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Sample records for blazar pks 1510-089

  1. AGILE detection of intense gamma-ray emission from the blazar PKS 1510-089

    CERN Document Server

    Pucella, G; D'Ammando, F; Tavani, M; Raiteri, C M; Villata, M; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Boffelli, F; Bulgarelli, A; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A W; Cocco, V; Costa, E; Del Monte, E; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Fiorini, M; Froysland, T; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Giuliani, A; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; Mereghetti, S; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Soffitta, P; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Antonelli, L A; Colafrancesco, S; Cutini, S; Gasparrini, D; Giommi, P; Pittori, C; Verrecchia, F; Salotti, L; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Carosati, D; Larionov, V M; Ligustri, R

    2008-01-01

    We report the detection by the AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero) satellite of an intense gamma-ray flare from the source AGL J1511-0909, associated with the powerful quasar PKS 1510-089, during ten days of observations from 23 August to 1 September 2007. During the observation period, the source was in optical decrease following a flaring event monitored by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT). The simultaneous gamma-ray, optical, and radio coverage allows us to study the spectral energy distribution and the theoretical models based on the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) emission mechanisms. AGILE observed the source with its two co-aligned imagers, the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector and the hard X-ray imager Super-AGILE sensitive in the 30 MeV - 50 GeV and 18 - 60 keV bands, respectively. Between 23 and 27 August 2007, AGILE detected gamma-ray emission from PKS 1510-089 when this source was located about 50 degrees off-axis, with an average flux o...

  2. Time-Dependent Modeling of Gamma-ray Flares in Blazar PKS1510-089

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Shinya; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Sikora, Marek; Moderski, Rafal

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a new approach for constraining luminous blazars, incorporating fully time-dependent and self-consistent modeling of bright gamma-ray flares of PKS1510-089 resolved with Fermi-LAT, in the framework of the internal shock scenario. The results of our modeling imply the location of the gamma-ray flaring zone outside of the broad-line region, namely around 0.3pc from the core for a free-expanding jet with the opening angle Gamma, \\theta_\\mathrm{jet} \\simeq 1 (where Gamma is the jet bulk Lorentz factor), up to \\simeq 3pc for a collimated outflow with Gamma, \\theta_\\mathrm{jet} \\simeq 0.1. Moreover, under the Gamma, \\theta_\\mathrm{jet} \\simeq 1 condition, our modeling indicates the maximum efficiency of the jet production during the flares, with the total jet energy flux strongly dominated by protons and exceeding the available accretion power in the source. This is in contrast to the quiescence states of the blazar, characterized by lower jet kinetic power and an approximate energy equipartition be...

  3. AGILE detection of intense gamma-ray emission from the blazar PKS 1510-089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucella, G.; Vittorini, V.; D'Ammando, F.; Tavani, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chen, A. W.; Cocco, V.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; de Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Froysland, T.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Longo, F.; Marisaldi, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Morselli, A.; Pacciani, L.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Rappoldi, A.; Soffitta, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Antonelli, L. A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Salotti, L.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Carosati, D.; Larionov, V. M.; Ligustri, R.

    2008-11-01

    Context: We report the detection by the AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero) satellite of an intense gamma-ray flare from the source AGL J1511-0909, associated with the powerful quasar PKS 1510-089, during ten days of observations from 23 August to 1 September 2007. Aims: During the observation period, the source was in optical decrease following a flaring event monitored by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT). The simultaneous gamma-ray, optical, and radio coverage allows us to study the spectral energy distribution and the theoretical models based on the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) emission mechanisms. Methods: AGILE observed the source with its two co-aligned imagers, the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector and the hard X-ray imager Super-AGILE sensitive in the 30 MeV div 50 GeV and 18 div 60 keV bands, respectively. Results: Between 23 and 27 August 2007, AGILE detected gamma-ray emission from PKS 1510-089 when this source was located 50° off-axis, with an average flux of (270 ± 65) × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1 for photon energy above 100 MeV. In the following period, 28 August-1 September, after a satellite re-pointing, AGILE detected the source at 35° off-axis, with an average flux (E > 100 MeV) of (195 ± 30) × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1. No emission was detected by Super-AGILE, with a 3-σ upper limit of 45 mCrab in 200 ks. Conclusions: The spectral energy distribution is modelled with a homogeneous one-zone synchrotron self Compton (SSC) emission plus contributions by external photons: the SSC emission contributes primarily to the X-ray band, whereas the contribution of the IC from the external disc and the broad line region match the hard gamma-ray spectrum observed.

  4. Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations of blazar PKS 1510-089: a case for two blazar zones

    CERN Document Server

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg M; Exter, Katrina; Szostek, Anna; Szczerba, Ryszard; Kidger, Mark R; Lorente, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of observations of blazar PKS 1510-089 with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, together with multiwavelength data from Fermi/LAT, Swift, SMARTS and SMA. The source was found in a quiet state, and its far-infrared spectrum is consistent with a power-law with a spectral index of alpha ~ 0.7. Our Herschel observations were preceded by two 'orphan' gamma-ray flares. The near-infrared data reveal the high-energy cut-off in the main synchrotron component, which cannot be associated with the main gamma-ray component in a one-zone leptonic model. This is because in such a model the luminosity ratio of the External-Compton and synchrotron components is tightly related to the frequency ratio of these components, and in this particular case an unrealistically high energy density of the external radiation would be implied. Therefore, we consider a well-constrained two-zone blazar model to interpret the entire dataset. In this framework, the observed infrared emission is asso...

  5. Multi-epoch parsec-scale observations of the blazar PKS 1510-089

    CERN Document Server

    Orienti, M; Dallacasa, D; D'Ammando, F; Giroletti, M; Giovannini, G; Vercellone, S; Tavani, M

    2011-01-01

    (Abridged) We investigate the flux density variability and changes in the parsec-scale radio structure of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089. This source was target of multi-epoch VLBI and Space-VLBI observations at 4.8, 8.4 and 22 GHz carried out between 1999 and 2001. The comparison of the parsec-scale structure observed at different epochs shows the presence of a non-stationary jet feature moving with a superluminal apparent velocity of 16.2c+-0.7c. Over three epochs at 8.4 GHz during this period the core flux density varies of about 50%, while the scatter in the jet flux density is within 10%. The polarization percentage of both core and jet components significantly change from 2 to 9 per cent, while the polarization angle of the core shows an abrupt change of about 90 degrees becoming roughly perpendicular to the jet direction, consistent with a change in the opacity. To complete the picture of the physical processes at work, we complemented our observations with multi-epoch VLBA data at 15 GHz ...

  6. A hydrodynamical model for the Fermi-LAT γ-ray light curve of blazar PKS 1510-089

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera J.I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A physical description of the formation and propagation of working surfaces inside the relativistic jet of the blazar PKS 1510-089 are used to model its γ -ray variability light curve using Fermi-LAT data from 2008 to 2012. The physical model is based on conservation laws of mass and momentum at the working surface as explained by Mendoza et al. (2009. The hydrodynamical description of a working surface is parametrized by the initial velocity and mass injection rate at the base of the jet. We show that periodic variations on the injected velocity profiles are able to account for the observed luminosity, fixing model parameters such as mass ejection rates of the central engine injected at the base of the jet, oscillation frequencies of the flow and maximum Lorentz factors of the bulk flow during a particular burst.

  7. Fermi LAT detection of extraordinary variability in the gamma-ray emission of the blazar PKS 1510-089

    CERN Document Server

    Foschini, L; Ghisellini, G; Tagliaferri, G; Tavecchio, F; Stamerra, A

    2013-01-01

    We have reanalysed the giant outburst of the blazar PKS 1510-089 (z=0.36) occurred on 2011 October-November. The gamma-ray flux in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range exceeded the value of 10^-5 ph/cm2/s for several days. The peak flux was reached on 2011 October 19, with a value of 4.4 x 10^-5 ph/cm2/s, which in turn corresponds to a luminosity of 2 x 10^49 erg/s. Very short time scale variability was measured. Particularly, on 2011 October 18, the flux doubling time was as small as 20 minutes. This is the shortest variability ever detected in the MeV-GeV energy band. We compared the present analysis with two other outbursts observed in 2009 March and 2012 February-March, when the blazar was detected also by HESS and MAGIC, respectively, in order to infer information about the emission at hundreds of GeV.

  8. AGILE detection of extreme gamma-ray activity from the blazar PKS 1510-089 during March 2009. Multifrequency analysis

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ammando, F; Villata, M; Romano, P; Pucella, G; Krimm, H A; Covino, S; Orienti, M; Giovannini, G; Vercellone, S; Pian, E; Donnarumma, I; Vittorini, V; Tavani, M; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Boffelli, F; Bulgarelli, A; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A W; Cocco, V; Costa, E; Del Monte, E; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Froysland, T; Frutti, M; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Giuliani, A; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; Mereghetti, S; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Piano, G; Picozza, P; Pilia, M; Porrovecchio, G; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Vallazza, E; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Agudo, I; Aller, H D; Aller, M F; Arkharov, A A; Bach, U; Benitez, E; Berdyugin, A; Blinov, D A; Buemi, C S; Chen, W P; Di Paola, A; Dolci, M; Forne, E; Fuhrmann, L; Gomez, J L; Gurwell, M A; Jordan, B; Jorstad, S G; Heidt, J; Hiriart, D; Hovatta, T; Hsiao, H Y; Kimeridze, G; Konstantinova, T S; Kopatskaya, E N; Koptelova, E; Kurtanidze, O M; Kurtanidze, S O; Larionov, V M; Lahteenmaki, A; Leto, P; Lindfors, E; Marscher, A P; McBreen, B; McHardy, I M; Morozova, D A; Nilsson, K; Pasanen, M; Roca-Sogorb, M; Sillanpaa, A; Takalo, L O; Tornikoski, M; Trigilio, C; Troitsky, I S; Umana, G; Antonelli, L A; Colafrancesco, S; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Verrecchia, F; Giommi, P; Salotti, L

    2011-01-01

    We report on the extreme gamma-ray activity from the FSRQ PKS 1510-089 observed by AGILE in March 2009. In the same period a radio-to-optical monitoring of the source was provided by the GASP-WEBT and REM. Moreover, several Swift ToO observations were triggered, adding important information on the source behaviour from optical/UV to hard X-rays. We paid particular attention to the calibration of the Swift/UVOT data to make it suitable to the blazars spectra. Simultaneous observations from radio to gamma rays allowed us to study in detail the correlation among the emission variability at different frequencies and to investigate the mechanisms at work. In the period 9-30 March 2009, AGILE detected an average gamma-ray flux of (311+/-21)x10^-8 ph cm^-2 s^-1 for E>100 MeV, and a peak level of (702+/-131)x10^-8 ph cm^-2 s^-1 on daily integration. The gamma-ray activity occurred during a period of increasing activity from near-IR to UV, with a flaring episode detected on 26-27 March 2009, suggesting that a single m...

  9. Very Rapid High-amplitude Gamma-Ray Variability in Luminous Blazar PKS 1510-089 Studied with Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, S.; Stawarz, L.; Tanaka, Y.T.; Takahashi, T.; Madejski, G.; D' Ammando, F.

    2013-03-20

    Here we report on the detailed analysis of the γ-ray light curve of a luminous blazar PKS 1510-089 observed in the GeV range with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite during the period 2011 September - December. By investigating the properties of the detected three major flares with the shortest possible time binning allowed by the photon statistics, we find a variety of temporal characteristics and variability patterns. This includes a clearly asymmetric profile (with a faster flux rise and a slower decay) of the flare resolved on sub-daily timescales, a superposition of many short uncorrelated flaring events forming the apparently coherent longer-duration outburst, and a huge single isolated outburst unresolved down to the timescale of three-hours. In the latter case we estimate the corresponding γ-ray flux doubling timescale to be below one hour, which is extreme and never previously reported for any active galaxy

  10. PKS 1510-089: Fifteen years of X-ray Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Evan; Perlman, Eric S.; Holder, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    The blazar PKS 1510-089 is one of the best-monitored of all blazars, due to near-continuous monitoring by the RXTE and SWIFT satellites at weekly or better intervals. The RXTE data, in particular, provide a well-sampled (~twice per week for 10 months per year) 3-color (2-4 keV, 4-7 keV and 7-10 keV) light curve spanning from 1996 to 2011. SWIFT data both overlap with the RXTE data stream and extend it up through the present day. The resulting light-curve gives us an excellent tool to correlate with Fermi observations. Both Fermi and SWIFT have observed the source from 2008 to 2015. We will present an analysis of the light curve, including a search for orphan flares (i.e., flares observed in only a single band), one of which was detected in early 2009 in PKS 1510-089 by Marscher et al. (2010). Cross-correlation of multi-wavelength light curves and studies of orphan flares could provide insight into leptonic and hadronic blazar emission models.

  11. A Single Zone Synchrotron Model for Flares of PKS 1510-089

    CERN Document Server

    Basumallick, Partha Pratim; Bhattacharyya, Wrijupan

    2016-01-01

    PKS 1510-089 is one of the most variable blazars. Very high energy gamma ray emission from this source was observed by H.E.S.S. during March-April 2009 and by MAGIC from February 3 to April 3, 2012 quasi-simultaneously with multi-wavelength flares. The spectral energy distributions of these flares have been modeled earlier with the external Compton mechanism which depends on our knowledge of the densities of the seed photons in the broad line region, the dusty infrared torus or a hypothetical slow sheath surrounding the jet around the radio core. Here we show that to explain the multi-wavelength data with synchrotron emission of electrons and protons the minimum jet luminosity required is $\\sim 2\\times10^{48}$ ergs/sec.

  12. The parameters of binary black hole system in PKS 1510-089

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Juan; Fan Jun-Hui; Yuan Yu-Hai

    2007-01-01

    Observations of PKS 1510-089 indicate the existence of a deep flux minimum with a timescale of ~35 min and an interval of about 336±14 d. A binary black hole system is proposed to be at the nucleus of this object. The secondary black hole orbits around the primary black hole.The minimum is caused by the periodic eclipse of the primary black hole by the secondary black hole.Based on the observations of PKS 1510-089,we estimate the parameters of the binary black hole system.The masses for the primary and secondary black holes are 1.37×109M⊙(M⊙ is the solar mass) and 1.37×107M⊙,and the major axis for this pair being about 0.1 parsec(pc).

  13. Evidence for two Lognormal States in Multi-wavelength Flux Variation of FSRQ PKS 1510-089

    CERN Document Server

    Kushwaha, Pankaj; Misra, Ranjeev; Sahayanathan, S; Singh, K P; Baliyan, K S

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic characterization of multi-wavelength emission from blazar PKS 1510-089 using well-sampled data at infrared(IR)-optical, X-ray and $\\gamma$-ray energies. The resulting flux distributions, except at X-rays, show two distinct lognormal profiles corresponding to a high and a low flux level. The dispersions exhibit energy dependent behavior except for the LAT $\\gamma$-ray and optical B-band. During the low level flux states, it is higher towards the peak of the spectral energy distribution, with $\\gamma$-ray being intrinsically more variable followed by IR and then optical, consistent with mainly being a result of varying bulk Lorentz factor. On the other hand, the dispersions during the high state are similar in all bands expect optical B-band, where thermal emission still dominates. The centers of distributions are a factor of $\\sim 4$ apart, consistent with anticipation from studies of extragalactic $\\gamma$-ray background with the high state showing a relatively harder mean spectral ind...

  14. MAGIC gamma-ray and multifrequency observations of flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 in early 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Carreto-Fidalgo, D; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Lucarelli, F; Pittori, C; Vercellone, S; Verrecchia, F; Buson, S; D'Ammando, F; Stawarz, L; Giroletti, M; Orienti, M; Mundell, C; Steele, I; Zarpudin, B; Raiteri, C M; Villata, M; Sandrinelli, A; Lähteenäki, A; Tammi, J; Tornikoski, M; Hovatta, T; Readhead, A C S; Max-Moerbeck, W; Richards, J L; Jorstad, S; Marscher, A; Gurwell, M A; Larionov, V M; Blinov, D A; Konstantinova, T S; Kopatskaya, E N; Larionova, L V; Larionova, E G; Morozova, D A; Troitsky, I S; Mokrushina, A A; Pavlova, Yu V; Chen, W P; Lin, H C; Panwar, N; Agudo, I; Casadio, C; Gómez, J L; Molina, S N; Kurtanidze, O M; Nikolashvili, M G; Kurtanidze, S O; Chigladze, R A; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Carnerero, M I; Manilla-Robles, A; Ovcharov, E; Bozhilov, V; Metodieva, I; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Fuhrmann, L; Angelakis, E; Nestoras, I; Krichbaum, T P; Zensus, J A; Ungerechts, H; Sievers, A; Riquelme, D

    2014-01-01

    Among more than fifty blazars detected in very high energy (VHE, E>100GeV) gamma-rays, only three belong to the subclass of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs). MAGIC observed FSRQ PKS 1510-089 in February-April 2012 during a high activity state in the high energy (HE, E>100 MeV) gamma-ray band observed by AGILE and Fermi. MAGIC observations result in the detection of a source with significance of 6.0 sigma. In agreement with the previous VHE observations of the source, we find no statistically significant variability during the MAGIC observations in daily, weekly or monthly time scales. The other two known VHE FSRQs have shown daily scale to sub-hour variability. We study the multifrequency behaviour of the source at the epoch of MAGIC observation, collecting quasi-simultaneous data at radio and optical (GASP-WEBT and F-Gamma collaborations, REM, Steward, Perkins, Liverpool, OVRO and VLBA telescopes), X-ray (Swift satellite) and HE gamma-ray frequencies. The gamma-ray SED combining AGILE, Fermi and MAGIC dat...

  15. Extremely high cm-band radio flux level of the gamma-ray flaring FSRQ PKS 1510-089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orienti, M.; D'Ammando, F.; Giroletti, M.; Orlati, A.

    2011-11-01

    The 32-m single dish antenna located at Medicina has been observing the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 starting from July 2011 with monthly frequency. The observations were organised as a follow-up of the gamma-ray flaring event reported in July 2011 by AGILE (ATel #3470) and Fermi (ATel #3473). Recently, radio observations were performed at 4.9 GHz and 8.0 GHz on 2011 November 16.

  16. H.E.S.S. discovery of VHE gamma-rays from the quasar PKS 1510-089

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Gast, H; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Göring, D; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hahn, J; Hampf, D; Harris, J; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzynski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Menzler, U; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nguyen, N; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Wouters, D; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S; 10.1051/0004-6361/201321135

    2013-01-01

    The quasar PKS 1510-089 (z=0.361) was observed with the H.E.S.S. array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes during high states in the optical and GeV bands, to search for very high energy (VHE, defined as E >= 0.1 TeV) emission. VHE \\gamma-rays were detected with a statistical significance of 9.2 standard deviations in 15.8 hours of H.E.S.S. data taken during March and April 2009. A VHE integral flux of I(0.15 TeV < E < 1.0 TeV) = (1.0 +- 0.2 (stat) +- 0.2 (sys) x 10^{-11} cm^{-2}s^{-1} is measured. The best-fit power law to the VHE data has a photon index of \\Gamma=5.4 +- 0.7 (stat) +- 0.3 (sys). The GeV and optical light curves show pronounced variability during the period of H.E.S.S. observations. However, there is insufficient evidence to claim statistically significant variability in the VHE data. Because of its relatively high redshift, the VHE flux from PKS 1510-089 should suffer considerable attenuation in the intergalactic space due to the extragalactic background light (EBL). Hence, the...

  17. MAGIC gamma-ray and multi-frequency observations of flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 in early 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Strzys, M.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Lucarelli, F.; Pittori, C.; Vercellone, S.; Verrecchia, F.; AGILE Collaboration; Buson, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Stawarz, L.; Giroletti, M.; Orienti, M.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Mundell, C.; Steele, I.; Zarpudin, B.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Sandrinelli, A.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tammi, J.; Tornikoski, M.; Hovatta, T.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Richards, J. L.; Jorstad, S.; Marscher, A.; Gurwell, M. A.; Larionov, V. M.; Blinov, D. A.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Larionova, L. V.; Larionova, E. G.; Morozova, D. A.; Troitsky, I. S.; Mokrushina, A. A.; Pavlova, Yu. V.; Chen, W. P.; Lin, H. C.; Panwar, N.; Agudo, I.; Casadio, C.; Gómez, J. L.; Molina, S. N.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Chigladze, R. A.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Carnerero, M. I.; Manilla-Robles, A.; Ovcharov, E.; Bozhilov, V.; Metodieva, I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Fuhrman, L.; Angelakis, E.; Nestoras, I.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Zensus, J. A.; Ungerechts, H.; Sievers, A.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: Amongst more than fifty blazars detected in very high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) γ rays, only three belong to the subclass of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). The detection of FSRQs in the VHE range is challenging, mainly because of their soft spectra in the GeV-TeV regime. MAGIC observed PKS 1510-089 (z = 0.36) starting 2012 February 3 until April 3 during a high activity state in the high energy (HE, E> 100 MeV) γ-ray band observed by AGILE and Fermi. MAGIC observations result in the detection of a source with significance of 6.0 standard deviations (σ). We study the multi-frequency behaviour of the source at the epoch of MAGIC observation, collecting quasi-simultaneous data at radio and optical (GASP-WEBT and F-Gamma collaborations, REM, Steward, Perkins, Liverpool, OVRO, and VLBA telescopes), X-ray (Swift satellite), and HE γ-ray frequencies. Methods: We study the VHE γ-ray emission, together with the multi-frequency light curves, 43 GHz radio maps, and spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source. The quasi-simultaneous multi-frequency SED from the millimetre radio band to VHE γ rays is modelled with a one-zone inverse Compton model. We study two different origins of the seed photons for the inverse Compton scattering, namely the infrared torus and a slow sheath surrounding the jet around the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) core. Results: We find that the VHE γ-ray emission detected from PKS 1510-089 in 2012 February-April agrees with the previous VHE observations of the source from 2009 March-April. We find no statistically significant variability during the MAGIC observations on daily, weekly, or monthly time scales, while the other two known VHE FSRQs (3C 279 and PKS 1222+216) have shown daily scale to sub-hour variability. The γ-ray SED combining AGILE, Fermi and MAGIC data joins smoothly and shows no hint of a break. The multi-frequency light curves suggest a common origin for the millimetre radio and HE γ-ray emission, and the HE

  18. Multiwavelength Observations of the Powerful Gamma-ray Quasar PKS 1510-089: Clues on the Jet Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Sikora, M.; Roming, P.; Chester, M.M.; Grupe, D.; Tsubuku, Y.; Sato, R.; Kawai, N.; Tosti, G.; Impiombato, D.; Kovalev, Y.Y.; Kovalev, Y.A.; Edwards, Philip G.; Wagner, S.J.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.

    2007-09-28

    We present the results from a multiwavelength campaign conducted in August 2006 of the powerful {gamma}-ray quasar PKS 1510--089 (z = 0.361). This campaign commenced with a deep Suzaku observation lasting three days for a total exposure time of 120 ks, and continued with Swift monitoring over 18 days. Besides Swift observations, which sampled the optical/UV flux in all 6 UVOT filters as well as the X-ray spectrum in the 0.3--10 keV energy range, the campaign included ground-based optical and radio data, and yielded a quasi-simultaneous broad-band spectral energy distribution from 109 Hz to 1019 Hz. Thanks to its low instrumental background, the Suzaku observation provided a high S/N X-ray spectrum, which is well represented by an extremely hard power-law with photon index {Gamma}{approx_equal}1.2, augmented by a soft component apparent below 1 keV, which is well described by a black-body model with temperature kT {approx_equal}0.2 keV. Monitoring by Suzaku revealed temporal variability which is different between the low and high energy bands, again suggesting the presence of a second, variable component in addition to the primary power-law emission. We model the broadband spectrum of PKS 1510--089 assuming that the high energy spectral component results from Comptonization of infrared radiation produced by hot dust located in the surrounding molecular torus. In the adopted internal shock scenario, the derived model parameters imply that the power of the jet is dominated by protons but with a number of electrons/positrons exceeding a number of protons by a factor {approx} 10. We also find that inhomogeneities responsible for the shock formation, prior to the collision may produce bulk-Compton radiation which can explain the observed soft X-ray excess and possible excess at {approx} 18 keV. We note, however, that the bulk-Compton interpretation is not unique, and the observed soft excess could arise as well via some other processes discussed briefly in the text.

  19. MAGIC gamma-ray and multifrequency observations of flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 in early 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Bernardini, E.; A. Overkemping(Technische Universität Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany); Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Biland, A.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. Amongst more than fifty blazars detected in very high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) $\\gamma$ rays, only three belong to the subclass of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). The detection of FSRQs in the VHE range is challenging, mainly because of their soft spectra in the GeV-TeV regime. MAGIC observed PKS 1510−089 (z = 0.36) starting 2012 February 3 until April 3 during a high activity state in the high energy (HE, E> 100 MeV) $\\gamma$-ray band observed by AGILE and Fermi. MAGIC observation...

  20. Radio and gamma-ray follow-up of the exceptionally high activity state of PKS 1510-089 in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Orienti, M; D'Ammando, F; Giroletti, M; Kino, M; Nagai, H; Venturi, T; Dallacasa, D; Giovannini, G; Angelakis, E; Fuhrmann, L; Hovatta, T; Max-Moerbeck, W; Schinzel, F K; Akiyama, K; Hada, K; Honma, M; Niinuma, K; Gasparrini, D; Krichbaum, T P; Nestoras, I; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Riquelme, D; Sievers, A; Ungerechts, H; Zensus, J A

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the radio and gamma-ray variability of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1510-089 in the time range between 2010 November and 2012 January. In this period the source showed an intense activity, with two major gamma-ray flares detected in 2011 July and October. During the latter episode both the gamma-ray and the radio flux density reached their historical peak. Multiwavelength analysis shows a rotation of about 380 deg of the optical polarization angle close in time with the rapid and strong gamma-ray flare in 2011 July. An enhancement of the optical emission and an increase of the fractional polarization both in the optical and in radio bands is observed about three weeks later, close in time with another gamma-ray outburst. On the other hand, after 2011 September a huge radio outburst has been detected, first in the millimeter regime followed with some time delay at centimeter down to decimeter wavelengths. This radio flare is characterized by a rising and a decaying stage, in agreement with...

  1. Fermi Large Area Telescope and multi-wavelength observations of the flaring activity of PKS 1510-089 between 2008 September and 2009 June

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    We report on the multi-wavelength observations of PKS 1510-089 (a flat spectrum radio quasar at z=0.361) during its high activity period between 2008 September and 2009 June. During this 11 months period, the source was characterized by a complex variability at optical, UV and gamma-ray bands, on time scales down to 6-12 hours. The brightest gamma-ray isotropic luminosity, recorded on 2009 March 26, was ~ 2x10^48erg s^-1. The spectrum in the Fermi-LAT energy range shows a mild curvature well described by a log-parabolic law, and can be understood as due to the Klein-Nishina effect. The gamma-ray flux has a complex correlation with the other wavelengths. There is no correlation at all with the X-ray band, a weak correlation with the UV, and a significant correlation with the optical flux. The gamma-ray flux seems to lead the optical one by about 13 days. From the UV photometry we estimated a black hole mass of ~ 5.4x10^8 solar masses, and an accretion rate of ~ 0.5 solar masses/year. Although the power in the ...

  2. PROBING THE INNER JET OF THE QUASAR PKS 1510-089 WITH MULTI-WAVEBAND MONITORING DURING STRONG GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from monitoring the multi-waveband flux, linear polarization, and parsec-scale structure of the quasar PKS 1510 - 089, concentrating on eight major γ-ray flares that occurred during the interval 2009.0-2009.5. The γ-ray peaks were essentially simultaneous with maxima at optical wavelengths, although the flux ratio of the two wave bands varied by an order of magnitude. The optical polarization vector rotated by 720 deg. during a five-day period encompassing six of these flares. This culminated in a very bright, ∼1 day, optical and γ-ray flare as a bright knot of emission passed through the highest-intensity, stationary feature (the 'core') seen in 43 GHz Very Long Baseline Array images. The knot continued to propagate down the jet at an apparent speed of 22c and emit strongly at γ-ray energies as a months-long X-ray/radio outburst intensified. We interpret these events as the result of the knot following a spiral path through a mainly toroidal magnetic field pattern in the acceleration and collimation zone of the jet, after which it passes through a standing shock in the 43 GHz core and then continues downstream. In this picture, the rapid γ-ray flares result from scattering of infrared seed photons from a relatively slow sheath of the jet as well as from optical synchrotron radiation in the faster spine. The 2006-2009.7 radio and X-ray flux variations are correlated at very high significance; we conclude that the X-rays are mainly from inverse Compton scattering of infrared seed photons by 20-40 MeV electrons.

  3. Optical flux behaviour of a sample of Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, E J; Cellone, S A; Combi, J A; Zibecchi, L; Martí, J; Romero, G E; Muñoz-Arjonilla, A J; Luque-Escamilla, P; Sánchez-Sutil, J R

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We aim at investigating the time-behaviour of a sample of gamma-ray blazars. We present the results from a 13 month-long optical photometry monitoring campaign of the blazars PKS 0048-097, PKS 0754+100, HB89 0827+243, PKS 0851+202, PKS 1253-055, PKS1510-089, PKS 1749+096, PKS 2230+114 and PKS 2251+158. Methods: We analyse the variability of each object, focusing on different time-scales (long term, short term, and microvariability), in an attempt to achieve a statistical comparison of the results. Results: After applying a geometric model to explain the variability results, we found that it is possible that a slight change in the direction of the jet generates the variations detected in some objects during this campaign.

  4. Extremely violent optical microvariability in blazars: fact or fiction?

    CERN Document Server

    Cellone, S A; Araudo, A T; Cellone, Sergio A.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Araudo, Anabella T.

    2006-01-01

    Variability amplitudes larger than 1 magnitude over time-scales of a few tens of minutes have recently been reported in the optical light-curves of several blazars. In order to independently verify the real occurrence of such extremely violent events, we undertook an observational study of a selected sample of three blazars: PKS 0048-097, PKS 0754+100, and PKS 1510-089. Possible systematic error sources during data acquisition and reduction were carefully evaluated. We indeed found flux variability at intra-night time-scales in all three sources, although no extremely violent behaviour, as reported by other authors, was detected. We show that an incorrect choice of the stars used for differential photometry will, under fairly normal conditions, lead to spurious variability with large amplitudes on short time-scales. Wrong results of this kind can be avoided with the use of simple error-control techniques.

  5. Localizing the $\\gamma$ rays from blazar PKS 1502+106

    CERN Document Server

    Karamanavis, Vassilis; Krichbaum, T P; Angelakis, E; Hodgson, J; Myserlis, I; Nestoras, I; Zensus, J A; Ungerechts, H; Sievers, A

    2015-01-01

    Blazars are among the most variable objects in the universe. They feature energetic jets of plasma that launch from the cores of these active galactic nuclei (AGN), triggering activity from radio up to gamma-ray energies. Spatial localization of the region of their MeV/GeV emission is a key question in understanding the blazar phenomenon. The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 1502+106 has exhibited extreme and correlated, radio and high-energy activity that triggered intense monitoring by the Fermi-GST AGN Multi-frequency Monitoring Alliance (F-GAMMA) program and the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) down to $\\lambda$3 mm (or 86 GHz), enabling the sharpest view to date towards this extreme object. Here, we report on preliminary results of our study of the gamma-ray loud blazar PKS 1502+106, combining VLBI and single dish data. We deduce the critical aspect angle towards the source to be $\\theta_{\\rm c} = 2.6^{\\circ}$, calculate the apparent and intrinsic opening angles and constrain the distance of the ...

  6. Optical flux behaviour of a sample of Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, E. J.; Andruchow, I.; Cellone, S. A.; Combi, J. A.; Zibecchi, L.; Martí, J.; Romero, G. E.; Muñoz-Arjonilla, A. J.; Luque-Escamilla, P.; Sánchez-Sutil, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Aims: We aim at investigating the time-behaviour of a sample of gamma-ray blazars. We present the results from a 13 month-long optical photometry monitoring campaign of the blazars PKS 0048-097, PKS 0754+100, [HB89] 0827+243, PKS 0851+202, PKS 1253-055, PKS 1510-089, PKS 1749+096, PKS 2230+114 and PKS 2251+158. Methods: We analyse the variability of each object, focusing on different time-scales (long term, short term, and microvariability), in an attempt to achieve a statistical comparison of the results. Results: After applying a geometric model to explain the variability results, we found that it is possible that a slight change in the direction of the jet generates the variations detected in some objects during this campaign. Differential photometry results used in the statistical analysis reported in Table 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A21

  7. Long term variability of the blazar PKS 2155-304

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Jill; Rieger, Frank; Maurin, Gilles; Lenain, Jean-Philippe; Lamanna, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Time variability of the photon flux is a known feature of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and in particular of blazars. The high frequency peaked BL Lac (HBL) object PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest sources in the TeV band and has been monitored regularly with different instruments and in particular with the H.E.S.S. experiment above 200 GeV for more than 11 years. These data together with the observations of other instruments and monitoring programs like SMARTS (optical), Swift-XRT/RXTE/XMM-Newton (X-ray) and Fermi-LAT (100 MeV < E < 300 GeV) are used to characterize the variability of this object in the quiescent state over a wide energy range. Variability studies are made by looking at the lognormality of the light curves and at the fractional root mean square (rms) variability Fvar in several energy bands. Lognormality is found in every energy range and the evolution of Fvar with the energy shows a similar increase both in X-rays and in TeV bands.

  8. Time Variability Analysis of the SMARTS Monitoring of Fermi Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Ritaban; Bonning, E W; Buxton, M; Coppi, P; Isler, J; Urry, C M

    2011-01-01

    We present the time variability properties of a sample of six blazars, AO 0235+164, 3C 273, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, PKS 2155-304, and 3C 454.3, at optical-near IR frequencies as well as Gamma-ray energies observed as a part of the Yale/SMARTS program during 2008-2010 that has followed the variations in emission of the bright Fermi-LAT-monitored blazars in the southern sky with closely-spaced observations at BVRJK bands. The discrete auto-correlation function of the variability of these six blazars at optical-IR and Gamma-ray energies do not show any periodicity or characteristic timescale. The power spectral density (PSD) functions of the R-band variability of all six blazars are fit well by simple power-law functions with negative slope implying there is higher amplitude variability on longer than on shorter timescales. Average slope of the PSD of R-band variability of these blazars is similar to what was found by the Fermi team for the Gamma-ray variability of a larger sample of bright blazars. The shortest t...

  9. The Perugia Blazars Monitoring Program: last result on PKS 0422+004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, G.; Maffei, P.; Fiorucci, M.; Luciani, M.; Chiattelli, B.

    The BL Lac object PKS 0422+004 is one of the sources included in the Perugia Blazar Monitoring Program which was very active in the last years. The authors present here the ligh light curve of this object obtained during the historical outburst occurred in autumn 1997.

  10. Detection techniques for the H.E.S.S. II telescope, data modeling of gravitational lensing and emission of blazars in HE-VHE astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Barnacka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of four aspects of high energy astronomy. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to an aspect of instrument development for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, namely the Level 2 trigger system of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). I am providing the motivation and principle of the operation of the Level 2 trigger, I am describing hardware implementation of the system and then I am evaluating expected performances. The second part of my thesis deals with the data analysis and modeling of broad-band emission of particular blazar PKS 1510-089. I am presenting the analysis of the H.E.S.S. data, together with the FERMI data and a collection of multi-wavelength data obtained with various instruments. I am presenting the model of PKS 1510-089 observations carried out during a flare recorded by H.E.S.S.. The third part of my thesis deals with blazars observed by the FERMI-LAT, but from the point of view of other phenomena: a strong gravitational lensing. This part...

  11. Multi-frequency linear and circular radio polarization monitoring of jet emission elements in $Fermi$ blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Myserlis, I; Fuhrmann, L; Pavlidou, V; Nestoras, I; Karamanavis, V; Kraus, A; Zensus, J A

    2014-01-01

    The jet emission in blazars -- the beamed subset of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) -- is produced by synchrotron electrons moving relativistically in its magnetic field. Under the assumption of some degree of uniformity of the field, the emission can be highly polarized -- linearly and circularly. In the radio regime, the observed variability is in most of the cases attributed to flaring events undergoing opacity evolution. These transitions from optically thick to thin emission have a specific signature in the polarization parameter space (angle and magnitude) which can be traced with high cadence polarization monitoring and provide us with a unique probe of the microphysics of the emitting region. Here we present the full Stokes analysis of radio emission from blazars observed in the framework of the F-GAMMA program and discuss the case study of PKS 1510$-$089 which has shown a prominent polarization event around MJD 55900.

  12. Redshift measurement of the BL-Lac gamma-ray blazar PKS 1424+240

    CERN Document Server

    Rovero, A C; Pichel, A; Muriel, H

    2015-01-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a BL-Lac blazar with unknown redshift detected at high-energy gamma rays by Fermi-LAT with a hard spectrum. It was first detected at very-high-energy by VERITAS and latter confirmed by MAGIC. Attempts to find limits on its redshift include three estimations by modeling gamma-ray observations, and one obtained by analyzing Lyb and Lyg absorption lines observed in the far-UV spectra (from HST/COS) caused by absorbing gas along the line of sight. They allowed to constrain the redshift range to 0:6PKS 1424+240 in the very interesting condition to be one of the few candidates to be the most distant blazars detected at very-high-energy gamma rays. Redshift determination of BL-Lac objects are difficult to achieve. We have found that redshift of blazars can be determined by its association to a galaxy group or cluster. To explore this possibility for PKS 1424+240, we have carried out spectroscopic measurements with the Gemini North telescope of galaxies in its field of view...

  13. Unusual Flaring Activity in the Blazar PKS 1424-418 during 2008-2011

    CERN Document Server

    Buson, S; Larsson, S; Cutini, S; Finke, J; Ciprini, S; Ojha, R; D'Ammando, F; Donato, D; Thompson, D J; Desiante, R; Bastieri, D; Wagner, S; Hauser, M; Fuhrmann, L; Dutka, M; Müller, C; Kadler, M; Angelakis, E; Zensus, J A; Stevens, J; Blanchard, J M; Edwards, P G; Lovell, J E J; Gurwell, M A; Wehrle, A E; Zook, A

    2014-01-01

    Context. Blazars are a subset of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with jets that are oriented along our line of sight. Variability and spectral energy distribution (SED) studies are crucial tools for understanding the physical processes responsible for observed AGN emission. Aims. We report peculiar behaviour in the bright gamma-ray blazar PKS 1424-418 and use its strong variability to reveal information about the particle acceleration and interactions in the jet. Methods. Correlation analysis of the extensive optical coverage by the ATOM telescope and nearly continuous gamma-ray coverage by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is combined with broadband, time-dependent modeling of the SED incorporating supplemental information from radio and X-ray observations of this blazar. Results. We analyse in detail four bright phases at optical-GeV energies. These flares of PKS 1424-418 show high correlation between these energy ranges, with the exception of one large optical flare that coincides with relatively low gamma-ray a...

  14. Micro-arcsecond structure in blazar PKS 1257-326

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jeffrey; Bignall, Hayley; Ellingsen, Simon; Fuhrmann, Lars; Godfrey, Leith; Shabala, Stanislav; Krichbaum, Thomas P.; Savolainen, Tuomas

    2013-10-01

    Using the wide bandwidth provided by the CABB system, we wish to continue investigating structure and evolution of an ultracompact radio jet and its interaction with the surrounding medium of the AGN with micro-arcsecond scale resolution. In addition we wish to observe at higher and lower frequencies to investigate the behaviour of high frequency scintillation and the transition from weak to strong scattering regimes. Our proposed technique uses auto- and cross-correlation analysis of light curves showing interstellar scintillation to determine the frequency dependent jet structure. The monitoring of the intra-hour variable quasar PKS 1257-326 allows us to obtain ‘slices’ through the ISS pattern in multiple different directions (analogous to Earth Rotation Synthesis). We will measure the frequency dependence of the ‘core shift’ and angular size of the source between 1 and 20 GHz.

  15. The Gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0208-512, a Multi-Wavelength Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard, J. M.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Dickey, J.; Ojha, R.; Kadler, M.(University Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany); Nesci, R.; Edwards, P. G.; J.Stevens; Dutka, M.; Muller, C.; Pursimo, T.

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray blazar PKS 0208-512 has shown strong periods of flaring, at all frequencies from radio to gamma-ray. This has led to its inclusion in the TANAMI project, which tracks the jets of southern AGN using VLBI as well as supporting flux density monitoring programs. Time series analysis of the light curves generated by such monitoring is presented and discussed and VLBI maps of the source are used to show the evolution in the jet. A frequency dependent lag is observed between flaring at...

  16. Anatomy of a blazar in the (sub-)millimeter: ALMA Observations of PKS 0521-365

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, S; Guerard, M; Villard, E; Hidayat, T; Flaquer, B Ocana; Vila-Vilaro, B

    2015-01-01

    We aim at analyzing the (sub-)millimeter emission in a nearby blazar, PKS 0521-365 , to study the synchrotron and thermal emission in the different components detected at low frequency. We analyze the archive public data of the ALMA Cycle 0 where PKS 0521-365 is used as a calibrator. A total of 13 projects with 23 dataset is analyzed in band 3, 6 and 7 and combined. The whole set of data is combined and wavelet filtered to obtain a deep image reaching a dynamic range of 47000. The individual emission flux is measured at different date over a period of 11 months in various components. Finally we analyze the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) in each different component, including the radio jet and counter jet. The point sources detected in the field follow a similar distribution to previous studies. The blazar flux shows large variation especially in band 3. Different components are observed: core, radio jet and newly detected counter jet, Hot Spot (HS) and a disky structure roughly perpendicular to the jet. T...

  17. Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-Energy Blazar Emission in Quiescent States

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Sikora, M; Schady, P; Roming, P; Chester, M M; Maraschi, L

    2010-01-01

    We present the results from the Suzaku X-ray observations of five flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), namely PKS0208-512, Q0827+243, PKS1127-145, PKS1510-089 and 3C 454.3. All these sources were additionally monitored simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously by the Fermi satellite in gamma-rays and the Swift UVOT in the UV and optical bands, respectively. We constructed their broad-band spectra covering the frequency range from 10^14 Hz up to 10^25 Hz, and those reveal the nature of high-energy emission of luminous blazars in their low-activity states. The analyzed X-ray spectra are well fitted by a power-law model with photoelectric absorption. In the case of PKS0208-512, PKS1127-145, and 3C 454.3, the X-ray continuum showed indication of hard-ening at low-energies. Moreover, when compared with the previous X-ray observations, we see a significantly increasing contribution of low-energy photons to the total X-ray fluxes when the sources are getting fainter. The same behavior can be noted in the Suzaku data al...

  18. Anatomy of a blazar in the (sub-)millimeter: ALMA observations of PKS 0521-365

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, S.; Cortes, P. C.; Guerard, M.; Villard, E.; Hidayat, T.; Ocaña Flaquer, B.; Vila-Vilaro, B.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: We aim at analyzing the (sub-)millimeter emission in a nearby blazar, PKS 0521-365, to study the synchrotron and thermal emission in the different components detected at low frequency. Methods: We analyzed the archive public data of the ALMA Cycle 0 where PKS 0521-365 is used as a calibrator. A total of 13 projects with 23 dataset were analyzed in Bands 3, 6, and 7 and combined. The whole set of data was combined and wavelet-filtered to obtain a deep image toward PKS 0521-365, reaching a dynamic range of 47 000. The individual emission flux was measured on different dates over a period of 11 months in various components. Finally we analyzed the spectral energy distribution (SED) in each different component, including the radio jet and counter jet. Results: The point sources detected in the field follow a similar distribution to previous studies. The blazar flux shows large variation especially in Band 3. Different components are observed: core, radio jet, and newly detected counter jet, hot spot (HS), and a disky structure roughly perpendicular to the jet. The HS emission is formed by a point source surrounded by an extended emission. The viewing angle of the jet is about 30° with a Doppler factor of δ = 1.6. The HS is at a distance of 19 kpc from the center. The SED analysis shows a strong variation in the core spectral index, especially in Band 3. The two components in the radio jet have roughly a flat spectral index in Bands 6 and 7. Conclusions: The different weak and extended components in PKS 0521-365 are detected with the ALMA data. The analysis of both jets constrains the geometrical distance of the HS to the center. The SED presents a different shape in time and frequency for each component. Finally, a new structure is detected roughly perpendicular to the radio jet. and a thermal emission origin is currently favored. Further observations at higher spatial resolution are needed to confirm that hypothesis. FITS files for all the images are only

  19. The Gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0208-512, a Multi-Wavelength Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, J M; Dickey, J; Ojha, R; Kadler, M; Nesci, R; Edwards, P G; Stevens, J; Dutka, M; Muller, C; Pursimo, T

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray blazar PKS 0208-512 has shown strong periods of flaring, at all frequencies from radio to gamma-ray. This has led to its inclusion in the TANAMI project, which tracks the jets of southern AGN using VLBI as well as supporting flux density monitoring programs. Time series analysis of the light curves generated by such monitoring is presented and discussed and VLBI maps of the source are used to show the evolution in the jet. A frequency dependent lag is observed between flaring at different radio frequencies which does not appear to correspond to purely optical depth effects. Major flaring at gamma-ray frequencies appears to be preceded by a new component in the jet seen in our VLBI data.

  20. Deep Broadband Observations of the Distant Gamma-ray Blazar PKS 1424+240

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berger, K; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Dumm, J; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Federici, S; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, G; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Madhavan, A S; Maier, G; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; de Bhroithe, A O'Faolain; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Prokoph, H; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Rajotte, J; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weinstein, A; Welsing, R; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Albert, A; Baldini, L; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Bregeon, J; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Charles, E; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Franckowiak, A; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Jogler, T; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Murgia, S; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Ormes, J F; Perkins, J S; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Raino, S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Schaal, M; Sgro, C; Siskind, E J; Spinelli, P; Takahashi, H; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Vianello, G; Werner, M; Wood, M

    2014-01-01

    We present deep VERITAS observations of the blazar PKS 1424+240, along with contemporaneous Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope and Swift UV Optical Telescope data between 2009 February 19 and 2013 June 8. This blazar resides at a redshift of $z\\ge0.6035$, displaying a significantly attenuated gamma-ray flux above 100 GeV due to photon absorption via pair-production with the extragalactic background light. We present more than 100 hours of VERITAS observations from three years, a multiwavelength light curve and the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions. The source shows a higher flux of (2.1$\\pm0.3$)$\\times10^{-7}$ ph m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ above 120 GeV in 2009 and 2011 as compared to the flux measured in 2013, corresponding to (1.02$\\pm0.08$)$\\times10^{-7}$ ph m$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ above 120 GeV. The measured differential very high energy (VHE; $E\\ge100$ GeV) spectral indices are $\\Gamma=$3.8$\\pm$0.3, 4.3$\\pm$0.6 and 4.5$\\pm$0.2 in 2009, 2011 and 2013, respectively. No significant spectral change...

  1. The New Surprising Behaviour of the Two 'Prototype' Blazars PKS 2155-304 and 3C 279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costamante, Luigi; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Aharonian, Felix; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Buhler, Rolf; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Khangulyan, Dmitry; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Reimer, Anita; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Reimer, Olaf; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-21

    Recent VHE observations have unveiled a surprising behaviour in two well-known blazars at opposite sides of the blazar sequence. PKS 2155-304 have shown for the first time in an HBL a large Compton dominance, high {gamma}-ray luminosities and a cubic relation between X-ray and VHE fluxes. 3C 279 is the first FSRQ detected at VHE. The high luminosity required to overcome the significant absorption caused by the BLR emission cannot be easily reconciled with the historical and quasi-simultaneous SED properties. Both cases shed a new light on the structure and ambient fields of blazars. Contrary to previous claims, it is also shown that 3C 279 - as any FSRQ - cannot provide robust constraints on the EBL.

  2. Multi-band optical variability of three TeV Blazars on Diverse Timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Alok C; Bhagwan, J; Strigachev, A; Bachev, R; Semkov, E; Gaur, H; Damljanovic, G; Vince, O; Wiita, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    We present our optical photometric observations of three TeV blazars, PKS 1510-089, PG 1553+113 and Mrk 501 taken using two telescopes in India, one in Bulgaria, one in Greece and one in Serbia during 2012 - 2014. These observations covered a total of 95 nights with a total of 202 B filter frames, 247 images in V band, 817 in R band while 229 images were taken in the I filter. This work is focused on multi-band flux and colour variability studies of these blazars on diverse timescales which are useful in understanding the emission mechanisms. We studied the variability characteristics of above three blazars and found all to be active over our entire observational campaigns. We also searched for any correlation between the brightness of the sources and their colour indices. During the times of variability, no significant evidence for the sources to display spectral changes correlated with magnitude was found on timescales of a few months. We briefly discuss the possible physical mechanisms most likely responsi...

  3. Multiband optical variability of three TeV blazars on diverse time-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok C.; Agarwal, A.; Bhagwan, J.; Strigachev, A.; Bachev, R.; Semkov, E.; Gaur, H.; Damljanovic, G.; Vince, O.; Wiita, Paul J.

    2016-05-01

    We present our optical photometric observations of three TeV blazars, PKS 1510-089, PG 1553+113, and Mrk 501, taken using two telescopes in India, one in Bulgaria, one in Greece, and one in Serbia during 2012-2014. These observations covered a total of 95 nights with a total of 202 B filter frames, 247 images in V band, 817 in R band while 229 images were taken in the I filter. This work is focused on multiband flux and colour variability studies of these blazars on diverse time-scales which are useful in understanding the emission mechanisms. We studied the variability characteristics of above three blazars and found all to be active over our entire observational campaigns. We also searched for any correlation between the brightness of the sources and their colour indices. During the times of variability, no significant evidence for the sources to display spectral changes correlated with magnitude was found on time-scales of a few months. We briefly discuss the possible physical mechanisms most likely responsible for the observed flux variability.

  4. Detection techniques for the H.E.S.S. II telescope, data modeling of gravitational lensing and emission of blazars in HE-VHE astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents the study of four aspects of high energy astronomy. The first part of my thesis is dedicated to an aspect of instrument development for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, namely the Level 2 trigger system of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). My work on the project focused on the algorithm development and the Monte Carlo simulations of the trigger system and overall instrument. The hardware implementation of the system is described and its expected performances are then evaluated. The H.E.S.S. array has been used to observe the blazar PKS 1510-089. The second part of my thesis deals with the data analysis and modeling of broad-band emission of this particular blazar. In part II of my thesis, I am presenting the analysis of the H.E.S.S. data: the light curve and spectrum of PKS 1510-089, together with the FERMI data and a collection of multi-wavelength data obtained with various instruments. I am presenting the model of PKS 1510-089 observations carried out during a flare recorded by H.E.S.S.. The model is based on a single zone internal shock scenario. The third part of my thesis deals with blazars observed by the FERMI-LAT, but from the point of view of other phenomena: a strong gravitational lensing. This part of my thesis shows the first evidence for gravitational lensing phenomena in high energy gamma-rays. This evidence comes from the observation of a gravitational lens system induced echo in the light curve of the distant blazar PKS 1830-211. Traditional methods for the estimation of time delays in gravitational lensing systems rely on the cross-correlation of the light curves from individual images. In my thesis, I used 300 MeV-30 GeV photons detected by the Fermi-LAT instrument. The FERMI-LAT instrument cannot separate the images of known lenses. The observed light curve is thus the superposition of individual image light curves. The FERMI-LAT instrument has the advantage of providing long, evenly spaced, time series

  5. Evidence for quasi-periodic oscillations in the optical polarization of the blazar PKS 2155-304

    CERN Document Server

    Pekeur, N W; Potter, S B; Kraan-Korteweg, R C

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the presence of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the optical polarization of the blazar PKS 2155-304, during a period of enhanced gamma-ray brightness, is presented. The periodogram of the polarized flux revealed the existence of a prominent peak at $T\\sim 13$ min, detected at >99.7% significance, and $T\\sim 30$ min, which was nominally significant at >99%. This is the first evidence of QPOs in the polarization of an active galactic nucleus, potentially opening up a new avenue of studying this phenomenon.

  6. EMISSION FROM HOT DUST IN THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF GAMMA-RAY BRIGHT BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possible source of γ-ray photons observed from the jets of blazars is inverse Compton scattering by relativistic electrons of infrared seed photons from a hot, dusty torus in the nucleus. We use observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope to search for signatures of such dust in the infrared spectra of four γ-ray bright blazars, the quasars 4C 21.35, CTA102, and PKS 1510-089, and the BL Lacertae object ON231. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of 4C 21.35 contains a prominent infrared excess indicative of dust emission. After subtracting a non-thermal component with a power-law spectrum, we fit a dust model to the residual SED. The model consists of a blackbody with temperature ∼1200 K, plus a much weaker optically thin component at ∼660 K. The total luminosity of the thermal dust emission is 7.9 ± 0.2 x 1045 erg s-1. If the dust lies in an equatorial torus, the density of infrared photons from the torus is sufficient to explain the γ-ray flux from 4C 21.35 as long as the scattering occurs within a few parsecs of the central engine. We also report a tentative detection of dust in the quasar CTA102, in which the luminosity of the infrared excess is 7 ± 2 x 1045 erg s-1. However, in CTA102 the far-infrared spectra are too noisy to detect the 10 μm silicate feature. Upper limits to the luminosity from thermal emission from dust in PKS 1510-089, and ON231, are 2.3 x 1045, and 6.6 x 1043 erg s-1, respectively. These upper limits do not rule out the possibility of inverse Compton upscattering of infrared photons to γ-ray energies in these two sources. The estimated covering factor of the hot dust in 4C 21.35, 22%, is similar to that of non-blazar quasars; however, 4C 21.35 is deficient in cooler dust.

  7. AN OPTICAL-NEAR-INFRARED OUTBURST WITH NO ACCOMPANYING γ-RAYS IN THE BLAZAR PKS 0208–512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of an anomalous flare in a bright blazar, namely, PKS 0208–512, one of the targets of the Yale/SMARTS optical-near-IR (OIR) monitoring program of Fermi blazars. We identify three intervals during which PKS 0208–512 undergoes outbursts at OIR wavelengths lasting for ∼>3 months. Its brightness increases and then decreases again by at least 1 mag in these intervals. In contrast, the source undergoes bright phases in GeV energies lasting ∼>1 month during intervals 1 and 3 only. The OIR outburst during interval 2 is comparable in brightness and temporal extent to the OIR flares during intervals 1 and 3, which do have γ-ray counterparts. By analyzing the γ-ray, OIR, and supporting multi-wavelength variability data in details, we speculate that the OIR outburst during interval 2 was caused by a change in the magnetic field without any change in the total number of emitting electrons or Doppler factor of the emitting region. Alternatively, it is possible that the location of the outburst in the jet during interval 2 was closer to the black hole where the jet is more compact and the bulk Lorentz factor of the material in the jet is smaller. We also discuss the complex OIR spectral behavior during these three intervals.

  8. On the origin of the soft photons of the high synchrotron peaked blazar : PKS 1424+240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shi-Ju; Zheng, Yong-Gang; Wu, Qingwen; Chen, Liang

    2016-06-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a distant very high energy gamma-ray BL Lac object with redshift z = 0.601. It was found that pure synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process normally need extreme input parameters (e.g., very low magnetic field intensity and extraordinarily large Doppler factor) to explain its multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions (SEDs). To avoid the extreme model parameters, different models have been proposed (e.g., two-zone SSC model or lepto-hadronic model). In this work, we employ the traditional one-zone leptonic model after including a weak external Compton component to re-explore the simultaneous multi-wavelength SEDs of PKS 1424+240 in both high (2009) and low (2013) states. We find that the input parameters of magnetic field and Doppler factor are roughly consistent with those of other BL Lacs if a weak external photon field from either broad line region (BLR) or the dust torus. However, the required energy density of seed photons from BLR or torus is about 3 orders of magnitude less than that constrained in luminous quasars (e.g., flat-spectrum radio quasars, FSRQs). This result suggests that the BLR/torus in BL Lacs is much weaker than that of luminous FSRQs (but not fully disappear), and the inverse-Compton of external photons from BLR/torus may still play a role even in high synchrotron peaked blazars.

  9. Gamma-ray flaring activity from the gravitationally lensed blazar PKS 1830-211 observed by Fermi LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Amin, M A; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Buehler, R; Bulmash, D; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Corbet, R H D; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Finke, J; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Inoue, Y; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jòhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Mazziotta, M N; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reyes, L C; Ritz, S; Romoli, C; Roth, M; Parkinson, P M Saz; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Takahashi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Tronconi, V; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S

    2014-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope routinely detects the highly dust-absorbed, reddened, and MeV-peaked flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1830-211 (z=2.507). Its apparent isotropic gamma-ray luminosity (E>100 MeV) averaged over $\\sim$ 3 years of observations and peaking on 2010 October 14/15 at 2.9 X 10^{50} erg s^{-1}, makes it among the brightest high-redshift Fermi blazars. No published model with a single lens can account for all of the observed characteristics of this complex system. Based on radio observations, one expects time delayed variability to follow about 25 days after a primary flare, with flux about a factor 1.5 less. Two large gamma-ray flares of PKS 1830-211 have been detected by the LAT in the considered period and no substantial evidence for such a delayed activity was found. This allows us to place a lower limit of about 6 on the gamma rays flux ratio between the two lensed images. Swift XRT observations from a dedicated Target of Opportunity program ...

  10. The BL-Lac gamma-ray blazar PKS 1424+240 associated with a group of galaxies at z=0.6010

    CERN Document Server

    Rovero, A C; Donzelli, C; Pichel, A

    2016-01-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a BL-Lac blazar with unknown redshift that was detected at high-energy gamma rays by Fermi-LAT with a hard spectrum. At VHE, it was first detected by VERITAS and later confirmed by MAGIC. Its spectral energy distribution is highly attenuated at VHE gamma rays, which is coherent with distant sources. Several estimations enabled the redshift to be constrained to the range 0.6 < z < 1.3. These results place PKS 1424+240 in the very interesting condition of being probably the most distant blazar that has been detected at VHE. The ambiguity in the redshift is still large enough to prevent precise studies of the EBL and the intrinsic blazar spectrum. Given the difficulty of measuring spectroscopic redshifts for BL-Lac objects directly, we aim to establish a reliable redshift value for this blazar by finding its host group of galaxies. Elliptical galaxies are associated with groups, and BL-Lac objects are typically hosted by them, so we decided to search for the host group of the blazar. For th...

  11. Nine years of multi-frequency monitoring of the blazar PKS 0048-097: spectral and temporal variability

    CERN Document Server

    Wierzcholska, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are highly variable, radio-loud active galactic nuclei with jets oriented at a small angle to the line of sight. The observed emission of these sources covers the whole electromagnetic spectrum from radio frequencies up to the high or even very high energy gamma-ray range. To understand the complex physics of these objects, multi-wavelength observations and studies on the variability and correlations between different wavelengths are therefore essential. The long-term multi-frequency observations of PKS 0048-097 are analysed here to investigate its spectral and temporal features. The studies includes nine years of observations of the blazar, which is well studied in the optical and radio domain, but not in the other frequencies. Multi-wavelength data collected with OVRO, KAIT, Catalina, Swift/UVOT, Swift/XRT and Fermi/LAT were studied. The performed analysis revealed strong variability in all wavelengths that is most clearly manifested in the X-ray range. The correlation studies do not exhibit any rel...

  12. MAGIC long-term study of the distant TeV blazar PKS 1424+240 in a multiwavelength context

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Cutini, S; Gasparrini, D; Furniss, A; Hovatta, T; Kangas, T; Kankare, E; Kotilainen, J; Lister, M; Lähteenmäki, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Pavlidou, V; Readhead, A; Richards, J

    2014-01-01

    Aims. We present a study of the very high energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emission of the blazar PKS 1424+240 observed with the MAGIC telescopes. The primary aim of this paper is the multiwavelength spectral characterization and modeling of this blazar, made particularly interesting by the recent discovery of a lower limit of its redshift of z>0.6, which makes it a promising candidate to be the most distant VHE source. Methods. The source has been observed with the MAGIC telescopes in VHE gamma rays for a total observation time of 33.6 h from 2009 to 2011. Results. The source was marginally detected in VHE gamma rays during 2009 and 2010 and later the detection was confirmed during an optical outburst in 2011. The combined significance of the stacked sample is 7.2 sigma. The differential spectra measured during the different campaigns can be described by steep power laws, with the indices ranging from 3.5+/-1.2 to 5.0+/-1.7. The MAGIC spectra corrected for the absorption due to the extragalactic background ...

  13. Swift follow-up of the gamma-ray flaring blazar PKS 0727-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ammando, F.; Sokolovsky, K. V.

    2010-10-01

    Following the gamma-ray flare of the high redshift flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 0727-11 (also known as PKS J0730-1141 and 1FGL J0730.3-1141, Abdo et al. 2010, ApJS, 188, 405; z = 1.59, Zensus et al. 2002) detected by Fermi LAT on September 21, 2010 (ATel #2860), we performed two Swift target of opportunity observations on September 26 and 29. Swift/XRT data were taken in Photon Counting mode for a total exposure of about 9.0 ksec.

  14. PKS 1502+106: A high-redshift Fermi blazar at extreme angular resolution. Structural dynamics with VLBI imaging up to 86 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Karamanavis, V; Krichbaum, T P; Angelakis, E; Hodgson, J; Nestoras, I; Myserlis, I; Zensus, J A; Sievers, A; Ciprini, S

    2016-01-01

    Context. Blazars are among the most energetic objects in the Universe. In 2008 August, Fermi/LAT detected the blazar PKS 1502+106 showing a rapid and strong gamma-ray outburst followed by high and variable flux over the next months. This activity at high energies triggered an intensive multi-wavelength campaign covering also the radio, optical, UV, and X-ray bands indicating that the flare was accompanied by a simultaneous outburst at optical/UV/X-rays and a delayed outburst at radio bands. Aims: In the current work we explore the phenomenology and physical conditions within the ultra-relativistic jet of the gamma-ray blazar PKS 1502+106. Additionally, we address the question of the spatial localization of the MeV/GeV-emitting region of the source. Methods: We utilize ultra-high angular resolution mm-VLBI observations at 43 and 86 GHz complemented by VLBI observations at 15 GHz. We also employ single-dish radio data from the F-GAMMA program at frequencies matching the VLBI monitoring. Results: PKS 1502+106 sh...

  15. On the origin of the soft photons of the high-synchrotron-peaked blazar PKS 1424+240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shi-Ju; Zheng, Yong-Gang; Wu, Qingwen; Chen, Liang

    2016-09-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a distant very-high-energy gamma-ray BL Lac object with redshift z = 0.601. It has been found that models utilizing pure synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes normally need extreme input parameters (e.g. a very low magnetic field intensity and an extraordinarily high Doppler factor) to explain this particular object spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In order to avoid these extreme model parameters, various other models have been proposed (e.g. the two-zone SSC model or lepto-hadronic model). In this work, we employ the traditional one-zone leptonic model after including a weak external Compton component in order to explore the simultaneous multiwavelength SEDs of PKS 1424+240 in both the high (2009) and the low (2013) state. We find that the input parameters of the magnetic field and Doppler factor are roughly consistent with those of other BL Lacs if a weak external photon field from either the broad line region (BLR) or the dust torus is assumed. However, the required energy density of seed photons from the BLR or torus is about three orders of magnitude lower than that the energy density estimated from the observations in luminous quasars (e.g. flat-spectrum radio quasars, FSRQs). This result suggests that the BLR/torus in BL Lacs is much weaker than that of luminous FSRQs (but has not fully disappeared), and that the inverse-Compton process of external photons from the BLR/torus may still play a role even in high-synchrotron-peaked blazars.

  16. GAMMA-RAY FLARING ACTIVITY FROM THE GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED BLAZAR PKS 1830–211 OBSERVED BY Fermi LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A. [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Amin, M. A. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, Montpellier (France); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica " M. Merlin" dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bulmash, D., E-mail: sara.buson@pd.infn.it, E-mail: stefano.ciprini@asdc.asi.it, E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: dammando@ira.inaf.it, E-mail: stefano.ciprini@asdc.asi.it, E-mail: sara.buson@pd.infn.it, E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: dammando@ira.inaf.it [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope routinely detects the MeV-peaked flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1830–211 (z = 2.507). Its apparent isotropic γ-ray luminosity (E > 100 MeV), averaged over ∼3 years of observations and peaking on 2010 October 14/15 at 2.9 × 10{sup 50} erg s{sup –1}, makes it among the brightest high-redshift Fermi blazars. No published model with a single lens can account for all of the observed characteristics of this complex system. Based on radio observations, one expects time-delayed variability to follow about 25 days after a primary flare, with flux about a factor of 1.5 less. Two large γ-ray flares of PKS 1830–211 have been detected by the LAT in the considered period, and no substantial evidence for such a delayed activity was found. This allows us to place a lower limit of about 6 on the γ-ray flux ratio between the two lensed images. Swift XRT observations from a dedicated Target of Opportunity program indicate a hard spectrum with no significant correlation of X-ray flux with the γ-ray variability. The spectral energy distribution can be modeled with inverse Compton scattering of thermal photons from the dusty torus. The implications of the LAT data in terms of variability, the lack of evident delayed flare events, and different radio and γ-ray flux ratios are discussed. Microlensing effects, absorption, size and location of the emitting regions, the complex mass distribution of the system, an energy-dependent inner structure of the source, and flux suppression by the lens galaxy for one image path may be considered as hypotheses for understanding our results.

  17. Gamma-Ray Flaring Activity from the Gravitationally Lensed Blazar PKS 1830-211 Observed by Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Amin, M. A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Buehler, R.; Bulmash, D.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Romoli, C.; Roth, M.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Tronconi, V.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.

    2015-02-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope routinely detects the MeV-peaked flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1830-211 (z = 2.507). Its apparent isotropic γ-ray luminosity (E > 100 MeV), averaged over ~3 years of observations and peaking on 2010 October 14/15 at 2.9 × 1050 erg s-1, makes it among the brightest high-redshift Fermi blazars. No published model with a single lens can account for all of the observed characteristics of this complex system. Based on radio observations, one expects time-delayed variability to follow about 25 days after a primary flare, with flux about a factor of 1.5 less. Two large γ-ray flares of PKS 1830-211 have been detected by the LAT in the considered period, and no substantial evidence for such a delayed activity was found. This allows us to place a lower limit of about 6 on the γ-ray flux ratio between the two lensed images. Swift XRT observations from a dedicated Target of Opportunity program indicate a hard spectrum with no significant correlation of X-ray flux with the γ-ray variability. The spectral energy distribution can be modeled with inverse Compton scattering of thermal photons from the dusty torus. The implications of the LAT data in terms of variability, the lack of evident delayed flare events, and different radio and γ-ray flux ratios are discussed. Microlensing effects, absorption, size and location of the emitting regions, the complex mass distribution of the system, an energy-dependent inner structure of the source, and flux suppression by the lens galaxy for one image path may be considered as hypotheses for understanding our results.

  18. Optical quasi-periodic oscillation and color behavior of blazar PKS 2155–304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PKS 2155–304 is a well studied BL Lac object in the southern sky. The historical optical data during different periods have been collected and compiled. Light curves spanning 35 yr have been constructed. The R-band light curve has been analyzed by means of three methods: the epoch folding method, the Jurkevich method and the discrete correlation function method. It is derived that there is an evident periodic component of 317 d (i.e. 0.87 yr) superposed on a long-term trend with large-amplitude variation in the light curve. The variability of this source is accompanied by a slight color variation, and the brightness and color index are correlated with each other. On a long-term time scale, PKS 2155–304 exhibits a tendency of bluer-when-brighter, which means the spectrum becomes flatter when the source brightens. (research papers)

  19. Testing the equivalence principle and Lorentz invariance with the PeV neutrino from blazar PKS B1424-418

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    It was recently proposed that a giant outburst of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift $z=1.522$ occurred in temporal and positional coincidence with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. If the association is real, the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and low-energy photons can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle (EP) and the Lorentz invariance. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least $10^{-5}$, which is two orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for photons and neutrinos. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible ...

  20. INTEGRAL observations of the GeV blazar PKS1502+106 and of the hard X-ray bright Seyfert Galaxy Mkn841

    CERN Document Server

    Pian, E; Bazzano, A; Beckmann, V; Eckert, D; Ghisellini, G; Pursimo, T; Tagliaferri, G; Tavecchio, F; Tuerler, M; Bianchi, S; Bianchin, V; Hudec, R; Maraschi, L; Raiteri, C M; Soldi, S; Treves, A; Villata, M

    2010-01-01

    Extragalactic nuclear activity is best explored with observations at high energies, where the most extreme flux and spectral variations are expected to occur, witnessing changes in the accretion flow or in the kinematics of the plasma. In active galactic nuclei of blazar type, these variations are the most dramatic. By following blazar outbursts from their onset and by correlating the observed variations at many different wavelengths we can reconstruct the behavior of the plasma and map out the development of the flare within the jet. The advent of the Fermi satellite has allowed the start of a systematic and intensive monitoring program of blazars. Blazar outbursts are very effectively detected by the LAT instrument in the MeV-GeV domain, and these can be promptly followed up with other facilities. Based on a Fermi LAT detection of a high MeV-GeV state, we have observed the blazar PKS 1502+106 with the INTEGRAL satellite between 9 and 11 August 2008. Simultaneous Swift observations have been also accomplishe...

  1. Implications of the Anomalous Outburst in the Blazar PKS 0208-512

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Ritaban; Myers, Adam D

    2013-01-01

    The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 0208-512 underwent three outbursts at the optical-near-infrared (OIR) wavelengths during 2008-2011. The second OIR outburst did not have a gamma-ray counterpart despite being comparable in brightness and temporal extent to the other two. We model the time variable spectral energy distribution of PKS 0208-512 during those three flaring episodes with leptonic models to investigate the physical mechanism that can produce this anomalous flare. We show that the redder-when-brighter spectral trend in the OIR bands can be explained by the superposition of a fixed thermal component from the accretion disk and a synchrotron component of fixed shape and variable normalization. We estimate the accretion disk luminosity at L_d ~8 X 10^45 erg/s. Using the observed variability timescale in the OIR band t_{var,obs} ~2 d and the X-ray luminosity L_X ~3.5 X 10^45 erg/s, we constrain the location of the emitting region to distance scales that are broadly comparable with the dusty torus...

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical flux behaviour of Fermi blazars (Marchesini+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, E. J.; Andruchow, I.; Cellone, S. A.; Combi, J. A.; Zibecchi, L.; Marti, J.; Romero, G. E.; Munoz-Arjonilla, A. J.; Luque-Escamilla, P.; Sanchez-Sutil, J. R.

    2016-04-01

    Optical variability results for a sample of 9 BL Lacs (PKS 0048-097, PKS 0754+100, [HB89] 0827+243, PKS 0851+202, PKS 1253-055, PKS 1510-089, PKS 1749+096, PKS 2230+114, and PKS 2251+158) are presented. Column 1 gives the object name with the date, while the following columns give, respectively for bands V and R: the observational error, Sigma, obtained from the standard deviation of the control-comparison differential light-curve for each filter; the variability results; the confidence parameter from the F-test, F; the gamma corrective factor Gamma as described in "Howell S.B., Warnock III A. & Mitchell K.J., 1988AJ.....95..247H"; the number of points in the light curves; and the corresponding critical value, Ft for n=N-1 degrees of freedom, assuming a 99% confidence level. Optical differential photometry results for a sample of 9 BL Lacs (PKS0048-097, PKS0754+100, [HB89]0827+243, PKS0851+202, PKS1253-055, PKS 1510-089, PKS 1749+096, PKS 2230+114, and PKS 2251+158) are presented. The file contains 9 columns: Column 1 gives the object name, column 2 the observed band, column 3 enumerates the number of observations taken, column 4 shows the Heliocentric Julian Date in days, column 5 the differential Heliocentric Julian Date (counting from the last integer date), column 6 the differential magnitude (i.e. the instrumental magnitude of the science object minus the instrumental magnitude of the comparison star, both on the same frame), column 7 its error, column 8 the differential control magnitude (i.e. i.e. the instrumental magnitude of the control object minus the instrumental magnitude of the comparison star, both on the same frame), and column 9 its error. (3 data files).

  3. MAGIC long-term study of the distant TeV blazar PKS 1424+240 in a multiwavelength context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Furniss, A.; Hovatta, T.; Kangas, T.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Lister, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Pavlidou, V.; Readhead, A.; Richards, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We present a study of the very high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-ray emission of the blazar PKS 1424+240 observed with the MAGIC telescopes. The primary aim of this paper is the multiwavelength spectral characterization and modeling of this blazar, which is made particularly interesting by the recent discovery of a lower limit of its redshift of z ≥ 0.6 and makes it a promising candidate to be the most distant VHE source. Methods: The source has been observed with the MAGIC telescopes in VHE γ rays for a total observation time of ~33.6 h from 2009 to 2011. A detailed analysis of its γ-ray spectrum and time evolution has been carried out. Moreover, we have collected and analyzed simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous multiwavelength data. Results: The source was marginally detected in VHE γ rays during 2009 and 2010, and later, the detection was confirmed during an optical outburst in 2011. The combined significance of the stacked sample is ~7.2σ. The differential spectra measured during the different campaigns can be described by steep power laws with the indices ranging from 3.5 ± 1.2 to 5.0 ± 1.7. The MAGIC spectra corrected for the absorption due to the extragalactic background light connect smoothly, within systematic errors, with the mean spectrum in 2009-2011 observed at lower energies by the Fermi-LAT. The absorption-corrected MAGIC spectrum is flat with no apparent turn down up to 400 GeV. The multiwavelength light curve shows increasing flux in radio and optical bands that could point to a common origin from the same region of the jet. The large separation between the two peaks of the constructed non-simultaneous spectral energy distribution also requires an extremely high Doppler factor if an one zone synchrotron self-Compton model is applied. We find that a two-component synchrotron self-Compton model describes the spectral energy distribution of the source well, if the source is located at z ~ 0.6. Appendix is available in electronic form at

  4. Very-high-energy gamma-rays from the Universe's middle age: detection of the z=0.940 blazar PKS 1441+25 with MAGIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ahnen, M L; Antonelli, A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Banerjee, B; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biassuzzi, B; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Chatterjee, A; Clavero, R; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Mendez, C Delgado; Di Pierro, F; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsaesser, D; Fernández-Barral, A; Fidalgo, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giammaria, P; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Guberman, D; Hahn, A; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Hughes, G; Idec, W; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Manganaro, M; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Moretti, E; Nakajima, D; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Rosillo, M Nievas; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palacio, J; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Saito, T; Satalecka, K; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Verguilov, V; Vovk, I; Ward, J E; Will, M; Wu, M H; Zanin, R; :,; Ajello, M; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; González, J Becerra; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bonino, R; Bregeon, J; Bruel, P; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Palma, F; Desiante, R; Di Venere, L; Domínguez, A; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Hays, E; Hewitt, J W; Jogler, T; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Li, J; Li, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Maldera, S; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mirabal, N; Mizuno, T; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Nuss, E; Ojha, R; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spada, F; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Troja, E; Wood, K S; Balokovic, M; Berdyugin, A; Carraminana, A; Carrasco, L; Chavushyan, V; Ramazani, V Fallah; Feige, M; Haarto, S; Haeusner, P; Hovatta, T; Kania, J; Klamt, J; Lähteenmäki, A; Leon-Tavares, J; Lorey, C; Pacciani, L; Porras, A; Recillas, E; Reinthal, R; Tornikoski, M; Wolfert, D; Zottmann, N

    2015-01-01

    The flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1441+25 at a redshift of z = 0.940 is detected between 40 and 250 GeV with a significance of 25.5 {\\sigma} using the MAGIC telescopes. Together with the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 (z = 0.944), PKS 1441+25 is the most distant very high energy (VHE) blazar detected to date. The observations were triggered by an outburst in 2015 April seen at GeV energies with the Large Area Telescope on board Fermi. Multi-wavelength observations suggest a subdivision of the high state into two distinct flux states. In the band covered by MAGIC, the variability time scale is estimated to be 6.4 +/- 1.9 days. Modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution with an external Compton model, the location of the emitting region is understood as originating in the jet outside the broad line region (BLR) during the period of high activity, while being partially within the BLR during the period of low (typical) activity. The observed VHE spectrum during the highest activity is used ...

  5. NuSTAR and multifrequency study of the two high-redshift blazars S5 0836+710 and PKS 2149-306

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Perri, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Powerful blazars are flat-spectrum radio quasars whose emission is dominated by a Compton component peakingbetween a few hundred keV and a few hundred MeV. We observed two bright blazars, PKS 2149–306 at redshift z = 2.345 and S5 0836+710 at z = 2.172, in the hard X-ray band with the Nuclear...... Spectroscopic Telescope Array satellite. Simultaneous soft-X-rays and UV–optical observations were performed with the Swift satellite, whilenear-infrared (near-IR) data were obtained with the Rapid Eye Mount telescope. To study their variability, we repeated these observations for both sources on a timescale...... of a few months. While no fast variability was detected during a single observation, both sources were variable in the X-ray band, up to 50%, between the two observations, with larger variability at higher energies. No variability was detected in the optical/NIR band. These data, together with Fermi...

  6. Flux and spectral variability of the blazar PKS 2155 -304 with XMM-Newton: Evidence of particle acceleration and synchrotron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwan, Jai; Gupta, A. C.; Papadakis, I. E.; Wiita, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton observations of the high energy peaked blazar, PKS 2155 -304, made on 24 May 2002 in the 0.3-10 keV X-ray band. These observations display a mini-flare, a nearly constant flux period and a strong flux increase. We performed a time-resolved spectral study of the data, by dividing the data into eight segments. We fitted the data with a power-law and a broken power-law model, and in some of the segments we found a noticeable spectral flattening of the source's spectrum below 10 keV. We also performed "time-resolved" cross-correlation analyses and detected significant hard and soft lags (for the first time in a single observation of this source) during the first and last parts of the observation, respectively. Our analysis of the spectra, the variations of photon-index with flux as well as the correlation and lags between the harder and softer X-ray bands indicate that both the particle acceleration and synchrotron cooling processes make an important contribution to the emission from this blazar. The hard lags indicate a variable acceleration process. We also estimated the magnetic field value using the soft lags. The value of the magnetic field is consistent with the values derived from the broad-band SED modeling of this source.

  7. NuSTAR and multifrequency study of the two high-redshift blazars S5 0836+710 and PKS 2149-306

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferri, G; Perri, M; Hayashida, M; Balokovic, M; Covino, S; Giommi, P; Madejski, G M; Puccetti, S; Sbarrato, T; Boggs, S E; Chiang, J; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Stern, D; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    The most powerful blazars are the flat spectrum radio quasars whose emission is dominated by a Compton component peaking between a few hundred keV and a few hundred MeV. We selected two bright blazars, PKS 2149-306 at redshift z=2.345 and S5 0836+710 at z=2.172, in order to observe them in the hard X-ray band with the NuSTAR satellite. In this band the Compton component is rapidly rising almost up to the peak of the emission. Simultaneous soft-X-rays and UV-optical observations were performed with the Swift satellite, while near-infrared (NIR) data were obtained with the REM telescope. To study their variability, we repeated these observations for both sources on a timescale of a few months. While no fast variability was detected during a single observation, both sources were found to be variable in the X-ray band, up to 50%, between the two observations, with larger variability at higher energies. No variability was detected in the optical/NIR band. These data together with Fermi-LAT, WISE and other literatu...

  8. Through the Ring of Fire: A Study of the Origin of Orphan Gamma-ray Flares in Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Nicholas R.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Joshi, Manasvita

    2014-06-01

    Blazars exhibit flares across the electromagnetic spectrum. Many gamma-ray flares are highly correlated with flares detected at optical wavelengths; however, a small subset appear to occur in isolation, with no counterpart in the other wave bands. These "orphan" gamma-ray flares challenge current models of blazar variability, most of which are unable to reproduce this type of behavior. We present numerical calculations of the time variable emission of a blazar based on a proposal by Marscher et al. (2010) to explain such events. In this model, a plasmoid ("blob") consisting of a power-law distribution of electrons propagates relativistically along the spine of a blazar jet and passes through a synchrotron emitting ring of electrons representing a shocked portion of the jet sheath. This ring supplies a source of seed photons that are inverse-Compton scattered by the electrons in the moving blob. As the blob approaches the ring, the photon density in the co-moving frame of the plasma increases, resulting in an orphan gamma-ray flare that then dissipates as the blob passes through and then moves away from the ring. The model includes the effects of radiative cooling and a spatially varying magnetic field. Support for the plausibility of this model is provided by observations by Marscher et al.(2010) of an isolated gamma-ray flare that was correlated with the passage of a superluminal knot through the inner jet of quasar PKS 1510-089. Synthetic light-curves produced by this new model are compared to the observed light-curves from this event. In addition, we present polarimetric observations that point to the existence of a jet sheath in the quasar 3C 273. A rough estimate of the bolometric luminosity of the sheath results in a value of ~10^45 erg s^-1 10% of the jet luminosity). This inferred sheath luminosity indicates that the jet sheath in 3C 273 can provide a significant source of seed photons that need to be taken into account when modeling the non

  9. A flat spectrum candidate for a track-type high energy neutrino emission event, the case of blazar PKS 0723-008

    CERN Document Server

    Kun, E; Gergely, L Á

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter we present a model for consecutive emission of low frequency gravitational waves, high energy neutrinos, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and luminous radio afterglow, all generated by the merger of two supermassive black holes acting as engine. The main contributing events are the spin-flip of the dominant black hole, gravitational wave burst, final coalescence, followed by formation of a new jet, particle acceleration and interaction with the surrounding material (leading to a radio flux density peak and the hardening at radio frequencies). Cross-correlating the Parkes Catalogue and the 2nd Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources with the arrival direction of the track-type neutrino detections by the IceCube, two flat spectrum radio sources emerge as possible origin in the framework of the proposed model. We discuss the blazar PKS 0723-008 as an excellent candidate exhibiting key elements of this complex process, with traces of a spin-flip, high-energy neutrino emission, and five-fold increased rad...

  10. Flux and spectral variability of the blazar PKS 2155-304 with XMM-Newton: Evidence of Particle Acceleration and Synchrotron Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagwana, Jai; Papadakis, I E; Wiita, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton observations of the high energy peaked blazar, PKS 2155-304, made on 24 May 2002 in the 0.3 - 10 keV X-ray band. These observations display a mini-flare, a nearly constant flux period and a strong flux increase. We performed a time-resolved spectral study of the data, by dividing the data into eight segments. We fitted the data with a power-law and a broken power-law model, and in some of the segments we found a noticeable spectral flattening of the source's spectrum below 10 keV. We also performed time-resolved cross-correlation analyses and detected significant hard and soft lags (for the first time in a single observation of this source) during the first and last parts of the observation, respectively. Our analysis of the spectra, the variations of photon-index with flux as well as the correlation and lags between the harder and softer X-ray bands indicate that both the particle acceleration and synchrotron cooling processes make an important contribution to the emission from th...

  11. First NuSTAR observations of the BL Lac - type blazar PKS~2155-304: constraints on the jet content and distribution of radiating particles

    CERN Document Server

    Madejski, G M; Madsen, K K; Chiang, J; Baloković, M; Paneque, D; Furniss, A K; Hayashida, M; Urry, C M; Sikora, M; Ajello, M; Blandford, R D; Harrison, F A; Sanchez, D; Giebels, B; Stern, D; Alexander, D M; Barret, D; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Forster, K; Giommi, P; Grefenstette, B; Hailey, C; Hornstrup, A; Kitaguchi, T; Koglin, J E; Mao, P H; Miyasaka, H; Mori, K; Perri, M; Pivovaroff, M J; Puccetti, S; Rana, V; Westergaard, N J; Zhang, W W; Zoglauer, A

    2016-01-01

    We report the first hard X-ray observations with NuSTAR of the BL Lac type blazar PKS 2155-304, augmented with soft X-ray data from XMM-Newton and gamma-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, obtained in April 2013 when the source was in a very low flux state. A joint NuSTAR and XMM spectrum, covering the energy range 0.5 - 60 keV, is best described by a model consisting of a log-parabola component with curvature beta = 0.3(+0.2,-0.1) and a (local) photon index 3.04 +/- 0.15 at photon energy of 2 keV, and a hard power-law tail with photon index 2.2 +/- 0.4. The hard X-ray tail can be smoothly joined to the quasi-simultaneous gamma-ray spectrum by a synchrotron self-Compton component produced by an electron distribution with index p = 2.2. Assuming that the power-law electron distribution extends down to the minimum electron Lorentz factor gamma_min = 1 and that there is one proton per electron, an unrealistically high total jet power L_p of roughly 10^47 erg/s is inferred. This can be reduced by two or...

  12. On the origin of the soft photons of the high synchrotron peaked blazar : PKS 1424+240

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Shiju; Wu, Qingwen; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    PKS 1424+240 is a distant very high energy gamma-ray BL Lac object with redshift $z=0.601$. It was found that pure synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) process normally need extreme input parameters (e.g., very low magnetic field intensity and extraordinarily large Doppler factor) to explain its multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions (SEDs). To avoid the extreme model parameters, different models have been proposed (e.g., two-zone SSC model or lepto-hadronic model). In this work, we employ the traditional one-zone leptonic model after including a weak external Compton component to re-explore the simultaneous multi-wavelength SEDs of PKS 1424+240 in both high (2009) and low (2013) states. We find that the input parameters of magnetic field and Doppler factor are roughly consistent with those of other BL Lacs if a weak external photon field from either broad line region (BLR) or the dust torus. However, the required energy density of seed photons from BLR or torus is about 3 orders of magnitude less than that...

  13. AGILE detection of intense γ-ray activity from the blazar PKS 0537-441 in October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucella, G.; D'Ammando, F.; Romano, P.; Treves, A.; Pian, E.; Vercellone, S.; Vittorini, V.; Piano, G.; Impiombato, D.; Fugazza, D.; Verrecchia, F.; Krimm, H. A.; Donnarumma, I.; Tavani, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Chen, A. W.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Pacciani, L.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Boffelli, F.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cocco, V.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; de Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Froysland, T.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Marisaldi, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Morelli, E.; Morselli, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Picozza, P.; Pilia, M.; Prest, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Rappoldi, A.; Sabatini, S.; Soffitta, P.; Striani, E.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Perri, M.; Pittori, C.; Santolamazza, P.; Giommi, P.; Antonelli, L. A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Salotti, L.

    2010-11-01

    Context. We report the detection by the AGILE satellite of intense γ-ray activity from the source 1AGL J0538-4424, associated with the low-energy-peaked BL Lac PKS 0537-441, during a target of opportunity (ToO) observation performed on 2008 October 10-17, triggered by a Fermi-LAT alert, together with REM and Swift observations. Aims: The quasi-simultaneous near-infrared, optical, UV, X-ray, and γ-ray coverage allowed us to investigate the behaviour of the source in different energy bands and study the spectral energy distribution and a theoretical model that can describe the γ-ray state observed in mid-October. Methods: AGILE observed the source with its two co-aligned imagers: the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) and the hard X-ray imager (SuperAGILE), sensitive in the 30 MeV-30 GeV and 18-60 keV ranges, respectively. During the AGILE observation, the source was monitored simultaneously in the UV and X-ray bands by the Swift satellite through 6 ToO observations carried out between 2008 October 8 and 17. Moreover, the source was observed in the near-infrared and optical bands by the REM telescope on 2008 October 7, 8, and 9. Results: During 2008 October 10-17, AGILE-GRID detected γ-ray emission from PKS 0537-441 at a significance level of 5.3-σ with an average flux of (42 ± 11) × 10-8 photons cm-2 s-1 for energies higher than 100 MeV. A significant increase in the γ-ray activity was detected between the first and the second halves of the observing period. REM and Swift/XRT detected the source in near-infrared/optical and X-rays during a relatively low and intermediate activity state, respectively, with no signs of evident variability in the different observations. However, Swift/UVOT detected an increase between the first and the second parts of the observing period, smaller than in the γ-rays. Conclusions: The average γ-ray flux of PKS 0537-441 detected by AGILE is close to the average flux observed for this source by the EGRET and Fermi-LAT instruments

  14. Fermi-LAT detection of increased gamma-ray activity from the blazar PKS 0727-115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D.; Hays, E. Gurwell, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST, launched June 11, 2008), has observed an increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with PKS 0727-115 (RA: 07h30m19.1s, Dec: -11d41m13s, J2000, z=1.59 ( Zensus et al. 2002)). Preliminary analysis indicates that over the past month the source has become, on average, brighter with a gamma-ray flux (E>100MeV) of approximately 5.0+/- 0.8 x 10^-7 photons cm^-2 s^-1 on weekly timescales and occasional day-scale detections at the level of approximately 4.0 +/- 1.0 x 10^-7 photons cm^-2 s^-1.

  15. Shaping the GeV-spectra of bright blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, L.; Reimer, A.

    2016-05-01

    -scattered BLR radiation only, and provide the corresponding injection parameters. Here the spectral turn-over is explained by a corresponding break in the ambient electron spectrum. In a similar way, we also applied our model to the FSRQ PKS 1510-089, and present two possible model fits. Here, the GeV-spectrum is either dominated by Compton-scattered accretion disk radiation or is a combination of Compton-scattered disk and BLR radiation. We provide the required injection parameters for these fits. In all four scenarios, we found that impulsive particle injection is disfavored. Conclusions: The presented injection model that is embedded in a leptonic blazar emission model for external Compton-loss dominated jets of AGN aims towards bridging jet emission with acceleration models using a phenomenological approach. Blazar spectral data can be analyzed with this model to constrain injection parameters, in addition to the conventional parameter values of steady-state emission models, if sufficient broad multifrequency coverage is provided.

  16. Gamma-Gamma Absorption in the Broad Line Region Radiation Fields of Gamma-Ray Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The expected level of gamma-gamma absorption in the Broad Line Region (BLR) radiation field of gamma-ray loud Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs)is evaluated as a function of the location of the gamma-ray emission region. This is done self-consistently with parameters inferred from the shape of the spectral energy distribution (SED) in a single-zone leptonic EC-BLR model scenario. We take into account all geometrical effects both in the calculation of the gamma-gamma opacity and the normalization of the BLR radiation energy density. As specific examples, we study the FSRQs 3C279 and PKS 1510-089, keeping the BLR radiation energy density at the location of the emission region fixed at the values inferred from the SED. We confirm previous findings that the optical depth due to $\\gamma\\gamma$ absorption in the BLR radiation field exceeds unity for both 3C279 and PKS 1510-089 for locations of the gamma-ray emission region inside the inner boundary of the BLR. It decreases monotonically, with distance from the cen...

  17. Probing the jet base of the blazar PKS1830-211 from the chromatic variability of its lensed images. Serendipitous ALMA observations of a strong gamma-ray flare

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, I; Combes, F; Aalto, S; Beelen, A; Darling, J; Guelin, M; Henkel, C; Horellou, C; Marcaide, J M; Martin, S; Menten, K M; Dinh-V-Trung,; Zwaan, M

    2013-01-01

    The launching mechanism of the jets of active galactic nuclei is observationally poorly constrained, due to the large distances to these objects and the very small scales (sub-parsec) involved. In order to better constrain theoretical models, it is especially important to get information from the region close to the physical base of the jet, where the plasma acceleration takes place. In this paper, we report multi-epoch and multi-frequency continuum observations of the z=2.5 blazar PKS1830-211 with ALMA, serendipitously coincident with a strong $\\gamma$-ray flare reported by Fermi-LAT. The blazar is lensed by a foreground z=0.89 galaxy, with two bright images of the compact core separated by 1". Our ALMA observations individually resolve these two images (although not any of their substructures), and we study the change of their relative flux ratio with time (four epochs spread over nearly three times the time delay between the two lensed images) and frequency (between 350 and 1050 GHz, rest-frame of the blaz...

  18. Rapid VHE variability in blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Volpe, Francesca; Rieger, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are known to show significant variability over a wide frequency range. We review observational results on the variability characteristics of blazars in the very high energy (VHE) domain, focusing on recent findings of rapid VHE variability and evidence for an underlying multiplicative driving process in PKS 2155-304. We explore a physical scenario where the variability is assumed to arise due to accretion disk fluctuations transmitted to the jet, and discuss its i...

  19. Optical and X-ray Variability of Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report our recent results of variability studies in optical and X-ray bands of three blazars namely 3C 273, PKS 2155 - 304 and BL Lacertae with XMM-Newton. We found large amplitude optical to X-rays variability in 3C 273, and PKS 2155 - 304 on year time scale. In 3C 273, we noticed that synchrotron cooling and particle acceleration are at work at different epoch of observations. In PKS 2155 - 304, spectral energy distribution from optical to X-ray is fitted with LPPL (log parabolic + ...

  20. Optical and X-ray Variability of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, A C

    2015-01-01

    Here we report our recent results of variability studies in optical and X-ray bands of three blazars namely 3C 273, PKS 2155 - 304 and BL Lacertae with XMM-Newton. We found large amplitude optical to X-rays variability in 3C 273, and PKS 2155 - 304 on year time scale. In 3C 273, we noticed that synchrotron cooling and particle acceleration are at work at different epoch of observations. In PKS 2155 - 304, spectral energy distribution from optical to X-ray is fitted with LPPL (log parabolic + power law) model. In BL Lacertae, optical flux and degree of polarization were anti-correlated.

  1. Long-term Variability Properties and Periodicity Analysis for Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, J H

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the compiled long-term optical and infrared measurements of some blazars are used to analyze the variation properties and the optical data are used to search for periodicity evidence in the lightcurve by means of the Jurkevich technique and the discrete correlation function (DCF) method. Following periods are found: 4.52-year for 3C 66A; 1.56 and 2.95 years for AO 0235+164; 14.4, 18.6 years for PKS 0735+178; 17.85 and 24.7 years for PKS 0754+100; 5.53 and 11.75 for OJ 287. 4.45, and 6.89 years for PKS 1215; 9 and 14.84 years for PKS 1219+285; 2.0, 13.5 and 22.5 for 3C273; 7.1 year for 3C279; 6.07 for PKS 1308+326; 3.0 and 16.5 years for PKS 1418+546; 2.0 and 9.35 years for PKS 1514-241; 18.18 for PKS 1807+698; 4.16 and 7.0 for 2155-304; 14 and 20 years for BL Lacertae. Some explanations have been discussed.

  2. Fermi detected blazars seen by INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, V; Soldi, S

    2009-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations are essential to constrain physical parameters of the blazars observed by Fermi/LAT. Among the 187 AGN significantly detected in public INTEGRAL data above 20 keV by the imager IBIS/ISGRI, 20 blazars were detected. 15 of these sources allowed significant spectral extraction. They show hard X-ray spectra with an average photon index of 2.1+-0.1 and a hard X-ray luminosity of L(20-100 keV) = 1.3e46 erg/s. 15 of the INTEGRAL blazars are also visible in the first 16 months of the Fermi/LAT data, thus allowing to constrain the inverse Compton branch in these cases. Among others, we analyse the LAT data of four blazars which were not included in the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample based on the first 3 months of the mission: QSO B0836+710, H 1426+428, RX J1924.8-2914, and PKS 2149-306. Especially for blazars during bright outbursts, as already observed simultaneously by INTEGRAL and Fermi (e.g. 3C 454.3 and Mrk 421), INTEGRAL provides unique spectral coverage up to several hundred keV. We pr...

  3. INTEGRAL and Swift Observations of Blazars in Outburst

    OpenAIRE

    Pian, Elena; Foschini, Luigi; Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2007-01-01

    The blazars 3C 454.3, PKS 0537-441 and PKS 2155-304 are traditionally known to be among the most active sources of this class. They emit at all frequencies, up to the gamma-rays, and are good probes of multiwavelength nuclear variability. The first two have also luminous broad emission line regions. We have recently monitored them with various facilities, including Swift and INTEGRAL, and have interpreted their variations with models of non-thermal radiation from a relativistic jet. In partic...

  4. BLAZAR MONITORING WITH THE WATCHER ROBOTIC TELESCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Tisdall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos informaci ́on sobre una intensa campa ̃na de obs ervaciones de blazars de rayos gamma en el ́optico que estamos llevando a cabo capaz de observar variabilidad ́ optica de corta y larga duraci ́on para fuentes del hemisferio sur. Diez fuentes est ́an siendo observadas dent ro de este programa con ́enfasis en PKS 2155-304 y PKS 2005-489 durante el invierno austral de 2013. Ambas fuen tes fueron observadas con 3 filtros (V, R e I obteniendo alrededor de 20,000 im ́agenes durante un period o de 5 meses. Un an ́alisis preliminar parcial de los datos indica que no hubo episodios de gran actividad en la ban da ́optica.

  5. THE NATURE OF γ-RAY LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT I GALAXIES PKS 1502+036 AND PKS 2004–447

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variable γ-ray emission has been discovered in five radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. This has clearly demonstrated that these NLSy1 galaxies do have relativistic jets similar to two other cases of γ-ray-emitting active galactic nuclei (AGNs), namely, blazars and radio galaxies. We present here our results on the multi-band analysis of two γ-ray-emitting NLSy1 galaxies, namely, PKS 1502+036 (z = 0.409) and PKS 2004–447 (z = 0.240), using archival data. We generate multi-band long-term light curves of these sources, build their spectral energy distribution (SED), and model them using a one-zone leptonic model. They resemble more the SEDs of the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) class of AGNs. We then compare the SEDs of these two sources with two other Fermi-detected AGNs along the traditional blazar sequence, namely, the BL Lac Mrk 421 (z = 0.03) and the FSRQ 3C 454.3 (z = 0.86). The SEDs of both PKS 1502+036 and PKS 2004–447 are found to be intermediate to the SEDs of Mrk 421 and 3C 454.3. In the γ-ray spectral index versus γ-ray luminosity plane, both these NLSy1 galaxies occupy a distinct position, wherein they have luminosity between Mrk 421 and 3C 454.3; however, their steep γ-ray spectra are similar to 3C 454.3. Their Compton dominance as well as their X-ray spectral slope also lie between Mrk 421 and 3C 454.3. We argue that the physical properties of both PKS 1502+036 and PKS 2004–447 are generally similar to blazars and intermediate between FSRQs and BL Lac objects and these sources thus could fit into the traditional blazar sequence.

  6. Magnetic Field Amplification and Blazar Flares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xuhui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent multiwavelength observations of PKS 0208-512 by SMARTS, Fermi, and Swift revealed that γ-ray and optical light curves of this flat spectrum radio quasars are highly correlated, but with an exception of one large optical flare having no corresponding gamma-ray activity or even detection. On the other hand, recent advances in SNRs observations and plasma simulations both reveal that magnetic field downstream of astrophysical shocks can be largely amplified beyond simple shock compression. These amplifications, along with their associated particle acceleration, might contribute to blazar flares, including the peculiar flare of PKS 0208-512. Using our time dependent multizone blazar emission code, we evaluate several scenarios that may represent such phenomena. This code combines Monte Carlo method that tracks the radiative processes including inverse Compton scattering, and Fokker-Planck equation that follows the cooling and acceleration of particles. It is a comprehensive time dependent code that fully takes into account the light travel time effects. In this study, both the changes of the magnetic field and acceleration efficiency are explored as the cause of blazar flares. Under these assumption, synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton scenarios produce distinct features that favor the external Compton scenario. The optical flares with/without gamma-ray counterparts can be explained by different allocations of energy between the magnetization and particle acceleration, which in turn can be affected by the relative orientation between the magnetic field and the shock flow. We compare the details of the observations and simulation, and highlight what implications this study has on our understanding of relativistic jets.

  7. The Nature of gamma-ray Loud Narrow Line Seyfert I Galaxies PKS 1502+036 and PKS 2004-447

    CERN Document Server

    Paliya, Vaidehi S; Shukla, Amit; Sahayanathan, S

    2013-01-01

    Variable gamma-ray emission has been discovered in five Radio-loud Narrow Line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. This has clearly demonstrated that these NLSy1 galaxies do have relativistic jets similar to two other cases of gamma-ray emitting Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), namely blazars and radio galaxies. We present here our results on the multi-band analysis of two gamma-ray emitting NLSy1 galaxies namely PKS 1502+036 (z = 0.409) and PKS 2004-447 (z = 0.240) using archival data. We generate multi-band long term light curves of these sources, build their spectral energy distribution (SED) and model them using an one zone leptonic model. They resemble more to the SEDs of the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) class of AGN. We then compare the SEDs of these two sources with two other Fermi detected AGN along the traditional blazar sequence, namely the BL Lac Mrk 421 (z = 0.03) and the FSRQ 3C 454.3 (z = 0.86). The SEDs of both PKS 1502+036...

  8. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the X-ray Light Curves of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paul J. Wiita

    2011-03-01

    Any quasi-periodic variations discovered in blazar light curves would contain important information on the location and nature of the processes within the emission regions. In non-blazar active galactic nuclei, particularly Seyfert galaxies, any such fluctuations are very likely to be associated with the accretion disks, but in blazars they would almost certainly have to emanate from jets. This brief review summarizes recent claims for the presence of quasi-periodic variability in the X-ray emission of several AGN, focusing on blazars. Although no individual claim of the presence of a QPO in AGN X-ray light curves is absolutely convincing, there are some good cases for the presence of QPOs, including the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy, RE J1034+396, the quasar, 3C 273 and the BL Lac, PKS 2155−304.

  9. Models for Very Rapid High-Energy -Ray Variability in Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. E. Romero; M. M. Reynoso

    2014-09-01

    We present a family of models for rapid -ray variability in blazars based on a two-component jet. Fast variability occurs when relativistic electron–positron pairs interact with small-scale perturbations in the inner jet. These perturbations are produced by Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. We fit the minute-scale strong variability displayed by the blazar PKS 2155−304 and present synthetic light-curves of the kind that might be observed with forthcoming instruments such as the Cherenkov telescope array.

  10. BeppoSAX observations of PKS 0528+134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the BeppoSAX observations of the γ-ray blazar PKS 0528+134 performed in Feb and Mar 1997, during a multiwavelength campaign involving EGRET and ground based telescopes. The source was in a faint and hard state, with energy spectral index α = 0.48 ± 0.04 between 0.1 and 10 keV, and keV flux of 2.7 x 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. No significant variability was observed. The source was detected in the 20-120 keV band by the PDS, with a flux lying slightly above the extrapolation from lower X-ray energies. Comparing this low state with previous higher states of the source, there is an indication that the X-ray spectrum hardens and the γ-ray spectrum steepens when the source is fainter

  11. Blazar Sequence in Fermi Era

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liang Chen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we review the latest research results on the topic of blazar sequence. It seems that the blazar sequence is phenomenally ruled out, while the theoretical blazar sequence still holds. We point out that black hole mass is a dominated parameter accounting for high-power-high-synchrotron-peaked and low-power-low-sychrotron-peaked blazars. Because most blazars have similar size of emission region, theoretical blazar sequence implies that the break of Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) is a cooling break in nature.

  12. Blazar Compton Efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has dramatically increased the number of gamma-ray blazars known and means that for the first time, a large sample of blazars selected by the strength of their inverse Compton emission exists. We have cross-identified the blazars listed in the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) with the CRATES radio catalogue. Using the 8.4 GHz flux density as a proxy for the jet power, we have computed their Compton efficiencies, a measure of the ability of the jet to convert the power in the ultrarelativistic jet electrons into gamma-rays through the inverse Compton process. We have compared the Compton efficiencies of the two blazar subsets, BL Lacs and FSRQs, and find no evidence that they are different. We also do not find an anti-correlation between Compton efficiency and synchrotron peak frequency.

  13. NuSTAR Observations of Blazars and Radio Galaxies: First Results and Plans for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejski, Grzegorz M.; Ajello, M.; Balokovic, M.; Blandford, R. D.; Boggs, S. E.; Boydstun, K.; Christensen, F.; Craig, W.; Giebels, B.; Giommi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Hayashida, M.; Humensky, B.; Inoue, Y.; Koglin, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Meier, D.; Ogle, P. M.; Paneque, D.; Perri, M.; Puccetti, S.; Readhead, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Stern, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Urry, C. M.; Zhang, W.; NuSTAR Team

    2013-01-01

    NuSTAR, or the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, is a hard X-ray - sensitive imaging satellite successfully launched by NASA on June 13, 2012. One of the main science goals of NuSTAR is to study relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei: this includes both blazars and radio galaxies. NuSTAR has already observed several such AGN with prominent jets for calibration purposes: these include the blazars 3C273, Mkn 421, and PKS 2155-304. We show preliminary data for those sources, and discuss the plans for NuSTAR observations of blazars and radio galaxies. The emphasis of the strategy is on multi-band monitoring, coordinated with soft X-ray - sensitive instruments as well as ground-based radio, infrared, optical, and TeV telescopes.

  14. Swift for blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G

    2015-01-01

    I will review recent advances in the field of blazars, highlighting the contribution of Swift. Together with other operating satellites (most notably Fermi, but also AGILE, WISE, Planck) and ground based facilities such as Cherenkov telescopes, Swift was (and is) crucial for improving our understanding of blazars. The main advances in the blazar field made possible by Swift includes the opening of the time domain investigation, since there are several sources with hundreds of simultaneous optical, UV and X-ray data taken at different times; the possibility to measure the black hole mass in very powerful blazars, that show clear signs of accretion disk emission; the possibility to classify blazar candidates, through X-ray observations; the finding of the most powerful and distant blazars, emitting strongly in the hard X-ray band accessible to Swift/BAT. All these improvements had and have a great impact on our understanding on how relativistic jets are formed and emit, on their power, and on how the heavy blac...

  15. High redshift blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G

    2013-01-01

    Blazars are sources whose jet is pointing to us. Since their jets are relativistic, the flux is greatly amplified in the direction of motion, making blazars the most powerful persistent objects in the Universe. This is true at all frequencies, but especially where their spectrum peaks. Although the spectrum of moderate powerful sources peaks in the ~GeV range, extremely powerful sources at high redshifts peak in the ~MeV band. This implies that the hard X-ray band is the optimal one to find powerful blazars beyond a redshift of ~4. First indications strongly suggest that powerful high-z blazars harbor the most massive and active early black holes, exceeding a billion solar masses. Since for each detected blazars there must exist hundreds of similar, but misaligned, sources, the search for high-z blazars is becoming competitive with the search of early massive black holes using radio-quiet quasars. Finding how the two populations of black holes (one in jetted sources, the other in radio-quiet objects) evolve i...

  16. Tev Blazars: Status of Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Krennrich, F.; Biller, S. D.; Bond, I. H.; Boyle, P. J.; Bradbury, S. M.; Breslin, A. C.; J. H. Buckley(Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, USA); Burdett, A. M.; Bussons-Gordo, J.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Catanese, M.; Cawley, M. F.; Fegan, D. J.; Finley, J. P.; Gaidos, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    The close relation between ground-based TeV observations and satellite borne $\\gamma$-ray measurements has been important for the understanding of blazars. The observations which involve the TeV component in blazar studies are reviewed.

  17. What can the 2008/10 broadband flare of PKS 1502+106 tell us? Nuclear opacity, magnetic fields, and the location of gamma rays

    OpenAIRE

    Karamanavis, V.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Nestoras, I.; Myserlis, I.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Zensus, J. A.; Ungerechts, H.; Sievers, A.; Gurwell, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The origin of blazar variability, seen from radio up to gamma rays, is still a heavily debated matter and broadband flares offer a unique testbed towards a better understanding of these extreme objects. Such an energetic outburst was detected by Fermi/LAT in 2008 from the blazar PKS 1502+106. The outburst was observed from gamma rays down to radio frequencies. Aims. Through the delay between flare maxima at different radio frequencies, we study the frequency-dependent position of the...

  18. Blazars distance indications from Fermi and TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    Prandini, Elisa; Maraschi, Laura; Mariotti, Mose'; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    A new method to constrain the distance of blazars with unknown redshift using combined observations in the GeV and TeV regimes will be presented. The underlying assumption is that the Very High Energy (VHE) spectrum corrected for the absorption of TeV photons by the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) via photon-photon interaction should still be softer than the extrapolation of the gamma-ray spectrum observed by Fermi/LAT. Starting from the observed spectral data at VHE, the EBL-corrected spectra are derived as a function of the redshift z and fitted with power laws. Comparing the redshift dependent VHE slopes with the power law fits to the LAT data an upper limit to the source redshift can be derived. The method is applied to all TeV blazars detected by LAT with known distance and an empirical law describing the relation between the upper limits and the true redshifts is derived. This law can be used to estimate the distance of unknown redshift blazars: as an example, the distance of PKS 1424+240 is inferr...

  19. High redshift Fermi blazars observed by GROND and Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G; Tagliaferri, G; Greiner, J; Schady, P; Rau, A; Foschini, L; Tavecchio, F; Ghirlanda, G; Sbarrato, T

    2012-01-01

    We observed 5 gamma-ray loud blazars at redshift greater than 2 with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the UltraViolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) onboard the Swift satellite, and the Gamma-Ray burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) instrument. These observations were quasi simultaneous, usually within a few hours. For 4 of these blazars the near-IR to UV data show the presence of an accretion disc, and we could reliably estimate its accretion rate and black hole mass. One of them, PKS 1348+007, was found in an extraordinarily high IR-optical state, almost two orders of magnitude brighter than at the epoch of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations. For all the 5 quasars the physical parameters of the jet emitting zone, derived by applying a one-zone emission model, are similar to that found for the bulk of other gamma-ray loud quasars. With our observations we have X-ray data for the full sample of blazars at z>2 present in the Fermi 2-yrs (2LAC) catalog. This allows to have a rather complete view of th...

  20. Core Dominance Parameter for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. H. Li; J. H. Fan; D. X. Wu

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we compiled 572 blazars that have known core dominance parameter (log ), out of which 121 blazars are -ray loud blazars. We compared log between 121 blazars and the rest with non -ray detections, and found that -ray loud blazars showed a different distribution, and their average value of log is greater than that for non -ray blazars. Our analysis suggests that the -ray emissions are strongly beamed.

  1. Coincidence of a high-fluence blazar outburst with a PeV-energy neutrino event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadler, M.; Krauß, F.; Mannheim, K.; Ojha, R.; Müller, C.; Schulz, R.; Anton, G.; Baumgartner, W.; Beuchert, T.; Buson, S.; Carpenter, B.; Eberl, T.; Edwards, P. G.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsässer, D.; Gehrels, N.; Gräfe, C.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; James, C. W.; Kappes, A.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Langejahn, M.; Leiter, K.; Litzinger, E.; Longo, F.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McEnery, J.; Natusch, T.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Quick, J.; Ros, E.; Stecker, F. W.; Steinbring, T.; Stevens, J.; Thompson, D. J.; Trüstedt, J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.; Wilms, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The astrophysical sources of the extraterrestrial, very high-energy neutrinos detected by the IceCube collaboration remain to be identified. Gamma-ray (γ-ray) blazars have been predicted to yield a cumulative neutrino signal exceeding the atmospheric background above energies of 100 TeV, assuming that both the neutrinos and the γ-ray photons are produced by accelerated protons in relativistic jets. As the background spectrum falls steeply with increasing energy, the individual events with the clearest signature of being of extraterrestrial origin are those at petaelectronvolt energies. Inside the large positional-uncertainty fields of the first two petaelectronvolt neutrinos detected by IceCube, the integrated emission of the blazar population has a sufficiently high electromagnetic flux to explain the detected IceCube events, but fluences of individual objects are too low to make an unambiguous source association. Here, we report that a major outburst of the blazar PKS B1424-418 occurred in temporal and positional coincidence with a third petaelectronvolt-energy neutrino event (HESE-35) detected by IceCube. On the basis of an analysis of the full sample of γ-ray blazars in the HESE-35 field, we show that the long-term average γ-ray emission of blazars as a class is in agreement with both the measured all-sky flux of petaelectronvolt neutrinos and the spectral slope of the IceCube signal. The outburst of PKS B1424-418 provides an energy output high enough to explain the observed petaelectronvolt event, suggestive of a direct physical association.

  2. The X-ray view of the gamma-NLS1 galaxy PKS 2004-447

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreikenbohm, A.; Schulz, R.; Kadler, M.; Wilms, J.; Markowitz, A.; M"uller, C.; Ojha, R.; Ros, E.; Gehrels, N.; Mannheim, K.

    2014-07-01

    The five most enigmatic members of the class of narrow-line Seyfert1 galaxies are five objects which exhibit both, bright radio and gamma-ray emission (hereafter γ-NLS1s). This demonstrates the existence of powerful relativistic jets similar to blazars and radio galaxies but whether γ-NLS1s really define a distinct sub-class of active galaxies is still under debate. As the radio-loudest of all γ-NLS1s, PKS 2004-447 plays a key role in settling this debate. We scrutinize the radio and X-ray properties of PKS 2004: the TANAMI VLBI program finds a high brightness-temperature core and a one-sided parsec-scale jet while Swift and XMM-Newton observations reveal a moderately variable unobscured X-ray spectrum, which is dominated by a flat power-law component. Radio-quiet NLS1s often show a soft X-ray excess, but this feature is missing in two deep XMM-Newton observations of PKS 2004-447 in 2012. We compare our results to the other four known γ-NLS1: moderate flux variability is always observed, while only some exhibit additional weak spectral variability. A strong soft excess is found in only one object. The main difference among the five γ-NLS1 is their X-ray luminosity, which spans almost two orders of magnitude.

  3. Searches for very high energy gamma rays from blazars with CANGAROO-III telescope in 2005-2009

    CERN Document Server

    Mizumura, Y; Nishijima, K; Bicknell, G V; Clay, R W; Edwards, P G; Gunji, S; Hara, S; Hayashi, S; Kabuki, S; Kajino, F; Kawachi, A; Kifune, T; Kiuchi, R; Kodani, K; Matsubara, Y; Mizukami, T; Mizumoto, Y; Mori, M; Muraishi, H; Naito, T; Ohishi, M; Yoshida, T; Yoshikoshi, T

    2012-01-01

    We have searched for very high energy (VHE) gamma rays from four blazars using the CANGAROO-III imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope. We report the results of the observations of H 2356-309, PKS 2155-304, PKS 0537-441, and 3C 279, performed from 2005 to 2009, applying a new analysis to suppress the effects of the position dependence of Cherenkov images in the field of view. No significant VHE gamma ray emission was detected from any of the four blazars. The GeV gamma-ray spectra of these objects were obtained by analyzing Fermi/LAT archival data. Non-simultaneous wide range (radio to VHE gamma-ray bands) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) including CANGAROO-III upper limits, GeV gamma-ray spectra, and archival data are discussed using a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model in combination with a external Compton (EC) radiation. The HBLs (H 2356-309 and PKS 2155-304) can be explained by a simple SSC model, and PKS 0537-441 and 3C 279 are well modeled by a combination of SSC and EC model. We find a...

  4. Blazar Demographics Using Multiwavelength Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Peiyuan; Massaro, F.; Urry, C. Megan

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are ideal laboratories to study relativistic jets in AGN, which are thought to be an important channel for feeding energy into galaxies and clusters. We present multi-wavelength SEDs of 2214 blazars with known redshifts, based on the Roma-BZCAT data across 12 frequency bands ranging from radio to gamma-ray. We confirm the anti-correlation between radio luminosity and synchrotron peak frequency, (part of what defines the "blazar sequence"), although with greater scatter than seen previously in studies of far fewer blazars. We describe an empirical estimator of luminosities in those 12 frequency bands using only the radio luminosity at 1.4 GHz and the redshift as inputs. Using this estimator, we study the demographics of blazars by comparing Monte-Carlo simulations to blazar surveys at several different frequencies and flux limits. We recover the observed evolutionary parameter for both low-frequency peaked (V/Vmax≈0.6) and high-frequency peaked (V/Vmax≈0.4) blazars, proving that selection effects cause the high-frequency-peaked sources to appear to anti-evolve even though the same underlying evolution was assumed in the simulation. We also show that the if instead we randomly assign fluxes independent of radio luminosity, the simulated blazar samples disagree strongly with the observed ones. These simulations confirm that luminosity and SED shape must indeed be linked in a physical blazar sequence.

  5. Evidence for Gamma-Ray Flares in 3C 279 and PKS 1622-297 at ~10 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Collmar, W; Blömen, H; Blom, J J; Hermsen, W; McConnell, M; Stacy, J G; Bennett, K; Williams, O R

    1997-01-01

    The EGRET experiment aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) has observed at energies above 100 MeV strong gamma-ray flares with short-term time variability from the gamma-ray blazars 3C 279 and PKS 1622-297. During these flaring periods both blazars have been detected by the COMPTEL experiment aboard CGRO at photon energies of about 10 MeV, revealing simultaneous gamma-ray activity down to these energies. For both cases the derived fluxes exceed those measured in previous observations, and 3C 279 shows an indication for time variability within the observational period. Both sources show evidence for `hard' MeV spectra. In general the behaviour of both sources at gamma-ray energies is found to be quite similar supporting the conclusion that the underlying physical mechanism for both gamma-ray flares might be the same.

  6. The Proton Blazar

    OpenAIRE

    Mannheim, Karl

    1993-01-01

    Considering shock-accelerated protons in addition to electrons in a synchrotron radio jet naturally produces the observed X- through gamma ray continuum emission of flat-spectrum radio-loud AGN, whereas the corresponding shock-accelerated electrons produce the infrared through optical continuum. All of these emission components are rapidly variable on short time scales which can be accounted for by a common origin of the blazar emission in a relativistic sub-parsec scale jet. Moreover, neutri...

  7. Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Fan; Y. Liu; Y. Li; Q. F. Zhang; J. Tao; O. Kurtanidze

    2011-03-01

    Variability is one of the characteristics of blazars. The rapid variability is superposed on the long term variation. In this work, the variability on different time scales, such as intra-day (IDV), short-term (STV) and long-term (LTV) variations are presented for some sources. We also presented our own observations of some selected objects, for which the historical data were compiled for periodicity analysis using several methods. The parameters of the binary black hole system OJ 287 are determined.

  8. Chasing extreme blazars with INTEGRAL

    CERN Document Server

    Bassani, Loredana; Landi, R; Malizia, A; Bird, A J; Bazzano, A; Ubertini, P

    2013-01-01

    Within the blazar population, hard X-ray selected objects are of particular interest as they tend to lie at each end of the blazar sequence. In particular, flat spectrum radio quasars located at high redshifts display the most powerful jets, the largest black hole masses and the most luminous accretion disks: their spectral energy distribution has a Compton peak in the sub-MeV region which favours their detection by instruments like INTEGRAL/IBIS and Swift/BAT. These sources are even more extreme than blazars selected in other wavebands, like, for example, the gamma-ray range explored by Fermi. Here we report on a sample of 12 high redshift blazars detected so far by INTEGRAL, including 3 newly identified objects. Some properties of the combined IBIS/BAT sample of high redshift blazars (z>2) are also compared to those of a similar similar sample obtained by Fermi.

  9. Probing the Relativistic Jets of Active Galactic Nuclei with Multiwavelength Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Aller, Margo

    2005-01-01

    The work completed includes the analysis of observations obtained during Cycle 7 (March 2002-February 2003) of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The project was part of a longer-term, continuing program to study the X-ray emission process in blazars and radio galaxies in collaboration with Dr. Ian McHardy (U. of Southampton, UK) and Prof. Thomas Balonek (Colgate U.). The goals of the program are to study the X-ray emission mechanism in blazars and radio galaxies and the relation of the X-ray emission to changes in the relativistic jet. The program includes contemporaneous brightness and linear polarization monitoring at radio and optical wavelengths, total and polarized intensity imaging at at 43 GHz with a resolution of 0.1 milliarcseconds with the VLBA, and well-sampled X-ray light curves obtained from a series of approved RXTE programs. The objects studied in the time period covered by the grant were 3C 120, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 273, all with radio jets containing bright knots that appear to move at superluminal speeds. During RXTE Cycle 7, the project was awarded RXTE time to monitor PKS 1510-089 two times per week, 3C 273 and 3C 279 three times per week, and 3C 120 four times per week. In addition, 3C273 and 3C 279 were observed several times per day during a ten-day period in April 2002. The X-ray data, including those from earlier cycles, were compared with radio measurements obtained in the centimeter-wave band by the monitoring program of Drs. Margo and Hugh Aller at the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, monthly imaging observations with the VLBA at 43 GHz, and optical observations obtained at several telescopes around the world.

  10. The nature of transition blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, J. J.; Anderson, S. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Plotkin, R. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Burnett, T. H. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States); Myers, A. D., E-mail: jruan@astro.washington.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy 3905, University of Wyoming, 1000 East University, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Blazars are classically divided into the BL Lacertae (BLL) and flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) subclasses, corresponding to radiatively inefficient and efficient accretion regimes, respectively, largely based on the equivalent width (EW) of their optical broad emission lines (BELs). However, EW-based classification criteria are not physically motivated, and a few blazars have previously transitioned' from one subclass to the other. We present the first systematic search for these transition blazars in a sample of 602 unique pairs of repeat spectra of 354 blazars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, finding six clear cases. These transition blazars have bolometric Eddington ratios of ∼0.3 and low-frequency synchrotron peaks, and are thus FSRQ-like. We show that the strong EW variability (up to an unprecedented factor of >60) is due to swamping of the BELs from variability in jet continuum emission, which is stronger in amplitude and shorter in timescale than typical blazars. Although these transition blazars appear to switch between FSRQ and BLL according to the phenomenologically based EW scheme, we show that they are most likely rare cases of FSRQs with radiatively efficient accretion flows and especially strongly beamed jets. These results have implications for the decrease of the apparent BLL population at high redshifts, and may lend credence to claims of a negative BLL redshift evolution.

  11. Gamma Rays From Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Tavecchio, F

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are high-energy engines providing us natural laboratories to study particle acceleration, relativistic plasma processes, magnetic field dynamics, black hole physics. Key informations are provided by observations at high-energy (in particular by Fermi/LAT) and very-high energy (by Cherenkov telescopes). I give a short account of the current status of the field, with particular emphasis on the theoretical challenges connected to the observed ultra-fast variability events and to the emission of flat spectrum radio quasars in the very high energy band.

  12. H.E.S.S. discovery of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission of PKS 1440-389

    CERN Document Server

    Prokoph, H; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Lenain, J -P

    2015-01-01

    Blazars are the most abundant class of known extragalactic very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-ray sources. However, one of the biggest difficulties in investigating their VHE emission resides in their limited number, since less than 60 of them are known by now. In this contribution we report on H.E.S.S. observations of the BL Lac object PKS 1440-389. This source has been selected as target for H.E.S.S. based on its high-energy gamma-ray properties measured by Fermi-LAT. The extrapolation of this bright, hard-spectrum gamma-ray blazar into the VHE regime made a detection on a relatively short time scale very likely, despite its uncertain redshift. H.E.S.S. observations were carried out with the 4-telescope array from February to May 2012 and resulted in a clear detection of the source. Contemporaneous multi-wavelength data are used to construct the spectral energy distribution of PKS 1440-389 which can be described by a simple one-zone synchrotron-self Compton model.

  13. AGN Winds and Blazar Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2012-01-01

    The launch of {\\em Fermi} produced a significant number of AGN detections to allow statistical treatment of their properties. One of the first such systematics was the "Blazar Divide" in FSRQs and BL Lacs according to their gamma-ray spectral index and luminosity. Further data accumulation indicated this separation to be less clear than thought before. An MHD wind model which can model successfully the Seyfert X-ray absorber properties provides the vestiges of an account of the observed blazar classification. We propose to employ this model to model in detail the broad band blazar spectra and their statistical properties in terms of the physical parameters of these MHD winds.

  14. Blazar jets the spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G

    2000-01-01

    The radiation observed by blazars is believed to originate from the transformation of bulk kinetic energy of relativistic jets into random energy. A simple way to achieve this is to have an intermittent central power source, producing shells of plasma with different bulk Lorentz factors. These shells will collide at some distance from the center, producing shocks and then radiation. This scenario, called internal shock model, is thought to be at the origin of the gamma-rays observed in gamma-ray bursts and can work even better in blazars. It accounts for the observed key characteristics of these objects, including the fact that radiation must be preferentially produced at a few hundreds of Schwarzschild radii from the center, but continues to be produced all along the jet. At the kpc scale and beyond, the slowly moving parts of a (straight) jet can be illuminated by the beamed radiation of the core, while the fast parts of the jet will see enhanced cosmic microwave radiation. In both cases the Inverse Compton...

  15. The CLASS blazar survey: testing the blazar sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Caccianiga, A

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the properties of the sources in the CLASS Blazar survey which aims at the selection of low radio power (P(5GHz)<10^25 W Hz^-1) blazars. We use VLA data from available catalogues and from our own observations to constrain the radio core-dominance of the sample which, together with the flat radio spectral index, is a signature of the blazar activity. X-ray data from the ROSAT All Sky Survey were also collected in order to constrain the radio-to-X-ray luminosity ratio (alpha_RX) of the sources. The data analysis shows that more than 30% of sources at low radio power (P(5 GHz)<10^25 W Hz^-1) have an alpha_RX steeper than that expected in the framework of the ``blazar sequence'' recently put forward to unify the high and low power blazars. The possibility that this result is influenced by contaminating sources in the current sample is discussed. The conclusion is that, even if a number of non-blazars (typically CSO/GPS sources) are expected in the survey, it is unlikely that this constitutes the ...

  16. Resolving the High Energy Universe with Strong Gravitational Lensing: The Case of PKS 1830-211

    CERN Document Server

    Barnacka, Anna; Dell'Antonio, Ian P; Benbow, Wystan

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a potentially powerful tool for elucidating the origin of gamma-ray emission from distant sources. Cosmic lenses magnify the emission from distance sources and produce time delays between mirage images. Gravitationally-induced time delays depend on the position of the emitting regions in the source plane. The Fermi/LAT satellite continuously monitors the entire sky and detects gamma-ray flares, including those from gravitationally-lensed blazars. Therefore, temporal resolution at gamma-ray energies can be used to measure these time delays, which, in turn, can be used to resolve the origin of the gamma-ray flares spatially. We provide a guide to the application and Monte Carlo simulation of three techniques for analyzing these unresolved light curves: the Autocorrelation Function, the Double Power Spectrum, and the Maximum Peak Method. We apply these methods to derive time delays from the gamma-ray light curve of the gravitationally-lensed blazar PKS 1830-211. The result of temporal an...

  17. Blazar sequence - an artefact of Doppler boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Nieppola, E.; Valtaoja, E.; Tornikoski, M.; Hovatta, T.; Kotiranta, M.

    2008-01-01

    The blazar sequence is a scenario in which the bolometric luminosity of the blazar governs the appearance of its spectral energy distribution. The most prominent result is the significant negative correlation between the synchrotron peak frequencies and the synchrotron peak luminosities of the blazar population. Observational studies of the blazar sequence have, in general, neglected the effect of Doppler boosting. We study the dependence of both the synchrotron peak frequency and luminosity ...

  18. First detection in gamma-rays of a young radio galaxy: Fermi-LAT observations of the Compact Symmetric Object PKS 1718-649

    CERN Document Server

    Migliori, Giulia; Sobolewska, Malgorzata; Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stéphane; Ostorero, Luisa; Stawarz, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    We report the $\\gamma$-ray detection of a young radio galaxy, PKS 1718$-$649, belonging to the class of Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs), with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the {\\it Fermi} satellite. The third {\\it Fermi} Gamma-ray LAT catalog (3FGL) includes an unassociated $\\gamma$-ray source, 3FGL J1728.0$-$6446, located close to PKS 1718$-$649. Using the latest Pass 8 calibration, we confirm that the best fit $1 \\sigma$ position of the $\\gamma$-ray source is compatible with the radio location of PKS 1718$-$649. Cross-matching of the $\\gamma$-ray source position with the positions of blazar sources from several catalogs yields negative results. Thus, we conclude that PKS 1718$-$649 is the most likely counterpart to the unassociated LAT source. We obtain a detection test statistics TS$\\sim 36$ ($>$5$\\sigma$) with a best fit photon spectral index $\\Gamma=$2.9$\\pm$0.3 and a 0.1-100 GeV photon flux density $F_{\\rm 0.1-100GeV}=$(11.5$\\pm$0.3)$\\times{\\rm 10^{-9}}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. We argue that t...

  19. Detection of chloronium and measurement of the 35Cl/37Cl isotopic ratio at z=0.89 toward PKS1830-211

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, S; Guelin, M; Henkel, C; Combes, F; Gerin, M; Aalto, S; Beelen, A; Darling, J; Horellou, C; Martin, S; Menten, K M; Dinh-V-Trung,; Zwaan, M A

    2014-01-01

    We report the first extragalactic detection of chloronium (H2Cl+), in the z=0.89 absorber in front of the lensed blazar PKS1830-211. The ion is detected through its 1_11-0_00 line along two independent lines of sight toward the North-East and South-West images of the blazar. The relative abundance of H2Cl+ is significantly higher (by a factor ~7) in the NE line of sight, which has a lower H2/H fraction, indicating that H2Cl+ preferably traces the diffuse gas component. From the ratio of the H2^35Cl+ and H2^37Cl+ absorptions toward the SW image, we measure a 35Cl/37Cl isotopic ratio of 3.1 (-0.2; +0.3) at z=0.89, similar to that observed in the Galaxy and the solar system.

  20. Optical photometric observations of γ-ray loud blazars in the October of 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Oct. of 2000, we observed 10 gamma-ray loud blazars, PKS 0219+428 (3C 66A), PKS 0420-014 (OA129), S5 0716+714, 0754+100 (OT 090.4), 0827+243 (OJ 248), 1652+398 (Mrk 501), 2200+420 (BL Lacertae), 2230+114 (CTA 102), 2251+158 (3C 454.3), and 2344+514, with the 70 cm optical telescope at Abstumani Observatory, Georgia. We found intraday variations in PKS 0420-014, S5 0716+714, BL Lacertae, and CTA 102. A variation of 0.3 magnitude over a time scale of about 3 hours was observed in R band in BL Lacertae on JD 2451827. We did not detected variation from 3C 66A, Mrk 501, 3C 454.3 or 2344+514 during our observational period. For the TeV gamma-ray source 2344+514 no clear variation was detected in an observational period of two weeks

  1. Coincidence of a high-fluence blazar outburst with a PeV-energy neutrino event

    CERN Document Server

    Kadler, M; Mannheim, K; Ojha, R; Müller, C; Schulz, R; Anton, G; Baumgartner, W; Beuchert, T; Buson, S; Carpenter, B; Eberl, T; Edwards, P G; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsässer, D; Gehrels, N; Gräfe, C; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; James, C W; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kreikenbohm, A; Kreter, M; Kreykenbohm, I; Langejahn, M; Leiter, K; Litzinger, E; Longo, F; Lovell, J E J; McEnery, J; Phillips, C; Plötz, C; Quick, J; Ros, E; Stecker, F W; Steinbring, T; Stevens, J; Thompson, D J; Trüstedt, J; Tzioumis, A K; Wilms, J; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of extraterrestrial very-high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube collaboration has launched a quest for the identification of their astrophysical sources. Gamma-ray blazars have been predicted to yield a cumulative neutrino signal exceeding the atmospheric background above energies of 100 TeV, assuming that both the neutrinos and the gamma-ray photons are produced by accelerated protons in relativistic jets. Since the background spectrum falls steeply with increasing energy, the individual events with the clearest signature of being of an extraterrestrial origin are those at PeV energies. Inside the large positional-uncertainty fields of the first two PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube, the integrated emission of the blazar population has a sufficiently high electromagnetic flux to explain the detected IceCube events, but fluences of individual objects are too low to make an unambiguous source association. Here, we report that a major outburst of the blazar PKS B1424-418 occurred in temporal and pos...

  2. Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok C. Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Here we report our recent discoveries of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in blazars time series data in X-ray and optical electromagnetic bands. Any such detection can give important clues of the location and nature of the processes of emission mechanism. In the case of radio-quiet AGN, the detected QPOs are very likely to be associated with the accretion disk. But in the case of blazars, it may be associated with jets in the high and outburst states, and in the low-state, it is probably associated with the accretion disk. In this brief review, I summarize the recent QPO detections in blazars. There is one strong evidence of QPO detection in XMM–Newton time series data of narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396 about which we will also discuss briefly.

  3. Which blazars are neutrino loud?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protons accelerated in the cores of active galactic nuclei can effectively produce neutrinos only if the soft radiation background in the core is sufficiently high. We find restrictions on the spectral properties and luminosity of blazars under which they can be strong neutrino sources. We analyze the possibility that the neutrino flux is highly beamed along the rotation axis of the central black hole. The enhancement of the neutrino flux compared to the GeV γ-ray flux from a given source makes the detection of neutrino point sources more probable. At the same time the smaller open angle reduces the number of possible neutrino-loud blazars compared to the number of γ-ray loud ones. We present a table of 15 blazars which are the most likely candidates for the detection by future neutrino telescopes

  4. Blazars at Low Radio Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüstedt, J.; Kadler, M.; Brüggen, M.; Falcke, H.; Heald, G.; McKean, J.; Mueller, C.; Ros, E.; Schulz, R.; Wilms, J.

    We explore the low radio-frequency properties of the MOJAVE 1 blazar sample using the LOFAR Multi-Frequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). We find the characteristically flat blazar spectrum to extend down to the LOFAR bands, demonstrating that the emission at these low radio frequencies is still dominated by relativistically beamed emission. As most sources remain unresolved at the MSSS angular resolution, we are reimaging these data using LOFAR baselines beyond the standard MSSS uv-range resulting in an angular resolution of ~24 arcsec. We present first LOFAR images of MOJAVE sources from this project.

  5. First Detection in Gamma-Rays of a Young Radio Galaxy: Fermi-LAT Observations of the Compact Symmetric Object PKS 1718-649

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, G.; Siemiginowska, A.; Sobolewska, M.; Loh, A.; Corbel, S.; Ostorero, L.; Stawarz, Ł.

    2016-04-01

    We report the γ-ray detection of a young radio galaxy, PKS 1718-649, belonging to the class of compact symmetric objects (CSOs), with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite. The third Fermi Gamma-ray LAT catalog (3FGL) includes an unassociated γ-ray source, 3FGL J1728.0-6446, located close to PKS 1718-649. Using the latest Pass 8 calibration, we confirm that the best-fit 1σ position of the γ-ray source is compatible with the radio location of PKS 1718-649. Cross-matching of the γ-ray source position with the positions of blazar sources from several catalogs yields negative results. Thus, we conclude that PKS 1718-649 is the most likely counterpart to the unassociated LAT source. We obtain a detection test statistics TS ˜ 36 (>5σ) with a best-fit photon spectral index Γ = 2.9 ± 0.3 and a 0.1-100 GeV photon flux density F 0.1-100 GeV = (11.5 ± 0.3) × 10-9 ph cm-2 s-1. We argue that the linear size (˜2 pc), the kinematic age (˜100 years), and the source distance (z = 0.014) make PKS 1718-649 an ideal candidate for γ-ray detection in the framework of the model proposing that the most compact and the youngest CSOs can efficiently produce GeV radiation via inverse-Compton scattering of the ambient photon fields by the radio lobe non-thermal electrons. Thus, our detection of the source in γ-rays establishes young radio galaxies as a distinct class of extragalactic high-energy emitters and yields a unique insight on the physical conditions in compact radio lobes interacting with the interstellar medium of the host galaxy.

  6. Debeamed Sequence of LBAS Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bangrong Huang; Xiong Zhang; Dingrong Xiong; Haojin Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We have collected a sample of 71 -ray blazars selected from the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). The correlation between synchrotron peak luminosities p and synchrotron peak frequencies p have been studied and there is a weak negative correlation. But after correcting the effect of redshift and Doppler boosting, the relation between intrinsic 'p and 'p show significant positive correlation.

  7. The Perugia Blazar Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, G.; Fiorucci, M.; Luciani, M.

    We here present a summary of the Perugia blazar monitoring program. To date it is the only ongoing monitoring program carried out in an automatic way. In three years, we were able to collect about 12000 BVR_cI_c photometric points, contributing to get knowledge on the history of many sources brighter than V=3D17.0.

  8. What can the 2008/10 broadband flare of PKS 1502+106 tell us? Nuclear opacity, magnetic fields, and the location of gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Karamanavis, V; Angelakis, E; Nestoras, I; Myserlis, I; Krichbaum, T P; Zensus, J A; Ungerechts, H; Sievers, A; Gurwell, M A

    2016-01-01

    Context. The origin of blazar variability, seen from radio up to gamma rays, is still a heavily debated matter and broadband flares offer a unique testbed towards a better understanding of these extreme objects. Such an energetic outburst was detected by Fermi/LAT in 2008 from the blazar PKS 1502+106. The outburst was observed from gamma rays down to radio frequencies. Aims. Through the delay between flare maxima at different radio frequencies, we study the frequency-dependent position of the unit-opacity surface and infer its absolute position with respect to the jet base. This nuclear opacity profile enables the magnetic field tomography of the jet. We also localize the gamma-ray emission region and explore the mechanism producing the flare. Methods. The radio flare of PKS 1502+106 is studied through single-dish flux density measurements at 12 frequencies in the range 2.64 to 226.5 GHz. To quantify it, we employ both a Gaussian process regression and a discrete cross-correlation function analysis. Results. ...

  9. Discovery of VHE gamma-rays from the radio galaxy PKS 0625-354 with H.E.S.S

    CERN Document Server

    Dyrda, Michal; Hervet, Olivier; Moderski, Rafal; Janiak, Mateusz; Ostrowski, Michał; Stawarz, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Most of the extragalactic objects detected so far in the very high energy (VHE) regime are blazars, but the discovered nearby radio galaxies: M87, Cen A and NGC 1275 of type FRI seem to constitute a new class of VHE emitters. The radio galaxy PKS 0625-354 was observed and detected ($\\sim$6$\\sigma$) with the H.E.S.S. phase I telescopes in 2012, above an energy threshold of 250 GeV. The time-averaged VHE energy spectrum is well characterized by a power law model. The broad-band light curve, including the available multiwavelength data, as well as the VHE data gathered with H.E.S.S. will be presented.

  10. COMPTEL observations of the quasar PKS 0528+134 during the first 3.5 years of the CGRO mission

    CERN Document Server

    Collmar, W; Blömen, H; Blom, J J; Hermsen, W; Lichti, G G; Pohl, M; Ryan, J; Schönfelder, V; Stacy, J G; Steinle, H; Williams, O R

    1997-01-01

    The COMPTEL observations of the blazar-type quasar PKS 0528+134 in the energy range 0.75 MeV to 30 MeV carried out between April 1991 and September 1994 have been analyzed. During the first two years PKS 0528+134 was most significantly detected at energies above 3 MeV. During the last year there is only evidence for the quasar at energies below 3 MeV indicating a spectral change. The time-averaged COMPTEL energy spectrum between 0.75 MeV and 30 MeV is well represented by a power-law shape. Spectra collected from different observational periods reveal different power-law shapes: a hard state during flaring observations reported by EGRET, and a soft state otherwise. The combined simultaneous EGRET and COMPTEL spectra indicate these two spectral states as well. During low intensisty gamma-ray phases no spectral break is obvious from the combined COMPTEL and EGRET measurements. For the gamma-ray flaring phases however, the combined COMPTEL and EGRET data require a spectral bending at MeV-energies. By fitting brok...

  11. High-energy properties of the high-redshift flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ammando, F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the gamma-ray and X-ray properties of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 2149-306 at redshift z = 2.345. A strong gamma-ray flare from this source was detected by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite in 2013 January, reaching on January 20 a daily peak flux of (301$\\pm$36)$\\times$10$^{-8}$ ph/cm$^2$/s in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range. This flux corresponds to an apparent isotropic luminosity of (1.5$\\pm$0.2)$\\times$10$^{50}$ erg/s, comparable to the highest values observed by a blazar so far. During the flare the increase of flux was accompanied by a significant change of the spectral properties. Moreover significant flux variations on a 6-h time-scale were observed, compatible with the light crossing time of the event horizon of the central black hole. The broad band X-ray spectra of PKS 2149-306 observed by Swift-XRT and NuSTAR are well described by a broken power-law model, with a very hard spectrum ($\\Gamma$$_1$ $\\sim$ 1) below the break energy, at ...

  12. Optical Spectral Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haritma Gaur

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that blazars show flux variations in the complete electromagnetic (EM) spectrum on all possible time scales ranging from a few tens of minutes to several years. Here, we report the review of optical flux and spectral variability properties of different classes of blazars on IDV and STV time-scales. Our analysis show HSPs are less variable in optical bands as compared to LSPs. Also, we investigated the spectral slope variability and found that the average spectral slopes of LSPs showed a good agreement with the synchrotron self-Compton loss-dominated model. However, spectra of the HSPs and FSRQs have significant additional emission components. In general, spectra of BL Lacs get flatter when they become brighter, while for FSRQs the opposite trend appears to hold.

  13. Engineering of the spinosyn PKS: directing starter unit incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lesley S; Lill, Rachel E; Wilkinson, Barrie; Sheridan, Rose M; Vousden, William A; Kaja, Andrew L; Crouse, Gary D; Gifford, James; Graupner, Paul R; Karr, Laura; Lewer, Paul; Sparks, Thomas C; Leadlay, Peter F; Waldron, Clive; Martin, Christine J

    2006-12-01

    The spinosyns are a family of potent and highly selective insect control agents that display a favorable environmental profile. As some regions of the spinosyn molecule are recalcitrant to chemical modification, a targeted genetic approach was carried out to generate new analogues. The polyketide synthase (PKS) loading modules from the avermectin PKS of Streptomyces avermitilis and the erythromcyin PKS of Saccharopolyspora erythraea were each used to replace the spinosyn PKS loading module. Both of the resulting strains containing hybrid PKS pathways produced the anticipated spinosyn analogues. Supplementation of the culture media with a range of exogenous carboxylic acids led to the successful incorporation of these novel elements to yield further novel spinosyn molecules, some of which demonstrated potent and new insecticidal activities. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that semisynthesis of such novel metabolites can then be used to generate active analogues, demonstrating the effectiveness of utilizing these complementary methods to search the chemical space around this template. PMID:17190446

  14. An ALMA Early Science survey of molecular absorption lines toward PKS1830-211 -- Analysis of the absorption profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, S; Guelin, M; Gerin, M; Aalto, S; Beelen, A; Black, J H; Curran, S J; Darling, J; Dinh-V-Trung,; Garcia-Burillo, S; Henkel, C; Horellou, C; Martin, S; Marti-Vidal, I; Menten, K M; Murphy, M T; Ott, J; Wiklind, T; Zwaan, M A

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an ALMA spectral survey of strong absorption lines for common interstellar species in the z=0.89 molecular absorber toward the lensed blazar PKS1830-211. The dataset brings essential information on the structure and composition of the absorbing gas in the foreground galaxy. In particular, we find absorption over large velocity intervals (gtrsim 100 km/s) toward both lensed images of the blazar. This suggests either that the galaxy inclination is intermediate and that we sample velocity gradients or streaming motions in the disk plane, that the molecular gas has a large vertical distribution or extraplanar components, or that the absorber is not a simple spiral galaxy but might be a merger system. The number of detected species is now reaching a total of 42 different species plus 14 different rare isotopologues toward the SW image, and 14 species toward the NE line-of-sight. The abundances of CH, H2O, HCO+, HCN, and NH3 relative to H2 are found to be comparable to those in the G...

  15. High zenith angle observations of PKS 2155-304 with the MAGIC-I telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puerto Gimenez, I.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. The high frequency peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 with a redshift of z = 0.116 was discovered in 1997 in the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray range by the University of Durham Mark VI γ-ray Cherenkov telescope in Australia with a flux corresponding to 20% of the Crab Nebula flux. It was later observed and detected with high significance by the southern Cherenkov observatory H.E.S.S. establishing this source as the best studied southern TeV blazar. Detection from the northern hemisphere is difficult due to challenging observation conditions under large zenith angles. In July 2006, the H.E.S.S. collaboration reported an extraordinary outburst of VHE γ-emission. During the outburst, the VHE γ-ray emission was found to be variable on the time scales of minutes and with a mean flux of ~7 times the flux observed from the Crab Nebula. Follow-up observations with the MAGIC-I standalone Cherenkov telescope were triggered by this extraordinary outburst and PKS 2155-304 was observed between 28 July to 2 August 2006 for 15 h at large zenith angles. Aims: We studied the behavior of the source after its extraordinary flare. Furthermore, we developed an analysis method in order to analyze these data taken under large zenith angles. Methods: Here we present an enhanced analysis method for data taken at high zenith angles. We developed improved methods for event selection that led to a better background suppression. Results: The quality of the results presented here is superior to the results presented previously for this data set: detection of the source on a higher significance level and a lower analysis threshold. The averaged energy spectrum we derived has a spectral index of (-3.5 ± 0.2) above 400 GeV, which is in good agreement with the spectral shape measured by H.E.S.S. during the major flare on MJD 53 944. Furthermore, we present the spectral energy distribution modeling of PKS 2155-304. With our observations we increased the duty cycle of the source

  16. Spectral energy distributions of the BL Lac PKS 2155-304 from XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagwan, Jai; Papadakis, I E; Wiita, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    We have used all 20 archival XMM-Newton observations of PKS 2155-304 with simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical data to study its long term flux and spectral variability. We find significant variations, in all bands, on time-scales of years with an rms amplitude of ~ 35-45 per cent, through the optical/UV variations are not correlated with those in the X-ray. We constructed SEDs that span more than three orders of magnitude in frequency and we first fitted them with a log-parabolic model; such models have been applied many times in the past for this, and other, blazars. These fits were poor, so we then examined combined power-law and log-parabolic fits that are improvements. These models indicate that the optical/UV and X-ray flux variations are mainly driven by model normalization variations, but the X-ray band flux is also affected by spectral variations, as parametrized with the model 'curvature' parameter, b. Overall, the energy at which the emitted power is maximum correlates positively with the total flux. ...

  17. A multiwavelength view of the flaring state of PKS 2155-304 in 2006

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; de Almeida, U Barres; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Behera, B; Benbow, W; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Boutelier, T; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L -M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Cologna, G; Colom, P; Conrad, J; Coudreau, N; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, P; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gallant, Y A; Gast, H; Gaylard, M J; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hampf, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Keogh, D; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Klein, M; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Kubanek, P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lennarz, D; Lenain, J -P; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Martin, J M; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; Maxted, N; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Melady, G; Nguyen, N; Moderski, R; Monard, B; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Ryde, F; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Tzioumis, A; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2012-01-01

    Multiwavelength (MWL) observations of the blazar PKS 2155-304 during two weeks in July and August 2006, the period when two exceptional flares at very high energies (VHE, E>= 100 GeV) occurred, provide a detailed picture of the evolution of its emission. The complete data set from this campaign is presented, including observations in VHE gamma-rays (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (RXTE, CHANDRA, SWIFT XRT), optical (SWIFT UVOT, Bronberg, Watcher, ROTSE), and in the radio band (NRT, HartRAO, ATCA). Optical and radio light curves from 2004 to 2008 are compared to the available VHE data from this period, to put the 2006 campaign into the context of the long-term evolution of the source. The X-ray and VHE gamma-ray emission are correlated during the observed high state of the source, but show no direct connection with longer wavelengths. The long-term flux evolution in the optical and radio bands is found to be correlated and shows that the source reaches a high state at long wavelengths after the occurrence of the VHE flares...

  18. VHE gamma-ray emission of PKS 2155-304: spectral and temporal variability

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; de Almeida, U Barres; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Behera, B; Benbow, W; Bernlohr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Buhler, R; Bulik, T; Busching, I; Boutelier, T; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Conrad, J; Chounet, L -M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Costamante, L; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Atai, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Foerster, A; Fontaine, G; Fussling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gerard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glueck, B; Goret, P; Goering, D; Hampf, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jung, I; Katarzynski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khelifi, B; Keogh, D; Klochkov, D; Kluzniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J -P; Lohse, T; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Mehault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Opitz, B; Orford, K J; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Pita, S; Puehlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Ryde, F; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schoeck, F M; Schoenwald, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sushch, I; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Superina, G; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Voelk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2010-01-01

    Observations of very high energy gamma-rays from blazars provide information about acceleration mechanisms occurring in their innermost regions. Studies of variability in these objects allow a better understanding of the mechanisms at play. To investigate the spectral and temporal variability of VHE (>100 GeV) gamma-rays of the well-known high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 with the H.E.S.S. imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes over a wide range of flux states. Data collected from 2005 to 2007 are analyzed. Spectra are derived on time scales ranging from 3 years to 4 minutes. Light curve variability is studied through doubling timescales and structure functions, and is compared with red noise process simulations. The source is found to be in a low state from 2005 to 2007, except for a set of exceptional flares which occurred in July 2006. The quiescent state of the source is characterized by an associated mean flux level of 4.32 +/-0.09 x 10^-11 cm^-2 s^-1 above 200 GeV, or approximately 15% ...

  19. Multiwavelength polarization observations of the γ-ray bright quasar PKS 0420-014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitskiy I.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze total and polarized intensity images of the quasar PKS 0420-014 obtained monthly with the VLBA at 43 GHz during 2008–2012 along with γ-ray data provided by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and multi-color photometric and polarimetric measurements collected by different optical telescopes. During this period the quasar underwent a number of optical flares, which were accompanied by rapid rotation of polarization angle, an increase of activity in γ-rays, and the appearance of new superluminal knots in the parsec-scale jet. We investigate the fine structure of the flares at different wavelengths and in polarized light, and determine kinematic parameters of the knots. We compare the rapid evolution of the optical polarization with the polarization of the VLBI core and knots. We interpret the multi-wavelength behavior within a model that places the blazar “dissipation zone” at the millimeter-wave core of the parsec-scale jet.

  20. Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-04-15

    It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z=1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 10^{-5}, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01E_{pl} for linear LIV models and >6×10^{-8}E_{pl} for quadratic order LIV models, where E_{pl} is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos. PMID:27127950

  1. Testing the Equivalence Principle and Lorentz Invariance with PeV Neutrinos from Blazar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Yi; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2016-04-01

    It was recently proposed that a giant flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418 at redshift z =1.522 is in association with a PeV-energy neutrino event detected by IceCube. Based on this association we here suggest that the flight time difference between the PeV neutrino and gamma-ray photons from blazar flares can be used to constrain the violations of equivalence principle and the Lorentz invariance for neutrinos. From the calculated Shapiro delay due to clusters or superclusters in the nearby universe, we find that violation of the equivalence principle for neutrinos and photons is constrained to an accuracy of at least 1 0-5, which is 2 orders of magnitude tighter than the constraint placed by MeV neutrinos from supernova 1987A. Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) arises in various quantum-gravity theories, which predicts an energy-dependent velocity of propagation in vacuum for particles. We find that the association of the PeV neutrino with the gamma-ray outburst set limits on the energy scale of possible LIV to >0.01 Ep l for linear LIV models and >6 ×10-8Ep l for quadratic order LIV models, where Ep l is the Planck energy scale. These are the most stringent constraints on neutrino LIV for subluminal neutrinos.

  2. Beaming Effect in Fermi Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, J.H.; Yang, J. H.; Zhang, J Y; Hua, T. X.; Liu, Y.; Qin, Y. P.; Huang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The \\gamma-ray loud blazars (flat spectrum radio quasars--FSRQs and BL Lacertae objects-BLs) are very bright in the \\gamma-ray bands, which is perhaps associated with a beaming effect. Therefore, one can expect that the \\gamma-ray luminosity is correlated with the beaming factor. In this paper, we investigated the relation between the radio Doppler factors and the gamma-ray luminosities. Our analysis suggests that the \\gamma-ray luminosity be strongly correlated with the factor of \\delta_R fo...

  3. Radio core dominance of Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhi-Yuan; Fan, Jun-Hui; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Yi-Hai; Cai, Wei; Xiao, Hu-Bing; Lin, Chao; Yang, Jiang-He

    2016-07-01

    During the first 4 years of mission, Fermi/LAT detected 1444 blazars (3FGL) (Ackermann et al. in Astrophys. J. 810:14, 2015). Fermi/LAT observations of blazars indicate that Fermi blazars are luminous and strongly variable with variability time scales, for some cases, as short as hours. Those observations suggest a strong beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars. In the present work, we will investigate the beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars using a core-dominance parameter, R = S_{core}/ S_{ext.}, where S_{core} is the core emission, while S_{ext.} is the extended emission. We compiled 1335 blazars with available core-dominance parameter, out of which 169 blazars have γ-ray emission (from 3FGL). We compared the core-dominance parameters, log R, between the 169 Fermi-detected blazars (FDBs) and the rest non-Fermi-detected blazars (non-FDBs), and we found that the averaged values are V.I.) in the γ-ray band for FDBs, and we found V.I.=(0.12 ±0.07) log R+(2.25±0.10), suggesting that a source with larger log R has larger V.I. value. Thirdly, we compared the mean values of radio spectral index for FDBs and non-FDBs, and we obtained relationship, we found that the spectral index for the core component is α_{γ}|_{core} = 1.11 (a photon spectral index of α_{γ}^{ph}|_{core} = 2.11) and that for the extended component is α_{γ}|_{ext.} = 0.70 (a photon spectral index of α_{γ}^{ph}|_{ext.} = 1.70). Some discussions are also presented.

  4. Accretion Disks, Jets and Blazar Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Wiita, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Although blazar variability is probably dominated by emission from relativistic jets, accretion disks should be present in all blazars. These disks produce emission over most of the electromagnetic spectrum; various unstable processes operate in those disks which lead to variable emission. Here I summarize some of the most relevant disk mechanisms for AGN variability. I also discuss some aspects of jet variability, focusing on the possibility that ultrarelativisitic jets of modest opening ang...

  5. An optical and infrared study of blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Andrew Robert Graham

    Some of the optical and infrared properties of blazars are discussed. The evidence of bulk relativistic flows in quasars and blazars is also discussed. The observational study has two parts. First a series of infrared and optical polarization measurements are presented. Second a study of the cluster environments of blazars is reported. The polarization study consisted of 156 observations of 37 blazars and candidate blazars at infrared and optical frequencies. The observations of the quasar 1253-055 (3C 279) showed a U polarization of 45.5 + or - 0.9 percent. This is the highest ever seen in a blazar. The effect of the proposed blue bump on the observations of 1641+399 (3C 345) is discussed, as are other sources of unpolarized contaminating flux. The interpretation of the observed spectrum is discussed in terms of shock acceleration models and the synchrotron-self-Compton jet pictures. It is shown that frequency dependence is a common feature of the polarization behavior with the polarization generally increasing towards higher frequencies. No evidence is found to support the claim that frequency dependence is related to high levels of polarization. The possible explanations of the observed frequency dependence are discussed. The study of the cluster environments of blazars was formulated as a test of a unified scheme. Deep CCD observations were obtained for a sample of blazars and quasars with extended radio structure. The strength of the cluster environment was parameterized by the amplitude of the quasar-galaxy spatial correlation function Bgq. The evaluation of this quantity is subject to large systematic errors as a result of the uncertainty in the galaxy luminosity function.

  6. Gravitational microlensing of gamma-ray blazars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Torres, Diego; E. Romero, Gustavo; F. Eiroa, Ernesto;

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effects of gravitational microlensing on compact and distant $\\gamma$-ray blazars. These objects have $\\gamma$-ray emitting regions which are small enough as to be affected by microlensing effects produced by stars lying in intermediate galaxies. We analyze the...... galactic latitude whose gamma-ray statistical properties are very similar to detected $\\gamma$-ray blazars) are indeed the result of gravitational lensing magnification of background undetected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs)....

  7. Partai Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS dan Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS sebagai Partai Islam Pendukung Demokrasi PKS Pada Pemilu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Nurdin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article compares the achievement of Partai Islam se-Malaysia (PAS and Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS in the latest general election held in 2013 in Malaysia and in 2014 in Indonesia. The writer finds that the political performance of PAS and PKS has indicated differently contrast results. While political electability of PAS in the 2013 Malaysia’s general election has disappointed this party, PKS has successfully proved that surveys held by a number of survey institutes—predicting that the party would cease within the 2014 Indonesia’s national election—were totally false. Many political figures of PAS have failed to gain positions in the legislative assembly. Meanwhile, in viewing PKS’s political performance during the 2014 national election, one may assume that this party was luckily survive. This is because, a number of surveys conducted before the election had predicted that PKS could be considered lucky when it was able to gain five percent of vote, as its former president has been suspected of being corrupt for his involvement in cows import. However, the fact shows that PKS has not only magnificently survived but it was even able to gain almost seven percent of voters’ vote. Unfortunately, PKS was unsuccessful to achieve its political target to be the biggest three of national vote.

  8. X-ray monitoring of the radio and γ-ray loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS2004-447

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreikenbohm, A.; Kadler, M.; Wilms, J.; Schulz, R.; Müller, C.; Ojha, R.; Ros, E.; Mannheim, K.; Elsässer, D.

    2013-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the X-ray analysis of XMM-Newton and Swift observations as part of a multi-wavelength monitoring campaign in 2012 of the radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 2004-447. The source was recently detected in γ-rays by Fermi/LAT among only four other galaxies of that type. The 0:5 - 10 keV X-ray spectrum is well-described by a simple absorbed powerlaw (Γ ˜ 1.6). The source brightness exhibits variability on timescales of months to years with indications for spectral variability, which follows a "bluer-when-brighter" behaviour, similar to blazars.

  9. Fourier Analysis of Blazar Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Finke, Justin D

    2014-01-01

    Blazars display strong variability on multiple timescales and in multiple radiation bands. Their variability is often characterized by power spectral densities (PSDs) and time lags plotted as functions of the Fourier frequency. We develop a new theoretical model based on the analysis of the electron transport (continuity) equation, carried out in the Fourier domain. The continuity equation includes electron cooling and escape, and a derivation of the emission properties includes light travel time effects associated with a radiating blob in a relativistic jet. The model successfully reproduces the general shapes of the observed PSDs and predicts specific PSD and time lag behaviors associated with variability in the synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC), and external Compton (EC) emission components, from sub-mm to gamma-rays. We discuss applications to BL Lacertae objects and to flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), where there are hints that some of the predicted features have already been observed. We a...

  10. What can the 2008/10 broadband flare of PKS 1502+106 tell us?. Nuclear opacity, magnetic fields, and the location of γ rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanavis, V.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Nestoras, I.; Myserlis, I.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Zensus, J. A.; Ungerechts, H.; Sievers, A.; Gurwell, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of blazar variability, as seen from radio up to γ rays, is still a heavily debated matter, and broadband flares offer a unique testbed for developing a better understanding of these extreme objects. One of these energetic outbursts was detected by Fermi/LAT in 2008 from the blazar PKS 1502+106. The outburst was observed from γ rays down to radio frequencies. Aims: Through the delay between flare maxima at different radio frequencies, we study the frequency-dependent position of the unit-opacity surface and infer its absolute position with respect to the jet base. This nuclear opacity profile enables the jet's magnetic field tomography. We also localize the γ-ray emission region and explore the flare production mechanism. Methods: The PKS 1502+106 radio flare is studied through single-dish flux density measurements at 12 frequencies in the range 2.64 to 226.5 GHz. To quantify the flare, we employ both a Gaussian process regression and a discrete cross-correlation function analysis. Results: We find that the light curve parameters (flare amplitude and cross-band delays) show a power-law dependence on frequency. Delays decrease with frequency, and the flare amplitudes increase up to about 43 GHz, and then decay. This behavior is consistent with the propagation of a shock downstream in the jet. The self-absorbed radio cores are located between approximately ten and four pc from the jet base, and their magnetic field strengths range between 14 and 176 mG, at the frequencies 2.64 to 86.24 GHz. Finally, the γ-ray active region is located at (1.9 ± 1.1) pc away from the jet base.

  11. Constraining Emission Models of Luminous Blazar Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many luminous blazars which are associated with quasar-type active galactic nuclei display broad-band spectra characterized by a large luminosity ratio of their high-energy (γ-ray) and low-energy (synchrotron) spectral components. This large ratio, reaching values up to 100, challenges the standard synchrotron self-Compton models by means of substantial departures from the minimum power condition. Luminous blazars have also typically very hard X-ray spectra, and those in turn seem to challenge hadronic scenarios for the high energy blazar emission. As shown in this paper, no such problems are faced by the models which involve Comptonization of radiation provided by a broad-line-region, or dusty molecular torus. The lack or weakness of bulk Compton and Klein-Nishina features indicated by the presently available data favors production of γ-rays via up-scattering of infrared photons from hot dust. This implies that the blazar emission zone is located at parsec-scale distances from the nucleus, and as such is possibly associated with the extended, quasi-stationary reconfinement shocks formed in relativistic outflows. This scenario predicts characteristic timescales for flux changes in luminous blazars to be days/weeks, consistent with the variability patterns observed in such systems at infrared, optical and γ-ray frequencies. We also propose that the parsec-scale blazar activity can be occasionally accompanied by dissipative events taking place at sub-parsec distances and powered by internal shocks and/or reconnection of magnetic fields. These could account for the multiwavelength intra-day flares occasionally observed in powerful blazars sources.

  12. CONSTRAINING EMISSION MODELS OF LUMINOUS BLAZAR SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many luminous blazars which are associated with quasar-type active galactic nuclei display broadband spectra characterized by a large luminosity ratio of their high-energy (γ-ray) and low-energy (synchrotron) spectral components. This large ratio, reaching values up to 100, challenges the standard synchrotron self-Compton models by means of substantial departures from the minimum power condition. Luminous blazars also typically have very hard X-ray spectra, and those in turn seem to challenge hadronic scenarios for the high-energy blazar emission. As shown in this paper, no such problems are faced by the models which involve Comptonization of radiation provided by a broad-line region, or dusty molecular torus. The lack or weakness of bulk-Compton and Klein-Nishina features indicated by the presently available data favors the production of γ-rays via upscattering of infrared photons from hot dust. This implies that the blazar emission zone is located at parsec-scale distances from the nucleus, and as such is possibly associated with the extended, quasi-stationary reconfinement shocks formed in relativistic outflows. This scenario predicts characteristic timescales for flux changes in luminous blazars to be days/weeks, consistent with the variability patterns observed in such systems at infrared, optical, and γ-ray frequencies. We also propose that the parsec-scale blazar activity can be occasionally accompanied by dissipative events taking place at sub-parsec distances and powered by internal shocks and/or reconnection of magnetic fields. These could account for the multiwavelength intraday flares occasionally observed in powerful blazar sources.

  13. Discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from PKS 0447-439 and derivation of an upper limit on its redshift

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Acero, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Gast, H; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Göring, D; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hahn, J; Hampf, D; Harris, J; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzynski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Menzler, U; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nguyen, N; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de O\\ na; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Wouters, D; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S; Pelat, D

    2013-01-01

    Very high-energy gamma-ray emission from PKS 0447-439 was detected with the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescope array in December 2009. This blazar is one of the brightest extragalactic objects in the Fermi Bright Source List and has a hard spectrum in the MeV to GeV range. In the TeV range, a photon index of 3.89 +- 0.37 (stat) +- 0.22 (sys) and a flux normalisation at 1 TeV, Phi(1 TeV) = (3.5 +- 1.1 (stat) +- 0.9 (sys)) x 10^{-13} cm^{-2} s^{-1} TeV^{-1}, were found. The detection with H.E.S.S. triggered observations in the X-ray band with the Swift and RXTE telescopes. Simultaneous UV and optical data from Swift UVOT and data from the optical telescopes ATOM and ROTSE are also available. The spectrum and light curve measured with H.E.S.S. are presented and compared to the multi-wavelength data at lower energies. A rapid flare is seen in the Swift XRT and RXTE data, together with a flux variation in the UV band, at a time scale of the order of one day. A firm upper limit of z < 0.59 on the redshift of PKS 0447-...

  14. Recent highlights in the X-ray study of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Pian, E

    2002-01-01

    Blazars exhibit flux and spectral variations of largest amplitude at the highest frequencies. Therefore, monitoring their variability at X- and gamma-rays is the most effective tool to peer into the mighty powerhouse of these sources. High energy observations of the brightest blazars with the latest generation of satellites have allowed a detailed study of their behavior and have critically improved our understanding of the physics of blazar jets. I will review some of the recent results of blazar multiwavelength monitoring with emphasis on the X-ray campaigns accomplished with BeppoSAX and I will describe some of the future programs for blazar investigation from space, particularly with INTEGRAL.

  15. Brightest Fermi-LAT flares of PKS 1222+216: implications on emission and acceleration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Sahayanathan, Sunder, E-mail: pankaj563@tifr.res.in [Astrophysical Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-11-20

    We present a high time resolution study of the two brightest γ-ray outbursts from a blazar PKS 1222+216 observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in 2010. The γ-ray light curves obtained in four different energy bands, 0.1-3, 0.1-0.3, 0.3-1, and 1-3 GeV, with time bins of six hours, show asymmetric profiles with similar rise times in all the bands but a rapid decline during the April flare and a gradual one during the June flare. The light curves during the April flare show an ∼2 day long plateau in 0.1-0.3 GeV emission, erratic variations in 0.3-1 GeV emission, and a daily recurring feature in 1-3 GeV emission until the rapid rise and decline within a day. The June flare shows a monotonic rise until the peak, followed by a gradual decline powered mainly by the multi-peak 0.1-0.3 GeV emission. The peak fluxes during both the flares are similar except in the 1-3 GeV band in April, which is twice the corresponding flux during the June flare. Hardness ratios during the April flare indicate spectral hardening in the rising phase followed by softening during the decay. We attribute this behavior to the development of a shock associated with an increase in acceleration efficiency followed by its decay leading to spectral softening. The June flare suggests hardening during the rise followed by a complicated energy dependent behavior during the decay. Observed features during the June flare favor multiple emission regions while the overall flaring episode can be related to jet dynamics.

  16. Observations of WIBRaLS Blazars with K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Michael T.; Brown, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recent results of our ongoing program to characterize the rapid variability of a sample of IR and optically bright blazars with K2. The K2 mission, through its superb photometric precision and its ability to continuously sample light curves on timescales of minutes to months is providing unrivaled information on blazar variability. In its previous incarnation as the Kepler mission, only a few blazars were present in its field of view. Nevertheless, Kepler's observations of blazars uncovered rich and complicated variability down to the most rapid timescales it could sample and indicated a need for more roboust time-series analysis techniques. Our K2 sample of IR and optically bright blazars will be a unique set of blazars with light curves sampled on timescales not possible with ground based observatories. We present our recent blazar results from the K2 mission and discuss the analysis challenges they pose.

  17. High Energy Neutrinos from Recent Blazar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Halzen, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The energy density of cosmic neutrinos measured by IceCube matches the one observed by Fermi in extragalactic photons that predominantly originate in blazars. This has inspired attempts to match Fermi sources with IceCube neutrinos. A spatial association combined with a coincidence in time with a flaring source may represent a smoking gun for the origin of the IceCube flux. In June 2015, the Fermi Large Area Telescope observed an intense flare from blazar 3C 279 that exceeded the steady flux of the source by a factor of forty for the duration of a day. We show that IceCube is likely to observe neutrinos, if indeed hadronic in origin, in data that are still blinded at this time. We also discuss other opportunities for coincident observations that include a recent flare from blazar 1ES 1959+650 that previously produced an intriguing coincidence with AMANDA observations.

  18. Powers and Magnetization of Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, Marek

    2016-01-01

    In this work I review the observational constraints imposed on the energetics and magnetisation of quasar jets, in the context of theoretical expectations. The discussion is focused on issues regarding the jet production efficiency, matter content, and particle acceleration. I show that if the ratio of electron-positron-pairs to protons is of order $15$, as is required to achieve agreement between jet powers computed using blazar spectral fits and those computed using radio-lobe calorimetry, the magnetization of blazar jets in flat-spectrum-radio-quasars (FSRQ) must be significant. This result favors the reconnection mechanism for particle acceleration and explains the large Compton-dominance of blazar spectra that is often observed, without the need to postulate very low jet magnetization.

  19. TeV blazars and their distance

    CERN Document Server

    Prandini, Elisa; Maraschi, Laura; Mariotti, Mose'; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a new method to constrain the distance of blazars with unknown redshift using combined observations in the GeV and TeV regimes has been developed, with the underlying assumption that the Very High Energy (VHE) spectrum corrected for the absorption of TeV photons by the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) via photon-photon interaction should still be softer than the gamma-ray spectrum observed by Fermi/LAT. The constraints found are related to the real redshifts by a simple linear relation, that has been used to infer the unknown distance of blazars. The sample will be revised with the up-to-date spectra in both TeV and GeV bands, the method tested with the more recent EBL models and finally applied to the unknown distance blazars detected at VHE.

  20. Relativistic Beaming Effect in Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Fan; D. Bastieri; J. H. Yang; Y. Liu; D. X. Wu; S. H. Li

    2014-09-01

    The most identified sources observed by Fermi/LAT are blazars, based on which we can investigate the emission mechanisms and beaming effect in the -ray bands for blazars. Here, we used the compiled around 450 Fermi blazars with the available X-ray observations to estimate their Doppler factors and compared them with the integral -ray luminosity in the range of 1–100 GeV. It is interesting that the integral -ray luminosity is closely correlated with the estimated Doppler factor, log = (2.95 ± 0.09) log + 43.59 ± 0.08 for the whole sample. When the dependence of the correlation between them and the X-ray luminosity is removed, the correlation is still strong, which suggests that the -ray emissions are strongly beamed.

  1. What determines the observational differences of blazars?

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xu-Liang; Mao, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    We examine the scenario that the Doppler factor determines the observational differences of blazars in this paper. Significantly negative correlations are found between the observational synchrotron peak frequency and the Doppler factor. After correcting the Doppler boosting, the intrinsic peak frequency further has a tightly linear relation with the Doppler factor. It is more interesting that this relation is consistent with the scenario that the black hole mass governs both the bulk Lorentz factor and the synchrotron peak frequency. In addition, the distinction of the kinetic jet powers between BL Lacs and FSRQs disappears after the boosting factor $\\delta^2$ is considered. The negative correlation between the peak frequency and the observational isotropic luminosity, known as the blazar sequence, also disappears after the Doppler boosting is corrected. We also find that the correlation between the Compton dominance and the Doppler factor exists for all types of blazars. Therefore, this correlation is unsui...

  2. Multiwavelength Emission from Blazars – Conference Summary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meg Urry

    2011-03-01

    Presentations at the Guangzhou Conference on Multiwave-length Emission from Blazars confirmed our understanding of blazars as relativistic jets closely aligned with the line of sight. Powerful new studies have been enabled by the Fermi gamma-ray satellite and new ground-based TeV facilities, which are an order of magnitude more sensitive than their predecessors. Combining gamma-ray data with VLBA radio and with optical/IR photometry has shed new light on the emission mechanisms and the jet geometry. This conference summary sets the context for the 4th blazar conference and presents some of the highlights from the meeting, as well as the questions that remain outstanding.

  3. Fourier analysis of blazar variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, Justin D. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7653, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Becker, Peter A., E-mail: justin.finke@nrl.navy.mil [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, MS 5C3, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Blazars display strong variability on multiple timescales and in multiple radiation bands. Their variability is often characterized by power spectral densities (PSDs) and time lags plotted as functions of the Fourier frequency. We develop a new theoretical model based on the analysis of the electron transport (continuity) equation, carried out in the Fourier domain. The continuity equation includes electron cooling and escape, and a derivation of the emission properties includes light travel time effects associated with a radiating blob in a relativistic jet. The model successfully reproduces the general shapes of the observed PSDs and predicts specific PSD and time lag behaviors associated with variability in the synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton, and external Compton emission components, from submillimeter to γ-rays. We discuss applications to BL Lacertae objects and to flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), where there are hints that some of the predicted features have already been observed. We also find that FSRQs should have steeper γ-ray PSD power-law indices than BL Lac objects at Fourier frequencies ≲ 10{sup –4} Hz, in qualitative agreement with previously reported observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

  4. VERITAS Blazar Observations - Recent Results

    CERN Document Server

    Cogan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We present the discovery of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object 1ES 0806+524 (z=0.138) and the intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lac object W Comae (z=0.102) with VERITAS. VHE emission was discovered from these objects during the 2007/2008 observing campaign, with a strong outburst from W Comae detected in mid-March, lasting a few days. Quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions are presented, incorporating optical (AAVSO), and X-ray (Swift/RXTE) observations. We also present the energy spectrum of the distant BL Lac (z=0.182) 1ES 1218+304 which was detected by VERITAS during the 2006/2007 observing campaign. The energy spectrum is discussed in the context of different models of absorption from the diffuse extragalactic background radiation. We present multiwavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (z=0.03), including a strong flare initially detected by the Whipple 10m gamma-ray telescope. Finally we present a broadband spectral energy distrib...

  5. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, 1-2 (2011), s. 91-95. ISSN 0250-6335. [Conference on Multiwavelength Variability of Blazars. Guangzhou, 22,09,2010-24,09,2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; MŠMT(CZ) ME09027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : astronomical plates * plate archives archives * binary blazars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2011

  6. Probes of the inner jets of blazars.

    OpenAIRE

    A. P. Marscher(Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, USA)

    1995-01-01

    I review models for the "inner jet" in blazars, the section that connects the central engine with the radio jet. I discuss how the structure and physics of the inner jet can be explored using millimeter-wave VLBI (very-long-baseline radio interferometry) as well as multiwaveband observations of blazars. Flares at radio to gamma-ray frequencies should exhibit time delays at different wavebands that can test models for both the high-energy emission mechanisms and the nature of the inner jet in ...

  7. Monitoring of bright blazars with MAGIC telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, C. C.; Satalecka, K.; Thom, M; Backes, M.; Bernardini, E.; Bonnoli, G.; Galante, N.; Goebel, F; Lindfors, E.; Majumdar, P.; Stamerra, A.; Wagner, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Blazars, a class of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) characterized by a close orientation of their relativistic outflows (jets) towards the line of sight, are a well established extragalactic TeV $\\gamma$-ray emitters. Since 2006, three nearby and TeV bright blazars, Markarian (Mrk) 421, Mrk 501 and 1ES 1959+650, are regularly observed by the MAGIC telescope with single exposures of 30 to 60 minutes. The sensitivity of MAGIC allows to establish a flux level of 30% of the Crab flux for each such o...

  8. The gamma-ray emitting radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 2004-447. II. The radio view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Ros, E.; Stevens, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Carpenter, B.; Elsässer, D.; Gehrels, N.; Großberger, C.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Mannheim, K.; Markowitz, A.; Müller, C.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Quick, J.; Trüstedt, J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Wilms, J.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Γ-ray-detected radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (γ-NLS1) galaxies constitute a small but interesting sample of the γ-ray-loud AGN. The radio-loudest γ-NLS1 known, PKS 2004-447, is located in the southern hemisphere and is monitored in the radio regime by the multiwavelength monitoring programme TANAMI. Aims: We aim for the first detailed study of the radio morphology and long-term radio spectral evolution of PKS 2004-447, which are essential for understanding the diversity of the radio properties of γ-NLS1s. Methods: The TANAMI VLBI monitoring program uses the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and telescopes in Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa to monitor the jets of radio-loud active galaxies in the southern hemisphere. Lower resolution radio flux density measurements at multiple radio frequencies over four years of observations were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Results: The TANAMI VLBI image at 8.4 GHz shows an extended one-sided jet with a dominant compact VLBI core. Its brightness temperature is consistent with equipartition, but it is an order of magnitude below other γ-NLS1s with the sample value varying over two orders of magnitude. We find a compact morphology with a projected large-scale size < 11 kpc and a persistent steep radio spectrum with moderate flux-density variability. Conclusions: PKS 2004-447 appears to be a unique member of the γ-NLS1 sample. It exhibits blazar-like features, such as a flat featureless X-ray spectrum and a core-dominated, one-sided parsec-scale jet with indications for relativistic beaming. However, the data also reveal properties atypical for blazars, such as a radio spectrum and large-scale size consistent with compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) objects, which are usually associated with young radio sources. These characteristics are unique among all γ-NLS1s and extremely rare among γ-ray-loud AGN. The VLBI images shown in Figs. 3 and 4 (as FITS files) and the ATCA

  9. A Multiwavelength Study of Three Hybrid Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, E. C.; Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Marshall, H. L.; O'Dea, C.; Baum, S.

    2015-07-01

    We present multiwavelength imaging observations of PKS 1045-188, 8C 1849+670, and PKS 2216-038, three radio-loud active galactic nuclei from the MOJAVE-Chandra Sample that straddle the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) boundary between low- and high-power jets. These hybrid sources provide an excellent opportunity to study jet emission mechanisms and the influence of the external environment. We used archival VLA observations, and new Hubble and Chandra observations to identify and study the spectral properties of five knots in PKS 1045-188, two knots in 8C 1849+670, and three knots in PKS 2216-038. For the seven X-ray visible knots, we constructed and fit the broadband spectra using synchrotron and inverse Compton/cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission models. In all cases, we found that the lack of detected optical emission ruled out the X-ray emission from the same electron population that produces radio emission. All three sources have high total extended radio power, similar to that of FR II sources. We find this is in good agreement with previously studied hybrid sources, where high-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via IC/CMB and the low-power hybrid sources emit X-rays via synchrotron emission. This supports the idea that it is total radio power rather than FR morphology that determines the X-ray emission mechanism. We found no significant asymmetries in the diffuse X-ray emission surrounding the host galaxies. Sources PKS 1045-188 and 8C 1849+670 show significant differences in their radio and X-ray termination points, which may result from the deceleration of highly relativistic bulk motion.

  10. DEEP BROADBAND OBSERVATIONS OF THE DISTANT GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR PKS 1424+240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Federici, S. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Bird, R. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: amy.furniss@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; Fermi LAT Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-10

    We present deep VERITAS observations of the blazar PKS 1424+240, along with contemporaneous Fermi Large Area Telescope, Swift X-ray Telescope, and Swift UV Optical Telescope data between 2009 February 19 and 2013 June 8. This blazar resides at a redshift of z ≥ 0.6035, displaying a significantly attenuated gamma-ray flux above 100 GeV due to photon absorption via pair-production with the extragalactic background light. We present more than 100 hr of VERITAS observations over three years, a multiwavelength light curve, and the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions. The source shows a higher flux of (2.1 ± 0.3) × 10{sup –7} photons m{sup –2} s{sup –1} above 120 GeV in 2009 and 2011 as compared to the flux measured in 2013, corresponding to (1.02 ± 0.08) × 10{sup –7} photons m{sup –2} s{sup –1} above 120 GeV. The measured differential very high energy (VHE; E ≥ 100 GeV) spectral indices are Γ = 3.8 ± 0.3, 4.3 ± 0.6 and 4.5 ± 0.2 in 2009, 2011, and 2013, respectively. No significant spectral change across the observation epochs is detected. We find no evidence for variability at gamma-ray opacities of greater than τ = 2, where it is postulated that any variability would be small and occur on timescales longer than a year if hadronic cosmic-ray interactions with extragalactic photon fields provide a secondary VHE photon flux. The data cannot rule out such variability due to low statistics.

  11. Low-Redshift Damped Lyman Alpha Galaxies Towards the Quasars B2 0827+243, PKS 0952+179, PKS 1127-145, and PKS 1629+120

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, S M; Turnshek, D A; Lane, W M; Monier, E M; Bergeron, J; Rao, Sandhya M.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Turnshek, David A.; Lane, Wendy M.; Monier, Eric M.; Bergeron, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared ground-based imaging results on four low-redshift damped Lyman alpha (DLA) galaxies. The corresponding DLA systems were discovered in our Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopic surveys for DLAs in known strong MgII absorption-line systems towards the quasars B2 0827+243 (z{DLA}=0.525), PKS 0952+179 (z{DLA}=0.239), PKS 1127-145 (z_{DLA}=0.313), and PKS 1629+120 (z{DLA}=0.532). The DLA galaxies span a mixture of morphological types from patchy, irregular, and low-surface-brightness to spiral galaxies. The luminosities range from 0.02L_K^* to 1.2L_K^*. We also discovered several extremely red objects (EROs) in two of these fields and discuss the possibility that they are associated with the DLA galaxies. These observations add to the small but growing list of DLA galaxies at low redshift. At the present time, 14 DLA galaxies in the redshift range $0.05 \\lesssim z \\lesssim 1$ have been studied. The distributions of DLA galaxy properties for these 14 cases are discussed and some ...

  12. Blazar Observations with the MAGIC Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneiske, T. M.; Mannheim, K.

    The MAGIC Telescope will be able to detect gamma gay sources down to energies of 30GeV. Therefore a large number of sources will be seen, especially blazars. 30 GeV is also the upper energy limit of EGRET. Therefore it is possible to extrapolate a spectrum of an EGRET source without a complicated model. We make first predictions about the detectability of EGRET blazars calculating the minimum observation time for the MAGIC Telescope. Blazars are often located at high redshifts and their spectra should show some cut-offs at high energies due to pair production processes with low energy background photons. We developed a background radiation model using recent results of optical to infrared data and included this absorption effect in our calculation about the observability. We found that the shape of the spectrum and the intergalactic absorption does not make a big difference for a simple detection of the source. The observation time is only dependent on the flux near the energy threshold of the telescope (30 GeV) and the zenith angle of the blazar. The results are showing that MAGIC will be able to detect more than 50% of the EGRET sources even at high redshift and therefore it will be a good tool for multi-wavelength campaigns.

  13. Astronomical plate archives and blazar monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    Torino : OAT Torino, 1999 - (Raiteri, C.; Villata, M.; Takalo, L.), s. 63-65 [Blazar monitoring towards the third millenium. Torino (IT), 19.05.1999-21.05.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  14. Estimating Black Hole Masses of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xue-Bing Wu; F. K. Liu; M. Z. Kong; R. Wang; J. L. Han

    2011-03-01

    Estimating black hole masses of blazars is still a big challenge. Because of the contamination of jets, using the previously suggested size–continuum luminosity relation can overestimate the broad line region (BLR) size and black hole mass for radio-loud AGNs, including blazars. We propose a new relation between the BLR size and emission line luminosity and present evidences for using it to get more accurate black hole masses of radio-loud AGNs. For extremely radio-loud AGNs such as blazars with weak/absent emission lines, we suggest the use of fundamental plane relation of their elliptical host galaxies to estimate the central velocity dispersions and black hole masses, if their velocity dispersions are not known but the host galaxies can be mapped. The black hole masses of some well-known blazars, such as OJ 287, AO 0235+164 and 3C 66B are obtained using these two methods and the – relation. The implications of their black hole masses on other related studies are also discussed.

  15. UV and X-ray Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok C. Gupta

    2011-03-01

    It is well established that the blazars show flux variations in the complete electromagnetic (EM) spectrum on all possible time scales ranging from a few tens of minutes to several years. Here we report the review of various UV and X-ray flux variability properties of blazars. Our analysis show that UV variability amplitude is smaller than X-rays, mostly soft X-rays hardness ratio show correlations with blazar luminosity and different modes of variability might be operating for different time scales and epochs. Quasi periodic oscillations are seen on a few occasions in blazars, higher fraction of high energy peaked blazars show intra day and short term variabilities in X-rays but variability duty cycle is much less in optical bands on intra day time scale compared to low energy peaked blazars. But these results are yet to be established.

  16. Correlation Analysis of Multi-Wavelength Luminosity of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiongwei Bi; Wanquan He; Jiajin Tian; Zhimei Ding; Shuping Ge

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the correlations between luminosities (R, O, X, ) in radio, optical, X-ray and -ray wave bands for Fermi blazars, and found that there are significant correlations between R and , X and and O and for blazars, BL Lacs and FSRQs, but no correlation between and O for BL Lacs. These results suggest that for Fermi blazars, the high energy -ray emission can be related with radio, X-ray and optical emissions.

  17. Time dependent approach of TeV blazars based on a model of inhomogeneous stratified jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the emission and variability mechanisms of TeV blazars has been the subject of intensive research for years. The homogeneous one-zone model commonly used is puzzling since it yields very high Lorentz factor, in contradiction with other observational evidences. In this work, I describe a new time dependent multi-zone approach, in the framework of the two-flow model. I compute the emission of a full jet, where relativistic electron-positron pairs distributed in pileup propagate. The evolution and the emission of the plasma is computed taking into account a turbulent heating term, some radiative cooling, and a pair production term due to photo-annihilation process. Applied to PKS 2155-304, the model allows the reproduction of the full spectra, as well as the simultaneous multi wavelength variability, with a relatively small Lorentz factor. The variability is explained by the instability of the pair creation process. Nonetheless, the value is still high to agree with other observational evidences in radio. Hence, I show in the last part of this work how to conciliate high Lorentz factor with the absence of apparent superluminal movement in radio, by taking into account the effect of the opening angle on the appearance of relativistic jets. (author)

  18. Tests of the Einstein Equivalence Principle using TeV Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Gao, He; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The observed time delays between different energy bands from TeV blazars provide a new interesting way of testing the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP). If the whole time delay is assumed to be dominated by the gravitational field of the Milky Way, the conservative upper limit on the EEP can be estimated. Here we show that the strict limits on the differences of the parameterized post-Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$ values are $\\gamma_{\\rm TeV}-\\gamma_{\\rm keV}0.8$ TeV light curves of PKS 2155-304, a much more severe constraint on $\\gamma$ differences of $\\sim10^{-6}$ can be achieved, although the energy difference is of order of $\\sim$ TeV. Furthermore, we can combine these limits on the energy dependence of $\\gamma$ with the bound on the absolute $\\gamma$ value $\\gamma-1\\sim0.3\\%$ from light deflection measurements at the optical (eV) bands, and conclude that this absolute bound on $\\gamma$ can be extended from optical to TeV energies.

  19. Multi-Wavelength Variability in PKS 2155-304

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y. G. Zheng; L. Zhang; X. Zhang; H. J. Ma

    2011-03-01

    We study multi-wavelength variability in BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304 in the frame of the time dependent one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, where stochastic particle acceleration is taken into account. In this model, a homogeneously and isotropically spherical structure is assumed, the Fokker–Planck type equation which describes the evolution of the particles energy is numerically solved, and the synchrotron and self-Compton components from the spherical blob are calculated. Our results can reproduce observed spectra energy distribution (SED) and give definite predictions for the flux and spectral variability of PKS 2155-304.We find that particle injection rate, magnetic field and Doppler factor in the acceleration zone are important parameters for explaining its flaring behaviour.

  20. Post-PKS Tailoring Steps of the Spiramycin Macrolactone Ring in Streptomyces ambofaciens

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hoang-Chuong; Darbon, Emmanuelle; Thai, Robert; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Lautru, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Spiramycins are clinically important 16-member macrolide antibiotics produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. Biosynthetic studies have established that the earliest lactonic intermediate in spiramycin biosynthesis, the macrolactone platenolide I, is synthesized by a type I modular polyketide synthase (PKS). Platenolide I then undergoes a series of post-PKS tailoring reactions yielding the final products, spiramycins I, II, and III. We recently characterized the post-PKS glycosylation steps of s...

  1. Fusarium graminearum PKS14 is involved in orsellinic acid and orcinol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Simon Hartung; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2014-01-01

    been linked to products. To help remedy this, we focused on PKS14, which has only been shown to be expressed during plant infections or when cultivated on rice or corn meal (RM) based media. To enhance the production of the resulting product we introduced a constitutive promoter in front of PKS14 and...... cultivated two of the resulting mutants on RM medium. This led to the production of two compounds, which were only detected in the PKS14 overexpressing mutants and not in the wild type or PKS14 deletion mutants. The two compounds were tentatively identified as orsellinic acid and orcinol by comparing...

  2. Multi-Waveband Emission Maps of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alan Marscher; Svetlana G. Jorstad; Valeri M. Larionov; Margo F. Aller; Anne Lähteenmäki

    2011-03-01

    We are leading a comprehensive multi-waveband monitoring program of 34 -ray bright blazars designed to locate the emission regions of blazars from radio to -ray frequencies. The `maps’ are anchored by sequences of images in both total and polarized intensity obtained with the VLBA at an angular resolution of ∼ 0.1 milliarcseconds. The time-variable linear polarization at radio to optical wavelengths and radio to -ray light curves allow us to specify the locations of flares relative to bright stationary features seen in the images and to infer the geometry of the magnetic field in different regions of the jet. Our data reveal that some flares occur simultaneously at different wavebands and others are only seen at some of the frequencies. The flares are often triggered by a superluminal knot passing through the stationary `core’ on the VLBA images. Other flares occur upstream or even parsecs downstream of the core.

  3. Resolved structure associated with the quasar PKS 0837-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resolved structure 17 arcsec in diameter extending symmetrically east and west from the low redshift (z = 0.200) quasar PKS 0837-12 has been detected using broadband optical-imaging techniques. The major-axis diameter of the underlying structure lies at a position angle of 92 +- 20, apparently aligned with the radio lobes which are oriented at a position angle 90 +- 20. For cosmological z and H0 = 55 km/(s Mpc) the diameter of the underlying optical structure corresponds to approximately 90 kpc. Twelve faint (V approximately 20 to 21) objects, within approximately 40 arcsec of PKS 0837-12, may be a cluster of galaxies which could be associated with the quasar. Spectrophotometry of PKS 0837-12 indicates a decrease in both the continuum and the Hβ fluxes over an interval of 5 yr. Two possible interpretations of the optical structure are: (1) an underlying disk of a distant elliptical galaxy, and (2) jet-like lobes possibly related to a new generation of radio sources. (author)

  4. Jets, black holes and disks in blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghisellini Gabriele

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fermi and Swift satellites, together with ground based Cherenkov telescopes, has greatly improved our knowledge of blazars, namely Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars and BL Lac objects, since all but the most powerful emit most of their electro–magnetic output at γ–ray energies, while the very powerful blazars emit mostly in the hard X–ray region of the spectrum. Often they show coordinated variability at different frequencies, suggesting that in these cases the same population of electrons is at work, in a single zone of the jet. The location of this region along the jet is a matter of debate. The jet power correlates with the mass accretion rate, with jets existing at all values of disk luminosities, measured in Eddington units, sampled so far. The most powerful blazars show clear evidence of the emission from their disks, and this has revived methods of finding the black hole mass and accretion rate by modelling a disk spectrum to the data. Being so luminous, blazars can be detected also at very high redshift, and therefore are a useful tool to explore the far universe. One interesting line of research concerns how heavy are their black holes at high redshifts. If we associate the presence of a relativistic jets with a fastly spinning black hole, then we naively expect that the accretion efficiency is larger than for non–spinning holes. As a consequence, the black hole mass in jetted systems should grow at a slower rate. In turn, this would imply that, at high redshifts, the heaviest black holes should be in radio–quiet quasars. We instead have evidences of the opposite, challenging our simple ideas of how a black hole grows.

  5. Constraining blazar physics with polarization signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Boettcher, Markus; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are active galactic nuclei whose jets are directed very close to our line of sight. They emit nonthermal-dominated emission from radio to gamma-rays, with the radio to optical emissions known to be polarized. Both radiation and polarization signatures can be strongly variable. Observations have shown that sometimes strong multiwavelength flares are accompanied by drastic polarization variations, indicating active participation of the magnetic field during flares. We have developed a 3D multi-zone time-dependent polarization-dependent radiation transfer code, which enables us to study the spectral and polarization signatures of blazar flares simultaneously. By combining this code with a Fokker-Planck nonthermal particle evolution scheme, we are able to derive simultaneous fits to time-dependent spectra, multiwavelength light curves, and time-dependent optical polarization signatures of a well-known multiwavelength flare with 180 degree polarization angle swing of the blazar 3C279. Our work shows that with detailed consideration of light travel time effects, the apparently symmetric time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures can be naturally explained by a straight, helically symmetric jet pervaded by a helical magnetic field, without the need of any asymmetric structures. Also our model suggests that the excess in the nonthermal particles during flares can originate from magnetic reconnection events, initiated by a shock propagating through the emission region. Additionally, the magnetic field should generally revert to its initial topology after the flare. We conclude that such shock-initiated magnetic reconnection event in an emission environment with relatively strong magnetic energy can be the driver of multiwavelength flares with polarization angle swings. Future statistics on such observations will constrain general features of such events, while magneto-hydrodynamic simulations will provide physical scenarios for the magnetic field evolution

  6. Blazar microvariability at hard X-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Foschini, L.; Gliozzi, M.; Pian, E.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Bianchin, V.; L. Maraschi(INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy); Sambruna, R. M.; Di Cocco, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Malaguti, G.; Tosti, G.; Treves, A.

    2007-01-01

    Blazars are known to display strong and erratic variability at almost all the wavelengths of electromagnetic spectrum. Presently, variability studies at high-energies (hard X-rays, gamma-rays) are hampered by low sensitivity of the instruments. Nevertheless, the latest generation of satellites (INTEGRAL, Swift) have given suggestions not yet fully confirmed of variability on intraday timescales. Some specific cases recently observed are presented and physical implications are discussed (e.g. ...

  7. Astronomical Plate Archives and Binary Blazars Studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rene Hudec

    2011-03-01

    There are about 3 million astronomical photographic plates around the globe, representing an important data source for various aspects of astrophysics. The main advantage is the large time coverage of 100 years or even more. Recent digitization efforts, together with the development of dedicated software, enables for the first time, effective data mining and data analyses by powerful computers with these archives. Examples of blazars proposed and/or investigated on the astronomical plates are presented and discussed.

  8. Radio Band Observations of Blazar Variability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Margo F. Aller; Hugh D. Aller; Philip A. Hughes

    2011-03-01

    The properties of blazar variability in the radio band are studied using the unique combination of temporal resolution from single dish monitoring and spatial resolution from VLBA imaging. Such measurements now available in all four Stokes parameters, together with theoretical simulations, identify the origin of radio band variability and probe the characteristics of the radio jet where the broadband blazar emission originates. Outbursts in total flux density and linear polarization in the optical-to-radio bands are attributed to shocks propagating within the jet spine, in part, based on limited modelling invoking transverse shocks; new radiative transfer simulations allowing for shocks at arbitrary angle to the flow direction confirm this picture by reproducing the observed centimeter-band variations observed more generally, and are of current interest since these shocks may play a role in the -ray flaring detected by Fermi. Recent UMRAO multifrequency Stokes V studies of bright blazars identify the spectral variability properties of circular polarization for the first time and demonstrate that polarity flips are relatively common. All-Stokes data are consistent with the production of circular polarization by linear-to-circular mode conversion in a region that is at least partially selfabsorbed. Detailed analysis of single-epoch, multifrequency, all-Stokes VLBA observations of 3C 279 support this physical picture and are best explained by emission from an electron-proton plasma.

  9. Gamma-Ray and Multiwavelength Emission from Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meg Urry

    2011-03-01

    Blazars are now well understood as approaching relativistic jets aligned with the line of sight. The long-time uncertainty about the demographics of blazars is starting to become clearer: since the Fermi blazar sample includes a larger fraction of high-frequency peaked blazars (like the typical X-ray-selected blazars in, say, the Einstein Slew Survey sample) than did the higher-flux-limit EGRET blazar sample, these low-luminosity sources must be more common than their higher luminosity, low-frequency-peaked cousins. Blazar spectral energy distributions have a characteristic two-component form, with synchrotron radiation at radio through optical (UV, X-ray) frequencies and gamma-rays from X-ray through GeV (TeV) energies.Multiwavelength monitoring has suggested that gamma-ray flares can result from acceleration of electrons at shocks in the jet, and there appears to be an association between the creation of outflowing superluminal radio components in VLBI maps and the gamma-ray flares. In many cases, the gamma-ray emission is produced by inverse Compton upscattering of ambient optical-UV photons, although the contribution from energetic hadrons cannot be ruled out. The next few years of coordinated gamma-ray, X-ray, UV, optical, infrared and radio monitoring of blazars will be important for characterizing jet content, structure, and total power.

  10. Detection of HF Toward PKS 1830–211, Search for Interstellar H2F+, and Laboratory Study of H2F+ and H2Cl+ Dissociative Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, K.; Muller, S.; Black, J. H.; Amano, T.; Matsushima, F.; Fujimori, R.; Okabayahsi, Y.; Nagahiro, H.; Miyamoto, Y.; Tang, J.

    2016-05-01

    We report extragalactic observations of two fluorine-bearing species, hydrogen fluoride (HF) and fluoronium (H2F+), in the z = 0.89 absorber in front of the lensed blazar PKS 1830‑211 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. HF was detected toward both southwest and northeast images of the blazar, with column densities >3.4 × 1014 cm‑2 and 0.18 × 1014 cm‑2, respectively. H2F+ was not detected, down to an upper limit (3σ) of 8.8 × 1011 cm‑2 and an abundance ratio of [H2F+]/[HF] ≤slant 1/386. We also searched for H2F+ toward the Galactic sources NGC 6334 I and W51C, and toward Galactic center clouds with the Herschel HIFI spectrometer.6 The upper limit on the column density was derived to be 2.5 × 1011 cm‑2 in NGC 6334 I, which is 1/68 of that for H2Cl+. In constrast, the ortho transition of H2Cl+ is detected toward PKS 1830–211. To understand the small abundance of interstellar H2F+, we carried out laboratory experiments to determine the rate constants for the ion–electron recombination reaction by infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. The constants determined are k e (209 K) = (1.1+/- 0.3)× {10}-7 cm3 s‑1 and (0.46+/- 0.05)× {10}-7 cm3 s‑1 for H2F+ and H2Cl+, respectively. The difference in the dissociative recombination rates between H2F+ and H2Cl+ by a factor ∼2 and the cosmic abundance ratio [F]/[Cl] ≈ 1/6 are not enough to explain the much smaller abundance of H2F+. The difference in the formation mechanism of H2F+ and H2Cl+ in interstellar space would be a major factor in the small abundance of H2F+.

  11. Mapping of polyketide biosynthesis pathways in Aspergillus nidulans using a genome wide PKS gene deletion library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Rank, Christian; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise;

    In order to map new links between PKS genes and their products in Aspergillus nidulans we have systematically deleted all thirty-two individual genes predicted to encode polyketide synthases in this model organism. This number greatly exceeds the number of currently known PKs calling for new...

  12. The PKS4 gene in Fusarium graminearum is essential for zearalenone production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysøe, E.; Klemsdal, S. S.; Bone, K.R.; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Johansen, Thomas; Thrane, Ulf; Giese, H.

    2006-01-01

    Zearalenones are produced by several Fusarium species and can cause reproductive problems in animals. Some aurofusarin mutants of Fusarium pseudograminearum produce elevated levels of zearalenone (ZON), one of the estrogenic mycotoxins comprising the zearalenones. An analysis of transcripts from......4. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the PKS4 replacement mutant did not produce ZON. Thus, PKS4 encodes an enzyme required for the production of ZON in F. graminearum. Barley root infection studies revealed no alteration in the pathogenicity of the PKS4 mutant compared to...... protocol was used to replace the central part of the PKS4 gene with a hygB resistance gene through double homologous recombination in an F. graminearum strain producing a high level of ZON. PCR and Southern analysis of transformants were used to identify isolates with single insertional replacements of PKS...

  13. Time-correlation between the radio and gamma-ray activity in blazars and the production site of the gamma-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    Max-Moerbeck, W; Richards, J L; King, O G; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; Reeves, R; Shepherd, M C; Stevenson, M A; Angelakis, E; Fuhrmann, L; Grainge, K J B; Pavlidou, V; Romani, R W; Zensus, J A

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the location of the gamma-ray emission site in blazars, we investigate the time-domain relationship between their radio and gamma-ray emission. Light-curves for the brightest detected blazars from the first 3 years of the mission of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope are cross-correlated with 4 years of 15GHz observations from the OVRO 40-m monitoring program. The large sample and long light-curve duration enable us to carry out a statistically robust analysis of the significance of the cross-correlations, which is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations including the uneven sampling and noise properties of the light-curves. Modeling the light-curves as red noise processes with power-law power spectral densities, we find that only one of 41 sources with high quality data in both bands shows correlations with significance larger than 3-sigma (AO 0235+164), with only two more larger than even 2.25-sigma (PKS 1502+106 and B2 2308+34). Additionally, we find correlated variability in Mrk ...

  14. The variability analysis of PKS 2155-304

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, J. H.; Lin, R. G.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the post-1977 photometric observations of PKS 2155-304 are compiled and used to discuss the variation periodicity. Largest amplitude variations ($\\Delta U = 1^{m}.5$; $\\Delta B = 1^{m}.65$; $\\Delta V = 1^{m}.85 $; $\\Delta R = 1^{m}.25$; $\\Delta I = 1^{m}.14 $) and color indices ($(B-V) = 0.30\\pm 0.06$; $(U-B) = -0.72\\pm 0.08$; $(B-R) = 0.62\\pm 0.07$; $(V-R) = 0.32\\pm 0.04$) are found. The Jurkevich's method and DCF (Discrete Correlation Function) method indicate possible period...

  15. NIR photometry of the flaring Quasar PKS050-225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Escobedo, G.; Carraminana, D. Y. Mayya. A.

    2012-11-01

    Following the report of a Gamma Ray flare in this object by M. Dutka et al. (Atel # 4574), we observed a recent NIR brightening of the high redshift, PKS0250-225 also known as CGRaBSJ0252-2219 z=1.419), cross identified with the gamma ray source 2FGLJ0252.7-2218. On November 24th 2012 (JD 2456255.7662), we determined the following photometric values H = 15.592+/- 0.05, J = 16.570 +/- 0.04 and Ks = 14.653 +/- 0.06.

  16. A sample of weak blazars at milli-arcsecond resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mantovani, F; Mack, K -H; Alef, W; Ros, E; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    We started a follow-up investigation of the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey objects with declination >-10 deg. We undertook a survey with the EVN at 5GHz to make the first images of a complete sample of weak blazars, aiming at a comparison between high- and low-power samples of blazars. All of the 87 sources observed were detected. Point-like sources are found in 39 cases, and 48 show core-jet structure. According to the spectral indices previously obtained, 58 sources show a flat spectral index, and 29 sources show a steep spectrum or a spectrum peaking at a frequency around 1-2 GHz. Adding to the DXRBS objects we observed those already observed with ATCA in the southern sky, we found that 14 blazars and a SSRQ, are associated to gamma-ray emitters. We found that 56 sources can be considered blazars. We also detected 2 flat spectrum NLRGs. About 50% of the blazars associated to a gamma-ray object are BL Lacs, confirming that they are more likely detected among blazars gamma-emitters. We confirm the correlatio...

  17. X-ray Variability of Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Pian, Elena

    2002-01-01

    Critical progress in our understanding of high energy emission from AGN has been determined in the last 10 years by X-ray monitoring campaigns with many space missions, notably ROSAT, ASCA, RXTE, BeppoSAX, and XMM, often in conjunction with observations at other frequencies. The emphasis of the present review is on recent findings about X-ray variability of blazars. Among AGN, these exhibit the largest amplitude variations of the X-ray emission, often well correlated with variations at higher...

  18. -Rays Radiation of High Redshift Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W. G. Liu; S. H. Fu; X. Zhang; L. Ma; Y. B. Li; D. R. Xiong

    2014-09-01

    Based on the 31 high redshift ( > 2) Flat Spectral Radio Quasars (FSRQs), which is from the second Fermi-LAT AGNs catalogue (2LAC), we studied the correlation between flux densities (R, K, ) in the radio, infrared and -ray wave bands. We found that there is a significant positive correlation between and R, and a weak anticorrelation between and K in the average state. For high redshift blazars, we argue that the seed photon of -ray emission mainly comes from the jet itself and partially from the dusty torus.

  19. Looking for High Energy Peaked Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Costamante, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Celotti, A.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.; Tagliaferri, G.; Wolter, A.; Chiaberge, M.; Fossati, G; Pian, E.; L. Maraschi(INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy); Tavecchio, F.; Treves, A.

    2000-01-01

    Blazars can be classified on the basis of their overall Spectral Energy Distribution (SED). BL Lac objects are usually divided in LBL or HBL (Low or High energy peaked BL Lacs), according to the peak frequency of the synchrotron emission, if in the optical or UV-soft-X band respectively. FSRQs instead are characterized by synchrotron peaks mainly at IR-optical frequencies, similarly to LBLs. Here we report on recent BeppoSAX observations which are unveiling the high energy branch of the range...

  20. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Healey, S E; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Itoh, R; Jackson, M S; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kadler, M; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knodlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broad-band spectral properties of the \\gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical and other hard X-ray/gamma-ray data, collected within three months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars.The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual Log $\

  1. Correlation between -Ray and Radio Bands for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. X. Wu; J. H. Fan; S. H. Li

    2014-09-01

    The most identified sources observed by Fermi are blazars (Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacertae objects (BLs). In this paper, we obtained 124 -ray loud blazars with available -ray and radio (core and total) data. It is interesting that the -ray luminosity have a good correlation with the radio luminosity. This phenomenon exists in the core radio luminosity (c) and total radio luminosity (t). The correlation between the -ray and the radio luminosities is still stronger even after we eliminated the redshift effect, which suggests that the -ray radiations in the -ray loud blazars are strongly beamed.

  2. THE WISE BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO-LOUD SOURCES: AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF CANDIDATE γ-RAY BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, H. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Massaro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF/IASF di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Landoni, M. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    We present a catalog of radio-loud candidate γ-ray emitting blazars with WISE mid-infrared colors similar to the colors of confirmed γ-ray blazars. The catalog is assembled from WISE sources detected in all four WISE filters, with colors compatible with the three-dimensional locus of the WISE γ-ray emitting blazars, and which can be spatially cross-matched with radio sources from one of the three radio surveys: NVSS, FIRST, and/or SUMSS. Our initial WISE selection uses a slightly modified version of previously successful algorithms. We then select only the radio-loud sources using a measure of the radio-to-IR flux, the q {sub 22} parameter, which is analogous to the q {sub 24} parameter known in the literature but which instead uses the WISE band-four flux at 22 μm. Our final catalog contains 7855 sources classified as BL Lacs, FSRQs, or mixed candidate blazars; 1295 of these sources can be spatially re-associated as confirmed blazars. We describe the properties of the final catalog of WISE blazar-like radio-loud sources and consider possible contaminants. Finally, we discuss why this large catalog of candidate γ-ray emitting blazars represents a new and useful resource to address the problem of finding low-energy counterparts to currently unidentified high-energy sources.

  3. THE WISE BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO-LOUD SOURCES: AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF CANDIDATE γ-RAY BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a catalog of radio-loud candidate γ-ray emitting blazars with WISE mid-infrared colors similar to the colors of confirmed γ-ray blazars. The catalog is assembled from WISE sources detected in all four WISE filters, with colors compatible with the three-dimensional locus of the WISE γ-ray emitting blazars, and which can be spatially cross-matched with radio sources from one of the three radio surveys: NVSS, FIRST, and/or SUMSS. Our initial WISE selection uses a slightly modified version of previously successful algorithms. We then select only the radio-loud sources using a measure of the radio-to-IR flux, the q 22 parameter, which is analogous to the q 24 parameter known in the literature but which instead uses the WISE band-four flux at 22 μm. Our final catalog contains 7855 sources classified as BL Lacs, FSRQs, or mixed candidate blazars; 1295 of these sources can be spatially re-associated as confirmed blazars. We describe the properties of the final catalog of WISE blazar-like radio-loud sources and consider possible contaminants. Finally, we discuss why this large catalog of candidate γ-ray emitting blazars represents a new and useful resource to address the problem of finding low-energy counterparts to currently unidentified high-energy sources

  4. Tracking the curved jet in PKS 1502+106

    CERN Document Server

    An, T; Venturi, T; Jiang, D R; Wang, W H

    2004-01-01

    We carried out a multifrequency and multiepoch study of the highly polarized quasar, PKS 1502+106 at radio frequencies. The analysis is based on an EVN dataset at 5 GHz, archive VLBA datasets at 2.3, 8.3, 24.4 and 43.1 GHz and an archive MERLIN dataset at 5 GHz. The various datasets span over a period of 10 years. The source is characterized by a multi-component one-sided jet at all epochs. The VLBI images show that a complex curved jet is located to the southeast and east of the core, with the position angle (PA) of the jet axis wiggling between 80 deg and 130 deg. The MERLIN image reveals that the jet extends to 0.6 arcsec at a PA 135+-12 degr. The radio core in the VLBI images has a brightness temperature approaching the equipartition limit, indicating highly relativistic plasma beamed towards us. Delta PA in the source, the misalignment of the kpc- and pc-scale radio structure, is estimated about 32 degr, suggesting that PKS 1502+106 belongs to the aligned population. Four superluminal components are dete...

  5. Central black hole mass determination for blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yu-Hai; Fan Jun-Hui; Huang Yong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we use a method to determine some basic parameters for the (r)-ray loud blazars. The parameters include the central black mass (M), the boosting factor (δ), the propagation angle (φ), the distance along the axis to the site of the (r)-ray production (d). A sample including 32 (r)-ray loud blazars with available variability time scaleshas been used to discuss the above properties. In this method, the (r)-ray energy, the emission size and the property of the accretion disc determine the absorption effect. If we take the intrinsic(γ)-ray luminosity to be λ Times the Eddington luminosity, I.e. Lin(r) =λLedd, then we have the following results: the mass of the black hole is in the range of (0.59 - 67.99) ⊙ (λ= 1.0) or (0.90 - 104.13) ⊙ (λ = 0.1); the boosting factor (δ) in the range of 0.16 - 2.09(λ=1.0) or 0.24 - 2.86 (λ=0.1); the angle (φ) in the range of 9.53 (λ =1.0) or 7.36°=0.1); and the distance (d/Rg) in the range of 22.39 - 609.36 (λ= 1.0) or 17.54 - 541.88 (λ = 0.1).

  6. A New Relativistic Jet Model of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, James; Benitez, Erika; Howard, Emily

    1998-11-01

    The subclass of Active galaxies called Blazars encompass the most intrinsically luminous and rapidly variable sources known to astrophysicists. Attempts to model these sources has largely been frustrated due in part to observational difficulties, but also due to the lack of theoretical models capable of explaining the different characteristics of the observed sources. Leading candidate models all incorporate a massive, rotating black hole which is accreting galactic material, with some of this material being ejected out the ratational axis of the hole in the form of relativistically expanding jets. These jets are thought to emit energy via the synchrotron process across the entire spectrum from radio frequences all the way through the GEV (sometimes TEV) gamma-ray frequencies. Attempts to model these sources with single relativistic jets has proven difficult. We present a new model which features concentric interacting jets that do a much better job of explaining the types of Blazars we observe. We also discuss ways of testing this new model against multifreuqency observations.

  7. FACT. Flare alerts from blazar monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major goals of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars. For more than three years, FACT has observed the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 and a few other sources on a regular basis. To understand these highly variable objects, simultaneous data at different wavelengths are very useful. FACT is not only taking part in multi-wavelength campaigns, but also sending alerts to other instruments in case of enhanced flux, to study flares within the multi-wavelength frame. To send fast alerts, an automatic quick look analysis was set up on site. Once the data are written on disk, they are automatically processed, and the analysis results are published on a website where other observers can monitor the activity of the source in the very high energy band. In addition, alerts are sent in case the flux is higher than a certain predefined value. In 2014, more than five alerts have been sent. Results from three years of monitoring are presented.

  8. FACT. Flare alerts from blazar monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorner, Daniela [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Bretz, Thomas [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    One of the major goals of the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope is the longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars. For more than three years, FACT has observed the blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 and a few other sources on a regular basis. To understand these highly variable objects, simultaneous data at different wavelengths are very useful. FACT is not only taking part in multi-wavelength campaigns, but also sending alerts to other instruments in case of enhanced flux, to study flares within the multi-wavelength frame. To send fast alerts, an automatic quick look analysis was set up on site. Once the data are written on disk, they are automatically processed, and the analysis results are published on a website where other observers can monitor the activity of the source in the very high energy band. In addition, alerts are sent in case the flux is higher than a certain predefined value. In 2014, more than five alerts have been sent. Results from three years of monitoring are presented.

  9. Blazar flares powered by plasmoids in relativistic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Maria; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Powerful flares from blazars with short ($\\sim$ min) variability timescales are challenging for current models of blazar emission. Here, we present a physically motivated ab initio model for blazar flares based on the results of recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic magnetic reconnection. PIC simulations demonstrate that quasi-spherical plasmoids filled with high-energy particles and magnetic fields are a self-consistent by-product of the reconnection process. By coupling our PIC-based results (i.e., plasmoid growth, acceleration profile, particle and magnetic content) with a kinetic equation for the evolution of the electron distribution function we demonstrate that relativistic reconnection in blazar jets can produce powerful flares whose temporal and spectral properties are consistent with the observations. In particular, our model predicts correlated synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton flares of duration of several hours--days powered by the largest and slowest moving plasmoids th...

  10. Chandra & HST Imaging of the Quasars PKS B0106+013 & 3C345: Inverse Compton X-rays and Magnetized Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Kharb, Preeti; Marshall, Herman; Hogan, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    We present results from deep (70 ks) Chandra ACIS observations and Hubble Space Telescope ACS F475W observations of two highly optically polarized quasars belonging to the MOJAVE blazar sample, viz., PKS B0106+013 and 1641+399 (3C345). These observations reveal X-ray and optical emission from the jets in both sources. X-ray emission is detected from the entire length of the 0106+013 radio jet, which shows clear bends or wiggles - the X-ray emission is brightest at the first prominent kpc jet bend. A picture of a helical kpc jet with the first kpc-scale bend representing a jet segment moving close(r) to our line of sight, and getting Doppler boosted at both radio and X-ray frequencies, is consistent with these observations. The X-ray emission from the jet end however peaks at about 0.4" (~3.4 kpc) upstream of the radio hot spot. Optical emission is detected both at the X-ray jet termination peak and at the radio hot spot. The X-ray jet termination peak is found upstream of the radio hot spot by around 0.2" (~1...

  11. Search for Lorentz Invariance breaking with a likelihood fit of the PKS 2155-304 Flare Data Taken on MJD 53944

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barnacka, A; de Almeida, U Barres; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Bühler, R; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L -M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Conrad, J; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Frster, A; Fontaine, G; Füßling, M; Gallant, Y A; Gast, H; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Hague, J D; Hampf, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Keogh, D; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; Maxted, N; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti1, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Ryde, F; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schönwald, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Wierzcholska, A; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2011-01-01

    Several models of Quantum Gravity predict Lorentz Symmetry breaking at energy scales approaching the Planck scale (10^{19} GeV). With present photon data from the observations of distant astrophysical sources, it is possible to constrain the Lorentz Symmetry breaking linear term in the standard photon dispersion relations. Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB) and flaring Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are complementary to each other for this purpose, since they are observed at different distances in different energy ranges and with different levels of variability. Following a previous publication of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) collaboration, a more sensitive event-by-event method consisting of a likelihood fit is applied to PKS 2155-304 flare data of MJD 52944 (July 28, 2006) as used in the previous publication. The previous limit on the linear term is improved by a factor of ~3 up to M^{l}_{QG} > 2.1x10^{18} GeV and is currently the best result obtained with blazars. The sensitivity to the quadratic term ...

  12. Relaxation of Blazar Induced Pair Beams in Cosmic Voids

    OpenAIRE

    Miniati, Francesco; Elyiv, Andrii

    2012-01-01

    The stability properties of a low density ultra relativistic pair beam produced in the intergalactic medium by multi-TeV gamma-ray photons from blazars are analyzed. The problem is relevant for probes of magnetic field in cosmic voids through gamma-ray observations. In addition, dissipation of such beams could affect considerably the thermal history of the intergalactic medium and structure formation. We use a Monte Carlo method to quantify the properties of the blazar induced electromagnetic...

  13. Swift BAT, Fermi LAT, and the Blazar Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Sambruna, R M; Ajello, M; Maraschi, L

    2009-01-01

    Using public \\fermi LAT and \\swift BAT observations, we constructed the first sample of blazars selected at both hard X-rays and gamma-rays. Studying its spectral properties, we find a luminosity dependence of the spectral slopes at both energies. Specifically, luminous blazars, generally classified as FSRQs, have {\\it hard} continua in the medium-hard X-ray range but {\\it soft} continua in the LAT gamma-ray range (photon indices $\\Gamma_X$ \\ltsima 2 and $\\Gamma_G$ \\gtsima 2), while lower luminosity blazars, classified as BL Lacs, have opposite behavior, i.e., {\\it soft} X-ray and {\\it hard} gamma-ray continua ($\\Gamma_X$ \\gtsima 2.4 and $\\Gamma_G < 2$). The trends are confirmed by detailed Monte Carlo simulations explicitly taking into account the observational biases of both instruments. Our results support the so-called ``blazar sequence'' which was originally based on radio samples of blazars and radio luminosities. We also argue that the X-ray-to-gamma-ray continua of blazars may provide independent i...

  14. Very-long-baseline radio interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray blazars: results from millimeter-VLBI observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichbaum, T P; Britzen, S; Standke, K J; Witzel, A; Schalinski, C J; Zensus, J A

    1995-12-01

    VLBI observations of the extremely gamma-bright blazar PKS 0528+134 at 8, 22, 43, and 86 GHz reveal a strongly bent one-sided-core jet structure with at least three moving and two apparently stationary jet components. At the highest observing frequencies the brightest and most compact jet component (the VLBI core) is unresolved with an upper limit to its size of approximately 50 microarcsec corresponding to approximately 0.2 parsec [H0 = 100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 (megaparsec-1), q0 = 0.5, where H0 is Hubble constant and q0 is the deceleration parameter]. Two 86-GHz VLBI observations performed in 1993.3 and 1994.0 reveal a new jet component emerging with superluminal speed from the core. Linear back-extrapolation of its motion yields strong evidence that the ejection of this component is related to an outburst in the millimeter regime and a preceding intense flare of the gamma-flux density observed in early 1993. This and the radio/optical "light curves" and VLBI data for two other sources (S5 0836+710 and 3C 454.3) suggest that the observed gamma-radiation might be Doppler-boosted and perhaps is closely related to the physical processes acting near the "base" of the highly relativistic jets observed in quasars. PMID:11607602

  15. Heterologous expression and product identification of Colletotrichum lagenarium polyketide synthase encoded by the PKS1 gene involved in melanin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, I; Mori, Y; Watanabe, A; Kubo, Y; Tsuji, G; Ebizuka, Y

    1999-08-01

    The Colletotrichum lagenarium PKS1 gene was expressed in the heterologous fungal host, Aspergillus oryzae, under the starch-inducible alpha-amylase promoter to identify the direct product of polyketide synthase (PKS) encoded by the PKS1 gene. The main compound produced by an A. oryzae transformant was isolated and characterized to be 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (T4HN) as its tetraacetate. Since the PKS1 gene was cloned from C. lagenarium to complement the nonmelanizing albino mutant, T4HN was assumed to be an initial biosynthetic intermediate, and thus the product of the PKS reaction, but had not been isolated from the fungus. The production of T4HN by the PKS1 transformant unambiguously identified the gene to encode a PKS of pentaketide T4HN. In addition, tetraketide orsellinic acid and pentaketide isocoumarin were isolated, the latter being derived from a pentaketide monocyclic carboxylic acid, as by-products of the PKS1 PKS reaction. Production of the pentaketide carboxylic acid provided insights into the mechanism for the PKS1 polyketide synthase reaction to form T4HN. PMID:10501004

  16. Cosmic ray loading and PeV neutrino production in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, B Theodore

    2016-01-01

    IceCube has reported the detection of PeV neutrinos, for which blazars are strong candidate sources. The stacking search of neutrinos for known individual blazars by IceCube, however, puts stringent upper limit to their neutrino flux. Here using the upper limit we constrain the cosmic ray loading factor in blazars, i.e., the ratio of the cosmic ray to bolometric radiation luminosity of blazar jets is $\\xi_{\\rm cr}\\la2$ for flat cosmic ray spectrum. Combined with the blazar density measured by Fermi-LAT, we compute the limit to the diffuse PeV neutrino flux produced by all-sky blazars, and find that blazars, dominated by flat spectrum radio quasars, can only contribute a fraction $\\la10\\%$ of the IceCube detected diffuse PeV neutrino flux. Thus blazars can hardly be the sources of the bulk PeV neutrinos.

  17. The line emissions and polarization in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The correlations between broad-line emission,polarization,and core-dominance parameters are investigated for a sample of 148 blazars(BL Lacertae objects-BLs and flat spectrum radio quasars-FSRQs). An anti-correlation between the broad-line luminosity and the linear polarization is found. The broad-line and polarization relation can be explained by using a relativistic beaming model,which perhaps suggests that BL Lacs and FSRQs are a single class. We also investigated the relation between the ratio of the broad-line luminosity to the Eddington luminosity and linear polarization,and that between the ratio of the broad-line luminosity to the Eddington luminosity and the core-dominance parameter.

  18. Multi-waveband Behavior of Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marscher Alan P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews recent progress toward understanding blazars that multi-waveband monitoring observations have advanced. The primary techniques include the compilation of multi-waveband light curves, multi-epoch VLBI images at radio wavelengths, plots of linear polarization vs. time at radio through optical wavelengths, and spectral energy distributions (SEDs. Correlations and the coincidence or lag of events across wavebands and in the images indicate where the events take place relative to the “core” that lies ≳ 0.5 pc from the central engine. Rotations of the polarization electric vector suggest a helical geometry of the magnetic field upstream of the millimeter-wave core, while rapid fluctuations in degree and position angle of polarization imply that the jet plasma is turbulent in and downstream of the core. The author is developing a numerical model that simulates the emission from such turbulence as it interacts with a conical standing shock in the core region.

  19. FACT - Monitoring Blazars at Very High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, D; Bergmann, M; Biland, A; Balbo, M; Bretz, T; Buss, J; Einecke, S; Freiwald, J; Hempfling, C; Hildebrand, D; Hughes, G; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Mueller, S; Neise, D; Neronov, A; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Toscano, S; Vogler, P; Walter, R; Wilbert, A

    2015-01-01

    The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) was built on the Canary Island of La Palma in October 2011 as a proof of principle for silicon based photosensors in Cherenkov Astronomy. The scientific goal of the project is to study the variability of active galatic nuclei (AGN) at TeV energies. Observing a small sample of TeV blazars whenever possible, an unbiased data sample is collected. This allows to study the variability of the selected objects on timescales from hours to years. Results from the first three years of monitoring will be presented. To provide quick flare alerts to the community and trigger multi-wavelength observations, a quick look analysis has been installed on-site providing results publicly online within the same night. In summer 2014, several flare alerts were issued. Results of the quick look analysis are summarized.

  20. The Polyketide Synthase Gene pks4 of Trichoderma reesei Provides Pigmentation and Stress Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasova, Lea; Knox, Benjamin P.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Baker, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are well-known for their production of various secondary metabolites. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides represent a major portion of these products. In a recent phylogenomic investigation of Trichoderma polyketide synthase (PKS)-encoding genes, the pks4 from T. reesei was shown to be an orthologue of pigment-forming PKSs involved in synthesis of aurofusarin and bikaverin in Fusarium spp. In this study, we show that deletion...

  1. UNIDENTIFIED γ-RAY SOURCES: HUNTING γ-RAY BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of unidentified γ-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the major improvements of Fermi in the localization of γ-ray sources with respect to the past γ-ray missions, about one-third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated with low-energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of active galactic nuclei and the largest population of γ-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the γ-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic γ-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for γ-ray blazar candidates associated with the UGS sample of the second Fermi γ-ray LAT catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one γ-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart to each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated with γ-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

  2. Broadband Observations of High Redshift Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Stalin, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 (z = 3.37), CGRaBS J0225+1846 (z = 2.69), BZQ J1430+4205 (z = 4.72), and 3FGL J1656.2‑3303 (z = 2.40) using quasi-simultaneous data from the Swift, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also archival XMM-Newton observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2‑3303, none of the sources were known as γ-ray emitters, and our analysis of ∼7.5 yr of LAT data reveals the first time detection of statistically significant γ-ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of NuSTAR observations and reproduce them using a one-zone leptonic emission model. The optical‑UV emission in all the objects can be explained by radiation from the accretion disk, whereas the X-ray to γ-ray windows of the SEDs are found to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering off the broad line region photons. All of them host black holes that are billions of solar masses. Comparing the accretion disk luminosity and the jet power of these sources with a large sample of blazars, we find them to occupy a high disk luminosity–jet power regime. We also investigate the X-ray spectral properties of the sources in detail with a major focus on studying the causes of soft X-ray deficit, a feature generally seen in high redshift radio-loud quasars. We summarize that this feature could be explained based on the intrinsic curvature in the jet emission rather than being due to the external effects predicted in earlier studies, such as host galaxy and/or warm absorption.

  3. Probing Acceleration and Turbulence at Relativistic Shocks in Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, Matthew G; Summerlin, Errol J

    2016-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is widely thought to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud active galactic nuclei such as blazars. Such acceleration can produce the non-thermal particles that emit the broadband continuum radiation that is detected from extragalactic jets. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-LAT spectroscopy to pin down the shape of the distribution of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This paper highlights how multi-wavelength spectra spanning optical to X-ray to gamma-ray bands can be used to probe diffusive acceleration in relativistic, oblique, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in blazar jets. Diagnostics on the MHD turbulence near such shocks are obtained using thermal and non-thermal particle distributions resulting from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of DSA. These probes are afforded by the characteristic property that the synchrotron $\

  4. A spine-sheath model for strong-line blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Marek; Rutkowski, Mieszko; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a quasi-analytical model for the production of radiation in strong-line blazars, assuming a spine-sheath jet structure. The model allows us to study how the spine and sheath spectral components depend on parameters describing the geometrical and physical structure of `the blazar zone'. We show that typical broad-band spectra of strong-line blazars can be reproduced by assuming the magnetization parameter to be of order unity and reconnection to be the dominant dissipation mechanism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spine-sheath model can explain why γ-ray variations are often observed to have much larger amplitudes than the corresponding optical variations. The model is also less demanding of jet power than one-zone models, and can reproduce the basic features of extreme γ-ray events.

  5. Spectral and Polarization Signatures of Relativistic Shocks in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Boettcher, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic shocks are one of the most plausible sites of the emission of strongly variable, polarized multi-wavelength emission from relativistic jet sources such as blazars, via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of relativistic particles. This paper summarizes recent results on a self-consistent coupling of diffusive shock acceleration and radiation transfer in blazar jets. We demonstrate that the observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of blazars strongly constrain the nature of hydromagnetic turbulence responsible for pitch-angle scattering by requiring a strongly energy-dependent pitch-angle mean free path. The prominent soft X-ray excess ("Big Blue Bump") in the SED of the BL Lac object AO 0235+164 can be modelled as the signature of bulk Compton scattering of external radiation fields by the thermal electron population, which places additional constraints on the level of hydromagnetic turbulence. It has further been demonstrated that internal shocks propagating in a jet pervaded by a helical ma...

  6. Polarization Swings Reveal Magnetic Energy Dissipation in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haocheng; Boettcher, Markus; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The polarization signatures of the blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, sometimes large (> 180^o) polarization angle swings are observed. We suggest that such p henomena can be interpreted as arising from light-travel-time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change of its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization information in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic-field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.

  7. Intrinsic brightness temperatures of blazar jets at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovatta Talvikki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to deconvolve light curves of blazars into individual flares, including proper estimation of the fit errors. We use the method to fit 15GHzlight curves obtained within the OVRO 40-m blazar monitoring program where a large number of AGN have been monitored since 2008 in support of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope mission. The time scales obtained from the fitted models are used to calculate the variability brightness temperature of the sources. Additionally, we have calculated brightness temperatures of a sample of these objects using Very Long Baseline Array data from the MOJAVE survey. Combining these two data sets enables us to study the intrinsic brightness temperature distribution in these blazars at 15 GHz. Our preliminary results indicate that the mean intrinsic brightness temperature in a sample of 14 sources is near the equipartition brightness temperature of ~ 1011K.

  8. Broadband Observations of High Redshift Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Paliya, Vaidehi S; Fabian, A C; Stalin, C S

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 ($z=3.37$), CGRaBS J0225+1846 ($z=2.69$), BZQ J1430+4205 ($z=4.72$), and 3FGL J1656.2$-$3303 ($z=2.40$), using the quasi-simultaneous data from {\\it Swift}, {\\it NuSTAR}, and {\\it Fermi}-Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also the archival {\\it XMM-Newton} observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2$-$3303, none of the sources were known as $\\gamma$-ray emitters and our analysis of $\\sim$7.5 years of LAT data reveals the first time detection of the statistically significant $\\gamma$-ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of {\\it NuSTAR} observations and reproduce them using a one zone leptonic emission model. The optical$-$UV emission in all the objects can be explained by the radiation from the accretion disk, whereas, X-ray to $\\gamma$-ray window of the SEDs are found to be dominated by the inverse Compton scattering off the broad line reg...

  9. Parsec-Scale Blazar Monitoring Proper Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Homan, D C; Wardle, J F C; Roberts, D H; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Hughes, P A

    2001-01-01

    We present proper motions obtained from a dual frequency, six-epoch, VLBA polarization experiment monitoring a sample of 12 blazars. The observations were made at 15 GHz and 22 GHz at bi-monthly intervals over 1996. Ten of the eleven sources for which proper motion could be reliably determined are superluminal. Only J2005+77 has no superluminal components. Three sources (OJ287, J1224+21, and J1512-09) show motion faster than 10h^{-1}c, requiring $\\gamma_{pattern}$ of at least 10h^{-1}c (H_0 = 100h km/s/Mpc). We compare our results to those in the literature and find motions outside the previously observed range for four sources. While some jet components exhibit significant non-radial motion, most motion is radial. In at least two sources there are components moving radially at significantly different structural position angles. In five of six sources (3C120, J1224+21, 3C273, 3C279, J1512-09, and J1927+73) that have multiple components with measurable proper motion, the innermost component is significantly sl...

  10. VERA monitoring of a blazar OJ 287

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada-Satoh S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the frequent VLBI monitoring results of blazar OJ 287 at 22 GHz band using the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA from 2010 November to 2012 September. Time interval of the monitoring is typically once or twice per month. The 22-GHz light curve of OJ 287 show three obvious increasing activities around 2011 May, 2011 October, and 2012 March, with a timescale of < 4 months. The second radio increasing events occurred at the same time as the γ-ray flare in 2011 October detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT, and the third one seemed to precede the γ-ray flares in 2012, exhibiting different behaviour from the previous γ-ray flaring events in 2009. The relative motion of one jet component from the core was rectilinear super luminal motion (~ 8c from the 2011 February to 2011 November toward the south direction, and then it changed the direction backward. The direction variation of the relative motion was seen from 2011 November to 2012 August, simultaneously with the γ-ray flares. It could be caused by a new ejected component in the innermost region.

  11. Applying Relativistic Reconnection to Blazar Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and luminous flares of non-thermal radiation observed in blazars require an efficient mechanism of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in relativistic active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets. Particle acceleration in relativistic magnetic reconnection is being actively studied by kinetic numerical simulations. Relativistic reconnection produces hard power-law electron energy distributions N(gamma) = N_0 gamma^(-p) exp(-gamma/gamma_max) with index p -> 1 and exponential cut-off Lorentz factor gamma_max ~ sigma in the limit of magnetization sigma = B^2/(4 pi w) >> 1 (where w is the relativistic enthalpy density). Reconnection in electron-proton plasma can additionally boost gamma_max by the mass ratio m_p/m_e. Hence, in order to accelerate particles to gamma_max ~ 10^6 in the case of BL Lacs, reconnection should proceed in plasma of very high magnetization sigma_max >~ 10^3. On the other hand, moderate mean jet magnetization values are required for magnetic bulk acceleration of relativistic jets, sigma...

  12. High Temporal Resolution XMM Monitoring of PKS 2155-304

    CERN Document Server

    Edelson, R; Markowitz, A R; Sembay, S; Turner, M J L; Warwick, R; Edelson, Rick; Griffiths, Gareth; Markowitz, Alex; Sembay, Steve; Turner, Martin J. L; Warwick, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The bright, strongly variable BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 was observed by XMM for two essentially uninterrupted periods of ~11 and 16 hr on 30-31 May 2000. The strongest variations occurred in the highest energy bands. After scaling for this effect, the three softest bands (0.1-1.7 keV) showed strong correlation with no measurable lag to reliable limits of $\\tau \\ls 0.3$ hr. However, the hardest band (~3 keV) was less well-correlated with the other three, especially on short time scales, showing deviations of ~10-20% in ~1 hr although, again, no significant interband lag was detected. This result and examination of previous ASCA and BeppoSAX cross-correlation functions suggest that previous claims of soft lags on time scales of 0.3-4 hr could well be an artifact of periodic interruptions due to Earth-occultation every 1.6 hr. Previous determinations of the magnetic field/bulk Lorentz factor were therefore premature, as these data provide only a lower limit of $B \\gamma^{1/3} \\gs 2.5$ G. The hardest band encomp...

  13. Very rapid optical variability of PKS 2155-304

    CERN Document Server

    Paltani, S; Blecha, A; Bratschi, P

    1997-01-01

    We have performed an optical observation campaign on PKS 2155-304, whose aim was to determine the variability properties of this object on very short time scales in several photometric bands. We detected variability on time scales as short as 15 min. The Fourier properties of the light curves have been investigated using structure function analysis. The power spectra are well described by a power-law with an index -2.4. It is compatible with the index found in the X-ray domain. The value of this index shows that the light curves cannot be generated by a sum of exponential pulses. Using historical data, we find that the longest time scale of variability in the optical domain lies between 10 and 40 days. We find a strong correlation between flux and spectral index, which we interpret as the signature of an underlying constant component. As a result we do not find evidence of spectral variation for the active nucleus in the optical domain. A lag has been found between the light curves in different optical bands....

  14. Elevated Optical Luminosity for Gamma-ray Blazar BL Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, A.; Fumagalli, M.; Hogan, M.; Kaplan, K.; Prochaska, P. X.; Williams, D. A.

    2012-06-01

    We report on the increased optical luminosity of BL Lacertae (RA=22h02m43.29s, dec=42d16m39.98s), a low-frequency-peaked gamma-ray emitting blazar at a redshift of 0.068 (3EG J2202+4225, 2FGL J2202.8+4216). We have collected regular R-band exposures for BL Lacertae as part of a larger optical monitoring program of gamma-ray-bright blazars using the Super-LOTIS (Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System) robotic telescope at the Steward Observatory on Kitt Peak, near Tucson Arizona.

  15. Basic properties of Gamma-ray loud blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, K. S.; Fan, J.H.; Zhang, L.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the basic properties of $\\gamma$-ray loud blazars, among them the central black hole mass, M, the Doppler factor, $\\delta$, the propagation angle of the $\\gamma$-rays with respect to the symmetric axis of a two-temperature accretion disk, $\\Phi$, and the distance (i.e. the height above the accretion disk), d at which the $\\gamma$-rays are created, for seven $\\gamma$-ray loud blazars with available GeV variability timescales and in which the abs...

  16. FROM THE BLAZAR SEQUENCE TO THE BLAZAR ENVELOPE: REVISITING THE RELATIVISTIC JET DICHOTOMY IN RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We revisit the concept of a blazar sequence that relates the synchrotron peak frequency (νpeak) in blazars with synchrotron peak luminosity (Lpeak, in νLν) using a large sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei. We present observational evidence that the blazar sequence is formed from two populations in the synchrotron νpeak-Lpeak plane, each forming an upper edge to an envelope of progressively misaligned blazars, and connecting to an adjacent group of radio galaxies having jets viewed at much larger angles to the line of sight. When binned by jet kinetic power (Lkin; as measured through a scaling relationship with extended radio power), we find that radio core dominance decreases with decreasing synchrotron Lpeak, revealing that sources in the envelope are generally more misaligned. We find population-based evidence of velocity gradients in jets at low kinetic powers (∼1042-1044.5 erg s-1), corresponding to Fanaroff-Riley (FR) I radio galaxies and most BL Lac objects. These low jet power 'weak-jet' sources, thought to exhibit radiatively inefficient accretion, are distinguished from the population of non-decelerating, low synchrotron-peaking (LSP) blazars and FR II radio galaxies ('strong' jets) which are thought to exhibit radiatively efficient accretion. The two-population interpretation explains the apparent contradiction of the existence of highly core-dominated, low-power blazars at both low and high synchrotron peak frequencies, and further implies that most intermediate synchrotron peak sources are not intermediate in intrinsic jet power between LSP and high synchrotron-peaking (HSP) sources, but are more misaligned versions of HSP sources with similar jet powers.

  17. From the Blazar Sequence to the Blazar Envelope: Revisiting the Relativistic Jet Dichotomy in Radio-Loud AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Fossati, Giovanini; Georganopoulos, Markos; Lister, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the concept of a blazar sequence that relates the synchrotron peak frequency (Vpeak) in blazars with synchrotron peak luminosity (Lpeak, in vLv) using a large sample of radio-loud AGN. We present observational evidence that the blazar sequence is formed from two populations in the synchrotron Vpeak - Lpeak plane, each forming an upper edge to an envelope of progressively misaligned blazars, and connecting to an adjacent group of radio galaxies having jets viewed at much larger angles to the line of sight. When binned by jet kinetic power (Lkin; as measured through a scaling relationship with extended radio power), we find that radio core dominance decreases with decreasing synchrotron Lpeak, revealing that sources in the envelope are generally more misaligned. We find population-based evidence of velocity gradients in jets at low kinetic powers (approximately 10(exp 42) - 10(exp 44.5) erg s(exp -1)), corresponding to FR I radio galaxies and most BL Lacs. These low jet power 'weak jet' sources, thought to exhibit radiatively inefficient accretion, are distinguished from the population of non-decelerating, low synchrotron-peaking (LSP) blazars and FR II radio galaxies ('strong' jets) which are thought to exhibit radiatively efficient accretion. The two-population interpretation explains the apparent contradiction of the existence of highly core-dominated, low-power blazars at both low and high synchrotron peak frequencies, and further implies that most intermediate synchrotron peak (ISP) sources are not intermediate in intrinsic jet power between LSP and high synchrotron-peaking (HSP) sources, but are more misaligned versions of HSP sources with similar jet powers.

  18. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isvett J. Flores-Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

  19. Bart, Bootes and OMC : monitoring of AGN - blazars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Soldán, Jan; Hudcová, Věra; Bernas, M.; Páta, P.; Hroch, F.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Mass-Hesse, J. M.; Gimenez, A.

    Torino : OAT Torino, 1999 - (Raiteri, C.; Villata, M.; Takalo, L.), s. 131-133 [Blazar monitoring towards the third millenium. Torino (IT), 19.05.1999-21.05.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  20. A Catalog of Candidate High-redshift Blazars for GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Tersi M.; /SLAC /San Francisco State U.

    2006-09-27

    High-redshift blazars are promising candidates for detection by the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). GLAST, expected to be launched in the Fall of 2007, is a high-energy gamma-ray observatory designed for making observations of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy band extending from 10 MeV to more than 200 GeV. It is estimated that GLAST will find several thousand blazars. The motivations for measuring the gamma-ray emission from distant blazars include the study of the high-energy emission processes occurring in these sources and an indirect measurement of the extragalactic background light. In anticipation of the launch of GLAST we have compiled a catalog of candidate high-redshift blazars. The criteria for sources chosen for the catalog were: high radio emission, high redshift, and a flat radio spectrum. A preliminary list of 307 radio sources brighter than 70mJy with a redshift z {ge} 2.5 was acquired using data from the NASA Extragalactic Database. Flux measurements of each source were obtained at two or more radio frequencies from surveys and catalogs to calculate their radio spectral indices {alpha}. The sources with a flat-radio spectrum ({alpha} {le} 0.5) were selected for the catalog, and the final catalog includes about 200 sources.

  1. Modeling Fermi Large Area Telescope and Multiwavelength Data from Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Finke, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets pointed at the Earth, making them extremely bright at essentially all wavelengths, from radio to gamma rays. I review the modeling of this broadband spectral energy distributions of these objects, and what we have learned, with a focus on gamma rays.

  2. Long-term optical-infrared color variability of blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term optical and infrared color variability of blazars has been investigated with monitoring data from the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS). The sample in this study consists of 49 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 22 BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs). The fractional variability amplitudes of each source have been calculated in both optical R band and infrared J band. Overall, the variability amplitudes of FSRQs are larger than those of BL Lacs. The results also suggest that the variability amplitude of most FSRQs is larger at a lower energy band (J band) than at a higher one (R band), but the variability amplitude of BL Lacs is larger at the higher energy band. Both types of blazars display color variation along with variability in brightness. However, they show different variation behaviors in general. In the whole data set, 35 FSRQs exhibit redder-when-brighter trends, and 11 FSRQs exhibit opposite trends; 11 BL Lacs follow bluer-when-brighter trends, and seven BL Lacs follow opposite trends. A detailed examination indicates that there are 10 blazars showing redder-when-brighter trends in their low state, and bluer-when-brighter or stable-when-brighter trends in their high state. Some more complicated color behaviors have also been detected in several blazars. The non-thermal jet emission and the thermal emission from the accretion disk are employed to explain the observed color behaviors. (paper)

  3. Relation between Radio Polarization and Spectral Index of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuhai Yuan

    2014-09-01

    University Michigan RAdio Observatory (UMRAO) supply many radio photometries and polarimetries. We select a sample of 81 blazars from UMRAO and analyse the correlations between their spectral index and polarizations. Out of 35 BL Lacs and 46 FSRQs in the sample, 8 and 15 show strong correlation.

  4. Proton Synchrotron Radiation from Extended Jets of PKS 0637-752 and 3C 273

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Wrijupan; Gupta, Nayantara

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the IC/CMB X-ray mechanism has been strongly disfavoured for 3C 273 and PKS 0637-752 since the anomalously hard and steady gamma-ray emission predicted by such models violates the observational results from Fermi-LAT. Here we propose the proton synchrotron origin of the X ray-gamma ray flux from the knots of PKS 0637-752 with a reasonable budget in luminosity, by considering synchrotron radiation from an accelerated proton population. Moreover, for the source 3C 273, some of the opt...

  5. X-ray Spectroscopy of Galactic Hot Gas along the PKS 2155-304 Sight Line

    OpenAIRE

    Hagihara, Toshishige; Yao, Yangsen; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Wang, Q. Daniel; Takei, Yoh; Yoshino, Tomotaka; McCammon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed spectroscopic study of the hot gas in the Galactic halo toward the direction of a blazer PKS 2155-304 (z=0.117). The OVII and OVIII absorption lines are measured with the Low and High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrographs aboard Chandra, and the OVII, OVIII, and NeIX emission lines produced in the adjacent field of the PKS 2155-304 direction are observed with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer aboard Suzaku. Assuming vertically exponential distributions of the gas temper...

  6. CLUSTERING OF γ-RAY-SELECTED 2LAC FERMI BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Cappelluti, N. [University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We present the first measurement of the projected correlation function of 485 γ-ray-selected blazars, divided into 175 BL Lacertae (BL Lacs) and 310 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) detected in the 2 year all-sky survey by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope. We find that Fermi BL Lacs and FSRQs reside in massive dark matter halos (DMHs) with log M{sub h} = 13.35{sub −0.14}{sup +0.20} and log M{sub h} = 13.40{sub −0.19}{sup +0.15} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}, respectively, at low (z ∼ 0.4) and high (z ∼ 1.2) redshift. In terms of clustering properties, these results suggest that BL Lacs and FSRQs are similar objects residing in the same dense environment typical of galaxy groups, despite their different spectral energy distributions, power, and accretion rates. We find no difference in the typical bias and hosting halo mass between Fermi blazars and radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), supporting the unification scheme simply equating radio-loud objects with misaligned blazar counterparts. This similarity in terms of the typical environment they preferentially live in, suggests that blazars tend to occupy the center of DMHs, as already pointed out for radio-loud AGNs. This implies, in light of several projects looking for the γ-ray emission from DM annihilation in galaxy clusters, a strong contamination from blazars to the expected signal from DM annihilation.

  7. VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM BLAZARS ON BLACK HOLE TIMESCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the variability properties of blazars in the GeV band using data from the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) telescope. We find that blazars exhibit variability down to the minimum timescale resolvable by Fermi; this variability is a function of the peak photon count rate in the LAT. This implies that the real minimum variability timescales for the majority of blazars are typically shorter than those resolvable by the LAT. We find that for several blazars these minimum variability timescales reach those associated with the blazar central engine, the supermassive black hole. At the same time, none of the blazars exhibits variability on a timescale shorter than the black hole horizon light-crossing time and/or the period of rotation around the last stable circular orbit. Based on this fact, we argue that the timing properties of the γ-ray signal could be determined by the processes in the direct vicinity of the supermassive black hole.

  8. Lorentz factor distribution of blazars from the optical Fundamental plane of black hole activity

    CERN Document Server

    Saikia, Payaswini; Falcke, Heino

    2016-01-01

    Blazar radiation is dominated by a relativistic jet which can be modeled at first approximation using just two intrinsic parameters - the Lorentz factor $\\Gamma$ and the viewing angle $\\theta$. Blazar jet observations are often beamed due to relativistic effects, complicating the understanding of these intrinsic properties. The most common way to estimate blazar Lorentz factors needs the estimation of apparent jet speeds and Doppler beaming factors. We present a new and independent method of constructing the blazar Lorentz factor distribution, using the optical fundamental plane of black hole activity. The optical fundamental plane is a plane stretched out by both the supermassive black holes and the X-ray binaries, in the 3D space provided by their [OIII] line luminosity, radio luminosity and black hole mass. We use the intrinsic radio luminosity obtained from the optical fundamental plane to constrain the boosting parameters of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) blazar sample. We find a blazar b...

  9. Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ligong Mi; Xiang Liu

    2014-09-01

    We have carried out the Gaussian model-fitting to 15 GHz VLBAcores for a sample of blazars from the MOJAVE database, analysed the correlations in the model-fitted parameters and studied the variability properties for different group of sources. We found that the Fermi LAT-detected blazars have on an average higher position angle changes of cores than the non-LAT detected blazars, and that the LAT-detected ones are associated with more variable cores in flux density.

  10. Extragalactic radio source evolution & unification: clues to the demographics of blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C. A.; Wall, J. V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the demographics of the radio blazar population: (i) what are their parent (`unbeamed') sources and (ii) what magnitude and/or type of evolution have they undergone ? The discussion is based on models of radio source evolution and beaming based on a `dual population' unification paradigm. These models, developed from radio blazar properties in bright samples, predict blazar demographic trends at the lower flux-density levels; samples from deep mJy-level surveys (e.g. ...

  11. Peak of spectral energy distribution play an important role in intra-day variability of Blazars?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Alok C.; Kalita, Nibedita; Gaur, Haritma; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Blazars can be divided into two sub-classes namely high energy and low energy peaked blazars. In spectral energy distribution, the first synchrotron hump of the former class peaks in UV/X-rays and in IR/optical bands for the latter class. The peak of the spectral energy distribution seems to be responsible for variability properties of these classes of blazars in X-ray and optical bands. Since, in low energy peaked blazars, the X-ray bands lies well below the synchrotron hump, one expects tha...

  12. pks5-recombination-mediated surface remodelling in Mycobacterium tuberculosis emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boritsch, Eva C; Frigui, Wafa; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Malaga, Wladimir; Etienne, Gilles; Laval, Françoise; Pawlik, Alexandre; Le Chevalier, Fabien; Orgeur, Mickael; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Stinear, Timothy P; Supply, Philip; Majlessi, Laleh; Daffé, Mamadou; Guilhot, Christophe; Brosch, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major, globally spread, aerosol-transmitted human pathogen, thought to have evolved by clonal expansion from a Mycobacterium canettii-like progenitor. In contrast, extant M. canettii strains are rare, genetically diverse, and geographically restricted mycobacteria of only marginal epidemiological importance. Here, we show that the contrasting evolutionary success of these two groups is linked to loss of lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis and subsequent morphotype changes. Spontaneous smooth-to-rough M. canettii variants were found to be mutated in the polyketide-synthase-encoding pks5 locus and deficient in lipooligosaccharide synthesis, a phenotype restored by complementation. Importantly, these rough variants showed an altered host-pathogen interaction and increased virulence in cellular- and animal-infection models. In one variant, lipooligosaccharide deficiency occurred via homologous recombination between two pks5 genes and removal of the intervening acyltransferase-encoding gene. The resulting single pks5 configuration is similar to that fixed in M. tuberculosis, which is known to lack lipooligosaccharides. Our results suggest that pks5-recombination-mediated bacterial surface remodelling increased virulence, driving evolution from putative generalist mycobacteria towards professional pathogens of mammalian hosts. PMID:27571976

  13. The first XMM-Newton spectrum of a high redshift quasar - PKS 0537-286

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, J N; Bennie, P J; Pounds, K A; Short, A; O'Brien, P T; Boller, T; Kuster, M; Tiengo, A; Boller, Th.

    2001-01-01

    We present XMM-Newton observations of the high redshift z=3.104, radio-loud quasar PKS 0537-286. The EPIC CCD cameras provide the highest signal-to-noise spectrum of a high-z quasar to date. The EPIC observations show that PKS 0537-286 is extremely X-ray luminous (Lx=2x10^47 erg/s), with an unusually hard X-ray spectrum (Gamma=1.27+/-0.02). The flat power-law emission extends over the whole observed energy range; there is no evidence of intrinsic absorption, which has been claimed in PKS 0537-286 and other high z quasars. However, there is evidence for weak Compton reflection. A redshifted iron K line, observed at 1.5 keV - corresponding to 6.15 keV in the quasar rest frame - is detected at 95% confidence. If confirmed, this is the most distant iron K line known. The line equivalent width is small (33eV), consistent with the `X-ray Baldwin effect' observed in other luminous quasars. The reflected continuum is also weak (R=0.25). We find the overall spectral energy distribution of PKS 0537-286 is dominated by ...

  14. Characterisation of pks15/1 in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectocontagious respiratory disease caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. A 7 base pair (bp deletion in the locus polyketide synthase (pks15/1 is described as polymorphic among members of the M. tuberculosis complex, enabling the identification of Euro-American, Indo-Oceanic and Asian lineages. The aim of this study was to characterise this locus in TB isolates from Mexico. One hundred twenty clinical isolates were recovered from the states of Veracruz and Estado de Mexico. We determined the nucleotide sequence of a ± 400 bp fragment of the locus pks15/1, while genotypic characterisation was performed by spoligotyping. One hundred and fifty isolates contained the 7 bp deletion, while five had the wild type locus. Lineages X (22%, LAM (18% and T (17% were the most frequent; only three (2% of the isolates were identified as Beijing and two (1% EAI-Manila. The wild type pks15/1 locus was observed in all Asian lineage isolates tested. Our results confirm the utility of locus pks15/1 as a molecular marker for identifying Asian lineages of the M. tuberculosis complex. This marker could be of great value in the epidemiological surveillance of TB, especially in countries like Mexico, where the prevalence of such lineages is unknown.

  15. Blazar Jets Push Closer to Cosmic Speed Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) have discovered jets of plasma blasted from the cores of distant galaxies at speeds within one-tenth of one percent of the speed of light, placing these plasma jets among the fastest objects yet seen in the Universe. "This tells us that the physical processes at the cores of these galaxies, called blazars, are extremely energetic and are capable of propelling matter very close to the absolute cosmic speed limit," said Glenn Piner of Whittier College in Whittier, California. Piner, who worked on the project with student Dipesh Bhattari, also of Whittier College, Philip Edwards of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Dayton Jones of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, California. According to Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity, no object with mass can be accelerated to the speed of light. To get even close to the speed of light requires enormous amounts of energy. "For example, to accelerate a bowling ball to the speed newly measured in these blazars would require all the energy produced in the world for an entire week," Piner said, "and the blobs of plasma in these jets are at least as massive as a large planet". Blazars are active galactic nuclei -- energetic regions surrounding massive black holes at the centers of galaxies. Material being drawn into the black hole forms a spinning disk called an accretion disk. Powerful jets of charged particles are ejected at high speeds along the poles of accretion disks. When these jets happen to be aimed nearly toward the Earth, the objects are called blazars. Taking advantage of the extremely sharp radio "vision" of the continent-wide VLBA, the scientists tracked individual features in the jets of three blazars at distances from Earth ranging from 7.3 to 9 billion light-years. A Boston University team led by Svetlana Jorstad earlier had identified

  16. Starter unit flexibility for engineered product synthesis by the nonreducing polyketide synthase PksA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitt-Roehl, Callie R; Hill, Eric A; Adams, Martina M; Vagstad, Anna L; Li, Jesse W; Townsend, Craig A

    2015-06-19

    Nonreducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) are unique among PKSs in their domain structure, notably including a starter unit:acyl-carrier protein (ACP) transacylase (SAT) domain that selects an acyl group as the primer for biosynthesis, most commonly acetyl-CoA from central metabolism. This clan of mega-enzymes resembles fatty acid synthases (FASs) by sharing both their central chain elongation steps and their capacity for iterative catalysis. In this mode of synthesis, catalytic domains involved in chain extension exhibit substrate plasticity to accommodate growing chains as small as two carbons to 20 or more. PksA is the NR-PKS central to the biosynthesis of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 whose SAT domain accepts an unusual hexanoyl starter from a dedicated yeast-like FAS. Explored in this paper is the ability of PksA to utilize a selection of potential starter units as substrates to initiate and sustain extension and cyclization to on-target, programmed polyketide synthesis. Most of these starter units were successfully accepted and properly processed by PksA to achieve biosynthesis of the predicted naphthopyrone product. Analysis of the on-target and derailment products revealed trends of tolerance by individual PksA domains to alternative starter units. In addition, natural and un-natural variants of the active site cysteine were examined and found to be capable of biosynthesis, suggesting possible direct loading of starter units onto the β-ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain. In light of the data assembled here, the predictable synthesis of unnatural products by NR-PKSs is more fully defined. PMID:25714897

  17. A BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO FLARE IN MRK 231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio monitoring of the broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) Mrk 231 from 13.9 GHz to 17.6 GHz detected a strong flat spectrum flare. Even though BALQSOs are typically weak radio sources, the 17.6 GHz flux density doubled in ≈150 days, from ≈135 mJy to ≈270 mJy. It is demonstrated that the elapsed rise time in the quasar rest frame and the relative magnitude of the flare is typical of some of the stronger flares in blazars that are usually associated with the ejection of discrete components on parsec scales. The decay of a similar flare was found in a previous monitoring campaign at 22 GHz. We conclude that these flares are not rare. The implication is that Mrk 231 seems to be a quasar in which the physical mechanism that produces the broad absorption line wind is in tension with the emergence of a fledgling blazar

  18. A BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO FLARE IN MRK 231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Cormac; Hurley-Walker, Natasha [ICRAR-Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, Western Australia, 6102 (Australia); Punsly, Brian [1415 Granvia Altamira, Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90274 (United States); O' Dea, Christopher P., E-mail: brian.punsly1@verizon.net, E-mail: brian.punsly@comdev-usa.com [Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    Radio monitoring of the broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) Mrk 231 from 13.9 GHz to 17.6 GHz detected a strong flat spectrum flare. Even though BALQSOs are typically weak radio sources, the 17.6 GHz flux density doubled in ≈150 days, from ≈135 mJy to ≈270 mJy. It is demonstrated that the elapsed rise time in the quasar rest frame and the relative magnitude of the flare is typical of some of the stronger flares in blazars that are usually associated with the ejection of discrete components on parsec scales. The decay of a similar flare was found in a previous monitoring campaign at 22 GHz. We conclude that these flares are not rare. The implication is that Mrk 231 seems to be a quasar in which the physical mechanism that produces the broad absorption line wind is in tension with the emergence of a fledgling blazar.

  19. Properties of Blazar Jets Defined by an Economy of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulou, Maria; Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute power of a relativistic black hole jet includes the power in the magnetic field, the leptons, the hadrons, and the radiated photons. A power analysis of a relativistic radio/γ-ray blazar jet leads to bifurcated leptonic synchrotron-Compton (LSC) and leptohadronic synchrotron (LHS) solutions that minimize the total jet power. Higher Doppler factors with increasing peak synchrotron frequency are implied in the LSC model. Strong magnetic fields {B}\\prime ≳ 100 {{G}} are found for the LHS model with variability times ≲ {10}3 {{s}}, in accord with highly magnetized, reconnection-driven jet models. Proton synchrotron models of ≳ 100 {GeV} blazar radiation can have sub-Eddington absolute jet powers, but models of dominant GeV radiation in flat spectrum radio quasars require excessive power.

  20. The disk-jet connection of Fermi 2LAC blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, L. M.; Xie, Zh. H.; Yi, T. F.; Xue, R.; Xu, Y. B.; Liu, W. G.; Wang, X. H.

    2016-07-01

    In this article, an estimator of the radiative power for blazars is proposed and is used in the study of the link between the accretion disk power and jet power. The results lend support to the disk-jet symbiosis. Since the blazars are strongly beamed sources, our results suggest that the Doppler enhancement of the sources needs to be removed to obtain physically reasonable results in the disk-jet connection study. The results after de-beaming suggest that FSRQs are accreting in the radiatively efficient regime, while the BL Lac population shows a flatter dependence between jet power and disk power, possibly due to a mixture of sources in the radiatively efficient (the broad lined BL Lacs) and inefficient (the bulk of the BL Lac population) regimes.

  1. BL Lac Objects and Blazars Past, Present, and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Urry, C M

    1998-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen phenomenal progress in our understanding of BL Lac objects. They form part of the blazar class, which are radio-loud AGN whose relativistic jets are aligned along our line of sight. Several critical milestones have helped establish this picture, first proposed at the Pittsburgh BL Lac meeting 20 years ago, most recently the EGRET and TeV detections of beamed gamma-ray emission. The spectral energy distributions are double peaked and follow a self-similar sequence in luminosity, which can be explained by electron cooling on ambient photons. This simple paradigm has yet to be tested, and further questions remain, notably about physical conditions in blazar jets --- the kinetic power, magnetic energy density, acceleration time scales, proton content, etc. --- and how this energy is transported in the innermost regions. Some clues are available from multiwavelength monitoring campaigns although better sampling over longer periods is clearly called for. Recent work on the host galaxies ...

  2. Models for High-Energy Radiation from Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G. E. Romero; M. M. Reynoso

    2011-03-01

    We discuss on the modelling of blazar jets as emitters of multiwavelength radiation with the implementation of a lepto-hadronic treatment. Assuming that injection of non-thermal electrons and protons can take place at the base of the jet, the stationary particle distributions can be found using an inhomogeneous one-dimensional transport equation with cooling and convection. The goal of this approach is to replace the widely used one-zone purely leptonic approximation by a more realistic model. We argue that the rapid variability observed in emission from blazars can be obtained as a result of interaction of the jet with obstacles, i.e., molecular clouds and stars. Long term variability is likely related to changes in the injection and physical conditions in the acceleration region.

  3. Gamma-ray Flares and VLBI Outbursts of Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    1996-01-01

    A model is developed for the time dependent electromagnetic - radio to gamma-ray - emission of active galactic nuclei, specifically, the blazars, based on the acceleration and creation of leptons at a propagating discontinuity or {\\it front} of a Poynting flux jet. The front corresponds to a discrete relativistic jet component as observed with very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI). Equations are derived for the number, momentum, and energy of particles in the front taking into account sync...

  4. Hidden blazars and emission line variability of high redshift quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out a survey to search for hidden blazars in a sample of z 2 radio{loud quasars. The idea is based on our prediction that we should be able to see large C IV line variability not associated with observed continuum variations or most other emission lines in every radio{loud quasar. Here we report the initial results including the discovery of large C IV line variations in two quasars.

  5. The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic SEDs of Southern Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Krauß, Felicia; Wilms, Joern; Kadler, Matthias; Ojha, Roopesh; Schulz, Robert; Trüstedt, Jonas; Edwards, Philip G.; Stevens, Jamie; Ros, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Wayne; Beuchert, Tobias; Blanchard, Jay; Buson, Sara; Carpenter, Bryce; Dauser, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous broadband spectral and temporal studies of blazars are an important tool for investigating active galactic nuclei (AGN) jet physics. We study the spectral evolution between quiescent and flaring periods of 22 radio-loud AGN through multi-epoch, quasi-simultaneous broadband spectra. For many of these sources these are the first broadband studies. We use a Bayesian block analysis of \\Fermi/LAT light curves in order to determine time ranges of constant flux for constructing quasi-si...

  6. Relaxation of Blazar-induced Pair Beams in Cosmic Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniati, Francesco; Elyiv, Andrii

    2013-06-01

    The stability properties of a low-density ultrarelativistic pair beam produced in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by multi-TeV gamma-ray photons from blazars are analyzed. The problem is relevant for probes of magnetic field in cosmic voids through gamma-ray observations. In addition, dissipation of such beams could considerably affect the thermal history of the IGM and structure formation. We use a Monte Carlo method to quantify the properties of the blazar-induced electromagnetic shower, in particular the bulk Lorentz factor and the angular spread of the pair beam generated by the shower, as a function of distance from the blazar itself. We then use linear and nonlinear kinetic theory to study the stability of the pair beam against the growth of electrostatic plasma waves, employing the Monte Carlo results for our quantitative estimates. We find that the fastest growing mode, like any perturbation mode with even a very modest component perpendicular to the beam direction, cannot be described in the reactive regime. Due to the effect of nonlinear Landau damping, which suppresses the growth of plasma oscillations, the beam relaxation timescale is found to be significantly longer than the inverse Compton loss time. Finally, density inhomogeneities associated with cosmic structure induce loss of resonance between the beam particles and plasma oscillations, strongly inhibiting their growth. We conclude that relativistic pair beams produced by blazars in the IGM are stable on timescales that are long compared with the electromagnetic cascades. There appears to be little or no effect of pair beams on the IGM.

  7. RELAXATION OF BLAZAR-INDUCED PAIR BEAMS IN COSMIC VOIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miniati, Francesco [Physics Department, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, ETH-Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Elyiv, Andrii, E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.ch [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2013-06-10

    The stability properties of a low-density ultrarelativistic pair beam produced in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by multi-TeV gamma-ray photons from blazars are analyzed. The problem is relevant for probes of magnetic field in cosmic voids through gamma-ray observations. In addition, dissipation of such beams could considerably affect the thermal history of the IGM and structure formation. We use a Monte Carlo method to quantify the properties of the blazar-induced electromagnetic shower, in particular the bulk Lorentz factor and the angular spread of the pair beam generated by the shower, as a function of distance from the blazar itself. We then use linear and nonlinear kinetic theory to study the stability of the pair beam against the growth of electrostatic plasma waves, employing the Monte Carlo results for our quantitative estimates. We find that the fastest growing mode, like any perturbation mode with even a very modest component perpendicular to the beam direction, cannot be described in the reactive regime. Due to the effect of nonlinear Landau damping, which suppresses the growth of plasma oscillations, the beam relaxation timescale is found to be significantly longer than the inverse Compton loss time. Finally, density inhomogeneities associated with cosmic structure induce loss of resonance between the beam particles and plasma oscillations, strongly inhibiting their growth. We conclude that relativistic pair beams produced by blazars in the IGM are stable on timescales that are long compared with the electromagnetic cascades. There appears to be little or no effect of pair beams on the IGM.

  8. RELAXATION OF BLAZAR-INDUCED PAIR BEAMS IN COSMIC VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability properties of a low-density ultrarelativistic pair beam produced in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by multi-TeV gamma-ray photons from blazars are analyzed. The problem is relevant for probes of magnetic field in cosmic voids through gamma-ray observations. In addition, dissipation of such beams could considerably affect the thermal history of the IGM and structure formation. We use a Monte Carlo method to quantify the properties of the blazar-induced electromagnetic shower, in particular the bulk Lorentz factor and the angular spread of the pair beam generated by the shower, as a function of distance from the blazar itself. We then use linear and nonlinear kinetic theory to study the stability of the pair beam against the growth of electrostatic plasma waves, employing the Monte Carlo results for our quantitative estimates. We find that the fastest growing mode, like any perturbation mode with even a very modest component perpendicular to the beam direction, cannot be described in the reactive regime. Due to the effect of nonlinear Landau damping, which suppresses the growth of plasma oscillations, the beam relaxation timescale is found to be significantly longer than the inverse Compton loss time. Finally, density inhomogeneities associated with cosmic structure induce loss of resonance between the beam particles and plasma oscillations, strongly inhibiting their growth. We conclude that relativistic pair beams produced by blazars in the IGM are stable on timescales that are long compared with the electromagnetic cascades. There appears to be little or no effect of pair beams on the IGM.

  9. Probing Turbulence and Acceleration at Relativistic Shocks in Blazar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Boettcher, Markus; Summerlin, Errol J.

    2016-04-01

    Acceleration at relativistic shocks is likely to be important in various astrophysical jet sources, including blazars and other radio-loud active galaxies. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-LAT data to pin down the power-law index of the high energy portion of emission in these sources, and therefore also the index of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This paper highlights how multiwavelength spectra including X-ray band and Fermi data can be used to probe diffusive acceleration in relativistic, oblique, MHD shocks in blazar jets. The spectral index of the non-thermal particle distributions resulting from Monte Carlo simulations of shock acceleration, and the fraction of thermal particles accelerated to non-thermal energies, depend sensitively on the particles' mean free path scale, and also on the mean magnetic field obliquity to the shock normal. We investigate the radiative synchrotron/Compton signatures of thermal and non-thermal particle distributions generated from the acceleration simulations. Important constraints on the frequency of particle scattering and the level of field turbulence are identified for the jet sources Mrk 501, AO 0235+164 and Bl Lacertae. Results suggest the interpretation that turbulence levels decline with remoteness from jet shocks, with a significant role for non-gyroresonant diffusion.

  10. ESTIMATION OF THE VISCOSITY PARAMETER IN ACCRETION DISKS OF BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an optical monitoring blazar sample set whose typical minimum variability timescale is about 1 hr, we estimate a mean value of the viscosity parameter in their accretion disk. We assume that optical variability on timescales of hours is caused by local instabilities in the inner accretion disk. Comparing the observed variability timescales to the thermal timescales of α-disk models, we could obtain constraints on the viscosity parameter (α) and the intrinsic Eddington ratio (Lin/LEdd=m-dot), 0.104 ≤ α ≤ 0.337, and 0.0201 ≤ L in/LEdd ≤ 0.1646. These narrow ranges suggest that all these blazars are observed in a single state, and thus provide a new evidence for the unification of flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lacs into a single blazar population. The values of α we derive are consistent with the theoretical expectation α ∼ 0.1-0.3 of Narayan and Mcclintock for advection-dominated accretion flow and are also compatible with Pessah et al.'s predictions (α ≥ 0.1) by numerical simulations in which magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is driven by the saturated magnetorotational instability.

  11. Leptonic and Hadronic Modeling of Fermi-Detected Blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böttcher Markus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe new implementations of leptonic and hadronic models for the broadband emission from relativistic jets in AGN in a temporary steady state. The new model implementations are used to fit snap-shot spectral energy distributions of a representative set of Fermi-LAT detected blazars from the first LAT AGN catalogue. We find that the leptonic model is capable of producing acceptable fits to the SEDs of almost all blazars with reasonable parameters close to equipartition between the magnetic field and the relativistic electron population. If charge neutrality in leptonic models is provided by cold protons, our fits indicate that the kinetic energy carried by the jet should be dominated by protons. We also find satisfactory representations of the snapshot SEDs of most blazars in our sample with the hadronic model presented here. All of our hadronic model fits require powers in relativistic protons in the range 1047 – 1049 erg/s. As a potential way to distinguish between the leptonic and hadronic high-energy emission models considered here, we suggest diagnostics based on the predicted X-ray and γ-ray polarization, which are drastically different for the two types of models.

  12. The power and production efficiency of blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Pjanka, Patryk; Sikora, Marek

    2016-01-01

    We use published data on the power and production efficiency of jets in blazars with double radio lobes in order to compare results obtained using different methods. In order to eliminate selection effects, we use cross-matched sub-samples containing only luminous blazars. We compare the three main existing methods, namely those based on the emission of radio lobes, on spectral fitting, and on radio core shift. We find the average jet power obtained for identical samples with the radio-lobe method is $\\sim10$ times lower than that from the spectral fitting. In turn, the power from spectral fitting is compatible with that from core-shift modelling for plausible parameters of the latter. We also consider a phenomenological estimator based on the {\\gamma}-ray luminosity. We examine uncertainties of those methods and discuss two alternative hypotheses. In one, the blazar-fit and core-shift methods are assumed to be correct, and the lower power from radio lobes is caused by intermittency of accretion. Long periods...

  13. Blazar candidates beyond redshift 4 observed with GROND

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarrato, T; Nardini, M; Tagliaferri, G; Greiner, J; Rau, A; Schady, P

    2013-01-01

    The search for extremely massive high redshift blazars is essential to put strong constraints on the supermassive black holes formation theories. Up to now, the few blazars known to have a redshift larger than 4 have been discovered serendipitously. We try a more systematic approach. Assuming radio-loudness as a proxy for the jet orientation, we select a sample of extremely radio-loud quasars. We measure their black hole masses with a method based on fitting the thermal emission from the accretion disc. We achieve a precision of a factor of two for our measures, thanks to the observations performed with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND). The infrared to optical GROND data allow us to observe directly the peak of the disc emission, thus constraining the overall disc luminosity. We obtain a small range of masses, that peaks at 10^{9.3}Msun. If some of our candidates will be confirmed as blazars, these results would introduce interesting constraints on the mass function of extremely mass...

  14. Blazar candidates beyond redshift 4 observed by Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarrato, T; Tagliaferri, G; Foschini, L; Nardini, M; Tavecchio, F; Gehrels, N

    2014-01-01

    We have selected SDSS J222032.50+002537.5 and SDSS J142048.01+120545.9 as best blazar candidates out of a complete sample of extremely radio-loud quasars at z>4, with highly massive black holes. We observed them and a third serendipitous candidate with similar features (PMN J2134-0419) in the X-rays with the Swift/XRT telescope, to confirm their blazar nature. We observed strong and hard X-ray fluxes in all three cases. This allowed us to classify our candidates as real blazars, being characterized by large Lorentz factors (~13) and very small viewing angles (~3deg). All three sources have black hole masses exceeding 10^9Msun and their classification provides intriguing constraints on supermassive black hole formation and evolution models. We confirm our earlier suggestion that there are different formation epochs of extremely massive black holes hosted in jetted (z~4) and non-jetted systems (z~2.5).

  15. The RINGO2 and DIPOL Optical Polarisation Catalogue of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Jermak, H; Lindfors, E; Hovatta, T; Nilsson, K; Lamb, G P; Mundell, C; de Almeida, U Barres; Berdyugin, A; Kadenius, V; Reinthal, R; Takalo, L

    2016-01-01

    We present ~2000 polarimetric and ~3000 photometric observations of 15 gamma-ray bright blazars over a period of 936 days (11/10/2008 - 26/10/2012) using data from the Tuorla blazar monitoring program (KVA DIPOL) and Liverpool Telescope (LT) RINGO2 polarimeters (supplemented with data from SkyCamZ (LT) and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data). In 11 out of 15 sources we identify a total of 19 electric vector position angle (EVPA) rotations and 95 flaring episodes. We group the sources into subclasses based on their broadband spectral characteristics and compare their observed optical and gamma-ray properties. We find that (1) the optical magnitude and gamma-ray flux are positively correlated, (2) EVPA rotations can occur in any blazar subclass, 4 sources show rotations that go in one direction and immediately rotate back, (3) we see no difference in the gamma-ray flaring rates in the sample; flares can occur during and outside of rotations with no preference for this behaviour, (4) the average degree of polarisation (Do...

  16. Insertional mutagenesis and characterization of a polyketide synthase gene (PKS1) required for melanin biosynthesis in Bipolaris oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Akihiro; Kihara, Junichi; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Toshiko; Arase, Sakae; Honda, Yuichi

    2004-09-01

    A polyketide synthase gene named PKS1, involved in the melanin biosynthesis pathway of the phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris oryzae, was isolated using restriction enzyme-mediated integration. Sequence analysis showed that the PKS1 encodes a putative protein that has 2155 amino acids and significant similarity to other fungal polyketide synthases. Targeted disruption of the PKS1 gene showed that it is necessary for melanin biosynthesis in B. oryzae. Northern blot analysis showed that PKS1 transcripts were specifically enhanced by near-ultraviolet radiation (300-400 nm) and that its temporal transcriptional patterns were similar to those of THR1 and SCD1 genes involved in the melanin biosynthesis pathway of B. oryzae. PMID:15336395

  17. Correlation between Spectral Index and Doppler Factor for a Sample of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Tao; J. H. Fan; H. J. Pan; D. X. Wu; S. H. Li

    2014-09-01

    Relativistic beaming effect is important for blazars. In a very recent work, -ray Doppler factors were calculated for a sample of Fermi blazars (Fan et al. 2013). In this work, we investigated the correlation between the Doppler factor and the effective spectral index, 4OX, and found an anticorrelation between them.

  18. The contribution of blazars to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mücke, A.; Pohl, M.; Dermer, C.D.

    We present results of a calculation of the blazar contribution to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background (EGRB) in the EGRET-energy range. Our model is based on the non-thermal emission processes known to be important in blazar jets, and on the unification scheme of radio-loud AGN. The...

  19. The Correlation between -Ray and Radio Emissions for the Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Yang; J. H. Fan

    2011-03-01

    Based upon the Fermi blazars sample, the radio and -ray emissions are compiled for a sample of 74 -ray loud blazars to calculate the radio to -ray effective spectrum index R . The correlations between R and -ray luminosity, and between radio and -ray luminosity are also investigated.

  20. The contribution of blazars to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mücke, A.; Pohl, M.; Dermer, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    We present results of a calculation of the blazar contribution to the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background (EGRB) in the EGRET-energy range. Our model is based on the non-thermal emission processes known to be important in blazar jets, and on the unification scheme of radio-loud AGN. The...

  1. Time-Resolved Spectral Analysis of Blazar 0716+714

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rosamaria; Harp, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    As electromagnetic (EM) waves from sources such as blazars travel through the intergalactic medium (IGM), they are slowed by electrons; a phenomenon called dispersion delay [2]. We study the propagation effects in emissions of EM waves from blazar source BL 0716+714 by estimating the average electron density, or dispersion measure (DM), of the IGM on a line of sight to the blazar. Measuring the variations in these effects with time allow us to understand the properties of the intervening material. Toward this goal we analyzed months of archived observations of BL 0716+714 taken by the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). The ATA's correlator produces cross-power vs. frequency spectra for every baseline (distance between a pair of antennas) in ten-second intervals. To reduce this immense load of data we used a technique based on interferometry called bispectrum, which does not depend on complicated array calibration and simplifies our work. The bispectrum multiplies baselines, three at a time, so that they form a closed loop, then the cube root of spectra are averaged [1]. This technique is independent of phase errors associated with any individual antenna and has a better SNR ratio than simply taking the average of all the baselines. We developed a numerical analysis program that takes in archived blazar files containing correlation data, computes the bispectrum, and outputs FITS images for each day of observations. The results show that our observations do not have sufficient sensitivity to reveal blazar variations in the frequency ranges that were studied. It is suggested that future observations at higher frequencies and/or with another telescope having greater sensitivity would reveal the time/frequency dependence of emission structure that would allow measurements of electron content. This work shows that but bispectrum is a useful tool for rapid characterization of interferometer data that does not require interferometer caclibration which could introduce artifacts

  2. Penentuan Kadar Air Inti Sawit Pada Kernel Silo Menggunakan Alat Moisture Analyzer Di PT. PN III Pks Rambutan Tebing Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Putri Maharani Ginting

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan analisis kadar air inti sawit pada kernel silo di PTPN III PKS Rambutan Tebing Tinggi mulai dari tanggal 21 Januari 2008 sampai 28 Januari 2008. Analisis dilakukan dengan metode adsorbsi menggunakan alat Moisture Analyzer. Dari hasil analisis diperoleh kadar air inti sawit rata-rata sebesar 6,915%. Kadar air inti sawit menurut standar mutu yang ditetapkan pemerintah adalah di bawah 7%. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kadar air inti sawit pada kernel silo di PTPN III PKS Rambutan Teb...

  3. Extended Radio Emission in MOJAVE Blazars: Challenges to Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, P.; Lister, M. L.; Cooper, N. J.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of a study on the kiloparsec-scale radio emission in the complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample, comprising 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei. New 1.4 GHz Very Large Array (VLA) radio images of six quasars and previously unpublished images of 21 blazars are presented, along with an analysis of the high-resolution (VLA A-array) 1.4 GHz emission for the entire sample. While extended emission is detected in the majority of the sources, about 7% of the sources exhibit only radio core emission. We expect more sensitive radio observations, however, to detect faint emission in these sources, as we have detected in the erstwhile "core-only" source, 1548+056. The kiloparsec-scale radio morphology varies widely across the sample. Many BL Lac objects exhibit extended radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphology typical of powerful FRII jets, while a substantial number of quasars possess radio powers intermediate between FRIs and FRIIs. This poses challenges to the simple radio-loud unified scheme, which links BL Lac objects to FRIs and quasars to FRIIs. We find a significant correlation between extended radio emission and parsec-scale jet speeds: the more radio powerful sources possess faster jets. This indicates that the 1.4 GHz (or low-frequency) radio emission is indeed related to jet kinetic power. Various properties such as extended radio power and apparent parsec-scale jet speeds vary smoothly between different blazar subclasses, suggesting that, at least in terms of radio jet properties, the distinction between quasars and BL Lac objects, at an emission-line equivalent width of 5 Å, is essentially an arbitrary one. While the two blazar subclasses display a smooth continuation in properties, they often reveal differences in the correlation test results when considered separately. This can be understood if, unlike quasars, BL Lac objects do not constitute a homogeneous population, but rather include both FRI and FRII radio galaxies for

  4. pks63787, a Polyketide Synthase Gene Responsible for the Biosynthesis of Benzenoids in the Medicinal Mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Po-Wei; Chang, Ya-Chih; Liou, Ruey-Fen; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Tzean, Shean-Shong

    2016-06-24

    Antrodia cinnamomea, a unique resupinate basidiomycete endemic to Taiwan, has potent medicinal activities. The reddish basidiocarps and mycelia generally exhibit abundant metabolites and higher biological activity. To investigate the pigments of A. cinnamomea, polyketide synthase (PKS) genes were characterized based on its partially deciphered genome and the construction of a fosmid library. Furthermore, a gene disruption platform was established via protoplast transformation and homologous recombination. Of four putative polyketide synthase genes, pks63787 was selected and disrupted in the monokaryotic wild-type (wt) strain f101. Transformant Δpks63787 was deficient in the synthesis of several aromatic metabolites, including five benzenoids and two benzoquinone derivatives. Based on these results, a biosynthetic pathway for benzenoid derivatives was proposed. The pks63787 deletion mutant not only displayed a reduced red phenotype compared to the wt strain but also displayed less 1,1-biphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. This finding suggests that PKS63787 is responsible for the biosynthesis of pigments and metabolites related to the antioxidant activity of A. cinnamomea. The present study focuses on the functional characterization of the PKS gene, the fluctuations of its profile of secondary metabolites, and interpretation of the biosynthesis of benzenoids. PMID:27227778

  5. Dual-frequency VSOP Imaging of a High-redshift Radio Quasar PKS 1402+044

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J; Lobanov, A; Frey, S; Hong, X Y; Yang, Jun; Gurvits, Leonid; Lobanov, Andrei; Frey, Sandor; Hong, Xiao-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Based on the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) observations at 1.6 and 5 GHz, we find that the luminous high-redshift (z=3.215) quasar PKS 1402+044 (J1405+0415) has a pronounced 'core--jet' structure. The jet shows a steeper spectral index and lower brightness temperature with the increase of the distance from the core. The variation of brightness temperature is basically consistent with the shock-in-jet model. Assuming that the jet is collimated by the ambient magnetic field, we estimate the mass of the central object as ~10^9 M_sun. The upper limit of the jet proper motion of PKS 1402+044 is 0.03 mas/yr (~3c) in the east-west direction.

  6. Moderate Islamic Fundamentalism: Understanding the Political Thinking of the Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firman Noor

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposed the term moderate fundamentalism, as a tool in understanding the defining characteristic of the PKS. In short, the term refers to fundamentalism in a moderate perspective, enabling moderate fundamentalists to be involved in political activities adaptively and without resorting to the use of radical means. Using this term, I argue that the PKS is a part of the fundamentalist faction, differentiating it in principle from other modernist groups or parties in Indonesia. Its moderate nature, however, also differentiates it from the radical camps within the fundamentalist faction. The use of the term moderate fundamentalism allows for the observation of diversity within the fundamentalist faction and contributes to new insights into present-day Indonesian Islamic political parties.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v14i3.546

  7. 拟南芥PKS5激酶磷酸化ABI5参与植物ABA响应%PKS5 Kinase is Involved in ABA Response through Phosphorylating ABI5 in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菲佚; 焦成瑾; 陈荃; 王太术; 田春芳; 高雅梅

    2015-01-01

    植物激素脱落酸(abscisic acid, ABA)在植物生长、发育及环境胁迫中起着重要的作用。本研究发现拟南芥PKSes (SOS2-like protein kinases)蛋白激酶家族成员PKS5(SOS2-like protein kinase 5)参与植物ABA响应。PKS5功能获得性点突变体pks5-3与pks5-4表现出对ABA的敏感表型。在外源ABA处理下, pks5-3与pks5-4种子萌发率降低,幼苗生长矮小、黄化。体外磷酸化测试显示, PKS5特异磷酸化ABA响应元件ABI5(ABA-insensitive 5) N末端多肽(1~211 aa)。qRT-PCR分析表明pks5-3与pks5-4突变体中ABI5下游ABA响应基因RAB18(RESPONSIVE TO ABA18)与EM6(LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT 6)表达均发生改变。这些研究结果表明,拟南芥PKS5通过磷酸化ABI5的N末端参与植物ABA响应过程。%The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in plant growth and development as well as abiotic stress responses. In this study, we found that PKS5 (SOS2-like protein kinase 5), a family mem-ber of PKSes (SOS2-like protein kinases), involved in ABA response inArabidopsis.PKS5 gain-of-function point mutantspks5-3andpks5-4 exhibited hypersensitive to ABA in the phenotypic test. Additionally, seed ger-minations ofpks5-3andpks5-4 decreased and seedlings of them showed stunted growth and leaf chlorotic symptoms under exogenous ABA treatment.In vitro phosphorylation assay indicated that PKS5 speciifcally phosphorylates the ABA-responsive component ABI5 (ABA-insensitive 5) N terminus fragment range from 1 to 211 amino acids. Moreover, the relative expression levels ofRAB18 andEM6, which are the downstream ABA-responsive genes of ABI5, signiifcantly altered inpks5-3andpks5-4 mutants compared with the wild-type plants by quantitative real-time PCR using gene-speciifc primers. Taken together, the results of this study revealed that PKS5 involves in ABA response via phosphorylating the N-terminus of ABI5 in Arabidopsis.

  8. Pengaruh Budaya Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan Pada Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (PKS) Rambutan PTPN III (Persero)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari M., Julianti

    2010-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah budaya kerja memiliki pengaruh terhadap kinerja karyawan pada Pabrik Kelapa Sawit (PKS) Rambutan Jenis data yang digunakan yaitu data primer dan data sekunder. Teknik pengumpulan data yaitu dengan wawancara, penyebaran kuesioner, dan studi dokumentasi. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan yaitu dengan metode deskriptif dan metode kuantitatif. Data primer dalam penelitian ini yang diperoleh dengan menyebar kuesioner/daftar pernyataan, pengukur...

  9. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kinerja Karyawan Pada PTPN III PKS Rambutan T.Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Jhon Ady

    2010-01-01

    Perusahaan PTPN III PKS Rambutan T.Tinggi merupakan perusahaan yang mengolah buah kelapa sawit menjadi minyak sawit Crude Palm Oil dan inti Palm Kernel. Perusahaan ini membutuhkan suatu penilaian kinerja karyawan yang lebih baik sehingga perusahaan dapat berjalan dengan lebih baik pula. Penilaian kinerja dapat dilakukan dengan cara menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kinerja karyawan, sehingga dapat dilihat faktor mana yang lebih berpengaruh dalam meningkatkan kiner...

  10. Rapid X-ray Variability of the BL Lacertae Object PKS 2155-304

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y.H.; Celotti, A.; Treves, A.; Chiappetti, L.; Ghisellini, G.; L. Maraschi(INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy); Pian, E.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tavecchio, F.; C. M. Urry

    1999-01-01

    (Abridged) We present a detailed power density spectrum and cross-correlation analysis of the X-ray light curves of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304, observed with BeppoSAX in 1997 and 1996, aimed at exploring the rapid variability properties and the inter-band cross correlations in the X-rays. We also perform the same analysis on the (archival) X-ray light curve obtained with ASCA in 1994.

  11. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J.; Linthorst, Huub J. M.; Robert Verpoorte

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants...

  12. PKS 0119-46 and the origin of infalling absorption-line systems in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed that the infalling (z/sub abs/>z/sub em/) absorption-line systems in the quasar PKS 0119--046 are due to a blueshifting of the broad emission lines with respect to the rest frame of the underlying galaxy in which the quasar is located rather than being due to a real high-velocity infall. The spectrum of PKS 0119-046 shows a narrow emission-line spike at 3610 A. This is interpreted as Lyman-α emission from the narrow-line region of the quasar. The emission is at a redshift very close to that of the highest redshift absorption-line systems. The spectrum of PKS 0119-046 is consistent with it having a lightly reddened narrow-line region similar to that which might be seen in a typical low-redshift quasar. The physical parameters deduced for one of the absorption-line systems are completely compatible with that system being caused by a narrow emission-line cloud seen in absorption

  13. Dinamika Islam Politik Pasca Orde baru: Kajian Psikoanalisi Lacanian atas Hubungan KAMMI dan PKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rizky Mardhatillah Umar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the relations between student movement andpolitical party in post-reform era of Indonesia. KAMMI, a prominent Islamiststudent movement in Indonesia, often associated with PKS (Prosperous JusticeParty in terms of identity and political practices. It has created ‘independencedilemma’ for KAMMI because since its first Congress in 1998, this studentorganization has declared ‘independent from all political forces’. This article,using Lacanian psychoanalytical tradition, exposes the forms of KAMMI’ssubjectivity and PKS interpellation that enable this political party to dominateKAMMI’s articulatory practices. The interpellation process is supported withthe projection of fantacy, emotion, and mirror in the development of KAMMIsince 1998 until present. It leads to PKS creating the KAMMI identity andthus made KAMMI’s articulatory practices identical with this party. However,there were several attempts to dislocate the hegemony through several internalreform movements. These attempts, although made contribution to internaldynamics within KAMMI, were unable to create alternative discourse dueto several limits of those movements. The case of KAMMI can be a model toexplain how other student movements develop and relate to political parties inIndonesian post-reform.

  14. Lorentz factor distribution of blazars from the optical Fundamental Plane of black hole activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Payaswini; Körding, Elmar; Falcke, Heino

    2016-09-01

    Blazar radiation is dominated by a relativistic jet which can be modelled at first approximation using just two intrinsic parameters - the Lorentz factor Γ and the viewing angle θ. Blazar jet observations are often beamed due to relativistic effects, complicating the understanding of these intrinsic properties. The most common way to estimate blazar Lorentz factors needs the estimation of apparent jet speeds and Doppler beaming factors. We present a new and independent method of constructing the blazar Lorentz factor distribution, using the optical Fundamental Plane of black hole activity. The optical Fundamental Plane is a plane stretched out by both the supermassive black holes and the X-ray binaries, in the 3D space provided by their [O III] line luminosity, radio luminosity and black hole mass. We use the intrinsic radio luminosity obtained from the optical Fundamental Plane to constrain the boosting parameters of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey blazar sample. We find a blazar bulk Lorentz factor distribution in the form of a power law as N(Γ) ∝ Γ-2.1 ± 0.4 for the Γ range of 1-40. We also discuss the viewing angle distribution of the blazars and the dependence of our results on the input parameters.

  15. Lorentz factor distribution of blazars from the optical Fundamental plane of black hole activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Payaswini; Körding, Elmar; Falcke, Heino

    2016-06-01

    Blazar radiation is dominated by a relativistic jet which can be modeled at first approximation using just two intrinsic parameters - the Lorentz factor Γ and the viewing angle θ. Blazar jet observations are often beamed due to relativistic effects, complicating the understanding of these intrinsic properties. The most common way to estimate blazar Lorentz factors needs the estimation of apparent jet speeds and Doppler beaming factors. We present a new and independent method of constructing the blazar Lorentz factor distribution, using the optical fundamental plane of black hole activity. The optical fundamental plane is a plane stretched out by both the supermassive black holes and the X-ray binaries, in the 3D space provided by their [OIII] line luminosity, radio luminosity and black hole mass. We use the intrinsic radio luminosity obtained from the optical fundamental plane to constrain the boosting parameters of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) blazar sample. We find a blazar bulk Lorentz factor distribution in the form of a power law as N(Γ)∝Γ-2.1 ± 0.4 for the Γ range of 1 to 40. We also discuss the viewing angle distribution of the blazars and the dependence of our results on the input parameters.

  16. FACT — LONGTERM MONITORING OF BRIGHT TeV BLAZARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Meier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT, located on the Canary Island of La Palma, has been taking data since October 2011. FACT has been optimized for longterm monitoring of bright TeV blazars, to study their variability time scales and flare probability. G-APD photo-sensors allow for observations even under strong moonlight conditions, and the telescope can be operated remotely. The monitoring strategy of FACT is discussed and preliminary results of the flare of Mrk501 in June 2012 are shown.

  17. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for -Ray Loud Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Yang; R. S. Yang; J. J. Nie; J. H. Fan

    2014-09-01

    Based on Fermi 1FGL and 2FGL data, a sample of 572 -ray loud blazars are selected, in which each source has both -ray flux and spectral index in 1FGL and 2FGL, respectively. Theoretic relation of spectral index changes depending on -ray brightness is obtained. The correlations between the ratio of -ray flux densities and the differences of the -ray spectral indices are discussed for the three subclasses of HBL, LBL and FSRQs. Results show that the ratio is related with the differences for the three subclasses. It is consistent with the theoretical result and it indicates that the spectrum becomes flat as the source brightens in the -ray band.

  18. Visual Method for Spectral Energy Distribution Calculation of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y. Huang; J. H. Fan

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we propose to use `The Geometer’s Sketchpad’ to the fitting of a spectral energy distribution of blazar based on three effective spectral indices, RO, OX, and RX and the flux density in the radio band. It can make us to see the fitting in detail with both the peak frequency and peak luminosity given immediately. We used our method to those sources whose peak frequency and peak luminosity are given and found that our results are consistent with those given in the work of Sambruna et al. (1996).

  19. Photopolarimetry of Blazar 3C454.3 from MIRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliyan, Ks; Ganesh, S.; Chandra, Sunil; Joshi, Uc

    2009-12-01

    The Blazar 3C 454.3 has been active in Gamma-rays, optical and X- rays since Sept. 2009 ( Atel #2181, #2200, #2201). Very recently, it has been reported to be flaring up in the optical, X-ray and gamma-ray energy regimes(ATel #2322; #2325; #2326; #2328; #2329; #2330; #2332). In Atel #2333, Sasada et al report optical behaviour of this source on Dec 1.9 with brightness (V=14.06+/-0.02 and degree of polarization 6.0+/-0.1% on the same epoch.

  20. The Radio and Gamma-Ray Luminosities of Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.; Cheng, K. S.; Fan, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the $\\gamma$-ray data of blazars in the third EGRET catalog and radio data at 5 GHz, we studied the correlation between the radio and $\\gamma$-ray luminosities using two statistical methods. The first method was the partial correlation analysis method, which indicates that there exist correlations between the radio and $\\gamma$-ray luminosities in both high and low states as well as in the average case. The second method involved a comparison of expected $\\gamma$-ray luminosity distr...

  1. Radio Variability of First 3-Month Fermi Blazars at 5 GHz: Affected by Interstellar Scintillation?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X. Liu; Z. Ding; J. Liu; N. Marchili; T. P. Krichbaum

    2011-03-01

    Blazars from the first-three-months Fermi-AGN list were observed with the Urumqi 25-m radio telescope at 5 GHz in IDV (Intra-Day Variability) mode and inter-month observation mode. A significant correlation between the flux density at 5 GHz and the -ray intensity for the Fermi-LAT detected blazars is seen. There is a higher IDV detection rate in Fermi detected blazars than those reported for other samples. Stronger variability appears at lower galactic latitudes; IDV appears to be stronger in weaker sources, indicating that the variability is affected by interstellar scintillation.

  2. RCT photometry and HCT spectroscopy of blazar candidates in the Kepler field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Michael T.; Goyal, A.; Jose, J.

    2014-01-01

    The results of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of 9 blazar candidates in the Kepler field of view are presented. These sources were identified as blazar candidates based on their position in the so-called WISE blazar strip. Finding charts and comparison sequences were created using the NOMAD database. R band photometric monitoring was begun in spring 2013 with the Robotically Controlled Telescope(RCT), and spectroscopic observations of 7 of the sources were obtained with the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) in September, 2013. Light curves for all 9 sources and preliminary spectroscopic classifications for the 7 sources with spectra will be presented.

  3. Seed Photon Fields of Blazars in the Internal Shock Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Manasvita; Boettcher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We extend our approach of modeling spectral energy distribution (SED) and lightcurves of blazars to include external Compton (EC) emission due to inverse Compton scattering of an external anisotropic target radiation field. We describe the time-dependent impact of such seed photon fields on the evolution of multifrequency emission and spectral variability of blazars using a multi-zone time-dependent leptonic jet model, with radiation feedback, in the internal shock model scenario. We calculate accurate EC-scattered high-energy spectra produced by relativistic electrons throughout the Thomson and Klein-Nishina regimes. We explore the effects of varying the contribution of (1) a thermal Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk, (2) a spherically symmetric shell of broad-line clouds, the broad line region (BLR), and (3) a hot infrared emitting dusty torus (DT), on the resultant seed photon fields. We let the system evolve to beyond the BLR and within the DT and study the manifestation of the varying target photon fields o...

  4. Correlated variability in the blazar 3C 454.3

    CERN Document Server

    Bonning, E W; Urry, C M; Buxton, M; Fossati, G; Maraschi, L; Coppi, P; Scalzo, R; Isler, J; Kaptur, A

    2008-01-01

    The blazar 3C 454.3 was revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to be in an exceptionally high flux state in July 2008. Accordingly, we performed a multi-wavelength monitoring campaign on this blazar using IR and optical observations from the SMARTS telescopes, optical, UV and X-ray data from the Swift satellite, and public-release gamma-ray data from Fermi. We find an excellent correlation between the IR, optical, UV and gamma-ray light curves, with a time lag of less than one day. The amplitude of the infrared variability is comparable to that in gamma-rays, and larger than at optical or UV wavelengths. The X-ray flux is not strongly correlated with either the gamma-rays or longer wavelength data. These variability characteristics find a natural explanation in the external Compton model, in which electrons with Lorentz factor gamma~10^(3-4) radiate synchrotron emission in the infrared-optical and also scatter accretion disk or emission line photons to gamma-ray energies, while much cooler electrons ...

  5. The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic SEDs of Southern Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Krauß, Felicia; Kadler, Matthias; Ojha, Roopesh; Schulz, Robert; Trüstedt, Jonas; Edwards, Philip G; Stevens, Jamie; Ros, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Wayne; Beuchert, Tobias; Blanchard, Jay; Buson, Sara; Carpenter, Bryce; Dauser, Thomas; Falkner, Sebastian; Gehrels, Neil; Gräfe, Christina; Gulyaev, Sergei; Hase, Hayo; Horiuchi, Shinji; Kreikenbohm, Annika; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Langejahn, Marcus; Leiter, Katharina; Lovell, Jim E J; Müller, Cornelia; Natusch, Tim; Nesci, Roberto; Pursimo, Tapio; Phillips, Chris; Plötz, Christian; Quick, Jonathan; Tzioumis, Anastasios K; Weston, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous broadband spectral and temporal studies of blazars are an important tool for investigating active galactic nuclei (AGN) jet physics. We study the spectral evolution between quiescent and flaring periods of 22 radio-loud AGN through multi-epoch, quasi-simultaneous broadband spectra. For many of these sources these are the first broadband studies. We use a Bayesian block analysis of \\Fermi/LAT light curves in order to determine time ranges of constant flux for constructing quasi-simultaneous SEDs. The shapes of the resulting 81 SEDs are described by two logarithmic parabolas and a blackbody spectrum where needed. For low states the peak frequencies and luminosities agree well with the blazar sequence, higher luminosity implying lower peak frequencies. This is not true for sources in a high state. The $\\gamma$-ray photon index in Fermi/LAT correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency in low and intermediate states. No correlation is present in high states. The black hole mass cannot be determined ...

  6. Highlights from the Whipple 10-m Blazar Monitoring Program

    CERN Document Server

    Pichel, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 25 blazars are know to emit VHE (E>100 GeV) gamma rays. Understanding these powerful objects requires long-term, intense, monitoring observations since they exhibit strong, rapid and irregular variability across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The Whipple 10-m Gamma-ray Telescope, the world's fourth most sensitive VHE telescope, is used primarily to perform such monitoring in the VHE band. The 10-m monitoring program focuses in particular on Mrk 421, Mrk 501, H 1426+428, 1ES 1959+650 and 1ES 2344+514, with observations performed every moonless night that each source is visible. Upon detection of a flare, alerts are sent to VERITAS and the astronomical community to trigger ToO observations, as was the case for one of the brightest-ever VHE flares of Mrk 421 in 2008. In addition to flaring alerts, the 10-m program is used to create long-term light curves, with unprecedented VHE sampling, that can be combined with other multi-frequency observations to better understand blazars. Highlights from...

  7. Electromagnetic cascades propagating from low-redshift blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, M.; Pellizza, L. J.; Romero, G. E.; Tueros, M.; Medina, M. C.; Pedrosa, S. E.

    2015-08-01

    It has been established that the Extragalactic Background Light attenuates the very high-energy photons emitted by blazars through pair production. The pairs are deflected by the Extragalactic Magnetic Field (EGMF) and cooled down by Inverse Compton scattering with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons while they develop an electromagnetic cascade. The EGMF may also take out energy from the pairs in the form of synchrotron radiation. The originally emitted spectrum, the source extent and the arriving time of the photons are modified by such cascades. In order to study this problem we assume the blazar original emission to follow a power-law with exponential cutoff, and track the three-dimensional trajectories of each particle and photon in the cascade. In this work we describe the results of numerical simulations regarding the -ray propagation through Mpc scales, making focus on the construction of the outcoming spectrum which results from the energy conservation and thus combines the information from the different channels of energy losses. Different spectra arise when varying the EGMF strength.

  8. Shaping the GeV-spectra of bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Hunger, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The non-thermal spectra of jetted active galactic nuclei show a variety of shapes in their low- and high energy components. In some of the brightest Fermi-LAT blazars, prominent spectral breaks at a few GeV have been regularly detected, which is inconsistent with conventional cooling effects. We study the effects of continuous time-dependent injection of electrons into the jet with differing rates, durations, locations, and power-law spectral indices, and evaluate its impact on the ambient emitting particle spectrum at a given snapshot time in the framework of a leptonic blazar emission model. The emitting electron spectrum is calculated by Compton cooling the continuously injected electrons, where target photons are assumed to be provided by the accretion disk and broad line region. We calculate the non-thermal photon spectra produced by inverse Compton scattering of these external target radiation fields using the full Compton cross-section in the head-on approximation. By means of a comprehensive parameter...

  9. Long-term optical-infrared color variability of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bing-Kai; Zhao, Xiao-Yun; Dai, Ben-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The long-term optical and infrared color variability of blazars has been investigated with the SMARTS monitoring data. The sample in this study consists of 49 flat spectrum radio quasars and 22 BL Lac objects. The fractional variability amplitudes of each source have been calculated in both optical R band and infrared J band. Overall, the variability amplitudes of FSRQs are larger than those of BL Lac objects. The results also suggest that the variability amplitude of most FSRQs is larger at lower energy band (J band) than at higher one (R band), while the variability amplitude of BL Lacs are larger at higher energy band. Two types of blazars both display color variation along with the variability in brightness. However, they show different variation behaviors in general. With the whole data set, 35 FSRQs exhibit redder-when-brighter trends, and 11 FSRQs exhibit opposite trends; 11 BL Lacs follow bluer-when-brighter trends, and 7 BL Lacs follow opposite trends. The examination in detail shows that there are 1...

  10. Hard MeV-GeV spectra of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Katarzynski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from a distant source (z >~0.2) can be efficiently absorbed my means of the electron-positron pair creation process. Analyses of the unabsorbed spectra imply that the intrinsic TeV emission of some blazars is hard, with spectral indices 0.5 ~ 10^3, E=g m_e c^2). In other words, we assume a low energy cut-off in the particle energy distribution. The emission produced by the particles with this energy spectrum can explain hard intrinsic spectra in the energy range from MeV up to TeV. We demonstrate how to estimate the basic physical parameters of a source in this case and how to explain the observed spectra by a precise simulation of the particle energy evolution. To test our estimation methods, we use the observations of two blazars with exceptionally hard spectral indices (alpha <~ 0.5) in the MeV-GeV range and known redshifts: RGB J0710+591 and 1ES 0502+675. The estimated values of the Doppler factor and magnetic field are compared with our numerical simulations, ...

  11. The use of palm kernel shell (PKS) as substrate material in vertical-flow engineered wetlands for septage treatment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the treatment of septage (originating from septic tanks) was carried out in a pilot-scale, two-staged, vertical-flow engineered wetland (VFEW). Palm kernel shells (PKS) were incorporated as part of the VFEW's substrate (B-PKS), to compare its organic matter (OM) and nitrogen (N) removal efficiency against wetlands with only sand substrates (B-SD). The results revealed satisfactory OM removal with >90% reduction efficiencies at both wetlands B-PKS and B-SD. No increment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration was observed in the effluent of B-PKS. Ammonia load removal efficiencies were comparable (>91% and 95% in wetland B-PKS and B-SD, respectively). However, nitrate accumulation was observed in the effluent of B-SD where PKS was absent. This was due to the limited denitrification in B-SD, as sand is free of carbon. A lower nitrate concentration was associated with higher COD concentration in the effluent at B-PKS. This study has shown that the use of PKS was effective in improving the N removal efficiency in engineered wetlands. PMID:26114275

  12. RoboPol: Do optical polarization rotations occur in all blazars?

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, D; Papadakis, I; Kiehlmann, S; Liodakis, I; Panopoulou, G V; Pearson, T J; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Hovatta, T; Joshi, V; King, O G; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Mahabal, A; Marecki, A; Myserlis, I; Paleologou, E; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderski, E; Prabhudesai, S; Ramaprakash, A; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present a new set of optical polarization plane rotations in blazars, observed during the third year of operation of RoboPol. The entire set of rotation events discovered during three years of observations is analysed with the aim of determining whether these events are inherent in all blazars. It is found that the frequency of the polarization plane rotations varies widely among blazars. This variation cannot be explained either by a difference in the relativistic boosting or by selection effects caused by a difference in the average fractional polarization. We conclude that the rotations are characteristic of a subset of blazars and that they occur as a consequence of their intrinsic properties.

  13. Extremes of the jet-accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Sbarrato, T; Tagliaferri, G; Perri, M; Madejski, G M; Stern, D; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Zhang, W W

    2015-01-01

    Hard X-ray observations are crucial to study the non-thermal jet emission from high-redshift, powerful blazars. We observed two bright z>2 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in hard X-rays to explore the details of their relativistic jets and their possible variability. S5 0014+81 (at z=3.366) and B0222+185 (at z=2.690) have been observed twice by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simultaneously with Swift/XRT, showing different variability behaviours. We found that NuSTAR is instrumental to explore the variability of powerful high-redshift blazars, even when no gamma-ray emission is detected. The two sources have proven to have respectively the most luminous accretion disk and the most powerful jet among known blazars. They are located at the extreme end of the jet-accretion disk relation previously found for gamma-ray detected blazars.

  14. Collision-induced magnetic reconnection and a unified interpretation of polarization properties of GRBs and blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The jet composition and energy dissipation mechanism of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and Blazars are fundamental questions which remain not fully understood. One plausible model is to interpret the $\\gamma$-ray emission of GRBs and optical emission of blazars as synchrotron radiation of electrons accelerated from the collision-induced magnetic dissipation regions in Poynting-flux-dominated jets. The polarization observation is an important and independent information to test this model. Based on our recent 3D relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation of magnetically dominated blobs, here we perform calculations of the polarization properties of the emission in the dissipation region and apply the results to model the polarization observational data of GRB prompt emission and blazar optical emission. We show that the same numerical model with different input parameters can reproduce well the observational data of both GRBs and blazars, especially the $90^{\\circ}$ polarization angle (PA)...

  15. Effect of Particle Acceleration Process on the Flare Characteristics of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Bhattacharyya; S. Sahayanathan; C. L. Kaul

    2002-03-01

    Following the kinetic equation approach, we study the flare processes in blazars in the optical-to-X-ray region, considering energy dependent acceleration time-scale of electrons and synchrotron and adiabatic cooling as their dominant energy loss processes.

  16. Using radio jets of PKS J0334-3900 to probe the intra-cluster medium in A3135

    CERN Document Server

    Pratley, L; Dehghan, S; Sun, M

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the radio galaxy PKS J0334-3900, which resides at the centre of Abell 3135. Using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations at 1.4, 2.5, 4.6 & 8.6 GHz, we performed a detailed analysis of PKS J0334-3900. The morphology and spectral indices give physical parameters that constrain the dynamical history of the galaxy, which we use to produce a simulation of PKS J0334-3900. This simulation shows that the morphology can be generated by a wind in the intracluster medium (ICM), orbital motion caused by a companion galaxy, and precession of the black hole (BH).

  17. CHARACTERIZING THE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF BRIGHT BLAZARS: VARIABILITY-BASED SELECTION OF FERMI ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ∼30% of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability τ, and driving amplitudes on short timescales σ-circumflex. Imposing cuts on minimum τ and σ-circumflex allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously associated optical counterparts to Fermi active galactic nuclei with E ≥ 88% and C = 88% in Fermi 95% confidence error ellipses having semimajor axis r < 8'. We find that the suggested radio counterpart to Fermi source 2FGL J1649.6+5238 has optical variability consistent with other γ-ray blazars and is likely to be the γ-ray source. Our results suggest that the variability of the non-thermal jet emission in blazars is stochastic in nature, with unique variability properties due to the effects of relativistic beaming. After correcting for beaming, we estimate that the characteristic timescale of blazar variability is ∼3 years in the rest frame of the jet, in contrast with the ∼320 day disk flux timescale observed in quasars. The variability-based selection method presented will be useful for blazar identification in time-domain optical surveys and is also a probe of jet physics.

  18. Are Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Blazar-like?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Renyi Ma; Chong Ping

    2014-09-01

    The similarities between blazars and radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (RLNLS1s) have received much attention. In this paper, by using the magnetized slim disk model, we calculate the jet power and disk luminosity. It is found that the jet power is only a very small fraction of the disk luminosity, < 10%. This indicates that the jet orientation of RLNLS1 is close to the line-of-sight, which is similar to blazars.

  19. Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne-Moench, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE {gamma}-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F{sub X}>2 {mu}Jy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z<0.15 and z<0.4, depending on the declination of the objects. The latter determines the zenith distance during culmination which should not exceed 30 (for z<0.4) and 45 (for z<0.15), respectively. Between August 2005 and April 2009, a sample of 24 X-ray selected high-frequency peaked blazars has been observed with the MAGIC telescope. Three of them were detected including 1ES 1218+304 being the first high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object (HBL) to be discovered with MAGIC in VHE {gamma}-rays. One previously detected object was not confirmed as VHE emitter in this campaign by MAGIC. A set of 20 blazars previously not detected is treated more closely in this work. In this campaign, during almost four years {proportional_to}450 hrs or {proportional_to}22% of the available observation time for extragalactic objects were dedicated to investigate the baseline emission of blazars and their broadband spectral properties in this emission state. For the sample of 20 objects in a redshift range of 0.018

  20. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Giroletti, M; D'Abrusco, R; Lico, R; Burlon, D; Hurley-Walker, N; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Morgan, J; Pavlidou, V; Bell, M; Bernardi, G; Bhat, R; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A A; Ewall-Rice, A; Emrich, D; Gaensler, B M; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Hindson, L; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kratzenberg, E; Feng, L; Jacobs, D; Kurdryavtseva, N; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Pindor, B; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Wayth, R B; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. We characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6,100 deg^2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by \\fermilat. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray bl...

  1. Variability of Soft X-ray Spectral Shape in Blazars Observed by ROSAT

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, L; Wei, J; Cheng, Linpeng; Zhao, Yongheng; Wei, Janyan

    2001-01-01

    In paper 1 (Cheng et al. 2001) we have shown that the soft X-ray spectra of two types of Seyfert 1 galaxies statistically vary differently with increasing intensity. In order to understand how the spectrum of blazars changes, the spectral shape variability of 18 blazars observed by ROSAT/PSPC mode are studied by presenting the correlation of Hardness Ratio 1 versus Count Rates (HR1-CTs). According to our criteria, 10 blazars show a positive HR1-CTs relation, and only 2 blazars display an anti-correlation of HR1 versus CTs. The rest 6 blazars do not indicate any clear correlation. From these we can see that most blazars of our sample statistically show a hardening spectrum during overall flux increase, though some vary randomly. By investigating the photon index of these objects and different radiation theories, we argue that the dominance of the synchrotron or inverse Compton emission in the soft X-ray band may interpret the dichotomy of spectral variability well, and that different spectral variations might ...

  2. Periodic structure in the Mpc-scale jet of PKS 0637-752

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey, L. E. H.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Ekers, R.; Bicknell, G. V.; Birkinshaw, M.; Worrall, D. M.; Jauncey, D. L.; Schwartz, D A; Marshall, H. L.; Gelbord, J.; Perlman, E. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present 18 GHz Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging of the Mpc-scale quasar jet PKS 0637-752 with angular resolution ~0.58 arcseconds. We draw attention to a spectacular train of quasi-periodic knots along the inner 11 arcseconds of the jet, with average separation ~1.1 arcsec (7.6 kpc projected). We consider two classes of model to explain the periodic knots: those that involve a static pattern through which the jet plasma travels (e.g. stationary shocks); and those...

  3. Multi-wavelength Observations of PKS 2142-758 during an Active Gamma-Ray State

    OpenAIRE

    Dutka, Michael; Ojha, Roopesh; Pottschmidt, Katja; Finke, Justin; Stevens, Jamie; Blanchard, Jay; Nesci, Roberto; Edwards, Philip; Lovell, Jim; Kadler, Matthias; Wilms, Joern; Tosti, Gino; Pursimo, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    PKS 2142-758 is a flat spectrum radio quasar which emits few, weak but significant gamma-ray flares in the MeV through GeV energy range. The first flare occured on April 4th, 2010, when the source reached a daily flux of (1.1 \\pm 0.3) * 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 (ATEL #2539) in the 100 MeV to 300 GeV range. This flux represented more than an order of magnitude increase over its quiescent flux. Since the initial flare, this source has been detected in an elevated state within the same energy range f...

  4. Detection of extragalactic CF+ toward PKS1830-211 -- Chemical differentiation in the absorbing gas

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, S; Black, J H; Amano, T

    2016-01-01

    We report the first extragalactic detection of CF+, the fluoromethylidynium ion, in the z=0.89 absorber toward PKS1830-211. We estimate an abundance of ~3E-10 relative to H2 and that ~1% of fluorine is captured in CF+. The absorption line profile of CF+ is found to be markedly different from that of other species observed within the same tuning, and is notably anti-correlated with CH3OH. On the other hand, the CF+ profile resembles that of [C I]. Our results are consistent with expected fluorine chemistry and point to chemical differentiation in the column of absorbing gas.

  5. A full orbit XMM-Newton observation of PKS 2155-304

    OpenAIRE

    L. Maraschi(INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, I-00136 Rome, Italy); Tavecchio, F.; Cagnoni, I.; Zhang, Y-H; Chiappetti, L.; Treves, A.; Celotti, A.; Costamante, L.; Edelson, R.; Fossati, G; Ghisellini, G.; Pian, E.; Sembay, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; C. M. Urry

    2002-01-01

    XMM observed the BL Lac PKS 2155-304 for a full orbit (about 150 ksec) on 2000 November 19-21. Preliminary results on the temporal and spectral analysis of data from the EPIC PN camera and Optical Monitor are presented. The variability amplitude depends systematically on energy, however the slopes of the structure functions of the light-curves in different bands do not appear to be significantly different. No evidence of time lags is found by cross correlating the light-curves in different ba...

  6. Probing quantum gravity with the VHE flares of PKS 2155-3004 in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several quantum gravity models predict an energy depend dispersion relation for photons in vacuum, leading to small differences in the speed of light between photons of different energies. This minute effect was predicted to add up to measurable time lags for photons which travel over cosmological distances. Here we present a search for such time lags during the H.E.S.S. observations of the exceptional VHE flares of PKS 2155-304 in July 2006. Since no time lag is found, we derive lower limits on the energy scale on which these quantum gravity effects could become important

  7. Multi-Wavelength Observations of PKS 2142-75 during Active and Quiescent Gamma-Ray States

    OpenAIRE

    Dutka, Michael; Ojha, Roopesh; Pottschmidt, Katja; Finke, Justin; Stevens, Jamie; Edwards, Philip; Blanchard, Jay; Lovel, James; Nesci, Roberto; Kadler, Matthias; Wilms, Joern; Tosti, Gino; Pursimo, Tapio; Krauss, Felicia; Muller, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    PKS2142-75 (a.k.a. 2FGL J2147.4-7534) is a flat-spectrum radio quasar that was observed quasi-simultaneously by a suite of instruments across the elec- tromagnetic spectrum during two flaring states in April 2010 and August 2011 as well as a quiescent state in December 2011 through January 2012. The results of these campaigns and model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the active and quiescent states are presented. The SED model parameters of PKS 2142-75 indicate that the two flares o...

  8. Location and origin of gamma-rays in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Rani, B; Hodgson, J A; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    One of the most intriguing and challenging quests of current astrophysics is to understand the physical conditions and processes responsible for production of high-energy particles, and emission of \\gamma-rays. A combination of high-resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) images with broadband flux variability measurements is a unique way to probe the emission mechanisms at the bases of jets. Our analysis of \\gamma-ray flux variability observed by the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) along with the parsec-scale jet kinematics suggests that the $\\gamma$-ray emission in blazar S5 0716+714 has a significant correlation with the mm-VLBI core flux and the orientation of jet outflow on parsec scales. These results indicate that the inner jet morphology has a tight connection with the observed $\\gamma$-ray flares. An overview of our current understanding on high-energy radiation processes, their origin, and location is presented here.

  9. Spectral evolution of flaring blazars from numerical simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Fromm, C M; Mimica, P; Ros, E

    2016-01-01

    High resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) revealed traveling and stationary or quasi-stationary radio-components in several blazar jets. The traveling ones are in general interpreted as shock waves generated by pressure perturbations injected at the jet nozzle. The stationary features can be interpreted as recollimation shocks in non-pressure matched jets if they show a quasi-symmetric bump in the spectral index distribution. In some jets there may be interactions between the two kinds of shocks. These shock--shock interactions are observable with VLBI techniques, and their signature should also be imprinted on the single--dish light curves. We performed relativistic hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of over-pressured and pressure-matched jets. To simulate the shock interaction we injected a perturbation at the jet nozzle once a steady-state was reached. We computed the non-thermal emission (including adiabatic and synchotron losses) resulting from the ...

  10. PKS and NRPS gene clusters from microbial symbiont cells of marine sponges by whole genome amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegl, Alexander; Hentschel, Ute

    2010-08-01

    Whole genome amplification (WGA) approaches provide genomic information on single microbial cells and hold great promise for the field of environmental microbiology. Here, the microbial consortia of the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and then subjected to WGA. A cosmid library was constructed from the WGA product of a sample containing two bacterial cells, one a member of the candidate phylum Poribacteria and one of a sponge-specific clade of Chloroflexi. Library screening led to the genomic characterization of three cosmid clones, encoding a polyketide synthase (PKS), a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and the Chloroflexi 16S rRNA gene. PCR screening of WGA products from additional, FACS-sorted single bacterial symbiont cells supports the assignment of the Sup-PKS gene to the Poribacteria and the novel NRPS gene to the Chloroflexi. This promising single-cell genomics approach has permitted cloning of entire gene clusters from single microbial cells of known phylogenetic origin and thus provides a sought-after link between phylogeny and function. PMID:23766222

  11. Emitting Electron Spectra and Acceleration Processes in the Jet of PKS 0447-439

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yao; Dai, Benzhong; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electron energy distributions (EEDs) and the corresponding acceleration processes in the jet of PKS 0447$-$439 and estimate its redshift through modeling its observed spectral energy distribution (SED) in the frame of a one-zone synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) model. Three EEDs formed in different acceleration scenarios are assumed: the power-law with exponential cut-off (PLC) EED (shock-acceleration scenario or the case of the EED approaching equilibrium in the stochastic-acceleration scenario), the log-parabolic (LP) EED (stochastic-acceleration scenario and the acceleration dominating) and the broken power law (BPL) EED (no acceleration scenario), and then the corresponding fluxes of both synchrotron and SSC are calculated. The model is applied to PKS 0447-439 and modeling SEDs are compared to the observed SED of this object by using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Calculating results show that PLC model fails to fit the observed SED well, while the LP and BPL models give comp...

  12. Gamma rays from the quasar PKS 1441+25: story of an escape

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U; Archer, A; Aune, T; Barnacka, A; Benbow, W; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Christiansen, J L; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Coppi, P; Cui, W; Dickinson, H J; Dumm, J; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Flinders, A; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hütten, M; Håkansson, N; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kelley-Hoskins, N; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krause, M; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nieto, D; de Bhróithe, A O'Faoláin; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Petrashyk, A; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Ratliff, G; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Rousselle, J; Santander, M; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Todd, N W; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weiner, O M; Weinstein, A; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B; Smith, P S; Holoien, T W -S; Prieto, J L; Kochanek, C S; Stanek, K Z; Shappee, B; Hovatta, T; Max-Moerbeck, W; Pearson, T J; Reeves, R A; Richards, J L; Readhead, A C S; Madejski, G M; Djorgovski, S G; Drake, A J; Graham, M J; Mahabal, A

    2015-01-01

    Outbursts from gamma-ray quasars provide insights on the relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei and constraints on the diffuse radiation fields that fill the Universe. The detection of significant emission above 100 GeV from a distant quasar would show that some of the radiated gamma rays escape pair-production interactions with low-energy photons, be it the extragalactic background light (EBL), or the radiation near the supermassive black hole lying at the jet's base. VERITAS detected gamma-ray emission up to 200 GeV from PKS 1441+25 (z=0.939) during April 2015, a period of high activity across all wavelengths. This observation of PKS 1441+25 suggests that the emission region is located thousands of Schwarzschild radii away from the black hole. The gamma-ray detection also sets a stringent upper limit on the near-ultraviolet to near-infrared EBL intensity, suggesting that galaxy surveys have resolved most, if not all, of the sources of the EBL at these wavelengths.

  13. Discovery of VHE gamma-rays from the BL Lac object PKS 0548-322

    CERN Document Server

    Akhperjanian, A G; de Almeida, U Barres; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Behera, B; Benbow, W; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bühler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L -M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Füssling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; deJager, O C; Jahn, C; Jung, I; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhagg, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Keogh, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J -P; Lohse, T; Marandon, V; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; deNaurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; Wilhelm, E de Oña; Orford, K J; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schröder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Superina, G; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; vanEldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volp, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

    2010-01-01

    PKS 0548-322 (z=0.069) is a ``high-frequency-peaked'' BL Lac object and a candidate very high energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter, due to its high X-ray and radio flux. Observations at the VHE band provide insights into the origin of very energetic particles present in this source and the radiation processes at work. We report observations made between October 2004 and January 2008 with the H.E.S.S. array, a four imaging atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes. Contemporaneous UV and X-ray observations with the Swift satellite in November 2006 are also reported. PKS 0548-322 is detected for the first time in the VHE band with H.E.S.S. We measure an excess of 216 gamma-rays corresponding to a significance of 5.6 standard deviations. The photon spectrum of the source is described by a power-law, with a photon index of Gamma=2.86 +/- 0.34 (stat) +/- 0.10 (sys). The integral flux above 200 GeV is 1.3 % of the flux of the Crab Nebula, and is consistent with being constant in time. Contemporaneous Swift/XRT observat...

  14. Chandra Discovery of a 100 kpc X-ray Jet in PKS 0637-752

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, D A; Lovell, J E J; Piner, B G; Tingay, S J; Birkinshaw, M; Chartas, G; Elvis, M; Feigelson, E D; Ghosh, K K; Harris, D E; Hirabayashi, H; Hooper, E J; Jauncey, D L; Lanzetta, K M; Mathur, S D; Preston, R A; Tucker, W H; Virani, S N; Wilkes, B; Worrall, D M

    2000-01-01

    The quasar PKS 0637-753, the first celestial X-ray target of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, has revealed asymmetric X-ray structure extending from 3 to 12 arcsec west of the quasar, coincident with the inner portion of the jet previously detected in a 4.8 GHz radio image (Tingay et al. 1998). At a redshift of z=0.651, the jet is the largest (~100 kpc) and most luminous (~10^{44.6} ergs/s) of the few so far detected in X-rays. This letter presents a high resolution X-ray image of the jet, from 42 ks of data when PKS 0637-753 was on-axis and ACIS-S was near the optimum focus. For the inner portion of the radio jet, the X-ray morphology closely matches that of new ATCA radio images at 4.8 and 8.6 GHz. Observations of the parsec scale core using the VSOP space VLBI mission show structure aligned with the X-ray jet, placing important constraints on the X-ray source models. HST images show that there are three small knots coincident with the peak radio and X-ray emission. Two of these are resolved, which we use to ...

  15. High zenith angle observations of PKS 2155-304 with the MAGIC-I telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadamek, A; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Huber, B; Jankowski, F; Jogler, T; Kadenius, V; Klepser, S; Knoetig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Niedzwiecki, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Persic, M; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R

    2012-01-01

    The high frequency peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 with a redshift of z=0.116 was discovered in 1997 in the very high energy (VHE, E >100GeV) gamma-ray range by the University of Durham Mark VI gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope in Australia with a flux corresponding to 20% of the Crab Nebula flux. It was later observed and detected with high significance by the Southern Cherenkov observatory H.E.S.S. Detection from the Northern hemisphere is difficult due to challenging observation conditions under large zenith angles. In July 2006, the H.E.S.S. collaboration reported an extraordinary outburst of VHE gamma-emission. During the outburst, the VHE gamma-ray emission was found to be variable on the time scales of minutes and with a mean flux of ~7 times the flux observed from the Crab Nebula. Follow-up observations with the MAGIC-I standalone Cherenkov telescope were triggered by this extraordinary outburst and PKS 2155-304 was observed between 28 July to 2 August 2006 for 15 hours at large zenith angles. Here we present ...

  16. OH+ and H2O+ absorption toward PKS1830-211

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, S; Black, J H; Beelen, A; Combes, F; Curran, S; Gerin, M; Guelin, M; Henkel, C; Martin, S; Aalto, S; Falgarone, E; Menten, K M; Schilke, P; Wiklind, T; Zwaan, M A

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of OH+ and H2O+ in the z=0.89 absorber toward the lensed quasar PKS1830-211. The abundance ratio of OH+ and H2O+ is used to quantify the molecular hydrogen fraction (fH2) and the cosmic-ray ionization rate of atomic hydrogen (zH) along two lines of sight, located at ~2 kpc and ~4 kpc to either side of the absorber's center. The molecular fraction decreases outwards, from ~0.04 to ~0.02, comparable to values measured in the Milky Way at similar galactocentric radii. For zH, we find values of ~2x10^-14 s^-1 and ~3x10^-15 s^-1, respectively, which are slightly higher than in the Milky Way at comparable galactocentric radii, possibly due to a higher average star formation activity in the z=0.89 absorber. The ALMA observations of OH+, H2O+, and other hydrides toward PKS1830-211 reveal the multi-phase composition of the absorbing gas. Taking the column density ratios along the southwest and northeast lines of sight as a proxy of molecular fraction, we classify the species ArH+, OH+, H2Cl+, H...

  17. PKS 2155-304 in July 2006: H.E.S.S. results and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest and best-studied VHE γ-ray sources in the southern hemisphere. The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has monitored PKS 2155-304 in 2006 and a multi-wavelength campaign involving X-ray, optical and radio observatories was triggered by the detection of an active state in July 2006, followed by the detection of two extraordinary flares on July, 28th and 30th, with peak fluxes ∼100 times the usual values. We present results from the spectral and flux variability analysis of the VHE and simultaneous X-ray observations with Chandra during the second flare, as well as the detailed evolution of the VHE flux of PKS 2155-304 observed by H.E.S.S. in 2006. A study of flux correlations in the different frequency ranges during the second flare and the adjacent nights is discussed. We also present an interpretation of the active state of PKS 2155-304 in the framework of synchrotron self-Compton emission.

  18. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Morgan, J.; Pavlidou, V.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Ewall-Rice, A.; Emrich, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Feng, L.; Jacobs, D.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. Aims: We characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. Methods: We cross-correlated the 6100 deg2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. Results: We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120-180 MHz) blazar spectral index is ⟨αlow⟩ = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Conclusions: Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population. Tables 5-7 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  19. Mining the Herschel-ATLAS: submillimeter-selected blazars in equatorial fields

    CERN Document Server

    López-Caniego, M; Massardi, M; Bonavera, L; Herranz, D; Negrello, M; De Zotti, G; Carrera, F J; Danese, L; Fleuren, S; Hardcastle, M; Jarvis, M J; Klöckner, H -R; Mauch, T; Procopio, P; Righini, S; Sutherland, W; Auld, R; Baes, M; Buttiglione, S; Clark, C J R; Cooray, A; Dariush, A; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S; Hopwood, R; Hoyos, C; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Maddox, S; Valiante, E

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) provides an unprecedented opportunity to search for blazars at sub-mm wavelengths. We cross-matched the FIRST radio source catalogue with the 11655 sources brighter than 35 mJy at 500{\\mu}m in the \\sim 135 square degrees of the sky covered by the H-ATLAS equatorial fields at 9 h and 15 h, plus half of the field at 12 h. We found that 379 of the H-ATLAS sources have a FIRST counterpart within 10 arcsec, including 8 catalogued blazars (plus one known blazar that was found at the edge of one the H-ATLAS maps). To search for additional blazar candidates we have devised new diagnostic diagrams and found that known blazars occupy a region of the log(S500{\\mu}m/S350{\\mu}m) vs. log(S500{\\mu}m/S1.4GHz) plane separated from that of the other sub-mm sources with radio counterparts. Using this diagnostic we have selected 12 further candidates that turn out to be scattered in the (r-z) vs. (u-r) plane or in the WISE colour-colour diagram proposed by Massaro ...

  20. Peak of spectral energy distribution play an important role in intra-day variability of Blazars?

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Alok C; Gaur, Haritma; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Blazars can be divided into two sub-classes namely high energy and low energy peaked blazars. In spectral energy distribution, the first synchrotron hump of the former class peaks in UV/X-rays and in IR/optical bands for the latter class. The peak of the spectral energy distribution seems to be responsible for variability properties of these classes of blazars in X-ray and optical bands. Since, in low energy peaked blazars, the X-ray bands lies well below the synchrotron hump, one expects that the highest energy electrons available for the synchrotron emission would have slower effect of variability on X-ray intra-day timescale. In this paper, by taking the advantage of a sample of 12 low energy peaked blazars with total 50 observations from XMM$-$Newton since its launch, we confirm that this class is less variable in X-ray bands. We found that out of 50 observational light curves, genuine intra-day variability is present in only two of light curves i.e 4%. Similar results we obtained from our earlier optical...

  1. The warm molecular hydrogen of PKS B1718-649: feeding a newly born radio AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Maccagni, F M; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T A; Oonk, J B R; Emonts, B H C

    2016-01-01

    We present new SINFONI VLT observations of molecular hydrogen (H2) in the central regions ( 650 pc) is aligned with other components of the galaxy (atomic hydrogen, stars, dust), while the inner disk (r< 600 pc) is perpendicular to it and is polar with respect to the stellar distribution. However, in the innermost 75 pc, the data show the presence of H2 gas redshifted with respect to the rotating inner disk ($\\Delta v\\,$+150 km/s) which may trace gas falling into the super-massive black hole associated with the central radio source. Along the same line of sight, earlier observations had shown the presence in the central regions of PKS B1718-649 of clouds of atomic hydrogen with similar unsettled kinematics. The range of velocities and mass of these unsettled clouds of HI and H2 suggest they may be actively contributing in fuelling the central newly-born radio source.

  2. Parsec-scale Jet in the Distant Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum Quasar PKS 0858-279

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalev, Y Y

    2009-01-01

    The high redshift GPS quasar PKS 0858-279 exhibits the following properties which make the source unusual. Our RATAN-600 monitoring of 1-22 GHz spectrum has detected broad-band radio variability with high amplitude and relatively short time scale. In the same time, the milliarcsecond scale structure observed in a snapshot VLBA survey turned out to be very resolved which is not expected from the fast flux density variations. We performed 1.4-22 GHz VLBA observations of this quasar in 2005-2007. It has revealed a core-jet morphology. A high Doppler factor delta is suggested for the jet, its nature is discussed in this report on the basis of the multi-frequency VLBA and RATAN data collected. Synchrotron self-absorption was confirmed to be dominating at low frequencies, the magnetic field strength of the dominating jet feature is estimated of an order of 0.1*delta mG.

  3. The distribution of gas and galaxies around the distant quasar PKS 1614 + 051

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Esther M.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    1987-01-01

    The results of narrow-band and broad-band filter observations of the region surrounding the z = 3.21 quasars, PKS 1614 + 051, made under subarcsec seeing conditions with the 3.6 m CFHT telescope at Mauna Kea are reported. The nuclear region of the Lyman-alpha companion to the quasar is resolved with a FWHM of about 0.9 arcsec A magnitude fainter. Limits on detectable continuum flux from this object suggest that it is a gas cloud interacting with the quasar, and its emission is consistent with simple photoionization by the quasar. However, the presence of several galaxies around the periphery of the quasar is noted. A search of 11 additional quasars at z greater than 3 has failed to show any other such systems. It is argued that this is consistent with the statistics of extended emission line systems in low-z quasars.

  4. Blazar Studies with GLAST: Synchro-Compton Analysis of Flat Spectr um Radio Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D; Krug, Hannah; Boettcher, Markus

    2008-01-01

    We extend a method for modeling synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton radiations in blazar jets to include external Compton processes. The basic model assumption is that the blazar radio through soft X-ray flux is nonthermal synchrotron radiation emitted by isotropically-distributed electrons in the randomly directed magnetic field of outflowing relativistic blazar jet plasma. Thus the electron distribution is given by the synchrotron spectrum, depending only on the Doppler factor and mean magnetic field, given that the comoving emission region size scale. Generalizing the approach of Georganopoulos, Kirk, and Mastichiadis (2001) to arbitrary anisotropic target radiation fields, we use the electron spectrum implied by the synchrotron component to derive accurate Compton-scattered $\\gamma$-ray spectra throughout the Thomson and Klein-Nishina regimes for external Compton scattering (ECS) processes. We derive and calculate accurate $\\gamma$-ray spectra produced by relativistic electrons that Compton-scatter (...

  5. Multi-frequency, multi-messenger astrophysics with Swift. The case of blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    During its first 10 years of orbital operations Swift dedicated approximately 11% of its observing time to blazars, carrying out more than 12,000 observations of ∼1600 different objects, for a total exposure time of over 25 million seconds. In this paper I briefly discuss the impact that Swift is having on blazar multi-frequency and time-domain astrophysics, as well as how it is contributing to the opening of the era of multi-messenger astronomy. Finally, I present some preliminary results from a systematic analysis of a very large number of Swift XRT observations of blazars. All the "science ready" data products that are being generated by this project will be publicly released. Specifically, deconvolved X-ray spectra and best fit spectral parameters will be available through the ASDC "SED builder" tool ("https://tools.asdc.asi.it/SED")

  6. Variability of Soft X-ray Spectral Shape in Blazars Observed by ROSAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In previous paper we have shown that the soft X-ray spectra of two types of Seyfert 1 galaxies behave statistically differently with increasing intensity.In order to see how the spectrum of blazars changes, we made plots of Hardness Ratio 1 versus Count Rates (HR1-Cts) for 18 blazars observed by ROSAT/PSPC.According to our criteria, ten showed a positive HR1-Cts correlation, two a negative correlation, and the remaining six, no clear correlation. Thus, most blazars of our sample show a hardening spectrum during overall flux increase, though some vary randomly. By investigating the photon index of these objects and different radiation theories, we argue that relative dominance between the synchrotron and inverse Compton emission in the soft X-ray band can well account for the differing spectral behaviours and that the different spectral variations might represent a sequence of synchrotron peaked frequency.

  7. Variability of Spectral Energy Distribution of Blazar S5 0716+714

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B. Rani; Alok C. Gupta; Paul J. Wiita

    2011-03-01

    The emission from blazars is known to be variable at all wavelengths. The flux variability is often accompanied by spectral changes. Spectral energy distribution (SED) changes must be associated with changes in the spectra of emitting electrons and/or the physical parameters of the jet. Meaningful modeling of blazar broadband spectra is required to understand the extreme conditions within the emission region. Not only is the broadband SED crucial, but also information about its variability is needed to understand how the highest states of emission occur and how they differ from the low states. This may help in discriminating between models. Here we present the results of our SED modeling of the blazar S5 0716+714 during various phases of its activity. The SEDs are classified into different bins depending on the optical brightness state of the source.

  8. Fermi large area telescope observations of blazar 3C 279 occultations by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of occultations of bright γ-ray sources by the Sun may reveal predicted pair halos around blazars and/or new physics, such as, e.g., hypothetical light dark matter particles—axions. We use Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) data to analyze four occultations of blazar 3C 279 by the Sun on October 8 each year from 2008 to 2011. A combined analysis of the observations of these occultations allows a point-like source at the position of 3C 279 to be detected with significance of ≈3σ, but does not reveal any significant excess over the flux expected from the quiescent Sun. The likelihood ratio test rules out complete transparency of the Sun to the blazar γ-ray emission at a 3σ confidence level.

  9. FACT - Long-term Monitoring of Bright TeV-Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Dorner, D; Bretz, T; Buss, J; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Hildebrand, D; Knötig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Lustermann, W; Mannheim, K; Meier, K; Neise, D; Overkemping, A -K; Paravac, A; Pauss, F; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Steinbring, T; Temme, F; Thaele, J; Walter, R; Weitzel, Q; Zänglein, M

    2013-01-01

    Since October 2011, the First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) is operated successfully on the Canary Island of La Palma. Apart from the proof of principle for the use of G-APDs in Cherenkov telescopes, the major goal of the project is the dedicated long-term monitoring of a small sample of bright TeV blazars. The unique properties of G-APDs permit stable observations also during strong moon light. Thus a superior sampling density is provided on time scales at which the blazar variability amplitudes are expected to be largest, as exemplified by the spectacular variations of Mrk 501 observed in June 2012. While still in commissioning, FACT monitored bright blazars like Mrk 421 and Mrk 501 during the past 1.5 years so far. Preliminary results including the Mrk 501 flare from June 2012 will be presented.

  10. The relation between black hole masses and Lorentz factors of the jet components in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhou; Xin-Wu Cao

    2009-01-01

    We explore the relationship between black hole mass (MBH) and the motion of the jet components for a sample of blazars. The Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) 2cm Survey and its continuation: Monitoring of Jets in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) have observed 278 radio-loud AGNs, of which 146 blazars have reliable measurements of their apparent velocities of the jet components. We calculate the minimal Lorentz factors for these sources from their measured apparent velocities, and their black hole masses ate estimated with their broad-line widths. A sig-nificant intrinsic correlation is found between black hole masses and the minimal Lorentz factors of the jet components. The Eddington ratio is only weakly correlated with the min-imal Lorentz factor, which may imply that the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne (BP) mechanism for the jet acceleration (at least) in blazars.

  11. Post-PKS tailoring steps of a disaccharide-containing polyene NPP in Pseudonocardia autotrophica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin Kim

    Full Text Available A novel polyene compound NPP identified in a rare actinomycetes, Pseudonocardia autotrophica KCTC9441, was shown to contain an aglycone identical to nystatin but to harbor a unique di-sugar moiety, mycosaminyl-(α1-4-N-acetyl-glucosamine, which led to higher solubility and reduced hemolytic activity. Although the nppDI was proved to be responsible for the transfer of first polyene sugar, mycosamine in NPP biosynthesis, the gene responsible for the second sugar extending glycosyltransferase (GT as well as NPP post-PKS tailoring mechanism remained unknown. Here, we identified a NPP-specific second sugar extending GT gene named nppY, located at the edge of the NPP biosynthetic gene cluster. Targeted nppY gene deletion and its complementation proved that nppY is indeed responsible for the transfer of second sugar, N-acetyl-glucosamine in NPP biosynthesis. Site-directed mutagenesis on nppY also revealed several amino acid residues critical for NppY GT function. Moreover, a combination of deletions and complementations of two GT genes (nppDI and nppY and one P450 hydroxylase gene (nppL involved in the NPP post-PKS biosynthesis revealed that NPP aglycone is sequentially modified by the two different GTs encoded by nppDI and nppY, respectively, followed by the nppL-driven regio-specific hydroxylation at the NPP C10 position. These results set the stage for the biotechnological application of sugar diversification for the biosynthesis of novel polyene compounds in actinomycetes.

  12. PERIODIC STRUCTURE IN THE MEGAPARSEC-SCALE JET OF PKS 0637–752

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present 18 GHz Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging of the megaparsec-scale quasar jet PKS 0637–752 with angular resolution ∼0.''58. We draw attention to a spectacular train of quasi-periodic knots along the inner 11'' of the jet, with average separation ∼1.1 arcsec (7.6 kpc projected). We consider two classes of model to explain the periodic knots: those that involve a static pattern through which the jet plasma travels (e.g., stationary shocks) and those that involve modulation of the jet engine. Interpreting the knots as re-confinement shocks implies the jet kinetic power Qjet ∼ 1046 erg s–1, but the constant knot separation along the jet is not expected in a realistic external density profile. For models involving modulation of the jet engine, we find that the required modulation period is 2 × 103 yr 5 yr. The lower end of this range is applicable if the jet remains highly relativistic on kiloparsec scales, as implied by the IC/CMB model of jet X-ray emission. We suggest that the periodic jet structure in PKS 0637–752 may be analogous to the quasi-periodic jet modulation seen in the microquasar GRS 1915+105, believed to result from limit cycle behavior in an unstable accretion disk. If variations in the accretion rate are driven by a binary black hole, the predicted orbital radius is 0.7 pc ∼< a ∼< 30 pc, which corresponds to a maximum angular separation of ∼0.1-5 mas.

  13. TEMPORAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN OPTICAL AND GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY IN BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Daniel P.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zheng, WeiKang; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Romani, Roger W. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lott, Benoit [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)

    2014-12-20

    We have been using the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in gamma-rays being detected with high significance (≥10σ) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a three-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The gamma-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the five-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have >100 optical measurements spanning the last three years. These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and gamma-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find strong optical-gamma-ray correlation in many of these sources at time delays of ∼1 to ∼10 days, ranging between –40 and +30 days. A stacked average DCF of the 40 sources verifies this correlation trend, with a peak above 99% significance indicating a characteristic time delay consistent with 0 days. These findings strongly support the widely accepted leptonic models of blazar emission. However, we also find examples of apparently uncorrelated flares (optical flares with no gamma-ray counterpart and gamma-ray flares with no optical counterpart) that challenge simple, one-zone models of blazar emission. Moreover, we find that flat-spectrum radio quasars tend to have gamma-rays leading the optical, while intermediate- and high-synchrotron peak blazars with the most significant peaks have smaller lags/leads. It is clear that long-term monitoring at high cadence is necessary to reveal the underlying physical correlation.

  14. TEMPORAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN OPTICAL AND GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY IN BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been using the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in gamma-rays being detected with high significance (≥10σ) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a three-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The gamma-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the five-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have >100 optical measurements spanning the last three years. These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and gamma-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find strong optical-gamma-ray correlation in many of these sources at time delays of ∼1 to ∼10 days, ranging between –40 and +30 days. A stacked average DCF of the 40 sources verifies this correlation trend, with a peak above 99% significance indicating a characteristic time delay consistent with 0 days. These findings strongly support the widely accepted leptonic models of blazar emission. However, we also find examples of apparently uncorrelated flares (optical flares with no gamma-ray counterpart and gamma-ray flares with no optical counterpart) that challenge simple, one-zone models of blazar emission. Moreover, we find that flat-spectrum radio quasars tend to have gamma-rays leading the optical, while intermediate- and high-synchrotron peak blazars with the most significant peaks have smaller lags/leads. It is clear that long-term monitoring at high cadence is necessary to reveal the underlying physical correlation

  15. Multi-Band Spectral Properties of Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benzhong Dai; Dahai Yan

    2011-03-01

    The multi-band data covering optical, X-ray and -ray energy regions of 130 Fermi blazars in the First LAT AGN Catalog (1LAC) were collected to investigate the broadband spectral properties. The composite spectral indices show that HBLs have convex optical-to-X-ray continua and concave X-ray-to--ray continua, > 0 and < 0, while FSRQs and LBLs have < 0. The distribution of FSRQs and LBLs extends from negative to positive values. We suggest > 0 and < 0 could be considered as a criterion for HBLs. Moreover, HBLs have narrow distribution of peak interval of log $v^{\\text{ic}}_{\\text{p}}=\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$, and FSRQs have significant anti-correlation between log $v^{\\text{ic}}_{\\text{p}}-\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$ and $\\log v^{\\text{syn}}_{\\text{p}}$. This indicates that SSC model is responsible for high energy emission of HBLs, while EC for FSRQs. Our results also indicate that FSRQs with larger break energy of electrons have smaller bulk Lorentz factor of dissipation region.

  16. Connection between optical and gamma-ray variability in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Hovatta, T; King, O G; Mahabal, A; Sesar, B; Dancikova, R; Djorgovski, S G; Drake, A; Laher, R; Levitan, D; Max-Moerbeck, W; Ofek, E O; Pearson, T J; Prince, T A; Readhead, A C S; Richards, J L; Surace, J

    2014-01-01

    We use optical data from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS) to study the variability of gamma-ray detected and non-detected objects in a large population of active galactic nuclei (AGN) selected from the Candidate Gamma-Ray Blazar Survey and Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope catalogs. Our samples include 714 sources with PTF data and 1244 sources with CRTS data. We calculate the intrinsic modulation index to quantify the optical variability amplitude in these samples. We find the gamma-ray detected objects to be more variable than the non-detected ones. The flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are more variable than the BL Lac objects in our sample, but the significance of the difference depends on the sample used. When dividing the objects based on their synchrotron peak frequency, we find the low synchrotron peaked (LSP) objects to be significantly more variable than the high synchrotron peaked (HSP) ones, explaining the difference between the FSRQs and BL La...

  17. Extended radio emission in MOJAVE Blazars: Challenges to Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Kharb, P; Cooper, N J

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study on the 1.4 GHz kpc-scale radio emission in the complete flux density limited MOJAVE sample, comprising 135 radio-loud AGNs. While extended emission is detected in the majority of the sources, about 7% of the sources exhibit only radio core emission. Many BL Lacs exhibit extended radio power and kpc-scale morphology typical of powerful FRII jets, while a substantial number of quasars possess radio powers intermediate between FRIs and FRIIs. This poses challenges to the simple radio-loud unified scheme, which links BL Lacs to FRIs and quasars to FRIIs. We find a significant correlation between extended radio emission and pc-scale jet speeds: the more radio powerful sources possess faster jets. This indicates that the 1.4 GHz (or low frequency) radio emission is indeed related to jet kinetic power. Various properties such as extended radio power and apparent pc-scale jet speeds vary smoothly between different blazar subclasses, suggesting that, at least in terms of radio jet pro...

  18. The red blazar PMN J2345-1555 becomes blue

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisellini, G; Foschini, L; Bonnoli, G; Tagliaferri, G

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar PMN J2345-1555 is a bright gamma-ray source, that recently underwent a flaring episode in the IR, UV and gamma-ray bands. The flux changed quasi simultaneously at different frequencies, suggesting that it was produced by a single population of emitting particles, hence by a single and well localized region of the jet. While the overall Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) before the flare was typical of powerful blazars (namely two broad humps peaking in the far IR and below 100 MeV bands, respectively), during the flare the peaks moved to the optical-UV and to energies larger than 1 GeV, to resemble low power BL Lac objects, even if the observed bolometric luminosity increased by more than one order of magnitude. We interpret this behavior as due to a change of the location of the emission region in the jet, from within the broad line region, to just outside. The corresponding decrease of the radiation energy density as seen in the comoving frame of the jet allowed the relativist...

  19. Search for high-energy neutrinos from dust obscured Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Maggi, G; Correa, P; Vries, K D; Gentile, G; Scholten, O; van Eijndhoven, N

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of high-energy cosmic neutrinos by the IceCube neutrino observatory opens up a new field in physics, the field of neutrino astronomy. Using the IceCube neutrino detector we plan to search for high-energy neutrinos emitted from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), since AGN are believed to be one of the most promising sources of the most energetic cosmic rays and hence of high-energy neutrinos. We discuss a specific type of AGN which we plan to investigate in more detail with data obtained by the IceCube observatory. The main properties of the AGN category in which we are interested are given by a high-energy jet which is pointing in our line of sight defining a class of AGN, called Blazars, and in particular the ones that are obscured by surrounding dust. The jet-matter interaction is expected to give an increased high-energy neutrino production. The properties of this specific type of AGN are expected to give very distinct features in the electromagnetic spectrum, which are discussed in detail.

  20. TANAMI Blazars in the IceCube PeV Neutrino Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Krauß, F; Mannheim, K; Schulz, R; Trüstedt, J; Wilms, J; Ojha, R; Ros, E; Anton, G; Baumgartner, W; Beuchert, T; Blanchard, J; Bürkel, C; Carpenter, B; Eberl, T; Edwards, P G; Eisenacher, D; Elsässer, D; Fehn, K; Fritsch, U; Gehrels, N; Gräfe, C; Großberger, C; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; James, C; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kreikenbohm, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Langejahn, M; Leiter, K; Litzinger, E; Lovell, J E J; Müller, C; Phillips, C; Plötz, C; Quick, J; Steinbring, T; Stevens, J; Thompson, D J; Tzioumis, A K

    2014-01-01

    The IceCube Collaboration has announced the discovery of a neutrino flux in excess of the atmospheric background. Due to the steeply falling atmospheric background spectrum, events at PeV energies are most likely of extraterrestrial origin. We present the multiwavelength properties of the six radio brightest blazars positionally coincident with these events using contemporaneous data of the TANAMI blazar sample, including high-resolution images and spectral energy distributions. Assuming the X-ray to {\\gamma}-ray emission originates in the photoproduction of pions by accelerated protons, the integrated predicted neutrino luminosity of these sources is large enough to explain the two detected PeV events.

  1. Highly Variable Objects in the Palomar-QUEST Survey: A Blazar Search using Optical Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Anne; Baltay, Charles; De Coppi, Paolo; Donalek, Ciro; Drake, Andrew; Djorgovski, S. G.; Ellman, Nancy; Glikman, Eilat; Graham, Matthew; Jerke, Jonathan; Mahabal, Ashish; Rabinowitz, David; Scalzo, Richard; Williams, Roy

    2009-01-01

    We identify 3113 highly variable objects in 7200 deg^2 of the Palomar-QUEST (PQ) Survey, which each varied by more than 0.4 mag simultaneously in two broadband optical filters on timescales from hours to roughly 3.5 years. The primary goal of the selection is to find blazars by their well-known violent optical variability. Because most known blazars have been found in radio and/or X-ray wavelengths, a sample discovered through optical variability may have very different selection effects, elu...

  2. Relation between X-Ray and -Ray Emissions for Fermi Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bijun Li; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Using -ray band data detected by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and X-ray band data for 78 blazars, we find a medium correlation between X-ray and -ray fluxes in the average state. A medium anticorrelation is also found between X-ray (1 KeV) mean spectral index and -ray mean spectral index for blazars. Our results suggest that the most likely radiation mechanism for the high energy -ray would be SSC. And that the -ray emission mechanism may be somewhat different for BL Lacs and FSRQs.

  3. CHANDRA AND HST IMAGING OF THE QUASARS PKS B0106+013 AND 3C 345: INVERSE COMPTON X-RAYS AND MAGNETIZED JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from deep (∼70 ks) Chandra/ACIS observations and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys F475W observations of two highly optically polarized quasars belonging to the MOJAVE blazar sample, viz., PKS B0106+013 and 1641+399 (3C 345). These observations reveal X-ray and optical emissions from the jets in both sources. X-ray emission is detected from the entire length of the 0106+013 radio jet, which shows clear bends or wiggles—the X-ray emission is brightest at the first prominent kiloparsec jet bend. A picture of a helical kiloparsec jet with the first kiloparsec-scale bend representing a jet segment moving close(r) to our line of sight, and getting Doppler boosted at both radio and X-ray frequencies, is consistent with these observations. The X-ray emission from the jet end, however, peaks at about 0.''4 (∼3.4 kpc) upstream of the radio hot spot. Optical emission is detected both at the X-ray jet termination peak and at the radio hot spot. The X-ray jet termination peak is found upstream of the radio hot spot by around 0.''2 (∼1.3 kpc) in the short projected jet of 3C 345. HST optical emission is seen in an arc-like structure coincident with the bright radio hot spot, which we propose is a sharp (apparent) jet bend instead of a terminal point, that crosses our line of sight and consequently has a higher Doppler beaming factor. A weak radio hot spot is indeed observed less than 1'' downstream of the bright radio hot spot, but has no optical or X-ray counterpart. By making use of the parsec-scale radio and the kiloparsec-scale radio/X-ray data, we derive constraints on the jet Lorentz factors (Γjet) and inclination angles (θ): for a constant jet speed from parsec to kiloparsec scales, we obtain a Γjet of ∼70 for 0106+013 and ∼40 for 3C 345. On relaxing this assumption, we derive a Γjet of ∼2.5 for both the sources. Upper limits on θ of ∼13° are obtained for the two quasars. Broadband (radio

  4. CHANDRA AND HST IMAGING OF THE QUASARS PKS B0106+013 AND 3C 345: INVERSE COMPTON X-RAYS AND MAGNETIZED JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharb, P. [Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Lister, M. L.; Hogan, B. S. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Marshall, H. L., E-mail: kharb@cis.rit.edu [Center for Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    We present results from deep ({approx}70 ks) Chandra/ACIS observations and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys F475W observations of two highly optically polarized quasars belonging to the MOJAVE blazar sample, viz., PKS B0106+013 and 1641+399 (3C 345). These observations reveal X-ray and optical emissions from the jets in both sources. X-ray emission is detected from the entire length of the 0106+013 radio jet, which shows clear bends or wiggles-the X-ray emission is brightest at the first prominent kiloparsec jet bend. A picture of a helical kiloparsec jet with the first kiloparsec-scale bend representing a jet segment moving close(r) to our line of sight, and getting Doppler boosted at both radio and X-ray frequencies, is consistent with these observations. The X-ray emission from the jet end, however, peaks at about 0.''4 ({approx}3.4 kpc) upstream of the radio hot spot. Optical emission is detected both at the X-ray jet termination peak and at the radio hot spot. The X-ray jet termination peak is found upstream of the radio hot spot by around 0.''2 ({approx}1.3 kpc) in the short projected jet of 3C 345. HST optical emission is seen in an arc-like structure coincident with the bright radio hot spot, which we propose is a sharp (apparent) jet bend instead of a terminal point, that crosses our line of sight and consequently has a higher Doppler beaming factor. A weak radio hot spot is indeed observed less than 1'' downstream of the bright radio hot spot, but has no optical or X-ray counterpart. By making use of the parsec-scale radio and the kiloparsec-scale radio/X-ray data, we derive constraints on the jet Lorentz factors ({Gamma}{sub jet}) and inclination angles ({theta}): for a constant jet speed from parsec to kiloparsec scales, we obtain a {Gamma}{sub jet} of {approx}70 for 0106+013 and {approx}40 for 3C 345. On relaxing this assumption, we derive a {Gamma}{sub jet} of {approx}2.5 for both the sources

  5. The Lyman limit absorption system in the spectrum of PKS 2126-158 - Heavy-element abundance at high redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy element composition of a Lyman limit absorption system at z(abs) = 2.9676 in the spectrum of PKS 2126 - 158 is studied. Early observations had suggested that this absorption system had no detectable lines of heavy elements. However, new observations reveal weak associated lines due to C IV and C II. Photoionization models show that the system has a C/H abundance ratio = -2.3 + or - 0.2 and an Si/H abundance ratio less than -2.3. The possibility that the z(abs) = 2.9676 system in PKS 2126 - 158 is produced in galactic halo material or by primitive gas-rich dwarf galaxies is discussed. 17 refs

  6. Multi-Wavelength Observations of PKS 2142-75 during Active and Quiescent Gamma-Ray States

    CERN Document Server

    Dutka, Michael; Pottschmidt, Katja; Finke, Justin; Stevens, Jamie; Edwards, Philip; Blanchard, Jay; Lovel, James; Nesci, Roberto; Kadler, Matthias; Wilms, Joern; Tosti, Gino; Pursimo, Tapio; Krauss, Felicia; Muller, Cornelia; Gehrels, Neil

    2013-01-01

    PKS2142-75 (a.k.a. 2FGL J2147.4-7534) is a flat-spectrum radio quasar that was observed quasi-simultaneously by a suite of instruments across the elec- tromagnetic spectrum during two flaring states in April 2010 and August 2011 as well as a quiescent state in December 2011 through January 2012. The results of these campaigns and model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the active and quiescent states are presented. The SED model parameters of PKS 2142-75 indicate that the two flares of the source are created by unique physical conditions. SED studies of flat spectrum radio quasars are beginning to indicate that there might be two types of flares, those that can be described purely by changes in the electron distribution and those that require changes in other parameters, such as the magnetic field strength or the size of the emitting region.

  7. Multi-wavelength observations of PKS 2142–75 during active and quiescent gamma-ray states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PKS 2142–75 (a.k.a. 2FGL J2147.4–7534) is a flat-spectrum radio quasar that was observed quasi-simultaneously by a suite of instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum during two flaring states in 2010 April and 2011 August as well as a quiescent state from 2011 December through 2012 January. The results of these campaigns and model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the active and quiescent states are presented. The SED model parameters of PKS 2142–75 indicate that the two flares of the source are created by unique physical conditions. SED studies of flat-spectrum radio quasars are beginning to indicate that there might be two types of flares, those that can be described purely by changes in the electron distribution and those that require changes in other parameters, such as the magnetic field strength or the size of the emitting region.

  8. Tensile properties of low density polypropylene (LDPE)/palm kernel shell (PKS) biocomposites: The effect of acrylic acid (AA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface of palm kernel was modified by acrylic acid (AA). Low density polyethylene (LDPE) was filled by palm kernel shell at various 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 php. The effect of AA as a coupling agent on LDPE/PKS biocomposites on tensile properties and morphology was investigated. The results show that the increasing of filler content decreased the tensile strength and break elongation but increased the Young's modulus. The presence of AA indicates higher tensile strength and Young's modulus but lower elongation at break compared to untreated LDPE/PKS biocomposites. The scanning electron microscope study show that the better interfacial interaction between palm kernel shell and low density polyethylene with addition of AA.

  9. Multi-wavelength observations of PKS 2142–75 during active and quiescent gamma-ray states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutka, Michael S. [The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Ojha, Roopesh [ORAU/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), University of Maryland Baltimore Campus (UMBC) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finke, Justin D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Code 7653, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Stevens, Jamie [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Locked Bag 194, Narrabri, NSW 2390 (Australia); Edwards, Philip G. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Blanchard, Jay [Departamento de Astronoma, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160 C, 4089100 Concepción (Chile); Lovell, James E. J. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tas 7001 (Australia); Nesci, Roberto [INAF/IAPS, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Kadler, Matthias; Müller, Cornelia [Lehrstuhl für Astronomie, Universität Würzburg, Emil-Fischer-Straße 31, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Wilms, Joern; Krauss, Felicia [Remeis Observatory and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); Tosti, Gino [University of Perugia, Piazza Università 1, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pursimo, Tapio [Nordic Optical Telescope, Apartado 474, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Gehrels, Neil, E-mail: ditko86@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    PKS 2142–75 (a.k.a. 2FGL J2147.4–7534) is a flat-spectrum radio quasar that was observed quasi-simultaneously by a suite of instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum during two flaring states in 2010 April and 2011 August as well as a quiescent state from 2011 December through 2012 January. The results of these campaigns and model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the active and quiescent states are presented. The SED model parameters of PKS 2142–75 indicate that the two flares of the source are created by unique physical conditions. SED studies of flat-spectrum radio quasars are beginning to indicate that there might be two types of flares, those that can be described purely by changes in the electron distribution and those that require changes in other parameters, such as the magnetic field strength or the size of the emitting region.

  10. Variability of the BL Lacertae objects PKS 2155 - 304 and OJ 287 in the far-ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All the ultraviolet spectra of the two bright BL Lacertae objects PKS 2155 - 304 and OJ 287 taken with the International Ultraviolet Explorer in the period 1978-1984 are examined. For each spectrum the best-fitting power law is determined and a correlation between spectral slope and intensity is searched for. The correlation, if present, is weak. This is discussed in terms of models of the continuum emission of active galactic nuclei. 31 references

  11. Pengaruh Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja (K3)Terhadap Motivasi Karyawan pada Bagian pengolahan PTPN II PKS Rambutan Tebing Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Agustiana

    2015-01-01

    The purposeof thisresearchis to know andanalyzethe influence ofhealthy and and safety work variablestoemployeesmotivation ofPTPN III PKS Rambutan Tebing Tinggi.This research is quantitative research using the survey method of Causal Associative which looks for the relation between one variable with another variable.The populationof this research wereall employeesas many70people. The sampling methodusinga samplethat issaturatedsampling techniquewhenallemployees of the population used as sample...

  12. Joint anisotropy and source count constraints on the contribution of blazars to the diffuse gamma-ray background

    OpenAIRE

    Cuoco, Alessandro; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    We place new constraints on the contribution of blazars to the large-scale isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) by jointly analyzing the measured source count distribution (logN-logS) of blazars and the measured intensity and anisotropy of the IGRB. We find that these measurements point to a consistent scenario in which unresolved blazars make less than 20% of the IGRB intensity at 1-10 GeV while accounting for the majority of the measured anisotropy in that energy band. These results indica...

  13. Metagenomic Analysis of Upwelling-Affected Brazilian Coastal Seawater Reveals Sequence Domains of Type I PKS and Modular NRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Cury, Juliano C; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2015-01-01

    Marine environments harbor a wide range of microorganisms from the three domains of life. These microorganisms have great potential to enable discovery of new enzymes and bioactive compounds for industrial use. However, only ~1% of microorganisms from the environment can currently be identified through cultured isolates, limiting the discovery of new compounds. To overcome this limitation, a metagenomics approach has been widely adopted for biodiversity studies on samples from marine environments. In this study, we screened metagenomes in order to estimate the potential for new natural compound synthesis mediated by diversity in the Polyketide Synthase (PKS) and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) genes. The samples were collected from the Praia dos Anjos (Angel's Beach) surface water-Arraial do Cabo (Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil), an environment affected by upwelling. In order to evaluate the potential for screening natural products in Arraial do Cabo samples, we used KS (keto-synthase) and C (condensation) domains (from PKS and NRPS, respectively) to build Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models. From both samples, a total of 84 KS and 46 C novel domain sequences were obtained, showing the potential of this environment for the discovery of new genes of biotechnological interest. These domains were classified by phylogenetic analysis and this was the first study conducted to screen PKS and NRPS genes in an upwelling affected sample. PMID:26633360

  14. Accretion disk/corona emission from a radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 0558-504

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, R; Raychaudhuri, B

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10-20% of Active Galactic Nuclei are known to eject powerful jets from the innermost regions. There is very little observational evidence if the jets are powered by spinning black holes and if the accretion disks extend to the innermost regions in radio-loud AGN. Here we study the soft X-ray excess, the hard X-ray spectrum and the optical/UV emission from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 0558-504 using Suzaku and Swift observations. The broadband X-ray continuum of PKS 0558- 504 consists of a soft X-ray excess emission below 2 keV that is well described by a blackbody (kTe ~ 0.13 keV) and high energy emission that is well described by a thermal Comptonisation (compps) model with kTe ~ 250 keV, optical depth {\\tau} ~ 0.05 (spherical corona) or kTe ~ 90 keV, {\\tau} ~ 0.5 (slab corona). The Comptonising corona in PKS 0558-504 is likely hotter than in radio-quiet Seyferts such as IC 4329A and Swift J2127.4+5654. The observed soft X-ray excess can be modelled as blurred reflection from...

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) from Cannabis sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Chiho [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Taura, Futoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Tamada, Taro; Shoyama, Yoshinari [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Shoyama, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Kuroki, Ryota, E-mail: kuroki.ryota@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Morimoto, Satoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    Polyketide synthase-1 from C. sativa has been crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination. Polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) is a novel type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of hexanoyl triacetic acid lactone in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). PKS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and finally crystallized in two different space groups. The crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M calcium acetate and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.65 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 59.3, c = 62.6 Å, α = 69, β = 81, γ = 80°. Another crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M sodium chloride and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 110, c = 130 Å. These data will enable us to determine the crystal structure of PKS-1.

  16. Involvement of the cell-specific pigment genes pks and sult in bacterial defense response of sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Konstantin V; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kurilenko, Valeria V

    2013-03-26

    Bacterial infections are one of the most important problems in mass aquaculture, causing the loss of millions of juvenile organisms. We isolated 22 bacterial strains from the cavity fluid of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus and used phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences to separate the bacterial strains into 9 genera (Aliivibrio, Bizionia, Colwellia, Olleya, Paenibacillus, Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, and Vibrio). Incubating Strongylocentrotus intermedius larvae with a strain from each of the 9 bacterial genera, we investigated the viability of the larvae, the amount of pigment cells, and the level of polyketide synthase (pks) and sulfotransferase (sult) gene expression. Results of the assay on sea urchin development showed that all bacterial strains, except Pseudoalteromonas and Bizionia, suppressed sea urchin development (resulting in retardation of the embryos' development with cellular disorders) and reduced cell viability. We found that pks expression in the sea urchin larvae after incubation with the bacteria of 9 tested genera was significantly increased, while the sult expression was increased only after the treatment with Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella. Shikimic acid, which is known to activate the biosynthesis of naphthoquinone pigments, increased the tolerance of the sea urchin embryos to the bacteria. In conclusion, we show that the cell-specific pigment genes pks and sult are involved in the bacterial defense response of sea urchins. PMID:23548362

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) from Cannabis sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyketide synthase-1 from C. sativa has been crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination. Polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) is a novel type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of hexanoyl triacetic acid lactone in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). PKS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and finally crystallized in two different space groups. The crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M calcium acetate and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.65 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 59.3, c = 62.6 Å, α = 69, β = 81, γ = 80°. Another crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M sodium chloride and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution and belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 110, c = 130 Å. These data will enable us to determine the crystal structure of PKS-1

  18. TRIAGEM METABÓLICA POR PKS E NRPS EM ACTINOBACTÉRIAS ENDOFÍTICAS DE Citrus reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. R. da Cruz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides are natural products widely found in bacteria, fungi and plants. The biological activities associated with these metabolites have attracted special attention in biopharmaceutical studies. Polyketide synthases act similarly to fatty acids synthetases and the whole multi-enzymatic set coordinating precursor and extending unit selection and reduction levels during chain growth. Acting in a similarly orchestrated model, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases biosynthesize NRPs. PKSs-I and NRPSs enzymatic modules and domains are collinearly organized with the parent gene sequence. This arrangement allows the use of degenerated PCR primers to amplify targeted regions in the genes corresponding to specific enzymatic domains such as ketosynthases and acyltransferases in PKSs and adenilation domains in NRPSs. Careful analysis of these short regions allows the classifying of a set of organisms according to their potential to biosynthesize PKs and NRPs. In this work, the biosynthetic potential of a set of 13 endophytic actinobacteria from Citrus reticulata for producing PKs and NRP metabolites was evaluated. The biosynthetic profile was compared to antimicrobial activity. Based on the inhibition promoted, 4 strains were considered for cluster analysis. A PKS/NRPS phylogeny was generated in order to classify some of the representative sequences throughout comparison with homologous genes. Using this approach, a molecular fingerprint was generated to help guide future studies on the most promising strains.

  19. OVRO 40 m Blazar Monitoring Program: Location of the gamma-ray emission region in blazars by the study of correlated variability at radio and gamma-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Max-Moerbeck, W; Pavlidou, V; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; Hovatta, T; King, O G; Reeves, R

    2013-01-01

    Blazars are powerful, variable emitters from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. Even though the general picture of synchrotron emission at low energies and inverse Compton at the high energy end is well established, many important aspects of these remarkable objects are still not well understood. For example, even the location of the gamma-ray emission region is still not clearly established, with some theories locating it close to the black hole/accretion disk while others place it at parsec scales in the radio jet. Since mid-2007 we have carried out a large scale monitoring program at 15 GHz using the OVRO 40 m telescope. We are currently observing about 1700 blazars twice per week. The sample includes all the Fermi-LAT detected blazars north of declination -20 degrees. Here, we study the existence of correlated variability between these two bands for 86 sources bright enough to be detected weekly by LAT. The existence of correlated variability can be interpreted as an indication of a related spatial locations...

  20. Blazars and the emerging AGN/black hole X-ray binary paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    P. Uttley(Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the emerging paradigm which links the radio-quiet and radio-loud classes of AGN to the different accretion states observed in stellar mass black hole X-ray binary systems (BHXRBs), and discuss the relevance of the AGN/BHXRB connection to blazar variability.

  1. Short Time-scale Gamma-Ray Variability of Blazars and EGRET Unidentified Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Bloom, S. D.; Thompson, D. J.; Hartman, R. C.; von Montigny, C.

    1997-01-01

    We have begun to examine the EGRET database for short term variations in the fluxes of blazars and unidentified sources at high Galactic latitude. We find that several AGN show previously unreported variability. Such variations are consistent with inverse Compton scattering processes in a shock propagating through a relativistic jet.

  2. Nustar detection of the blazar B2 1023+25 at redshift 5.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sbarrato, T.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G.;

    2013-01-01

    B2 1023+25 is an extremely radio-loud quasar at z = 5.3 that was first identified as a likely high-redshift blazar candidate in the SDSS+FIRST quasar catalog. Here, we use the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) to investigate its non-thermal jet emission, whose high-energy component w...

  3. New blazars from the cross-match of recent multi-frequency catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Maselli, A; D'Abrusco, R; Cusumano, G; La Parola, V; Segreto, A; Tosti, G

    2015-01-01

    Blazars are radio-loud active galactic nuclei well known for their non thermal emission spanning a wide range of frequencies. The Roma-BZCAT is, to date, the most comprehensive list of these sources. We performed the cross-match of several catalogs obtained from recent surveys at different frequencies to search for new blazars. We cross-matched the 1$^{st}$ Swift-XRT Point Source catalog with the spectroscopic sample of the 9$^{th}$ Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Then, we performed further cross-matches with the catalogs corresponding to the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm survey and to the AllWISE Data release, focusing on sources with infrared colors similar to those of confirmed $\\gamma$-ray blazars included in the Second Fermi-LAT catalog. As a result, we obtained a preliminary list of objects with all the elements needed for a proper blazar classification according to the prescriptions of the Roma-BZCAT. We carefully investigated additional properties such as their morphology an...

  4. VERITAS OBSERVATIONS OF SIX BRIGHT, HARD-SPECTRUM FERMI-LAT BLAZARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on VERITAS very high energy (VHE; E ≥ 100 GeV) observations of six blazars selected from the Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog (1FGL). The gamma-ray emission from 1FGL sources was extrapolated up to the VHE band, taking gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light into account. This allowed the selection of six bright, hard-spectrum blazars that were good candidate TeV emitters. Spectroscopic redshift measurements were attempted with the Keck Telescope for the targets without Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic data. No VHE emission is detected during the observations of the six sources described here. Corresponding TeV upper limits are presented, along with contemporaneous Fermi observations and non-concurrent Swift UVOT and X-Ray Telescope data. The blazar broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are assembled and modeled with a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. The SED built for each of the six blazars shows a synchrotron peak bordering between the intermediate- and high-spectrum-peak classifications, with four of the six resulting in particle-dominated emission regions.

  5. VERITAS OBSERVATIONS OF SIX BRIGHT, HARD-SPECTRUM FERMI-LAT BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Aune, T.; Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Boettcher, M. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C. [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); Dumm, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: afurniss@ucsc.edu, E-mail: pafortin@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: deirdre@llr.in2p3.fr [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2012-11-10

    We report on VERITAS very high energy (VHE; E {>=} 100 GeV) observations of six blazars selected from the Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog (1FGL). The gamma-ray emission from 1FGL sources was extrapolated up to the VHE band, taking gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light into account. This allowed the selection of six bright, hard-spectrum blazars that were good candidate TeV emitters. Spectroscopic redshift measurements were attempted with the Keck Telescope for the targets without Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic data. No VHE emission is detected during the observations of the six sources described here. Corresponding TeV upper limits are presented, along with contemporaneous Fermi observations and non-concurrent Swift UVOT and X-Ray Telescope data. The blazar broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are assembled and modeled with a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. The SED built for each of the six blazars shows a synchrotron peak bordering between the intermediate- and high-spectrum-peak classifications, with four of the six resulting in particle-dominated emission regions.

  6. Infrared properties of blazars: putting the GASP-WEBT sources into context

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, C M; Carnerero, M I; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Larionov, V M; D'Ammando, F; Arévalo, M J; Arkharov, A A; Bueno, A Bueno; Di Paola, A; Efimova, N V; González-Morales, P A; Gorshanov, D L; Grinon-Marin, A B; Lázaro, C; Manilla-Robles, A; Yabar, A Pastor; Giménez, I Puerto; Velasco, S

    2014-01-01

    The infrared properties of blazars can be studied from the statistical point of view with the help of sky surveys, like that provided by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). However, these sources are known for their strong and unpredictable variability, which can be monitored for a handful of objects only. In this paper we consider the 28 blazars (14 BL Lac objects and 14 flat-spectrum radio quasars, FSRQs) that are regularly monitored by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) since 2007. They show a variety of infrared colours, redshifts, and infrared-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and thus represent an interesting mini-sample of bright blazars that can be investigated in more detail. We present near-IR light curves and colours obtained by the GASP from 2007 to 2013, and discuss the infrared-optical SEDs. These are analysed with the aim of understanding the interplay among different emission compon...

  7. Upper Limits from Five Years of Blazar Observations with the VERITAS Cherenkov Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hütten, M.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nguyen, T.; Nieto, D.; O’Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; the VERITAS collaboration; Fumagalli, M.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2016-06-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ∼570 hr. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi-LAT catalog that are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have spectroscopic distance estimates. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of four of them. For each of the blazars included in our sample, we provide the flux upper limit in the VERITAS energy band. We also study the properties of the significance distributions and we present the result of a stacked analysis of the data set, which shows a 4σ excess.

  8. Connecting radio variability to the characteristics of gamma-ray blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Joseph L; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Pearson, Timothy J; Readhead, Anthony C S

    2013-01-01

    We present results from four years of twice-weekly 15 GHz radio monitoring of about 1500 blazars with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory 40 m telescope. Using the intrinsic modulation index to measure variability amplitude, we find that, with $>/!6/sigma$ significance, the radio variability of radio-selected gamma-ray-loud blazars is stronger than that of gamma-ray-quiet blazars. Our extended data set also includes at least 21 months of data for all AGN with `clean' associations in the Fermi Large Area Telescope First AGN catalogue, 1LAC. With these additional data we examine the radio variability properties of a gamma-ray-selected blazar sample. Within this sample, we find no evidence for a connection between radio variability amplitude and optical classification. In contrast, for our radio-selected sample we find that the BL Lac object subpopulation is more variable than the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) subpopulation. Radio variability is found to correlate with the synchrotron peak frequency, with low...

  9. Multiwavelength Doppler factors for Fermi-detected gamma-ray loud blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We collect a sample of 51 Fermi-detected gamma-ray loud blazars with known radio Doppler factors and study properties of the Doppler factors of blazars at optical, X-ray and gamma-ray bands. A basic assumption is that the emission from the radio to gamma-ray bands of the blazars are produced by the nonthermal radiation of accelerated particles in a jet. Our results show that (1) the Doppler factors of blazars are a function of frequency, with the Doppler factor decreasing with frequency from the radio to X-ray regions, and then increasing from the X-ray to γ-ray regions which are similar to results given by Zhang et al., and (2) there are marginal correlations between the Doppler factors at radio and X-ray bands and the synchrotron peak frequency, and a strong correlation between the Doppler factor in the gamma-ray band and the synchrotron peak frequency, but no correlation in the optical band. (invited review)

  10. The physics and cosmology of TeV blazars in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, P

    2013-01-01

    The extragalactic gamma-ray sky at TeV energies is dominated by blazars, a subclass of accreting super-massive black holes with powerful relativistic outflows directed at us. Only constituting a small fraction of the total power output of black holes, blazars were thought to have a minor impact on the universe at best. As we argue here, the opposite is true and the gamma-ray emission from TeV blazars can be thermalized via beam-plasma instabilities on cosmological scales with order unity efficiency, resulting in a potentially dramatic heating of the low-density intergalactic medium. Here, we review this novel heating mechanism and explore the consequences for the formation of structure in the universe. In particular, we show how it produces an inverted temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium that is in agreement with observations of the Lyman-alpha forest. This suggests that blazar heating can potentially explain the paucity of dwarf galaxies in galactic halos and voids, and the bimodality of...

  11. Multiwavelength Doppler factors for Fermi-detected gamma-ray loud blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou-Dun Zeng; Li Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We collect a sample of 51 Fermi-detected gamma-ray loud blazars with known radio Doppler factors and study properties of the Doppler factors of blazars at optical, X-ray and gamma-ray bands. A basic assumption is that the emission from the radio to gamma-ray bands of the blazars are produced by the nonthermal radiation of accelerated particles in a jet. Our results show that (1) the Doppler factors of blazars are a function of frequency, with the Doppler factor decreasing with frequency from the radio to X-ray regions, and then increasing from the X-ray to y-ray regions which are similar to results given by Zhang et al., and (2) there are marginal correlations between the Doppler factors at radio and X-ray bands and the synchrotron peak frequency, and a strong correlation between the Doppler factor in the gamma-ray band and the synchrotron peak frequency, but no correlation in the optical band.

  12. RoboPol: First season rotations of optical polarization plane in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, D; Papadakis, I; Kiehlmann, S; Panopoulou, G; Liodakis, I; King, O G; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Das, H; Feiler, R; Fuhrmann, L; Hovatta, T; Khodade, P; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Myserlis, I; Modi, D; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Papamastorakis, I; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Ramaprakash, A; Reig, P; Readhead, A C S; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    We present first results on polarization swings in optical emission of blazars obtained by RoboPol, a monitoring program of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events. A possible connection of polarization swing events with periods of high activity in gamma rays is investigated using the dataset obtained during the first season of operation. It was found that the brightest gamma-ray flares tend to be located closer in time to rotation events, which may be an indication of two separate mechanisms responsible for the rotations. Blazars with detected rotations have significantly larger amplitude and faster variations of polarization angle in optical than blazars without rotations. Our simulations show that the full set of observed rotations is not a likely outcome (probability $\\le 1.5 \\times 10^{-2}$) of a random walk of the polarization vector simulated by a multicell model. Furthermore, it is highly unlikely ($\\sim 5 \\times 10^{-5}$) that none of o...

  13. Coeval Observations of a Complete Sample of Blazars with Effelsberg, IRAM 30m, and Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Rachen, Jörg P; Krichbaum, Thomas; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Nestoras, Ioannis; Zensus, Anton; Sievers, Albrecht; Ungerechts, Hans; Keihänen, Elina; Reinecke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We present the outline and first results of a project using the synergies of the long term blazar radiomillimetre monitoring program F-GAMMA, the continued scanning of the millimetre-submillimetre sky by the Planck satellite, together with several dedicated observing programs at the Effelsberg 100m telescope, to obtain a data sample unprecedented in both time resolution and frequency span.

  14. The Influence of Plasma Effects of Pair Beams on the Intergalactic Cascade Emission of Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzler, Ulf; Schlickeiser, Reinhard

    2014-03-01

    The attenuation of TeV γ-rays from distant blazars by the extragalactic background light (EBL) produces relativistic electron-positron pair beams. It has been shown by Broderick et. al. (2012) and Schlickeiser et. al (2012) that a pair beam traversing the intergalactic medium is unstable to linear two-stream instabilities of both electrostatic and electromagnetic nature. While for strong blazars all free pair energy is dissipated in heating the intergalactic medium and a potential electromagnetic cascade via inverse-Compton scattering with the cosmic microwave background is suppressed, we investigate the case of weak blazars where the back reaction of generated electrostatic turbulence leads to a plateauing of the electron energy spectrum. In the ultra-relativistic Thomson limit we analytically calculate the inverse-Compton spectral energy distribution for both an unplateaued and a plateaued beam scenario, showing a peak reduction factor of Rpeak ≈ 0.345. This is consistent with the FERMI non-measurements of a GeV excess in the spectrum of EBL attenuated TeV blazars. Claims on the lower bound of the intergalactic magnetic field strengths, made by several authors neglecting plasma effects, are thus put into question.

  15. Simultaneous Planck, Swift, and Fermi Observations of X-ray and Gamma-ray Selected Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Laehteenmaeki, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Capalbi, M.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Gonzalez, Nuevo, J.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Monte, C.; Perri, M.; Raino, S.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Verracchia, F.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, MF.; Angelakis, E.; Bastieri, D.; Berdyugin, A.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Lawrence, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    We present simultaneous Planck, Swift, Fermi, and ground-based data for 105 blazars belonging to three samples with flux limits in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and gamma-ray bands, with additional 5 GHz flux-density limits to ensure a good probability of a Planck detection. We compare our results to those of a companion paper presenting simultaneous Planck and multi-frequency observations of 104 radio-loud northern active galactic nuclei selected at radio frequencies. While we confirm several previous results, our unique data set allows us to demonstrate that the selection method strongly influences the results, producing biases that cannot be ignored. Almost all the BL Lac objects have been detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), whereas 30% to 40% of the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray selected samples are still below the gamma-ray detection limit even after integrating 27 months of Fermi-LAT data. The radio to sub-millimetre spectral slope of blazars is quite flat, with (alpha) approx 0 up to about 70GHz, above which it steepens to (alpha) approx -0.65. The BL Lacs have significantly flatter spectra than FSRQs at higher frequencies. The distribution of the rest-frame synchrotron peak frequency (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FSRQs is the same in all the blazar samples with (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) = 10(exp 13.1 +/- 0.1) Hz, while the mean inverse Compton peak frequency, (nu(sup IC)(sub peak)), ranges from 10(exp 21) to 10(exp 22) Hz. The distributions of nu(sup s)(sub peak) and nu(sup IC)(sub peak) of BL Lacs are much broader and are shifted to higher energies than those of FSRQs; their shapes strongly depend on the selection method. The Compton dominance of blazars. defined as the ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities, ranges from less than 0.2 to nearly 100, with only FSRQs reaching values larger than about 3. Its distribution is broad and depends

  16. Radio and X-ray observations of the gamma-ray bright quasar PKS 0528+134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun Fei; Marscher, Alan P.; Aller, Hugh D.; Aller, Margo F.; Terasranta, Harri; Valtaoja, Esko

    1994-01-01

    We present a study of the z = 2.07 quasar PKS 0528+134, which has been detected as an extraordinarily luminous gamma-ray source. Its radio properties are highly variable in both total and polarized flux density. Milliarcsecond-scale maps from global very long base interferometry (VLBI) experiments, an X-ray spectrum from ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations, and light curves in total flux density and polarization are used to investigate the geometry, radiation mechanism, and physical environment of the emission region in the source. The VLBI images reveal a bent jet extending toward the northeast on parsec scales, with less intense knots of emission appearing on the opposite side of the brightest spot. The position of the core usually found in such sources is unclear. The polarization angle is stable despite strong variability in polarized flux density and indicates that the magnetic field is aligned with the jet axis as defined by our 8.4 GHz image. The ROSAT X-ray flux density of PKS 0528+134 in 1991 March is measured to be 1.6 micro Jy at 1 keV, with a very steep spectral (`energy') index sigma(sub x) approximately equal to 2.2. The X-ray observations reveal the presence of cold gas along the line of sight significantly in excess of that present in the Galaxy. A strong radio flare began within two months of the first observation of a high flux of gamma-rays from PKS 0528+134 by Hunter et al. Using the geometry and spectral chacateristics determined by our VLBI observations, a synchrotron self-Compton calculation indicates that relativistic bulk motion is required in PKS 0528+134, with an estimated Doppler beaming factor delta approximately greater than 4.3, similar to the value delta approximately greater than 7 required to explain the low optical depth of the gamma-rays to photon-photon pair production. We suggest that the core activity of PKS 0528+134 is sporadic in nature, with the nonthermal outburst starting in 1991 representing

  17. BLAZARS IN THE FERMI ERA: THE OVRO 40 m TELESCOPE MONITORING PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provides an unprecedented opportunity to study gamma-ray blazars. To capitalize on this opportunity, beginning in late 2007, about a year before the start of LAT science operations, we began a large-scale, fast-cadence 15 GHz radio monitoring program with the 40 m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory. This program began with the 1158 northern (δ > -200) sources from the Candidate Gamma-ray Blazar Survey and now encompasses over 1500 sources, each observed twice per week with about 4 mJy (minimum) and 3% (typical) uncertainty. Here, we describe this monitoring program and our methods, and present radio light curves from the first two years (2008 and 2009). As a first application, we combine these data with a novel measure of light curve variability amplitude, the intrinsic modulation index, through a likelihood analysis to examine the variability properties of subpopulations of our sample. We demonstrate that, with high significance (6σ), gamma-ray-loud blazars detected by the LAT during its first 11 months of operation vary with almost a factor of two greater amplitude than do the gamma-ray-quiet blazars in our sample. We also find a significant (3σ) difference between variability amplitude in BL Lacertae objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), with the former exhibiting larger variability amplitudes. Finally, low-redshift (z < 1) FSRQs are found to vary more strongly than high-redshift FSRQs, with 3σ significance. These findings represent an important step toward understanding why some blazars emit gamma-rays while others, with apparently similar properties, remain silent.

  18. The Neutron Star in the Supernova Remnant PKS 1209-52

    CERN Document Server

    Zavlin, V E; Trümper, J E

    1997-01-01

    We re-analyzed soft X-ray data collected with the ROSAT and ASCA observatories on a candidate neutron star (NS) near the center of the supernova remnant PKS 1209-52. We fitted the observed spectra with NS atmosphere models. The hydrogen atmosphere fits yield more realistic parameters of the NS and the intervening hydrogen column than the traditional blackbody fit. In particular, for a NS of mass 1.4 M_ødot and radius 10 km, we obtained the NS surface temperature T_{eff}=(1.4-1.9)*10^6 K and distance d=1.6-3.3 kpc versus T=(4.2-4.6)*10^6 K and (implausible) d=11-13 kpc for the blackbody fit, at a 90% confidence level. Our fits suggest that the surface magnetic field is either very weak, B < 10^{10} G, or it exceeds 2*10^{12} G. The hydrogen column density inferred from the atmosphere fits, n_H=(0.7-2.2)*10^{21} cm^{-2}, agrees fairly well with independent estimates obtained from UV observations of nearby stars, radio data, and X-ray spectrum of the shell of the supernova remnant, whereas the blackbody and ...

  19. Highly Ionized High-Velocity Clouds toward PKS 2155-304 and Markarian 509

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, J A; Giroux, M L

    2004-01-01

    To gain insight into four highly ionized high-velocity clouds (HVCs) discovered by Sembach et al. (1999), we have analyzed data from HST and FUSE for the PKS 2155-304 and Mrk 509 sight lines. We measure strong absorption in OVI and column densities of multiple ionization stages of silicon (SiII/III/IV) and carbon (CII/III/IV). We interpret this ionization pattern as a multiphase medium that contains both collisionally ionized and photoionized gas. The presence of high-velocity OVI, spread over a broad (100 km/s) profile, together with large amounts of low-ionization species, is difficult to reconcile with the low densities, n=5x10^(-6) cm^(-3), in the collisional/photoionization models of Nicastro et al. (2002). Our results suggest that the high-velocity OVI in these absorbers do not necessarily trace the WHIM, but instead may trace HVCs with low total hydrogen column density. We use photoionization models to explain the observed ionization pattern in Si and C ions and OVI. For the strong HVC absorbers, we ob...

  20. Milliarcsecond-Scale Structure in the Gamma-Ray Loud Quasar PKS 1622-297

    CERN Document Server

    Wajima, K; Kobayashi, H; Hirabayashi, H; Murata, Y; Edwards, P G; Tsuboi, M; Fujisawa, K; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Bignall, Hayley E.; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Murata, Yasuhiro; Edwards, Philip G.; Tsuboi, Masato; Fujisawa, Kenta

    2005-01-01

    We have made a high-resolution VLBI observation of the gamma-ray loud quasar PKS 1622-297 with the HALCA spacecraft and ground radio telescopes at 5 GHz in 1998 February, almost three years after the source exhibited a spectacular GeV gamma-ray flare. The source shows an elongated structure toward the west on the parsec scale. The visibility data are well modeled by three distinct components; a bright core and two weaker jet components. Comparison with previous observations confirms that the jet components have an apparent superluminal motion up to 12.1 h^{-1}c, with the inner jet components having lower superluminal speeds. We apply the inverse Compton catastrophe model and derive a Doppler factor, \\delta, of 2.45, which is somewhat lower than that of other gamma-ray loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs), suggesting the source was in a more quiescent phase at the epoch of our observation. As an alternative probe of the sub-parsec scale structure, we also present the results from multi-epoch ATCA total flux moni...

  1. Structure of radio sources with remarkably flat spectra: PKS 0735+178

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate three incoherent synchrotron models which can account for the remarkably flat radio spectrum (α=0 from 0.4 to 90 GHz) of the BL Lac object PKS 0735+178. The simplest interpretation of the spectrum of 0735+178, that it results from optically thin synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons with energy distribution N (E) proportionalE-1, is shown to be untenable: The radio spectrum in this case extends into the optical region in such a way that the predicted emission exceeds the measured optical flux densities. An alternative model, in which a single nonuniform, self-absorbed source is generated by a wind flowing from some central object, requires highly efficient in situ acceleration of relativistic electrons plus at least 1057 ergs in invisible matter. On the other hand, if sources with flat spectra are to be explained by the presence of multiple (three or more), discrete uniform components, the results of Jones (1977) indicate that for each source the magnetic field and relativistic electron distribution must be correlated with the size of each individual component in some special way. Multifrequency VLBI observations are proposed which will allow us to determine the detailed structure (and possibly the ultimate origin) of compact radio sources

  2. Characterizing the Low-Redshift Intergalactic Medium towards PKS1302-102

    CERN Document Server

    Cooksey, Kathy L; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Mulchaey, John S; Weiner, Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the intergalactic metal-line absorption systems in the archival HST/STIS and FUSE ultraviolet spectra of the low-redshift quasar PKS1302-102 (z_QSO = 0.2784). We supplement the archive data with CLOUDY ionization models and a survey of galaxies in the quasar field. There are 23 strong Lya absorbers with column densities log N_HI > 14. Of these, six are associated with at least CIII 977 absorption (log N(C^++) > 13); this implies a redshift density dN_CIII/dz = 33^{+11}_{-8} (68% confidence limits) for lines with rest equivalent width W_r > 30 mA. Two systems show OVI 1031,1037 absorption in addition to CIII (log N(O^+5) > 14). One is a partial Lyman limit system (log N_HI = 17) with associated CIII, OVI, and SiIII 1206 absorption. There is a tentative third OVI system that does not have CIII detected. For three OVI detections, dN_OVI/dz = 15^{+8}_{-5} for W_r > 30 mA. We also search for OVI doublets without Lya absorption but identify none. From CLOUDY modeling, these metal-l...

  3. Multi-wavelength observations of PKS 2155-304 with H.E.S.S

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonian, F; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ata, A; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubus, G; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Fontaine, G; Fuchs, Y; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Gillessen, S; Glicenstein, J F; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Khelifi, B; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Leroy, N; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Raux, J; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V V; Sauge, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schuster, C; Schwanke, U; Siewert, M; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Theoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J

    2005-01-01

    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has observed the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS2155-304 in 2003 between October 19 and November 26 in Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-rays (E>160 GeV for these observations). Observations were carried out simultaneously with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite (RXTE), the Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) and the Nancay decimetric radiotelescope (NRT). Intra-night variability is seen in the VHE band, the source being detected with a high significance on each night it was observed. Variability is also found in the X-ray and optical bands on kilosecond timescales, along with flux-dependent spectral changes in the X-rays. The average H.E.S.S. spectrum shows a very soft power law shape with a photon index of 3.37+/-0.07(stat)+/-0.10(sys). The energy outputs in the 2-10 keV and in the VHE gamma-ray range are found to be similar, with the X-rays and the optical fluxes at a level comparable to s...

  4. CANGAROO-III Observations of the 2006 Outburst of PKS2155-304

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y; Mizukami, T; Yamazaki, E; Kushida, J; Enomoto, R; Ohishi, M; Bicknell, G V; Clay, R W; Edwards, P G; Gunji, S; Hara, S; Hattori, T; Hayashi, S; Higashi, Y; Hirai, Y; Inoue, K; Itoh, C; Kabuki, S; Kajino, F; Katagiri, H; Kawachi, A; Kifune, T; Kiuchi, R; Kubo, H; Mizuniwa, R; Mori, M; Muraishi, H; Naito, T; Nakamori, T; Nakano, S; Nishida, D; Seki, A; Stamatescu, V; Suzuki, T; Swaby, D L; Tanimori, T; Thornton, G; Tokanai, F; Tsuchiya, K; Watanabe, S; Yamada, Y; Yanagita, S; Yoshida, T; Yoshikoshi, T; Yukawa, Y

    2007-01-01

    We have used the CANGAROO-III imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes to observe the high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae (HBL) object PKS 2155-304 between 2006 July 28 (MJD 53944) and August 2, triggered by the H.E.S.S. report that the source was in a high state of TeV gamma-ray emission. A signal was detected at the 4.8 sigma level in an effective live time of 25.1 hours during the outburst period. The flux of Very High Energy gammarays from the CANGAROO-III observations shows the variability on the time scale of less than a few hours. The averaged integral flux above 660 GeV is (1.6 +/- 0.3_stat +/- 0.5_syst) x 10^-11 cm^-2 sec^-1 which corresponds to ~45% of the flux observed from the Crab nebula. Follow-up observations between August 17 (MJD 53964) and 25 indicate the source activity had decreased.

  5. ALMA observations of cold molecular gas filaments trailing rising radio bubbles in PKS 0745-191

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H. R.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Edge, A. C.; Combes, F.; Murray, N. W.; Parrish, I. J.; Salomé, P.; Sanders, J. S.; Baum, S. A.; Donahue, M.; Main, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; O'Dea, C. P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Tremblay, G.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Voit, G. M.

    2016-05-01

    We present ALMA observations of the CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) line emission tracing filaments of cold molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster PKS 0745-191. The total molecular gas mass of 4.6± 0.3× 109 M_{⊙}, assuming a Galactic XCO factor, is divided roughly equally between three filaments each extending radially 3-5 kpc from the galaxy centre. The emission peak is located in the SE filament ˜ 1 arcsec (2 kpc) from the nucleus. The velocities of the molecular clouds in the filaments are low, lying within ± 100 { km s^{-1}} of the galaxy's systemic velocity. Their full width at half-maximum (FWHM) are less than 150 { km s^{-1},} which is significantly below the stellar velocity dispersion. Although the molecular mass of each filament is comparable to a rich spiral galaxy, such low velocities show that the filaments are transient and the clouds would disperse on bright optical line emission and dust lanes indicating that the molecular gas could have formed from lifted warmer gas that cooled in situ.

  6. ALMA observations of cold molecular gas filaments trailing rising radio bubbles in PKS0745-191

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Nulsen, P E J; Edge, A C; Combes, F; Murray, N W; Parrish, I J; Salome, P; Sanders, J S; Baum, S A; Donahue, M; Main, R A; O'Connell, R W; O'Dea, C P; Oonk, J B R; Tremblay, G; Vantyghem, A N; Voit, G M

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) line emission tracing filaments of cold molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster PKS0745-191. The total molecular gas mass of 4.6 +/- 0.3 x 10^9 solar masses, assuming a Galactic X_{CO} factor, is divided roughly equally between three filaments each extending radially 3-5 kpc from the galaxy centre. The emission peak is located in the SE filament roughly 1 arcsec (2 kpc) from the nucleus. The velocities of the molecular clouds in the filaments are low, lying within +/-100 km/s of the galaxy's systemic velocity. Their FWHMs are less than 150 km/s, which is significantly below the stellar velocity dispersion. Although the molecular mass of each filament is comparable to a rich spiral galaxy, such low velocities show that the filaments are transient and the clouds would disperse on <10^7 yr timescales unless supported, likely by the indirect effect of magnetic fields. The velocity structure is inconsistent with a merger origin or gravitational ...

  7. Multi-wavelength Observations of PKS 2142-758 during an Active Gamma-Ray State

    CERN Document Server

    Dutka, Michael; Pottschmidt, Katja; Finke, Justin; Stevens, Jamie; Blanchard, Jay; Nesci, Roberto; Edwards, Philip; Lovell, Jim; Kadler, Matthias; Wilms, Joern; Tosti, Gino; Pursimo, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    PKS 2142-758 is a flat spectrum radio quasar which emits few, weak but significant gamma-ray flares in the MeV through GeV energy range. The first flare occured on April 4th, 2010, when the source reached a daily flux of (1.1 \\pm 0.3) * 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 (ATEL #2539) in the 100 MeV to 300 GeV range. This flux represented more than an order of magnitude increase over its quiescent flux. Since the initial flare, this source has been detected in an elevated state within the same energy range from October to November of 2010 and another period ranging from July to August of 2011. During the latest flaring period in 2011 a multi wavelength observing campaign was carried out using the Ceduna radio telescope, the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), the TANAMI VLBI Array, Swift, the Rapid Eye Mount Telescope (REM), and the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board Fermi. These quasi-simultaneous data were used to construct a broadband SED of this object in its rare active state. We present these observations and t...

  8. Simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign on PKS 2005-489 in a high state

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barnacka, A; de Almeida, U Barres; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L -M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Conrad, J; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gast, H; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Hague, J D; Hampf, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Keogh, D; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; Maxted, N; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Nguyen, N; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Ryde, F; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schönwald, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Wierzcholska, A; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S; Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Cannon, A; Caraveo, P A; Carrigan, S; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Çelik, Ö; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Palma, F; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Escande, L; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hays, E; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lee, S -H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nishino, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uehara, T; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vianello, G; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2011-01-01

    The high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 was the target of a multi-wavelength campaign with simultaneous observations in the TeV gamma-ray (H.E.S.S.), GeV gamma-ray (Fermi/LAT), X-ray (RXTE, Swift), UV (Swift) and optical (ATOM, Swift) bands. This campaign was carried out during a high flux state in the synchrotron regime. The flux in the optical and X-ray bands reached the level of the historical maxima. The hard GeV spectrum observed with Fermi/LAT connects well to the very high energy (VHE, E>100GeV) spectrum measured with H.E.S.S. with a peak energy between ~5 and 500 GeV. Compared to observations with contemporaneous coverage in the VHE and X-ray bands in 2004, the X-ray flux was ~50 times higher during the 2009 campaign while the TeV gamma-ray flux shows marginal variation over the years. The spectral energy distribution during this multi-wavelength campaign was fit by a one zone synchrotron self-Compton model with a well determined cutoff in X-rays. The parameters of a one zone SSC model ar...

  9. ALMA observations of cold molecular gas filaments trailing rising radio bubbles in PKS 0745-191

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H. R.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Edge, A. C.; Combes, F.; Murray, N. W.; Parrish, I. J.; Salomé, P.; Sanders, J. S.; Baum, S. A.; Donahue, M.; Main, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; O'Dea, C. P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Tremblay, G.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Voit, G. M.

    2016-05-01

    We present ALMA observations of the CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) line emission tracing filaments of cold molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster PKS 0745-191. The total molecular gas mass of 4.6± 0.3× 109 M_{⊙}, assuming a Galactic XCO factor, is divided roughly equally between three filaments each extending radially 3-5 kpc from the galaxy centre. The emission peak is located in the SE filament ˜ 1 arcsec (2 kpc) from the nucleus. The velocities of the molecular clouds in the filaments are low, lying within ± 100 { km s^{-1}} of the galaxy's systemic velocity. Their full width at half-maximum (FWHM) are less than 150 { km s^{-1},} which is significantly below the stellar velocity dispersion. Although the molecular mass of each filament is comparable to a rich spiral galaxy, such low velocities show that the filaments are transient and the clouds would disperse on observed. Instead, the projection of the N and SE filaments underneath X-ray cavities suggests they formed in the updraft behind bubbles buoyantly rising through the cluster atmosphere. Direct uplift of the dense gas by the radio bubbles appears to require an implausibly high coupling efficiency. The filaments are coincident with low temperature X-ray gas, bright optical line emission and dust lanes indicating that the molecular gas could have formed from lifted warmer gas that cooled in situ.

  10. Periodic structure in the Mpc-scale jet of PKS 0637-752

    CERN Document Server

    Godfrey, L E H; Burke-Spolaor, S; Ekers, R; Bicknell, G V; Birkinshaw, M; Worrall, D M; Jauncey, D L; Schwartz, D A; Marshall, H L; Gelbord, J; Perlman, E S

    2012-01-01

    We present 18 GHz Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging of the Mpc-scale quasar jet PKS 0637-752 with angular resolution ~0.58 arcseconds. We draw attention to a spectacular train of quasi-periodic knots along the inner 11 arcseconds of the jet, with average separation ~1.1 arcsec (7.6 kpc projected). We consider two classes of model to explain the periodic knots: those that involve a static pattern through which the jet plasma travels (e.g. stationary shocks); and those that involve modulation of the jet engine. Interpreting the knots as re-confinement shocks implies the jet kinetic power Q ~ 10^{46} erg/s, but the constant knot separation along the jet is not expected in a realistic external density profile. For models involving modulation of the jet engine, we find that the required modulation period is 2 x 10^3 yr < \\tau < 3 x 10^5 yr. The lower end of this range is applicable if the jet remains highly relativistic on kpc-scales, as implied by the IC/CMB model of jet X-ray emission. We suggest t...

  11. A search for chaos in the blazar: W2R 1926+42 and its possible consequence

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Strigachev, Anton

    2016-01-01

    We search for low-dimensional chaotic signatures in the optical lightcurve of the $Kepler$ field blazar W2R 1926+42. The frequently used correlation integral method is employed in our analysis. We find no apparent evidence for the presence of low-dimensional chaos in the lightcurve. If further confirmed, these results could be of importance for modeling the blazar emission mechanisms.

  12. Multifrequency Observations of the Virgo Blazars 3C 273 and 3C 279 in CGRO Cycle 8

    CERN Document Server

    Collmar, W; Grove, J E; Hartman, R C; Heindl, W A; Kraus, A L; Teraesranta, H; Villata, M; Bennett, K; Blömen, H; Johnson, W N; Krichbaum, T P; Raiteri, C M; Ryan, J; Sobrito, G; Schönfelder, V; Williams, O R; Wilms, J

    2000-01-01

    We report first observational results of multifrequency campaigns on the prominent Virgo blazars 3C 273 and 3C 279 which were carried out in January and February 1999. Both blazars are detected from radio to gamma-ray energies. We present the measured X- to gamma-ray spectra of both sources, and for 3C 279 we compare the 1999 broad-band (radio to gamma-ray) spectrum to measured previous ones.

  13. The multi-frequency parsec-scale structure of PKS 2254-367 (IC 1459): a luminosity-dependent break in morphology for the precursors of radio galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Tingay, S J

    2015-01-01

    We present the first multi-frequency VLBI images of PKS 2254-367, a Giga-hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio source hosted by the nearby galaxy IC 1459 (D=20.5 Mpc). PKS 2254-367 and the radio source in NGC 1052 (PKS 0238-084; D=17.2 Mpc) are the two closest GPS radio sources to us, far closer than the next closest example, PKS 1718-649 (D=59 Mpc). As such, IC 1459 and NGC 1052 offer opportunities to study the details of the pc-scale radio sources as well as the environments that the radio sources inhabit, across the electromagnetic spectrum. Given that some models for the origin and evolution of GPS radio sources require a strong connection between the radio source morphology and the gaseous nuclear environment, such opportunities for detailed study are important. Our VLBI images of PKS 2254-367 show that the previously identified similarities between IC 1459 and NGC 1052 continue onto the pc-scale. Both compact radio sources appear to have symmetric jets of approximately the same luminosity, much lower than t...

  14. A Comprehensive Statistical Description of Radio-through-Gamma-Ray Spectral Energy Distributions of All Known Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Peiyuan; Urry, C. Megan; Massaro, Francesco; Paggi, Alessandro; Cauteruccio, Joe; Künzel, Soren R.

    2016-06-01

    We combined multi-wavelength data for blazars from the Roma-BZCAT catalog and analyzed hundreds of X-ray spectra. We present the fluxes and spectral energy distributions (SEDs), in 12 frequency bands from radio to γ-rays, for a final sample of 2214 blazars. Using a model-independent statistical approach, we looked for systematic trends in the SEDs; the most significant trends involved the radio luminosities and X-ray spectral indices of the blazars. We used a principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the basis vectors of the blazar SEDs and, in order to maximize the size of the sample, imputed missing fluxes using the K-nearest neighbors method. Using more than an order of magnitude more data than was available when Fossati et al. first reported trends of SED shape with blazar luminosity, we confirmed the anti-correlation between radio luminosity and synchrotron peak frequency, although with greater scatter than was seen in the smaller sample. The same trend can be seen between bolometric luminosity and synchrotron peak frequency. Finally, we used all of the available blazar data to determine an empirical SED description that depends only on the radio luminosity at 1.4 GHz and the redshift. We verified that this statistically significant relation was not a result of the luminosity–luminosity correlations that are natural in flux-limited samples (i.e., where the correlation is actually caused by the redshift rather than the luminosity).

  15. Accretion disc/corona emission from a radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 0558-504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, R.; Dewangan, G. C.; Raychaudhuri, B.

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 10-20 per cent of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are known to eject powerful jets from the innermost regions. There is very little observational evidence if the jets are powered by spinning black holes and if the accretion discs extend to the innermost regions in radio-loud AGN. Here, we study the soft X-ray excess, the hard X-ray spectrum and the optical/UV emission from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 0558-504 using Suzaku and Swift observations. The broad-band X-ray continuum of PKS 0558-504 consists of a soft X-ray excess emission below 2 keV that is well described by a blackbody (kT ˜ 0.13 keV) and high-energy emission that is well described by a thermal Comptonization (compps) model with kTe ˜ 250 keV, optical depth τ ˜ 0.05 (spherical corona) or kTe ˜ 90 keV, τ ˜ 0.5 (slab corona). The Comptonizing corona in PKS 0558-504 is likely hotter than in radio-quiet Seyferts such as IC 4329A and Swift J2127.4+5654. The observed soft X-ray excess can be modelled as blurred reflection from an ionized accretion disc or optically thick thermal Comptonization in a low-temperature plasma. Both the soft X-ray excess emission when interpreted as the blurred reflection and the optical/UV to soft X-ray emission interpreted as intrinsic disc Comptonized emission implies spinning (a > 0.6) black hole. These results suggest that disc truncation at large radii and retrograde black hole spin both are unlikely to be the necessary conditions for launching the jets.

  16. MAGIC Discovery of Very High Energy Emission from the FSRQ PKS 1222+21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thom, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Tanaka, Y. T.; Wood, D. L.; Buson, S.

    2011-03-01

    Very high energy (VHE) γ-ray emission from the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 1222+21 (4C 21.35, z = 0.432) was detected with the MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes during a short observation (~0.5 hr) performed on 2010 June 17. The MAGIC detection coincides with high-energy MeV/GeV γ-ray activity measured by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite. The VHE spectrum measured by MAGIC extends from about 70 GeV up to at least 400 GeV and can be well described by a power-law dN/dE vprop E -Γ with a photon index Γ = 3.75 ± 0.27stat ± 0.2syst. The averaged integral flux above 100 GeV is (4.6 ± 0.5) × 10-10 cm-2 s-1 (~1 Crab Nebula flux). The VHE flux measured by MAGIC varies significantly within the 30 minute exposure implying a flux doubling time of about 10 minutes. The VHE and MeV/GeV spectra, corrected for the absorption by the extragalactic background light (EBL), can be described by a single power law with photon index 2.72 ± 0.34 between 3 GeV and 400 GeV, and is consistent with emission belonging to a single component in the jet. The absence of a spectral cutoff constrains the γ-ray emission region to lie outside the broad-line region, which would otherwise absorb the VHE γ-rays. Together with the detected fast variability, this challenges present emission models from jets in FSRQs. Moreover, the combined Fermi/LAT and MAGIC spectral data yield constraints on the density of the EBL in the UV-optical to near-infrared range that are compatible with recent models.

  17. THE NATURE OF A GALAXY ALONG THE SIGHT LINE TO PKS 0454+039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the properties of a faint blue galaxy (G1) along the line of sight to the QSO PKS 0454+039 from spectroscopic and imaging data. We measured emission lines of Hα, [S II] λλ6716, 6732, and [N II] λ6584 in the spectrum of G1 obtained with the Gemini/GMOS instrument. The spectroscopic redshift of G1 is z = 0.0715 ± 0.0002. From the extinction-corrected Hα flux, we determine a modest star formation rate of SFR = 0.07 M☉ yr–1 and a specific SFR of log (sSFR) –8.4. Using three different abundance indicators, we determine a nebular abundance 12 + log (O/H) ranging from 7.6 to 8.2. Based on the velocity dispersion inferred from the emission line widths and the observed surface brightness profile, we estimate the virial mass of G1 to be Mvir ∼ 6.7 × 109 M☉ with an effective radius of 2.0 kpc. We estimate the stellar mass of G1 using spectral energy distribution fitting to be M* ≈ 1.2 × 107 M☉ and an r'-luminosity of Lr' = 1.5x108 L☉. Overall, G1 is a faint, low-mass, low-metallicity Im/H II galaxy. We also report on the line flux limits of another source (G3) which is the most likely candidate for the absorber system at z = 0.8596. From the spectrum of the QSO itself, we report a previously undetected Mg II λλ2796, 2803 absorption line system at z = 1.245.

  18. Absorption lines and ion abundances in the QSO PKS 0528-250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of the QSO PKS 0528-250 (zsub(e) = 2.765) have been obtained with the AAT at 2 A resolution from 3100 to 7180 A. Absorption line systems have been identified at zsub(A1) = 2.81322, zsub(A2) = 2.81100, zsub(B) = 2.53758 and zsub(C) = 2.14077. The ionization ranges from H I, Al II and Fe II to N V or O VI in system A, from H I and possibly Si II to C IV in B and from H I, Al II and Si II to C IV in C. In system A the Si IV and higher stages are concentrated in A2. Broad Lα profiles in A and C correspond to 2 x 1021 and 5 x 1020 atom cm-2 respectively. Column densities also have been estimated for several heavier elements at each redshift. In system A depletions by factors of 8 to 160 relative to solar abundances appear to be present in S II, O I and N I as well as the typical factor 10 for Si II and Fe II similar to interstellar clouds in the plane of our galaxy. Longward of the Lα absorption in system A there are 44 lines of which only 27 have proposed identifications, whereas at the shorter wavelengths there are 112 lines of which 43 have plausible identifications due to one or more ions other than hydrogen. Thus caution is needed with the common assumption that most absorptions shortward of Lα emission in QSOs are due to Lα. (author)

  19. Doublet structure in the absorption redshifts in the spectrum of PKS 0237-23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrum of the quasar PKS 0237-23 has been observed over the wavelength range lambdalambda3730-4300 at a resolution of 0.17 A with the University College London image photon counting system. A list of 75 absorption lines has been combined with a further 26 lines drawn from other sources and identified by computer using a procedure described by Bahcall. Two new redshift systems, a complex of redshifts near z/suba//subb//subs/=1.55 and a system at z/suba//subb//subs/=2.1758, were found. The systems z=1.51, 1.59, 1.65, and 1.67 discovered by earlier workers were all found to be double or multiple; in addition, the system z/suba//subb//subs/=1.36 may be double. A constant splitting, Δz=0.0012, between adjacent redshifts, corresponding to 141plus-or-minus9 km s-1 in velocity, occurs at least seven times. The origin of this splitting, which also occurs in the quasars Markarian 132 and Ton 1530, is not understood. It almost corresponds, however, to the splitting between Lα, lambda1215.67 and the nearby line lambda1215.14 of He II. This amounts to 130.8 km s-1. Most of the absorption lines are unresolved and have widths corresponding to velocity spreads of less than 50 km s-1 in the rest frames of the absorbing clouds. There is evidence for absorption line-locking involving superpositions of the lines of the C IV resonance doublet in nearby redshift systems

  20. THE NATURE OF A GALAXY ALONG THE SIGHT LINE TO PKS 0454+039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Marianne [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Hawaii Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chun, Mark [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii Manoa, HI 96822 (United States); Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Gharanfoli, Soheila, E-mail: takamiya@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, SC 29208 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We report on the properties of a faint blue galaxy (G1) along the line of sight to the QSO PKS 0454+039 from spectroscopic and imaging data. We measured emission lines of H{alpha}, [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6716, 6732, and [N II] {lambda}6584 in the spectrum of G1 obtained with the Gemini/GMOS instrument. The spectroscopic redshift of G1 is z = 0.0715 {+-} 0.0002. From the extinction-corrected H{alpha} flux, we determine a modest star formation rate of SFR = 0.07 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a specific SFR of log (sSFR) -8.4. Using three different abundance indicators, we determine a nebular abundance 12 + log (O/H) ranging from 7.6 to 8.2. Based on the velocity dispersion inferred from the emission line widths and the observed surface brightness profile, we estimate the virial mass of G1 to be M{sub vir} {approx} 6.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} with an effective radius of 2.0 kpc. We estimate the stellar mass of G1 using spectral energy distribution fitting to be M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} and an r'-luminosity of L{sub r'} = 1.5x10{sup 8} L{sub Sun }. Overall, G1 is a faint, low-mass, low-metallicity Im/H II galaxy. We also report on the line flux limits of another source (G3) which is the most likely candidate for the absorber system at z = 0.8596. From the spectrum of the QSO itself, we report a previously undetected Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2796, 2803 absorption line system at z = 1.245.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Absorption spectrum of the QSO PKS2126-158 (D'Odorico+ 1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, V.; Cristiani, S.; D'Odorico, S.; Fontana, A.; Giallongo, E.

    1997-10-01

    Spectra of the zem=3.268 quasar PKS 2126-158 have been obtai the wavelength range 430-662nm with a resolution R=27000 and an average signal to noise ratio s/n=25 per resolution element. 12 metal absorption systems have been identified, two of which were previously unknown. All the lines shortward of the Lymanα emission not identified as due to metals have been fitted as Lymanα and Lymanβ. We reported statistical analysis of this sample of lines. In particular, the two-point correlation function for metal systems has been computed. (1 data file).

  2. Analisis Logistik Pasokan Tandan Buah Segar Untuk Pemenuhan Kapasitas Pabrik(Studi Kasus Di PKS Rambutan PTPN III)

    OpenAIRE

    Utomo, Bawon

    2015-01-01

    PKS (Oil Palm Plant) Rambutan PTPN III is the processing plant of TBS (fresh fruit racemes) which is processed to be CPO (Crude Palm Oil) and oil palm kernels. It has installed capacity of 30 tons of TBS per hour. Within 6 years, from 2008 to 2013, processed industry was inclined to decrease because of the lack of TBS supply. The average production of TBS per day was around 540 tons, while the plant was only able to process around 750 tons per day. The used-up utility was only 70% to 80% whil...

  3. Penentuan Kadar Air Dan Kadar Kotoran Minyak Inti Sawit Di PTPN III PKS Kebun Rambutan – Tebing Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Nadapdap, Nova Dana Isabela

    2010-01-01

    PTPN III PKS Kebun Rambutan – tebing tinggi is factory which manufactures CPO starting from fresh fruit bunch to be crude oil.And the second product produced by PTPN III is Palm kernel.The proses of palm kernel oil within several steps are separation,solution,drying and storage.In other to be distributed,palm kernel must the following the quality specification free fatty acid 0,5 %,water content 7,0 %,pollutant content 6,0 %,ang these are the standart for obtaining high quality palm kernel.An...

  4. Fermi LAT detection of increasing gamma-ray emission from the radio-loud NLSy1 PKS 1502+036

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ammando, Filippo; Ciprini, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed gamma-ray flaring activity from a source positionally consistent with the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 PKS 1502+036 (also known as 3FGL J1505.1+0326, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS, 218, 23), with radio coordinates (J2000.0), R.A.: 226.2769879 deg, Dec.: 3.4418922 deg (Fey et al. 2004, AJ, 127, 3587) at redshift z = 0.4078 (Hewett & Wild 2010, MNRAS, 405, 2302).

  5. Broadband Spectral Modeling of the Extreme Gigahertz-peaked Spectrum Radio Source PKS B0008-421

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callingham, J. R.; Gaensler, B. M.; Ekers, R. D.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Morgan, J.; Bernardi, G.; Bell, M. E.; Bhat, R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Ewall-Wice, A.; Feng, L.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Jacobs, D. C.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kudrayvtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    We present broadband observations and spectral modeling of PKS B0008-421 and identify it as an extreme gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) source. PKS B0008-421 is characterized by the steepest known spectral slope below the turnover, close to the theoretical limit of synchrotron self-absorption, and the smallest known spectral width of any GPS source. Spectral coverage of the source spans from 0.118 to 22 GHz, which includes data from the Murchison Widefield Array and the wide bandpass receivers on the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We have implemented a Bayesian inference model fitting routine to fit the data with internal free-free absorption (FFA), single- and double-component FFA in an external homogeneous medium, FFA in an external inhomogeneous medium, or single- and double-component synchrotron self-absorption models, all with and without a high-frequency exponential break. We find that without the inclusion of a high-frequency break these models cannot accurately fit the data, with significant deviations above and below the peak in the radio spectrum. The addition of a high-frequency break provides acceptable spectral fits for the inhomogeneous FFA and double-component synchrotron self-absorption models, with the inhomogeneous FFA model statistically favored. The requirement of a high-frequency spectral break implies that the source has ceased injecting fresh particles. Additional support for the inhomogeneous FFA model as being responsible for the turnover in the spectrum is given by the consistency between the physical parameters derived from the model fit and the implications of the exponential spectral break, such as the necessity of the source being surrounded by a dense ambient medium to maintain the peak frequency near the gigahertz region. This implies that PKS B0008-421 should display an internal H i column density greater than 1020 cm-2. The discovery of PKS B0008-421 suggests that the next generation of low radio frequency surveys could reveal a

  6. Rapid Multiwaveband Polarization Variability in the Quasar PKS 0420-014: Optical Emission from the Compact Radio Jet

    OpenAIRE

    Darcangelo, Francesca D.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Smith, Paul S.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Kopatskaya, Eugenia N.; Williams, G. Grant; Gear, Walter K.

    2007-01-01

    An 11-day monitoring campaign in late 2005 reveals clear correlation in polarization between the optical emission and the region of the intensity peak (the "pseudocore") at the upstream end of the jet in 43 GHz Very Long Baseline Array images in the highly variable quasar PKS 0420-014. The electric-vector position angle (EVPA) of the pseudocore rotated by about 80 degrees in four VLBA observations over a period of nine days, matching the trend of the optical EVPA. In addition, the 43 GHz EVPA...

  7. Discovery of 424 ms pulsations from the radio-quiet neutron star in the PKS 1209-52 supernova remnant

    OpenAIRE

    Zavlin, V. E.; Pavlov, G. G.; Sanwal, D.; Truemper, J.

    2000-01-01

    The central source of the supernova remnant PKS 1209-52 was observed with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer aboard Chandra X-ray observatory on 2000 January 6-7. The use of the Continuos Clocking mode allowed us to perform the timing analysis of the data with time resolution of 2.85 ms and to find a period P=0.42412927+/-2.3e-7 s. The detection of this short period proves that the source is a neutron star. It may be either an active pulsar with unfavorably directed radio beam or a truly r...

  8. Pengaruh Kehilangan Inti Sawit Terhadap Mutu Minyak Inti Sawit Di PTPN III PKS Kebun Rambutan – Tebing Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Yudi

    2011-01-01

    PTPN III PKS Kebun Rambutan-Tebing Tinggi is factory which manufactures CPO starting from fresh fruit bunch to be crude oil. And the second product produced by PTPN III is palm kernel. Palm kernel is apart of fresh fruit bunch which has been isolated from its mesocarp of Eluesis Guideensis Jacq and which has been cleaned and dried out. The process of manufacturing palm oil is initiated sterilizing process and purification is the last step of whole process. Meanwhile the process of palm kernel...

  9. The central black hole masses for the γ-ray loud blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST) provides an increase in sensitivity and has detected rapid variability of gamma-ray sources.The variability time scales detected from the gamma-ray loud blazars by LAT and EGRET,and gamma-ray luminosity are used to estimate the central black hole masses.In this work,we find that the lower limits of central black hole masses are in a range of (0.3-24)×107M⊙,which are compared with those obtained by other authors.Our results are consistent with other authors’ results.Also,the Lorentz factor,Γ,and the propagation angle,θ,are obtained for 18 blazars for which superluminal motions are known.

  10. The estimations of four basic parameters for gamma-ray loud blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hui Fan; Yu-Hai Yuan; Yi Liu; Jing-Yi Zhang; Yi-Ping Qin; Hua Liu; Yong Huang; Jiang-He Yang; Hong-Guang Wang; Jiang-Shui Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The method used in our previous papers is adopted to estimate four basic pa-rameters (the central black hole mass (M), the boosting factor (or Doppler factor) (δ), the (d)) for 59 γ-ray loud blazars (20 BL Lacertae objects and 39 fiat spectrum radio quasars).The central black hole masses estimated for this sample are in a range of from 107 M⊙to 109 M⊙. In the case of black hole mass, there is no clear difference between BL Lacertae objects and flat spectrum radio quasars, which is consistent with the previous results sug-gesting that the central black hole masses do not play an important role in the evolutionary sequence of blazars.

  11. RoboPol: optical polarization-plane rotations and flaring activity in blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, D; Papadakis, I E; Hovatta, T; Pearson, T J; Liodakis, I; Panopoulou, G V; Angelakis, E; Baloković, M; Das, H; Khodade, P; Kiehlmann, S; King, O G; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Mahabal, A; Marecki, A; Modi, D; Myserlis, I; Paleologou, E; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderska, B; Pazderski, E; Rajarshi, C; Ramaprakash, A; Readhead, A C S; Reig, P; Tassis, K; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of rotations of the optical polarization of blazars during the second year of operation of RoboPol, a monitoring programme of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray bright blazars specially designed for effective detection of such events, and we analyse the large set of rotation events discovered in two years of observation. We investigate patterns of variability in the polarization parameters and total flux density during the rotation events and compare them to the behaviour in a non-rotating state. We have searched for possible correlations between average parameters of the polarization-plane rotations and average parameters of polarization, with the following results: (1) there is no statistical association of the rotations with contemporaneous optical flares; (2) the average fractional polarization during the rotations tends to be lower than that in a non-rotating state; (3) the average fractional polarization during rotations is correlated with the rotation rate of the polarization plane...

  12. The estimations of four basic parameters for gamma-ray loud blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method used in our previous papers is adopted to estimate four basic parameters (the central black hole mass (M), the boosting factor (or Doppler factor) (δ), the propagation angle (Φ) and the distance along the axis to the site of the γ-ray production (d)) for 59 γ-ray loud blazars (20 BL Lacertae objects and 39 flat spectrum radio quasars). The central black hole masses estimated for this sample are in a range of from 107 Mo-dot to 109 Mo-dot. In the case of black hole mass, there is no clear difference between BL Lacertae objects and flat spectrum radio quasars, which is consistent with the previous results suggesting that the central black hole masses do not play an important role in the evolutionary sequence of blazars.

  13. The relationship of extended radio power and broad emission line luminosity in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between broad line luminosity LBLR and extended radio power PE is investigated.In the log PE-log LBLR diagram,FSRQs populate the region of higher luminosity relative to BL Lacs,and FR II BL Lacs are between FSRQs and FR I BL Lacs.For these blazars,there is a significant correlation between LBLR and PE.The regression line scales as PE ∝ L0B.L87R ± 0.15.The slope of this scaling relation is consistent with that derived from the simple theoretical formulae.Thus,the unification of BL Lacs and FRSQs into a single population finds a statistical basis,and a disk-jet symbiosis in blazars is confirmed.FR II BL Lacs are probably at an intermediate stage in the sequence from FSRQs to BL Lacs with FR I BL Lacs at the end of this sequence.

  14. Blazars and Optical Depth in a non-linear, time-dependent injection and cooling scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the optical depths in blazars due to photo-pair production is calculated for a time-dependent, non-linear injection model. Several target photon fields are taken into account, namely the internal synchrotron, synchrotron-self Compton and external Compton radiation, as well as a constant external soft photon field. By applying the optical depths to theoretical blazar spectra only the constant external photon field turns out to significantly influence the radiation at high energies. The impact of the internal time-dependent radiation fields is either minor or requires extreme parameter settings. Additionally, the synchrotron-self absorption turn-over energy for low synchrotron energies is calculated, which is inherently time-dependent. It would be challenging to use it to constrain free parameters, since precise knowledge of the observation time relative to the injection time is needed. In conclusion, optical depth does not significantly influence the non-linear, time-dependent injection and cooli...

  15. GAMMA-RAY AND X-RAY EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY-LOUD BLAZARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XIONG; ZHAO GANG; XIE GUANG-ZHONG; ZHENG GUANG-SHENG; ZHANG LI

    2001-01-01

    We present a strong correlation of the gamma-ray (above 100 MeV) mean spectral indices aγ and X-ray (1 keV)mean spectral indices cX for 34 gamma-ray-loud blazars (16 BL Lac objects and 18 flat spectrum radio quasars). Astrong correlation is also found between the gamma-ray flux densities F-γ and X-ray flux densities Fx in the low state for 47 blazars (17 BL Lac and 30 flat spectrum radio quasars). Possible correlation on the gamma-ray emission mechanism is discussed. We suggest that the main gamma-ray radiation mechanism is probably the synchrotron process. The gamma-ray emission may be somewhat different from that of BL Lac objects and flat spectrum radio quasars.

  16. Electromagnetic cascade masquerade: a way to mimic $\\gamma$--ALP mixing effects in blazar spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhatdoev, T A; Kircheva, A P; Lyukshin, A A

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies on extragalactic {\\gamma}-ray propagation performed up to now only accounted for primary gamma-ray absorption and adiabatic losses (absorption-only model). However, there is growing evidence that this model is oversimplified and must be modified in some way. (...) There are many hints that a secondary component from electromagnetic cascades initiated by primary $\\gamma$-rays or nuclei may be observed in the spectra of some blazars. We study the impact of electromagnetic cascades from primary $\\gamma$-rays or protons on the physical interpretation of blazar spectra obtained with imaging Cherenkov telescopes. We use the publicly-available code ELMAG to compute observable spectra of electromagnetic cascades from primary $\\gamma$-rays. For the case of primary proton, we develop a simple, fast, and reasonably accurate hybrid method to calculate the observable spectrum. (...) Electromagnetic cascades show at least two very distinct regimes labeled by the energy of the primary $\\gamma$-ray ($E_{0...

  17. Looking for blazars in a sample of unidentified high-energy emitting Fermi sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, E J; Chavushyan, V; Cellone, S A; Andruchow, I; Bassani, L; Bazzano, A; Jiménez-Bailón, E; Landi, R; Malizia, A; Palazzi, E; Patiño-Álvarez, V; Rodríguez-Castillo, G A; Stephen, J B; Ubertini, P

    2016-01-01

    Context. Based on their overwhelming dominance among associated Fermi gamma ray catalogue sources, it is expected that a large fraction of the unidentified Fermi objects are blazars. Through crossmatching between the positions of unidentified gamma ray sources from the First Fermi Catalog of gamma ray sources emitting above 10 GeV (1FHL) and the ROSAT and Swift XRT catalogues of X ray objects and between pointed XRT observations, a sample of 36 potential associations was found in previous works with less than 15 arcsec of positional offset. One third of them have recently been classified; the remainder, though believed to belong to the blazar class, still lack spectroscopic classifications. Aims. We study the optical spectrum of the putative counterparts of these unidentified gamma ray sources in order to find their redshifts and to determine their nature and main spectral characteristics. Methods. An observational campaign was carried out on the putative counterparts of 13 1FHL sources using medium resolutio...

  18. Multi-TeV flaring from blazars: Markarian 421 a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, Sarira; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    The TeV blazar Markarian 421 underwent multi-TeV flaring during April 2004 and simultaneously observed in x-ray and TeV energies. It was observed that the TeV outbursts had no counterparts in the lower energies, which implies that this might be an orphan flare. In the context of hadronic model, we have shown that this multi-TeV flaring can be produced due to the interaction of Fermi-accelerated protons of energy $\\lesssim 168$ TeV with the background photons in the low energy tail of the synchrotron self-Compton spectrum of the blazar jet. We fit very well the flaring spectrum with this model. Based on this study, we speculate that Mrk 501 and PG 1553+113 are possible candidates for orphan flaring in the future.

  19. Analisa Kadar Asam Lemak Bebas (ALB) Dan Kadar Air Pada Minyak CPO Dari Storage Tank Di PTP. Nusantara III PKS Rambutan Tebing Tinggi

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Devi Evania Br

    2010-01-01

    It has been done the determination of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) and moisture in CPO from tank analyzer in PTP. Nusantara III PKS Rambutan Tebing Tinggi. The result of analisys obtained for Free Fatty Acid is about 2,10 %- 3,50 % and Moisture is about 0,10 %- 0,15 %. From the result of observation that, the Free Fatty Acid and moisture in CPO from tank analyzer in PTP. Nusantara III PKS Rambutan Tebing Tinggi still to satify the standart of oil quality for Free Fatty Acid in CPO is according to no...

  20. The Evolution of Swift/BAT blazars and the origin of the MeV background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Costamante, L.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Sambruna, R.M.; Gehrels, N.; /NASA, Goddard; Chiang, J.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Rau, A.; /Caltech; Escala, A.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Cerro Calan Observ.; Greiner, J.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Tueller, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Wall, J.V.; /British Columbia U.; Mushotzky, R.F.; /NASA, Goddard

    2009-10-17

    We use 3 years of data from the Swift/BAT survey to select a complete sample of X-ray blazars above 15 keV. This sample comprises 26 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects detected over a redshift range of 0.03 < z < 4.0. We use this sample to determine, for the first time in the 15-55 keV band, the evolution of blazars. We find that, contrary to the Seyfert-like AGNs detected by BAT, the population of blazars shows strong positive evolution. This evolution is comparable to the evolution of luminous optical QSOs and luminous X-ray selected AGNs. We also find evidence for an epoch-dependence of the evolution as determined previously for radio-quiet AGNs. We interpret both these findings as a strong link between accretion and jet activity. In our sample, the FSRQs evolve strongly, while our best-fit shows that BL Lacs might not evolve at all. The blazar population accounts for 10-20% (depending on the evolution of the BL Lacs) of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the 15-55 keV band. We find that FSRQs can explain the entire CXB emission for energies above 500 keV solving the mystery of the generation of the MeV background. The evolution of luminous FSRQs shows a peak in redshift (z{sub c} = 4.3 {+-} 0.5) which is larger than the one observed in QSOs and X-ray selected AGNs. We argue that FSRQs can be used as tracers of massive elliptical galaxies in the early Universe.

  1. The WEBT Campaign on the Blazar 3C 279 in 2006

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böttcher, M.; Basu, S.; Joshi, M.; Villata, M.; Arai, A.; Aryan, N.; Asfandiyarov, I. M.; Bach, U.; Bachev, R.; Berdyugin, A.; Blažek, Martin; Buemi, C.S.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Frasca, A.; Fuhrmann, L.; Hagen-Thorn, V.A.; Henson, G.; Hovatta, T.; Hudec, René; Ibrahimov, M.A.; Ishii, Y.; Ivanidze, R.; Jelínek, M.; Kamada, M.; Kapanadze, B.; Katsuura, M.; Kotaka, D.; Kovalev, Y.Y.; Kovalev, Yu.A.; Kubánek, Petr; Kurosaki, M.; Kurtanidze, O.M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lanteri, L.; Larionov, V.M.; Larionova, L.; Lee, C.-U.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Marilli, E.; Marshall, K.; Miller, H.R.; Mingaliev, M.G.; Mirabal, N.; Mizoguchi, S.; Nakamura, K.; Nieppola, E.; Nikolashvili, M.G.; Nilsson, K.; Nishiyama, S.; Ohlert, J.M.; Osterman, M.A.; Pak, S.; Pasanen, M.; Peters, C.S.; Pursimo, T.; Raiteri, C.M.; Robertson, J.; Robertson, T.; Ryle, W.T.; Sadakane, K.; Sadun, A.C.; Sigua, L.A.; Sohn, B.-W.; Strigachev, A.; Sumitomo, N.; Takalo, L.O.; Tamesue, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Thorstensen, J.R.; Tosti, G.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Vennes, S.; Vítek, S.; Volvach, A.; Webb, J.; Yamanaka, M.; Yim, S.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 670, č. 2 (2007), s. 968-977. ISSN 0004-637X Grant ostatní: EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : blazars * active galactic nuclei Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.405, year: 2007

  2. Searching for distant blazars with GLAST and the Large Millimeter Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carramiñana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Gran Telescopio Milimétrico estudiará el universo a altos corrimientos al rojo, incluyendo la formación de las primeras galaxias masivas y sus núcleos activos. El GTM puede ser usado en conjunto con GLAST en la búsqueda de los blazares más distantes para explorar la época de formación de los primeros hoyos negros.

  3. On conservative models of "the pair-production anomaly" in blazar spectra at Very High Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Dzhatdoev, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    For some blazars, the gamma-ray absorption features due to pair-production on the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) are fainter than expected. The present work reviews the main models that could explain this paradox, with emphasis on conservative ones, that do not include any new physics. The models that are intrinsic to the source, do allow a very hard primary spectrum, but fail to explain a regular redshift dependence of the anomaly starting energy. The model that includes a contribution...

  4. Constraining the location of gamma-ray emission in blazar jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Manasvita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The location of γ-ray emission in blazar jets has remained elusive as wetry to understand jet emission despite the extensive multiwavelength campaigns and vigorous theoretical efforts to understand the multiwavelength spectra. The synergy between multiwavelength campaigns and VLBA studies has resulted in correlation between the majority of γ-ray events and disturbances propagating down the parsec-scale jet. This implies that the γ-ray emission might originate beyond the broad line region (BLR, perhaps on scales comparable to the size of the dusty torus. On the other hand, external Compton models in which γ-ray emission is limited to sites inside the BLR have been used to explain the high-energy emission of many blazars. Thus, comprehending the time-dependent impact of all the three external components of seed photon field, namely the accretion disk, the BLR, and the dusty torus, on the evolution of the spectral energy distribution (SED can be used as an important tool for connecting the origin of γ-ray emission of a flare to its multiwavelength properties. Here, we use a multi-zone time-dependent leptonic jet model, with radiation feedback, to address this aspect of blazar jet emission. We let the system evolve to beyond the BLR and within the dusty torus. We explore the effects of varying the contribution of the disk, the BLR, and the dusty torus on the resultant seed photon field and their manifestation on the simulated SED of a typical blazar to gain insight on the location of the γ-ray emission region.

  5. Very long term observations of blazars candidates for supermassive black hole binaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Bašta, Milan

    Trieste: Proceedings of Science, 2008, s. 1-7. ISSN 1824-8039. [Workshop on Blazar Variability across the Electromagnetic Spectrum. Palaiseau (FR), 22.04.2008-25.04.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207; GA ČR GA205/05/2167 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : cosmic sources * supermassive black holes * high-energy sources Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics http://pos.sissa.it

  6. Broad Band Spectral Index TeV Blazars Detected by Fermi LAT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yong Juan Cha; Xiong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    We collected the radio, K-band, optical, X-ray, and -ray data for 35 TeV blazars detected by Fermi LAT and studied the possible correlation between different broad band spectral indices (r.o, r.x, ir.o, ir.x, o., x.) in all states (average/high/low). Based on our results, we suggested that the seed photons of the -ray drive from the synchrotron radiation themselves.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sample of Fermi Blazars (Chen+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-Y.; Zhang, X.; Xiong, D.-R.; Wang, S.-J.; Yu, X.-L.

    2016-04-01

    We tried to select a large number of blazars with reliable redshift, radio core and extended radio luminosity at 1.4GHz. Firstly, we considered the following samples of blazars to get the radio core luminosity and extended luminosity at 1.4GHz: Kharb et al. (2010, J/ApJ/710/764), Antonucci & Ulvestad (1985ApJ...294..158A), Cassaro et al. (1999A&AS..139..601C), Murphy et al. (1993MNRAS.264..298M), Landt & Bignall (2008MNRAS.391..967L), Caccianiga & Marcha (2004, Cat. J/MNRAS/348/973), Giroletti et al. (2004). We cross-correlated these samples with the Fermi LAT Third Source Catalog (3FGL), and we acquired the 3FGL spectral index and energy flux at 0.1-100GeV from clean sources in 3FGL (Fermi-LAT Collaboration 2015, J/ApJS/218/23) Using these catalogs, we compiled 201 Fermi blazars. (1 data file).

  8. Multi-frequency, multi-messenger astrophysics with Swift. The case of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    During its first 10 years of orbital operations Swift dedicated approximately 11% of its observing time to blazars, carrying out more than 12,000 observations of ~1,600 different objects, for a total exposure time of over 25 million seconds. This is probably the largest contribution to multi-frequency (optical, UV, soft and hard X-rays) and multi-temporal data archives about this type of sources. In this paper I briefly discuss the impact that Swift is having on blazar multi-frequency and time-domain astrophysics, as well as how it is contributing to the opening of the era of multi-messenger astronomy. Finally, I present some preliminary results from a systematic analysis of a very large number of Swift XRT observations of blazars. All the "science ready" data products that are being generated by this project will be publicly released. Specifically, deconvolved X-ray spectra and best fit spectral parameters will be available through the ASDC "SED builder" tool (https://tools.asdc.asi.it/SED) and by means of i...

  9. SMARTS optical and infrared monitoring of 12 gamma-ray bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Bonning, E W; Bailyn, C; Buxton, M; Chatterjee, R; Coppi, P; Fossati, G; Isler, J; Maraschi, L

    2012-01-01

    We present multiwavelength data for twelve blazars observed from 2008-2010 as part of an ongoing optical-infrared photometric monitoring project. Sources were selected to be bright, southern (dec < 20 deg) blazars observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, with daily and weekly gamma-ray fluxes made available from the start of the Fermi mission. Light curves are presented for the twelve blazars in BVRJK at near-daily cadence. We find that optical and infrared fluxes are well correlated in all sources. Gamma-ray bright flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in our sample have optical/infrared emission correlated with gamma-rays consistent with inverse Compton-scattering models for GeV emission. In FSRQs, the variability amplitude decreases towards optical/IR wavelengths, consistent with the presence of a thermal emission component from the accretion disk varying on significantly longer timescales than the jet synchrotron emission. In BL Lac objects, variability is mainly constant across wavelengths, cons...

  10. Multiwavelength behaviour of the blazar OJ 248 from radio to {\\gamma}-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Carnerero, M I; Villata, M; Acosta-Pulido, J A; D'Ammando, F; Smith, P S; Larionov, V M

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the multiwavelength behaviour of the blazar OJ 248 at z = 0.939 in the period 2006-2013. We use low-energy data (optical, near-infrared, and radio) obtained by 21 observatories participating in the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT), as well as data from the Swift (optical-UV and X-rays) and Fermi (gamma-rays) satellites, to study flux and spectral variability and correlations among emissions in different bands. We take into account the effect of absorption by the Damped Lyman Alpha intervening system at z = 0.525. Two major outbursts were observed in 2006-2007 and in 2012-2013 at optical and near-IR wavelengths, while in the high-frequency radio light curves prominent radio outbursts are visible peaking at the end of 2010 and beginning of 2013, revealing a complex radio-optical correlation. Cross-correlation analysis suggests a delay of the optical variations after the gamma-ray ones of about a month, which is a peculiar behaviour in blazar...

  11. INTEGRAL observations of the blazar 3C454.3 in outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Pian, E; Beckmann, V; Pian, Elena; Foschini, Luigi; Beckmann, Volker

    2006-01-01

    In Spring 2005, the blazar 3C454.3 underwent a dramatic outburst at all wavelengths from mm to X-rays. This prompted INTEGRAL observations, accomplished in 15-18 May 2005. The source was detected by the INTEGRAL instruments from 3 to 200 keV in a bright state (~5 x 10E-10 cgs), at least a factor of 2-3 higher than previously observed. This is one of the brightest blazar detections achieved by INTEGRAL. During the 2.5 days of INTEGRAL monitoring, we detected a ~20% decrease in the hard X-rays (20-40 keV), indicating that we have sampled the decaying part of the flare. The decrease is less apparent in the soft X-rays (5-15 keV). The simultaneous optical variations are weakly correlated with those at soft X-rays, and not clearly correlated with those at hard X-rays. The spectral energy distribution exhibits two components, as typically seen in blazars, which can be modeled with synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering occurring in a region external to the broad line region.

  12. ANTARES Constrains a Blazar Origin of Two IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    CERN Document Server

    Adrián-Martínez, S; André, M; Anton, G; Ardid, M; Aubert, J -J; Baret, B; Barrios, J; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bogazzi, C; Bormuth, R; Bou-Cabo, M; Bouwhuis, M C; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Carr, J; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Core, L; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; De Rosa, G; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; De Bonis, G; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Dorosti, Q; Drouhin, D; Dumas, A; Eberl, T; Enzenhöfer, A; Escoffier, S; Fehn, K; Felis, I; Fermani, P; Folger, F; Fusco, L A; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Geißelsöder, S; Geyer, K; Giordano, V; Gleixner, A; Gómez-González, J P; Graf, K; Guillard, G; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herold, B; Herrero, A; Hößl, J; Hofestädt, J; Hugon, C; James, C W; de Jong, M; Kalekin, O; Katz, U; Kießling, D; Kooijman, P; Kouchner, A; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lambard, E; Lambard, G; Lefèvre, D; Leonora, E; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Martini, S; Mathieu, A; Michael, T; Migliozzi, P; Neff, M; Nezri, E; Palioselitis, D; Păvălaş, G E; Pellegrino, C; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Racca, C; Riccobene, G; Richter, R; Roensch, K; Rostovtsev, A; Saldaña, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sánchez-Losa, A; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Schmid, J; Schnabel, J; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Sieger, C; Spies, A; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Tayalati, Y; Trovato, A; Vallage, B; Vallée, C; Van Elewyck, V; Visser, E; Vivolo, D; Wagner, S; de Wolf, E; Yatkin, K; Yepes, H; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J; :,; Krauß, F; Kadler, M; Mannheim, K; Schulz, R; Trüstedt, J; Wilms, J; Ojha, R; Ros, E; Baumgartner, W; Beuchert, T; Blanchard, J; Bürkel, C; Carpenter, B; Edwards, P G; Glawion, D Eisenacher; Elsässer, D; Fritsch, U; Gehrels, N; Gräfe, C; Großberger, C; Hase, H; Horiuchi, S; Kappes, A; Kreikenbohm, A; Kreykenbohm, I; Langejahn, M; Leiter, K; Litzinger, E; Lovell, J E J; Müller, C; Phillips, C; Plötz, C; Quick, J; Steinbring, T; Stevens, J; Thompson, D J; Tzioumis, A K

    2015-01-01

    The source(s) of the neutrino excess reported by the IceCube Collaboration is unknown. The TANAMI Collaboration recently reported on the multiwavelength emission of six bright, variable blazars which are positionally coincident with two of the most energetic IceCube events. Such objects are prime candidates to be the source of the highest-energy cosmic rays, and thus of associated neutrino emission. We present an analysis of neutrino emission from the six blazars using observations with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The standard methods of the ANTARES candidate list search are applied to six years of data to search for an excess of muons - and hence their neutrino progenitors - from the directions of the six blazars described by the TANAMI Collaboration, and which are possibly associated with two IceCube events. Monte Carlo simulations of the detector response to both signal and background particle fluxes are used to estimate the sensitivity of this analysis for different possible source neutrino spectra. A...

  13. HIGHLY VARIABLE OBJECTS IN THE PALOMAR-QUEST SURVEY: A BLAZAR SEARCH USING OPTICAL VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We identify 3113 highly variable objects in 7200 deg2 of the Palomar-QUEST (PQ) Survey, which each varied by more than 0.4 mag simultaneously in two broadband optical filters on timescales from hours to roughly 3.5 years. The primary goal of the selection is to find blazars by their well-known violent optical variability. Because most known blazars have been found in radio and/or X-ray wavelengths, a sample discovered through optical variability may have very different selection effects, elucidating the range of behavior possible in these systems. A set of blazars selected in this unusual manner will improve our understanding of the physics behind this extremely variable and diverse class of active galactic nucleus (AGN). The object positions, variability statistics, and color information are available using the PQ CasJobs server. The time domain is just beginning to be explored over large sky areas; we do not know exactly what a violently variable sample will hold. About 20% of the sample has been classified in the literature; over 70% of those objects are known or likely AGNs. The remainder largely consists of a variety of variable stars, including a number of RR Lyrae and cataclysmic variables.

  14. Multi-frequency, multi-messenger astrophysics with blazars at ASDC and BSDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution I discuss the impact that blazars are having on today's multi-frequency and time-domain astrophysics, as well as how they are contributing to the opening of the era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this context I report some preliminary results from a systematic spectral and timing analysis carried out at ASDC on a very large number of X-ray observations of blazars. I also describe some of the on-going activities dedicated to the set up a new research oriented data center within ICRANet, called the Brazilian Science Data Center or BSDC, capitalising on the extensive experience on scientific data management of the ASDC, on the theoretical astrophysics background of ICRANet, and on local specific expertise. Both the ASDC and BSDC are actively accumulating "science ready" data products on blazars, which will be made available through the ASDC "SED builder" tool (https://tools.asdc.asi.it/SED) and by means of interactive tables reachable at the web sites of both centers.

  15. Intergalactic Magnetic Fields and Gamma Ray Observations of Extreme TeV Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Arlen, Timothy C; Weisgarber, Thomas; Wakely, Scott P; Shafi, S Yusef

    2012-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) can be indirectly probed through its effect on electromagnetic cascades initiated by a source of TeV gamma-rays, such as active galactic nuclei (AGN). AGN that are sufficiently luminous at TeV energies, extreme TeV blazars, can produce detectable levels of secondary radiation from Inverse Compton (IC) scattering of the electrons in the cascade, provided that the IGMF is not too large. We review recent work in the literature which utilizes this idea to derive constraints on the IGMF for three TeV-detected blazars-1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1218+304, and RGB J0710+591, and we also investigate four other hard-spectrum TeV blazars in the same context. Through a recently developed detailed Monte Carlo code, incorporating all major effects of QED and cosmological expansion, we research effects of major uncertainties such as the spectral properties of the source, uncertainty in the UV - far IR extragalactic background light (EBL), undersampled Very High Energy (VHE; energy > 100 GeV) c...

  16. Intergalactic magnetic fields and gamma-ray observations of extreme TeV blazars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlen, Timothy C.; Vassilev, Vladimir V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Weisgarber, Thomas; Wakely, Scott P. [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Shafi, S. Yusef, E-mail: arlen@astro.ucla.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in cosmic voids can be indirectly probed through its effect on electromagnetic cascades initiated by a source of teraelectronvolt (TeV) gamma-rays, such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). AGNs that are sufficiently luminous at TeV energies, 'extreme TeV blazars', can produce detectable levels of secondary radiation from inverse Compton scattering of the electrons in the cascade, provided that the IGMF is not too large. We review recent work in the literature that utilizes this idea to derive constraints on the IGMF for three TeV-detected blazars, 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1218+304, and RGB J0710+591, and we also investigate four other hard-spectrum TeV blazars in the same framework. Through a recently developed, detailed, three-dimensional particle-tracking Monte Carlo code, incorporating all major effects of QED and cosmological expansion, we research the effects of major uncertainties, such as the spectral properties of the source, uncertainty in the ultraviolet and far-infrared extragalactic background light, undersampled very high energy (energy ≥100 GeV) coverage, past history of gamma-ray emission, source versus observer geometry, and the jet AGN Doppler factor. The implications of these effects on the recently reported lower limits of the IGMF are thoroughly examined to conclude that the presently available data are compatible with a zero-IGMF hypothesis.

  17. Intergalactic magnetic fields and gamma-ray observations of extreme TeV blazars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in cosmic voids can be indirectly probed through its effect on electromagnetic cascades initiated by a source of teraelectronvolt (TeV) gamma-rays, such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). AGNs that are sufficiently luminous at TeV energies, 'extreme TeV blazars', can produce detectable levels of secondary radiation from inverse Compton scattering of the electrons in the cascade, provided that the IGMF is not too large. We review recent work in the literature that utilizes this idea to derive constraints on the IGMF for three TeV-detected blazars, 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1218+304, and RGB J0710+591, and we also investigate four other hard-spectrum TeV blazars in the same framework. Through a recently developed, detailed, three-dimensional particle-tracking Monte Carlo code, incorporating all major effects of QED and cosmological expansion, we research the effects of major uncertainties, such as the spectral properties of the source, uncertainty in the ultraviolet and far-infrared extragalactic background light, undersampled very high energy (energy ≥100 GeV) coverage, past history of gamma-ray emission, source versus observer geometry, and the jet AGN Doppler factor. The implications of these effects on the recently reported lower limits of the IGMF are thoroughly examined to conclude that the presently available data are compatible with a zero-IGMF hypothesis.

  18. The central pc-scale region in blazars: insights from multi-band observations

    CERN Document Server

    Arshakian, Tigran G

    2014-01-01

    The empirical relations in the black hole-accretion disk-relativistic jet system and physical processes behind these relations are still poorly understood, partly because they operate close to the black hole within the central light year. Very long baseline array (VLBA) provides unparalleled resolution at 15 GHz with which to observe the jet components at sub-milliarcsecond scales, corresponding to sub-pc-scales for local blazars. We discuss the jet inner structure of blazars, location and radiation mechanisms operating in the innermost parsec-scale region of blazars, and evidence for jet-excited broad-line region (BLR) ouflowing downstream the jet. Outflowing BLR can provide necessary conditions for production of high energy emission along the jet between the base of the jet and the BLR and far beyond the BLR as evidenced by recent observations. Flat spectrum quasars and low synchrotron peaked sources are the most likely objects to host the outfllowing BLR. From the $\\gamma$-ray absorption arguments, we prop...

  19. 5 year Global 3-mm VLBI survey of Gamma-ray active blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, J A; Marscher, A P; Jorstad, S G; Marti-Vidal, I; Lindqvist, M; Bremer, M; Sanchez, S; de Vicente, P; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    The Global mm-VLBI Array (GMVA) is a network of 14 3\\,mm and 7\\,mm capable telescopes spanning Europe and the United States, with planned extensions to Asia. The array is capable of sensitive maps with angular resolution often exceeding 50\\,$\\mu$as. Using the GMVA, a large sample of prominent $\\gamma$-ray blazars have been observed approximately 6 monthly from later 2008 until now. Combining 3\\,mm maps from the GMVA with near-in-time 7\\,mm maps from the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR program and 2\\,cm maps from the MOJAVE program, we determine the sub-pc morphology and high frequency spectral structure of $\\gamma$-ray blazars. The magnetic field strength can be estimated at different locations along the jet under the assumption of equipartition between magnetic field and relativistic particle energies. Making assumptions on the jet magnetic field configuration (e.g. poloidal or toroidal), we can estimate the separation of the mm-wave "core" and the jet base, and estimate the strength of the magnetic field there. The results ...

  20. The jets-accretion relation, mass-luminosity relation in Fermi blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Haojing; Xiong, Dingrong; Li, Bijun; Cha, Yongjuan; Chen, Yongyun; Huang, Xia; Wang, Yuwei

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 111 Fermi blazars each with a well-established radio core luminosity, broad-line luminosity, bolometric luminosity and black hole mass has been compiled from the literatures.We present a significant correlation between radio core and broad-line emission luminosities that supports a close link between accretion processes and relativistic jets. Analysis reveals a relationship of $\\rm{LogL_{BLR}\\sim(0.81\\pm0.06)LogL_{R}^{C}}$ which is consistant with theoretical predicted coefficient and supports that blazar jets are powered by energy extraction from a rapidly spinning Kerr black hole through the magnetic field provided by the accretion disk. Through studying the correlation between the intrinsic bolometric luminosity and the black hole mass, we find a relationship of $\\rm{{Log}\\frac{L_{in}}{L_{\\odot}}=(0.95\\pm0.26){Log}\\frac{M}{M_{\\odot}}+(3.53\\pm2.24)}$ which supports mass-luminosity relation for Fermi blazars derived in this work is a powerlaw relation similar to that for main-sequence stars. Fina...

  1. Spectral Properties of Bright Fermi-detected Blazars in the Gamma-ray Band

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The gamma-ray energy spectra of bright blazars of the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS) are investigated using Fermi-LAT data. Spectral properties (hardness, curvature and variability) established using a data set accumulated over 6 months of operation are presented and discussed for different blazar classes and subclasses: Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs), Low-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (LSP-BLLacs), Intermediate-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (ISP-BLLacs) and High-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (HSP-BLLacs). The distribution of photon index (obtained from a power-law fit above 100 MeV) is found to correlate strongly with blazar subclass. The change in spectral index from that averaged over the six month observing period is < 0.2-0.3 when the flux varies by about an order of magnitude, with a tendency toward harder spectra when the flux is brighter for FSRQs and LSP-BLLacs. A strong departure from a single power-law spectrum appears to be a common feature for FSRQs. This feature is also present for some high-luminosit...

  2. Temporal Correlations Between Optical and Gamma-ray Activity in Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Daniel P; Filippenko, Alexei V; Cenko, S Bradley; Lott, Benoit; Zheng, WeiKang; Li, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    We have been using the 0.76-m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in $\\gamma$-rays, being detected with high significance (test-statistic TS $> 100$, i.e., $\\ge 10\\sigma$) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the {\\it Fermi} Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a 3-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The $\\gamma$-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the 5-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have $>$100 optical measurements spanning the last three years. These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and $\\gamma$-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find str...

  3. Upper limits from five years of blazar observations with the VERITAS Cherenkov telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Archambault, S; Benbow, W; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Buchovecky, M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Ciupik, L; Connolly, M P; Cui, W; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Feng, Q; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Grube, J; Gyuk, G; Hütten, M; Hakansson, N; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kelley-Hoskins, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Krause, M; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nguyen, T; Nieto, D; De Bhróithe, A O'Faoláin; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Pichel, A; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Rovero, A C; Santander, M; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Staszak, D; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weiner, O M; Weinstein, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B; Fumagalli, M; Prochaska, J X

    2016-01-01

    Between the beginning of its full-scale scientific operations in 2007 and 2012, the VERITAS Cherenkov telescope array observed more than 130 blazars; of these, 26 were detected as very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) {\\gamma}-ray sources. In this work, we present the analysis results of a sample of 114 undetected objects. The observations constitute a total live-time of ~570 hours. The sample includes several unidentified Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources (located at high Galactic latitude) as well as all the sources from the second Fermi-LAT catalog which are contained within the field of view of the VERITAS observations. We have also performed optical spectroscopy measurements in order to estimate the redshift of some of these blazars that do not have a spectroscopic distance estimate. We present new optical spectra from the Kast instrument on the Shane telescope at the Lick observatory for 18 blazars included in this work, which allowed for the successful measurement or constraint on the redshift of fo...

  4. The RoboPol optical polarization survey of gamma-ray - loud blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlidou, V; Myserlis, I; Blinov, D; King, O G; Papadakis, I; Tassis, K; Hovatta, T; Pazderska, B; Paleologou, E; Baloković, M; Feiler, R; Fuhrmann, L; Khodade, P; Kus, A; Kylafis, N; Modi, D; Panopoulou, G; Papamastorakis, I; Pazderski, E; Pearson, T J; Rajarshi, C; Ramaprakash, A; Reig, P; Readhead, A C S; Steiakaki, A; Zensus, J A

    2013-01-01

    We present first results from RoboPol, a novel-design optical polarimeter operating at the Skinakas Observatory in Crete. The data, taken during the May - June 2013 commissioning of the instrument, constitute a single-epoch linear polarization survey of a sample of gamma-ray - loud blazars, defined according to unbiased and objective selection criteria, easily reproducible in simulations, as well as a comparison sample of, otherwise similar, gamma-ray - quiet blazars. As such, the results of this survey are appropriate for both phenomenological population studies and for tests of theoretical population models. We have measured polarization fractions as low as $0.015$ down to $R$ magnitude of 17 and as low as $0.035$ down to 18 magnitude. The hypothesis that the polarization fractions of gamma-ray - loud and gamma-ray - quiet blazars are drawn from the same distribution is rejected at the $10^{-3}$ level. We therefore conclude that gamma-ray - loud and gamma-ray - quiet sources have different optical polarizat...

  5. Upper Limits on the Extragalactic Background Light from the Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Schroedter, M

    2005-01-01

    The direct measurement of the extragalactic background light (EBL) is difficult at optical to infrared wavelengths because of the strong foreground radiation originating in the Solar System. Very high energy (VHE, E$>$100 GeV) gamma rays interact with EBL photons of these wavelengths through pair production. In this work, the available VHE spectra from six blazars are used to place upper limits on the EBL. These blazars have been detected over a range of redshifts and a steepening of the spectral index is observed with increasing source distance. This can be interpreted as absorption by the EBL. In general, knowledge of the intrinsic source spectrum is necessary to determine the density of the intervening EBL. Motivated by the observed spectral steepening with redshift, upper limits on the EBL are derived by assuming that the intrinsic spectra of the six blazars are $\\propto E^{-1.8}$. Upper limits are then placed on the EBL flux at discrete energies without assuming a specific spectral shape for the EBL. Thi...

  6. Multi-TeV flaring from blazars: Markarian 421 as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sarira; Miranda, Luis Salvador [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rajpoot, Subhash [California State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Long Beach, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The TeV blazar Markarian 421 underwent multi-TeV flaring during April 2004 and simultaneously observations in the X-ray and TeV energies were made. It was observed that the TeV outbursts had no counterparts in the lower energy range. One implication of this is that it might be an orphan flare. We show that Fermi-accelerated protons of energy ≤ 168 TeV can interact with the low energy tail of the background synchrotron self-Compton photons in the inner region of the blazar to produce the multi-TeV flare and our results fit very well with the observed spectrum. Based on our study, we predict that the blazars with a deep valley in between the end of the synchrotron spectrum and the beginning of the SSC spectrum are possible candidates for orphan flaring. Future possible candidates for this scenario are the HBLs Mrk 501 and PG 1553 + 113 objects. (orig.)

  7. Blazar Flaring Patterns (B-FlaP): Classifying Blazar Candidates of Uncertain type in the third Fermi-LAT catalog by Artificial Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaro, G; La Mura, G; Giroletti, M; Thompson, D J; Bastieri, D

    2016-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) is currently the most important facility for investigating the GeV $\\gamma$-ray sky. With Fermi LAT more than three thousand $\\gamma$-ray sources have been discovered so far. 1144 ($\\sim40\\%$) of the sources are active galaxies of the blazar class, and 573 ($\\sim20\\%$) are listed as Blazar Candidate of Uncertain type (BCU), or sources without a conclusive classification. We use the Empirical Cumulative Distribution Functions (ECDF) and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for a fast method of screening and classification for BCUs based on data collected at $\\gamma$-ray energies only, when rigorous multiwavelength analysis is not available. Based on our method, we classify 342 BCUs as BL Lacs and 154 as FSRQs, while 77 objects remain uncertain. Moreover, radio analysis and direct observations in ground-based optical observatories are used as counterparts to the statistical classifications to validate the method. This approach is of interest because of the increasing number ...

  8. Broadband Spectral Modeling of the Extreme Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum Radio Source PKS B0008-421

    CERN Document Server

    Callingham, J R; Ekers, R D; Tingay, S J; Wayth, R B; Morgan, J; Bernardi, G; Bell, M E; Bhat, R; Bowman, J D; Briggs, F; Cappallo, R J; Deshpande, A A; Ewall-Wice, A; Feng, L; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Hindson, L; Hurley-Walker, N; Jacobs, D C; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kaplan, D L; Kudrayavtseva, N; Lenc, E; Lonsdale, C J; McKinley, B; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Offringa, A R; Ord, S M; Pindor, B; Prabu, T; Procopio, P; Riding, J; Srivani, K S; Subrahmanyan, R; Shankar, N Udaya; Webster, R L; Williams, A; Williams, C L

    2015-01-01

    We present broadband observations and spectral modeling of PKS B0008-421, and identify it as an extreme gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) source. PKS B0008-421 is characterized by the steepest known spectral slope below the turnover, close to the theoretical limit of synchrotron self-absorption, and the smallest known spectral width of any GPS source. Spectral coverage of the source spans from 0.118 to 22 GHz, which includes data from the Murchison Widefield Array and the wide bandpass receivers on the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We have implemented a Bayesian inference model fitting routine to fit the data with various absorption models. We find that without the inclusion of a high-frequency exponential break the absorption models can not accurately fit the data, with significant deviations above and below the peak in the radio spectrum. The addition of a high-frequency break provides acceptable spectral fits for the inhomogeneous free-free absorption and double-component synchrotron self-absorption mod...

  9. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from PKS 1424+240 and Multiwavelength Constraints on its Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciari, V.A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aliu, E.; /Delaware U., Bartol Inst.; Arlen, T.; /UCLA; Aune, T.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bautista, M.; /McGill U.; Beilicke, M. /Washington U., St. Louis; Benbow, W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Bottcher, M.; /Ohio U.; Boltuch, D.; /Delaware U., Bartol Inst.; Bradbury, S.M.; /Leeds U.; Buckley, J.H.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Bugaev, V.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Byrum, K.; /Argonne; Cannon, A.; /University Coll., Dublin; Cesarini, A.; /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway; Chow, Y.C.; /UCLA; Ciupik, L.; /Roosevelt U., Chicago; Cogan, P.; /McGill U.; Cui, W.; /Purdue U.; Duke, C.; /Grinnell Coll.; Falcone, A.; /Penn State U. /Purdue U. /Utah U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Purdue U. /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway /Utah U. /University Coll., Dublin /McGill U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /McGill U. /Delaware U., Bartol Inst. /Utah U. /Chicago U., EFI /Iowa State U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /DePauw U. /Utah U. /Pittsburg State U. /Washington U., St. Louis /Iowa State U. /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway /Utah U. /McGill U. /Washington U., St. Louis /McGill U. /McGill U. /Purdue U. /Anderson U. /Galway-Mayo Inst. of Tech. /Iowa State U. /UCLA; /more authors..

    2012-04-05

    We report the first detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140GeV from PKS 1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 {+-}0.5{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub syst} and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 {+-} 0.9{sub stat} {+-} 0.5{sub syst}) x 10{sup -11} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainty, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light (EBL) absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66.

  10. SEARCHING FOR NEW γ-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES IN THE THIRD PALERMO BAT HARD X-RAY CATALOG WITH WISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We searched for γ-ray blazar candidates among the 382 unidentified hard X-ray sources of the third Palermo BAT Catalog (3PBC) obtained from the analysis of 66 months of Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey data and listing 1586 sources. We adopted a recently developed association method based on the peculiar infrared colors that characterize the γ-ray blazars included in the second catalog of active galactic nuclei detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We used this method exploiting the data of the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to establish correspondences between unidentified 3PBC sources and WISE γ-ray blazar candidates located within the BAT positional uncertainty region at a 99% confidence level. We obtained a preliminary list of candidates for which we analyzed all the available data in the Swift archive to complement the information in the literature and in the radio, infrared, and optical catalogs with the information on their optical-UV and soft X-ray emission. Requiring the presence of radio and soft X-ray counterparts consistent with the infrared positions of the selected WISE sources, as well as a blazar-like radio morphology, we finally obtained a list of 24 γ-ray blazar candidates.

  11. A Comprehensive Statistical Description of Radio-Through-$\\gamma$-Ray Spectral Energy Distributions of All Known Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Peiyuan; Massaro, Francesco; Paggi, Alessandro; Cauteruccio, Joe; Künzel, Soren R

    2016-01-01

    We combined multi-wavelength data for blazars from the Roma-BZCAT catalog and analyzed hundreds of X-ray spectra. We present the fluxes and Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs), in 12 frequency bands from radio to $\\gamma$-rays, for a final sample of 2214 blazars. Using a model-independent statistical approach, we looked for systematic trends in the SEDs; the most significant trends involved the radio luminosities and X-ray spectral indices of the blazars. We used a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), to determine the basis vectors of the blazar SEDs and, in order to maximize the size of the sample, imputed missing fluxes using the K-nearest neighbors method. Using more than an order of magnitude more data than was available when Fossati et al. (1997, 1998) first reported trends of SED shape with blazar luminosity, we confirmed the anti-correlation between radio luminosity and synchrotron peak frequency, although with greater scatter than was seen in the smaller sample. The same trend can be seen between bolo...

  12. Optical archival spectra of blazar candidates of uncertain type in the 3rd Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Landoni, M.; Masetti, N.; Chavushyan, V.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; La Franca, F.; Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Ricci, F.; Smith, Howard A.

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that blazars constitute the rarest class among active galactic nuclei (AGNs) they are the largest known population of associated γ-ray sources. Many of the γ-ray objects listed in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs), either because they show multifrequency behavior similar to blazars but lacking optical spectra in the literature, or because the quality of such spectra is too low to confirm their nature. Here we select, out of 585 BCUs in the 3FGL, 42 BCUs which we identify as probable blazars by their WISE infrared colors and which also have optical spectra that are available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Six-Degree Field Galaxy Survey Database (6dFGS). We confirm the blazar nature of all of the sources. We furthermore conclude that 28 of them are BL Lacs, 8 are radio-loud quasars with flat radio spectrum and 6 are BL Lac whose emission is dominated by their host galaxy.

  13. The jet-cloud interacting radio galaxy PKS B2152-699-I. Structures revealed in new deep radio and X-ray observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrall, D. M.; Birkinshaw, M.; Young, A. J.; Momtahan, K.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Morganti, R.; Tadhunter, C. N.; Kleijn, G. Verdoes

    2012-01-01

    PKS B2152-699, which has radio power characteristic of sources that dominate radio feedback, is exceptional in showing a wide range of features associated with radio-galaxy/gas interactions. We present new deep radio (Australia Telescope Compact Array), X-ray (Chandra) and ground-based optical obser

  14. Application of the global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) mobile apps to land degradation, restoration and climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combatting land degradation, promoting restoration and adapting to climate change all require an understanding of land potential. A global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) is being developed that will address many of these limitations using an open source approach designed to allow anyone w...

  15. CONSTRAINTS ON THE MINIMUM ELECTRON LORENTZ FACTOR AND MATTER CONTENT OF JETS FOR A SAMPLE OF BRIGHT FERMI BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shi-Ju; Wu, Qingwen [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Liang, E-mail: qwwu@hust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-11-01

    We fit (quasi-)simultaneous multi-waveband spectral energy distributions for a sample of low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) blazars with a one-zone leptonic model. The seed photons that predominantly come from the broad line region (BLR) and infrared (IR) molecular torus are considered in the context of an external Compton process. We find that modeling with IR seed photons is systematically better than that with BLR photons based on a χ{sup 2} test, which suggests that γ-ray-emitting regions are most likely found outside the BLR. The minimum electron Lorentz factor, γ{sub min}, is constrained from the modeling of these LSP blazars with good soft X-ray data (ranging from 5 to 160 with a median value of 55), which plays a key role in jet power estimation. Assuming a one-to-one ratio of protons to electrons, we find that the jet power for LSP blazars is systematically higher than that of FR II radio galaxies at a 151 MHz radio luminosity, L {sub 151} {sub MHz} even though FR IIs are regarded as the same as LSP blazars in a unification scheme except at the jet viewing angle. A possible reason for this is that there are some e {sup ±} pairs in the jets of these blazars. If this is the case, we find that the number density of e {sup ±} pairs should be several times higher than that of e {sup –}-p pairs by assuming the jet power is the same for LSP blazars and FR IIs at the given L {sub 151} {sub MHz}.

  16. Measurement of the blazar Mrk421 flux above 60 GeV with the CELESTE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CELESTE experiment is based on an ancient solar plant that has been turned into a detector able to detect the particle showers triggered by the interactions of high energy cosmic photons with the earth atmosphere nuclei. The purpose of the CELESTE experiment is to study the emissions of photons by cosmic objects like supernovae remnants, pulsars or active cores of galaxies such as blazars. Blazars are very interesting objects to study because they allow us to investigate matter that is in extreme conditions and to probe a very far past. The aim of this work has been to develop methods for the analysis of the data collected by CELESTE and to validate them. A specific effort has been achieved for the selection of efficient hadronic rejection criteria in order to optimize the sensitivity of the detector. The physics of the detector is detailed from the particle showers to the data analysis. The detector acceptance has been assessed through Monte-Carlo simulations that have been shown that the detection threshold is 30 GeV at the triggering point and 60 GeV after the analysis cuts. The validation tests have been performed on the Crab nebula that is a standard in gamma astronomy for its stability and intensity. CELESTE has been operating since November 1999 in a satisfactory way and has accumulated data on 4 blazars among them Mrk421. Several bursts have been detected on Mrk421 and an average photon flux has been determined. A correlation has been deduced from the activity detected by CELESTE and the activities in the TeV and X ranges which agrees with the simulations

  17. Multiwavelength behaviour of the blazar OJ 248 from radio to γ-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnerero, M. I.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; D'Ammando, F.; Smith, P. S.; Larionov, V. M.; Agudo, I.; Arévalo, M. J.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Bachev, R.; Benítez, E.; Blinov, D. A.; Bozhilov, V.; Buemi, C. S.; Bueno Bueno, A.; Carosati, D.; Casadio, C.; Chen, W. P.; Damljanovic, G.; Paola, A. Di; Efimova, N. V.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Giroletti, M.; Gómez, J. L.; González-Morales, P. A.; Grinon-Marin, A. B.; Grishina, T. S.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hiriart, D.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Ibryamov, S.; Jorstad, S. G.; Joshi, M.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Lázaro, C.; Leto, P.; Lin, C. S.; Lin, H. C.; Manilla-Robles, A. I.; Marscher, A. P.; McHardy, I. M.; Metodieva, Y.; Mirzaqulov, D. O.; Mokrushina, A. A.; Molina, S. N.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Orienti, M.; Ovcharov, E.; Panwar, N.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Puerto Giménez, I.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Richter, G. M.; Rossini, M.; Sigua, L. A.; Strigachev, A.; Taylor, B.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Troitskaya, Yu. V.; Troitsky, I. S.; Umana, G.; Valcheva, A.; Velasco, S.; Vince, O.; Wehrle, A. E.; Wiesemeyer, H.

    2015-07-01

    We present an analysis of the multiwavelength behaviour of the blazar OJ 248 at z = 0.939 in the period 2006-2013. We use low-energy data (optical, near-infrared, and radio) obtained by 21 observatories participating in the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST)-AGILE Support Program of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope, as well as data from the Swift (optical-UV and X-rays) and Fermi (γ-rays) satellites, to study flux and spectral variability and correlations among emissions in different bands. We take into account the effect of absorption by the Damped Lyman α intervening system at z = 0.525. Two major outbursts were observed in 2006-2007 and in 2012-2013 at optical and near-IR wavelengths, while in the high-frequency radio light curves prominent radio outbursts are visible peaking at the end of 2010 and beginning of 2013, revealing a complex radio-optical correlation. Cross-correlation analysis suggests a delay of the optical variations after the γ-ray ones of about a month, which is a peculiar behaviour in blazars. We also analyse optical polarimetric and spectroscopic data. The average polarization percentage P is less than 3 per cent, but it reaches ˜19 per cent during the early stage of the 2012-2013 outburst. A vague correlation of P with brightness is observed. There is no preferred electric vector polarization angle and during the outburst the linear polarization vector shows wide rotations in both directions, suggesting a complex behaviour/structure of the jet and possible turbulence. The analysis of 140 optical spectra acquired at the Steward Observatory reveals a strong Mg II broad emission line with an essentially stable flux of 6.2 × 10- 15 erg cm- 2 s- 1 and a full width at half-maximum of 2053 km s- 1.

  18. Monitoring Ly-Alpha Emission From the Blazar 3C 279

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Pian, Elena; Urry, C. Megan; Pesce, Joseph E.

    1998-01-01

    The blazar 3C 279 is well studied and shows frequent large continuum flares from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. There have been a number of multiwavelength observations of 3C 279, and hence there are extensive ultraviolet data for this object available in the UV archives. In this paper we present Ly-alpha emission line measurements for 3C 279 using all the archival IUE SWP spectra from 1988 to 1996 and all archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) G190H spectra from 1992 to 1996. Individual archival IUE spectra of 3C 279 show weak Ly-alpha emission at approximately 1868 A (z = 0.536), which is easily seen in the co-added data. The Ly-alpha emission is observed in all the HST/FOS spectra. The strength of Ly-alpha is nearly constant (approximately 5 x 10(exp -14) erg/sq cm.s), while the 1750 A continuum varies by a factor of approximately 50, from approximately 0.6 to 31.6 x 10(exp -15) ergs/sq cm.s.A. The behavior of the Ly-alpha emission line flux and continuum flux is similar to that of the only other well observed blazar, 3C 273, which shows constant line flux while the continuum varies by a factor of approximately 3. This near-constancy of emission-line flux in the two best-studied blazars suggests that the highly variable beamed continuum is not a significant source of photoionization for the gas. Some other source, such as thermal emission from an accretion disk, must be providing a significant fraction of the photoionizing flux in these objects. The large amplitude variability seen at gamma-ray energies must be due to changes in the energetic electrons in the jet rather than changes in the external photon field.

  19. An exploration of hadronic interactions in blazars using multi-messenger data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy photon and neutrino emissions are expected from the interactions of high-energy protons with matter and/or radiation in the blazars environment. In these proceedings, we use the sensitivity of the IceCube neutrino detector estimated for different neutrino spectral indices (derived in Tchernin et al. (2013) [12]) to show that already in its 40-string configuration (IC-40), the sensitivity of the IceCube neutrino telescope is already at the level of constraining the parameter space of purely hadronic scenarios of blazar activity. As a result, using the full detector sensitivity, those constraints should be about a factor of 3 better than what discussed here. Assuming that the γ-ray flux observed by Fermi can be explained with purely hadronic interactions, we estimate the expected neutrino flux from blazars based on the combination of the γ-ray flux observed by Fermi, with the simultaneous IC-40 observations. We consider separately the cases where the proton–proton or proton–γ interactions are dominant. In both cases, we set some constraints on the primary proton spectrum. In the case where pp interactions dominate, the tightest constraints are set for the source 3C 454.3, for which the high energy part of the spectrum is constrained to be harder than E−2 and the cut-off energy larger than 1018 eV. Alternatively, in the case where the dominant channel is the interaction of the high-energy protons with the soft radiation fields, the magnitude of the constraints depends on the radiation field energy distribution. For the source 3C 273, the most constrained source of our sample for the pγ interaction, the cut-off energy is constrained to be Ecut≳1018eV for any spectral index and for different soft photon fields, including the radiation from the accretion disk (Big Blue Bump), the broad line region or the synchrotron radiation from the jet

  20. Optical Counterparts of Undetermined Type -Ray Active Galactic Nuclei with Blazar-Like Spectral Energy Distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Giovanni La Mura; Graziano Chiaro; Stefano Ciroi; Piero Rafanelli; David Salvetti; Marco Berton; Valentina Cracco; Fermi-LAT collaboration

    2015-12-01

    During its first four years of scientific observations, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) detected 3033 -ray sources above a 4 significance level. Although most of the extra-galactic sources are active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the blazar class, other families of AGNs are observed too, while a still high fraction of detections (∼30%) remains with uncertain association or classification. According to the currently accepted interpretation, the AGN -ray emission arises from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of low energy photons by relativistic particles confined in a jet, which, in the case of blazars, is oriented very close to our line-of-sight. Taking advantage of data from radio and X-ray wavelengths, which we expect to be produced together with -rays, providing a much better source localization potential, we focused our attention on a sample of -ray Blazar Candidates of Undetermined type (BCUs), starting a campaign of optical spectroscopic observations. The main aims of our investigation include a census of the AGN families that contribute to -ray emission and a study of their redshift distribution, with the subsequent implications on the intrinsic source power. We furthermore analyze which -ray properties can better constrain the nature of the source, thus helping in the study of objects not yet associated with a reliable low frequency counterpart. Here we report on the instruments and techniques used to identify the optical counterparts of -ray sources, we give an overview on the status of our work, and we discuss the implications of a large scale study of -ray emitting AGNs.

  1. THE SEARCH FOR BLAZARS AMONG THE UNIDENTIFIED EGRET gamma-RAY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J. Meintjes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the results of a multi-wavelength follow-up study of selected flat spectrum extragalactic radio-optical counterparts within the error boxes of 13 unidentified EGRET sources. Two of these previously unidentified counterparts have been selected for optical photometric and spectroscopic follow-up studies. Spectroscopic observations made with the 4.1m SOAR telescope at Cerro Pachón, Chile, showed that the spectra of the optical counterparts of 3EG J0821−5814 (PKS J0820−5705 and 3EG J0706−3837 (PMN J0710−3835 correspond to a flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ and LINER-Seyfert I galaxy respectively. Optical photometry of these sources, performed with the 1.0m telescope at Sutherland (South-Africa shows noticeable intranight variability for PKS J0820−5705, as well as a 5 sigma variation of the mean brightness in the R-filter over a timescale of three nights. Significant variability has been detected in the B-band for PMN J0710−3835 as well. The gamma-ray spectral indices of all 13 candidates range between 2–3, correlating well with the BL Lacs and FSRQs detected with Fermi-LAT in the first 11 months of operation.

  2. Discovery of an X-ray Jet and Extended Jet Structure in the Quasar PKS 1055+201

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, D A; Lovell, J E J; Murphy, D W; Bicknell, G V; Birkinshaw, M; Gelbord, J M; Georganopoulos, M; Godfrey, L; Jauncey, D L; Jester, S; Perlman, E S; Worrall, D M

    2006-01-01

    This letter reports rich X-ray jet structures found in the Chandra observation of PKS 1055+201. In addition to an X-ray jet coincident with the radio jet we detect a region of extended X-ray emission surrounding the jet as far from the core as the radio hotspot to the North, and a similar extended X-ray region along the presumed path of the unseen counterjet to the Southern radio lobe. Both X-ray regions show a similar curvature to the west, relative to the quasar. We interpret this as the first example where we separately detect the X-ray emission from a narrow jet and extended, residual jet plasma over the entire length of a powerful FRII jet.

  3. Molecular hydrogen in the z = 2.811 absorbing material toward the quasar PKS 0528-250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the previously unidentified absorbtion features in the spectrum of the quasar PKS 0528-250 obtained by previous authors tentative evidence has been found for H2 lines at the same redshift (z = 2.811) as that of the well-known absorption-line system. The column density of molecules has been estimated from the curve of growth; the fraction of H2 appears to be about 2 x 10-5. The ortho- to para-H2 ratio corresponds to the excitation temperature of Tsub(ex)(H2) = 300 +- 150 K, though the upper rotational levels J >= 3 turn out be overpopulated. The results obtained seem to provide substantial evidence for the existence of molecular hydrogen at the early cosmological epoch with z approx. 3. (author)

  4. Interstellar Silicate Dust in the z=0.89 Absorber Towards PKS 1830-211: Crystalline Silicates at High Redshift?

    CERN Document Server

    Aller, Monique C; York, Donald G; Vladilo, Giovanni; Welty, Daniel E; Som, Debopam

    2012-01-01

    We present evidence of a >10-sigma detection of the 10 micron silicate dust absorption feature in the spectrum of the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS 1830-211, produced by a foreground absorption system at redshift 0.886. We have examined more than 100 optical depth templates, derived from both observations of Galactic and extragalactic sources and laboratory measurements, in order to constrain the chemical structure of the silicate dust. We find that the best fit to the observed absorption profile is produced by laboratory crystalline olivine, with a corresponding peak optical depth of tau_10=0.27+/-0.05. The fit is slightly improved upon by including small contributions from additional materials such as silica, enstatite, or serpentine, which suggests that the dust composition may consist of a blend of crystalline silicates. Combining templates for amorphous and crystalline silicates, we find that the fraction of crystalline silicates needs to be at least 95%. Given the rarity of extragalactic sources wit...

  5. Testing cosmological variability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio using the spectrum of PKS 0528-250

    CERN Document Server

    Potekhin, A Yu; Varshalovich, D A; Lanzetta, K M; Baldwin, J A; Williger, G M; Carswell, R F

    1998-01-01

    Multidimensional cosmologies allow for variations of fundamental physical constants over the course of cosmological evolution, and different versions of the theories predict different time dependences. In particular, such variations could manifest themselves as changes of the proton-to-electron mass ratio high-redshift QSO spectra. Here we analyze a new, high-resolution spectrum of the z=2.81080 molecular hydrogen absorption system toward the quasar PKS 0528-250 to derive a new observational constraint to the time-averaged variation rate of the proton-to-electron mass ratio. We find |\\dot{\\mu} / \\mu| < 1.5 \\times 10^{-14}/year, which is much tighter than previously measured limits.

  6. The many faces of blazar emission in the context of hadronic models

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Maria; Padovani, Paolo; Resconi, Elisa; Giommi, Paolo; Mastichiadis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    We present two ways of modeling the spectral energy distribution of blazars in the hadronic context and discuss the predictions of each "hadronic variant" on the spectral shape, the multi-wavelength variability, the cosmic-ray flux, and the high-energy neutrino emission. Focusing on the latter, we then present an application of the hadronic model to individual BL Lacs that were recently suggested to be the counterparts of some of the IceCube neutrinos, and conclude by discussing the contribution of the whole BL Lac class to the observed neutrino background.

  7. Parsec scale polarization properties of the TeV blazar Markarian 421

    OpenAIRE

    Lico, R.; Giroletti, M.; Orienti, M.; Gomez, J.L.; Casadio, C.; D'Ammando, F.; Blasi, M. G.; Cotton, W.; Edwards, P G; Fuhrmann, L.; S. Jorstad(); Kino, M; Y. Y. Kovalev(Astro Space Center of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia); Krichbaum, T. P.; Marscher, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a polarization analysis at radio frequencies of Markarian 421, one of the closest (z=0.03) TeV blazars. The observations were obtained, both in total and in polarized intensity, with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 15, 24, and 43 GHz throughout 2011, with one observation per month (for a total of twelve epochs). We investigate the magnetic field topology and the polarization structure on parsec scale and their evolution with time. We detect polarized emission bo...

  8. Polarization angle swings in blazars: The case of 3C 279

    OpenAIRE

    Kiehlmann, S.; Savolainen, T.; Jorstad, S. G.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Schinzel, F. K.; Marscher, A. P.; V. M. Larionov(Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, St. Petersburg Branch, St. Petersburg, Russia); Agudo, I.; Akitaya, H.; E. Benítez; Berdyugin, A.; Blinov, D. A.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Borman, G. A.; Burenkov, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, several occasions of large, continuous rotations of the electric vector position angle (EVPA) of linearly polarized optical emission from blazars have been reported. These events are often coincident with high energy gamma-ray flares and they have attracted considerable attention, as they could allow one to probe the magnetic field structure in the gamma-ray emitting region of the jet. The flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C279 is one of the most prominent examples showing ...

  9. The Outburst of the Blazar S40954+658 in March-April 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Morozova, D. A.; V. M. Larionov(Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, St. Petersburg Branch, St. Petersburg, Russia); Troitsky, I. S.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Gómez, J. L.; Blinov, D. A.; Efimova, N. V.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Hagen-Thorn, E. I.; Joshi, M.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Larionova, L. V.; Larionova, E. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of optical (R band) photometric and polarimetric monitoring and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) imaging of the blazar S4 0954+658, along with Fermi and gamma;-ray data during a multi-waveband outburst in 2011 March-April. After a faint state with a brightness level R ~17.6 mag registered in the first half of January 2011, the optical brightness of the source started to rise and reached ~14.8 mag during the middle of March, showing flare-like behavior. The most spectacul...

  10. -Ray Emission from the Extreme Blazar 1ES 0229+200

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Li; T. Kang; Y. G. Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Based on the traditional Synchrotron Self-Compton (SSC) model, we consider a secondary γ -ray emission component to an extreme blazar 1ES 0229 + 200 for the multiwavelength radiation. By assuming a suitable electron spectra and Inter-Galactic Magnetic Field (IGMF), we obtained excellent fits to observed spectra of the source. This indicated that the observed excess GeV -rays emission can be explained by secondary -rays produced through inverse Compton scattering of ± pairs against Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons.

  11. Numerical study of broadband spectra caused by internal shocks in magnetized relativistic jets of blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Rueda-Becerril, Jesus M; Aloy, Miguel A; Aloy, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The internal-shocks scenario in relativistic jets has been used to explain the variability of blazars' outflow emission. Recent simulations have shown that the magnetic field alters the dynamics of these shocks producing a whole zoo of spectral energy density patterns. However, the role played by magnetization in such high-energy emission is still not entirely understood. With the aid of \\emph{Fermi}'s second LAT AGN catalog, a comparison with observations in the $\\gamma$-ray band was performed, in order to identify the effects of the magnetic field.

  12. The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic spectral energy distributions of southern blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, F.; Wilms, J.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Schulz, R.; Trüstedt, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Stevens, J.; Ros, E.; Baumgartner, W.; Beuchert, T.; Blanchard, J.; Buson, S.; Carpenter, B.; Dauser, T.; Falkner, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gräfe, C.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Langejahn, M.; Leiter, K.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Müller, C.; Natusch, T.; Nesci, R.; Pursimo, T.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Quick, J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Simultaneous broadband spectral and temporal studies of blazars are an important tool for investigating active galactic nuclei (AGN) jet physics. Aims: We study the spectral evolution between quiescent and flaring periods of 22 radio-loud AGN through multiepoch, quasi-simultaneous broadband spectra. For many of these sources these are the first broadband studies. Methods: We use a Bayesian block analysis of Fermi/LAT light curves to determine time ranges of constant flux for constructing quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The shapes of the resulting 81 SEDs are described by two logarithmic parabolas and a blackbody spectrum where needed. Results: The peak frequencies and luminosities agree well with the blazar sequence for low states with higher luminosity implying lower peak frequencies. This is not true for sources in high states. The γ-ray photon index in Fermi/LAT correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency in low and intermediate states. No correlation is present in high states. The black hole mass cannot be determined from the SEDs. Surprisingly, the thermal excess often found in FSRQs at optical/UV wavelengths can be described by blackbody emission and not an accretion disk spectrum. Conclusions: The so-called harder-when-brighter trend, typically seen in X-ray spectra of flaring blazars, is visible in the blazar sequence. Our results for low and intermediate states, as well as the Compton dominance, are in agreement with previous results. Black hole mass estimates using recently published parameters are in agreement with some of the more direct measurements. For two sources, estimates disagree by more than four orders of magnitude, possibly owing to boosting effects. The shapes of the thermal excess seen predominantly in flat spectrum radio quasars are inconsistent with a direct accretion disk origin. Tables of the fluxes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or

  13. Faraday rotation in the MOJAVE blazars: 3C 273 a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Hovatta, T.; Lister, M. L.; Aller, M. F.; H. D. Aller(Astronomy Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor); Homan, D. C.; Kovalev, Y.Y.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Savolainen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Radio polarimetric observations of Active Galactic Nuclei can reveal the magnetic field structure in the parsec-scale jets of these sources. We have observed the gamma-ray blazar 3C 273 as part of our multi-frequency survey with the Very Long Baseline Array to study Faraday rotation in a large sample of jets. Our observations re-confirm the transverse rotation measure gradient in 3C 273. For the first time the gradient is seen to cross zero which is further indication for a helical magnetic f...

  14. BeppoSAX Observations of the TeV Blazar Mkn 421

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blazar Mkn 421 has been observed, as part of the AO1 Core Program, five times from 2 to 7 May 1997. In the LECS+MECS energy band the spectrum shows convex curvature, well represented by a broken power-law. Flux variability (more than a factor 2) has been detected over the entire 0.1-10 keV range, accompanying which the spectrum steepens with the decrease in intensity. Mkn 421 has been also detected with the PDS instrument. Our preliminary analysis indicates that the PDS spectrum lies significantly above the extrapolation from the MECS, suggesting a contribution from a flatter high energy component

  15. Search for GeV γ-Ray Pair Halos Around Low Redshift Blazars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenlei; Buckley, James H; Ferrer, Francesc

    2015-11-20

    We report on the results of a search for γ-ray pair halos with a stacking analysis of low redshift blazars using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. For this analysis we used a number of a priori selection criteria, including the spatial and spectral properties of the Fermi sources. The angular distribution of ~1 GeV photons around 24 stacked isolated high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs with redshift z2, consistent with expectations for pair halos produced in the intergalactic magnetic fields with strength B_{IGMF}~10^{-17}-10^{-15} G. PMID:26636838

  16. Results from the Blazar Monitoring Campaign at the Whipple 10m Gamma-ray Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, David; Charlot, P; Kurtanidze, O; Lahteenmaki, A; Montaruli, T; Sadun, A C; Villata, M

    2007-01-01

    In September 2005, the observing program of the Whipple 10 m gamma-ray telescope was redefined to be dedicated almost exclusively to AGN monitoring. Since then the five Northern Hemisphere blazars that had already been detected at Whipple are monitored routinely each night that they are visible. Thanks to the efforts of a large number of multiwavelength collaborators, the first year of this program has been very successful. We report here on the analysis of Markarian 421 observations taken from November, 2005 to May, 2006 in the gamma-ray, X-ray, optical and radio bands.

  17. A Dramatic Optical Flare and Microvariability in the Blazar 3C 454.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonek, Thomas J.; Boni, Samantha J.; Chapman, Katie J.; Didio, Nicholas A.; Sabyr, Alina; Stahlin, R. William; Weaver, Zachary R.; Zhang, Saiyang

    2016-06-01

    Following up on the report of optical and gamma-ray activity in the blazar 3C 454.3 by Jorstad (ATel# 9150), Lucarelli et al (ATel #9157), and Bulgarelli et al (ATel #9176), we report optical (R) observations which reveal a brightening of over 2 magnitudes in a 10 day interval between 2016 June 10 and 20. The brightness on June 20 (R = 13.7) is 1.2 magnitudes brighter than reported by Jorstad on June 13, and is the brightest 3C 454.3 has been observed in two years.

  18. Distributions of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Blazars in the $L_{\\rm p}-E_{\\rm p}$ Plane and Possible Implications for their Radiation Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyu, Fen; Liang, Yun-Feng; Wu, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Jin; Sun, Xiao-Na; Lu, Rui-Jing; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    We present a spectral analysis for a sample of redshift known GRBs observed with {\\em Fermi}/GBM. Together with the results derived from our systematical spectral energy distribution modeling with the leptonic models for a {\\em Fermi}/LAT blazar sample, we compare the distributions of the GRBs and the blazars by plotting the synchrotron peak luminosity ($L_{\\rm s}$) and the corresponding peak photon energy $E_{\\rm s}$ of blazars in the $L_{\\rm p}-E_{\\rm p}$ plane of GRBs, where $L_{\\rm p}$ and $E_{\\rm p}$ are the peak luminosity and peak photon energy of the GRB time-integrated $\

  19. Blazars as Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic-Ray Sources: Implications for TeV Gamma-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Murase, Kohta; Takami, Hajime; Migliori, Giulia

    2011-01-01

    Spectral fitting of correlated multiwavelength data of BL Lac objects and Fanaroff-Riley I radio galaxies gives the mean comoving magnetic field strength B', the bulk outflow Doppler factor Gamma, and the emission region size R' of the radiating plasma in the one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. From the Hillas condition, we show that only in rare cases can these sources accelerate protons to much above 10^19 eV, so >10^20 eV ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are likely to be heavy ions if powered by this type of AGN. One of the signatures of hadronic production by blazars is intergalactic cascade emission initiated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, which can explain TeV spectra of some extreme, apparently non-variable blazars such as 1ES 0229+200. We study this kind of cascade signal from such blazars, taking into account effects of the structured extragalactic magnetic fields in clusters and filaments in which the blazars are embedded. We demonstrate the importance of cosmic-ray deflections o...

  20. Bethe-Heitler cascades as a plausible origin of hard spectra in distant TeV blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Y G; Kang, S J

    2016-01-01

    Context. Very high-energy (VHE) $\\gamma$-ray measurements of distant TeV blazars can be nicely explained by TeV spectra induced by ultra high-energy cosmic rays. Aims. We develop a model for a plausible origin of hard spectra in distant TeV blazars. Methods. In the model, the TeV emission in distant TeV blazars is dominated by two mixed components. The first is the internal component with the photon energy around 1 TeV produced by inverse Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons on the synchrotron photons (SSC) with a correction for extragalactic background light absorbtion and the other is the external component with the photon energy more than 1 TeV produced by the cascade emission from high-energy protons propagating through intergalactic space. Results. Assuming suitable model parameters, we apply the model to observed spectra of distant TeV blazars of 1ES 0229+200. Our results show that 1) the observed spectrum properties of 1ES 0229+200, especially the TeV $\\gamma$-ray tail of the observed spect...