature, or because the quality of such spectra is too low to confirm their nature. Here we select, out of 585 BCUs in the 3FGL, 42 BCUs which we identify as probable blazars by their WISE infrared colors and which also have optical spectra that are available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Six-Degree Field Galaxy Survey Database (6dFGS). We confirm the blazar nature of all of the sources. We furthermore conclude that 28 of them are BL Lacs, 8 are radio-loud quasars with flat radio spectrum and 6 are BL Lac whose emission is dominated by their host galaxy.

  1. Comprehensive Monitoring of Gamma-ray Bright Blazars. I. Statistical Study of Optical, X-ray, and Gamma-ray Spectral Slopes

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Karen E; Marscher, Alan P; Larionov, Valeri M; Smith, Paul S; Agudo, Iván; Arkharov, Arkady A; Blinov, Dmitry A; Casadio, Carolina; Efimova, Natalia V; Gómez, José L; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A; Joshi, Manasvita; Konstantinova, Tatiana S; Kopatskaya, Evgenia N; Larionova, Elena G; Larionova, Liudmilla V; Malmrose, Michael P; McHardy, Ian M; Molina, Sol N; Morozova, Daria A; Schmidt, Gary D; Taylor, Brian W; Troitsky, Ivan S

    2014-01-01

    We present $\\gamma$-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared light curves of 33 $\\gamma$-ray bright blazars over four years that we have been monitoring since 2008 August with multiple optical, ground-based telescopes and the Swift satellite, and augmented by data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and other publicly available data from Swift. The sample consists of 21 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects (BL Lacs). We identify quiescent and active states of the sources based on their $\\gamma$-ray behavior. We derive $\\gamma$-ray, X-ray, and optical spectral indices, $\\alpha_\\gamma$, $\\alpha_X$, and $\\alpha_o$, respectively ($F_\

  2. AGILE detection of intense gamma-ray emission from the blazar PKS 1510-089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucella, G.; Vittorini, V.; D'Ammando, F.; Tavani, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chen, A. W.; Cocco, V.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; de Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Froysland, T.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Longo, F.; Marisaldi, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Morselli, A.; Pacciani, L.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Rappoldi, A.; Soffitta, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Antonelli, L. A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Salotti, L.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Carosati, D.; Larionov, V. M.; Ligustri, R.

    2008-11-01

    Context: We report the detection by the AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero) satellite of an intense gamma-ray flare from the source AGL J1511-0909, associated with the powerful quasar PKS 1510-089, during ten days of observations from 23 August to 1 September 2007. Aims: During the observation period, the source was in optical decrease following a flaring event monitored by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT). The simultaneous gamma-ray, optical, and radio coverage allows us to study the spectral energy distribution and the theoretical models based on the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) emission mechanisms. Methods: AGILE observed the source with its two co-aligned imagers, the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector and the hard X-ray imager Super-AGILE sensitive in the 30 MeV div 50 GeV and 18 div 60 keV bands, respectively. Results: Between 23 and 27 August 2007, AGILE detected gamma-ray emission from PKS 1510-089 when this source was located 50° off-axis, with an average flux of (270 ± 65) × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1 for photon energy above 100 MeV. In the following period, 28 August-1 September, after a satellite re-pointing, AGILE detected the source at 35° off-axis, with an average flux (E > 100 MeV) of (195 ± 30) × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1. No emission was detected by Super-AGILE, with a 3-σ upper limit of 45 mCrab in 200 ks. Conclusions: The spectral energy distribution is modelled with a homogeneous one-zone synchrotron self Compton (SSC) emission plus contributions by external photons: the SSC emission contributes primarily to the X-ray band, whereas the contribution of the IC from the external disc and the broad line region match the hard gamma-ray spectrum observed.

  3. Connection between the observed properties of blazar S5 0716+71 in the helical jet model

    CERN Document Server

    Butuzova, Marina S

    2016-01-01

    Based on periodic variations in the position angle of inner jet features $PA_{in}$ of the blazar S5 0716+71 (Bach et al. 2005; Lister et al. 2013) it is assumed that the jet has a helical structure. Within this, a number of the observed properties are explained: 1) different values of long-term variability periods of radio (5.8 yrs) and optical (3.3 yrs) emission (Raiteri et al. 2003) and variations in $PA_{in}$ values (10.9 yrs) (Lister et al. 2013); 2) alternation of time intervals with both positive and negative correlation between {\\gamma}-ray flux density and $PA_{in}$ (Rani et al. 2014); 3) difference between the apparent speeds of inner and outer jet components observed by Rastorgueva et al. (2011) and Rani et al. (2015); 4) high apparent speed of individual jet features that is $\\approx37c$ (Rani et al. 2015). We defined helical geometrical parameters, velocity and pitch angle of the jet features, physical distances from the supermassive black hole to regions where a surrounding medium becomes optical...

  4. Gamma-ray flaring activity from the gravitationally lensed blazar PKS 1830-211 observed by Fermi LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Amin, M A; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Buehler, R; Bulmash, D; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Corbet, R H D; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Finke, J; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Inoue, Y; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jòhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Mazziotta, M N; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reyes, L C; Ritz, S; Romoli, C; Roth, M; Parkinson, P M Saz; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Takahashi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Tronconi, V; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S

    2014-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope routinely detects the highly dust-absorbed, reddened, and MeV-peaked flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1830-211 (z=2.507). Its apparent isotropic gamma-ray luminosity (E>100 MeV) averaged over $\\sim$ 3 years of observations and peaking on 2010 October 14/15 at 2.9 X 10^{50} erg s^{-1}, makes it among the brightest high-redshift Fermi blazars. No published model with a single lens can account for all of the observed characteristics of this complex system. Based on radio observations, one expects time delayed variability to follow about 25 days after a primary flare, with flux about a factor 1.5 less. Two large gamma-ray flares of PKS 1830-211 have been detected by the LAT in the considered period and no substantial evidence for such a delayed activity was found. This allows us to place a lower limit of about 6 on the gamma rays flux ratio between the two lensed images. Swift XRT observations from a dedicated Target of Opportunity program ...

  5. New Multiwavelength Observations of PKS 2155-304 and Implications for the Coordinated Variability Patterns of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Osterman, M Angela; Marshall, Kevin; Ryle, Wesley T; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo; McFarland, John P

    2007-01-01

    The TeV blazar PKS 2155--304 was the subject of an intensive 2 week optical and near-infrared observing campaign in 2004 August with the CTIO 0.9m telescope. During this time, simultaneous X-ray data from RXTE were also obtained. We compare the results of our observations to the results from two previous simultaneous multiwavelength campaigns on PKS 2155-304. We conclude that the correlation between the X-ray and UV/optical variability is strongest and the time lag is shortest (only a few hours) when the object is brightest. As the object becomes fainter, the correlations are weaker and the lags longer, increasing to a few days. Based on the results of four campaigns, we find evidence for a linear relationship between the mean optical brightness and lag time of X-ray and UV/optical events. Furthermore, we assert that this behavior, along with the different multiwavelength flare lag times across different flux states is consistent with a highly relativistic shock propagating down the jet producing the flares o...

  6. The Outburst of the Blazar S5 0716+71 in 2011 October: Shock in a Helical Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Larionov, V M; Marscher, A P; Morozova, D A; Blinov, D A; Hagen-Thorn, V A; Konstantinova, T S; Kopatskaya, E N; Larionova, L V; Larionova, E G; Troitsky, I S

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of optical (R band) photometric and polarimetric monitoring and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) imaging of the blazar S5 0716+714 along with Fermi gamma-ray data during a multi-waveband outburst in 2011 October. We analyze total and polarized intensity images of the blazar obtained with the VLBA at 43 GHz during and after the outburst. Monotonic rotation of the linear polarization vector at a rate of >50 degrees per night coincided with a sharp maximum in gamma-ray and optical flux. At the same time, within the uncertainties, a new superluminal knot appeared, with an apparent speed of ~21c. The general multi-frequency behavior of the outburst can be explained within the framework of a shock wave propagating along a helical path in the blazar's jet.

  7. Probing Precise Location of Radio Core in TeV Blazar Mrk 501 with VERA at 43 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, S; Doi, A; Niinuma, K; Hada, K; Nagai, H; Honma, M; Akiyama, K; Giroletti, M; Giovannini, G; Orienti, M; Isobe, N; Kataoka, J; Paneque, D; Kobayashi, H; Asada, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the position of the radio core in a blazar by multi-epoch astrometric observations at 43 GHz. Using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), we have conducted four adjacent observations in February 2011 and another four in October 2011, and succeeded in measuring the position of the radio core in the TeV blazar Mrk 501 relative to a distant compact quasar NRAO 512. During our observations, we find that (1) there is no positional change within ~0.2 mas or ~2.0 pc de-projected with $\\pm1\\sigma$ error for the weighted-mean phase-referenced positions of Mrk 501 core relative to NRAO 512 over four adjacent days, and (2) there is an indication of position change for 3C 345 core relative to NRAO 512. By applying our results to the standard internal shock model for blazars, we constrain the bulk Lorenz factors of the ejecta.

  8. Optical spectroscopic observations of gamma-ray blazar candidates IV. Results of the 2014 follow-up campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, F; Landoni, M; D'Abrusco, R; Milisavljevic, D; Stern, D; Masetti, N; Paggi, A; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G

    2015-01-01

    The extragalactic gamma-ray sky is dominated by the emission arising from blazars, one of the most peculiar classes of radio-loud active galaxies. Since the launch of Fermi several methods were developed to search for blazars as potential counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs). To confirm the nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic observations are necessary. In 2013 we started a spectroscopic campaign to investigate gamma-ray blazar candidates selected according to different procedures. The main goals of our campaign are: 1) to confirm the nature of these candidates, and 2) whenever possible determine their redshifts. Optical spectroscopic observations will also permit us to verify the robustness of the proposed associations and check for the presence of possible source class contaminants to our counterpart selection. This paper reports the results of observations carried out in 2014 in the Northern hemisphere with Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and in the Southern hemi...

  9. Analysis of the cumulative neutrino flux from Fermi LAT blazar populations using 3 years of IceCube data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glüsenkamp Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of a diffuse neutrino flux up to PeV energies raises the question of which populations of astrophysical sources contribute to this diffuse signal. One extragalactic candidate source population to produce high-energy neutrinos are Blazars. We present results from a likelihood analysis searching for cumulative neutrino emission from Blazar populations selected with the 2nd Fermi LAT AGN catalogue (2LAC using an IceCube data set that has been optimized for the detection of individual sources. In contrast to previous searches with IceCube, the investigated populations contain up to hundreds of sources, the biggest one being the entire Blazar sample measured by the Fermi-LAT. No significant neutrino signal was found from any of these populations. Some implications of this non-observation for the origin of the observed PeV diffuse signal will be discussed.

  10. Optical Counterparts of Undetermined Type -Ray Active Galactic Nuclei with Blazar-Like Spectral Energy Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Giovanni La Mura; Graziano Chiaro; Stefano Ciroi; Piero Rafanelli; David Salvetti; Marco Berton; Valentina Cracco; Fermi-LAT collaboration

    2015-12-01

    During its first four years of scientific observations, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) detected 3033 -ray sources above a 4 significance level. Although most of the extra-galactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the blazar class, other families of AGNs are observed too, while a still high fraction of detections (∼30%) remains with uncertain association or classification. According to the currently accepted interpretation, the AGN -ray emission arises from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of low energy photons by relativistic particles confined in a jet, which, in the case of blazars, is oriented very close to our line-of-sight. Taking advantage of data from radio and X-ray wavelengths, which we expect to be produced together with -rays, providing a much better source localization potential, we focused our attention on a sample of -ray Blazar Candidates of Undetermined type (BCUs), starting a campaign of optical spectroscopic observations. The main aims of our investigation include a census of the AGN families that contribute to -ray emission and a study of their redshift distribution, with the subsequent implications on the intrinsic source power. We furthermore analyze which -ray properties can better constrain the nature of the source, thus helping in the study of objects not yet associated with a reliable low frequency counterpart. Here we report on the instruments and techniques used to identify the optical counterparts of -ray sources, we give an overview on the status of our work, and we discuss the implications of a large scale study of -ray emitting AGNs.

  11. Results from the Blazar Monitoring Campaign at the Whipple 10m Gamma-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, David; Charlot, P; Kurtanidze, O; Lahteenmaki, A; Montaruli, T; Sadun, A C; Villata, M

    2007-01-01

    In September 2005, the observing program of the Whipple 10 m gamma-ray telescope was redefined to be dedicated almost exclusively to AGN monitoring. Since then the five Northern Hemisphere blazars that had already been detected at Whipple are monitored routinely each night that they are visible. Thanks to the efforts of a large number of multiwavelength collaborators, the first year of this program has been very successful. We report here on the analysis of Markarian 421 observations taken from November, 2005 to May, 2006 in the gamma-ray, X-ray, optical and radio bands.

  12. A Dramatic Optical Flare and Microvariability in the Blazar 3C 454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonek, Thomas J.; Boni, Samantha J.; Chapman, Katie J.; Didio, Nicholas A.; Sabyr, Alina; Stahlin, R. William; Weaver, Zachary R.; Zhang, Saiyang

    2016-06-01

    Following up on the report of optical and gamma-ray activity in the blazar 3C 454.3 by Jorstad (ATel# 9150), Lucarelli et al (ATel #9157), and Bulgarelli et al (ATel #9176), we report optical (R) observations which reveal a brightening of over 2 magnitudes in a 10 day interval between 2016 June 10 and 20. The brightness on June 20 (R = 13.7) is 1.2 magnitudes brighter than reported by Jorstad on June 13, and is the brightest 3C 454.3 has been observed in two years.

  13. Numerical study of broadband spectra caused by internal shocks in magnetized relativistic jets of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Rueda-Becerril, Jesus M; Aloy, Miguel A; Aloy, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The internal-shocks scenario in relativistic jets has been used to explain the variability of blazars' outflow emission. Recent simulations have shown that the magnetic field alters the dynamics of these shocks producing a whole zoo of spectral energy density patterns. However, the role played by magnetization in such high-energy emission is still not entirely understood. With the aid of \\emph{Fermi}'s second LAT AGN catalog, a comparison with observations in the $\\gamma$-ray band was performed, in order to identify the effects of the magnetic field.

  14. The many faces of blazar emission in the context of hadronic models

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Maria; Padovani, Paolo; Resconi, Elisa; Giommi, Paolo; Mastichiadis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    We present two ways of modeling the spectral energy distribution of blazars in the hadronic context and discuss the predictions of each "hadronic variant" on the spectral shape, the multi-wavelength variability, the cosmic-ray flux, and the high-energy neutrino emission. Focusing on the latter, we then present an application of the hadronic model to individual BL Lacs that were recently suggested to be the counterparts of some of the IceCube neutrinos, and conclude by discussing the contribution of the whole BL Lac class to the observed neutrino background.

  15. Broad Band Observations of Gravitationally Lensed Blazar during a Gamma-Ray Outburst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Sitarek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a cosmological redshift of 0.944. In July 2014 a GeV flare was observed by Fermi-LAT, triggering follow-up observations with the MAGIC telescopes at energies above 100 GeV. The MAGIC observations at the expected time of arrival of the trailing component resulted in the first detection of QSO B0218+357 in Very-High-Energy (VHE, >100 GeV gamma rays. We report here the observed multiwavelength emission during the 2014 flare.

  16. Fermi LAT detection of renewed activity from the blazar PKS 1502+106

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1502+106 (also known as OR 103, S3 1502+10 and 3FGL J1504.4+1029, Acero et al., arXiv:1501.02003), with radio coordinates, (J2000.0), R.A.: 226.10408 deg, Dec: 10.49422 deg (Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880). This blazar has a redshift of z=1.8383 (Hewett & Wild 2010, MNRAS, 405, 2302).

  17. BeppoSAX Observations of the TeV Blazar Mkn 421

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blazar Mkn 421 has been observed, as part of the AO1 Core Program, five times from 2 to 7 May 1997. In the LECS+MECS energy band the spectrum shows convex curvature, well represented by a broken power-law. Flux variability (more than a factor 2) has been detected over the entire 0.1-10 keV range, accompanying which the spectrum steepens with the decrease in intensity. Mkn 421 has been also detected with the PDS instrument. Our preliminary analysis indicates that the PDS spectrum lies significantly above the extrapolation from the MECS, suggesting a contribution from a flatter high energy component

  18. Continuous monitoring bed-level dynamics on an intertidal flat: introducing novel stand-alone high-resolution SED-sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhan; Lenting, Walther; van der Wal, Daphne; Bouma, Tjeerd

    2015-04-01

    Tidal flat morphology is continuously shaped by hydrodynamic force, resulting in highly dynamic bed elevations. The knowledge of short-term bed-level changes is important both for understanding sediment transport processes as well as for assessing critical ecological processes such as e.g. vegetation recruitment chances on tidal flats. Due to the labour involved, manual discontinuous measurements lack the ability to continuously monitor bed-elevation changes. Existing methods for automated continuous monitoring of bed-level changes lack vertical accuracy (e.g., Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin sensor and resistive rod) or limited in spatial application by using expensive technology (e.g., acoustic bed level sensors). A method provides sufficient accuracy with a reasonable cost is needed. In light of this, a high-accuracy sensor (2 mm) for continuously measuring short-term Surface-Elevation Dynamics (SED-sensor) was developed. This SED-sensor makes use of photovoltaic cells and operates stand-alone using internal power supply and data logging system. The unit cost and the labour in deployments is therefore reduced, which facilitates monitoring with a number of units. In this study, the performance of a group of SED-sensors is tested against data obtained with precise manual measurements using traditional Sediment Erosion Bars (SEB). An excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained, indicating the accuracy and precision of the SED-sensors. Furthermore, to demonstrate how the SED-sensors can be used for measuring short-term bed-level dynamics, two SED-sensors were deployed for 1 month at two sites with contrasting wave exposure conditions. Daily bed-level changes were obtained including a severe storm erosion event. The difference in observed bed-level dynamics at both sites was statistically explained by their different hydrodynamic conditions. Thus, the stand-alone SED-sensor can be applied to monitor sediment surface dynamics with high vertical and temporal

  19. NuSTAR, Swift, and GROND observations of the flaring MeV blazar: PMN J0641$-$0320

    CERN Document Server

    Ajello, M; Paliya, V S; Kocevski, D; Tagliaferri, G; Madejski, G; Rau, A; Schady, P; Greiner, J; Massaro, F; Bakolovic, M; Buehler, R; Giomi, M; Marcotulli, L; D'Ammando, F; Stern, D; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Zhang, W W

    2016-01-01

    MeV blazars are a sub--population of the blazar family, exhibiting larger--than--average jet powers, accretion luminosities and black hole masses. Because of their extremely hard X--ray continua, these objects are best studied in the X-ray domain. Here, we report on the discovery by the $Fermi$ Large Area Telescope and subsequent follow-up observations with $NuSTAR$, $Swift$ and GROND of a new member of the MeV blazar family: PMN J0641$-$0320. Our optical spectroscopy provides confirmation that this is a flat--spectrum radio quasar located at a redshift of $z=1.196$. Its very hard $NuSTAR$ spectrum (power--law photon index of $\\sim$1 up to $\\sim$80 keV) indicates that the emission is produced via inverse Compton scattering off photons coming from outside the jet.The overall spectral energy distribution of PMN J0641$-$0320 is typical of powerful blazars and by reproducing it with a simple one-zone leptonic emission model we find the emission region to be located either inside the broad line region or within th...

  20. Bethe-Heitler cascades as a plausible origin of hard spectra in distant TeV blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Y G; Kang, S J

    2016-01-01

    Context. Very high-energy (VHE) $\\gamma$-ray measurements of distant TeV blazars can be nicely explained by TeV spectra induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays. Aims. We develop a model for a plausible origin of hard spectra in distant TeV blazars. Methods. In the model, the TeV emission in distant TeV blazars is dominated by two mixed components. The first is the internal component with the photon energy around 1 TeV produced by inverse Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons on the synchrotron photons (SSC) with a correction for extragalactic background light absorbtion and the other is the external component with the photon energy more than 1 TeV produced by the cascade emission from high-energy protons propagating through intergalactic space. Results. Assuming suitable model parameters, we apply the model to observed spectra of distant TeV blazars of 1ES 0229+200. Our results show that 1) the observed spectrum properties of 1ES 0229+200, especially the TeV $\\gamma$-ray tail of the observed spect...

  1. Optical spectroscopic observations of $\\gamma$-ray blazar candidates VI. Further observations from TNG, WHT, OAN, SOAR and Magellan telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Crespo, N Álvarez; Milisavljevic, D; Landoni, M; Chavushyan, V; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Masetti, N; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Strader, J; Chomiuk, L; Katagiri, H; Kagaya, M; Cheung, C C; Paggi, A; D'Abrusco, R; Ricci, F; La Franca, F; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G

    2016-01-01

    Blazars, one of the most extreme class of active galaxies, constitute so far the largest known population of $\\gamma$-ray sources and their number is continuously growing in the Fermi catalogs. However in the latest release of the Fermi catalog there is still a large fraction of sources that are classified as blazar candidate of uncertain type (BCUs) for which optical spectroscopic observations are necessary to confirm their nature and their associations. In addition about 1/3 of the $\\gamma$-ray point sources listed in the Third Fermi-LAT Source Catalog (3FGL) are still unassociated and lacking an assigned lower energy counterpart. Since 2012 we have been carrying out an optical spectroscopic campaign to observe blazar candidates to confirm their nature. In this paper, the sixth of the series, we present optical spectroscopic observations for 30 $\\gamma$-ray blazar candidates from different observing programs we carried out with the TNG, WHT, OAN, SOAR and Magellan telescopes. We found that 21 out of 30 sour...

  2. The Outburst of the Blazar S40954+658 in March-April 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Morozova, D A; Troitsky, I S; Jorstad, S G; Marscher, A P; Gómez, J L; Blinov, D A; Efimova, N V; Hagen-Thorn, V A; Hagen-Thorn, E I; Joshi, M; Konstantinova, T S; Kopatskaya, E N; Larionova, L V; Larionova, E G; Lähteenmäki, A; Tammi, J; Rastorgueva-Foi, E; McHardy, I; Tornikoski, M; Agudo, I; Casadio, C; Molina, S N; Volvach, A E; Volvach, L N

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of optical (R band) photometric and polarimetric monitoring and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) imaging of the blazar S4 0954+658, along with Fermi and gamma;-ray data during a multi-waveband outburst in 2011 March-April. After a faint state with a brightness level R ~17.6 mag registered in the first half of January 2011, the optical brightness of the source started to rise and reached ~14.8 mag during the middle of March, showing flare-like behavior. The most spectacular case of intranight variability was observed during the night of 2011 March 9, when the blazar brightened by ~0.7 mag within ~7 hours. During the rise of the flux the position angle of optical polarization rotated smoothly over more than 300$\\deg$. At the same time, within 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty a new superluminal knot appeared with an apparent speed of 19.0$\\pm$0.3 c. We have very strong evidence for association of this knot with the multi-waveband outburst in 2011 March-April. We also analyze the multi-frequency behavi...

  3. Blazars in the Fermi Era: The OVRO 40-m Telescope Monitoring Program

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Joseph L; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; King, Oliver G; Pearson, Timothy J; Readhead, Anthony C S; Reeves, Rodrigo; Shepherd, Martin C; Stevenson, Matthew A; Weintraub, Lawrence C; Fuhrmann, Lars; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Zensus, J Anton; Healey, Stephen E; Romani, Roger W; Shaw, Michael S; Grainge, Keith; Birkinshaw, Mark; Lancaster, Katy; Worrall, Diana M; Taylor, Gregory B; Cotter, Garret; Bustos, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provides an unprecedented opportunity to study gamma-ray blazars. To capitalize on this opportunity, beginning in late 2007, about a year before the start of LAT science operations, we began a large-scale, fast-cadence 15 GHz radio monitoring program with the 40-m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO). This program began with the 1158 northern (declination>-20 deg) sources from the Candidate Gamma-ray Blazar Survey (CGRaBS) and now encompasses over 1500 sources, each observed twice per week with a ~4 mJy (minimum) and 3% (typical) uncertainty. Here, we describe this monitoring program and our methods, and present radio light curves from the first two years (2008 and 2009). As a first application, we combine these data with a novel measure of light curve variability amplitude, the intrinsic modulation index, through a likelihood analysis to examine the variability properties of subpopulations of our sample. We demonstrat...

  4. X-ray spectral studies of TeV gamma-ray emitting blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Wierzcholska, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    This work is a summary of the X-ray spectral studies of 29 TeV $\\gamma$-ray emitting blazars observed with Swift/XRT, especially focusing on sources for which X-ray regime allows to study the low and the high energy ends of the particle distributions function. Variability studies require simultaneous coverage, ideally sampling different flux states of each source. This is achieved using X-ray observations by disentangling the high-energy end of the synchrotron emission and the low-energy end of the Compton emission, which are produced by the same electron population. We focused on a sample of 29 TeV gamma-ray emitting blazars with the best signal-to-noise X-ray observations collected with Swift/XRT in the energy range of 0.3-10 keV during 10 years of Swift/XRT operations. We investigate the X-ray spectral shapes and the effects of different corrections for neutral hydrogen absorption and decompose the synchrotron and inverse Compton components. In the case of 5 sources (3C 66A, S5 0716+714, W Comae, 4C +21.35...

  5. The 72-Hour WEBT Microvariability Observation of Blazar S5 0716+714 in 2009

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatta, G; Hollingsworth, H; Dhalla, S; Khanuja, A; Bachev, R; Blinov, D A; Bottcher, M; Calle, O J A Bravo; Calcidese, P; Capezzali, D; Carosati, D; Chigladze, R; Collins, A; Coloma, J M; Efimov, Y; Gupta, A C; Hu, S-M; Kurtanidze, O; Lamerato, A; Larionov, V M; Lee, C -U; Lindfors, E; Murphy, B; Nilsson, K; Ohlert, J M; Oksanen, A; Paakkonen, P; Pollock, J T; Rani, B; Reinthal, R; Rodriguez, D; Ros, J A; Roustazadeh, P; Sagar, R; Sanchez, A; Shastri, P; Sillanpaa, A; Strigachev, A; Takalo, L; Vennes, S; Villata, M; Villforth, C; Wu, J; Zhou, X

    2013-01-01

    Context. The international whole earth blazar telescope (WEBT) consortium planned and carried out three days of intensive micro-variability observations of S5 0716+714 from February 22, 2009 to February 25, 2009. This object was chosen due to its bright apparent magnitude range, its high declination, and its very large duty cycle for micro-variations. Aims. We report here on the long continuous optical micro-variability light curve of 0716+714 obtained during the multi-site observing campaign during which the Blazar showed almost constant variability over a 0.5 magnitude range. The resulting light curve is presented here for the first time. Observations from participating observatories were corrected for instrumental diff?erences and combined to construct the overall smoothed light curve. Methods. Thirty-six observatories in sixteen countries participated in this continuous monitoring program and twenty of them submitted data for compilation into a continuous light curve. The light curve was analyzed using se...

  6. Constraining the Location of Gamma-Ray Flares in Luminous Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Sikora, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Locating the gamma-ray emission sites in blazar jets is a long-standing and highly controversial issue. We investigate jointly several constraints on the distance scale r and Lorentz factor Gamma of the gamma-ray emitting regions in luminous blazars (primarily flat spectrum radio quasars, FSRQs). Working in the framework of one-zone external radiation Comptonization (ERC) models, we perform a parameter space study for several representative cases of actual gamma-ray flares in their multiwavelength context. We find a particularly useful combination of three constraints: from an upper limit on the collimation parameter Gamma*theta ~ 0.1 - 0.7. Typical values of r corresponding to moderate values of Gamma ~ 20 are in the range 0.1 - 1 pc, and are determined primarily by the observed variability time scale t_var,obs. Alternative scenarios motivated by the observed gamma-ray/mm connection, in which gamma-ray flares of t_var,obs ~ a few days are located at r ~ 10 pc, are in conflict with both the SSC and cooling co...

  7. The Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS). II. New Identifications

    CERN Document Server

    Landt, H; Perlman, E S; Giommi, P; Bignall, H E; Tzioumis, A K

    2001-01-01

    We have searched the archived, pointed ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter data for blazars by correlating the WGACAT X-ray database with several publicly available radio catalogs, restricting our candidate list to serendipitous X-ray sources with a flat radio spectrum (alpha_r <= 0.70). This makes up the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS). Here we present new identifications and spectra for 106 sources, including 86 radio-loud quasars, 11 BL Lacertae objects, and 9 narrow-line radio galaxies. Together with our previously published objects and already known sources, our sample now contains 298 identified objects: 234 radio-loud quasars (181 flat-spectrum quasars: FSRQ [alpha_r <= 0.50] and 53 steep-spectrum quasars: SSRQ), 36 BL Lacs, and 28 narrow-line radio galaxies. Redshift information is available for 96% of these. Thus our selection technique is ~ 90% efficient at finding radio-loud quasars and BL Lacs. Reaching 5 GHz radio fluxes ~ 50 mJy and 0.1-2.0 keV X-ray fluxes a few x 10^-14 ...

  8. RECOLLIMATION AND RADIATIVE FOCUSING OF RELATIVISTIC JETS: APPLICATIONS TO BLAZARS AND M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent observations of M87 and some blazars reveal violent activity in small regions located at relatively large distances from the central engine. Motivated by these considerations, we study the hydrodynamic collimation of a relativistic cooling outflow using a semianalytical model developed earlier. We first demonstrate that radiative cooling of the shocked outflow layer can lead to a focusing of the outflow and its reconfinement in a region having a very small cross-sectional radius. Such a configuration can produce rapid variability at large distances from the central engine via reflections of the converging recollimation shock. Possible applications of this model to TeV blazars are discussed. We then apply our model to M87. The low radiative efficiency of the M87 jet renders focusing unlikely. However, the shallow profile of the ambient medium pressure inferred from observations results in extremely good collimation that can explain the reported variability of the X-ray flux emitted from the HST-1 knot.

  9. RoboPol: optical polarization-plane rotations and flaring activity in blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Papadakis, I. E.; Hovatta, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Liodakis, I.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Angelakis, E.; Baloković, M.; Das, H.; Khodade, P.; Kiehlmann, S.; King, O. G.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Mahabal, A.; Marecki, A.; Modi, D.; Myserlis, I.; Paleologou, E.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Rajarshi, C.; Ramaprakash, A.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    We present measurements of rotations of the optical polarization of blazars during the second year of operation of RoboPol, a monitoring programme of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events, and we analyse the large set of rotation events discovered in two years of observation. We investigate patterns of variability in the polarization parameters and total flux density during the rotation events and compare them to the behaviour in a non-rotating state. We have searched for possible correlations between average parameters of the polarization-plane rotations and average parameters of polarization, with the following results: (1) there is no statistical association of the rotations with contemporaneous optical flares; (2) the average fractional polarization during the rotations tends to be lower than that in a non-rotating state; (3) the average fractional polarization during rotations is correlated with the rotation rate of the polarization plane in the jet rest frame; (4) it is likely that distributions of amplitudes and durations of the rotations have physical upper bounds, so arbitrarily long rotations are not realized in nature.

  10. Investigating Broadband Variability of the TeV Blazar 1ES 1959+650

    CERN Document Server

    Aliu, E; Arlen, T; Aune, T; Barnacka, A; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berger, K; Bird, R; Bouvier, A; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Collins-Hughes, E; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Dumm, J; Eisch, J D; Falcone, A; Federici, S; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hakansson, N; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, G; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Madhavan, A S; Majumdar, P; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nelson, T; Nieto, D; de Bhroithe, A O'Faolain; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Prokoph, H; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Rajotte, J; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Sadun, A; Santander, M; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Sheidaei, F; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Theiling, M; Tyler, J; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Welsing, R; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B; Böttcher, M; Fumagalli, M

    2014-01-01

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959+650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift UVOT, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 17 April 2012 and 1 June 2012 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected-emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected b...

  11. Deep Broadband Observations of the Distant Gamma-ray Blazar PKS 1424+240

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berger, K; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Dumm, J; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Federici, S; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, G; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Madhavan, A S; Maier, G; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; de Bhroithe, A O'Faolain; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Prokoph, H; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Rajotte, J; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weinstein, A; Welsing, R; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Albert, A; Baldini, L; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Bregeon, J; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Charles, E; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Franckowiak, A; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Jogler, T; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Murgia, S; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Ormes, J F; Perkins, J S; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Raino, S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Schaal, M; Sgro, C; Siskind, E J; Spinelli, P; Takahashi, H; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Vianello, G; Werner, M; Wood, M

    2014-01-01

    We present deep VERITAS observations of the blazar PKS 1424+240, along with contemporaneous Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope and Swift UV Optical Telescope data between 2009 February 19 and 2013 June 8. This blazar resides at a redshift of $z\\ge0.6035$, displaying a significantly attenuated gamma-ray flux above 100 GeV due to photon absorption via pair-production with the extragalactic background light. We present more than 100 hours of VERITAS observations from three years, a multiwavelength light curve and the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions. The source shows a higher flux of (2.1$\\pm0.3$)$\\times10^{-7}$ ph m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ above 120 GeV in 2009 and 2011 as compared to the flux measured in 2013, corresponding to (1.02$\\pm0.08$)$\\times10^{-7}$ ph m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ above 120 GeV. The measured differential very high energy (VHE; $E\\ge100$ GeV) spectral indices are $\\Gamma=$3.8$\\pm$0.3, 4.3$\\pm$0.6 and 4.5$\\pm$0.2 in 2009, 2011 and 2013, respectively. No significant spectral change...

  12. Synchrotron Lightcurves of blazars in a time-dependent synchrotron-self Compton cooling scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Blazars emit non-thermal radiation in all frequency bands from radio to \\gamma-rays. Additionally, they often exhibit rapid flaring events at all frequencies with doubling time scale of the TeV and X-ray flux on the order of minutes, and such rapid flaring events are hard to explain theoretically. We explore the effect of the synchrotron-self Compton cooling, which is inherently time-dependent, leading to a rapid cooling of the electrons. Having discussed intensively the resulting effects of this cooling scenario on the spectral energy distribution of blazars in previous papers, the effects of the time-dependent approach on the synchrotron lightcurve are investigated here. Taking into account the retardation due to the finite size of the source and the source geometry, we show that the time-dependent synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) cooling still has profound effects on the lightcurve compared to the usual linear (synchrotron and external Compton) cooling terms. This is most obvious if the SSC cooling takes lon...

  13. Why Haven't Many of the Brightest Radio Loud Blazars Been Detected by Fermi ?

    CERN Document Server

    Lister, M L; Max-Morbeck, W; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Ros, E

    2015-01-01

    We use the complete MOJAVE 1.5 Jy sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) to examine the gamma-ray detection statistics of the brightest radio-loud blazars in the northern sky. We find that 23% of these AGN were not detected above 0.1 GeV by the Fermi LAT during the 4-year 3FGL catalog period partly because of an instrumental selection effect, and partly due to their lower Doppler boosting factors. Blazars with synchrotron peaks in their spectral energy distributions located below $10^{13.4}$ Hz also tend to have high-energy peaks that lie below the 0.1 GeV threshold of the LAT, and are thus less likely to be detected by Fermi. The non-detected AGN in the 1.5 Jy sample also have significantly lower 15 GHz radio modulation indices and apparent jet speeds, indicating that they have lower than average Doppler factors. Since the effective amount of relativistic Doppler boosting is enhanced in gamma-rays (particularly in the case of external inverse-Compton scattering), this makes them less likely to appear in the ...

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Non-Fermi blazar sample (Xiong+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, D.; Zhang, X.; Bai, J.; Zhang, H.

    2015-11-01

    The selection criteria for the sample were that we tried to select the largest group of blazars included in the multi-frequency catalogue of blazars (the Roma BZCAT; Massaro et al.. 2009, Cat. J/A+A/495/691) with reliable broad-line luminosity (used as a proxy for disc luminosity), redshift, black hole mass and jet kinetic power. The sample of FBs was directly from Xiong & Zhang (2014MNRAS.441.3375X). The νpeak and Lpeak of our FBs were collected from Finke (2013ApJ...763..134F) and Meyer et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJ/740/98), and the νpeak and Lpeak of NFBs from Nieppola et al. (2006, Cat. J/A+A/445/441; 2008, Cat. J/A+A/488/867), Meyer et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJ/740/98), Wu, Gu & Jiang (2009RAA.....9..168W) and Aatrokoski et al. (2011A&A...536A..15P). (1 data file).

  15. Radio monitoring of a sample of X- and gamma-ray loud blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Venturi, T; Orfei, A; Bondi, M; Fanti, R; Gregorini, L; Mantovani, F; Stanghellini, C; Trigilio, C; Umana, G

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a 4-year (1996 - 1999) radio flux density monitoring program for a sample of X- and $\\gamma$-ray loud blazars. Our program started in January 1996 and was carried out on monthly basis at the frequencies of 5 GHz and 8.4 GHz with the 32-m antennas located in Medicina (Bologna, Italy) and Noto (Siracusa, Italy). 22 GHz data collected in Medicina from January 1996 to June 1997 will also be presented. The sample of selected sources comprises most radio loud blazars with $\\delta \\ge -10^{\\circ}$ characterised by emission in the X- and $\\gamma$-ray regimes, and target sources for the BeppoSAX X-ray mission. All sources in the sample, except J1653+397 (MKN 501), are variable during the four years of our monitoring program. We classified the type of variability in each source by means of a structure function analysis. We also computed th$\\alpha_{5}^{8.4}$ for all epochs with nearly simultaneous observations ate spectral index and found that $\\alpha_{5}^{8.4}$ starts flattening ...

  16. Time-Dependent Modeling of Gamma-ray Flares in Blazar PKS1510-089

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Shinya; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Sikora, Marek; Moderski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a new approach for constraining luminous blazars, incorporating fully time-dependent and self-consistent modeling of bright gamma-ray flares of PKS1510-089 resolved with Fermi-LAT, in the framework of the internal shock scenario. The results of our modeling imply the location of the gamma-ray flaring zone outside of the broad-line region, namely around 0.3pc from the core for a free-expanding jet with the opening angle Gamma, \\theta_\\mathrm{jet} \\simeq 1 (where Gamma is the jet bulk Lorentz factor), up to \\simeq 3pc for a collimated outflow with Gamma, \\theta_\\mathrm{jet} \\simeq 0.1. Moreover, under the Gamma, \\theta_\\mathrm{jet} \\simeq 1 condition, our modeling indicates the maximum efficiency of the jet production during the flares, with the total jet energy flux strongly dominated by protons and exceeding the available accretion power in the source. This is in contrast to the quiescence states of the blazar, characterized by lower jet kinetic power and an approximate energy equipartition be...

  17. Variability along the Blazar-Sequence - Hints for extragalactic Cosmic Rays?

    CERN Document Server

    Weidinger, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The spectral energy distribution and variability of several blazars (Mkn 501, 1 ES 2344+51.4, PKS 2155-30.4, 1 ES 1218+30.4, 3C 454.3) along the blazar sequence is investigated using a selfconsistent and timedependent lepto-hadronic hybrid emission model. The BL Lac objects in the list are successfully modelled with purely leptonic radiation processes (essentially Synchrotron Self-Compton emission), while the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar requires highly relativistic hadrons to be present within the jet. Variability is exploited as well with our model to distinguish between Self-Compton and hadronic gamma radiation making use of their different signatures in lightcurves. As a consequence active galactic nuclei with z > 0.5 are the best candidates as sources of extragalactic consmic rays, since High-Peaked BL Lac objects do not seem to accelerate protons to energies above thermal. Furthermore the parameters found during the modelling of the objects agree very well with obervations of e.g. superluminal motion or t...

  18. A narrow line Seyfert 1--blazar composite nucleus in 2MASX J0324+3410

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, H; Yuan, W; Shan, H; Komossa, S; Lü, H; Liu, Y; Xu, D; Bai, J M; Jiang, D R; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui; Yuan, Weimin; Shan, Hongguang; Komossa, Stefanie; Lu, Honglin; Liu, Yi; Xu, Dawei

    2007-01-01

    We report the identification of 2MASX J032441.19+341045.9 (hereafter 2MASX J0324+3410) with an appealing object which shows the dual properties of both a narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) and a blazar. Its optical spectrum, which has a H\\beta line width about 1600 km s^-1 (FWHM), an [OIII] to H\\beta line ratio ~0.12, and strong FeII emission, clearly fulfills the conventional definition of NLS1s. On the other hand, 2MASX J0324+3410 also exhibits some behavior which is characteristic of blazars, including a flat radio spectrum above 1 GHz, a compact core plus a one-sided jet structure on mas-scale at 8.4 GHz, highly variable fluxes in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands, and a possible detection of TeV gamma-ray emission. On its optical image, obtained with the HST WFPC2, the active nucleus is displaced from the center of the host galaxy, which exhibits an apparent one-armed spiral structure extended to 16 kpc. The remarkable hybrid behavior of this object presents a challenge to current models of NLS1 galax...

  19. The “Far Site” Scenario for Gamma-ray Emission in Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agudo Iván

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the birth of γ-ray astronomy, locating the origin of γ-ray emission has been a fundamental problem for the knowledge of the emission processes involved. Densely time sampled monitoring programs with very long baseline interferometry and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, together with several other facilities at most of the available spectral ranges (including polarization measurements if possible are starting to shed new light for the case of blazars. A successful observing technique consists on analyzing the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in ultra-high resolution VLBI images to associate the particularly bright events at different wavebands. Such association can be robustly demonstrated by probing the statistical significance of the correlation among spectral ranges through Monte Carlo simulations. The location of the high energy emission region is inferred through its relative location with regard to the associated low energy event observed in the VLBI images. In this paper, I present some of the latest results using this method that locate the GeV emission within the jets of blazars AO 0235+164 and OJ287 at > 12 pc from the central AGN engine, hence supporting the “far site” scenario.

  20. Gamma-ray astronomy from the ground and the space: first analyses of the HESS-II hybrid array and search for blazar candidates among the unidentified Fermi-LAT sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript is about high energy gamma-ray astronomy (between 30 GeV and 300 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT satellite and very high energy gamma-ray astronomy (above ∼100 GeV) via the H.E.S.S. experiment. The second phase of the H.E.S.S. experiment began in July 2012 with the inauguration of a fifth 28 m-diameter telescope added to the initial array composed of four 12 m-diameter imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. In the first part of this thesis, we present the development of an analysis in hybrid mode based on a multivariate method dedicated to detect and study sources with different spectral shapes and the first analysis results on real data. The second part is dedicated to the research of blazar candidates among the Fermi-LAT unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. A first development is based on a multivariate approach using discriminant parameters built with the 2FGL catalog parameters. A second development is done with the use of the WISE satellite catalog and a non-parametric technic in order to find the blazar-like infrared counterparts of the unidentified sources of the 2FGL catalog. (author)

  1. NuSTAR and multifrequency study of the two high-redshift blazars S5 0836+710 and PKS 2149-306

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Perri, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Powerful blazars are flat-spectrum radio quasars whose emission is dominated by a Compton component peakingbetween a few hundred keV and a few hundred MeV. We observed two bright blazars, PKS 2149–306 at redshift z = 2.345 and S5 0836+710 at z = 2.172, in the hard X-ray band with the Nuclear...

  2. GAMMA-RAY FLARING ACTIVITY FROM THE GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED BLAZAR PKS 1830–211 OBSERVED BY Fermi LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Amin, M. A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica " M. Merlin" dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bulmash, D., E-mail: sara.buson@pd.infn.it, E-mail: stefano.ciprini@asdc.asi.it, E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: dammando@ira.inaf.it, E-mail: stefano.ciprini@asdc.asi.it, E-mail: sara.buson@pd.infn.it, E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: dammando@ira.inaf.it [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope routinely detects the MeV-peaked flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1830–211 (z = 2.507). Its apparent isotropic γ-ray luminosity (E > 100 MeV), averaged over ∼3 years of observations and peaking on 2010 October 14/15 at 2.9 × 10{sup 50} erg s{sup –1}, makes it among the brightest high-redshift Fermi blazars. No published model with a single lens can account for all of the observed characteristics of this complex system. Based on radio observations, one expects time-delayed variability to follow about 25 days after a primary flare, with flux about a factor of 1.5 less. Two large γ-ray flares of PKS 1830–211 have been detected by the LAT in the considered period, and no substantial evidence for such a delayed activity was found. This allows us to place a lower limit of about 6 on the γ-ray flux ratio between the two lensed images. Swift XRT observations from a dedicated Target of Opportunity program indicate a hard spectrum with no significant correlation of X-ray flux with the γ-ray variability. The spectral energy distribution can be modeled with inverse Compton scattering of thermal photons from the dusty torus. The implications of the LAT data in terms of variability, the lack of evident delayed flare events, and different radio and γ-ray flux ratios are discussed. Microlensing effects, absorption, size and location of the emitting regions, the complex mass distribution of the system, an energy-dependent inner structure of the source, and flux suppression by the lens galaxy for one image path may be considered as hypotheses for understanding our results.

  3. Gamma-Ray Flaring Activity from the Gravitationally Lensed Blazar PKS 1830-211 Observed by Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Amin, M. A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Buehler, R.; Bulmash, D.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Romoli, C.; Roth, M.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Tronconi, V.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope routinely detects the MeV-peaked flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1830-211 (z = 2.507). Its apparent isotropic γ-ray luminosity (E > 100 MeV), averaged over ~3 years of observations and peaking on 2010 October 14/15 at 2.9 × 1050 erg s-1, makes it among the brightest high-redshift Fermi blazars. No published model with a single lens can account for all of the observed characteristics of this complex system. Based on radio observations, one expects time-delayed variability to follow about 25 days after a primary flare, with flux about a factor of 1.5 less. Two large γ-ray flares of PKS 1830-211 have been detected by the LAT in the considered period, and no substantial evidence for such a delayed activity was found. This allows us to place a lower limit of about 6 on the γ-ray flux ratio between the two lensed images. Swift XRT observations from a dedicated Target of Opportunity program indicate a hard spectrum with no significant correlation of X-ray flux with the γ-ray variability. The spectral energy distribution can be modeled with inverse Compton scattering of thermal photons from the dusty torus. The implications of the LAT data in terms of variability, the lack of evident delayed flare events, and different radio and γ-ray flux ratios are discussed. Microlensing effects, absorption, size and location of the emitting regions, the complex mass distribution of the system, an energy-dependent inner structure of the source, and flux suppression by the lens galaxy for one image path may be considered as hypotheses for understanding our results.

  4. Model fitting of the kinematics of ten superluminal components in blazar 3C 279

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Jie Qian

    2013-01-01

    The kinematics of ten superluminal components (C11-C16,C18,C20,C21 and C24) of blazar 3C 279 are studied from VLBI observations.It is shown that their initial trajectory,distance from the core and apparent speed can be well fitted by the precession model proposed by Qian.Combined with the results of the model fit for the six superluminal components (C3,C4,C7a,C8,C9 and C10) already published,the kinematics of sixteen superluminal components can now be consistently interpreted in the precession scenario with their ejection times spanning more than 25 yr (or more than one precession period).The results from model fitting show the possible existence of a common precessing trajectory for these knots within a projected core distance of ~0.2-0.4 mas.In the framework of the jet-precession scenario,we can,for the first time,identify three classes of trajectories which are characterized by their collimation parameters.These different trajectories could be related to the helical structure of magnetic fields in the jet.Through fitting the model,the bulk Lorentz factor,Doppler factor and viewing angle of these knots are derived.It is found that there is no evidence for any correlation between the bulk Lorentz factor of the components and their precession phase (or ejection time).In a companion paper,the kinematics of another seven components (C5a,C6,C7,C17,C19,C22 and C23) have been derived from model fitting,and a binary black-hole/jet scenario was envisaged.The precession model proposed by Qian would be useful for understanding the kinematics of superluminal components in blazar 3C 279 derived from VLBI observations,by disentangling different mechanisms and ingredients.More generally,it might also be helpful for studying the mechanism of jet swing (wobbling) in other blazars.

  5. A significant hardening and rising shape detected in the MeV/GeV νFν spectrum from the recently discovered very-high-energy blazar S4 0954+65 during the bright optical flare in 2015 February

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Becerra Gonzalez, Josefa; Itoh, Ryosuke; Finke, Justin D.; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ojha, Roopesh; Carpenter, Bryce; Lindfors, Elina; Krauß, Felicia; Desiante, Rachele; Shiki, Kensei; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Longo, Francesco; McEnery, Julie E.; Buson, Sara; Nilsson, Kari; Fallah Ramazani, Vandad; Reinthal, Riho; Takalo, Leo; Pursimo, Tapio; Boschin, Walter

    2016-08-01

    We report on Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and multi-wavelength results on the recently discovered very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) blazar S4 0954+65 (z = 0.368) during an exceptionally bright optical flare in 2015 February. During the time period (2015 February 13/14, or MJD 57067) when the MAGIC telescope detected VHE γ-ray emission from the source, the Fermi-LAT data indicated a significant spectral hardening at GeV energies, with a power-law photon index of 1.8 ± 0.1-compared with the 3FGL (The Fermi LAT 4-Year Point Source Catalog) value (averaged over four years of observation) of 2.34 ± 0.04. In contrast, Swift X-Ray Telescope data showed a softening of the X-ray spectrum, with a photon index of 1.72 ± 0.08 (compared with 1.38 ± 0.03 averaged during the flare from MJD 57066 to 57077), possibly indicating a modest contribution of synchrotron photons by the highest-energy electrons superposed on the inverse Compton component. Fitting of the quasi-simultaneous ( 100 MeV) and a hard spectral index of ΓGeV up by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes to discover high-redshift blazars, investigate their temporal variability and spectral features in the VHE band, and also constrain the intensity of the extragalactic background light.

  6. Orbital Signatures from Observed Light Curves of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Mangalam; P. Mohan

    2014-09-01

    Variability in active galactic nuclei is observed in UV to X-ray emission based light curves. This could be attributed to orbital signatures of the plasma that constitutes the accretion flow on the putative disk or in the developing jet close to the inner region of the central black hole. We discuss some theoretical models based on this view. These models include general relativistic effects such as light bending, aberration effects, gravitational and Doppler redshifts. The novel aspects relate to the treatment of helical flow in cylindrical and conical geometries in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole that leads to amplitude and frequency modulations of simulated light curves as well as the inclusion of beaming effects in these idealized geometries. We then present a suite of time series analysis techniques applicable to data with varied properties which can extract detailed information for their use in theoretical models.

  7. Orbital Signatures from Observed Light Curves of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, A.; Mohan, P.

    2014-09-01

    Variability in active galactic nuclei is observed in UV to X-ray emission based light curves. This could be attributed to orbital signatures of the plasma that constitutes the accretion flow on the putative disk or in the developing jet close to the inner region of the central black hole. We discuss some theoretical models based on this view. These models include general relativistic effects such as light bending, aberration effects, gravitational and Doppler redshifts. The novel aspects relate to the treatment of helical flow in cylindrical and conical geometries in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole that leads to amplitude and frequency modulations of simulated light curves as well as the inclusion of beaming effects in these idealized geometries. We then present a suite of time series analysis techniques applicable to data with varied properties which can extract detailed information from them for their use in theoretical models.

  8. GRASIL-3D: an Implemention of Dust Effects in the SEDs of Simulated Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez-Tenreiro, R; Granato, G L; Schurer, A; Alpresa, P; Silva, L; Brook, C B; Serna, A

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new model for the spectral energy distribution of galaxies, GRASIL-3D, which includes a careful modelling of the dust component of the interstellar medium. GRASIL-3D is an entirely new model based on the formalism of an existing and widely applied spectrophotometric model, GRASIL, but specifically designed to be interfaced with galaxies with any arbitrarily given geometry, such as galaxies calculated by theoretical hydrodynamical galaxy formation codes. GRASIL-3D is designed to separately treat radiative transfer in molecular clouds and in the diffuse cirrus component. The code has a general applicability to the outputs of simulated galaxies, either from Lagrangian or Eulerian hydrodynamic codes. As an application, the new model has been interfaced to the P-DEVA and GASOLINE smoothed-particle hydrodynamic codes, and has been used to calculate the spectral energy distribution for a variety of simulated galaxies from UV to sub-millimeter wavelengths, whose comparison with observational data gives...

  9. High frequency radio SEDs and polarization fractions of sources in an ACT survey field

    CERN Document Server

    Sajina, Anna; Evans, Tyler; Stefl, Shannon; Vechik, Nicholas; Myers, Steve; Dicker, Simon; Korngut, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    We present flux densities and polarization percentages of 159 radio galaxies based on nearly simultaneous VLA observations at four frequencies from 5 to 43GHz. This sample is selected from the high-frequency Australia Telescope 20GHz (AT20G) survey and consists of all sources with S_{20GHz}>40mJy in an equatorial field of the ACT survey. For a subset of 25 of these sources we used the GBT to obtain 90GHz data. The goals of this program are: 1) a characterization of the spectra, polarization and variability of high frequency-selected radio sources; 2) extrapolating from the few GHz regime to the ~150GHz regime of the ACT survey, allowing for more accurate removal of the radio source signal in our particular field; and 3) providing a data set that will allow more accurate modeling of the high-frequency radio source contamination in current and future SZ and CMB experiments. We find that, as expected, this sample consists of flatter spectrum and more compact or point-like sources than low frequency-selected samp...

  10. AGNfitter: An MCMC Approach to Fitting SEDs of AGN and galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistro Rivera, Gabriela; Lusso, Elisabeta; Hennawi, Joseph; Hogg, David W.

    2016-08-01

    I will present AGNfitter: a tool to robustly disentangle the physical processes responsible for the emission of active galactic nuclei (AGN). AGNfitter is the first open-source algorithm based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to fit the spectral energy distributions of AGN from the sub-mm to the UV. The code makes use of a large library of theoretical, empirical, and semi-empirical models to characterize both the host galaxy and the nuclear emission simultaneously. The model consists in four physical components comprising stellar populations, cold dust distributions in star forming regions, accretion disk, and hot dust torus emissions. AGNfitter is well suited to infer numerous parameters that rule the physics of AGN with a proper handling of their confidence levels through the sampling and assumptions-free calculation of their posterior probability distributions. The resulting parameters are, among many others, accretion disk luminosities, dust attenuation for both galaxy and accretion disk, stellar masses and star formation rates. We describe the relevance of this fitting machinery, the technicalities of the code, and show its capabilities in the context of unobscured and obscured AGN. The analyzed data comprehend a sample of 714 X-ray selected AGN of the XMM-COSMOS survey, spectroscopically classified as Type1 and Type2 sources by their optical emission lines. The inference of variate independent obscuration parameters allows AGNfitter to find a classification strategy with great agreement with the spectroscopical classification for ˜ 86% and ˜ 70% for the Type1 and Type2 AGNs respectively. The variety and large number of physical properties inferred by AGNfitter has the potential of contributing to a wide scope of science-cases related to both active and quiescent galaxies studies.

  11. Fermi-LAT View of Bright Flaring Gamma-Ray Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Bastieri; S. Ciprini; D. Gasparrini

    2011-03-01

    The Fermi LAT provides a continuous and uniform monitoring of the Universe in the gamma-ray band. During the first year many gamma-ray blazar flares, some unidentified transients and emission by the Sun while in a quiet state were promptly detected. This is mainly due to the design of the mission, featuring a detector, the LAT with a wide field of view, and to the operation of the spacecraft itself, that can cover every region of the sky every 3 hours. Nevertheless, the scientific exploitation of this monitoring is more fruitful when early information about transients reaches a broader community. In this respect, the indefatigable activity of flare advocates, who worked on weekly shifts to validate the results and quickly broadcast information about flares and new detections, was the key to most scientific results.

  12. Estudio de variabilidad del blazar BL Lacertae: desde radio hasta rayos gamma (2008-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichel, A.; Rovero, A. C.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work is to study the blazar BL Lacertae during extended periods (greater than weeks), by characterizing the changes in flux and polarization at optical, radio, X-rays and gamma rays; also to investigate the possible correlations between different bands. We look for periodicity in the flux variations in different bands, looking for criteria to predict high activity states of the source. We use multi-frequency observations of BL Lacertae obtained during the years 2008--2015, from radio to very-high-energy gamma rays. During this period, the source remained mainly in a low state of activity at the high energy bands, with several episodes of high activity (flares) in different bands, some of them observed simultaneously in several bands.

  13. The Imprint of The Extragalactic Background Light in the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The light emitted by stars and accreting compact objects through the history of the Universe is encoded in the intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Knowledge of the EBL is important to understand the nature of star formation and galaxy evolution, but direct measurements of the EBL are lim- ited by Galactic and other foreground emissions. Here we report an absorption feature seen in the combined spectra of a sample of gamma-ray blazars out to a redshift of z$\\sim$1.6. This feature is caused by attenuation of gamma rays by the EBL at optical to UV frequencies, and allowed us to measure the EBL flux density in this frequency band.

  14. The beaming effect and $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray emission for Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yong-Yun; Xiong, Dingrong; Wang, Si-Ju; Yu, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    We study the $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray luminosity and beaming effect for Fermi blazars. Our results are as follows. (i) There are significant correlations between $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray luminosity and radio core luminosity, and between $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray luminosity and $\\rm{R_{v}}$, which suggests that the $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray emissions have strong beaming effect. (ii) Using the $\\rm{L_{ext}/M_{abs}}$ as an indicator of environment effects, we find that there have no significant correlation between $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray luminosity and $\\rm{L_{ext}/M_{abs}}$ for all sources when remove the effect of redshift. FSRQs considered alone also do not show a significant correlation, while BL Lacs still show a significant correlation when remove the effect of redshift. These results suggest that the $\\rm{\\gamma}$-ray emission may be affected by environment on the kiloparsec-scale for BL Lacs.

  15. Stochastic Gyroresonant Acceleration for Hard Electron Spectra of Blazars: Effect of Damping of Cascading Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Kakuwa, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic acceleration of nonthermal electrons is investigated in the context of hard photon spectra of blazars. It is well known that this acceleration mechanism can produce a hard electron spectrum of $m \\equiv \\partial \\ln n_{\\rm e}(\\gamma)/\\partial \\ln \\gamma = 2$ with the high-energy cutoff, called an ultrarelativistic Maxwellian-like distribution, where $n_{\\rm e}(\\gamma)$ is an electron energy spectrum. We revisit the formation of this characteristic spectrum, considering a particular situation where the electrons are accelerated through gyroresonant interaction with magnetohydrodynamic wave turbulence driven by the turbulent cascade. By solving kinetic equations of the turbulent fields, electrons, and photons emitted via the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process, we demonstrate that in the non-test-particle treatment, the formation of a Maxwellian-like distribution is prevented by the damping effect on the turbulent fields due to the electron acceleration, at least unless an extreme parameter value ...

  16. On the phenomenological classification of continuum radio spectra variability patterns of Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Angelakis, E; Nestoras, I; Fromm, C M; Schmidt, R; Zensus, J A; Marchili, N; Krichbaum, T P; Perucho-Pla, M; Ungerechts, H; Sievers, A; Riquelme, D

    2011-01-01

    The F-GAMMA program is a coordinated effort to investigate the physics of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) via multi-frequency monitoring of {\\em Fermi} blazars. The current study is concerned with the broad-band radio spectra composed of measurement at ten frequencies between 2.64 and 142 GHz. It is shown that any of the 78 sources studied can be classified in terms of their variability characteristics in merely 5 types of variability. The first four types are dominated by spectral evolution and can be reproduced by a simple two-component system made of the quiescent spectrum of a large scale jet populated with a flaring event evolving according to Marscher & Gear (1985). The last type is characterized by an achromatic change of the broad-band spectrum which must be attributed to a completely different mechanism. Here are presented, the classification, the assumed physical system and the results of simulations that have been conducted.

  17. Helical motion and the origin of QPO in blazar-type sources

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, F M

    2004-01-01

    Recent observations and analysis of blazar sources provide strong evidence for (i) the presence of significant periodicities in their lightcurves and (ii) the occurrence of helical trajectories in their radio jets. In scenarios, where the periodicity is caused by differential Doppler boosting effects along a helical jet path, both of these facts may be naturally tied together. Here we discuss four possible driving mechanisms for the occurrence of helical trajectories: orbital motion in a binary system, Newtonian-driven jet precession, internal jet rotation and motion along a global helical magnetic field. We point out that for non-ballistic helical motion the observed period may appear strongly shortened due to classical travel time effects. Finally, the possible relevance of the above mentioned driving mechanisms is discussed for Mkn~501, OJ 287 and AO 0235+16.

  18. Evidence for Quasi-periodic Modulation in the Gamma-ray Blazar PG 1553+113

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Albert, A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Gonzalez, J Becerra; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonino, R; Bottacini, E; Bregeon, J; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caputo, R; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; De Angelis, A; De Palma, F; Desiante, R; Di Venere, L; Dominguez, A; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Green, D; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Harding, A K; Hays, E; Hewitt, J W; Hill, A B; Horan, D; Jogler, T; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Li, J; Li, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Magill, J; Maldera, S; Manfreda, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Mcenery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Ojha, R; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Pearson, T J; Perkins, J S; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Raino', S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Readhead, A; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Schulz, A; Sgro', C; Siskind, E J; Spada, F; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vianello, G; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Zimmer, S; Berdyugin, A; Corbet, R H D; Hovatta, T; Lindfors, E; Nilsson, K; Reinthal, R; Sillanpaa, A; Stamerra, A; Takalo, L O; Valtonen, M J

    2015-01-01

    We report for the first time a gamma-ray and multiwavelength nearly-periodic oscillation in an active galactic nucleus. Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) we have discovered an apparent quasi-periodicity in the gamma-ray flux (E>100 MeV) from the GeV/TeV BL Lac object PG 1553+113. The marginal significance of the 2.18 +/- 0.08 year-period gamma-ray cycle, seen in 3.5 oscillation maxima observed, is corroborated by correlated oscillations observed in radio and optical fluxes, through data collected in the OVRO, Tuorla, KAIT, and CSS monitoring programs and Swift UVOT. The optical cycle appearing in sim 10 years of data has a similar period, while the 15 GHz oscillation is less regular. Further long-term multi-wavelength monitoring of this blazar may discriminate among the possible explanations for this quasi-periodicity.

  19. Extreme photo-polarimetric behaviour of the blazar AO 0235+164

    CERN Document Server

    Cellone, Sergio A; Combi, Jorge A; Marti, Josep

    2007-01-01

    We present optical photo-polarimetric observations with high temporal resolution of the blazar AO 0235+164. Our data, the first to test the photo-polarimetric behaviour of this object at very short time-scales, show significant micro-variability in total flux, colour index, linear polarization degree, and position angle. Strong inter-night variations are also detected for these parameters. Although no correlation between colour index and total flux was found, our data seem to support the general bluer-when-brighter trend already known for this object. The polarization degree, in turn, shows no correlation with total flux, but a clear trend in the sense that colour index is redder (the spectrum is softer) when the measured polarization is higher.

  20. Fourier Analysis of Blazar Variability: Klein-Nishina Effects and the Jet Scattering Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Finke, Justin D

    2015-01-01

    The strong variability of blazars can be characterized by power spectral densities (PSDs) and Fourier frequency-dependent time lags. In previous work, we created a new theoretical formalism for describing the PSDs and time lags produced via a combination of stochastic particle injection and emission via the synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton, and external Compton (EC) processes. This formalism used the Thomson cross section and simple $\\delta$-function approximations to model the synchrotron and Compton emissivities. Here we expand upon this work, using the full Compton cross section and detailed and accurate emissivities. Our results indicate good agreement between the PSDs computed using the $\\delta$-function approximations and those computed using the accurate expressions, provided the observed photons are produced primarily by electrons with energies exceeding the lower limit of the injected particle population. Breaks are found in the PSDs at frequencies corresponding to the cooling timescales of the ...

  1. Baja Andesia: sed y poéticas tramontinas. Un desvío etnográfico a mano alzada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Araya

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si yo fuese dromedario no tendría sed. ¿Qué hora es ?Vicente Huidobro1.El antropólogo-poeta-ponencista despierta luego de un sueño intranquilo. Tiene sed. Algo recuerda. Un escozor, dice, un poco antes, en la misma, como de ron, como de vino y el fumadero de las caras ; como si, apenas, algo de lo exagerado de una opinión, entre una cosa y la otra, hubiera olvidado. Sabe que debe hablar aquella misma mañana. Sabe. La pata de los caballos, piensa. La tribu estará reunida. No la suya. No se sus...

  2. Quality and clinical supply considerations of Paediatric Investigation Plans for IV preparations-A case study with the FP7 CloSed project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Sara M; Orlu Gul, Mine; Winslade, Jackie; Baarslag, Manuel A; Neubert, Antje; Tuleu, Catherine

    2016-09-25

    A Paediatric Investigation Plan (PIP) is a development plan that aims to ensure that sufficient data are obtained through studies in paediatrics to support the generation of marketing authorisation of medicines for children. This paper highlights some practical considerations and challenges with respect to PIP submissions and paediatric clinical trials during the pharmaceutical development phase, using the FP7-funded Clonidine for Sedation of Paediatric Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (CloSed) project as a case study. Examples discussed include challenges and considerations regarding formulation development, blinding and randomisation, product labelling and shipment and clinical trial requirements versus requirements for marketing authorisation. A significant quantity of information is required for PIP submissions and it is hoped that future applicants may benefit from an insight into some critical considerations and challenges faced in the CloSed project. PMID:27113865

  3. Quality and clinical supply considerations of Paediatric Investigation Plans for IV preparations-A case study with the FP7 CloSed project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Sara M; Orlu Gul, Mine; Winslade, Jackie; Baarslag, Manuel A; Neubert, Antje; Tuleu, Catherine

    2016-09-25

    A Paediatric Investigation Plan (PIP) is a development plan that aims to ensure that sufficient data are obtained through studies in paediatrics to support the generation of marketing authorisation of medicines for children. This paper highlights some practical considerations and challenges with respect to PIP submissions and paediatric clinical trials during the pharmaceutical development phase, using the FP7-funded Clonidine for Sedation of Paediatric Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (CloSed) project as a case study. Examples discussed include challenges and considerations regarding formulation development, blinding and randomisation, product labelling and shipment and clinical trial requirements versus requirements for marketing authorisation. A significant quantity of information is required for PIP submissions and it is hoped that future applicants may benefit from an insight into some critical considerations and challenges faced in the CloSed project.

  4. Orbital signatures from observed light curves of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Mangalam, A

    2014-01-01

    Variability in active galactic nuclei is observed in ultraviolet to X-ray emission based light curves. This could be attributed to orbital signatures of the plasma that constitutes the accretion flow on the putative disk or in the developing jet close to the inner region of the central black hole. We discuss some theoretical models which build on this view. These models include general relativistic effects such as light bending, aberration effects, gravitational and Doppler redshifts. The novel aspects relate to the treatment of helical flow in cylindrical and conical geometries in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole that leads to amplitude and frequency modulations of simulated light curves as well as the inclusion of beaming effects in these idealized geometries. We then present a suite of time series analysis techniques applicable to data with varied properties which can extract detailed information from them for their use in theoretical models.

  5. Constraining the Location of Gamma-Ray Flares in Luminous Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Sikora, Marek

    2014-07-01

    Locating the gamma-ray emission sites in blazar jets is a long standing and highly controversial issue. We jointly investigate several constraints on the distance scale r and Lorentz factor Γ of the gamma-ray emitting regions in luminous blazars (primarily flat spectrum radio quasars). Working in the framework of one-zone external radiation Comptonization models, we perform a parameter space study for several representative cases of actual gamma-ray flares in their multiwavelength context. We find a particularly useful combination of three constraints: from an upper limit on the collimation parameter Γθ ~ 0.1-0.7. Typical values of r corresponding to moderate values of Γ ~ 20 are in the range 0.1-1 pc, and are determined primarily by the observed variability timescale t var, obs. Alternative scenarios motivated by the observed gamma-ray/millimeter connection, in which gamma-ray flares of t var, obs ~ a few days are located at r ~ 10 pc, are in conflict with both the SSC and cooling constraints. Moreover, we use a simple light travel time argument to point out that the gamma-ray/millimeter connection does not provide a significant constraint on the location of gamma-ray flares. We argue that spine-sheath models of the jet structure do not offer a plausible alternative to external radiation fields at large distances; however, an extended broad-line region is an idea worth exploring. We propose that the most definite additional constraint could be provided by determination of the synchrotron self-absorption frequency for correlated synchrotron and gamma-ray flares.

  6. Long-term Multi-band Photometric Monitoring of Blazar S5 0716+714

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ben-zhong; Zeng, Wei; Jiang, Ze-jun; Fan, Zhong-hui; Hu, Wen; Zhang, Peng-fei; Yang, Qing-yun; Yan, Da-hai; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Li

    2015-06-01

    We present long-term optical multi-band photometric monitoring of blazar S5 0716+714, from 2004 January 11 to 2012 November 4, with high temporal resolution of approximately 15 minutes in the BVRI bands. The source was in an active state during the whole monitoring campaign, showing intraday variability in 11 of 72 days. The average magnitudes in each band were B = 14.398, V = 13.821, R = 13.255, and I = 12.885. The overall variability amplitudes were {Δ }B=1\\buildrel{{m}}\\over{.}834, {Δ }V=2\\buildrel{{m}}\\over{.}167, {Δ }R=2\\buildrel{{m}}\\over{.}148, and {Δ }I=1\\buildrel{{m}}\\over{.}912. The structure function showed that typical timescales for intraday variability were between approximately 2 and 7.5 hr. The intraday variability amplitudes were from a few percent to approximately 30%. We found typical variation rates of approximately 0.05 mag hr-1 in both the rising and falling phases, with a minimal variability timescale of 130 minutes. A 10 day period short-term variability was observed simultaneously in the BVRI bands. The discrete correlation function suggests that there is significant correlated variability between the B- and I-band light curves. However, no significant time lags were detected. The spectral behaviors in the different variability episodes were studied, and our observations show bluer-when-brighter behavior on long, short, and intraday timescales for the blazar S5 0716+714. The variability and relevant spectral trends can be explained by the shock-in-jet scenario.

  7. INVESTIGATING BROADBAND VARIABILITY OF THE TeV BLAZAR 1ES 1959+650

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T.; Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Barnacka, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Eisch, J. D., E-mail: amy.furniss@gmail.com, E-mail: Markus.Bottcher@nwu.ac.za [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2014-12-20

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959+650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected emission model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.

  8. Multiwavelength modelling the SED of supersoft X-ray sources III. RS Ophiuchi: The supersoft X-ray phase and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Skopal, A

    2014-01-01

    I modelled the 14 \\AA - 37 $\\mu$m SED of the recurrent symbiotic nova RS Oph during its supersoft source (SSS) phase and the following quiescent phase. During the SSS phase, the model SEDs revealed the presence of a strong stellar and nebular component of radiation in the spectrum. The former was emitted by the burning WD at highly super-Eddington rate, while the latter represented a fraction of its radiation reprocessed by the thermal nebula. During the transition phase, both the components were decreasing and during quiescence the SED satisfied radiation produced by a large, optically thick disk (R(disk) > 10 R(Sun)). The mass of the emitting material was (1.6 +/- 0.5) x 1E-4(d/1.6 kpc)**(5/2) M(Sun). The helium ash, deposited on the WD surface during the whole burning period, was around of 8 x 1E-6(d/1.6kpc)**2 M(Sun), which yields an average growing rate of the WD mass, dM(WD)/dt ~ 4 x 1E-7(d/1.6 kpc)**2 M(Sun)/yr. The mass accreted by the WD between outbursts, m(acc) ~ 1.26 x 1E-5 M(Sun), constrains the ...

  9. Detailed modelling of a large sample of Herschel sources in the Lockman Hole: identification of cold dust and of lensing candidates through their anomalous SEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Wardlow, Julie; Farrah, Duncan; Oliver, Seb; Bock, Jamie; Clarke, Charlotte; Clements, David; Ibar, Edo; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo; Marchetti, Lucia; Scott, Douglas; Smith, Anthony; Vaccari, Mattia; Valtchanov, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We have studied in detail a sample of 967 SPIRE sources with 5-sigma detections at 350 and 500 micron and associations with Spitzer-SWIRE 24 micron galaxies in the HerMES-Lockman survey area, fitting their mid- and far-infrared, and submillimetre, SEDs in an automatic search with a set of six infrared templates. For almost 300 galaxies we have modelled their SEDs individually to ensure the physicality of the fits. We confirm the need for the new cool and cold cirrus templates, and also of the young starburst template, introduced in earlier work. We also identify 109 lensing candidates via their anomalous SEDs and provide a set of colour-redshift constraints which allow lensing candidates to be identified from combined Herschel and Spitzer data. The picture that emerges of the submillimetre galaxy population is complex, comprising ultraluminous and hyperluminous starbursts, lower luminosity galaxies dominated by interstellar dust emission, lensed galaxies and galaxies with surprisingly cold (10-13K) dust. 11 %...

  10. Gamma-Gamma Absorption in the Broad Line Region Radiation Fields of Gamma-Ray Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The expected level of gamma-gamma absorption in the Broad Line Region (BLR) radiation field of gamma-ray loud Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs)is evaluated as a function of the location of the gamma-ray emission region. This is done self-consistently with parameters inferred from the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in a single-zone leptonic EC-BLR model scenario. We take into account all geometrical effects both in the calculation of the gamma-gamma opacity and the normalization of the BLR radiation energy density. As specific examples, we study the FSRQs 3C279 and PKS 1510-089, keeping the BLR radiation energy density at the location of the emission region fixed at the values inferred from the SED. We confirm previous findings that the optical depth due to $\\gamma\\gamma$ absorption in the BLR radiation field exceeds unity for both 3C279 and PKS 1510-089 for locations of the gamma-ray emission region inside the inner boundary of the BLR. It decreases monotonically, with distance from the cen...

  11. AGN astrophysics via multi-frequency monitoring of gamma-ray blazars in the Fermi-GST era

    CERN Document Server

    Angelakis, E; Zensus, J A; Nestoras, I; Marchili, N; Krichbaum, T P; Ungerechts, H; Max-Moerbeck, W; Pavlidou, V; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Stevenson, M A

    2009-01-01

    The F-GAMMA-project is the coordinated effort of several observatories to understand the AGN phenomenon and specifically blazars via multi-frequency monitoring in collaboration with the {\\sl Fermi}-GST satellite since January 2007. The core observatories are: the Effelsberg 100-m, the IRAM 30-m and the OVRO 40-m telescope covering the range between 2.6 and 270 GHz. Effelsberg and IRAM stations do a monthly monitoring of the cm to sub-mm radio spectra of 60 selected blazars whereas the OVRO telescope is observing roughly 1200 objects at 15 GHz with a dense sampling of 2 points per week. The calibration uncertainty even at high frequencies, is of a few percent. 47% of the Effelsberg/Pico Veleta sample is included in the LBAS list. An update of the monitored sample is currently underway.

  12. Time-Variable Linear Polarization as a Probe of the Physical Conditions in the Compact Jets of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Marscher, Alan P

    2014-01-01

    A single measurement of linear polarization of a nonthermal source provides direct information about the mean direction and level of ordering of the magnetic field. Monitoring of the polarization in blazars, combined with millimeter-wave VLBI imaging in both total and polarized intensity, has the potential to determine the geometry of the magnetic field. This is a key probe of the physical processes in the relativistic jet, such as ordered field components, turbulence, magnetic reconnections, magnetic collimation and acceleration of the jet flow, particle acceleration, and radiative processes that produce extremely luminous, highly variable nonthermal emission. Well-sampled monitoring observations of multi-waveband flux and radio-optical polarization of blazars show a variety of behavior. In some cases, the observed polarization patterns appear systematic, while in others randomness dominates. Explanations involve helical magnetic fields, turbulence, and perhaps particle acceleration that depends on the angle...

  13. Short-time Variability of Blazars via Non-linear, Time-dependent Synchrotron-Self Compton Radiative Losses

    CERN Document Server

    Röken, Christian; Schöneberg, Sebastian; Schuppan, Florian

    2016-01-01

    A leptonic one-zone model accounting for the radiation emission of blazars is presented. This model describes multiple successive injections of mono-energetic, ultra-relativistic, interacting electron populations, which are subjected to synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton radiative losses. The electron number density is computed analytically by solving a time-dependent, relativistic transport equation. Moreover, the synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton intensities as well as the corresponding total fluences are explicitly calculated. The lightcurves and fluences are plotted for realistic parameter values, showing that the model can simultaneously explain both the specific short-time variability in the flaring of blazars and the characteristic broad-band fluence behavior.

  14. Optical spectroscopic observations of gamma-ray blazar candidates III. The 2013/2014 campaign in the Southern Hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Landoni, M; Paggi, A; D'Abrusco, R; Milisavljevic, D; Masetti, N; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G; Chomiuk, L; Strader, J; Cheung, C C

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of our exploratory program carried out with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope aimed at associating counterparts and establishing the nature of the Fermi Unidentified gamma-ray Sources (UGS). We selected the optical counterparts of 6 UGSs from the Fermi catalog on the basis of our recently discovered tight connection between infrared and gamma-ray emission found for the gamma-ray blazars detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) in its the all-sky survey. We perform for the first time a spectroscopic study of the low-energy counterparts of Fermi UGS, in the optical band, confirming the blazar-like nature for the whole sample. We also present new spectroscopic observations of 6 Active Galaxies of Uncertain type associated with Fermi sources (AGUs) that appear to be BL Lac objects. Finally, we report the spectra collected for 6 known gamma-ray blazars belonging to the Roma BZCAT that were obtained to establish their nature or better estimate their redshif...

  15. RoboPol: The optical polarization of gamma-ray--loud and gamma-ray--quiet blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Angelakis, E; Blinov, D; Pavlidou, V; Kiehlmann, S; Myserlis, I; Boettcher, M; Mao, P; Panopoulou, G V; Liodakis, I; King, O G; Balokovic, M; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Mahabal, A; Marecki, A; Paleologou, E; Papadakis, I; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderski, E; Pearson, T J; Prabhudesai, S; Ramaprakash, A N; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Tassis, K; Urry, M; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present average R-band optopolarimetric data, as well as variability parameters, from the first and second RoboPol observing season. We investigate whether gamma- ray--loud and gamma-ray--quiet blazars exhibit systematic differences in their optical polarization properties. We find that gamma-ray--loud blazars have a systematically higher polarization fraction (0.092) than gamma-ray--quiet blazars (0.031), with the hypothesis of the two samples being drawn from the same distribution of polarization fractions being rejected at the 3{\\sigma} level. We have not found any evidence that this discrepancy is related to differences in the redshift distribution, rest-frame R-band lu- minosity density, or the source classification. The median polarization fraction versus synchrotron-peak-frequency plot shows an envelope implying that high synchrotron- peaked sources have a smaller range of median polarization fractions concentrated around lower values. Our gamma-ray--quiet sources show similar median polarization fr...

  16. Optical counterparts of undetermined type $\\gamma$-ray Active Galactic Nuclei with blazar-like Spectral Energy Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    La Mura, G; Ciroi, S; Rafanelli, P; Salvetti, D; Berton, M; Cracco, V

    2015-01-01

    During its first four years of scientific observations, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) detected 3033 $\\gamma$-ray sources above a 4$\\sigma$ significance level. Although most of the extra-Galactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the blazar class, other families of AGNs are observed too, while a still high fraction of detections ($\\sim 30\\%$) remains with uncertain association or classification. According to the currently accepted interpretation, the AGN $\\gamma$-ray emission arises from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of low energy photons by relativistic particles confined in a jet that, in the case of blazars, is oriented very close to our line of sight. Taking advantage of data from radio and X-ray wavelengths, which we expect to be produced together with $\\gamma$-rays, providing a much better source localization potential, we focused our attention on a sample of $\\gamma$-ray Blazar Candidates of Undetermined Type (BCUs), starting a campaign of optical spectroscopic observations. The...

  17. RoboPol: The optical polarization of gamma-ray-loud and gamma-ray-quiet blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, E.; Hovatta, T.; Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Kiehlmann, S.; Myserlis, I.; Böttcher, M.; Mao, P.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Liodakis, I.; King, O. G.; Baloković, M.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Mahabal, A.; Marecki, A.; Paleologou, E.; Papadakis, I.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pazderski, E.; Pearson, T. J.; Prabhudesai, S.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Tassis, K.; Urry, M.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    We present average R-band optopolarimetric data, as well as variability parameters, from the first and second RoboPolobserving season. We investigate whether gamma-ray-loud and gamma-ray-quiet blazars exhibit systematic differences in their optical polarization properties. We find that gamma-ray-loud blazars have a systematically higher polarization fraction (0.092) than gamma-ray-quiet blazars (0.031), with the hypothesis of the two samples being drawn from the same distribution of polarization fractions being rejected at the 3σ level. We have not found any evidence that this discrepancy is related to differences in the redshift distribution, rest-frame R-band luminosity density, or the source classification. The median polarization fraction versus synchrotron-peak-frequency plot shows an envelope implying that high synchrotron-peaked sources have a smaller range of median polarization fractions concentrated around lower values. Our gamma-ray-quiet sources show similar median polarization fractions although they are all low synchrotron-peaked. We also find that the randomness of the polarization angle depends on the synchrotron peak frequency. For high synchrotron-peaked sources it tends to concentrate around preferred directions while for low synchrotron-peaked sources it is more variable and less likely to have a preferred direction. We propose a scenario which mediates efficient particle acceleration in shocks and increases the helical B-field component immediately downstream of the shock.

  18. The BL-Lac gamma-ray blazar PKS 1424+240 associated with a group of galaxies at z=0.6010

    CERN Document Server

    Rovero, A C; Donzelli, C; Pichel, A

    2016-01-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a BL-Lac blazar with unknown redshift that was detected at high-energy gamma rays by Fermi-LAT with a hard spectrum. At VHE, it was first detected by VERITAS and later confirmed by MAGIC. Its spectral energy distribution is highly attenuated at VHE gamma rays, which is coherent with distant sources. Several estimations enabled the redshift to be constrained to the range 0.6 < z < 1.3. These results place PKS 1424+240 in the very interesting condition of being probably the most distant blazar that has been detected at VHE. The ambiguity in the redshift is still large enough to prevent precise studies of the EBL and the intrinsic blazar spectrum. Given the difficulty of measuring spectroscopic redshifts for BL-Lac objects directly, we aim to establish a reliable redshift value for this blazar by finding its host group of galaxies. Elliptical galaxies are associated with groups, and BL-Lac objects are typically hosted by them, so we decided to search for the host group of the blazar. For th...

  19. X-ray spectral studies of TeV γ-ray emitting blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzcholska, Alicja; Wagner, Stefan J.

    2016-05-01

    This work is a summary of the X-ray spectral studies of 29 TeV (1012 eV, tera-electron-volt) γ-ray emitting blazars observed with Swift/XRT, especially focusing on sources for which the X-ray regime allows us to study the low- and the high-energy ends of the particle distribution function. Variability studies require simultaneous coverage, ideally sampling different flux states of each source. This is achieved using X-ray observations by disentangling the high-energy end of the synchrotron emission and the low-energy end of the Compton emission, which are produced by the same electron population. We focused on a sample of 29 TeV γ-ray emitting blazars with the best signal-to-noise X-ray observations collected with Swift/XRT in the energy range 0.3-10 keV during 10 yr of Swift/XRT operations. We investigate the X-ray spectral shapes and the effects of different corrections for neutral hydrogen absorption and decompose the synchrotron and inverse Compton components. For five sources (3C 66A, S5 0716+714, W Comae, 4C +21.35 and BL Lacertae) a superposition of both components is observed in the X-ray band, permitting simultaneous, time-resolved studies of both ends of the electron distribution. The analysis of multi-epoch observations revealed that the break energy of the X-ray spectrum varies only by a small factor with flux changes. Flux variability is more pronounced in the synchrotron domain (high-energy end of the electron distribution) than in the Compton domain (low-energy end of the electron distribution). The spectral shape of the Compton domain is stable, while the flux of the synchrotron domain is variable. These changes cannot be described by simple variations of the cut-off energy, suggesting that the high-energy end of the electron distribution is not generally well described by cooling only.

  20. Multi-Epoch VLBA Observations of EGRET-Detected Quasars and BL Lac Objects Connection between Superluminal Ejections and Gamma-Ray Flares in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Jorstad, S G; Mattox, J R; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Wehrle, A E; Bloom, S D; Jorstad, Svetlana G; Marscher, Alan P; Mattox, John R; Aller, Margo F; Aller, Hugh D; Wehrle, Ann E; Bloom, Steven D

    2001-01-01

    We examine the coincidence of times of high $\\gamma$-ray flux and ejections of superluminal components from the core in EGRET blazars based on a VLBA monitoring program at 22 and 43 GHz from November 1993 to July 1997. In 23 cases of $\\gamma$-ray flares for which sufficient VLBA data exist, 16 of the flares (in 14 objects) fall within 3$\\sigma$ and 9 of these within 1$\\sigma$ uncertainties of the extrapolated epoch of zero separation from the core of a superluminal radio component. In each of two sources (0528+134 and 1730-130) two successive $\\gamma$-ray flares were followed by the appearance of new superluminal components. We carried out statistical simulations which show that if the number of coincidences $\\ge$ 7 the radio and $\\gamma$-ray events are associated with each other at >99.999% confidence. Our analysis of the observed behavior, including variability of the polarized radio flux, of the sources before, during, and after the $\\gamma$-ray flares suggests that the $\\gamma$-ray events occur in the sup...

  1. Swift multi-wavelength observations of the high-redshift Blazar S5 0836+710 (4C 71.07)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellone, Stefano; Romano, Patrizia; Raiteri, Claudia Maria; Acosta Pulido, Jose; Villata, Massimo; Carnerero Martin, Maria Isabel

    2016-04-01

    We present the preliminary results of a year-long Swift monitoring campaign of the high-redshift (z=2.172) flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) S5 0836+710 (4C 71.07). The campaign, based on one observation per month, 5 ks each observation, for 12 months, allowed us to investigate the synchrotron and nuclear emission contributions to the optical-UV frequency range of its spectral energy distribution and the X-ray spectral variations along a baseline of a year. We obtained a high-accuracy determination of UVOT magnitudes, an X-ray photon index with an uncertainty of the order of 5%, and well-sampled light curves both in the optical-UV and X-ray energy bands to study their possible modulations and correlations. Our study allowed us to exploit the unique Swift capabilities in terms of both simultaneous energy coverage and schedule flexibility. The Swift monitoring campaign was supported by observations by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) Collaboration, which provided radio, near-infrared, and optical photometric data as well as optical polarimetry. Moreover, a spectroscopic monitoring was obtained at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT). All these observations will allow us to obtain a comprehensive picture of the jet as well as of the nuclear source emission.

  2. Locating the gamma-ray emission site in Fermi/LAT blazars from correlation analysis between 37 GHz radio and gamma-ray light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Ramakrishnan, V; Nieppola, E; Tornikoski, M; Lähteenmäki, A; Valtaoja, E

    2015-01-01

    We address the highly debated issue of constraining the gamma-ray emission region in blazars from cross-correlation analysis using discrete correlation function between radio and gamma-ray light curves. The significance of the correlations is evaluated using two different approaches: simulating light curves and mixed source correlations. The cross-correlation analysis yielded 26 sources with significant correlations. In most of the sources, the gamma-ray peaks lead the radio with time lags in the range +20 and +690 days, whereas in sources 1633+382 and 3C 345 we find the radio emission to lead the gamma rays by -15 and -40 days, respectively. Apart from the individual source study, we stacked the correlations of all sources and also those based on sub-samples. The time lag from the stacked correlation is +80 days for the whole sample and the distance travelled by the emission region corresponds to 7 pc. We also compared the start times of activity in radio and gamma rays of the correlated flares using Bayesia...

  3. Rapid variability of the radio flux density of the blazar J0721+7120 (S5 0716+714) in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, A. G.; Ipatov, A. V.; Konnikova, V. K.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Mardyshkin, V. V.; Mingaliev, M. G.; Nieppola, E.; Tammi, J.; Finkel'Shtein, A. M.; Kharinov, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Results of a study of the variability of the blazar J0721+7120 carried out on the RATAN-600 based on daily observations from March 5, 2010 to April 30, 2010 at five frequencies from 2.3 to 21.7 GHz are reported. In the same time interval, 13 observing sessions at 37 GHz were carried out on the 14-m radio telescope of the Metsähovi Radio Astronomy Observatory of the Aalto University School of Technology (Finland). From March 19, 2010 to October 20, 2010, 16 daily sessions at 6.2 cm and five sessions at 3.5 cm were conducted on the 32-m radio telescope of the Zelenchukskaya Observatory (Quasar-KVO complex of the Institute of Applied Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences). A powerful flare was detected during the observations, with a time scale of approximately 20 days, derived from an analysis of the light curves and the structure and autocorrelation functions. The flare spectrum has been determined. In five sessions on the 32-m Zelenchukskaya telescope at 6.2 cm, intraday variability with time scales 8-16 h was detected; in four sessions, trends with time scales longer than a day were observed. In three sessions at 3.5 cm, intraday variability with a time scale of approximately 5 h was detected.

  4. External Compton Scattering in Blazar Jets and the Location of the Gamma-Ray Emitting Region

    CERN Document Server

    Finke, Justin D

    2016-01-01

    I study the location of the $\\gamma$-ray emission in blazar jets by creating a Compton-scattering approximation valid for all anisotropic radiation fields in the Thomson through Klein-Nishina regimes, which is highly accurate and can speed up numerical calculations by up to a factor $\\sim10$. I apply this approximation to synchrotron self-Compton, and external Compton-scattering of photons from the accretion disk, broad-line region (BLR), and dust torus. I use a stratified BLR model and include detailed Compton-scattering calculations of a spherical and flattened BLR. I create two dust torus models, one where the torus is an annulus, and one where it is an extended disk. I present detailed calculations of the photoabsorption optical depth using my detailed BLR and dust torus models, including the full angle dependence. I apply these calculations to the emission from a relativistically moving blob traveling through these radiation fields. The ratio of $\\gamma$-ray to optical flux produces a predictable pattern...

  5. On conservative models of "the pair-production anomaly" in blazar spectra at Very High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhatdoev, T A

    2015-01-01

    For some blazars, the gamma-ray absorption features due to pair-production on the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) are fainter than expected. The present work reviews the main models that could explain this paradox, with emphasis on conservative ones, that do not include any new physics. The models that are intrinsic to the source, do allow a very hard primary spectrum, but fail to explain a regular redshift dependence of the anomaly starting energy. The model that includes a contribution from secondary photons produced by cosmic rays (CR) near the Earth seems to require a well collimated CR beam, what is hard to achieve. Finally, the model with secondary photons produced in electromagnetic (EM) cascades initiated by primary gamma-rays is considered. In principle, it allows to decrease the statistical significance of the anomaly and, while requiring quite low EGMF strength B, does not contradict to most contemporary constraints on the B value. Additionally, it is shown that the recently observed correlati...

  6. Analysis of the activity of the blazar BL Lacertae over the period 1998-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigunov, K. S.; Zhovtan, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    In 1998-2011 the blazar (active galactic nucleus) BL Lacertae was observed at Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) with the second-generation GT-48 Cherenkov telescope at energies >1 TeV with a total significance of 11.8σ. More than 20 flares and a fourfold change in yearly mean fluxes (>1 TeV) were recorded. The optical ( B band) data obtained at CrAO and the TeV data are shown to correlate in some time intervals. The optical data are also compared with the X-ray RXTE/ASM (2-10 keV) data. In addition, the data from GT-48 are compared with the gamma-ray fluxes recorded by the Fermi LAT space telescope (0.1-300 GeV). The 2009 flare at TeV and Fermi energies has been studied. As a result, it has been found that as the activity rises the increase in flux at high energies exceeds its increase at low energies. This conclusion may be related to the conversion mechanism of particle acceleration. This is consistent with the results of studies for a similar object, 1ES 1426+428.

  7. Parsec scale polarization properties of the TeV blazar Markarian 421

    CERN Document Server

    Lico, R; Orienti, M; Gomez, J L; Casadio, C; D'Ammando, F; Blasi, M G; Cotton, W; Edwards, P G; Fuhrmann, L; Jorstad, S; Kino, M; Kovalev, Y Y; Krichbaum, T P; Marscher, A P; Paneque, D; Piner, B G; Sokolovsky, K V

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a polarization analysis at radio frequencies of Markarian 421, one of the closest (z=0.03) TeV blazars. The observations were obtained, both in total and in polarized intensity, with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 15, 24, and 43 GHz throughout 2011, with one observation per month (for a total of twelve epochs). We investigate the magnetic field topology and the polarization structure on parsec scale and their evolution with time. We detect polarized emission both in the core and in the jet region, and it varies with frequency, location and time. In the core region we measure a mean fractional polarization of about 1-2%, with a peak of about 4% in March at 43 GHz; the polarization angle is almost stable at 43 GHz, but it shows significant variability in the range 114-173 deg at 15 GHz. In the jet region the polarization properties show a more stable behavior; the fractional polarization is about 16% and the polarization angle is nearly perpendicular to the jet axis. The higher E...

  8. Multi-Frequency Observations of Gamma-Ray Blazar 1633+382

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. G. Jorstad; A. P. Marscher; I. Agudo; P. S. Smith; V. M. Larionov; A. Lähteenmäki

    2011-03-01

    We perform monthly monitoring of the quasar 1633+382 (4C+38.41) within a sample of -ray blazars with the VLBA at 43 GHz along with optical photometric and polarimetric observations. We construct the -ray light curve of 1633+382 using data obtained by the Fermi LAT. We find that a high -ray state of the quasar starting in 2009 September is simultaneous with an increase of the flux in the mm-wave VLBI core. We resolve a superluminal feature on the VLBA images that appears to be responsible for the mm-wave flux increase. We find a strong correlation between optical and -ray light curves with a delay of -ray variations of 5 ± 3 days, as well as a strong correlation between optical flux and degree of polarization during the high -ray state. Comparison between the optical polarization position angle and that in the VLBI core supports the idea that in the quasar 1633+382 a high -ray state is connected with processes originating near the mm-VLBI core.

  9. The connection between the 15 GHz radio and gamma-ray emission in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Max-Moerbeck, W; Hovatta, T; Pavlidou, V; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; King, O G; Reeves, R

    2014-01-01

    Since mid-2007 we have carried out a dedicated long-term monitoring programme at 15 GHz using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory 40 meter telescope. One of the main goals of this programme is to study the relation between the radio and gamma-ray emission in blazars and to use it as a tool to locate the site of high energy emission. Using this large sample of objects we are able to characterize the radio variability, and study the significance of correlations between the radio and gamma-ray bands. We find that the radio variability of many sources can be described using a simple power law power spectral density, and that when taking into account the red-noise characteristics of the light curves, cases with significant correlation are rare. We note that while significant correlations are found in few individual objects, radio variations are most often delayed with respect to the gamma-ray variations. This suggests that the gamma-ray emission originates upstream of the radio emission. Because strong flares in mo...

  10. X-shaped radio sources as parent population of core-dominated triple blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Marecki, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    There are a number of theories explaining the nature of the so-called X-shaped radio sources. According to one of them, an X-shaped source is indeed a cross whose one arm is associated with a double radio source that has changed its orientation in space, while the other arm is associated with relic lobes and its position indicates the former direction of the jets. Here, I present two new arguments in favour of this conjecture. Firstly, it is obvious that shortly after the repositioning, the pair of the new lobes must be very compact. To illustrate such a possibility, I show an EVN image of the central component of a triple source J1625+2712. When resolved, it appears as a compact double that is not aligned with the outer double so the whole source is indeed X-shaped. Secondly, I consider the situation when one of the arms of an X-shaped source is not intrinsically short but foreshortened by projection. I show two examples of triple sources whose central component is a blazar and the span of the lobes that str...

  11. Multi-Epoch Multiwavelength Spectra and Models for Blazar 3C~279

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, R C

    2001-01-01

    Of the blazars detected by EGRET in GeV gamma rays, 3C 279 is not only the best-observed by EGRET, but also one of the best-monitored at lower frequencies. We have assembled eleven spectra, from GHz radio through GeV gamma rays, from the time intervals of EGRET observations. Although some of the data have appeared in previous publications, most are new, including data taken during the high states in early 1999 and early 2000. All of the spectra show substantial gamma-ray contribution to the total luminosity of the object; in a high state, the gamma-ray luminosity dominates over that at all other frequencies by a factor of more than 10. There is no clear pattern of time correlation; different bands do not always rise and fall together, even in the optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands. The spectra are modeled using a leptonic jet, with combined synchrotron self-Compton + external Compton gamma-ray production. Spectral variability of 3C 279 is consistent with variations of the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet, acco...

  12. Suzaku Observations of Extreme MeV Blazar Swift J0746.3+2548

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Shin; Sato, Rie; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kataoka, Jun; Madejski, Greg; Sikora, Marek; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Sambruna, Rita; Romani, Roger; Edwards, Philip G.; Pursimo, Tapio

    2008-12-01

    We report the Suzaku observations of the high luminosity blazar SWIFT J0746.3+2548 (J0746) conducted in November 2005. This object, with z = 2.979, is the highest redshift source observed in the Suzaku Guaranteed Time Observer (GTO) period, is likely to show high gamma-ray flux peaking in the MeV range. As a result of the good photon statistics and high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum, the Suzaku observation clearly confirms that J0746 has an extremely hard spectrum in the energy range of 0.3-24 keV, which is well represented by a single power-law with a photon index of {Lambda}{sub ph} {approx_equal} 1.17 and Galactic absorption. The multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of J0746 shows two continuum components, and is well modeled assuming that the high-energy spectral component results from Comptonization of the broad-line region photons. In this paper we search for the bulk Compton spectral features predicted to be produced in the soft X-ray band by scattering external optical/UV photons by cold electrons in a relativistic jet. We discuss and provide constraints on the pair content resulting from the apparent absence of such features.

  13. Suzaku Observations of Extreme MeV Blazar SWIFT J0746.3+2548

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Shin; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kataoka, Jun; Madejski, Greg; Sikora, Marek; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Sambruna, Rita; Romani, Roger; Edwards, Philip G; Pursimo, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    We report the Suzaku observations of the high luminosity blazar SWIFT J0746.3+2548 (J0746) conducted in November 2005. This object, with z = 2.979, is the highest redshift source observed in the Suzaku Guaranteed Time Observer (GTO) period, is likely to show high gamma-ray flux peaking in the MeV range. As a result of the good photon statistics and high signal-to-noise ratio spectrum, the $Suzaku$ observation clearly confirms that J0746 has an extremely hard spectrum in the energy range of 0.3-24 keV, which is well represented by a single power-law with a photon index of 1.17 and Galactic absorption. The multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of J0746 shows two continuum components, and is well modeled assuming that the high-energy spectral component results from Comptonization of the broad-line region photons. In this paper we search for the bulk Compton spectral features predicted to be produced in the soft X-ray band by scattering external optical/UV photons by cold electrons in a relativistic jet. W...

  14. Polarization angle swings in blazars: The case of 3C 279

    CERN Document Server

    Kiehlmann, S; Jorstad, S G; Sokolovsky, K V; Schinzel, F K; Marscher, A P; Larionov, V M; Agudo, I; Akitaya, H; Benítez, E; Berdyugin, A; Blinov, D A; Bochkarev, N G; Borman, G A; Burenkov, A N; Casadio, C; Doroshenko, V T; Efimova, N V; Fukazawa, Y; Gómez, J L; Grishina, T S; Hagen-Thorn, V A; Heidt, J; Hiriart, D; Itoh, R; Joshi, M; Kawabata, K S; Kimeridze, G N; Kopatskaya, E N; Korobtsev, I V; Krajci, T; Kurtanidze, O M; Kurtanidze, S O; Larionova, E G; Larionova, L V; Lindfors, E; López, J M; McHardy, I M; Molina, S N; Moritani, Y; Morozova, D A; Nazarov, S V; Nikolashvili, M G; Nilsson, K; Pulatova, N G; Reinthal, R; Sadun, A; Sasada, M; Savchenko, S S; Sergeev, S G; Sigua, L A; Smith, P S; Sorcia, M; Spiridonova, O I; Takaki, K; Takalo, L O; Taylor, B; Troitsky, I S; Uemura, M; Ugolkova, L S; Ui, T; Yoshida, M; Zensus, J A; Zhdanova, V E

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, several occasions of large, continuous rotations of the electric vector position angle (EVPA) of linearly polarized optical emission from blazars have been reported. These events are often coincident with high energy gamma-ray flares and they have attracted considerable attention, as they could allow one to probe the magnetic field structure in the gamma-ray emitting region of the jet. The flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C279 is one of the most prominent examples showing this behaviour. Our goal is to study the observed EVPA rotations and to distinguish between a stochastic and a deterministic origin of the polarization variability. We have combined multiple data sets of R-band photometry and optical polarimetry measurements of 3C279, yielding exceptionally well-sampled flux density and polarization curves that cover a period of 2008-2012. Several large EVPA rotations are identified in the data. We introduce a quantitative measure for the EVPA curve smoothness, which is then used to test ...

  15. On the soft X-ray spectra of $\\gamma$-loud blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Comastri, A; Ghisellini, G; Molendi, S

    1996-01-01

    ROSAT observations of a large sample of bright gamma-ray (E > 100 MeV) blazars are presented. Results of a detailed spectral analysis in the soft energy distribution with particular emphasis on the relation between X-ray and gamma-ray properties. A significant anti-correlation between X-ray and gamma-ray spectral shapes of flat radio spectrum quasars (FSRQ) and BL Lacs has been discovered. A different shape in the overall energy distributions from radio to gamma-ray energies between FSRQ and BL Lacs is also implied by the correlation of their broad-band spectral indices $\\alpha_{ro}$ and $\\alpha_{x emission and the hard X-ray to gamma-ray emission originate from the same electron population, via, respectively, the synchrotron process and the inverse Compton mechanism. We suggest that a key parameter for understanding the overall energy distributions of both classes of objects is the energy at which the synchrotron emission peaks in a $\

  16. An eclipsing binary black hole candidate system in the blazar Mrk 421

    CERN Document Server

    Benitez, E; Fraija, N; Hernandez, X; Lopez-Corona, O; Lora-Clavijo, F D; Mendoza, S

    2015-01-01

    Removing strong outbursts from multiwavelength light curves of the blazar Mrk 421, we construct outburstless time series for this system. A model-independent power spectrum light curve analysis in the optical, hard X-ray and gamma-rays of this outburstless state shows clear evidence for a periodicity of \\approx 400 days. A subsequent full maximum likelihood analysis fitting an eclipse model confirms a periodicity of 387.16 days. The power spectrum of the signal in the outburstless state of the source does not follow a flicker noise behaviour and so, the system producing it is not self-organised. This means that the periodicity is not produced by any internal physical processes associated to the central engine. The simplest physical mechanism to which this periodicity could be ascribed is a dynamical effect produced by an orbiting supermassive black hole companion of mass \\sim 10^7 M_\\odot eclipsing the central black hole, which has a mass \\sim 10^8 M_\\odot. The optimal model restricts the physics of the eclip...

  17. Search for neutrino emission in gamma-ray flaring blazars with the ANTARES telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Losa, Agustín

    2012-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope observes a full hemisphere of the sky all the time with a duty cycle close to 100%. This makes it well suited for an extensive observation of neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources. In the surrounding medium of blazars, i.e. active galactic nuclei with their jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, neutrinos may be produced together with gamma-rays by hadronic interactions, so a strong correlation between neutrinos and gamma-rays emissions is expected. The time variability information of the studied source can be obtained by the gamma-ray light curves measured by the LAT instrument on-board the Fermi satellite. If the expected neutrino flux observation is reduced to a narrow window around the assumed neutrino production period, the point-source sensitivity can be drastically improved. The ANTARES data collected in 2008 has been analysed looking for neutrinos detected in the high state period of ten bright and variable Fermi sources assuming that the neutrino emi...

  18. The blazar-like radio structure of the TeV source IC310

    CERN Document Server

    Kadler, Matthias; Ros, Eduardo; Mannheim, Karl; Elsässer, Dominik; Bach, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Context. The radio galaxy IC310 in the Perseus cluster has recently been detected in the gamma-ray regime at GeV and TeV energies. The TeV emission shows time variability and an extraordinarily hard spectrum, even harder than the spectrum of the similar nearby gamma-ray emitting radio galaxy M87. Aims. High-resolution studies of the radio morphology help to constrain the geometry of the jet on sub-pc scales and to find out where the high-energy emission might come from. Methods. We analyzed May 2011 VLBA data of IC310 at a wavelength of 3.6 cm, revealing the parsec-scale radio structure of this source. We compared our findings with more information available from contemporary single-dish flux density measurements with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope. Results. We have detected a one-sided core-jet structure with blazar-like, beamed radio emission oriented along the same position angle as the kiloparsec scale radio structure observed in the past by connected interferometers. Doppler-boosting favoritism is ...

  19. Extremely high polarization in the 2010 outburst of blazar 3C 454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasada, Mahito; Kino, Masaru [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Akitaya, Hiroshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi; Yasuda, Hajimu; Itoh, Ryosuke; Sakimoto, Kiyoshi; Ikejiri, Yuki; Ohsugi, Takashi; Komatsu, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Nagae, Osamu; Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yamanaka, Masayuki [Kwasan Observatory, Kyoto University, 17-1 Kitakazan-ohmine-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Nakaya, Hidehiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Sato, Shuji, E-mail: sasada@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    The gamma-ray-detected blazar 3C 454.3 exhibits dramatic flux and polarization variations in the optical and near-infrared bands. In 2010 December, the object emitted a very bright outburst. We monitored it for approximately four years (including the 2010 outburst) by optical and near-infrared photopolarimetry. During the 2010 outburst, the object emitted two rapid, redder brightenings, at which the polarization degrees (PDs) in both bands increased significantly and the bands exhibited a frequency-dependent polarization. The observed frequency-dependent polarization leads us to propose that the polarization vector is composed of two vectors. Therefore, we separate the observed polarization vectors into short- and long-term components that we attribute to the emissions of the rapid brightenings and the outburst that varied the timescale of days and months, respectively. The estimated PD of the short-term component is greater than the maximum observed PD and is close to the theoretical maximum PD. We constrain the bulk Lorentz factors and inclination angles between the jet axis and the line of sight from the estimated PDs. In this case, the inclination angle of the emitting region of short-term component from the first rapid brightening should be equal to 90°, because the estimated PD of the short-term component was approximately equal to the theoretical maximum PD. Thus, the Doppler factor at the emitting region of the first rapid brightening should be equal to the bulk Lorentz factor.

  20. Time-dependent Radiation Transfer in the Internal Shock Model Scenario for Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Manasvita

    2010-01-01

    We describe the time-dependent radiation transfer in blazar jets, within the internal shock model. We assume that the central engine, which consists of a black hole and an accretion disk, spews out relativistic shells of plasma with different velocity, mass, and energy. We consider a single inelastic collision between a faster (inner) and a slower (outer) moving shell. We study the dynamics of the collision and evaluate the subsequent emission of radiation via the synchrotron and synchrotron self Compton (SSC) processes after the interaction between the two shells has begun. The collision results in the formation of a forward shock (FS) and a reverse shock (RS) that convert the ordered bulk kinetic energy of the shells into magnetic field energy and accelerate the particles, which then radiate. We assume a cylindrical geometry for the emission region of the jet. We treat the self-consistent radiative transfer by taking into account the inhomogeneity in the photon density throughout the region. In this paper, ...