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Sample records for blattella germanica dictyoptera

  1. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fithamlak Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG, Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%, Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality.

  2. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality. PMID:27294115

  3. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Fithamlak; Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre; Ali, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality. PMID:27294115

  4. Insecticide resistance in Blattella germanica (L.)(Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) from food producing establishments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1993-01-01

    Abstract-A number of cases of Blartella germanica control failure were reported to the Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory from 1987 to 1991. A screening of the insecticide resistance in B. germancia in some selected locations was conducted with permethrin using tarsal contact tests to estimate KT...

  5. Effects of Two Temperature Storage Regimes on the Efficacy of 3 Commercial Gel Baits against the German Cockroach, Blattella germanica L. (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae

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    E Oz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To compare the effectiveness of 3 commercial gel bait formulations containing fipronil (Goliathã Cockroach Gel 0.05% AI, chlorpyrifos-A (Clean Baitã Gel, 2% AI, and chloropyrifos-B (Serpaã Gel 2% AI against German cock­roaches (Blattella germanica when stored at 23°C and 30° C after treatment."nMethods: Laboratory bioassays consisted of placing groups of fifteen cockroaches (a random combination of adult, mixed sex and large nymphs-stage 6 into a 5 L cylindrical plastic container with one drop of product (avg 0.10 g ± 0.01 g applied to a 76 mm x 26 mm glass microscope slide affixed to the bottom of each container (one product tested per container. Cumula­tive mortality was assessed at 6 h, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 d after application. To determine the further effects of storage tempera­ture after treatment on residual activity of the gels, a drop of each product was applied to separate glass microscope slides and stored at either 23º C (warm or 30º C (hot under dark conditions for 0, 1, 7, 14, 30, 45, 60 and 90 d after applica­tion."nResults: Freshly applied baits (day 0 containing fipronil provided complete cockroach mortality (100% within 5 d whereas chloryrifos-A and chlorpyrifos-B provided »72% and 88% mortality, respectively. Generally, cockroach mortality was greater when gels were stored at 30°C compared with 23º C."nConclusion: The fipronil gel formulation proved to be as efficacious as the chlorpyrifos gels and in some instances sur­pased the latter formulations depending on storage time and temperature by providing »90% mortality at 90 d post treat­ment.

  6. De novo transcriptome of the Hemimetabolous German cockroach (Blattella germanica.

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    Xiaojie Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is an important insect pest that transmits various pathogens mechanically and causes severe allergic diseases. This insect has long served as a model system for studies of insect biology, physiology and ecology. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinder our further understanding about the German cockroach in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. To explore the transcriptome and identify unique sequences of interest, we subjected the B. germanica transcriptome to massively parallel pyrosequencing and generated the first reference transcriptome for B. germanica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,365,609 raw reads with an average length of 529 bp were generated via pyrosequencing the mixed cDNA library from different life stages of German cockroach including maturing oothecae, nymphs, adult females and males. The raw reads were de novo assembled to 48,800 contigs and 3,961 singletons with high-quality unique sequences. These sequences were annotated and classified functionally in terms of BLAST, GO and KEGG, and the genes putatively coding detoxification enzyme systems, insecticide targets, key components in systematic RNA interference, immunity and chemoreception pathways were identified. A total of 3,601 SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats loci were also predicted. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The whole transcriptome pyrosequencing data from this study provides a usable genetic resource for future identification of potential functional genes involved in various biological processes.

  7. Evaluation scheme for Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica in food units with HACCP implementation

    OpenAIRE

    VINELA REFUGJATI; BIZENA BIJO; ENDRI HAXHIRAJ

    2014-01-01

    Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis are the most common insects found in food industry, houses, offices, hotels, schools, etc. The aim of this study is the evaluation of gel baits efficiency (2.15% imidacloprid) against Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica in albanian food units. The study was carried out in Tirana from June 2012 to June 2013 in 14 infested supermarkets, 13 of which were treated with 2.15% imidacloprid while 1 served as control unit. Monitor traps and visual inspec...

  8. Evaluation of New Schemes Efficacy for Blatta Orientalis and Blattella Germanica Control in Food Units with HACCP Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    VINELA REFUGJATI; BIZENA BIJO; ENDRI HAXHIRAJ

    2015-01-01

    Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica are the most common pests in the food industry. The aim of this study is the evaluation of new treatment schemes effectiveness as well as the monetary cost, humans and environment toxicity against Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica. The study was carried out in 28 food units infested with Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis in Tirana. The duration of the study was 24 months. The treatment efficacy of 2.15% imidacloprid (in gel...

  9. Effect of Gregarina sp. parasitism on the susceptibility of Blattella germanica to some control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rogério B; Alves, Sérgio B

    2005-03-01

    Gregarines are enteric parasites of invertebrates but little is known about the negative effects of this parasitism on host species. The present study evaluates the influence of the parasitism of Gregarina sp. on the survival of Blattella germanica and methods for elimination of gregarine infection in laboratory rearing systems. Insects were dissected and the infection was detected in 80% of a sample of 50 adults. Diseased cockroaches had swollen abdomens, slower movement at high incidences of the protozoan, and short antennas. Dead cockroaches showed darkened body and putrid smell, indicating septicaemia. Infected insects were more susceptible than healthy cockroaches when treated with Metarhizium anisopliae and triflumuron. PMID:15955347

  10. Toxicity of Pyrethroid and Organophosphorous Insecticides against Two Field Collected Strains of the German Cockroach Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Limoee, Mojtaba; Davari, Behroz; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica is a major hygienic pest and mechanical vector for pathogenic agents in hospitals and residential areas. The development of insecticide resistance is a serious problem in controlling of this pest. Toxicity of four commonly used insecticides (permethrin, cypermethrin, malathion and chlorpyrifos) against two hospital- collected strains of the German cockroach was investigated. Methods: Topical bioassay methods were carried out for detecting ...

  11. Evaluation of New Schemes Efficacy for Blatta Orientalis and Blattella Germanica Control in Food Units with HACCP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VINELA REFUGJATI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica are the most common pests in the food industry. The aim of this study is the evaluation of new treatment schemes effectiveness as well as the monetary cost, humans and environment toxicity against Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica. The study was carried out in 28 food units infested with Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis in Tirana. The duration of the study was 24 months. The treatment efficacy of 2.15% imidacloprid (in gel form is tested for 12 months, in thirteen units meanwhile one unit served as a control unit. The monetary cost of insecticide mentioned was calculated using the quantity and treatment duration of insecticide applied. For this reason, we calculated the quantity of gel baits used in seven food units as well as the quantity of insecticide in spray form used in seven others food units for a period of 12 months. Technical and safety data sheets were used to assess human and environment safety. Insect elimination was achieved by the end of the ninth week. This study found that in the units which used imidacloprid the short term cost was 21 Euro / unit, while in other units which used the classic method the cost was 8.3 Euro / unit. Our study identified that at the units which used imidacloprid the annual cost was 68 Euro while in the other category the cost was 78 Euro.Technical and safety data sheets detected that insecticides in gel form are safer for human and environment. As in analog studies conducted by foreign researchers, we found that the use of insecticides in gel form is the right choice for Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica control.

  12. Stage-dependent tolerance of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica for dichlorvos and propoxur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K; Wei, Xq; Zeng, Xp; Liu, T; Gao, Xw

    2010-01-01

    tage-dependent dichlorvos and propoxur tolerance in a field population of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica Linnaeus (Blatodea: Blattellidae), was investigated in the laboratory using a topical application bioassay. The results showed the 6 week-old nymphs were more tolerant to dichlorvos and propoxur than the other ages tested. LD₅₀ values of dichlorvos and propoxur for the 6 week-old nymphs were 2.003 µg per insect and 5.296 µg per insect, respectively. Tolerance ratios of 18.55-fold and 4.98-fold for LD₅₀ were obtained from 6-week-old nymphs compared to 4 week-old nymphs. The specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from 1 week-old nymphs was the highest among all tested developmental stages of nymphs and adult males and females. The specific activity of AChE decreased significantly with increasing age. The sensitivity of AChE to dichlorvos was the highest with a k(i) value of 3.12 × 10⁴ mol⁻¹min⁻¹ in the last nymphal stage of B. germanica (about 6 weeks-old). The AChE from 4 week-old nymphs was the most sensitive to propoxur, with the highest k(i) value being 2.63 × 10⁵ mol⁻¹ min⁻¹. These results indicated that the different developmental stages and sexes of B. germanica affected the inhibition of AChE by dichlorvos and propoxur.

  13. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in cockroaches Blattella germanica

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    S Lambiase

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on tissues and organs of individuals belonging to a species of Blattaria (Blattella germanica treated with various doses of this toxic material. The pathologies found became more serious as the dosage increased and were present throughout the entire digestive system, in the fat body and in the male gonads: in these areas cell and tissue breakdown and severely damaged spermiogenesis were observed. In particular, the testicles, Malpighian tubules and fat body accumulated an amorphous basophilic PAS-positive substance. Furthermore, the NOS-dependent NADPH diaphorase activity pattern in the retina and optic lobes was more evident in the treated than in the control insects.

  14. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

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    M Shahi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city.Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO.Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides.Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  15. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shahi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city. Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO. Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides. Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  16. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Maria J; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  17. Hierarchical genetic analysis of German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations from within buildings to across continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Edward L; Crissman, Jonathan R; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G; Mukha, Dmitry V; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city) than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents). About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species. PMID:25020136

  18. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Maria J; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state. PMID:19911043

  19. Hierarchical genetic analysis of German cockroach (Blattella germanica populations from within buildings to across continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L Vargo

    Full Text Available Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents. About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species.

  20. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J López-Sánchez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  1. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

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    Haji Hamu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6% of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95% of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P=0.013. In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  2. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics. PMID:24649356

  3. Toxicity of Pyrethroid and Organophosphorous Insecticides against Two Field Collected Strains of the German Cockroach Blattella Germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae) from Hospitals in Hamadan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Limoee; Behroz Davari; Seyad Hassan Moosa-Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica is a major hygienic pest and mechanical vector for path­ogenic agents in hospitals and residential areas. The development of insecticide resistance is a serious problem in controlling of this pest. Toxicity of four commonly used insecticides (permethrin, cypermethrin, malathion and chlorpyrifos) against two hospital- collected strains of the German cockroach was investigated.Methods: Topical bioassay methods were carried out for detecting ...

  4. Transcriptome based identification and tissue expression profiles of chemosensory genes in Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dong-Juan; Liu, Yan; Dong, Xiao-Tong; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Blattalla germanica is one of the most notorious household insect pests, and evolutionally more primitive than those well studied moths and flies, regarding the molecular mechanisms of chemosensation. In this study, we sequenced, for the first time, the antennal transcriptome of B. germanica using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform and then conducted the bioinformatic analysis of the data. In total, we identified 73 putative chemosensory genes, with 62 genes being novel in this species. These chemosensory genes included 48 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 9 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 6 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 5 odorant receptors (ORs) and 5 ionotropic receptors (IRs). Notably, Plus-C OBPs account for an exceptionally high proportion (39.58%) of the total 48 OBPs in this primitive insect. To predict the chemosensory functions of the genes, a detailed global tissue expression profiling was investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Most OBP genes showed a chemosensory tissue biased profile, while CSP transcripts were widely and evenly expressed in different tissues. Furthermore, we found that more than half the chemosensory genes were expressed in the cerci, implying the important chemosensory functions of the organ in B. germanica. Taken together, our study provides important bases for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and evolution of insect chemosensation, and for development of the chemosensation based techniques to control B. germanica.

  5. Transcriptome based identification and tissue expression profiles of chemosensory genes in Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dong-Juan; Liu, Yan; Dong, Xiao-Tong; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Blattalla germanica is one of the most notorious household insect pests, and evolutionally more primitive than those well studied moths and flies, regarding the molecular mechanisms of chemosensation. In this study, we sequenced, for the first time, the antennal transcriptome of B. germanica using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform and then conducted the bioinformatic analysis of the data. In total, we identified 73 putative chemosensory genes, with 62 genes being novel in this species. These chemosensory genes included 48 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 9 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 6 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 5 odorant receptors (ORs) and 5 ionotropic receptors (IRs). Notably, Plus-C OBPs account for an exceptionally high proportion (39.58%) of the total 48 OBPs in this primitive insect. To predict the chemosensory functions of the genes, a detailed global tissue expression profiling was investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Most OBP genes showed a chemosensory tissue biased profile, while CSP transcripts were widely and evenly expressed in different tissues. Furthermore, we found that more than half the chemosensory genes were expressed in the cerci, implying the important chemosensory functions of the organ in B. germanica. Taken together, our study provides important bases for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and evolution of insect chemosensation, and for development of the chemosensation based techniques to control B. germanica. PMID:26994445

  6. The cockroach Blattella germanica obtains nitrogen from uric acid through a metabolic pathway shared with its bacterial endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

    2014-07-01

    Uric acid stored in the fat body of cockroaches is a nitrogen reservoir mobilized in times of scarcity. The discovery of urease in Blattabacterium cuenoti, the primary endosymbiont of cockroaches, suggests that the endosymbiont may participate in cockroach nitrogen economy. However, bacterial urease may only be one piece in the entire nitrogen recycling process from insect uric acid. Thus, in addition to the uricolytic pathway to urea, there must be glutamine synthetase assimilating the released ammonia by the urease reaction to enable the stored nitrogen to be metabolically usable. None of the Blattabacterium genomes sequenced to date possess genes encoding for those enzymes. To test the host's contribution to the process, we have sequenced and analysed Blattella germanica transcriptomes from the fat body. We identified transcripts corresponding to all genes necessary for the synthesis of uric acid and its catabolism to urea, as well as for the synthesis of glutamine, asparagine, proline and glycine, i.e. the amino acids required by the endosymbiont. We also explored the changes in gene expression with different dietary protein levels. It appears that the ability to use uric acid as a nitrogen reservoir emerged in cockroaches after its age-old symbiotic association with bacteria.

  7. 水乳剂对地下大型超市德国小蠊杀灭效果研究%Effect of water emulsion against Blattella germanica at large underground supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 霍新北; 康殿民; 赖世宏; 解力

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the field killing effect of 4.5% permethrin EC and 1.8% D-tetramethrin a-gainst Blattella germanica. Methods Blattella germanica was treated with Korea KS-6-1 -type sprayer constantly a-long the slit. Results Twenty-eight days after treatment, the highest dropping rate of Blattella germanica was 99. 11 % and the lowest was 97.58% in the five supermarket regions. Conclusion The field use of 4.5% Per-methrin EC and 1.8% D-tetramethrin has a good quick killing effect against Blattella germanica, and better control effect against Blattella germanica is in supermarkets.%目的 探讨4.5%氯菊酯+1.8%右旋胺菊酯水乳油对现场德国小蠊的杀灭效果.方法 对德国小蠊用KS-6-1型喷雾器沿缝隙常量处理.结果 28d超市五大区域用药后德国小蠊密度下降率最高为99.11%,最低为97.58%.结论 4.5%氯菊酯+1.8%右旋胺菊酯水乳油用于现场,对德国小蠊具有较好的快速杀灭作用,对于大型超市杀灭德国小蠊有较好的控制效果.

  8. Unlike in Drosophila Meroistic Ovaries, hippo represses notch in Blattella germanica Panoistic ovaries, triggering the mitosis-endocycle switch in the follicular cells.

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    Paula Irles

    Full Text Available During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi. In Hippo-depleted specimens, the follicular cells of the basal ovarian follicles proliferate without arresting cytokinesis; the epithelium therefore becomes bilayered, impairing ovarian follicle growth. This phenotype is accompanied by long stalks between the ovarian follicles. In D. melanogaster loss of function of Notch determines that the stalk is not developed. With this in mind, we tested whether Hippo and Notch pathways are related in B. germanica. In Notch (only-depleted females, no stalks were formed between the ovarian follicles. Simultaneous depletion of Hippo and Notch rescued partially the stalk to wild-type. Unlike in the meroistic ovaries of D. melanogaster, in panoistic ovaries the Hippo pathway appears to regulate follicular cell proliferation by acting as a repressor of Notch, triggering the switch from mitosis to the endocycle in the follicular cells. The phylogenetically basal position of B. germanica suggests that this might be the ancestral function of Hippo in insect ovaries.

  9. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  10. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, R.B., E-mail: rblopes@cenargen.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Alves, S.B. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  11. Investigation on resistance to common insecticides of blattella germanica in Lianyungang City%连云港市德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏春清; 周日辉; 赵兴

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究并掌握连云港市德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗性情况,为合理使用杀虫剂提供科学依据.方法 采用常用的药膜接触法,测定德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷和残杀威抗药性.结果 连云港市德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷和残杀威的抗性系数分别为38.2、6.0和1.8,其抗性水平分别为高度抗性、中度抗性和低度抗性.结论 连云港市德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷抗和残杀威均产生不同程度的抗性,在防制蟑螂中,应根据抗性情况合理选择杀虫剂,以提高蟑螂的防制效果.%Objective To study and understand the resistance to common insecticides of blattella germanica in Lianyungang, and provide scientific basis for rational use of insecticides. Method Use the common drug contacting method of drug sensitive layers to determiner the resistance to cypermethrin, acephate and propoxur of blattella germanica. Results The resistance coefficients of blattella germanica to cypermethrin, acephate and propoxur were 38. 2, 6. 0, 1. 8, and the resistance levels were high, moderate and low resistance, respectively. Conclusions Blattella germanica had different resistance to cypermethrin, acephate and propoxur. We should select appropriate insecticides to improve the control effect of cockroach according to their resistance to drugs.

  12. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Gram-Negative Pathogenic Bacteria Species Isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India.

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    D Leshan Wannigama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are among the medically important pests found within the human habitations that cause serious public health problems. They may harbor a number of pathogenic bacteria on the external surface with antibiotic resistance. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. This study investigates the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria species isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India.Totally, 203 adult cockroaches were collected form 44 households and 52 food-handling establishments by trapping. Bacteriological examination of external surfaces of Pe. americana and Bl. germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods.Among the places, we found that 54% had cockroache infestation in households and 77% in food- handling establishments. There was no significant different between the overall bacteria load of the external surface in Pe. americana (64.04% and Bl. germanica (35.96%. However the predominant bacteria on cockroaches were Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, Kl. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa were the most prevalent, drug-resistant strains were isolated from the cockroaches with 100% resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and ampicillin. For individual strains of bacteria, Escherichia coli was found to have multi-resistance to four antibiotic tested, Citrobacter freundii four, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis to three.Cockroaches are uniformly distributed in domestic environment, which can be a possible vector for transmission of drug-resistant bacteria and food-borne diseases.

  13. Effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate on propoxur pharmacokinetics in Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Arroyo, H; Koehler, P G; Valles, S M

    2001-10-01

    Effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) on propoxur pharmacokinetics were examined in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Treatment of adult male German cockroaches with the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitor, PBO, or the esterase inhibitor, DEF, increased propoxur toxicity by 2- and 6.8-fold, respectively, implicating hydrolysis as a major detoxification route of propoxur in the German cockroach. However, significant hydrolytic metabolism could not be demonstrated conclusively in vitro resulting in a conflict between in situ bioassay data and in vitro metabolic studies. In vitro propoxur metabolism with NADPH-fortified microsomes produced at least nine metabolites. Formation of metabolites was NADPH-dependent; no quantifiable metabolism was detected with cytosolic fractions. However, microsomal fractions lacking an NADPH source did produce a low, but detectable, quantity of metabolites (1.6 pmol). PBO inhibited NADPH-dependent propoxur metabolism in a dose-dependent fashion, implicating cytochrome P450 monooxygenases as the enzyme system responsible for the metabolism. Interestingly, DEF also inhibited the NADPH-dependent metabolism of propoxur, albeit to a lower extent. Treatment with PBO or DEF also caused a significant reduction in the cuticular penetration rate of propoxur. The data demonstrate that unanticipated effects are possible with synergists and that caution must be exercised when interpreting synergist results.

  14. Toxicity of Pyrethroid and Organophosphorous Insecticides against Two Field Collected Strains of the German Cockroach Blattella Germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae from Hospitals in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Limoee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica is a major hygienic pest and mechanical vector for path­ogenic agents in hospitals and residential areas. The development of insecticide resistance is a serious problem in controlling of this pest. Toxicity of four commonly used insecticides (permethrin, cypermethrin, malathion and chlorpyrifos against two hospital- collected strains of the German cockroach was investigated.Methods: Topical bioassay methods were carried out for detecting insecticide susceptibility of adult male cock­roaches. For each insecticide, four to six concentrations resulting in >0% and <100% mortality were used. Three to six replicates of 10 cockroaches per concentration were conducted. The differences between LD50 (µg/g values were considered statistically significant only when the 95% confidence intervals did not overlap.Results: Two hospital- collected strains of the German cockroach showed low to moderate levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos, permethrin, malathion and cypermethrin based on resistance ratios compared with susceptible strain.Conclusion: The low level chlorpyrifos resistance suggesting this insecticide may still provide adequate control of these strains. While the obsereved moderate levels of resistance to cypermethrin could imply developing resistance to this compound.

  15. Resistance of Blattella germanica to common used insecticides in Yancheng city%盐城市区德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 陈胤忠

    2011-01-01

    目的 测定盐城市区蟑螂对溴氰菊酯、敌敌畏、残杀威、乙酰甲胺磷、高效氯氰菊酯5种杀虫剂的抗药性,以便通过抗药性水平在全市开展有效、科学的灭蟑工作.方法 采用500 ml三角烧瓶药膜接触法,测定德国小蠊半数击倒时间.结果 现场德国小蠊对上述5种杀虫剂的抗性系数分别为0.16、5.43、0.0013、1.13和11.03.盐城市区德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯为高抗性,对敌敌畏为中度抗性,对乙酰甲胺磷为低度抗性,而对溴氰菊酯、残杀威敏感.结论 应该根据抗药性合理选择杀虫剂,以提高蟑螂的防治效果.%Objective To determine resistance of Blattella germanica to deltamethrin, dichlorvos , propoxur, acephate,high effect cypermethrin in Yancheng city,and develop scientifical and reasonable work of killing cockroaches. Methods Using the method of medicine membrane - touching in 500 ml flask to find out the KT50 of Blattella germanica. Results The resistance index of field collected strains of Blattella germanica to above mentioned insecticides were 0. 16,5.43.0.0013,1. 13 and 11.03. Blattella germanica in Yancheng city showed high resistance to high effect cypermethrin, middle resistance to dichlorvos ,low resistance to acephate and sensitive to deltamethrin and propoxur. Conclusion It is necessary to select appropriate insecticides according to the situation of resistance so as to improve cockroach control effect.

  16. Resistance of Blattella germanica to five kinds of insecticides%德国小蠊对5种杀虫剂的抗药性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯威远; 蔡伟; 赵岩; 王磊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解海淀区现场品系德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗性水平,为合理选择用药提供依据.方法 采用药膜接触法测定抗性水平.结果 现场品系德国小蠊对氯氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯、残杀威、乙酰甲胺磷和敌敌畏的抗性系数分别为7.03、3.20、2.90、7.57和>13.13.结论 海淀区德国小蠊对残杀威没有产生明显的抗药性,对溴氰菊酯产生了耐药性,而对氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷和敌敌畏产生了明显的抗药性.%Objective To determine the resistance of Blattella germanica to five commonly used insecticides in Haidian district and provide the evidence for rational insecticides selection. Methods The resistance was examined by the method of contacting with chemical cover. Results The resistance index of field collected strains to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, propoxur, acephate and dichlorvos were 7.03,3.20,2.90,7.57 and > 13. 13 respectively. Conclusion The field strain in Haidian district has no significant resistance to propoxur. However, it has developed low resistance to deltamethrin and high resistance to cypermethrin, acephate and dichlorvos.

  17. Cockroaches (periplaneta americana and blattella germanica: reservoirs of multi drug resistant (MDR bacteria in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State

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    E.P. Udoinyang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological examination of external surfaces and internal guts of Periplaneta americana and Blattela germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using disc diffusion methods. Of the 317 bacteria isolated from the external surfaces and internal guts of P. americana, 275 (86.8% were Gram-negative bacilli, while 42 (13.2% were Gram-positive bacteria. Of the 204 bacterial isolates from B. germanica, 175 (85.8% were Gram negative, while 29 (14.2% were Gram positive bacteria. The bacteria isolated were Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae and Providencia spp. Among the Gram positive bacteria, only 75.8% S. aureus and 76.5% B. cereus were sensitive to Streptomycin and Gentamycin, while their resistance profiles to antibiotics in decreasing order were as follows: Chloramphenicol (41.7%, Amoxicillin (40.3%, Streptomycin (36.1%, Tetracycline (36.0%, Erythromycin (35.5%, Gentamicin (34.0%, Penicillin (34.6%, Cephalothin (27.8%, Sulfamethoxazole (23.4%, Ciprofloxacin (18.4% and Levofloxacin (17.7%. Less than 50% of E. cloacae and Providencia spp were resistant to Streptomycin, while ˂ 40% of P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to Chloramphenicol. Of the 353 (67.8% multi drug resistant bacteria, 121 (23.2% were resistant to 3 antibiotics, 232 (65.7% were resistant to 4-10 antibiotics. The antibiotic resistant Salmonella spp. and P. mirabilis had Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR indexes ranging from 0.27 to 0.82. These findings suggest cockroaches in Uyo as potential vectors of medically important multiple drug-resistant bacteria.

  18. Testing decreasing variabililty of cockroach forewings through time using four Recent species: Blattella germanica,Polyphaga aegyptiaca, Shelfordella lateralis and Blaberus craniifer, with implications for the study of fossil cockroach forewings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew J. Ross

    2012-01-01

    Vr(s)ansk(y) (2000) considered there is decreasing variability in the forewings of cockroaches through time,based on a study of fossil and Recent species.This study tests his theory,based on a study of four Recent species of cockroaches:Blattella germanica (Blattellidae),Polyphaga aegyptiaca (Polyphagidae),Shelfordella lateralis (Blattidae) and Blaberus craniifer (Blaberidae).The new results,based on the coefficient of variation (CV) of the number of veins,indicate that Recent species can be more variable than fossil species and therefore do not support the theory.The results also show that at least 30 complete wings of the same species are required for a reliable CV value that is comparable between species.

  19. Resistance of Blattella germanica to four kinds of common used insecticides in Shanghai%上海市德国小蠊对4种常用杀虫剂的抗药性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪霞; 徐仁权; 冷培恩; 张春哲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the resistance of Blattella germanica to four kinds of common used insecticides in Shanghai. Methods The surface contact method was used. Results The field population of B. Germanica had different resistance to deltamethrin, cypermethrin, propoxur and dichlorovos. The resistance ratios to these tested insecticides were 3.39 - 16.87, 1.41 - 13.61, 0.57-4.39 and 4.44-4.89 respectively. Of which, the resistance of CN population to deltamethrin and cypermethrin was higher. Conclusion The resistance of B. Germanica field population to four kinds of insecticides differs greatly, so the cockroach control by chemical method must be selected suitable insecticides.%目的 全面了解上海市德国小蠊对4种常用杀虫药剂的抗药性,指导科学、合理使用杀虫剂.方法药膜接触法.结果德国小蠊野外种群对溴氰菊酯、氯氰菊酯、残杀威和敌敌畏均产生了不同程度的抗药性,其抗性系数分别为3.39~16.87、1.41 ~ 13.61、0.57~4.39和4.44~4.89,其中CN种群对溴氰菊酯和氯氰菊酯的抗性较高.结论上海地区德国小蠊不同种群对4种杀虫剂的敏感度有很大差异,进行化学防治时必须选择合适的杀虫剂.

  20. 德国小蠊对3种常用杀虫剂的抗性调查%Resistance of Blattella germanica to three commonly used insecticides in Baoshan district of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨迎宇

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解2010年上海市宝山区的德国小蠊对溴氰菊酯、残杀威和高效氯氰菊酯的抗药性,以便科学合理使用杀虫剂.方法 药膜接触法.结果 上海市宝山区现场品系德国小蠊对溴氰菊酯、残杀威、高效氯氰菊酯的KT50分别为48.86、25.39、34.79 min,其抗性系数分别是敏感品系德国小蠊的9.18、1.83、6.09倍.结论 上海市宝山区现场品系德国小蠊对溴氰菊酯和高效氯氰菊酯已产生抗药性,对残杀威尚处敏感水平.%Objective To investigate the resistance of Blattella germanica to deltamethrin, propoxur, beta-eyper-methrin in Baoshan district of Shanghai in 2010, and give guidance to use insecticides scientifically. Methods The method of contact with chemical insecticides in jar was used. Results The KT50 of field-collected population of B. Germanica to deltamethrin, propoxur, beta-cypermethrin were 48. 86, 25. 39 and 34. 79 min respectively. The resistance ratios to deltamethrin, propoxur, beta-cypermethrin were 9.18, 1. 83 and 6. 09 respectively. Conclusion The field-collected population of B. Germanica from Baoshan district of Shanghai have developed resistance to deltamethrin and beta-cypermethrin, but they are susceptible to propoxur.

  1. 旅客列车德国小蠊对5种杀虫剂的抗药性监测%Resistance surveillance of Blattella germanica to five kinds of insecticides in passenger train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米登书; 陈明超; 王彦恒; 马建民; 蒋邓桓; 朱湘仪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the resistance of Blattella germanica to acephate, propoxur,clocythrin,betacypermethrin and fipronil.Methods Residual smearing and contacting method.Results On the basis of KT50,the beta-cypermethrin was the shortest, the fipronil was the longest, and from short to long the sequence were betacypermethrin, propoxur, clocythrin, acephate and fipronil.The Blattella germanica had emerged high resistance to fipronil( R > 30) ,resistance coefficient to beta-cypermethrin and clocythrin were 6.30 and 3.69 respectively, and resistance coefficient to propoxur was below 2 but the deadly effect during 24 h was 46.67%.Conclusion The Blattella germanica from passenger train were sensitive to acephate, and should give priority to consider using it,reduce the use of fipronil ,beta-cypermethrin and clocythrin ,use propoxur carefully ,and use insecticides in a planned way by turns.%目的 研究旅客列车德国小蠊对乙酰甲胺磷、残杀威、三氟氯氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯、氟虫腈等杀虫剂的抗药性.方法 采用WHO推荐的果酱瓶药膜法.结果 KT50最短为高效氯氰菊酯(19 min),最长为氟虫腈(>120 min).从低到高按高效氯氰菊酯、残杀威、三氟氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷、氟虫腈顺序排列.氟虫睛抗性系数>30,属高抗;高效氯氰菊酯的抗性系数为6.30,三氟氯氰菊酯的抗性系数为3.69,已产生抗药性;残杀威抗性系数<2,但24 h致死效果下降率达46.67%,说明亦产生抗药性.乙酰甲胺磷的抗性系数为1,致死效果下降率较低.结论 旅客列车德国小蠊对乙酰甲胺磷较敏感,提示在今后的防治工作中可考虑优先使用,同时应减少氟虫腈、高效氯氰菊酯、三氟氯氰菊酯的使用量,慎用残杀威,有计划地交替、轮换用药.

  2. Resistance of Blattella germanica to five kinds of insecticides in Shandong Province%山东省德国小蠊对5种杀虫剂的抗药性调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学军; 赖世宏; 赵志刚; 宫学诗; 霍新北

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解山东省德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性现状,指导科学、合理选择和使用杀虫剂.方法 药膜接触法.结果 山东省7个地区德国小蠊野外品系对氯氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷和残杀威的抗性系数分别为3.57 ~ 37.99、2.11 ~28.49、1.83~ 8.42、1.31 ~7.44、0.84~ 1.87.其中济南、淄博、德州和曲阜野外品系对溴氰菊酯抗性水平较高,济南、淄博和东营野外品系对氯氰菊酯抗性水平较高.结论 山东省部分地区德国小蠊对5种常用杀虫剂均产生了不同程度的抗药性,其中对氯氰菊酯和溴氰菊酯的抗性水平最高;对高效氯氰菊酯和乙酰甲胺磷的抗药性处于中、低度水平,对残杀威为低度抗性.%Objective To study the resistance of Blattella germanica to common used insecticides in Shandong Province,and provide evidence for using insecticides scientifically and reasonably. Methods Residual film method. Results The resistance ratios of seven field-collected strains to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, beta-cyper-methrin, acephate and propoxur were 3. 57 - 37. 99, 2. 11 - 28. 49, 1. 83 - 8. 42, 1. 37 - 7. 44 and 0. 84 - 1. 87 respectively. The resistance ratios of deltamethrin were high in Jinan,Zibo, Dezhou and Qufu for field-collected strains. The resistance also reached the high level to cypermethrin in Jinan, Zibo and Dongying for three field-collected strains. Conclusion Currently, different resistance levels to common insecticides have been developed in seven geographic populations of Blattella germanica within Shandong Province. Among the five commonly used insecticides, the resistance levels to cypermethrin and deltamethrin are the highest, followed by beta-cypermethrin and acephate, and the resistance levels to propoxur are low.

  3. 江苏省部分地区德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性调查%Resistance of Blattella germanica to common used insecticides in some areas in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧; 张爱军; 杨维芳; 褚宏亮; 孙俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解江苏省部分地区德国小蠊对溴氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯、敌敌畏、残杀威、乙酰甲胺磷5种常用杀虫剂的抗药性程度,以便通过抗性程度来指导科学、合理的用药.方法 药膜接触法.结果 江苏省4个地市的德国小蠊野外品系对上述5种杀虫剂的平均抗性系数分别为17.0、8.4、3.2、1.6和4.4.南京、南通、淮安品系对溴氰菊酯的抗性倍数最高,分别为22.9、20.6、16.1;丹阳品系对高效氯氰菊酯的抗性程度最高(R=10.9).各品系德国小蠊对残杀威的抗性程度较低(R=1.6).结论 江苏地区4个野外品系德国小蠊对溴氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯、敌敌畏和乙酰甲胺磷均产生不同程度的抗性.%Objective To estimate the susceptibility or resistance of Blattella germanica, including normal strain and four field-collected strain to deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, dichlorvos, propoxur and acephate in some areas in Jiangsu Province. Methods Contacting with chemical cover. Results The average resistance ratios of field-collected strains to deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, dichlorvos, propoxur and acephate were 17.0, 8.4, 3.2, 1.6 and 4.4 respectively. The resistance ratios of deltamethrin were high in Nanjing, Nantong and Huaian four tield - collected strain( R = 22. 9 , 20. 6 , 16.1). The resistance also reached the high level to beta - cypermethrin in Danyang strain ( R = 10. 9) . The average resistance ratios of field - collected strains to propoxur was low ( R = 1. 6). Conclusion Field collected strains of Blattella germanica in Jiangsu Province have already developed different resistance to four kinds of insecticides.

  4. 汕头市德国小蠊抗药性测试%Pesticide resistance test of Blattella germanica in Shantou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志霞; 谢广昭; 徐八一; 陈宏辉; 黄建云

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the resistance status of Blattella gennanica in Shantou to 3 kinds of insecticides, and provide evidences for scientifically using insecticides. Method Blattella gennanica were collected and bred for 1 generation in the lab, then tested by drop method. Results The resistance coefficients of Blattella gennanica to dichlorvos, propoxur and deltamethrin were 0.92, 1.20 and 38.72, respectively. Conclusions Blattella gennanica had no resistance against to dichlorvos and propoxur. On the contrary, there was high resistance against deltamethrin. We should strengthen the insecticide resistance monitoring work of deltamethrin and scientific and rational use of it.%目的了解汕头市德国小蠊对3种杀虫剂的抗药性状况,为科学使用杀虫剂提供依据。方法在汕头市区采集德国小蠊,实验室培养一代后采用点滴法进行测定。结果德国小蠊对敌敌畏、残杀威、溴氰菊酯的抗性系数分别为0.92、1.20、38.72。结论德国小蠊对敌敌畏、残杀威无明显抗药性,对溴氰菊酯产生了高度抗性,应加强对菊酯类杀虫剂的抗药性监测工作及其科学合理的使用。

  5. 甘肃省铁路辖区德国小蠊对杀虫剂的敏感性调查%Sensibility of Blattella germanica to insecticides in the railway region of Gansu province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米登书; 陈明超; 王建强; 马春文; 孙光伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the sensibility and lethal effect of Blattella germanica on acephate, propoxur, cyhalothrin, beta - cypermethrin and fipronil in the railway region of Gansu province. Methods The pesticide smeared jam bottle drug membrane contact method advocated by WHO was used in this study. Results The resistance coefficients of B. germanica from Lanzhou and Jiayuguan railway region were 2.17 and 12.34 to beta-cypermethrin and 2.87 and 4.96 to clocythrin, respectively. The killing effects of clocythrin and propoxur on B. germanica from Lanzhou railway region were 90.00% and 53.33% , respectively, and 40.00% against those from the Jiayuguan railway region. Conclusion The usage amount of beta-cypermethrin and clocythrin should be reduced and care given to the usage of propoxur. Priority should be given to the usage of acephate and fipronil alternately so as to delay and reduce the resistance among cockroaches.%目的 了解甘肃省铁路辖区德国小蠊对乙酰甲胺磷、残杀威、三氟氯氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯、氟虫腈5种杀虫剂的敏感性和致死效果.方法 采用WHO推荐的果酱瓶药膜接触法.结果 兰州、嘉峪关铁路辖区野生种群对高效氯氰菊酯抗性系数分别为2.17、12.34倍,对三氟氯氰菊酯抗性系数分别为2.87、4.96倍.三氟氯氰菊酯对兰州铁路地区野生种群致死效果下降率达90.00%,其次是残杀威(53.33%);残杀威、三氟氯氰菊酯对嘉峪关铁路地区野生种群致死效果下降率均为40.00%.结论 在对德国小蠊防治工作中应减少对高效氯氰菊酯、三氟氯氰菊酯的使用量,慎用残杀威,优先考虑使用乙酰甲胺磷、氟虫腈,有计划地交替、轮换使用杀虫剂.

  6. 国际航行船舶携带德国小蠊抗药性调查%Investigation on insecticide resistance of Blattella germanica collected from international voyage ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炯林; 丁言良; 胡攀; 林纲

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解国际航行船舶携带的德国小蠊抗药性情况,为口岸防治合理用药提供科学依据.方法 采集国际航行船舶上孳生的德国小蠊自然种群,带回实验室繁育,培养1代后,取2~3周龄雄性成虫,用药膜接触法测定其对丙烯菊酯、溴氰菊酯、敌敌畏、仲丁威、残杀威、毒死蜱、高效氯氰菊酯7种杀虫剂的抗性倍数.结果 采自3艘国际航行船舶的德国小蠊对7种杀虫剂的抗性依次为2.54~5.56、2.18~5.14、3.98~5.87、1.57~1.91、0.83~1.27、1.06~1.59、2.89~3.93倍.结论 3艘国际航行船舶携带的德国小蠊对菊酯类及有机磷类杀虫剂敌敌畏已产生耐药性或抗药性,对氨基甲酸酯类杀虫剂及毒死蜱较为敏感,口岸防治德国小蠊可采用氨基甲酸酯类杀虫剂.%Objective To evaluate the insecticide resistance of Blattella germanica collected from international voyage ships. Methods B. germanicas were collected from international voyage ships and bred in laboratory, male insects of the first offspring aged 2-3 weeks were collected to evaluate their resistance to allethrin, deltamethrin, DDVP, fenobucarb, propoxur, chlorpyrifos, and decamethrim. The resistance was determined by the insecticide film contact method. Results The resistance level of B. germanica from three ships against allethrin, deltamethrin, DDVP, fenobucarb, propoxur, chlorpyrifos, and decamethrim was 2.54-5.56, 2.18-5.14, 3.98-5.87, 1.57-1.91, 0.83-1.27, 1.06-1.59 and 2.89-3.93 times of the susceptible strain, respectively. Conclusion The B. germanica from the three ships have developed different degrees of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides and DDVP, but still susceptible to carbamate insecticides and chlorpyrifos. The carbamate insecticides can be used for controlling cockroaches in ports.

  7. Modulation of the behavioral and electrical responses to the repellent DEET elicited by the pre-exposure to the same compound in Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfara, Valeria; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A; González-Audino, Paola A

    2016-01-01

    Insects under different stimuli from the environment modify behavioural responses due to changes in the sensitivity of neurons at the peripheral and/or at the central level of the nervous system. This phenomenon is called neuronal plasticity, and sensory adaptation is an example of it. An insect repellent is a chemical that produces oriented movements of the insects away from its source. In this work we studied the modulation of the behavioural and electrical response to the repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) in males of the German cockroach B. germanica produced by previous exposure to the same repellent. Methods. We determined repellency using a circular arena, one half of which was treated with DEET. The time spent by insects in each half of the arena was measured, and a repellency coefficient (RC) was calculated. The RCs of pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed insects were compared. To determine a possible role of nitric oxide in the modulation of the response to DEET after pre-exposure, the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC) was applied on cockroaches' antennae. The electrical activity of the cockroaches' antennae in response to DEET was recorded using electroantennogram (EAG) technique. The response to DEET was recorded also after a long stimulation with the same repellent, and after topical application of SNAC and dbcGMP (a cGMP analogue) on the antennae. Results. We found that previous exposure of B. germanica males to the repellent DEET produced an increase of the repellency at the behavioural level, measured as RC. A possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in the transduction pathway of this phenomenon is suggested, since treatment of the cockroaches with the NO donor SNAC also produced an increase of the repellency elicited by DEET. On the other hand, the response of the cockroaches' antennae exposed to DEET was determined electrophysiologically. The electrical activity in response to DEET decreased when the insects' antennae were

  8. Modulation of the behavioral and electrical responses to the repellent DEET elicited by the pre-exposure to the same compound in Blattella germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A.; González-Audino, Paola A.

    2016-01-01

    Insects under different stimuli from the environment modify behavioural responses due to changes in the sensitivity of neurons at the peripheral and/or at the central level of the nervous system. This phenomenon is called neuronal plasticity, and sensory adaptation is an example of it. An insect repellent is a chemical that produces oriented movements of the insects away from its source. In this work we studied the modulation of the behavioural and electrical response to the repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) in males of the German cockroach B. germanica produced by previous exposure to the same repellent. Methods. We determined repellency using a circular arena, one half of which was treated with DEET. The time spent by insects in each half of the arena was measured, and a repellency coefficient (RC) was calculated. The RCs of pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed insects were compared. To determine a possible role of nitric oxide in the modulation of the response to DEET after pre-exposure, the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC) was applied on cockroaches’ antennae. The electrical activity of the cockroaches’ antennae in response to DEET was recorded using electroantennogram (EAG) technique. The response to DEET was recorded also after a long stimulation with the same repellent, and after topical application of SNAC and dbcGMP (a cGMP analogue) on the antennae. Results. We found that previous exposure of B. germanica males to the repellent DEET produced an increase of the repellency at the behavioural level, measured as RC. A possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in the transduction pathway of this phenomenon is suggested, since treatment of the cockroaches with the NO donor SNAC also produced an increase of the repellency elicited by DEET. On the other hand, the response of the cockroaches’ antennae exposed to DEET was determined electrophysiologically. The electrical activity in response to DEET decreased when the insects’ antennae

  9. The investigation on the resistance of Blattella germanica to insecticides in Longgang district of Shenzhen%深圳市龙岗区德国小蠊自然种群对常用杀虫剂的抗药性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志辉; 韦薇; 林琳; 刘渠; 张起文; 王德全

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市龙岗区德国小蠊自然种群对5种常用杀虫剂的抗性现状,为指导全区科学合理地使用杀虫剂和提高德国小蠊杀灭效果提供参考.方法 采用粘捕法捕捉蜚蠊,分类鉴定后通过广口瓶药膜接触法检测德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗性水平.结果 共捕获蜚蠊1026只,其中德国小蠊占97.95%,为优势种;龙岗区德国小蠊自然种群对高效氯氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯、双硫磷、残杀威和仲丁威均产生了不同程度的抗性,抗性系数依次为25.27、10.65、12.73、4.55和14.59,其中高效氯氰菊酯抗性最为突出(抗性系数>20).结论 深圳市龙岗区德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯、双硫磷和仲丁威已产生高抗性.%Objective To investigate the resistance of Blattella germanica to five kinds of insecticides in Longgang district of Shenzhen for providing scientific data for its effective control. Methods Insecticide membrane method was used to capture the insects, which were identified classified and tested for their insecticide resistance level with drug - membrane contact method. Results A total of 1026 cockroaches, of which the dominant species B. Germanica accounting for 97.95%, were captured. The results indicated that the field-collected strain of B. Germanica was resistant to all the 5 kinds of insecticides, with the resistance coefficient of it to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, biothion, propoxur and fenobucarb being 25.27, 10.65, 12.73, 4.55 and 14.59, respectively, showing that the resistance to beta-cypermethrin was most significant (R>20). Conclusion B. Germanica in Longgang district of Shenzhen has high resistance to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, biothion, and fenobucarb.

  10. Identification of pathogenic bacteria carried by Blattella germanica in urban communities by 16S rRNA sequence analysis%16SrRNA序列分析法对城市居民区德国小蠊携带致病菌检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐振强; 赵奇; 刘吉起; 郭祥树

    2013-01-01

    目的 基于16S rRNA序列分析法检测河南省城市居民区中德国小蠊携带致病菌情况.方法 设计通用的16SrRNA基因引物,对从试虫体表或体内分离出的单菌落进行PCR扩增并测序,再利用BLAST序列比对检索系统寻找同源性最高的序列作为鉴定结果.结果 分离出福氏志贺菌和伤寒沙门菌2种病原菌,阴沟肠杆菌、柯氏柠檬酸杆菌、大肠埃希菌、沙雷菌和肺炎克雷伯菌5种条件致病菌,以及嗜碱芽孢杆菌和解淀粉芽孢杆菌2种工程菌.结论 河南省城市居民区中德国小蠊携带致病菌的情况不容忽视;16S rRNA序列分析法可以作为微生物快速鉴定方法为今后的病媒生物防制工作提供帮助.%Objective To investigate the pathogenic bacteria carried by Blattella germanica in the urban communities of Henan province, China by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Methods A universal primer for 16S rRNA was designed, and the single colonies isolated from the body surfaces or inside the bodies of B. Germanica samples were treated by PCR amplification with the primer. The amplification products were sequenced and then identified using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), and the sequences that shared the highest similarity with the amplification products were selected. Results The identified pathogens included 2 pathogenic bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella enteria subsp. Enterica, 5 conditionally pathogenic bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter koseri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Serratia sp., and 2 engineering bacteria, Bacillus halodurans and B. Amyloliquefaciens. Conclusion In the urban communities of Henan province, B. Germanica is a pathogen vector, which cannot be neglected; 16S rRNA sequence analysis can be used as a method for rapid identification of pathogens, which is helpful to vector risk assessment.

  11. Application Research of the Median Lethal Concentration of 5 Insecticides in the Bait against Blattella germanica%5种杀虫剂对德国小蠊的半数致死浓度及其在饵剂中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华; 黄鸿; 欧剑峰; 李志刚

    2016-01-01

    [目的]测定5种杀虫剂对德国小蠊的半数致死浓度(LC50)及以LC50值为基础浓度在饵剂中的应用效果.[方法]采用点滴法测定药剂的LC50值、参照GB/T 13917.7-2009进行室内药效测定及现场药效试验采用粘捕法进行密度测定.[结果]氟虫腈、毒死蜱、残杀威、氟虫胺和吡虫啉对德国小蠊的LC50值分别为71.82、806.78、1361.52、7087.67、7874.56mg/L.以LC50值为基础浓度制定的0.01%氟虫腈饵剂、0.1%毒死蜱饵剂、0.2%残杀威饵剂、1%氟虫胺饵剂和1%吡虫啉饵剂对德国小蠊的室内药效试验结果显示,8d内死亡率均大于94.44%.现场防治试验结果显示,第30天的密度下降率分别为100.00%、95.13%、98.67%、100.00%和100.00%.[结论]以5种杀虫剂LC50值为基础浓度配制的饵剂对德国小蠊具有很好的室内药效和现场防治效果,LC50是制定德国小蠊饵剂的基础浓度.%[Aims] The aim of this study was to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) of 5 insecticides on adults of Blattella germanica and to test baits efficacy in LC50 in laboratory bioassay and field trials.[Methods] LC50 were determined by topical application methods.Methods of laboratory bioassay were based on GB/T 13917.7-2009.Field tests were made at 5 sites to evaluate the effects of the baits application by sticky trap catches.[Results] The LC50 of fipronil,chlorphrifos,propoxur,sulfluramid and imidacloprid against B.germanica were 71.82,806.78,1361.52,7087.67 and 7874.56 mg/L respectively.The mortality of B.germanica were higher than 94.44% after 8 days after treatment with each type of baits in 0.01% fipronil,0.1%chlorphrifos,0.2%propoxur,1% sulfluramid and 1% imidacloprid.The density reduction were 100.00,95.13,98.67,100.00 and 100.00% respectively after 30 days in the field control.[Conclusions] The baits application in LC50 of 5 insecticides had remarkable efficacy against B.germanica both in laboratory and

  12. Characterization of antigenic epitopes of BgGSTD1 from Blattella germanica and its three dimensional structure modeling%德国小蠊变应原BgGSTD1的抗原表位特征及三维结构建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 胡玉静; 金珊珊; 杨海伟; 魏继福; 何韶衡

    2011-01-01

    Objective : We conducted bioinforrnatic analyzes to identify and characterize the structural properties of Delta-glutathione S -transferase ( BgGSTD1) from Blattella germanica. , which gave the clue for the diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy . Methods: BLAST was applied to search for the proteins ,which show high similarities with BgGSTD 1. Clustalx 1. 83 was used for sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction. Antigenic epitopes of BgGSTD1 were predicted by the software of DNA Star. The motif and three -dimensional structure modeling were analyzed by online software in Scan Prosite and SWISS -MODEL web server. Results: The phylogenetic analysis found that BgGSTD 1 showed highest similarity with the glutathione S-transferase identified from Periplaneta americana. BgGSTD1 was a global protein , mainly containing α+β secondary structure. Its antigenic epitope were mostly located on 9 - 10, 58 -61 , 79 -81, 86 - 87 , 179 - 180 , 189 - 190 , 216 regions. Motif analysis found that BgGSTD 1 had a soluble glutathione S-transferase N-terminal domain and a soluble glutathione S -transferase C-terminal domain. Threedimensional structure of BgGSTD1 was also constructed. Conclusion: It seemed that the predicted structure could reflect the real tertiary structure of BgGSTD 1 , which was useful for the further study of structure -func-tion relationship .%目的:通过生物信息学方法了解德国小蠊变应原BgGSTD1的结构特征,为蟑螂变态反应性疾病的诊断和治疗提供线索.方法:在NCBI数据库中获得BgGSTD1蛋白序列,Blast得到其相似序列,并应用Clustalx 1.83构建同源进化树,联合应用DNA Star多种方法预测其抗原表位,在Scan Prosite数据库中进行Motif预测,并应用SWISS- MODEL服务器进行自动建模,得到其三维结构.结果:德国小蠊BgGSTD1与美洲大蠊谷胱甘肽转移酶在进化上具有较近的亲缘关系.BgGSTD1主要为α+β结构的混合蛋白,

  13. Energetic Cost of Subacute Chlorpyrifos Intoxication in the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Kristensen, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    The energetic cost of a sublethal treatment with chlorpyrifos was estimated by use of direct microcalorimetry to measure metabolic heat in susceptible and resistant strains of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. Moreover, one of the detoxifcation enzyme systems known to be involved...... production increased in the susceptible strain ...  30 min after exposure and declined again after ... 120 min to the basal level. The energetic cost of the exposure to the insecticide corresponds ... 5 h of normal metabolism. There were no signifcant differences in heat production after toxic treatment...

  14. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait Against Asian and German Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby

    2016-08-01

    The Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai Mizukubo) was introduced to Florida in 1986 and has since spread throughout the Southeastern United States. Blattella asahinai is a peridomestic pest and high population densities in residential areas can become a nuisance, especially when adults fly into homes. Few studies to date have been conducted on Asian cockroach control, and we evaluated the efficacy of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait and Maxforce Complete Granular Insect Bait against this species in the laboratory compared with the closely related German cockroach (Blattella germanica (L.)). In no-choice and two-choice assays with both species, Zyrox bait and Maxforce bait achieved nearly 100% mortality within two and five days, respectively. We also tested Zyrox bait against B. asahinai in an invasive field population in North Carolina at the label rate (2 g/m(2)) and at approximately three times the label rate (6.9 g/m(2)), and found that broadcast applications at both rates reduced populations by an average of 64 and 92%, respectively, for 35 d after the initial application. Zyrox Fly Bait appears to be effective against the Asian and German cockroaches, and could be another tool in an integrated pest management program, if its label could be extended or the active ingredient (cyantraniliprole) formulated into a cockroach bait. PMID:27122494

  15. Ovicidal activity of chitin synthesis inhibitors when fed to adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMark, J J; Bennett, G W

    1990-07-01

    Ovicidal activity was observed in four adult groups (virgin males; virgin females; newly gravid females; and inseminated, reproducing females) of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, hexafluron, and UC 84572 (structure not disclosed) at the LC50's and LC95's determined from fifth-stage nymphs. All compounds were active only when fed to reproducing females (including the feeding period in which the ootheca is developing). Hexafluron and triflumuron at the LC50 caused 100% inhibition of hatch in reproducing females. Chlorfluazuron and UC 84572 at the LC50 had similar ovicidal activity (45.8 and 50.0% hatch, respectively). Female German cockroaches fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors before mating and after the ootheca had protruded from the abdomen were not affected. Reproductive capabilities of males were not affected, and males did not effectively transfer the compounds to untreated females during mating. PMID:2388230

  16. Efficacy of chitin synthesis inhibitors on nymphal German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMark, J J; Bennett, G W

    1989-12-01

    Second- and fifth-instar Blattella germanica (L.), fed the chitin synthesis inhibitors triflumuron, chlorfluazuron, hexafluron, and UC 84572 (structure not disclosed) were examined for mortality and developmental abnormalities. All compounds were active against B. germanica (L.), with lower diet concentrations being required to kill second instars compared with fifth instars. Chlorfluazuron was significantly more active against second and fifth instars (LC50 = 0.000191 and 0.000363% AI, respectively for the second and fifth instars). UC 84572 also killed nymphs at extremely low concentrations (LC50 = 0.000508 and 0.000754% AI, respectively, for second and fifth instars). LC50's for hexafluron and triflumuron against fifth instars were more than 1,000 times higher than that for chlorfluazuron. Sensitive periods of exposure were determined by comparing effects when four different age classes of fifth instars (1-, 4-, 7-, and 10-d old) fed on the compounds for 3 d. Triflumuron was most effective when ingested during the first three age classes and hexafluron was most effective during the last three age classes. Chlorfluazuron and UC 84572 were most effective when ingested during the second age class (days 4-6). Adults surviving exposure during the fifth instar were often deformed and weak; they died at a greater rate than the controls. However, most surviving adults were able to reproduce normally. PMID:2607029

  17. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cockroaches Blattella germanica

    OpenAIRE

    Lambiase, S; Zhang, Y.; P. Morbini; M. Fasola

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinat...

  18. Identification of cuticular lipids eliciting interspecific courtship in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby

    2008-05-01

    The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.

  19. Duration of Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits Toxicity against Blattella germanica Strains of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the duration of fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits toxicity against Ger-man cockroach strains in Iran during 2003-2004. In order to conduct this study, nine German cockroach strains were used. Newly emerged adult male German cockroaches starved for one scotophase (12 h, and ingested fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits for 2 h. After the given time was over, the bait was removed and replaced with mouse pellet. Mortality was re-corded at 12 intervals for 144 h (6 days. Mortality data of the replicates were pooled and was tested using probit analysis. Both gel baits were toxic to adult male German cockroaches. In the ingested bait method, the susceptible strain showed LT50 of 47.1 and 11.3 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively, and the average LT90 was 74.2 and 19.3 h, respec¬tively. LT50 of the feral German cockroach strains varied 14.9 h from 30.5 to 45.4 h and 4.4 h from 12.4 to 16.8 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively. All German cockroach strains showed a similar susceptibility to fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, compared with the susceptible laboratory strain. The steep slopes of ingested bait mortality curves indicated that the feral German cockroach strains were homogenous to fipronil and imidacloprid ingested gel baits. These results suggest that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits appear to have considerable potential as a bait for insecticide-resistant strains of German cockroach.

  20. Duration of Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits Toxicity against Blattella germanica Strains of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the duration of fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits toxicity against Ger-man cockroach strains in Iran during 2003-2004. In order to conduct this study, nine German cockroach strains were used. Newly emerged adult male German cockroaches starved for one scotophase (12 h, and ingested fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits for 2 h. After the given time was over, the bait was removed and replaced with mouse pellet. Mortality was re-corded at 12 intervals for 144 h (6 days. Mortality data of the replicates were pooled and was tested using probit analysis. Both gel baits were toxic to adult male German cockroaches. In the ingested bait method, the susceptible strain showed LT50 of 47.1 and 11.3 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively, and the average LT90 was 74.2 and 19.3 h, respec¬tively. LT50 of the feral German cockroach strains varied 14.9 h from 30.5 to 45.4 h and 4.4 h from 12.4 to 16.8 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively. All German cockroach strains showed a similar susceptibility to fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, compared with the susceptible laboratory strain. The steep slopes of ingested bait mortality curves indicated that the feral German cockroach strains were homogenous to fipronil and imidacloprid ingested gel baits. These results suggest that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits appear to have considerable potential as a bait for insecticide-resistant strains of German cockroach.

  1. Duration of Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits Toxicity against Blattella germanica Strains of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    H Nasirian

    2007-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the duration of fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits toxicity against Ger-man cockroach strains in Iran during 2003-2004. In order to conduct this study, nine German cockroach strains were used. Newly emerged adult male German cockroaches starved for one scotophase (12 h), and ingested fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits for 2 h. After the given time was over, the bait was removed and replaced with mouse pellet. Mortality was re-corded at 12 inter...

  2. [The yeast community associated with the digestive tract of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.

  3. Effect of insulin on Blattela germanica Linnacus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolghasemi E; Moosa Kazem SH; Abolhasani M; Davoudi M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the sensitivity of Blattela germanica L (B. germanica L) to differenct doses of insulin. Methods: B. germanica were reared in laboratory conditions at (25±2) ℃ and (50±5)% relative humidity (RH), and exposure period of 12:12 L/D. Different concentrations, viz. 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μ of insulin N, R, (N+R) were prepared and injected to 10 treated cockroaches with another 10 cockroaches which were injected with normal saline as control group. Results: Insulin N with a dose of 20 μ caused more than 70% mortality of B. germanica in this study. There was a significant difference between 20 μ of insulin N with other doses of 5, 10, 15 and 25 μ, and its comparison with other forms of medication also showed obvious difference (P<0.05). Conclusions:It can be concluded that effective drug doses of insulin which can be used as posion bait or gel against German cockroaches could be utilized in the control of B. germanica in the future field studies.

  4. Integration of repellents, attractants, and insecticides in a "push-pull" strategy for managing German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalyanya, G; Moore, C B; Schal, C

    2000-05-01

    "Push-pull" is a behavior manipulation strategy in which behavior-modifying stimuli are integrated with a pest control agent. We evaluated the efficacy of an insecticide bait in combination with attractants ("pull"), repellents ("push"), or both ("push-pull") using a hydramethylnon-based bait, feces-contaminated surfaces as an attractant, and methyl neodecanamide-treated surfaces to repel cockroaches. Both adult males and first-instar German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), chose shelters nearest the attractant-treated surfaces and farthest from the repellent-treated surfaces. Food consumption was highest from food nearest the preferred shelters, and mortality was highest when the insecticide bait was near the preferred shelter. These patterns were more apparent in first instars than in adults. Our results from large arena studies in the laboratory show that the push-pull strategy can be used to displace pests from resources or commodities that are to be protected, and simultaneously lure the pest to an attractant source coupled with a pest control agent. Concentrating cockroaches into a limited area should facilitate the precision-targeting of the pest population and promises to reduce insecticide use.

  5. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran.Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method.Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas.Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  6. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  7. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  8. Genetic diversity of medlar (Mespilus germanica) germplasm using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The medlar (Mespilus germanica) is a pome fruit related to pear (Pyrus sp.) and hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) that has been cultivated for many centuries for its edible fruit. It was also an important medicinal plant in the Middle Ages. The center of origin for Mespilus is the Trans-Caucasus region and t...

  9. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

    OpenAIRE

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC). 13 c...

  10. Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Medlar (Mespilus germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhami Gülçin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Medlar is the fruit of Mespilus germanica L. in the family of Rosaceae. The present study outlines that the native medlar (Mespilus germanica L. fruits an extremely rich source of antioxidants. In this study, antioxidant and antiradical property of medlar fruits were evaluated. Total phenolics and flavonoids amounts in lyophilized extract of medlar (LEM fruits were calculated as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents, respectively. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of LEM were investigated using different in vitro assays including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH∙, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD •+, and superoxide anion radicals (O 2 •- scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2, ferric ions (Fe 3+ and cupric ions (Cu 2+ reducing ability, Fe 3+-TPTZ reducing ability, ferrous ions (Fe 2+ chelating activity as trolox equivalent. In addition, quantitative amounts of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, α-tocopherol, pyrogallol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and ascorbic acid in LEM were detected by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The presence of these antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible medlar fruits.

  11. Toxicity of selected pesticides to the groundwater copepod Parastenocaris germanica (Crustacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenboom J; Boessenkool JJ; ECO

    1994-01-01

    De toxiciteit van negen verschillende bestrijdingsmiddelen of afbraakproducten voor de grondwater copepod Parstenocaris germanica is onderzocht. De onderzochte stoffen zijn geselecteerd vanwege hun potentieel gevaar voor grondwater bewonende metazoen. Niet alle experimenten lieten een duidelijke

  12. 残杀威对宾馆德国小蠊的灭效观察%Field killing effect of Propoxur against Blattella germanica in hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 王学军; 宫艳春

    2005-01-01

    目的残杀威(Propoxur)应用于宾馆灭蟑方法及药效的探讨.方法使用美国Model 2600型超低容量喷雾器喷洒20%残杀威乳油.结果应用超低容量喷雾器充分发挥残杀威乳油对德国小蠊的杀灭作用,施药3次30 d后灭效高达98%.结论 20%残杀威乳油应用于现场对德国小蠊具有较好的快速杀灭作用,轮换用药对德国小蠊抗性的升高和缓解具有积极的作用.

  13. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC. 13 compounds were received, 8 of them were identified as the substances of phenolic origin: flavonoids (quercetine, taxofolin, luteolin, hydroxycoric acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic, polyphenolic compounds (epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin. The sum of identified phenolic compounds amounted to 78,24% of all compounds found by the given method.

  14. Future prospects for the rare, late-flowering Gentianella germanica and Gentianopsis ciliata in Dutch nutrient-poor calcareous grasslands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.B. Oostermeijer; S.H. Luijten; A.C. Ellis-Adam; J.C.M. den Nijs

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the population biology of two calcareous grassland gentians, Gentianella germanica and Gentianopsis ciliata, in relation to the habitat management currently practiced in The Netherlands. There, at the margin of their range, both species are rare. Gentianella germanica persists on six rema

  15. Resistance of Blattella gemanica to commonly used pesticides in Tianjin%天津市德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 吴彤宇; 张咏枸; 李培羽; 郝连义; 张静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the current resistance of the Blattella germanica (L.) to commonly used pesticides in Tianjin, and provide evidence for better cockroaches control. Methods The residual film method recommended by WHO was applied to measure the median knockdown time (KT50) for B. Germanica. Batches of B. Germanica were exposed to five insecticide residues (dichlorovos, acephate, propoxur, betacypermethrin and permethrin) in glass jars to determine their knockdown resistance levels. Resistance ratios were calculated as Rrso=KT50 of the test strain/KT50 of the susceptible strains. Results The KT50 for field-collected B. Germanica in Nankai, Jinnan, Hexi, Tanggu, Dongli, Xiqing and Beichen were 6.15, 6.49, 8.37, 8.22, 7.84, 9.29 and 12.40 min to dichlorovos, 74.28, 65.36, 29.52, 30.23, 30.67, 58.64 and 33.08 min to acephate, and 24.97, 40.63, 27.17, 24.43, 40.73, 42.44 and 40.91 min to propoxur, respectively. The RR50 values for B. Germanica of dichlorovos, acephate and propoxur were below 3. The KT50 to betacypermethrin for field populations in Nankai, Tanggu and Xiqing were 32.61, 36.50 and 51.00 min respectively, with the RR50 ranging from 6.48 to 10.71 times. The values for Jinnan, Hexi, Dongli and Beichen were all greater than 120.00 min, with the RR50 greater than 20. The KT50 to permethrin for field populations in Nankai, Jinnan, Hexi, Dongli and Beichen were all above 120.00 min, with the RR50 greater than 20. However, the KT50 value for Xiqing strains was 26.96 min, with the RR? Lower than 5, and the value for Tanggu population was 14.10 min, with the RR50 lower than 3. Conclusion B. Germanica control in Tianjin requires reduced administration of betacypermethrin and permethrin along with increased carbamates such as propoxur and organophosphorus pesticides such as dichlorovos and acephate.%目的 了解天津市德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性现状,为制定科学的防治措施提供依据.方法 采用WHO推荐的药膜

  16. Toxicidad Oral de Seis Insecticidas en Larvas de Vespula germanica (F.) en Laboratorio Oral Toxicity of Six Insecticides on Vespula germanica (F.) Larvae in The Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Ulloa K.; Tomislav Curkovic S.; Jaime Araya C.

    2006-01-01

    Se colectaron nidos de la avispa chaqueta amarilla, Vespula germanica F., de los cuales se seleccionaron pisos con larvas de último estado (n ≥ 35), que se mantuvieron posteriormente a 25°C y ~50% HR en oscuridad. Se hicieron ensayos en laboratorio para determinar la CL50 de formulaciones comerciales de abamectina (aplicada en un rango de 6,8 a 0,84 mg L-1), Bacillus thuringiensis (640-5,1 mg L-1), fipronil (1.000-1 mg L-1), metoxifenocide (9.600-60 mg L-1), spinosad (106-0,11 mg L-1) y...

  17. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lozada

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication, foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded, or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted. Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.

  18. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay; Ersin Atay; Serdal Oğüt

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey) were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the resul...

  19. Variations in phytodetritus derived carbon uptake of the intertidal foraminifera Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukovits, Julia; Bukenberger, Patrick; Enge, Annekatrin; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Heinz, Petra

    2016-04-01

    Phytodetritus represents a major component of particulate organic carbon in intertidal mudflats. Estuaries and tidal currents yield an extensive amount of these particles that display a substantial nutrient source for littoral food webs. For benthic foraminifera, a group of marine protists, phytodetritus serves as the main food source. Foraminifera are considered to play a significant role in marine carbon turnover processes and show seasonally very high population densities in intertidal sediments. Therefore, it is important to gather explicit data about the specific carbon uptake behavior of intertidal foraminiferal species. In this study, laboratory feeding experiments were carried out to observe phytodetrital carbon uptake of foraminiferal specimen collected in the German Wadden Sea. Artificially produced phytodetritus was labelled with 13C to follow carbon ingestion into foraminiferal cytoplasm over time at different simulated conditions. The experiments were performed with monocultures under exclusion of other meiofauna. Chlorophyte detritus (Dunaliella tertiolecta) was fed to the two common species Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica. Ammonia tepida showed a significantly higher affinity to this food source than H. germanica. Testing the effect of temperature revealed a significant decrease of carbon ingestion with increasing temperature in H. germanica. Observations focusing on A. tepida showed a rising phytodetrital carbon content in the biomass of juvenile individuals in contrast to adult foraminifera. In general, carbon uptake reaches saturation levels a few hours after food supply. Furthermore, A. tepida benefits from constant availability of fresh food rather than from a high amount of phytodetritus derived from a single food pulse. Our investigations showed that the foraminiferal impact on intertidal processing of phytodetrital carbon sources is species specific, temperature related and depends on developmental stage and input dynamics

  20. Foraging Behavior Interactions Between Two non-Native Social Wasps, Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Implications for Invasion Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Julia; Pirk, Gabriela I; Corley, Juan C

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris is an invasive scavenging social wasp that has very recently arrived in Patagonia (Argentina), a territory previously invaded - 35 yrs earlier - by another wasp, Vespula germanica Although V. vulgaris wasps possess features that could be instrumental in overcoming obstacles through several invasion stages, the presence of preestablished populations of V. germanica could affect their success. We studied the potential role played by V. germanica on the subsequent invasion process of V. vulgaris wasps in Patagonia by focusing on the foraging interaction between both species. This is because food searching and exploitation are likely to overlap strongly among Vespula wasps. We carried out choice tests where two types of baits were presented in a pairwise manner. We found experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that V. germanica and V. vulgaris have an asymmetrical response to baits with stimuli simulating the presence of each other. V. germanica avoided baits with either visual or olfactory cues indicating the V. vulgaris presence. However, V. vulgaris showed no preference between baits with or lacking V. germanica stimuli. These results suggest that the presence of an established population of V. germanica may not contribute to added biotic resistance to V. vulgaris invasion. PMID:27503470

  1. Effect of light on photosynthetic efficiency of sequestered chloroplasts in intertidal benthic foraminifera (Haynesina germanica and Ammonia tepida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauffrais, Thierry; Jesus, Bruno; Metzger, Edouard; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Jorissen, Frans; Geslin, Emmanuelle

    2016-05-01

    Some benthic foraminifera have the ability to incorporate functional chloroplasts from diatoms (kleptoplasty). Our objective was to investigate chloroplast functionality of two benthic foraminifera (Haynesina germanica and Ammonia tepida) exposed to different irradiance levels (0, 25, 70 µmol photon m-2 s-1) using spectral reflectance, epifluorescence observations, oxygen evolution and pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry (maximum photosystem II quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) and rapid light curves (RLC)). Our results clearly showed that H. germanica was capable of using its kleptoplasts for more than 1 week while A. tepida showed very limited kleptoplastic ability with maximum photosystem II quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm = 0.4), much lower than H. germanica and decreasing to zero in only 1 day. Only H. germanica showed net oxygen production with a compensation point at 24 µmol photon m-2 s-1 and a production up to 1000 pmol O2 cell-1 day-1 at 300 µmol photon m-2 s-1. Haynesina germanica Fv/Fm slowly decreased from 0.65 to 0.55 in 7 days when kept in darkness; however, it quickly decreased to 0.2 under high light. Kleptoplast functional time was thus estimated between 11 and 21 days in darkness and between 7 and 8 days at high light. These results emphasize that studies about foraminifera kleptoplasty must take into account light history. Additionally, this study showed that the kleptoplasts are unlikely to be completely functional, thus requiring continuous chloroplast resupply from foraminifera food source. The advantages of keeping functional chloroplasts are discussed but more information is needed to better understand foraminifera feeding strategies.

  2. A proteomic approach for studying insect phylogeny: CAPA peptides of ancient insect taxa (Dictyoptera, Blattoptera as a test case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gäde Gerd

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropeptide ligands have to fit exactly into their respective receptors and thus the evolution of the coding regions of their genes is constrained and may be strongly conserved. As such, they may be suitable for the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within higher taxa. CAPA peptides of major lineages of cockroaches (Blaberidae, Blattellidae, Blattidae, Polyphagidae, Cryptocercidae and of the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis were chosen to test the above hypothesis. The phylogenetic relationships within various groups of the taxon Dictyoptera (praying mantids, termites and cockroaches are still highly disputed. Results Tandem mass spectrometry of neuropeptides from perisympathetic organs was used to obtain sequence data of CAPA peptides from single specimens; the data were analysed by Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Interference. The resulting cladograms, taking 61 species into account, show a topology which is in general agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses, including the recent phylogenetic arrangement placing termites within the cockroaches. When sequence data sets from other neuropeptides, viz. adipokinetic hormones and sulfakinins, were included, the general topology of the cladogram did not change but bootstrap values increased considerably. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of neuropeptides of insects for solely phylogenetic purposes and concludes that sequences of short neuropeptides are suitable to complement molecular biological and morphological data for the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships.

  3. 残杀威与氯菊酯混配剂对德国小蠊杀灭效果的研究%Observation on the efficacy of mixture Propoxur and Permethrin to kill Blattella germanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万华

    2006-01-01

    目的观察残杀威与氯菊酯混配剂对宾馆德国小蠊杀灭效果观察.方法对柳州两家宾馆客房和餐馆进行现场灭蟑试验.结果施药前德国小蠊密度:客房平均为70只/15 min,行政办公室35只/15 min,厨房230只/15 min,包厢110只/15 min,大厅95只/15 min;施药后1 d,厨房、包厢等发现大量死德国小蠊,密度下降了91.5%~94.3%,7 d后灭效达到100%.结论残杀威和氯菊酯混配剂对德国小蠊杀灭效果好,达到了有效控制德国小蠊的目的.

  4. Phenolic, flavonoid contents, anticholinesterase and antioxidant evaluation of Iris germanica var; florentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Sajjad; Imran, Muhammad; Zeb, Anwar

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential of Iris germanica var; florentina. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory potential of plant samples were investigated by Ellman's assay. Antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH, H2O2 and ABTS free radical scavenging assays. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents were expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg RTE/g, respectively. In AChE inhibition assay, Ig.Fl, Ig.Sp and Ig.Cf fractions exhibited highest activity with IC50 values of < 0.1, 5.64 and 19 μg/mL, respectively. In BChE inhibitory assay, Ig.Fl, Ig.Sp, Ig.Cf and Ig.Cr were most active with IC50 of < 0.1, < 0.1, 31 and 78 μg/mL, respectively. In DPPH assay, Ig.Fl and Ig.Cf exhibited highest inhibition of free radicals, 80.52% (IC50 = 9 μg/mL) and 78.30% (IC50 = 8 μg/mL), respectively. In ABTS assay Ig.Cr, Ig.Cf, Ig.Fl and Ig.Sp exhibited IC50 values of < 0.1, 2, 2 and 3 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:26166432

  5. Antennal and cephalic organelles in the social wasp Paravespula germanica (Hymenoptera, Vespinae): form and possible function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Ifaat; Plotkin, Marian; Ermakov, Natalya Y; Barkay, Zahava; Ishay, Jacob S

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with hairs and organelles present on the head and antennae of the German wasp, Paravespula germanica, and their possible role in sensing the physical and chemical ambience, as well as in intercommunicating both while in flight outside or in the nest. Via scanning electron microscope photography, we detected on the frons plate of the wasp's head, hairs that were about 300 microm long and comprised the longest hairs on the body of the wasps. Additionally, the two antennae bore along their entire length photoreceptors, placoids, campaniforms, trichoids, and agmons. These organelles are located at high but variable density along the antennal segments. The paper provides the dimensions of each of the mentioned organelles, and discusses the possible functions of the organelles as well as of the hairs on the frons. Photographs taken via atomic force microscope reveal that the epicuticle of the antenna is of two typical shapes; one, bearing both longitudinal stripes as well as transverse bands that are about 1 mum in width, and a second granulated form. Conceivably, the wasp uses the various organelles mentioned to communicate with its mates that are some distance away, somewhat like the use of radar by humans.

  6. Autocology and Ethnopharmacology of Mespilus germanica L. in the North of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    sadat Tabatabaei, Neda; Mazandaranee, Masomeh

    2008-01-01

    In late century increase side effects consume of chemical drug and appearance different diseases and cansers in result increase importance use of medicinal plants. Mespilus germanica 1. is one of the most endemic medicine shrubs in temperate fortest of Golestan province and belongs to Rosaceae with common name Kondos. Mespilus is deciduous shrub. This plant has wide dispersion in side forest of Caspian sea in north of Iran. From sea level to 1200 meter. field observation in this research showed that this plant growth in soils with clay_silty and sandy tissue, PH in 6.9, EC in 0.7, organic carbon 3.25 percent, nitrogen 33 percent, absorbable phosphor is 8.6 P.P.m, absorbable potassium is 90 P.P.m. Phenology study showed that flower appearance from May to June and seed ripe in November and propagation is in way seed or bud. Ethnobotany and Ethnopharmacology data obtained from the two rural healirs about common name, natural habitat, part uses, consumption method and it uses for treatment of frequent diseases such as blood pressure, heart tonic, heart rato and leaf extract is useful for mouth and throat infection, fruit is for relaxant and purgative use in remedy diarrhea and its seed useful for expel bladder stone. Results Test quality of secondary metabolites in ripe and un ripe fruits of this plant showed that flavonoide of ripe fruit is more than un ripe fruit. But the quality of tannins in un ripe fruit is more.

  7. Efficacy of synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosol in the control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae in cookhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Agrawal, Rina Tilak , K.K. Dutta Gupta

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: A field trial was carried out in cookhouses in an urban area to evaluate theefficacy of synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin and propoxur aerosols (2% inthe control of German cockroaches (Blatella germanica.Methods: A total of six cookhouses were selected by simple random sampling method (two each forthe two insecticide treatments and two for control.Results: It was observed that 89.36–87.8 and 77.95–59.74% reductions were achieved with propoxurand synthetic pyrethroid treatment respectively by first week post-treatment. The reduction in propoxurtreated areas by eight weeks post-treatment was 82.98–76.13%, whereas the reduction in thesame time period in synthetic pyrethroid treated areas ranged from 14.36% to an increase in density bya phenomenal 157.86% in one of the treated sites.Interpretation & conclusion: The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol (2% treatment oversynthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin in the control of cockroach infestation incookhouses in urban area.

  8. Evolution of fatty acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L. mesocarp at different stages of ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strnad, M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica L. varied significantly among the ripening stages sampled at 157, 172 and 187 DAFs (days after full bloom. Twenty-one different fatty acids were detected in preclimacteric fruit and 17 when the climacteric began. Principal fatty acids, determined in medlar fruit harvested from October (157 and 172 DAFs to November (187 DAF were mainly palmitic acid (16:0, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, and a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. While the content of saturated fatty acids [palmitic acid (16:0 and stearic acid (18:0] increased, the content of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3] decreased through ripening, in parallel with pulp darkening. The percentage of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in ripe, hard fruits was 60.0 and 13.5 % of dry wt at 157 DAF which decreased throughout ripening, remaining at 28.7 and 5.6 % of dry wt, respectively, in the fully softened and darkened pulp. A marked decreases in the double bond index, percentage of unsaturation and the ratio of unsaturation/saturation were also seen throughout the medlar ripening. The contribution of unsaturated fatty acid to the total fatty acid content decreased markedly as the medlar fruit became progressively softer and darkened.La composición en ácidos grasos del níspero (Mespilus germanica L. varió significativamente entre los estados de maduración muestreados a los 157, 172 y 187 DAFs (días después de la floración. Veinte y un ácidos grasos diferentes fueron detectados en el fruto preclimatérico y 17 cuando comenzó el climaterio. Los ácidos grasos principales encontrados en nísperos, recolectados desde Octubre (157 y 172 DAFs hasta Noviembre (187 DAF, fueron principalmente ácido palmítico (16:0, ácido linoléico (18:2n-6, y ácido a-linolénico (18:3n-3. En tanto que el contenido en ácidos grasos saturados (ácido palmítico (16:0 y ácido esteárico (18:0 aumentó, el

  9. Foraging behavior related to habitat characteristics in the invasive wasp Vespula germanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAOLA D'ADAMO; MARIANA LOZADA

    2007-01-01

    the feeding site until depleting the resource. In the present study we analyzed how environmental cues affect wasps' behavior when re-locating a protein food source. We studied this behavior in two different natural habitats: closed and open habitats.As closed habitats have more references to orient wasps to the feeding site than open habitats,we hypothesized that they would return to the foraging site more frequently in closed habitats than in open ones. We tested this hypothesis by studying wasp behavior in three different natural habitat conditions: (i) closed habitats, (ii) open habitats, and (iii) open habitats artificially modified by adding five sticks with flagging. Experiments consisted of training individual wasps to feed from a certain array, and at the testing phase we removed food and displaced the array by 60 cm. Therefore, we recorded wasps' choices when returning to the training area, by counting both the wasps' first approaches and the number of visits to the original feeding site and the displaced array. Wasps' behavior while re-locating a protein food source was different if foraging at open or closed habitats. Wasps more frequently revisited a previous feeding location when foraging in closed habitats than when foraging in open ones. Furthermore, wasps more frequently visited the displaced array than the original feeding site in all three treatments. Nevertheless, when wasps were trained in closed habitats,they returned to the original feeding site more frequently than if trained in open ones.Interestingly, when five sticks with flagging were added in open habitats, wasps responded similarly as in closed habitats without these references. The results show that foraging behavior in V. germanica seems to be different in closed and open habitats, probably associated with the existence of references that guide foragers when re-locating undepleted resources.

  10. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity ofMespilus germanica L. fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hale Seilmi Canbay; Ersin Atay; Serdal Ot

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first culturedMespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees.Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey) were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs), and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20)%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70)% and(8.53 ± 0.25)%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2) mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  11. Comparative study of specific IgE for cockroach between asthma and allergic rhinitis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the degrees of allergic reaction and the cross-reactive allergens for three strains of cockroach (Periplanceta fuliginosa , Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica) between patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis, the specific IgE(sIgE) in asthma and allergic rhinitis for these three strains of cockroach were determined with ELISA. The results showed that the sIgE positive rates for Periplaneta americana, Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella germanica in patients with asthma were 23.5%, 16.0% and 14.8%, respectively. The reactive coincidence rate between Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta fuliginoas was 74.0%, between Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica was 73.5%, and between Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella germanica was 85.0% in asthma patients. The IgE positive rates for Periplaneta americana, Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella gerraanica in allergic rhinitis patients were 24.8%, 17.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The reactive coincidence rate between Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta fuliginosa was 73.9%, between Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica was 75.2%, and between Periplaneta fuliginosa and Blattella germanica was 86.1% in allergic rhinitis patients. There was no significant difference between asthma and allergic rhinitis patients although the sIgE positive rates of allergic rhinitis patients were higher than those of asthma patients for these three strains of cock- roach. All these results indicated that the degrees of allergic reaction are similar between asthma and allergic rhinitis patients and there are some cross-reactive allergic components among these three strains of cockroach. (authors)

  12. [Effectiveness of 2,6-dihalogenbenzoyl urea derivatives as potential inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis regarding the house fly Musca domestica L. and cockroach Blatella germanica L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styczyńska, B; Krzemińska, A; Sobótka, W; Balicki, R

    1989-01-01

    The biological activity was determined of 20 compounds from the group of asymmetrically substituted urea derivatives. They were derivatives of 1-(hetero)-aryl-3(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)urea, compounds in Table 1, (1-12) which represented three groups of compounds: a) monochlorine or trifluoromethyl derivatives of benzene, b) monomethyl-substituted 2-pyridine derivatives, c) a derivative of 5-bromo-3-pyridine, and symmetrical derivates (Table 2 compounds 1-8) 2.2; 3.3; 4.4 groupings: a) N-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)urea derivatives, and b) N-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzoyl)urea derivatives. The experiment was carried out on larvae and adult forms of M. domestica L. and Blatella germanica L. The tested substances were administered in food to the insects. Of the tested compounds complete inhibition of the development of flies was caused by the compound designated with the symbol AG 6. Compounds AG 13, AG 15 and AG 17 given to larvae inhibited the development of the insects by 33 to 100% acting mainly in later phases of the development (pupation). Compound AG 5 was found to be a very strong inhibitor of the development of cockroaches acting on larvae and adult females Of 800 tested larvae exposed to concentrations 0.001 to 1% none reached the adult phase. The exposed adult females formed cocoons but no larvae hatched from them.

  13. Pest control in Albania: an example of collaboration in technical and scientific development in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Velo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2007, a severe cockroach (Blattella germanica infestation was reported on the premises of the Scutari Regional Hospital. The hospital was infested by cockroaches despite regular insecticide treatment by local pest control officers. The failure of treatment required a careful evaluation of the problem. It also created the opportunity for a more complete analysis of pest control in Albania.

  14. Study of the extracts from the tradition Tibetan herb Myricaria germanica for FCA induced arthritis on SD rats%藏药翁布提取物对SD大鼠FCA诱导性关节炎的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍敏; 曾阳; 陈振宁

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究单味藏药翁布(Myricaria germanica (L.) Desv.)对SD大鼠佐剂性关节炎(AA)的作用.方法:以SD大鼠为实验动物,采用Freund's佐剂作为致炎因子,复制急性关节炎症并伴随继发性风湿性关节模型,用不同提取物灌胃24d,测定体重、关节炎指数、足趾肿胀度.结果:藏药翁布各提取物显著抑制SD大鼠关节炎指数、足趾肿胀度.结论:藏药翁布提取物对Freund's佐剂诱导性关节炎有显著的抗炎作用.

  15. Genome size of termites (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Isoptera) and wood roaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Cryptocercidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru

    2008-09-01

    The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes ( C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.

  16. The blattodeas.s. (Insecta, dictyoptera) of the Guiana shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Dominic A; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L; Wilson, Megan M; Ware, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblattaberenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodeas.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under-sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under-sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics.

  17. Gold-nanoparticles ingestion disrupts reproduction and development in the German cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Taika; Ochoa-Zapater, M Amparo; Gallello, Gianni; Ribera, Antonio; Romero, Francisco M; Torreblanca, Amparo; Garcerá, M Dolores

    2016-09-15

    The present work shows the effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) orally administered on reproduction and development of the insect Blattella germanica. Newly emerged females were provided with food containing AuNPs (87.44μg/g) of a size between 15 and 30nm (mean 21.8nm), and were allowed to mate with males. Food ingestion, mortality, reproductive parameters (time to ootheca formation and eclosion, ootheca viability and fertility) as well as postembryonic developmental parameters of the first ootheca (nymphal survival and life span) were recorded throughout the experiment. Gold from AuNPs was accumulated by adults of B. germanica with a bioaccumulation factor of 0.1. Ingestion of AuNPs did not disturb the time for ootheca formation nor ootheca eclosion. However, ootheca viability was decreased almost by 25% in AuNPs treated females in comparison to controls. At the same time the number of hatched nymphs was decreased by 32.8% (p<0.001) in AuNP group respect to control one. The postembryonic developmental parameters were also affected by AuNPs treatment, with a 35.8% of decrease (p<0.01) in number of nymphs that moulted to second and third instars and a reduction of their life span. Ingestion of AuNPs causes sublethal effects in B. germanica that compromises life-traits involved in population dynamics. B. germanica is proposed as a model species in nanotoxicological studies for urban environments. PMID:26905368

  18. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ФЕНОЛЬНОГО КОМПЛЕКСА ЛИСТЬЕВ МУШМУЛЫ ГЕРМАНСКОЙ MESPILUS GERMANICA L

    OpenAIRE

    ВДОВЕНКО-МАРТЫНОВА Н.Н.

    2014-01-01

    Объект исследований мушмулы листья, заготовленные с растений Mespilus germanica L. семейства Rosaceae в районах Кабардино-Балкарии и в Ботаническом саду Пятигорского медико-фармацевтического института. Цель исследования изучение фенольных соединений в анализируемом сырье. Качественный состав и количественное определение фенольных соединений в исследуемых образцах воздушно-сухого сырья определяли, используя качественные реакции, метод высокоэффективной жидкостной хроматографии (ВЭЖХ). Выявлено...

  19. Alkyl and aryl neoalkanamides: highly effective insect repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltenkamp, R J; Hamilton, R L; Cooper, R A; Schal, C

    1992-03-01

    Alkyl and aryl neoalkanamides with a total carbon number between 11 and 14, or within a molecular weight range between 185 and 227, were highly effective repellents of male German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.). Comparison with known repellents showed that members of this unique family of secondary amides are among the most effective and long-lasting repellents of cockroaches examined to date. In assays with females and nymphs of the German cockroach, male American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), and carpenter ant workers, Camponotus pennsylvanicus (De Geer) methyl neodecanamide, propyl neodecanamide, and methyl neotridecanamide were found highly repellent. Because of their broad spectrum of activity, longevity, and safety, these compounds, along with several other members of this family, have important applications as repellents of nuisance pests and of arthropods of public health importance. PMID:1495022

  20. Genetic characterization of a densovirus isolated from great tit (Parus major) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Shi, Shao-Hua; Jiang, Yan-Long; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Hong-Liang; Huang, Ke-Yan; Yang, Gui-Lian; Wang, Chun-Feng

    2016-07-01

    During a study of ornithophilous viruses in China, a new densovirus (DNV) was isolated from the lung tissue of Parus major (PmDNV-JL). The complete genome of PmDNV-JL was cloned and sequenced. Five open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the 5166nt sequence, on the basis of deduced amino acids. It was further shown that this virus caused cytopathic effects (CPE) in Feline kidney cells. The NS1 gene sequence of PmDNV-JL shares 70-99% nucleotide sequence identity with isolates of the Blattella germanica densovirus (BgDNV) and BgDNV-like virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the predicted amino acid sequences of capsid (VP) and non-structural domain (NS1) of PmDNV-JL clustered with the BgDNV and were similar to BgDNV-HB within the genus Densovirus. PMID:27051046

  1. A Novel Use for Potassium Alum as Controlling Agent Against Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Elham M

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present our results on the use of potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide. This compound has the potential to rid our homes, schools, hotels, restaurants, and ships of cockroach infestations. This compound is environmentally friendly and has no hazardous effects on plant, animal, or human ecosystems. Alum was approved for medical use a long time ago. In our laboratory, we developed a novel method using potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide to kill the most common cockroach in the subtropical region, Periplaneta americana (L.). Adult and nymph-staged cockroaches were left to feed on potassium alum per individual insect after a period of food deprivation. The mortality was recorded as LT50. The younger nymphs the third and early fourth instars died within 4 d of feeding after consuming an average of 0.3 mg per individual insect. Gravid females were highly susceptible to alum toxicity and experienced a higher mortality rate, with an average of 3 mg per individual female. The oothecae of the normal untreated females were 8.1 mm long and 4.13 mm wide and weighed 94 mg. The eggs laid by the treated gravid females were underweight and exhibited a dwarfism shape, and these eggs did not hatched if the females consumed the potassium alum before laying eggs. The results revealed that the adult male and female cockroaches have to consume 1 mg and 2.7 mg, respectively, of potassium alum to kill 100% of them after 1 month of ingestion. The potassium alum had to be ingested by the cockroaches to affect mortality. The effect of potassium alum was attributed to chronic toxicity and not acute toxicity. The potential applications of this novel technique will be discussed.

  2. Mitochondrial genomes of praying mantises (Dictyoptera, Mantodea): rearrangement, duplication, and reassignment of tRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Lan, Xu-E; Zhu, Wen-Bo; You, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) contain a conserved set of 37 genes for an extensive diversity of lineages. Previously reported dictyopteran mitogenomes share this conserved mitochondrial gene arrangement, although surprisingly little is known about the mitogenome of Mantodea. We sequenced eight mantodean mitogenomes including the first representatives of two families: Hymenopodidae and Liturgusidae. Only two of these genomes retain the typical insect gene arrangement. In three Liturgusidae species, the trnM genes have translocated. Four species of mantis (Creobroter gemmata, Mantis religiosa, Statilia sp., and Theopompa sp.-HN) have multiple identical tandem duplication of trnR, and Statilia sp. additionally includes five extra duplicate trnW. These extra trnR and trnW in Statilia sp. are erratically arranged and form another novel gene order. Interestingly, the extra trnW is converted from trnR by the process of point mutation at anticodon, which is the first case of tRNA reassignment for an insect. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed amongst mantodean mitogenomes with variable copies of tRNA according to comparative analysis of codon usage. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the characteristics of tRNA only possess limited phylogenetic information in this research. Nevertheless, these features of gene rearrangement, duplication, and reassignment provide valuable information toward understanding mitogenome evolution in insects. PMID:27157299

  3. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera of the Guiana Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A. Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp. and Suriname (136 spp. rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics.

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Toxicity of Insecticide Formulations from Different Classes against American Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhma Syed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the insecticidal efficacy of four different classes of insecticides: pyrethroids, organophosphates, phenyl-pyrazoles and neo-nicotenoids. One representative chemical from each class was selected to compare the toxicity: deltamethrin from pyrethroids, Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP from organophosphates, fipronil from phenyl-pyrazoles and imidacloprid from neo-nicotenoids. The objective of this study was to determine which of these insecticides were most effective against American cockroach.These insecticides were tested for their LC50 values against Periplaneta americana under topical bioassay method, using different concentrations for each chemical.Fipronil 2.5% EC was highly effective at all concentrations applied, while DDVP 50% EC was least toxic amongst all. One way analysis of variance confirmed significant differences between mortality of P. americana and different concentrations applied (P< 0.05.Locality differentiation is an important factor in determining the range of resistance between various localities, as all three localities behaved differently in terms of their levels of resistance.

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Toxicity of Insecticide Formulations from Different Classes against American Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhma Syed; Farkhanda Manzoor; Rooma Adalat; Abida Abdul-Sattar; Azka Syed

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to investigate the insecticidal efficacy of four different classes of insecticides: pyrethroids, organophosphates, phenyl-pyrazoles and neo-nicotenoids. One representative chemical from each class was selected to compare the toxicity: deltamethrin from pyrethroids, Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP) from organophosphates, fipronil from phenyl-pyrazoles and imidacloprid from neo-nicotenoids. The objective of this study was to determine which of th...

  6. A Novel Use for Potassium Alum as Controlling Agent Against Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Elham M

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present our results on the use of potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide. This compound has the potential to rid our homes, schools, hotels, restaurants, and ships of cockroach infestations. This compound is environmentally friendly and has no hazardous effects on plant, animal, or human ecosystems. Alum was approved for medical use a long time ago. In our laboratory, we developed a novel method using potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide to kill the most common cockroach in the subtropical region, Periplaneta americana (L.). Adult and nymph-staged cockroaches were left to feed on potassium alum per individual insect after a period of food deprivation. The mortality was recorded as LT50. The younger nymphs the third and early fourth instars died within 4 d of feeding after consuming an average of 0.3 mg per individual insect. Gravid females were highly susceptible to alum toxicity and experienced a higher mortality rate, with an average of 3 mg per individual female. The oothecae of the normal untreated females were 8.1 mm long and 4.13 mm wide and weighed 94 mg. The eggs laid by the treated gravid females were underweight and exhibited a dwarfism shape, and these eggs did not hatched if the females consumed the potassium alum before laying eggs. The results revealed that the adult male and female cockroaches have to consume 1 mg and 2.7 mg, respectively, of potassium alum to kill 100% of them after 1 month of ingestion. The potassium alum had to be ingested by the cockroaches to affect mortality. The effect of potassium alum was attributed to chronic toxicity and not acute toxicity. The potential applications of this novel technique will be discussed. PMID:26470384

  7. 信阳市蟑螂密度监测及侵害现况的调查研究%Investigation and research on the density of cockroaches and disoperation in Xinyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑华; 方世民; 徐威; 张英

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解信阳市蟑螂种类、密度、季节消长情况,为信阳市消灭蟑螂提供科学依据.方法 用粘捕法进行调查.结果 在各类环境中共捕获蟑螂1 328只,其中德国小蠊1 193只,美洲大蠊135只,平均侵害率为7.36%,密度为0.65只/张.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,活动高峰在夏秋季,宾馆和餐饮单位密度较高,应加强蟑螂监测和防制工作.%Objective To understand the type, density and seasonal fluctuation of cockroach in Xinyang City and provide scientific basis for the elimination of cockroach. Method Sticky traps method. Results We had captured 1 328 cockroaches in all kinds of environments, among which 1 193 were blattella germanica and 135 were periplaneta americana. The average disoperation rate was 7. 36% , and the density was 0. 65 cockroach per piece of paper. Conclusions Blattella germanica was the predominant species, and was active in summer and autumn. There were high density of cockroaches in hotels and restaurants, therefore, this units should strengthen the monitor and control of cockroach.

  8. 郑州市蟑螂种群密度及侵害情况的调查研究%Investigation on cockroach density and infestation in Zhengzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁中良; 王广州; 王志刚; 韩曲波

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解郑州市蟑螂种群密度和侵害情况,为蟑螂防治提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法对郑州市三区监测点进行蟑螂侵害、密度情况调查.结果 在各类环境共捕获蟑螂3 843只,平均侵害率为16.66%,密度为2.33只/张.德国小蠊占98.41%,为优势种群.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮业、宾馆、农贸市场、浴池密度较高.应采取综合防治措施,有效降低蟑螂侵害率,控制蟑螂密度.%Objective To understand the infestation and density of cockroach, and provide scientific basis for killing cockroach in Zhengzhou city. Methods Using sticky traps to investigate cockroach infestation and density situation at three test points. Results Totally 3 843 cockroaches were caught in different environments in Zhengzhou city in 2010. The average infestation rate reached 16. 66%. The average index of density was 2. 33 pieces. Blattella germanica(9&. 41% ) was the dominant species in various environments. Conclusion Blattella germanica is the dominant species in various environment. There are high density of cockroaches in catering trades, hotel, agricultural market and public baths. It is necessary to take comprehensive control measures and strengthen the technical training to prevent and control cockroaches. Using drugs rationally so as to reduce the infestation rate of cockroaches and control the density of cockroaches effectively.

  9. A role for Taiman in insect metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Lozano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in vitro have reported that the Methoprene-tolerant (Met and Taiman (Tai complex is the functional receptor of juvenile hormone (JH. Experiments in vivo of Met depletion have confirmed this factor's role in JH signal transduction, however, there is no equivalent data regarding Tai because its depletion in larval or nymphal stages of the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus results in 100% mortality. We have discovered that the cockroach Blattella germanica possesses four Tai isoforms resulting from the combination of two indels in the C-terminal region of the sequence. The presence of one equivalent indel-1 in Tai sequences in T. castaneum and other species suggests that Tai isoforms may be common in insects. Concomitant depletion of all four Tai isoforms in B. germanica resulted in 100% mortality, but when only the insertion 1 (IN-1 isoforms were depleted, mortality was significantly reduced and about half of the specimens experienced precocious adult development. This shows that Tai isoforms containing IN-1 are involved in transducing the JH signal that represses metamorphosis. Reporter assays indicated that both T. castaneum Tai isoforms, one that contains the IN-1 and another that does not (DEL-1 activated a JH response element (kJHRE in Krüppel homolog 1 in conjunction with Met and JH. The results indicate that Tai is involved in the molecular mechanisms that repress metamorphosis, at least in B. germanica, and highlight the importance of distinguishing Tai isoforms when studying the functions of this transcription factor in development and other processes.

  10. Killing effect of pyrethroid aerosol compounds for mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches%油基拟除虫菊酯复配气雾剂实验室杀虫效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭伟龙; 艾乐乐; 钱万红; 陈超

    2012-01-01

    目的 筛选几种油基拟除虫菊酯复配气雾剂,在实验室观察其对淡色库蚊、家蝇和德国小蠊的杀灭效果.方法 根据GB/T 13917.2-2009,用圆筒法测定气雾杀虫剂对3种昆虫的半数击倒时间(KT50),根据GB/T13917.10-2009,测试模拟现场实验效果.结果 对淡色库蚊的杀灭实验中,1号和3号配方的KT50均<1 min,其他2种配方均<2min;对家蝇的杀灭实验中,3号配方的击倒时间最短,为0.90 min,其他3种配方均<2 min;对德国小蠊的杀灭实验中,KT50值均<1 min;3种试虫的24 h死亡率均为100%.模拟现场实验中,4种配方对3种试虫的1h击倒率和24 h死亡率均为100%.结论 4种复配杀虫剂配方均达到了快速杀灭蚊、蝇和蜚蠊的效果,可以进入下一步实验.%Objective To identify efficacy of pyrethroid aerosol insecticides in killing Culex pipiens pallens, Musca domestica and Blattella germanica. Methods KT50 is one of four kinds of aerosol insecticides on three types of insects were tested according to GB/T 13917.2 - 2009 in hermetic round canister. Killing efficacy in simulated fields was tested according to GB/T 13917.10-2009. Results The KT50 values of four kinds of aerosol insecticides were less than 2 minutes for Cx. Pipiens pallens and M. domestica, and less than 1 minute for B. germanica. The 24 h-mortality of insects used in the hermetic round canister was 100%. The one -hour killing efficacy of the four aerosol insecticides in simulated fields for Cx. Pipiens pallens, M. domestica and B. germanica was 100%. Conclusion The four aerosol insecticides all showed fast killing effects for Cx. Pipiens pallens, M. domestica and B. germanica.

  11. Phylogeny of cockroaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Blattodea), with placement of aberrant taxa and exploration of out-group sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djernæs, Marie; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Picker, Mike D.;

    2012-01-01

    hypotheses, we retain Lamproblattidae. S. montistabularis was consistently placed as sister to Ectobius sylvestris Poda (Blaberoidea: Ectobinae), indicating that the saltatorial hindlegs of this genus are a relatively recent adaptation. Isoptera was placed within Blattodea as sister to Cryptocercidae...

  12. First Records of Mantodea (Insecta, Dictyoptera from the Serra das Confusões National Park, Piauí State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliomar Menezes

    2013-12-01

    Resumo. Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados do primeiro inventário para espécies da ordem Mantodea no Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões, uma unidade de conservação inserida no semiárido brasileiro no estado do Piauí. Os espécimes foram coletados durante 11 dias consecutivos utilizando-se armadilha luminosa e coleta ativa. Foram capturados 200 espécimes distribuídos em cinco famílias, 15 gêneros e 17 espécies, das quais nove foram identificadas. Além dos registros inéditos de Mantodea para o Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões, estes são também inéditos para o estado do Piauí, assim como 14 novos registros para a Caatinga e um novo registro para o Brasil.

  13. Efficacy of imidacloprid and fipronil gels over synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosols in control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Agrawal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Resistance amongst cockroaches has been reported to most of the sprayinsecticides apart from the problem of food contamination and inconvenience. Gel baits which canbe selectively applied have been found effective in control of cockroaches in laboratory studies butvery few field studies are available. This trial was planned to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil(0.01% and imidacloprid (2.15% gels over synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13%allethrin and propoxur (2% aerosols in control of cockroaches in the field.Methods: Survey was done to find out pre-treatment density in catering establishments and housesby visual count and sticky trap methods. A total of 10 catering establishments and 10 houseshaving high cockroach infestation were selected by sampling (two catering establishments andhouses for each insecticidal treatment and two for control. Propoxur and synthetic pyrethroidaerosols were used for spraying the infested sites once only. Single application of fipronil andimidacloprid gels was used as crack and crevice treatment. Visual count method gave betterindications of cockroach infestation as compared to sticky trap method, hence, the same was followedfor post-treatment evaluation every week up to 12 weeks.Results: Synthetic pyrethroid could not bring about the desired reduction in cockroach infestationin the present study. Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation upto 96.8% at the end of 12 weeks whereas imidacloprid application resulted in 90.9% reduction andpropoxur resulted in 77.5%. However, propoxur was more effective in reducing the cockroachdensity by first week in comparison to imidacloprid and fipronil gels but its efficacy started decliningafter 8th week. Difference was found statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis H-test.Conclusion: The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol, imidacloprid gel and fipronil gelbaits for control of cockroaches.

  14. Fine structural description of the compound eye of the Madagascar 'hissing cockroach' Gromphadorhina portentosa(Dictyoptera: Blaberidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monalisa Mishra; Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow

    2008-01-01

    The compound eyes of the wingless adults of the Madagascar' hissing cockroach' Gromphador hina portentosa Sachum, 1853 were examined by light and electron microscopy.Each eye contains 2 400-2 500 mostly hexagonal facets. However, irregularities affecting both shape and size of the ommatidia are relatively common, especially towards the margins of the eye. An individual ommatidium of this eucone type of apposition eye contains eight retinula cells, which give rise to a centrally-fused, tiered rhabdom. The distal end of the latter is funnel-shaped and accommodates the proximal end of the cone in its midst. Further below, the rhabdom (then formed by the rhabdomeres of four retinula cells) assumes a squarish profile with microvilli aligned in two directions at right-angle to each other. Cross sections through the proximal regions of the rhabdom display triangular rhabdom outlines and microvilli (belonging to 3-4 retinula cells different from those involved in the squarish more distal rhabdom) that run in three directions inclined to one another by 120°. Overall the organization of the eye conforms to the orthopteroid pattern and particularly closely resembles that of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. However, since G.portentosa possesses fewer ommatidia, this could be a consequence of its inability to fly. On the other hand, the large size of the facets and the voluminous rhabdoms suggest considerable absolute sensitivity and an ability to detect the plane of linearly polarized light. Based on the pattern of rnicrovillus orientations in combination with the crepuscular lifestyle G. portentosa leads and the habitat it occurs in, the prediction is made that this insect uses its green receptors for e-vector discrimination in the environment of down-welling light that reaches the forest floor.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the cockroach Eupolyphaga sinensis (Blattaria: Polyphagidae) and the phylogenetic relationships within the Dictyoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-yan; Xuan, Wen-juan; Zhao, Jin-liang; Zhu, Chao-dong; Jiang, Guo-fang

    2010-10-01

    We present the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Eupolyphaga sinensis. This closed circular molecule is 15553 bp long and consists of 37 genes that encode for 13 inner membrane proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNAs. The genome shares the gene order and orientation with previously known Blattaria mitochondrial genomes. All tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, but the tRNASer (AGN) appears to be missing the DHU arm. The A + T-rich region is 857 bp long and longer than other cockroaches. Based on the concatenated amino acid sequences of all protein coding genes of E. sinensis in conjunction with those 23 other arthropod sequences, we reconstruct the phylogenetic tree. Phylogenetic analyses shows that Blataria (including Isoptera) and the Mantodea are sister groups. Furthermore the relationship of the three basal clades of winged insects are different from the three previous hypotheses ((Ephemeroptera + Odonata) +Neoptera, Ephemeroptera + (Odonata + Neoptera), Odonata + (Ephemeroptera +Neoptera)). The Ephemeroptera (Parafronurus youi) clusters with the Plecoptera (Pteronarcys princes). PMID:20012368

  16. 南通市蟑螂抗性及防制对策的研究%Study on the resistance of cockroach and its control strategy in Nantong city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章士军; 王智泉; 陈郁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To control the density of cockroach by detecting the resistance of Blattella germanica and rational administration. Method Using drug films to detect the drug resistance of cockroach, study the killing efficacy by chemical control. Results Blattella germaruca was the dominant species and the resistance ratio of tested wild strains to propoxur, Lambda - cyhalothrin and acephate were 1. 20. 5. 66. 5. 14 and 5. 10 respectively, and all were low level of resistance. Conclusions Rational administration according to resistance test, comprehensive ecological improvement can control cockroach density for a long time.%目的 通过对德国小蠊抗药性的检测,合理用药,从而控制蟑螂密度.方法 根据蟑螂抗药性监测方案采用药膜法进行检测;利用化学防治,进行杀灭效果研究.结果 德国小蠊为绝对优势种,德国小蠊现场品系对残杀威、高效氯氰菊酯和乙酰甲胺磷抗性系数分别是0.89、4.78和0.64,均属于低度抗性.经现场用药处理后德国小蠊得到有效控制.结论 根据抗性结果,合理用药与环境治理相结合能在较长时间内有效控制蟑螂密度.

  17. Cloning and sequence analysis of para sodium channel cDNA fragment from silkworm, Bombyx mori%家蚕Para钠通道cDNA片段克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳; 刘丽花; 汪洋

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that a point mutation of a target gene is related to insecticide resistance to pyrethroids. The para sodium channel in the insect central nervous system is the target of pyrethroid insecticides. We used the RT-PCR method to clone the para sodium ion channel in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (GenBank No. EF521818).The full length of this cDNA fragment is 4 882 base pairs and its partial ORF is 3 986 bp translated into 1 328 amino acids. BLAST analysis demonstrated that the cloned cDNA fragment is virtually identical to the para sodium channel a subunit gene amplified from other insects. Amino acid homology of the cloned fragment with para sodium channel a subunit genes from Heliothis virescens Fabricius, Aedes aegypti L. , Blattella germanica L. , Drosophila melanogaster Meigen and Musca domestica L. was 95%, 82%, 80%, 79% and 77% respectively.%昆虫神经系统para型钠离子通道是拟除虫菊酯类杀虫剂的主要靶标,已有的研究表明钠离子通道基因发生点突变与昆虫对菊酯类杀虫剂的抗性密切相关.本文通过RT-PCR方法克隆获得了编码家蚕Bombyx mori L.钠离子通道的cDNA片段(GenBank No.EF521818),该片段全长4 882 bp,部分ORF包含3 986 bp核苷酸,翻译成1 328个氨基酸.蛋白序列分析表明,PCR扩增获得的家蚕钠离子通道eDNA片段所编码的氨基酸与其他昆虫的para型钠离子通道α亚基的氨基酸具有很高的同源相似性,与棉铃虫Heliothis virescens Fabricius、埃及伊蚊Aedes aegypti L.、德国小蠊Blattella germanica L.、果蝇Drosophila melanogaster Meigen和家蝇Musca domestica L.的相似性分别为95%、82%、80%、79%、77%.

  18. Identifying genes related to choriogenesis in insect panoistic ovaries by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellés Xavier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ovarioles are classified into two categories: panoistic and meroistic, the later having apparently evolved from an ancestral panoistic type. Molecular data on oogenesis is practically restricted to meroistic ovaries. If we aim at studying the evolutionary transition from panoistic to meroistic, data on panoistic ovaries should be gathered. To this end, we planned the construction of a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH library to identify genes involved in panoistic choriogenesis, using the cockroach Blattella germanica as model. Results We constructed a post-vitellogenic ovary library by SSH to isolate genes involved in choriogenesis in B. germanica. The tester library was prepared with an ovary pool from 6- to 7-day-old females, whereas the driver library was prepared with an ovary pool from 3- to 4-day-old females. From the SSH library, we obtained 258 high quality sequences which clustered into 34 unique sequences grouped in 19 contigs and 15 singlets. The sequences were compared against non-redundant NCBI databases using BLAST. We found that 44% of the unique sequences had homologous sequences in known genes of other organisms, whereas 56% had no significant similarity to any of the databases entries. A Gene Ontology analysis was carried out, classifying the 34 sequences into different functional categories. Seven of these gene sequences, representative of different categories and processes, were chosen to perform expression studies during the first gonadotrophic cycle by real-time PCR. Results showed that they were mainly expressed during post-vitellogenesis, which validates the SSH technique. In two of them corresponding to novel genes, we demonstrated that they are specifically expressed in the cytoplasm of follicular cells in basal oocytes at the time of choriogenesis. Conclusion The SSH approach has proven to be useful in identifying ovarian genes expressed after vitellogenesis in B. germanica. For

  19. Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. PMID:20109441

  20. Mutual mate choice: when it pays both sexes to avoid inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Zimmer, Cédric; Rivault, Colette

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models of sexual selection predict that both males and females of many species should benefit by selecting their mating partners. However, empirical evidence testing and validating this prediction is scarce. In particular, whereas inbreeding avoidance is expected to induce sexual conflicts, in some cases both partners could benefit by acting in concert and exerting mutual mate choice for non-assortative pairings. We tested this prediction with the gregarious cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). We demonstrated that males and females base their mate choice on different criteria and that choice occurs at different steps during the mating sequence. Males assess their relatedness to females through antennal contacts before deciding to court preferentially non-siblings. Conversely, females biased their choice towards the most vigorously courting males that happened to be non-siblings. This study is the first to demonstrate mutual mate choice leading to close inbreeding avoidance. The fact that outbred pairs were more fertile than inbred pairs strongly supports the adaptive value of this mating system, which includes no "best phenotype" as the quality of two mating partners is primarily linked to their relatedness. We discuss the implications of our results in the light of inbreeding conflict models.

  1. THE INVAZIVE ENTOMOFAUNA OF THE HEMIMETABOLA GROUP FOR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asea M. Timuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Moldova is investigated invasive entomofauna with the economic and ecological impact. Until now settled 118 species of the Hemimetabola group, belonging of 2 subclasses, 2 superorder and 7 orders. These 118 species were corellation with the database of Fauna Europaea and recorded are 24 species (20.3%, but for 94 (79.6% mentioned with the "absent" and "no data". In the meantime there were recorded 12 other species: Blatta orientalis, Cimex lectularius, Lepisma saccharina, Periplaneta americana, Trialeurodes vaporariorum – 1983, Blattella germanica – 2003, Leptoglossus occidentalis – 2010, Tachycines asynamorus, Dociostaurus tartarus – 2011, Scaphoideus titanus, Perillus bioculatus – 2013, Nezara viridula – 2014. According periods penetration it was found that 1 species have entered the XVII century, 1 in the XVIII, 14 in the XIX, 73 in the XX and 25 in the XXI. The registration invasive insects in countries of interest is in: Bulgaria – 48 species; Poland – 40; Romania – 25; other countries –5.

  2. Mutual mate choice: when it pays both sexes to avoid inbreeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lihoreau

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of sexual selection predict that both males and females of many species should benefit by selecting their mating partners. However, empirical evidence testing and validating this prediction is scarce. In particular, whereas inbreeding avoidance is expected to induce sexual conflicts, in some cases both partners could benefit by acting in concert and exerting mutual mate choice for non-assortative pairings. We tested this prediction with the gregarious cockroach Blattella germanica (L.. We demonstrated that males and females base their mate choice on different criteria and that choice occurs at different steps during the mating sequence. Males assess their relatedness to females through antennal contacts before deciding to court preferentially non-siblings. Conversely, females biased their choice towards the most vigorously courting males that happened to be non-siblings. This study is the first to demonstrate mutual mate choice leading to close inbreeding avoidance. The fact that outbred pairs were more fertile than inbred pairs strongly supports the adaptive value of this mating system, which includes no "best phenotype" as the quality of two mating partners is primarily linked to their relatedness. We discuss the implications of our results in the light of inbreeding conflict models.

  3. Characterization of a new iridovirus isolated from crickets and investigations on the host range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleespies; Tidona; Darai

    1999-01-01

    Typical signs of an iridovirus infection were observed in two species of fatally diseased crickets, Gryllus campestris L. and Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae). The infection was manifested by hypertrophy and bluish iridescence of the affected fat body cells. Electron microscope investigations led to the identification of a new iridovirus, which was termed cricket iridovirus (CrIV). In negatively stained preparations the size of the icosahedral virus particles ranged from 151 nm (side-side) to 167 nm (apex-apex). Assembly of virions occurred in the cytoplasm of hypertrophied fat body cells, where they often accumulated in paracrystalline arrays. Genetic analyses of purified viral DNA using a variety of restriction enzymes revealed that CrIV is distinct from all other known iridoviruses that have been isolated from insects and reported so far. In host range studies it was shown that CrIV can be transmitted perorally to other orthopteran species, causing characteristic symptoms and fatal disease. These species include Gryllus bimaculatus L. (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) and the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides (R. & F.) (Orthoptera, Acrididae), which represents one of the most important pest insects in developing countries, as well as the cockroaches Blattella germanica L. and Blatta orientalis L. (both Orthoptera, Blattidae). Consequently, the isolation and characterization of this new cricket iridovirus is of particular interest in view of its possible use in biological or integrated control. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:9878293

  4. Molecular basis of the remarkable species selectivity of an insecticidal sodium channel toxin from the African spider Augacephalus ezendami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria; Smith, Jennifer J.; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Gilchrist, John; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Nicholson, Graham M.; Bosmans, Frank; King, Glenn F.

    2016-01-01

    The inexorable decline in the armament of registered chemical insecticides has stimulated research into environmentally-friendly alternatives. Insecticidal spider-venom peptides are promising candidates for bioinsecticide development but it is challenging to find peptides that are specific for targeted pests. In the present study, we isolated an insecticidal peptide (Ae1a) from venom of the African spider Augacephalus ezendami (family Theraphosidae). Injection of Ae1a into sheep blowflies (Lucilia cuprina) induced rapid but reversible paralysis. In striking contrast, Ae1a was lethal to closely related fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) but induced no adverse effects in the recalcitrant lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that Ae1a potently inhibits the voltage-gated sodium channel BgNaV1 from the German cockroach Blattella germanica by shifting the threshold for channel activation to more depolarized potentials. In contrast, Ae1a failed to significantly affect sodium currents in dorsal unpaired median neurons from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. We show that Ae1a interacts with the domain II voltage sensor and that sensitivity to the toxin is conferred by natural sequence variations in the S1–S2 loop of domain II. The phyletic specificity of Ae1a provides crucial information for development of sodium channel insecticides that target key insect pests without harming beneficial species. PMID:27383378

  5. Comparison of two bioassay methods for determining deltamethrin resistance in German cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, L E; Tang, C S; Pang, F Y; Ho, S H

    2000-06-01

    Susceptibility to deltamethrin of 10 strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), trapped in hotel kitchens in Singapore was determined. Two resistance detection bioassay methods (topical application and World Health Organization glass jar method) were compared. Resistance ratios based on 50% knockdown, obtained by comparison with the S strain, ranged from 17.7 to 4,235 for topical application and from 2.2 to 22 for the glass jar method. A field strain, with consistently low resistance ratios (topical method = 17.7, glass jar method = 2.2), was identified as a potential field strain to be used as a baseline for comparison with other field strains. Resistance ratios for the other field strains obtained by comparison with the R5 strain ranged from 24.5 to 239 for topical application and from 1.2 to 9.8 for the glass jar method. The results of our study demonstrate that deltamethrin-resistant German cockroaches are numerous in Singapore. Comparison between the two bioassay methods showed that there was significant correlation between KD50 and KT50 values. The glass jar method is similar to field situations but topical application is sensitive enough to define the magnitude of resistance. Differences between the two detection bioassays and the factors governing the choice of bioassay in monitoring resistance in German cockroaches are discussed. PMID:10902348

  6. Lack of repellency of three commercial ultrasonic devices to the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGNENG HUANG; BHADRIRAJU SUBRAMANYAM

    2006-01-01

    Three commercial ultrasonic devices (A, B, and C) were tested for their ability to repel the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in Plexiglas(R) enclosures. Device A generated peak frequencies at 26 kHz and 34 kHz, and produced a 95 ± 1 dB sound pressure level (SPL) at 50 cm distance (0 dB = 20 log10[20 μPa/20μPa]). Device B generated peak frequencies at 27 kHz and 35 kHz, and produced a 92 ±4 dB SPL. Device C generated a wide range of frequencies between 28-42 kHz and produced an 88 ± 2 dB SPL. Ultrasound from any of the three devices did not demonstrate sufficient repelling ability against the German cockroach in the tests. The result failed to provide evidence that ultrasonic technology could be used as an effective pest management tool to repel or eliminate the German cockroach.

  7. Development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol for rapid detection and differentiation of four cockroach vectors (group I "Dirty 22" species) responsible for food contamination and spreading of foodborne pathogens: public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Irshad M; Anderson, Mickey; Khristova, Marina; Tang, Kevin; Sulaiman, Nikhat; Phifer, Edwin; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil

    2011-11-01

    Assessing the adulteration of food products and the presence of filth and extraneous materials is one of the measures that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) utilizes in implementing regulatory actions of public health importance. To date, 22 common pest species (also known as the "Dirty 22" species) have been regarded by this agency as the spreaders of foodborne diseases. We have further categorized the Dirty 22 species into four groups: I has four cockroach species, II has two ant species, III has 12 fly species, and IV has four rodent species. The presence of any Dirty 22 species is also considered an indicator of unsanitary conditions in food processing and storage facilities. In this study, we describe the development of a two-step nested PCR protocol to amplify the small subunit ribosomal gene of group I Dirty 22 species that include four cockroach species: Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, and Supella longipalpa, along with the development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection and differentiation of these violative species. This method will be utilized when the specimen cannot be identified with conventional microscopic taxonomic methods, especially when only small body parts are separated and recovered from food samples for analysis or when these body parts are in a decomposed state. This new PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism will provide correct identification of group I Dirty 22 species; this information can then be used in regulation and prevention of foodborne pathogens. PMID:22054189

  8. Design, Synthesis, Acaricidal Activity, and Mechanism of Oxazoline Derivatives Containing an Oxime Ether Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Li, Chaojie; Zheng, Yanlong; Wei, Xingcun; Ma, Qiaoqiao; Wei, Peng; Liu, Yuxiu; Qin, Yaoguo; Yang, Na; Sun, Yufeng; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling; Wang, Qingmin

    2014-03-27

    Two series of novel 2,4-diphenyl-1,3-oxazolines containing an oxime ether moiety were designed and synthesized via the key intermediate N-(2-chloro-1-(p-tolyl)ethyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide. The bioassay results showed that the target compounds with an oxime ether substituent at the para position of 4-phenyl exhibited excellent acaricidal activity against Tetranychus cinnabarinus in the laboratory. Moreover, all of the target compounds had much higher activities than etoxazole, as the ovicidal and larvicidal activities of the target compounds I-a-I-l and II-a-II-n against T. cinnabarinus were all over 90% at 0.001 mg L(-1), but etoxazole gave only 30% and 40% respectively at the same concentration. The activity order of compounds with regard to acaricidal activity in vivo was almost consistent with their affinity activity with sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) of Blattella germanica in vitro, hence, it was supposed that the acaricidal mechanism of action of the target compounds was that they can bind with the site of SUR and therefore inhibit chitin synthesis. Moreover, the eminent effect of the compound II-l, [2-(trifluoromethyl)benzaldehyde O-(4-(2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydrooxazol-4-yl)benzyl) oxime], against Panonychus citri and T. cinnabarinus in the field indicated that II-l exhibited a promising application prospect as a new candicate for controlling spider mites in the field. PMID:24673392

  9. Habitat influences on diversity of bacteria found on German cockroach in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xue; YE Lefu; GE Feng

    2009-01-01

    Cockroaches are worldwide indoor pests carrying microorganisms of medical importance.German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) were sampled in five habitats (hospital, restaurant, office home, and market) in Beijing, and the bacteria were isolated from their external surface and alimentary tract and identified using a Biolog identification system.Cockroach densities significantly differed among habitats (market > home > office > restaurant > hospital).However, no significant differences in bacterial abundance carried by individual German cockroaches (of either sex) were found among habitats.The bacterial abundance in the gut was significantly higher than that on the surface.There were no significant differences in bacterial species richness observed among habitats, sex, carrying position or their interaction.Cluster analysis showed that cockroach densities and bacterial abundance found in the market differed significantly from the other four habitats.The bacterial diversity was not significantly reduced in sensitive facilities such as hospital and restaurant, even though pesticide and bactericide were more frequently applied there.The implications of these findings were discussed in this article.

  10. 家蚕para钠通道cDNA片段克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳; 刘丽花; 汪洋

    2011-01-01

    昆虫神经系统para型钠离子通道是拟除虫菊酯类杀虫剂的主要靶标,已有的研究表明钠离子通道基因发生点突变与昆虫对菊酯类杀虫剂的抗性密切相关。本文通过RT-PCR方法克隆获得了编码家蚕Bombyx mori L.钠离子通道的cDNA片段(GenBank No.EF521818),该片段全长4882bp,部分ORF包含3986bp核苷酸,翻译成1328个氨基酸。蛋白序列分析表明,PCR扩增获得的家蚕钠离子通道cDNA片段所编码的氨基酸与其他昆虫的para型钠离子通道α亚基的氨基酸具有很高的同源相似性,与棉铃虫Heliothis virescens Fabricius、埃及伊蚊Aedes aegypti L.、德国小蠊Blattella germanica L.、果蝇Drosophila melanogaster Meigen和家蝇Musca domestica L.的相似性分别为95%、82%、80%、79%、77%。

  11. LINKAGE OF KNOCKDOWN RESISTANCE AND THE SODIUM CHANNEL GENE MUTATION IN CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS *%淡色库蚊(Culex pipiens Pallens)与击倒抗性(kdr)相关的钠通道基因突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋锋林; 赵彤言; 董言德; 曹晓梅; 张晓龙

    2005-01-01

    本研究采用RT-PCR技术,使用简并引物分别从淡色库蚊(Culex pipiens pallens)敏感品系和抗溴氰菊酯品系中扩增出钠通道ⅡS4~ⅡS6区域的基因片段,长度为359bp.该基因片段所编码的氨基酸与黑尾果蝇(Drosophila melanogaster)、家蝇(Musca domestica)、埃及伊蚊(Aedes aegypti)、冈比亚按蚊(Anopheles gambiae)及德国小蠊(Blattella germanica)等昆虫相应区域的氨基酸序列具有较高的同源性,其同源性分别为95.8%,95.0%,100.0%,98.3%和95.0%.经序列比对,确认抗溴氰菊酯品系淡色库蚊钠通道基因在1014位点发生了突变:该位点的碱基"A"突变为"T",其对应氨基酸由亮氨酸(L)变为苯丙氨酸(F),该突变(L1014F型)在多种昆虫中较为常见.

  12. Irradiated vegetal extracts of mormodica charantia and cymbopogom nardus for the control of Blatella germanica; Extratos vegetais irradiados de mormodica charantia e cymbopogom nardus no controle de Blatella germanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahme, Ligia Cardoso; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Analise e Deteccao de Alimentos]. E-mail: lignah@hotmail.com; villavic@net.ipen.br; Potenza, Marcos Roberto Potenza [Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Sanidade Vegetal. Lab. de Protecao e Clinica Vegetal

    2000-07-01

    Pertaining to one of the groups oldest of the world; the cockroach possess a great adaptive capacity and if they find gifts in diverse environments, being usually found in residences; independent if conserved well. Besides causing infestations, the cockroach cause serious riots and illnesses, therefore they act as vectors of pathogenic agents. Had to these events the interest to control these insects it magnified. One of the control forms oldest that come very being used; they are the vegetal extracts, in order to identify alternative products that substitute the conventional insecticides and that they do not cause problems to the environment. In the experiment cool parts of the plants had been used (leaves and flowers), that they had been triturated and homogenized in the ratio of 1:9 distilled water parts. The gotten mass was filtered in paper filter and solution gotten stored in freezer for posterior use. The radiated botanical species in the watery extract form had been Aloe arborescens, Delonix regia, Hemerocalis flaval, in the doses of 0 kGy, 2,5 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy. The vegetal extract soon was supplied to the insects through the alimentary diet (feline ration), which was dived during one minute in the respective extract and supplied to the insects after the drying in ambient temperature. The used cockroach met in nymphs of and stadium of development and confined in plastic containers of 10 cm of re-covered diameter and 8 cm of height with teladas covers. The evaluations had elapsed during 7 days, where they had been gotten resulted with 12% of efficiency in the Aloe arborescens species and no result in Hemerocalis flaval.

  13. 集贸市场蜚蠊侵害和抗药性调查及综合防制研究%Infestation and pesticide resistance of cockroaches in market and relevant comprehensive control measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽娟; 刘迪; 刘小泉; 刘俊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infestation and population distribution of cockroaches in the market and the pesticide resistance of Blattella germanica to provide a basis for comprehensive control measures. Methods The infestation of cockroaches was investigated by visual inspection; the density of cockroaches was measured by cockroach glue board; the pesticide resistance of B. Germanica was determined by residual film method. The pesticides to which the cockroaches were sensitive were used for comprehensive control. Results The infestation rate of cockroaches in the market was 86.67%, and the density was 4.19 cockroaches/board/night. The levels of resistance (folds) of 6. Germanica to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, propoxur, chlorpyrifos, dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate (DDVP), cypermethrin, permethrin, tetramethrin, and azamethiphos were 2.65, 3.82, 1.77, 3.51, 11.19, 5.21, 6.51, 12.00, and 2.11, respectively. The pesticides to which the cockroaches were sensitive and developed low resistance achieved a killing rate of 96.19%. Conclusion There is a high infestation rate of cockroaches in the market of Wuhan city, China. B. Germanica is the dominant species of the cockroaches and has developed high resistance to DDVP and tetramethrin. Comprehensive control measures, including environmental treatment and pesticide use, should be taken to control the density of cockroaches below a harmless level.%目的 了解集贸市场蜚蠊侵害情况、种群分布及德国小蠊的抗药性,为制定防制对策提供依据.方法 采用目测法调查蜚蠊侵害情况,用粘蟑板测定其密度,用药膜接触法测定抗药性,采用敏感和低抗的药物进行综合防制.结果 集贸市场蜚蠊侵害率为86.67%,密度为4.19只/(张·夜);德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯、残杀威、毒死蜱、敌敌畏、氯氰菊酯、氯菊酯、胺菊酯、甲基吡(嗯)磷9种杀虫剂的抗药性分别为2.65、3.82、1.77、3.51、11.19、5.21、6.51

  14. Trapping and Monitoring Techniques of Insect Vectors of Mosquito and Cockroach in Frontier Ports%医学蚊媒和蜚蠊的诱集监测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雄峰; 黄恩炯; 于姗姗; 高博; 蔡享忠; 张莉; 马晓光

    2012-01-01

    The trapping method of insect vectors to improve the trapping and monitoring techniques in frontier ports was set up.A trapping device and two new kinds of attractants were designed for the insect vectors monitoring.The efficiency of the device combined with new insect attractants was verified in frontier port of Fujian.5 species of mosquito were captured and the Culex pipiens quinquefasciatu was a dominant species.And 4 species of cockroach were captured with the Blattella germanica a dominant species.The composite system of device and new attractant have a better efficiency than the composite system of device and regular attractant when trapping mosquito(t=8.190,P〈0.01) and cockroach(F=5.859,p〈0.05).The composite system of device and new attractant has a better efficiency and helps to improve the ability of trapping and monitoring insect vectors in frontier ports.%[目的]改进医学媒介昆虫蚊类和蜚蠊的诱集方法,提高口岸对蚊媒和蜚蠊的诱捕能力和监测技术。[方法]使用由本研究设计的多种昆虫诱集装置配合新型昆虫引诱剂,在福建口岸诱集蚊虫和蟑螂,进行效果初步验证。[结果]诱集实验捕获蚊虫5个种,共计1089只,致倦库蚊(Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus)为优势种;蜚蠊4个种,共计380只,德国小蠊(Blattella germanica)为优势种。诱集装置与新型诱剂的组合使用对蚊虫(t=8.190,P〈0.01)和蜚蠊(F=5.859,p〈0.05)的诱集效果均明显好于常规方法。[结论]采用诱集装置并配合新型引诱剂的方法能够获得较好的监测效果,该方法可用于口岸蚊媒和蜚蠊的诱集监测。

  15. Synergistic effect of some essential oils on toxicity and knockdown effects, against mosquitos, cockroaches and housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idin Zibaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and knockdown effect of Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their mixed formulation on Periplaneta Americana (L., Blattella germanica (L., Supella longipalpa, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi and Musca domestica were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In all bioassay five different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used by filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods, all essential oils was toxic to cockroaches, mosquitos and housefly species the lowest and the highest LC50 belong to mixed formulation on B. germanica (LC50 6.1 and E. globulus on P. americana (LC50 27.7 respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50 values for cockroaches ranged from 1403.3 min with 0.625% E. globulus (for P. americana to 2.2 min with 10% mixed formulation for A. stephensi. The KT50 values ranged from 0.1 to 1090.8 min for 10% and 0.625 for mixed formulation and R. officinalis respectively. The mortality after 24 h for mixed formulation was 100% but for single essential oils ranged from 81.5 to 98.3 for P. americana treated with R. officinalis and A. stephensi treated with E. globulus respectively. Studies on persistence of essential oils on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 14 and 16 peaks for E. globules and R. officinalis respectively. α-Pinene (39.8%, 1, 8-Cineole (13.2%, Camphene (9.1% and Borneol (3.7% were present in major amounts for R. officinalis and 1,8-Cineole (31.4%, α-Pinene (15.3%, d-Limonene (9.7% and α-Terpinolen (5.3% were present in major amounts for E. globulus respectively. Our results showed that two surveyed essential oils has compatible with synergistic effect on various insect species, furthermore it is useful for applying as integrated pest management tool for studied insects management, especially in

  16. MicroRNAs in metamorphic and non-metamorphic transitions in hemimetabolan insect metamorphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Mercedes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous work showed that miRNAs play key roles in the regulation of metamorphosis in the hemimetabolan species Blattella germanica. To gain insight about which miRNAs might be important, we have constructed two miRNA libraries, one of the penultimate, pre-metamorphic nymphal instar (N5 and the other of the last, metamorphic nymphal instar (N6. Results High throughput sequencing gave 61 canonical miRNAs present in the N5 and N6 libraries, although at different proportions in each. Comparison of both libraries led to the identification of three and 37 miRNAs significantly more expressed in N5 and N6 respectively. Twelve of these 40 miRNAs were then investigated further by qRT-PCR and results indicated that miR-252-3p was well expressed in N5 but not in N6, whereas let-7-5p, miR-100-5p and miR-125-5p showed the reverse pattern. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E tended to stimulate miRNA expression, whereas juvenile hormone (JH inhibited the 20E stimulatory effect. Expression of let-7, miR-100 and miR-125 was increased by 20E, which has also been observed in D. melanogaster. The only miRNA that was inhibited by 20E was miR-252-3p. The involvement of let-7, miR-100 and miR-125 in metamorphosis has been demonstrated in other insects. Depletion of miR-252-3p caused growth and developmental delays, which suggests that this miRNA is involved in regulating these processes prior to metamorphosis. Conclusions The comparative analysis of miRNA libraries from pre-metamorphic (N5 and metamorphic stages (N6 of B. germanica proved to be a useful tool to identify miRNAs with roles in hemimetabolan metamorphosis. Three miRNAs emerged as important factors in the metamorphic stage (N6: let-7-5p, miR-100-5p and miR-125-5p, whereas miR-252-3p appears to be important in the pre-metamorphic stage (N5.

  17. 2009年北京市西城区病媒生物调查分析%Vector investigation of Xicheng district in Beijing in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦迪; 申同洋; 王效凤; 赵秀英; 杜晓旭

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解2009年北京市西城区病媒生物的种群构成和季节消长情况,为病媒生物及媒介传染病防治工作提供依据和建议.方法 成蚊密度调查采用CO灯诱法;蝇密度调查采用笼诱法;鼠密度调查采用夹夜法;蟑螂密度调查采用粘捕法.结果 蚊类主要为淡色库蚊(81.04%)和白纹伊蚊;蝇类主要为麻蝇(43.76%)、丝光绿蝇、丽蝇、家蝇和夏厕蝇;蟑螂均为德国小蠊;鼠类主要为褐家鼠和小家鼠,各占鼠总数的50%.8月下旬为蚊类活动高峰期;蝇类在5月下旬和8月下旬呈现2个活动高峰,以8月下旬最高;蟑螂在2月和9月呈现2个活动高峰,以9月最高;鼠类受春秋季灭鼠影响,季节性并不明显.结论 淡色库蚊、麻蝇、德国小蠊、褐家鼠和小家鼠为优势种.蚊类、蝇类、蟑螂有明显的季节性,鼠类季节性不明显.%Objective To investigate constitution and seasonal fluctuation of vector of Xicheng district in 2009, then provide scientific basis and proposal for vector control and prevention of vector-borne diseases. Methods Light trap, cage trap, mouse trap and mucilage glue trap were used to catch mosquitoes, flies, rodents and cockroaches respectively. Results The mosquitoes were mainly Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes albopictus, Culex pipiens pallens was 81. 04% . The flies were mainly flesh fly ,Lucilia serkata, Calliphoridae, Musca domestica and Fanni-acanicularis, the flesh fly was 43. 76%. The rodents were mainly Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus which was 50% respectively. The cockroach was all Blattella germanica. The active peak of mosquitoes was in late August. The two peaks of fly were in late May and late August,and the latter s peak was higher. The cockroach's two peaks were in February and September, and the latters peak was higher. Under the influence of deratization in spring and autumn, seasonality of rodents was unconspicuous. Conclusion Culex pipiens pallens , flesh

  18. Analysis on inroads situation and control effect of cockroach at a residential building%某居民楼蟑螂侵害及防治效果调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹广庆; 周光智; 王治; 李平; 文瑜; 程绪浩

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查某部居民楼蟑螂侵害情况和防治效果.方法 用药激法调查蟑螂密度,化学防治采用奋斗呐滞留喷洒和优士灭蟑胶饵.结果 德国小蠊为绝对优势种,防治前不同房间平均密度为2.3 ~16.8只/间,施药后3d密度为0.1~1.3只/间,杀灭率为91.07%~ 97.67%,15 d后为0只/间,杀灭率为100%.结论 该住宅楼蟑螂侵害严重,滞留喷洒结合灭蟑胶饵、颗粒饵杀灭蟑螂效果显著,值得推广.%Objective To investigate cockroach invasion in room of a residential building, and observe the preventive and control effect. Methods Medication excite killing method was used for density investigation, 5 % alpha - cypermethrin( Fendona) wettable powder and gel bait for chemical control. Results Blattella germanica was the dominant species. The density was 2.3- 16. 8 pieces per room in different apartment before control,after using control method , the density was 0. 1-1. 3 pieces per room with the mortality rate of 91. 07% -91.61% three days later, and the density was 0 pieces per room with the mortality rate of 100% fifteen days later. Conclusion The cockroach invasion is serious at this residential building. The method of using remained spray and gel bait has high efficacy a-gainst cockroach and deserves to be recommended.

  19. Prevalence of sensitivity to cockroach allergens and IgE crossreactivity between cockroach and house dust mite allergens in Chinese patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-qing; LAI Xu-xin; Birgitte Gjesing; Michael Dho Spangfort; ZHONG Nan-shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Cockroaches are an important indoor allergen source causing allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the cockroach prevalence in mainland of China and the cross-reactivity of IgE between cockroach and house dust mite allergen in Chinese patients.Methods The cockroach sensitization pattern was based on a skin prick test (SPT) obtained from a national multicenter prevalence study, in which 6304 patients from 25 allergy centers across China participated. Factors, including different regions of China, age, gender and the correlations between the American and German cockroaches and house dust mite Der p were investigated. Eighteen out of 1236 clinical sera from south China were selected to perform the cross-inhibition assay between house dust mites and cockroaches.Results Totally 25.7% of patients were SPT positive to the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana, Per a) and 18.7% SPT positive to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Bla g). The prevalence of positive cockroach SPT was higher in southern than in northern China, higher in adults than in children, and higher in males than in females.Patients had relatively low levels of cockroach SPT reactions, mainly class 1 or 2. Of the SPT positive cockroach patients,88% were also SPT positive to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p). An IgE cross-inhibition study confirmed that Der P sensitization could cause false positive SPT reactions against cockroach.Conclusions A relatively high prevalence of cockroach sensitivity was found in mainland of China. However, a cross-inhibition study showed that only a small number of patients appear to have Bla g and/or Per a as primary sensitizing source. The importance of cockroaches as a risk factor for sensitization and triggers of allergic symptoms in mainland of China needs to be further investigated.

  20. Allergy-related Evidences in Relation to Serum IgE:Data from the China State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, 2008-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN BaoQing; CHEN DeHui; ZHENG PeiYan; HUANG HuiMin; LUO WenTing; ZENG Guang Qiao; ZHANG XiaoWen

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the serum total IgE (tIgE) and specific IgE (sIgE) to common allergens among allergic patients in Guangzhou, China. Methods7 085 patients were examined for tIgE and sIgE to 15 allergens, based on the protocols of reversed enzyme allergosorbent test and the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results3 758(53.04%) patients tested positive for tIgE, and 4 640(65.49%) for sIgE.Der pteronyssinus,Der farinae, eggs, and cow’s milk were the most common allergens leading to higher positive rates of sIgE responses. Several peaks of sensitization were:Der pteronyssinus,Der farinae, and Blomia tropicalis at age 10-12; cow’s milk at age below 3; eggs at age 4-6. The mean level and positive rate of tIgE tended to increase in subjects sensitized to more allergens. Sensitization toDer pteronyssinus (OR, 1.6;P<0.05),Der farinae (OR, 1.5;P<0.05),Blomia tropicalis (OR, 1.4;P<0.05), Blattella germanica (OR, 1.5;P<0.05), cow’s milk (OR, 1.3;P<0.05), and soy beans (OR, 2.0;P<0.05) were independently correlated with allergy-related conditions in preliminary diagnosis. ConclusionThe major allergens in Guangzhou includeDer pteronyssinus, Der farinae, cow’s milk, and eggs. Sensitization to these allergens appears to be predictors of allergy-related disorder.

  1. Evolution of SUMO Function and Chain Formation in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, Enric; Pirone, Lucia; Chafino, Silvia; Pérez, Coralia; Sutherland, James D; Lang, Valérie; Rodriguez, Manuel S; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Blanco, Francisco J; Barrio, Rosa; Martín, David

    2016-02-01

    SUMOylation, the covalent binding of Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) to target proteins, is a posttranslational modification that regulates critical cellular processes in eukaryotes. In insects, SUMOylation has been studied in holometabolous species, particularly in the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster, which contains a single SUMO gene (smt3). This has led to the assumption that insects contain a single SUMO gene. However, the analysis of insect genomes shows that basal insects contain two SUMO genes, orthologous to vertebrate SUMO1 and SUMO2/3. Our phylogenetical analysis reveals that the SUMO gene has been duplicated giving rise to SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 families early in Metazoan evolution, and that later in insect evolution the SUMO1 gene has been lost after the Hymenoptera divergence. To explore the consequences of this loss, we have examined the characteristics and different biological functions of the two SUMO genes (SUMO1 and SUMO3) in the hemimetabolous cockroach Blattella germanica and compared them with those of Drosophila Smt3. Here, we show that the metamorphic role of the SUMO genes is evolutionary conserved in insects, although there has been a regulatory switch from SUMO1 in basal insects to SUMO3 in more derived ones. We also show that, unlike vertebrates, insect SUMO3 proteins cannot form polySUMO chains due to the loss of critical lysine residues within the N-terminal part of the protein. Furthermore, the formation of polySUMO chains by expression of ectopic human SUMO3 has a deleterious effect in Drosophila. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional consequences of the evolution of SUMO genes. PMID:26538142

  2. The Occurrence of the Holometabolous Pupal Stage Requires the Interaction between E93, Kruppel-Homolog 1 and Broad-Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Ureña

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Complete metamorphosis (Holometaboly is a key innovation that underlies the spectacular success of holometabolous insects. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Holometabola form a monophyletic group that evolved from ancestors exhibiting hemimetabolous development (Hemimetaboly. However, the nature of the changes underlying this crucial transition, including the occurrence of the holometabolan-specific pupal stage, is poorly understood. Using the holometabolous beetle Tribolium castaneum as a model insect, here we show that the transient up-regulation of the anti-metamorphic Krüppel-homolog 1 (TcKr-h1 gene at the end of the last larval instar is critical in the formation of the pupa. We find that depletion of this specific TcKr-h1 peak leads to the precocious up-regulation of the adult-specifier factor TcE93 and, hence, to a direct transformation of the larva into the adult form, bypassing the pupal stage. Moreover, we also find that the TcKr-h1-dependent repression of TcE93 is critical to allow the strong up-regulation of Broad-complex (TcBr-C, a key transcription factor that regulates the correct formation of the pupa in holometabolous insects. Notably, we show that the genetic interaction between Kr-h1 and E93 is also present in the penultimate nymphal instar of the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, suggesting that the evolution of the pupa has been facilitated by the co-option of regulatory mechanisms present in hemimetabolan metamorphosis. Our findings, therefore, contribute to the molecular understanding of insect metamorphosis, and indicate the evolutionary conservation of the genetic circuitry that controls hemimetabolan and holometabolan metamorphosis, thereby shedding light on the evolution of complete metamorphosis.

  3. The Occurrence of the Holometabolous Pupal Stage Requires the Interaction between E93, Krüppel-Homolog 1 and Broad-Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, Enric; Chafino, Silvia; Manjón, Cristina; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Martín, David

    2016-05-01

    Complete metamorphosis (Holometaboly) is a key innovation that underlies the spectacular success of holometabolous insects. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Holometabola form a monophyletic group that evolved from ancestors exhibiting hemimetabolous development (Hemimetaboly). However, the nature of the changes underlying this crucial transition, including the occurrence of the holometabolan-specific pupal stage, is poorly understood. Using the holometabolous beetle Tribolium castaneum as a model insect, here we show that the transient up-regulation of the anti-metamorphic Krüppel-homolog 1 (TcKr-h1) gene at the end of the last larval instar is critical in the formation of the pupa. We find that depletion of this specific TcKr-h1 peak leads to the precocious up-regulation of the adult-specifier factor TcE93 and, hence, to a direct transformation of the larva into the adult form, bypassing the pupal stage. Moreover, we also find that the TcKr-h1-dependent repression of TcE93 is critical to allow the strong up-regulation of Broad-complex (TcBr-C), a key transcription factor that regulates the correct formation of the pupa in holometabolous insects. Notably, we show that the genetic interaction between Kr-h1 and E93 is also present in the penultimate nymphal instar of the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, suggesting that the evolution of the pupa has been facilitated by the co-option of regulatory mechanisms present in hemimetabolan metamorphosis. Our findings, therefore, contribute to the molecular understanding of insect metamorphosis, and indicate the evolutionary conservation of the genetic circuitry that controls hemimetabolan and holometabolan metamorphosis, thereby shedding light on the evolution of complete metamorphosis. PMID:27135810

  4. 远洋船蟑螂密度调查及其杀灭效果观察%The density monitor and efficacy of controlling cockroaches on ocean-going ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育兵; 严峥; 夏本立; 尹莉; 王武芳; 郭鹏; 石静; 巩立; 许晓华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To monitor the density, discriminate the species and observe efficacy of controlling cockroaches using a set of insecticides on two ocean-going ships. Methods Observing the density by the method of adhibiting ,then making a discriminationg for its pecies. Using a set of insecticides which were composed of granular bait and gel bait to decrease the density of cockroaches. Results The density of cockroaches were 1.06 and 2.39 pieces per piece per night respectively, all the cockroaches adhibited were Blattella germanica. After using insecticides for seven days,the average density of cockroaches declined by 87.03%. The density declined by 94.14% after three months. Conclusion The methed of using a set of insecticides could get an ideal effect against cockroaches,which is worth popularizing on ships.%目的 了解远洋船上嶂螂种群、密度,观察套餐法在远洋船上杀灭嶂螂的效果.方法 用粘捕法进行蟑螂密度调查,对粘捕到的嶂螂进行种类鉴定,采用套餐法对远洋船上蟑螂进行现场杀灭试验.结果 甲、乙两船饮食场所的蟑螂密度分别为1.06和2.39只/(张·夜);嶂螂的优势种群为德国小蠊;投药后1周嶂螂密度下降率为87.03%,3个月后嶂螂密度下降率达94.14%.结论 远洋船上采用套餐法灭蟑值得推广.

  5. Screening effective insecticides for controlling mosquito, fly and cockroach%对蚊蝇和蟑螂有效防治药剂的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄静; 靳增军; 王志强; 王建蕊; 王向文; 李现亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective The effect of four kinds of insecticides against Culex pipiens pallens,Musca domestica and Blattella germanica were determined, in order to provide scientific data for vector control. Methods Under laboratory conditions, using soaking, topical application and residual smearing methods. Results The LC50 of delta-methrin to mosquito was 0. 009 1 mg/L, and the toxicity was the highest. The toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin was the second and its LC50 to mosquito was 0. 012 6 mg/L. The toxicity of tetramethrin was the lowest. The LD50 of lambda-cyhalothrin was 0.008 3 礸/ ? to fly. Propoxur was the lowest toxicity. For cockroach, the KT50 of lambda-cyhalothrin, delta-methrin and fenobucarb were 10. 24,10. 85 and 12. 96 min respectively. Conclusion For fly and cockroach, the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin was the highest. The toxicity of delta-methrin to mosquito was the strongest. The control effect of beta-cyfluthrin was the best of them.%目的 掌握多种药剂对淡色库蚊、家蝇和德国小蠊的杀灭效果,为有效控制媒介生物提供依据.方法 在室内条件下分别采用幼虫浸渍法、微量点滴法、三角烧瓶药膜法.结果 溴氰菊酯对淡色库蚊幼虫敏感性最高,毒力最大,LC50为0.009 1 mg/L;高效氯氟氰菊酯次之,LC50为0.0126 mg/L;胺菊酯毒力较弱.家蝇对高效氯氟氰菊酯敏感性同样最高,LD50为0.008 3μg/♀,残杀威毒力最弱.高效氯氟氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯和仲丁威对德国小蠊的KT50分别为10.24、10.85和12.96 min,毒力较强.结论 家蝇、德国小蠊对高效氯氟氰菊酯的敏感性最高,淡色库蚊幼虫对溴氰菊酯的敏感性最高,但高效氯氰菊酯的杀灭效果强于其他.

  6. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  7. 上海市嘉定区病媒生物监测结果分析%Investigation on vectors in Jiading district, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武峥嵘; 王韶华; 徐友祥

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand vector species and seasonal fluctuations in Jiading district, providing the evidence for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. Methods The surveillance sites were set up according to the national vector surveillance project. The densities of vectors like rodents, flies, mosquitoes and cockroaches were investigated by the methods of night trapping, cage trapping, light trapping and paste trapping, respectively. Results The rodents in the district were identified to be of 3 species, 2 genus, 1 family, with Mus musculus (69.23%) being the dominant species followed by Rattus norvegicus (21.15%). The peak density of rodents was seen in September. There were 4 species, 4 genus and 3 family of flies in the district, with Musca domestica being the dominant species, accounting for 68.49% . July saw the peak density of flies. There were 3 species, 2 genus and 2 families of mosquitoes in this district. Of which Culex pipiens pallens was dominant, accounting for 73.83%, followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (12.58%) and Anopheles sinensis (13.59%). The density of mosquitoes peaked in August. The cockroaches collected in the district belonged to 2 species, 2 genus and 2 families. The dominant species was Blattella germanica (89.29%), its peak density seen in July. Conclusion M. musculus, M. domestica, Cx. pipiens pallens and B. germanica are the dominant species of the vectors. The peak density of rodents is seen in September and that of other vectors in July.%目的 了解嘉定区病媒生物的种类及其季节消长规律,为预防和控制病媒生物传播疾病的发生和流行提供依据.方法 按照《全国病媒生物监测方案(试行)》设置监测点,分别以夹日法、笼诱法、灯诱法和粘捕法调查鼠、蝇、蚊、蜚蠊的种类和密度.结果 调查发现嘉定区鼠类1科2属3种,小家鼠为优势鼠种(占69.23%),其次是褐家鼠(占21.15%),鼠密度9月最高;蝇类3科4属4种,家蝇

  8. [Anne Arold. Kontrastive Analyse...] / Paul Alvre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvre, Paul, 1921-2008

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Arold, Anne. Kontrastive analyse der Wortbildungsmuster im Deutschen und im Estnischen (am Beispiel der Aussehensadjektive). Tartu, 2000. (Dissertationes philologiae germanicae Universitatis Tartuensis)

  9. Capture ELISA and FEIA assay for allergen-specific IgE antibody: a comparative analysis%采用酶联免疫捕获法和荧光酶联免疫吸附法检测过敏原IgE抗体的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佩燕; 孙宝清; 黄惠敏; 韦妮莉; 李靖; 陈德晖

    2011-01-01

    Objective:Enzymes immune to the capture of the law ALLERG-O-LIQ system and enzyme immune to the fluorescence detection method ImmunoCAP system allergic IgE the specifisity antibodies of observation. in contrast. Methods: The object of study is for the patient' s cases 2008-2010 in allergies and pediatrics departments. Adopt two different enzymes immune to the original specificity IgE antibodies detect. There are 9 kinds of allergic, consist of D. pteronyssinus ( D 1 ) , Dermatophagus farinae ( D2 ) , Dog dander ( E3 ),Blattella Germanica ( I6 ) Egg ( Fl ), Milk ( F2 ), Peanuts ( F13 ) , Crub ( F23 ) , Shrimp ( F24 ). And the two inspection results in linear regression tests and consistency. Results: There are 520 times allergic to the original specificity IgE detect. Two systems for inhaling of the antibodies specificity IgE an allergy test results of consistency good (P<0.05) ,specificity IgE result: D. pteronyssinus > Dermatophagus farinae > Blattella Germanica > Dog dander, but with food allergy test results of the antibodies sige relevance more into allergic to the low,Specificity IgE Result: Crub>Shrimp> Peanuts>Egg>Milk. Conclusion:ALLERG-O-LIQ syaterm and ImmunoCAP systerm both belong to the new generation is allergic to the operation of the detection system, Two detection methods consistent, from a relatively small, a linear regression distribution,So,with the serum Specificity IgE systerm of ALLERG-O-LIQ is a reliable,economic and clinical diagnosis. The test results and ImmunoCAP system compatible test results.%目的:对酶联免疫捕获法的ALLERG-O-LIQ系统和荧光酶联免疫吸附法的ImmunoCAP系统检测过敏原特异性IgE抗体的一致性进行对比观察.方法:研究对象为我院2008~2010年就诊于变态反应科、儿科的病例,采用2种不同的酶联免疫吸附法检测屋尘螨(D1)、粉尘螨(D2)、狗毛屑(E5)、德国小蠊(16)、鸡蛋(F1)、牛奶(F2)、花生(F13)、蟹(F23)、虾(F24),共9种过敏

  10. Texas Studies in Bilingualism. Spanish, French, German, Czech, Polish, Sorbian, and Norwegian in the Southwest. (With a Concluding Chapter on Code-Switching and Modes of Speaking in American Swedish.) Studia Linguistica Germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Glenn G., Ed.

    This book contains studies of seven non-English languages spoken in Texas, Oklahoma and Louisiana, as well as a final chapter based on data obtained from Swedish-English bilinguals in Massachusetts, Illinois, and Minnesota. The individual studies are: Lurline H. Coltharp, "Invitation to the Dance: Spanish in the El Paso Underworld"; Janet B.…

  11. Investigation on medical vectors at Yinchuan International Airport%银川河东机场医学媒介生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹淞; 刘凤莲; 黄杰; 祁琳; 黎祝凤; 高秦

    2013-01-01

    目的 掌握银川机场口岸鼠、蚊、蝇、蜚蠊类4种医学媒介生物本底情况,掌握种类构成及季节消长情况,为口岸媒介生物控制提供科学依据.方法 鼠类调查采用夹(笼)夜法,蚊类采用人帐诱捕法,蝇类采用捕蝇笼诱捕,蜚蠊采用盒式诱捕法,对捕获的鼠形动物、成蚊、蝇类和蜚蠊进行分类鉴定及统计分析.结果 捕获鼠形动物32只,经鉴定隶属于1目3科4属4种;捕获成蚊7072只,经鉴定隶属于1科2亚科3属4种,淡色库蚊为优势种,占捕获总数的70.86%,蚊类平均密度为110.5只/人工·h;捕获成蝇19017只,经鉴定隶属于3科7属11种,丝光绿蝇为优势种,7~9月为高峰期,平均密度为306只/笼;调查捕获蜚蠊670只,经鉴定隶属于2科2属2种,平均密度为0.93只/盒,优势种为德国小蠊.结论 本次调查较全面的掌握了银川机场医学媒介生物的本底情况,为积极开展口岸医学媒介生物防制工作提供了科学资料.%Abstract:Objective To understand the background,population distribution,seasonal dynamics and habitats of the medical vectors at Yinchuan Airport.Methods The cage ensnarement and spring clip method were used to investigate mouse,cage traps was used to catch flies,cassette trapping law was used to catch cockroach,and all the vectors were classified and analyzed.Results A total of 32 rodents were identified as 4 species 4 genera 3 families.The mosquitoes were identified as 4 species 3 genera 1 family,and culex pipiens pallens was dominant species,the average density of mosquito was 110.5/labor· h.The flies were identified as 11 species 7 genera 3 families,Lucilia sericate was dominant species,the average density of flies was 306 flies / cage.The cockroach were identified as 2 species 2 genera 2 families,the average density was 0.93/box,Blattella germanica was dominant species.Conclusion We find out the population distribution,seasonal dynamics and habitats of the medical vector at

  12. Characterization of antigenic epitopes of Per a 9 from Periplaneta americana and its three dimensional structure modeling%美洲大蠊Per a9的抗原表位特征及三维结构建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉静; 金珊珊; 杨海伟; 魏继福; 何韶衡

    2011-01-01

    Per a 9 was one of the major allergens of Periplaneta americana. The bioinformatic analysis was used to identify and charac terize the structural properties of Per a 9 for the diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy. BLAST was applied to search for the high similar protein to Per a 9. Clustal W 1. 83 was used for sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction. The phylogenetic analysis found that Per a 9 showed highest similarity with the arginine kinase identified from Blattella germanica. Per a 9 was a ubiquitous protein, mainly containing a + β secondary structure. Its antigenic epitope was mostly located on 33-46、55-74、89-117、123- 135、199-217、235-243、251-266 and 286-354 regions. Motif analysis found that Per a 9 had a guanido phosphotransferases active site, six protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, seven casein kinase Ⅱ phosphory-lation sites and two N-myristoylation sites. Three-dimensional structure of Per a 9 was also constructed. It seemed that the predicted structure could reflect the real tertiary structure of Per a 9 and was useful for the further study of structure-function relationship.%Per a 9是美洲大蠊主要过敏原蛋白之一.通过生物信息学方法了解美洲大蠊过敏原蛋白Per a 9的结构特征,为蟑螂变态反应性疾病的诊断和治疗提供线索.BLAST得到Per a 9相似序列,构建同源进化树,结果显示美洲大蠊Per a 9与德国小蠊精氨酸激酶在进化上具有较近的亲缘关系.Per a 9主要为α+β结构的亲水性蛋白,其主要抗原表位集中于33-46、55-74、89-117、123-135、199-217、235-243、251-266、286-354区域.Motif预测其具有1个鸟嘌呤磷酸转移酶活性位点,6个蛋白激酶C磷酸化位点,7个酪氨酸激酶II磷酸化位点和2个N豆蔻酰化位点.其预测的三维结构基本能反应Per a 9真实的空间构象,这将为今后进一步了解和掌握Per a 9结构和功能的关系打下理论基础.

  13. Analysis of vector surveillance in Ningbo, 2014%宁波市2014年病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐荣; 马晓; 朱光锋; 王桂安; 许国章

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查宁波市2014年病媒生物鼠、蚊、蝇、蜚蠊的种群构成和季节消长,为开展病媒生物防制工作提供科学依据.方法 鼠类监测采用夹夜法;蚊类监测采用诱蚊灯法;蝇类监测采用笼诱法;蜚蠊监测采用粘捕法.结果2014年全年共捕获鼠类1科3属4种,褐家鼠为优势种,占捕鼠总数的62.17%;蚊类1科3属4种,淡色库蚊为优势种,占61.54%;蝇类3科7属13种,家蝇为优势种,占24.10%;蜚蠊1科2属3种,德国小蠊为优势种,占80.90%.鼠类和蜚蠊全年均有活动,没有明显的季节性;蚊类和蝇类活动有明显的季节性,高峰期均为6月.结论 基本掌握了宁波市病媒生物鼠、蚊、蝇、蜚蠊的种群构成和季节消长规律.建议加强对病媒生物及其传播疾病的长期监测、预警、控制对策和措施的研究工作.%Objective To provide scientific data for vector control after investigating its community structure and seasonal fluctuation in Ningbo, 2014. Methods Mouse trap, light trap, cage trap and glue trap were used to catch rodents, mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches respectively. Results The rodents were identified as 4 species of 3 genera, 1 family and Rattus norvegicus was predominant species and occupied 62.17%. The mosquitoes were identified as 4 species, 3 genera, 1 family and the dominant species, Culex pipiens pallens, occupied 61.54%. The flies belonged to 13 species of 7 genera, 3 families. Musca domestica was predominant species and occupied 24.10%. The cockroach were identified as 3 species of 2 genera, 1 family and Blattella germanica was predominant species and occupied 80.90%. Rodents and cockroaches were active throughout the year and active period was from April to October. Seasonality of mosquitoes and flies was obvious. The active peak of mosquitoes and flies were both on July. Conclusion The community structure and seasonal fluctuation of vector were preliminarily known. It should strengthen monitoring and

  14. Analysis of vector surveillance from 2011 to 2013 in Zhejiang province, China%浙江省2011-2013年病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑜燕; 龚震宇; 侯娟; 郭颂; 王金娜; 凌锋

    2015-01-01

    dominant species were Rattus norvegicus, accounting for 57.70%. Rodents were observed throughout the whole year. The cockroach density was 0.54, 0.37 and 0.35 per glue trap, respectively, with the dominant species were Blattella germanica, accounting for 88.42%. Conclusion Species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province were analyzed through 3-year surveillance, mitigation measures should be taken accordingly to control vectors.

  15. 宜昌市城区常见病媒生物监测调查研究%Research on main vector in urban area of Yichang city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彬彬; 李枝金; 李慧甫; 沈超; 薛宏俊; 杜平; 雷晓春

    2011-01-01

    目的 掌握宜昌市城区常见病媒生物种群及季节消长规律,为科学制定病媒生物防治方案提供有力依据.方法 采用夹夜法监测鼠密度,诱蚊灯法监测蚊密度,笼诱法监测蝇密度,粘捕法监测蟑螂密度.结果 宜昌市城区鼠类以褐家鼠、小家属为优势鼠种,分别占捕鼠总数的67.44%和27.91%;蚊类以致倦库蚊、骚扰阿蚊、白纹伊蚊为优势种,分别占捕获总量的40.78%、25.22%、18.07%;蝇类以家蝇、丝光绿蝇、巨尾阿丽蝇为优势种,分别占捕蝇总数的39.66%、15.76%和13.55%;蟑螂以德国小蠊、美洲大蠊为优势种,分别占捕蟑总量的59.17%、25.00%.4种病媒生物密度均有明显的季节性,5-9月为活动高峰期.结论 根据不同季节、不同生境,采用科学方法防控病媒生物.%Objective To investigate the population and density of main vector in urban area of Yichang city. Methods The rat density was monitored by night traps, mosquito density by the light traps, fly density by cage traps and cockroach density by the glue traps. Results Major rat species were Rattus norvegicus(67.44% ) and Mus mus-culm(27.9\\%) , major mosquito species were CuLex pipens quinquefasciatus (40. 78% ) ,Armigeres subalbatus (25. 22% ) and Aedes albopictus( 18.07% ) ,major fly species were Musca domestica(39.66% ) ,Lucilia sericata( 15.76% ) and Aldrichi-na grahami( 13.55% ) ,major cockroach species were Blattella germanica(59.17% ) and Periplaneta americana(25.00% ). The density of main vector was rather higher from May to September. Conclusion It is necessary to take scientific method for controlling vector according to different season and environment.

  16. 通化市2010年病媒生物监测情况分析%Surveillance of vectors in Tonghua in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏; 于洁; 黄庆江; 王志刚; 刘亚芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To learn species distribution and seasonal fluctuation of mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rats in Tonghua. Methods Survey mosquito density with the trap-mosquito lamp method,fly density with the trap-fly cage method,rat density with the trap method,cockroach density with the stick cockroach plate method. Results 2 309 mosquitoes were captured, which belonged to 5 species and 3 genera. The dominant species was Aedes vexans. 1 373 flies were captured, which belonged to 27species, 17genera and 5 families. The dominant species are Musca domesti-ca,Muscina stabulans and Lucilia sericata. 370 rats were captured,which belonged to 3 species, 3 genera and 1 family. The dominant species was Raltus norvegicus. 5 850 cockroaches were captured, which were Blattella germanica in all the habitats,the cockroach density was 1. 73 pieces per sticky sheet, the encroachment rate was 17. 77% . Conclusion The sewer will not be ignored to control the mosquito larva breeding area. The regular drug prevention will be taken to control its breeding. It is the important means and measures to control the dominant fly species breeding. Cockroaches are controlled by the method of integrated management that mainly take environment management and control the key area in all the trade. It is the best time to carry out large area deratization in the spring.%目的 为了解通化市蚊、蝇、蟑螂、鼠种群分布特点和季节消长.方法 蚊监测:采用诱蚊灯法;蝇监测:采用诱蝇笼法;蟑螂监测:采用粘捕法;鼠监测:采用鼠夹法.结果 蚊监测:共捕获成蚊2309只,隶属3属5种,优势种刺扰伊蚊.蝇监测:全年共捕获成蝇1373只,隶属5科17属27种,优势种家蝇、厩腐蝇、丝光绿蝇.蟑螂监测:共捕蟑螂5850只,密度指数为2.73只/张,侵害率为17.77%.鼠监测:共捕获鼠370只,隶属1科3属3种,优势种群为褐家鼠.结论 控制通化市区蚊虫孳生地,下管道将成为不容忽视的场所.应定期采取

  17. 2005-2010年浙江省磐安县病媒生物监测结果分析%Analysis of vector density surveillance in Pan' an county, Zhejiang province from 2005 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应凯满; 郑柏福

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the density of primary vector species and their seasonal fluctuation in Pan 'an county for improvement of prevention and control strategies. Methods Light traps, cage traps, roach pastes and night traps were used to capture mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rodents, respectively, for density calculations. Results From 2005 to 2010, the average density of mosquitoes in Pan'an county was 2.04 per lamp-hour, with the prominent species being Culex pipiens pallens /Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus accounting for 71.81%. The average density of flies was 1.83 per cage with Chrysomya megacephala and Musca domestica as the predominant species, which accounted for 52.62% and 37.81%, respectively. The density of cockroaches was 0.91 per paste, with Blattella germanica as the predominant species (92.10%). The rodent density was 0.89%with Niviventer fulvescens as the predominant species (37.60%). Most mosquitoes and flies appeared in May; the former became most active in July and the latter in June through August. Cockroaches and rats were observed throughout the year with relatively high roach density from March to October and generally peak rodent density in September. Conclusion The population composition and seasonal fluctuation of primary vectors in Pan'an county are clarified.%目的 掌握浙江省磐安县主要病媒生物种群密度及其消长规律,为控制病媒生物的危害提供科学依据.方法 采用诱蚊灯法监测蚊密度,笼诱法监测蝇密度,粘捕法监测蜚蠊密度,夹夜法监测鼠密度.结果 2005-2010年磐安县蚊类平均密度为2.04只/(灯·h),以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的71.81%;蝇密度指数为1.83只/笼,优势种为家蝇和大头金蝇,分别占捕获总数的52.62%和37.81%;蜚蠊密度为0.91只/张,优势种为德国小蠊,占捕获总数的92.10%;鼠密度为0.89%,优势种为针毛鼠,占捕获总数的37.60%.蚊和蝇5月开始活动,蚊类于7

  18. Research on population and distribution of three medical insects in Yulin urban area of Shaanxi province%陕西省榆林市城区3种病媒昆虫种群及分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘建军; 吕文; 高鸿; 李东波; 孙养信

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the population composition, density and distribution of vectors in Yulin urban area, providing evidence for control of these insects. Methods Human baited net trap method and lamp baited trap method were employed for mosquito collection, cage-trapping for fly collection and sticky-paste for cockroach collection. Results Mosquitoes caught belonged to 5 species 4 genera, with Culex pipiens pallens being the dominant species. The average density based on the human baited net trap method was 19.11 per net per hour, or 1.61 per lamp per hour based on lamp baited trap method. The density in the urban area was higher than that in the villages. Flies belonged 23 species 19 genera 5 family, and the common species were Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia sericata, Musca domestica, Muscina stabulans, Boettcherisca peregrine and L. cuprina, accounting for 36.49%, 20.41%, 14.78%, 10.61%, 8.65% and 2.61%, respectively. The average density was 4.42/ cage, the highest density observed in the farm produce markets. Cockroach density was 16.28/piece ? night, highest observed in the restaurants, with Blattella germanica being the predominant species. The peak of flies and cockroaches was in August, and that of mosquitoes in July. Conclusion The population composition, density and distribution of vectors were basically grasped. Integrated measures should be taken with focus on such major areas as restaurants, farm produce markets and residential areas.%目的 调查榆林市城区蚊、蝇、蜚蠊3种病媒昆虫种类、数量及分布,为开展病媒生物防制工作提供科学依据.方法 蚊类调查采用入帐诱法和诱蚊灯法,蝇类采用笼诱法,蜚蠊采用粘捕法.结果 捕获蚊类4属5种,淡色库蚊为优势种,帐诱法总密度为19.11只/(顶·h),诱蚊灯法总密度为1.61只/(灯·h),蚊密度城区高于周边农村.捕获蝇类5科19属23种,常见蝇种有大头金蝇、丝光绿蝇、家蝇、厩腐蝇、棕尾别麻蝇和铜

  19. Analysis of vector surveillance in Ningbo, 2014%宁波市2014年病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐荣; 马晓; 朱光锋; 王桂安; 许国章

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide scientific data for vector control after investigating its community structure and seasonal fluctuation in Ningbo, 2014. Methods Mouse trap, light trap, cage trap and glue trap were used to catch rodents, mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches respectively. Results The rodents were identified as 4 species of 3 genera, 1 family and Rattus norvegicus was predominant species and occupied 62.17%. The mosquitoes were identified as 4 species, 3 genera, 1 family and the dominant species, Culex pipiens pallens, occupied 61.54%. The flies belonged to 13 species of 7 genera, 3 families. Musca domestica was predominant species and occupied 24.10%. The cockroach were identified as 3 species of 2 genera, 1 family and Blattella germanica was predominant species and occupied 80.90%. Rodents and cockroaches were active throughout the year and active period was from April to October. Seasonality of mosquitoes and flies was obvious. The active peak of mosquitoes and flies were both on July. Conclusion The community structure and seasonal fluctuation of vector were preliminarily known. It should strengthen monitoring and control of vectors and vector borne diseases in Ningbo.%目的 调查宁波市2014年病媒生物鼠、蚊、蝇、蜚蠊的种群构成和季节消长,为开展病媒生物防制工作提供科学依据.方法 鼠类监测采用夹夜法;蚊类监测采用诱蚊灯法;蝇类监测采用笼诱法;蜚蠊监测采用粘捕法.结果2014年全年共捕获鼠类1科3属4种,褐家鼠为优势种,占捕鼠总数的62.17%;蚊类1科3属4种,淡色库蚊为优势种,占61.54%;蝇类3科7属13种,家蝇为优势种,占24.10%;蜚蠊1科2属3种,德国小蠊为优势种,占80.90%.鼠类和蜚蠊全年均有活动,没有明显的季节性;蚊类和蝇类活动有明显的季节性,高峰期均为6月.结论 基本掌握了宁波市病媒生物鼠、蚊、蝇、蜚蠊的种群构成和季节消长规律.建议加强对病媒生物及其传播疾病的长期监

  20. Analysis of vector surveillance from 2011 to 2013 in Zhejiang province, China%浙江省2011-2013年病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑜燕; 龚震宇; 侯娟; 郭颂; 王金娜; 凌锋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province from 2011 to 2013, the aim is to provide scientific and technical support for the prevention and control of vectors. Methods Mosquitoes, flies, rodents and cockroaches were monitored with mosquito lamps, cage traps, traps set at night and glue traps. Results From 2011 to 2013, the mosquito density was 1.52, 1.33 and 1.62 per lamp⁃hour, respectively, with the highest density found in livestock pens, and the dominant species were Culex pipiens pallen (sure not Cx. quinquefasciatus), accounting for 57.44%. Mosquitoes appeared from April and peak in June through August. The fly density was 8.77, 5.67 and 3.47 per cage, respectively, with the dominant species were Chrysomya megacephala from 2011 to 2012, which became Musca domestica in 2013. The rodent density was 0.89%, 0.81%and 0.78%, respectively, with the dominant species were Rattus norvegicus, accounting for 57.70%. Rodents were observed throughout the whole year. The cockroach density was 0.54, 0.37 and 0.35 per glue trap, respectively, with the dominant species were Blattella germanica, accounting for 88.42%. Conclusion Species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province were analyzed through 3-year surveillance, mitigation measures should be taken accordingly to control vectors.%目的:了解2011-2013年浙江省居民区病媒生物种群构成、密度及其变化趋势,为浙江省病媒生物防控提供理论基础。方法蚊、鼠、蝇、蜚蠊分别采用诱蚊灯法、夹夜法、笼诱法和粘捕法进行监测。结果2011-2013年浙江省蚊密度分别为1.52、1.33和1.62只/(灯·h),牲畜棚最高,以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的57.44%,高峰期为6-8月;蝇密度分别为8.77、5.67和3.47只/笼,2011-2012年以大头金蝇为主要优势蝇种,其次为家蝇,2013年则以家蝇为主

  1. Developing active and low VOC insecticides based on innovative technologies%用创新科技发展高活性低VOC的杀虫制剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小锦; 张敏; 张敏辰; 阎雨; 王震

    2011-01-01

    目的 为了符合中国政府关于民用气雾剂产品的VOC含量不得超过45%~55%的规定,创新开发了新型家庭和工业的喷雾杀虫浓缩液制剂IBC-4022A、4026A和4026B.方法 采用国际领先的低成本、稳定的乳化(o/w)和反乳化(w/o)技术,以及按照国家标准开展的杀虫生测方法.结果 采用以上技术成功开发了快速击倒(KT50<2min)、长效残留(2个星期)和低抗性、低VOC(<20%)的杀虫气雾剂和喷射剂,它们的活性成分分别是:a-氯氰菊酯+d-胺菊酯+精油、苯醚氰菊酯+d-胺菊酯+精油,是基于新型拟除虫菊酯、天然精油(作为增效助剂取代PBO)、绿色可再生的溶剂和EPA第三、四类惰性表面活性剂的组合.结论 杀虫气雾剂和喷射剂杀虫剂具有快速击倒(KT50<2min)、长效残留(2个星期)和低抗性、低VOC(<20%)的特点,符合国际标准,值得推广.%Objective To concern air pollution and human health protection of China SEPA 45% -55% VOC regulations and US EPA, CARB and OTC guidelines was reviewed.Innovative and sustainable insecticide aerosol or RTU spray formulations of less than 20% VOC and 2 MIR had been developed with pyrethroid and plant oil combinations for household and industrial applications.Methods According to stable emulsion (o/w) or inverted emulsion (w/o) technology and bioassay related national standard.Results Formulation examples were the combination of d - tetramethrin and α-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin or bffenthrin with natural plant oils.Renewable EPA list 3 and 4 surfactants were employed for making stable emulsion (o/w) or inverted emulsion (w/o) products.LBC-4026A and 4026B sprays had obtained KT50 <2 min and two week residual activity against Blattella germanica, Musca domestica and Aedes albopictus.Their aerosol and RTU formulations had less than 20% and 4% VOC respectively.Conclusion Studies demonstrate that essential oil A and B can be used to replace PBO synergist for improving knockdown

  2. [Rezension zu:] Iwona Bartoszewicz ... (Hrsg.): Literatur und Sprache in Kontexten

    OpenAIRE

    Brudzyńska-Němec, Gabriela; Wermes, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Rezension zu Iwona Bartoszewicz/Marek Hałub/Eugeniusz Tomiczek (Hrsg.): Germanica Wratislaviensia 131 (2010): Literatur und Sprache in Kontexten. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Universytetu Wrocławskiego, 2010

  3. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tilahun Birkneh; Worku Bogale; Tachbele Erdaw; Terefe Simegn; Kloos Helmut; Legesse Worku

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were us...

  4. Aligned 18S for Zoraptera (Insecta) : Phylogenetic position and molecular evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Johnson, Kevin P.

    2005-01-01

    The order Zoraptera (angel insects) is one of the least known insect groups, containing only 32 extant species. The phylogenetic position of Zoraptera is poorly understood, but it is generally thought to be closely related to either Paraneoptera (hemipteroid orders: booklice, lice, thrips, and bugs), Dictyoptera (blattoid orders: cockroaches, termites, and mantis), or Embioptera (web spinners). We inferred the phylogenetic position of Zoraptera by analyzing nuclear 18S rDNA sequences, which w...

  5. Entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India

    OpenAIRE

    O.T. Singh; J. Chakravorty; R. Varatharajan

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary revealed the occurrence of 170 species of insects belonging to 39 families under nine orders. The Order Coleoptera was dominant with a maximum of 70 species followed by Thysanoptera and Odonata with 23 species each. Orthoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were respectively 18, 13 and eight species. Seven species were known to the order Diptera and only five species were encountered for Hemiptera. Two species of Dictyoptera viz., Cryptocera ...

  6. Microwave Digestion and Continuum Source Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Six Metal Elements in Medlar(Mespilus germanica L.) Fruit%微波消解-连续光源原子吸收法快速顺序测定枸杞果中的6种金属元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高向阳; 王银娟; 卢彬

    2011-01-01

    A new rapid method was established to determine metal elements in medlar fruit by microwave digestion and continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry.Samples were subjected to microwave digestion before simultaneous determination of six metal elements,including iron,zinc,copper,manganese,cadmium and lead.The established method presented a limit of detection ranging from 0.006070 to 0.04975 μg/L.The precision RSDs were between 1.5% and 5.0%(n = 12).The mean spike recoveries for the six metal elements ranged from 86.68% to 111.7%(n = 6).This method has been used to simultaneously determine iron,zinc,copper,manganese,cadmium and lead in medlar fruit with the benefits of rapidity,simplicity and low cost and satisfying results.%建立一种微波消解-连续光源原子吸收法快速测定枸杞果中金属元素的新方法。通过微波消解快速处理样品,用连续光源原子吸收法同时顺序测定枸杞果中的铁、锌、铜、锰、镉、铅6种金属元素,并对仪器使用条件、金属元素含量、精密度、检出限、回收率等进行研究。结果表明:方法检出限为0.006 07 0~0.04975μg/L,RSD为1.5%~5.0%,回收率为86.68%~111.7%。该法用于枸杞中6种金属元素的同时顺序测定,具有快速、简便、成本低廉等特点,分析结果令人满意。

  7. Allergen characteristic and clinical detection meaning of children asthma%儿童哮喘过敏原特征及其临床检测意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴栩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore allergen characteristic and clinical detection meaning of children asthma. Methods With case-control study method, 135 children with asthma and 140 healthy children through physical examination were respec-tively accepted questionnaire investigation, skin prick test and serum allergen detection. The positive rates of inhaled allergens and food allergens, family history of asthma and history of hypersensitivity disease, IgE positive rate of serum were compared be-tween the two groups. Results The positive rates of allergen such as dust mite, pollen, cat dog dander, plumery, Blattella ger-manica, milk, egg white and flesh in the asthma group were much higher than those of the control group (P<0. 05). Multiple factors analysis result showed that these factors of family history of allergy (OR=3. 662), history of asthma of first-degree relative (OR=8. 388), history of asthma of second-degree relative (OR=5. 775), allergic rhinitis history (OR=5. 569), drug allergy history (OR=7. 942) and eczema history (OR=6. 716) in the asthma group were much higher than those of the control group (P<0. 01). The positive rates of TIgE and SIgE in the asthma group were respectively 48. 1% and 65. 2%, both much higher than those of the control group (22. 9% and 27. 1%, both P<0. 01). Conclusion The influencing factors of asthma include family history of asthma, family history of allergy, eczema history, inhaled allergens and food allergens. Skin prick test and serum IgE detection play an important role in detecting allergen of children asthma.%目的:探讨儿童哮喘的过敏原特征及其临床检测意义。方法采用病例对照的研究方法,对135例哮喘患儿和140例健康体检儿童分别进行问卷调查、皮肤点刺试验、血清过敏原检测等,比较分析2组的吸入性过敏原和食物性过敏原的阳性率、哮喘既往家族史及过敏性疾病史、血清学IgE阳性率等。结果哮喘组的尘螨、花粉、猫狗皮毛

  8. 天津市东丽区病媒生物密度调查结果与分析%Vector density survey results and analysis of Dongli district, Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To get an insight into the species of biological vectors and their seasonal fluctuation in Dongli district, Tianjin, providing a scientific basis for the control of the hazards of biological vectors. Methods The national biological vector surveillance program was followed for the selection of the surveillance sites, with the night trapping method, trapping lamp method, cage trap method and adhesive killing method used to investigate the density of the rats, mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches. Results It was found that Rattus norvegicus was the dominant species in Dongli district, accounting for 79.55% of the total, followed by Mus musculus, accounting for 20.45%. The rat density peaked in August, followed in May. The density of mosquitoes varied with different habitats with the highest density seen in the livestock shed accounting for 19.52/(lights · h), followed by farmer houses, green parks, hospitals and residential areas. Musca domestica was the dominant fly species, accounting for 58.40% of the total number of the captured. The brown-tail Boettcherisca peregrina and M. sorbes accounted for 20.41% and 7.13%, respectively, the habitats listed in a descending order in terms of the number of flies captured were farmers' houses> markets > residential > green belt. The dominant species of cockroach was Blattella germanica, accounting for 99.81% of the total number of the captured, with its density and infestation rates highest in the farmers market. Conclusion Of all the surveillance sites investigated, the highest rat density is seen in catering industry, the highest rat density of mosquitoes in cattle sheds and the highest density of flies and cockroaches in farmers markets. Prevention and control of the vectors should be taken seriously.%目的 了解天津市东丽区病媒生物的种类及其季节消长规律,为控制病媒生物的危害提供科学依据.方法 按照全国病媒生物监测方案设置监测点,分别采用夹夜法、诱蚊灯

  9. INSECTOS DE LA ORINOQUIA COLOMBIANA: EVALUACIÓN A PARTIR DE LA COLECCIÓN ENTOMOLÓGICA DEL INSTITUTO ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT (IAVH)

    OpenAIRE

    IRINA T MORALES-CASTAÑO; Medina U., Claudia Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    A partir de la revisión de insectos de la Colección Entomológica del Instituto Alexander von Humboldt (IAvH), provenientes de la región de la Orinoquia colombiana, se realizó una lista preliminar de los insectos de esta región. En la presente contribución se amplía el conocimiento de cuatro órdenes de insectos (Coleoptera, Dictyoptera, Hemiptera e Hymenoptera), encontrándose 168 especies, pertenecientes a 156 géneros, 59 tribus, 39 subfamilias y 15 familias. Se presentan 84 nuevos registros p...

  10. The First Treatise in Comparative Education Rediscovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The Latin essay "De re Scholastica Anglica cum Germanica Comparata" (English and German school education compared) published in 1795-1798 by the Freiberg/Saxony grammar school principal Friedrich August Hecht is the first treatise in comparative education. The rediscovery of the text, its earlier mentioning in the history of comparative…

  11. Social wasps trapped in the Czech Republic with syrup and fermented fruit and comparison with similar studies (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of social wasps were trapped in the Czech Republic and Slovakia with syrup as bait. Vespa crabro L, Vespula germanica (Fabricius), and Vespula vulgaris (L.) dominated trap catches at most sites, comprising 32, 28, and 35% of the wasps trapped respectively. Nearly all wasps captured wer...

  12. Also, spielen wir Theater / Aarne Vinkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vinkel, Aarne, 1918-2006

    1998-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Kitching, Laurence. Europe's itinerant players and the advent of German-language theatre in Reval, Estonia. Unpublished petitions of the Swedish era, 1630-1692, in the Reval City Archives. Frankfurt am Main : P. Lang, 1996 (German sudies in Canada; 7); Das deutschsprachige Theater im baltischen Raum, 1630-1918. Frankfurt am Main : P. Lang, 1997 (Thalia Germanica; 1)

  13. Tacitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, F. R. D.

    As a controversial figure in classical studies, "Tacitus the historian" and "Tacitus the stylist" are pictured in a personal synthesis of new approaches to Tacitean scholarship. The literary character and purpose of the "Agricola" and "Germanica" are discussed prior to an examination of Tacitus' views on the decline of oratory in the "Dialogus".…

  14. Jan Amos Komenský - tänapäeva alushariduse suur eelkäija

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Tutvustus: Jan Amos Komenský. Didactica magna : Stora undervisningsläran, Göteborg, 1989 ; Jan Amos Komenský. Orbis sensualium pictus quadrilinguis : hoc est: omnium fundamentalium, in mundo rerum & in vita actionum, pictura & nomenclatura latina, germanica, hungarica & bohemica, Praha ; Bratislava, 1958. Tallinna Ülikooli pedagoogilise seminari üliõpilased Triinu Lüüde ja Anneli Virves lugesid teoseid inglise keeles ning esinesid ettekannetega Tallinna Ülikooli pedagoogilise seminari 2. kasvatuse ajaloo konverentsil

  15. Pest management in Albania: un esempio di coopartecipazione allo sviluppo tecnico-scientifico in Salute Pubblica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Pampiglione

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nel settembre 2007 veniva segnalata un’intensa infestazione di blatte (Blatella germanica nei locali dell’Ospedale Regionale di Scutari. Tali locali risultavano colonizzati dalle blatte nonostante i regolari trattamenti anti-infestanti eseguiti dal personale sanitario locale preposto. Questa situazione di forte insuccesso dei trattamenti richiedeva necessariamente una valutazione più attenta al problema. Si sono inoltre create le premesse per un’analisi più completa del comparto del Pest Management in Albania.

  16. Comparative Bio-activity Guided Characterization of Biocide from Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communius L Seeds Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Asnake G. Ede; Abebe G. Demissie

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the characterization of biocide from Jatropha (Jatropha curca) and castor (Ricinus communius L) seeds oil. The biocide potential of the seeds oil was evaluated against termite (Odontotermes obesus) and cockroach (Blattela germanica). The bioassay study showed that Jatropha 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 48 hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. Castor 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 60hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. The L...

  17. Diet shifts and population dynamics of estuarine foraminifera during ecosystem recovery after experimentally induced hypoxia crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, G. M.; Duijnstee, I. A. P.; Hazeleger, J. H.; Rossi, F.; Lourens, L. J.; Middelburg, J. J.; Wolthers, M.

    2016-03-01

    This study shows foraminiferal dynamics after experimentally induced hypoxia within the wider context of ecosystem recovery. 13C-labeled bicarbonate and glucose were added to the sediments to examine foraminiferal diet shifts during ecosystem recovery and test-size measurements were used to deduce population dynamics. Hypoxia-treated and undisturbed patches were compared to distinguish natural (seasonal) fluctuations from hypoxia-induced responses. The effect of timing of disturbance and duration of recovery were investigated. The foraminiferal diets and population dynamics showed higher fluctuations in the recovering patches compared to the controls. The foraminiferal diet and population structure of Haynesina germanica and Ammonia beccarii responded differentially and generally inversely to progressive stages of ecosystem recovery. Tracer inferred diet estimates in April and June and the two distinctly visible cohorts in the test-size distribution, discussed to reflect reproduction in June, strongly suggest that the ample availability of diatoms during the first month of ecosystem recovery after the winter hypoxia was likely profitable to A. beccarii. Enhanced reproduction itself was strongly linked to the subsequent dietary shift to bacteria. The distribution of the test dimensions of H. germanica indicated that this species had less fluctuation in population structure during ecosystem recovery but possibly reproduced in response to the induced winter hypoxia. Bacteria seemed to consistently contribute more to the diet of H. germanica than diatoms. For the diet and test-size distribution of both species, the timing of disturbance seemed to have a higher impact than the duration of the subsequent recovery period.

  18. The Impact of Geomorphology and Human Disturbances on the Faunal Distributions in Tiquara and Angico Caves of Campo Formoso, Bahia, Brazil

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    André Vieira de Araujo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of fauna is important for the understanding of communities and ecosystems, enabling the design of actions for conservation. In the present piece of work, we identified total 45 morphospecies belonging to the order Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Dictyoptera, Araneida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Plecoptera, Amphipoda, Zygentoma, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Psocoptera from two distinct types of caves of Campo Formoso, state of Bahia in Brazil. It was made to provide subsidies for conservation studies. The targeted caves were Tiquara Cave suffered for many years from saltpeter extraction and Angico Cave less visited cave having high tourist potential. Though the conservation status is much better in Angico cave, but we found comparatively more morphospecies in Tiquara cave.

  19. Entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary, Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India

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    O.T. Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the entomofauna of Kane Wildlife Sanctuary revealed the occurrence of 170 species of insects belonging to 39 families under nine orders. The Order Coleoptera was dominant with a maximum of 70 species followed by Thysanoptera and Odonata with 23 species each. Orthoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were respectively 18, 13 and eight species. Seven species were known to the order Diptera and only five species were encountered for Hemiptera. Two species of Dictyoptera viz., Cryptocera sp. and Mantis sp. were also collected. Overall, 39 species of insects hitherto known only from other states, were recorded for the first time from Arunachal Pradesh through the present collection. This study is the first of its kind to collect and document the insects of the Sanctuary.

  20. Evolving expression patterns of the homeotic gene Scr in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Karla D; Hrycaj, Steven; Mahfooz, Najmus; Popadic, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    While the mRNA expression patterns of homeotic genes have been examined in numerous arthropod species, data on their protein accumulation is extremely limited. To address this gap, we analyzed the protein expression pattern of the hox gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) in six hemimetabolous insects from four divergent orders (Thysanura, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera and Hemiptera). Our comparative analysis reveals that the original domain of SCR expression was likely confined to the head and then subsequently moved into the prothorax (T1) in winged insect lineages. The data also show a trend toward the posteriorization of the anterior boundary of SCR expression in the head, which starts in the mandibles (Thysanura) and then gradually shifts to the maxillary (Orthoptera) and labial segments (Dictyoptera and Hemiptera), respectively. In Thermobia (firebrat) and Oncopeltus (milkweed bug) we also identify instances where SCR protein is not detected in regions where mRNA is expressed. This finding suggests the presence of a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of Scr in these species. Finally, we show that SCR expression in insect T1 legs is highly variable and exhibits divergent patterning even among related species. In addition, signal in the prothoracic legs of more basal insect lineages cannot be associated with any T1 specific features, indicating that the acquisition of SCR in this region preceded any apparent gain of function. Overall, our results show that Scr expression has diverged considerably among hemimetabolous lineages and establish a framework for subsequent analyses to determine its role in the evolution of the insect head and prothorax.

  1. Effect of temperature on the progamic phase in high-mountain plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, G; Wagner, J

    2012-03-01

    Progamic processes are particularly temperature-sensitive and, in lowland plants, are usually drastically reduced below 10 °C and above 30 °C. Little is known about how effectively sexual processes of mountain plants function under the large temperature fluctuations at higher altitudes. The present study examines duration and thermal thresholds for progamic processes in six common plant species (Cerastium uniflorum, Gentianella germanica, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, Saxifraga bryoides, S. caesia) from different altitudinal zones in the European Alps. Whole plants were collected from natural sites shortly before anthesis and kept in a climate chamber until further processing. Flowers with receptive stigmas were hand-pollinated with allopollen and exposed to controlled temperatures between -2 and 40 °C. Pollen performance (adhesion to the stigma, germination, tube growth, fertilisation) was quantitatively analysed, using the aniline blue fluorescence method. Pollen adhesion was possible from -2 to 40 °C. Pollen germination and tube growth occurred from around 0 to 35 °C in most species. Fertilisation was observed from 5 to 30-32 °C (0-35 °C in G. germanica). The progamic phase was shortest in G. germanica (2 h at 30 °C, 12 h at 5 °C, 24 h at 0 °C), followed by R. glacialis (first fertilisation after 2 h at 30 °C, 18 h at 5 °C). In the remaining species, first fertilisation usually occurred after 4-6 h at 30 °C and after 24-30 h at 5 °C. Thus, mountain plants show remarkably flexible pollen performance over a wide temperature range and a short progamic phase, which may be essential for successful reproduction in the stochastic high-mountain climate.

  2. Studies on insecticidal activities and action mechanism of novel benzoylphenylurea candidate NK-17.

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    Yongqiang Li

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activity of NK-17 was evaluated both in laboratory and in field. It was found that the toxicity of NK-17 against S. exigua was 1.93 times and 2.69 times those of hexaflumuron and chlorfluazuron respectively, and the toxicity of NK-17 against P. xylostella was 1.36 times and 1.90 times those of hexaflumuron and chlorfluazuron respectively, and the toxicity of NK-17 against M. separate was 18.24 times those of hexaflumuron in laboratory, and 5% NK-17 EC at 60 g a.i ha(-1 can control S. exigua and P. xylostella with the best control efficiency of about 89% and over 88% respectively in Changsha and Tianjin in field. The insecticidal mechanism of NK-17 was explored for the first time by utilizing the fluorescence polarization method. NK-17 could bind to sulfonylurea receptor (SUR of B. germanica with stronger affinity comparing to diflubenzuron and glibenclamide, which suggested that NK-17 may also act on the site of SUR to inhibit the chitin synthesis in insect body and the result can well explain that NK-17 exhibited stronger toxicity against B. germanica than diflubenzuron and glibenclamide in vivo.

  3. Baratas (Insecta, Blattaria sinantrópicas na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Synantropic cockroaches (Insecta, Blattaria from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    José Albertino Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A coleta de baratas na cidade de Manaus resultou em seis espécies associadas às habitações, estabelecimentos comerciais e educacionais, sendo quatro predominantemente dentro das habitações, Blatella germanica (Linnaeus, 1758, Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758, P. australasiae (Fabricius, 1775 e duas fora das habitações, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758 e Blaberus parabolicus Walker, 1868. P. americana foi comum tanto interna como externamente às instalações urbanas; P. australasiae foi predominante em barcos; P. surinamensis e B. parabolicus foram invasoras ocasionais de residências na estação chuvosa. São apresentadas fotos coloridas, em tamanho natural, para reconhecimento das espécies.Collection of cockroaches from Manaus resulted in six species associated to human house, commercial buildings and educational buildings, being four species found predominantly indoor, Blatella germanica (Linnaeus, 1758, Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 and P. australasiae (Fabricius, 1775 and two species found predominantly outdoor, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Blaberus parabolicus Walker, 1868 the latter two occasionally house-infesting species in the rainy season. P. americana was common either indoor and outdoor and P. australasiae infesting mainly boats. Color figures in natural size are presented for all species in order to help their identification.

  4. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tilahun Birkneh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated.

  5. Chirality of male genitalia in Otomantis casaica Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Mantodea: Hymenopodidae, Acromantinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Francesco; Stiewe, Martin B D; Ippolito, Salvatrice

    2016-01-01

    Reversal of male genitalia are known in various insect orders, such as in Odonata, Orthoptera, Dermaptera, Hemiptera and Trichoptera (Schilthuizen 2007) and, within the Dictyoptera, in several species of Ectobiinae (Blattodea) (Bohn 1987), and Mantodea. Balderson (1978) first described reversal of the phallic complex in Stenomantis Saussure and Ciulfina Giglio-Tos, reporting this condition in eleven of 17 specimens representing two species of the latter-informally named as "Ciulfina sp.2" and "Ciulfina sp.7" (see Balderson 1978: 238). Subsequently, Anisyutkin & Gorochov (2004) reported the same condition at the time of describing Haania doroshenkoi from Cambodia. The male external genitalia within the Mantodea ("praying mantises") are markedly asymmetrical and generally develop in a single orientation (Klass 1997; Huber et al. 2007). Typically, the phallic complex consists of three phallic lobes surrounding the gonopore, all contained in a genital chamber between the ninth sternite and the paraprocts. Two of the three phallic lobes (phallomeres of La Greca 1955) are situated above the gonopore-one to the left and one to the right-while the third lies ventral to the genital opening. The right phallomere (RP) (Fig.1) ("right epiphallus" of Beier 1964) is usually dorsally positioned and its base extends almost completely across the wall of the genital chamber. The left phallomere (LP) (Fig.1) ("left epiphallus" of Beier 1964) is the most complex of the three lobes and it lies above the ventral phallomere (VP) (Fig.1) (hypophallus of Beier 1964). PMID:27394773

  6. Revision of the enigmatic insect family Anthracoptilidae enlightens the evolution of Palaeozoic stem-dictyopterans

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    Zhaoying Guan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The position of the Palaeozoic Anthracoptilidae has been a major problem of insect systematics for over a century. The previous hypotheses suggested affinities of Anthracoptilidae with the Palaeodictyopteroida, Protorthoptera, Hypoperlida, stem-Mantodea, Paraneoptera, Holometabola, or Eoblattida. Herein we put forward a new hypothesis based mainly on a comprehensive re-evaluation of the wing venation characters and re-examination of the type material of Anthracoptilus perrieri and Mesoptilus dolloi. The Anthracoptilidae are considered as belonging to the paoliid lineage, sister group of the Dictyoptera. In particular this result refutes the presence of Mantodea in the Paleozoic fossil record. The two families Strephocladidae and Strephoneuridae, are considered as junior synonyms of the Anthracoptilidae, while the previous synonymy of the Anthracoptilidae with the Ischnoneuridae is rejected. We consider the Permarrhaphidae, previously considered as synonym of the Anthracoptilidae, (and Permarrhaphus as Insecta incertae sedis. The following new taxa are proposed: Mesoptilus carpenteri sp. nov. from the early Permian of Wellington Formation in Oklahoma (USA which extends the range and distribution of the genus; Pseudomesoptilus gen. nov. is designated to include Mesoptilus sellardsi; Strephocladus permianus sp. nov. from the middle Permian of South of France; Westphaloptilus gallicus gen. et sp. nov. from the Bashkirian of the North of France.

  7. Partial cytochrome b sequences for six Hymenoptera of the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A M; Gardner, L M

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes have been commonly used to determine honeybee subspecies relationships. To see if these markers would also be useful for comparisons of other Hymenoptera, we collected workers of six local species: Vespa crabro, the European hornet; Bombus impatiens, a bumblebee; Vespula germanica, the German yellow jacket; Polistes fuscatus, a paper wasp; Halictus ligatus, an alkali bee; and an unspecified Megachile, a leafcutting bee. MtDNA was isolated and digested with six endonucleases (AvaI, BglII, EcoRI, HindIII, HinfI, XbaI). The digested DNA was electrophoresed and visualized on agarose gels with comparison to a standard fragment marker and similarly treated honeybee mtDNA. The fragments obtained were also purified and sequenced. Phylogenetic relationships between six wasp and bee species, Apis mellifera, and several other similar aculeate Hymenoptera were determined. Newly defined DNA sequences were posted to GenBank (AF281169-AF281174). PMID:11948223

  8. The impact of ocean acidification on the functional morphology of foraminifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nikki; Godbold, Jasmin A; Austin, William E N; Paterson, David M

    2013-01-01

    Culturing experiments were performed on sediment samples from the Ythan Estuary, N. E. Scotland, to assess the impacts of ocean acidification on test surface ornamentation in the benthic foraminifer Haynesina germanica. Specimens were cultured for 36 weeks at either 380, 750 or 1000 ppm atmospheric CO2. Analysis of the test surface using SEM imaging reveals sensitivity of functionally important ornamentation associated with feeding to changing seawater CO2 levels. Specimens incubated at high CO2 levels displayed evidence of shell dissolution, a significant reduction and deformation of ornamentation. It is clear that these calcifying organisms are likely to be vulnerable to ocean acidification. A reduction in functionally important ornamentation could lead to a reduction in feeding efficiency with consequent impacts on this organism's survival and fitness.

  9. Chemical-physical and ecological characterisation in the environmental project of a polluted coastal area: the Bagnoli case study

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    I. BERGAMIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bagnoli Bay (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Naples, Italy has been impacted for about one century by heavy anthropogenic pollution due to an important steel plant. A multidisciplinary environmental research, aimed at the reclamation of the marine contaminated area, was planned in order to evaluate, through quantitative data, the chemical-physical and ecological characteristics of marine sediments; the latter ones are strictly related to the composition and structure of benthic foraminiferal assemblages. A comprehensive statistical approach, considering all data, was attempted in order to single out the influence of pollutants on the single species distribution. The results show strong heavy metal pollution (Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the vicinity of the industrial plant. Many foraminiferal species (Haynesina germanica, Miliolinella subrotunda,Quinqueloculina parvula, have a good tolerance to some trace metals while, Bulimina sublimbata, Elphidiummacellum and Miliolinella dilatata show a good tolerance to PAHs pollution.

  10. Conodont Evidence for the Age of the Panxian Fauna,Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zuoyu; SUN Yuanlin; HAO Weicheng; JIANG Dayong

    2006-01-01

    Detailed conodont analysis on the Yangjuan-Chupiwa section, Xinmin, Panxian County,Guizhou Province, revealed a conodont sequence including four Anisian conodont zones, viz. Nicoraella germanica Zone, Nc. Kockeli Zone, Paragondolella bifurcata Zone and Neogondolella constricta Zone.These zones indicate that the upper Guanling Formation consists of strata from the Bithynian to the Illyrian of the Anisian. Appearance of Neogondolella constricta suggests that the Anisian/Ladinian boundary might be in the overlying Yangliujing Formation. The Panxian Fauna with well-preserved marine reptile and fish fossils is proved to belong to the lower part of the conodont Nc. Kockeli Zone in the studied area. Thus, the age of the Panxian Fauna could be the early Pelsonian of the Anisian.

  11. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil

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    Sheikh, Munir A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of 11 medicinally or economically important plant materials indigenous to Pakistan. The materials were extracted with 80% methanol and examined  for their antioxidant activity under different storage conditions using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates. Preliminary antioxidant activity assessment among the extracts was conducted with the TLC-test and by measuring percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The rhizome of Iris germanica, leaves of Lawsonia alba, and M. oleifera, coffee (Coffee arabica beans, rice (Oryza sativa bran, wheat bran and oats (Avenis sativa groats and hull, which showed higher antioxidant activity among the extracts, were further evaluated using soybean and sunflower oils as oxidation substrates. The vegetable oils were stabilized with extracts at a dosage of 0.12% (w/w, and individually subjected to accelerated (65 oC, 15 days and ambient (6 months storage. The oxidative deterioration level was monitored for the measurement of antioxidant activity index (AI, peroxide value (PV, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. Overall, the extracts of coffee beans, oat groats and hull, Iris germanica and M. oleifera leaves were found to be the most effective in extending oxidative stability, and retarding PV, primary and secondary oxidation products of soybean and sunflower oils. The order of efficiency of the plant extracts for stabilization of the subject oils was as follows: oat groats and hull > coffee beans > M. oleifera leaves > Lawsonia alba > Iris germanica > rice bran > wheat bran. Significant differences in the antioxidant potential of some of the extracts for stabilization of substrate oils were observed under ambient and accelerated storage conditions and thus demonstrated a variable antioxidant prospective of the extracts under different analytical protocols.El presente trabajo se ha realizado para investigar la capacidad

  12. An evolutionary analysis of flightin reveals a conserved motif unique and widespread in Pancrustacea.

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    Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Alvarez-Ortiz, Pedro; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2014-01-01

    Flightin is a thick filament protein that in Drosophila melanogaster is uniquely expressed in the asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFM). Flightin is required for the structure and function of the IFM and is indispensable for flight in Drosophila. Given the importance of flight acquisition in the evolutionary history of insects, here we study the phylogeny and distribution of flightin. Flightin was identified in 69 species of hexapods in classes Collembola (springtails), Protura, Diplura, and insect orders Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (roaches), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Pthiraptera (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs), Coleoptera (beetles), Neuroptera (green lacewing), Hymenoptera (bees, ants, and wasps), Lepidoptera (moths), and Diptera (flies and mosquitoes). Flightin was also found in 14 species of crustaceans in orders Anostraca (water flea), Cladocera (brine shrimp), Isopoda (pill bugs), Amphipoda (scuds, sideswimmers), and Decapoda (lobsters, crabs, and shrimps). Flightin was not identified in representatives of chelicerates, myriapods, or any species outside Pancrustacea (Tetraconata, sensu Dohle). Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed a conserved region of 52 amino acids, referred herein as WYR, that is bound by strictly conserved tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) and an intervening sequence with a high content of tyrosines (Y). This motif has no homologs in GenBank or PROSITE and is unique to flightin and paraflightin, a putative flightin paralog identified in decapods. A third motif of unclear affinities to pancrustacean WYR was observed in chelicerates. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of the conserved motif suggests that paraflightin originated before the divergence of amphipods, isopods, and decapods. We conclude that flightin originated de novo in the ancestor of Pancrustacea > 500 MYA, well before the divergence of insects (~400 MYA) and the origin of flight (~325 MYA), and that its IFM-specific function in Drosophila is a more

  13. Afro-Asian cockroach from Chiapas amber and the lost Tertiary American entomofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vršanský, Peter; Cifuentes-Ruiz, Paulina; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Čiampor, Fedor; Vega, Francisco J.

    2011-10-01

    Cockroach genera with synanthropic species (Blattella, Ectobius, Supella, Periplaneta, Diploptera and ?Blatta), as well as other insects such as honeybees, although natively limited to certain continents nowadays, had circumtropic distribution in the past. The ease of their reintroduction into their former range suggests a post-Early Miocene environmental stress which led to the extinction of cosmopolitan Tertiary entomofauna in the Americas, whilst in Eurasia, Africa and Australia this fauna survived. This phenomenon is demonstrated here on a low diversity (10 spp.) living cockroach genus Supella, which is peculiar for the circumtropical synanthropic brownbanded cockroach S. longipalpa and also for its exclusively free-living cavicolous species restricted to Africa. S. (Nemosupella) miocenica sp. nov. from the Miocene amber of Chiapas in Mexico is a sister species to the living S. mirabilis from the Lower Guinea forests and adjacent savannas. The difference is restricted to the shape of the central macula on the pronotum, and size, which may indicate the around-Miocene origin of the living, extremely polymorphic Supella species and possibly also the isochronic invasion into the Americas. The species also has a number of characteristics of the Asian (and possibly also Australian) uniform genus Allacta (falling within the generic variability of Supella) suggesting Supella is a direct ancestor of the former. The present species is the first significant evidence for incomplete hiati between well defined cockroach genera — a result of the extensive fossil record of the group. The reported specimen is covered by a mycelium of a parasitic fungus Cordyceps or Entomophthora.

  14. Nota Gotica

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    Renato Gendre

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalla documentazione presentata, ancorché in modo non completo, si può constatare che ogni qual volta il testo greco presenta i1 verbo nella posizione 'in incastro', 2 anche in quello gotico troviamo la stessa situazione. E benché crediamo a una sostanziale dipendenza dal greco dalla prassi sintattica gotica, 3 tuttavia riteniamo che non si possa del tutto escludere di trovarsi in presenza di uno stesso tratto sintattico, cioé di uno stesso modo di distribuire l'informazione, secondo un preciso ordine dei costituenti di frase, di origine indoeuropea. La "spezzatura di ciò che secondo il nostro sentimento linguistico è unito [ ... ] è comune sia tra i Greci che tra i Latini e gli Indiani4 e si trova in tracce ben riconoscibili anche nell'epica germanica".5 Purtroppo, come già G. Bonfante, anche noi pur "scandagliando l'epopea germanica [non abbiamo] trovato nulla in questo senso".6 La presenza sicura di questo tratto nel gotico però e, per chi come noi gli dà valore, l 'uso della tmesi 7 in testi epici germanici 8 sono 1í ad avvalorare l'ipotesi che la posizione 'in incastro' del verbo rappresenta "il modo più antico, facilmente c omprensibile dal p unto di v ista psicologico, di ordinare le paro le n ella frase idg". 9 È ben vero che il passo del Vangelo di Luca (2, 25 "7tveuμa. Tiv &ytov E7t' a.u't6v", reso in gotico "ahma weihs was ana imma", sembrerebbe opporsi a quanto è stato appena affermato. Ma cosí non è. Infatti, "il ne faut pas perdre de vue que Wulfila a suivi un manuscrit grec du type de *K ou *Kt, mais que la version gotique présente des leçons propre à 1cxo5" .1 O E molti manoscritti appartenenti al 'Ti po I' 11 riportano la lezione "7tveuμa. &ytov Tiv". 12 Pertanto, l'unica conclusione che da questo esempio si deve trarre è che il grande Vescovo dei Goti abbia avuto sotto gli occhi un testo di questa ultima famiglia e, come è nel suo stile, ne sia stato condizionato.

  15. Oils of insects and larvae consumed in Africa: potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids

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    Womeni Hilaire Macaire

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the beneficial aspects of some insects consumed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on examples of insects consumed in Cameroon, to present their potential as sources of lipids and essential fatty acids. In Africa, termites, larvae of raphia weevil, caterpillars, crickets, bees, maggots, butterflies, weevil, etc. are significant sources of food. These insects belong mainly to the orders of : Isoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Depending on the species, insects are rich in proteins, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe and/or vitamins (thiamine/B1, riboflavine/B2, pyridoxine/B6, acid pantothenic, niacin. The composition of oils extracted from the following six insects consumed in Cameroon was investigated : larvaes of raphia weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis, crickets (Homorocoryphus nitidulus, grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates, termites (Macrotermes sp., a variety of caterpillars (Imbrasia sp. and an unidentified caterpillar from the forest (UI carterpillar. The extraction yields of oil were 53.75%, 67.25%, 9.12%, 49.35%, 24.44% and 20.17% respectively for raphia weevil larvae, crickets, devastating crickets, termites, Imbrasia and UI caterpillar. The oil from raphia weevil mainly contains 37.60% of palmitoleic acid and 45.46% of linoleic acid. The oil from crickets is principally made up of palmitoleic acid (27.59%, linoleic acid (45.63% and α-linolenic acid (16.19%. The oil from grasshoppers is composed of palmitoleic acid (23.83%, oleic acid (10.71%, linoleic acid (21.07%, α-linolenic acid (14.76% and γ-linolenic acid (22.54%. The main components of termite oil are : palmitic acid (30.47%, oleic acid (47.52% and linoleic acid (8.79%. Palmitic acid (36.08% and linolenic acid (38.01% are the two dominant fatty acids of Imbrasia oil. As Imbrasia oil, UI caterpillar oil is composed of palmitic acid (30.80% and linolenic acid (41.79%. Stearic acid (7.04%, oleic acid

  16. 水分胁迫对两种旱生花卉生理生化的影响%Effects of Water Stress on Physiology and Biochemistry of Two Terrestrial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈之欢

    2002-01-01

    以盆栽德国鸢尾(Iris germanica L.)和松果菊(Echinacea purpurea Moench.)试材,研究了水分胁迫对这两种旱生花卉形态指标生理生化指标的影响.结果表明,在水分胁迫期间,叶片的组织含水量,叶绿素及类胡萝卜素含量呈下降趋势;还原糖含量在水分胁迫初期增加,然而在后期却减少;细胞膜透性和丙二醛(MDA)含量呈上升趋势;而蛋白质含量则变化复杂.同时表明,松果菊比德国鸢尾反应敏感,说明德国鸢尾比松果菊有较强的抗旱性.

  17. Tracking the Hercules 265 marine gas well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C.; Özgökmen, Tamay; Snyder, Susan; Schwing, Patrick; O'Malley, Bryan J.; Beron-Vera, Francisco J.; Olascoaga, Maria J.; Zhu, Ping; Ryan, Edward; Chen, Shuyi S.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Hollander, David; Murawski, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    On 23 July 2013, a marine gas rig (Hercules 265) ignited in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The rig burned out of control for 2 days before being extinguished. We conducted a rapid-response sampling campaign near Hercules 265 after the fire to ascertain if sediments and fishes were polluted above earlier baseline levels. A surface drifter study confirmed that surface ocean water flowed to the southeast of the Hercules site, while the atmospheric plume generated by the blowout was in eastward direction. Sediment cores were collected to the SE of the rig at a distance of ˜0.2, 8, and 18 km using a multicorer, and demersal fishes were collected from ˜0.2 to 8 km SE of the rig using a longline (508 hooks). Recently deposited sediments document that only high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the rig suggesting higher pyrogenic inputs associated with the blowout. A similar trend was observed in the foraminifera Haynesina germanica, an indicator species of pollution. In red snapper bile, only HMW PAH metabolites increased in 2013 nearly double those from 2012. Both surface sediments and fish bile analyses suggest that, in the aftermath of the blowout, increased concentration of pyrogenically derived hydrocarbons was transported and deposited in the environment. This study further emphasizes the need for an ocean observing system and coordinated rapid-response efforts from an array of scientific disciplines to effectively assess environmental impacts resulting from accidental releases of oil contaminants.

  18. Benthic foraminifera and trace element distribution: a case-study from the heavily polluted lagoon of Venice (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccioni, Rodolfo; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Marsili, Andrea; Mana, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Living benthic foraminiferal assemblages were studied in surface samples collected from the lagoon of Venice (Italy) in order to investigate the relationship between these sensitive microorganisms and trace element pollution. Geochemical analysis of sediments shows that the lagoon is affected by trace element pollution (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) with the highest concentrations in its inner part, which corresponds to the Porto Marghera industrial area. The biocenosis are largely dominated by Ammonia tepida, Haynesina germanica and Cribroelphidium oceanensis and, subordinately, by Aubignyna perlucida, Ammonia parkinsoniana and Bolivina striatula. Biotic and abiotic factors were statistically analyzed with multivariate technique of cluster analysis and principal component analysis. The statistical analysis reveals a strong relationship between trace elements (in particular Mn, Pb and Hg) and the occurrence of abnormalities in foraminiferal tests. Remarkably, greater proportions of abnormal specimens are usually found at stations located close to the heaviest polluted industrial zone of Porto Marghera. This paper shows that benthic foraminifera can be used as useful and relatively speedy and inexpensive bio-indicators in monitoring the health quality of the lagoon of Venice. It also provides a basis for future investigations aimed at unraveling the benthic foraminiferal response to human-induced pollution in marine and transitional marine environments. PMID:19733368

  19. Fluorescence in insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Victoria L.; Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Intrater, Nurit; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescent molecules are much in demand for biosensors, solar cells, LEDs and VCSEL diodes, therefore, considerable efforts have been expended in designing and tailoring fluorescence to specific technical applications. However, naturally occurring fluorescence of diverse types has been reported from a wide array of living organisms: most famously, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, but also in over 100 species of coral and in the cuticle of scorpions, where it is the rule, rather than the exception. Despite the plethora of known insect species, comparatively few quantitative studies have been made of insect fluorescence. Because of the potential applications of natural fluorescence, studies in this field have relevance to both physics and biology. Therefore, in this paper, we review the literature on insect fluorescence, before documenting its occurrence in the longhorn beetles Sternotomis virescens, Sternotomis variabilis var. semi rufescens, Anoplophora elegans and Stellognatha maculata, the tiger beetles Cicindela maritima and Cicindela germanica and the weevil Pachyrrhynchus gemmatus purpureus. Optical features of insect fluorescence, including emitted wavelength, molecular ageing and naturally occurring combinations of fluorescence with bioluminescence and colour-producing structures are discussed.

  20. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  1. Pioneer vegetation on ash dumps in Oswiecim (southern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarczuk, T.; Kuczynski, B.

    1972-01-01

    The authors found fifty-three plant species growing on the ash dumps in Oswiecim, while in 1963 twenty-two species only were encountered there. Most of the self-sown plants belong to calciphilous, ruderal and xerophilous species. The pH of the ashes amounts to 9.5. Some of them, e.g. Matricaria chamomilla are index plants for acid habitats; others were hitherto encountered in wet habitats, e.g. Rumex obtusifolias, Myricaria germanica, Epilobium roseum, and others. Their occurrence on ash dumps is possible thanks to the considerable amount of precipitation (465 mm) during the vegetative period. The mosses are the pioneers of these dumps, e.g. Funaria hygromertrica and Bryum argenteum, which usually appear on the site of fire. The authors are of the opinion that a better knowledge of the plants appearing spontaneously on dumps and waste heaps may provide many useful conclusions which will help to obtain positive results at the recultivation of spoil heaps and industrial wastes. 9 references, 3 tables.

  2. Distribution and morphological abnormalities of recent foraminifera in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (North Adriatic Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MELIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Marano and Grado Lagoon, is a northern Adriatic wetland system of relevant naturalistic and economic value, that is constantly under quality control in accordance with the current environmental directives. Benthic foraminifers community with its morphological abnormalities were investigated in the recent sediments (about 10 years old of 21 stations collected in the framework of the “MIRACLE” Project which aimed at testing the coexistence of clam farming with high Hg contamination. Euryhaline foraminifers, well known in Mediterranean brackish-waters, mainly characterizes the total assemblage. A. tepida dominates in areas characterized by low salinity, high clay and Corg content, but also to anthropogenic pressure. E. gunteri and H. germanica are recorded in the western sector of the lagoon, which is more affected by salinity variations and agricultural activities. Slightly higher values of assemblage diversity appear in less restricted areas of the lagoon or, at least, where physical parameters such as temperature and salinity are less variable. The test abnormalities, carried out on total assemblage, shows that the FAI (Foraminiferal Abnormality Index values always exceed 1% of the total assemblage, with clear decreasing gradients from inland to the sea (from N to S and from W to E in the studied area.

  3. Feeding Studies of Irradiated Foods with Insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  4. Effects of antifouling booster biocide Irgarol 1051 on the structure of free living nematodes: a laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, Amel; Elarbaoui, Soumaya; Khazri, Abdelhafidh; D'Agostino, Fabio; Sellami, Badreddine; Beyrem, Hamouda; Gambi, Cristina; Danovaro, Roberto; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine

    2016-07-13

    A mesocosm experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Irgarol on nematode diversity, composition and trophic structure. Sediment samples were experimentally contaminated using four increasing Irgarol concentrations [I1 (11.5 ng g(-1)), I2 (35 ng g(-1)), I3 (105 ng g(-1)) and I4 (315 ng g(-1))] and compared to non-contaminated sediments (controls). Nematode diversity as the number of nematodes species (S) and species richness (d) was significantly lower in all Irgarol treatments than in the controls while the evenness (J') increased significantly in I4 treated mesocosms. The nematode species composition significantly changed following Irgarol concentrations. Paracomesoma dubiun and Terschellingia longicaudata appeared as "tolerant" species to the highest Irgarol concentration. Additionally, Chromadorina germanica and Microlaimus cyatholaimoides appeared as "opportunistic" species. In contrast, Daptonema normandicum seemed to be a "sensitive" species to Irgarol contamination. Irgarol modified also the nematode trophic structure where the relative abundance of deposit feeders decreased significantly in all the treatments compared to control mesocosms and optional predators decreased only in treated mesocosms with I3. Epigrowth feeders increased significantly in treated mesocosms with I3 and I4 and the microvores increased with I1 and decreased with I4. The relative abundance of ciliate consumers appeared unaffected by the presence of Irgarol contamination. Our results open new perspectives on the potential impact of antifouling booster biocide Irgarol 1051 on nematode biodiversity and functional diversity as trophic structures. PMID:27285609

  5. Wilfried Kürschner (Hg., Linguisten-Handbuch: Biographische und bibliographische Daten deutschsprachiger Sprachwissenschaftlerinnen und Sprachwissenschaftler der Gegenwart, I-II, Tübingen, Gunter Narr Verlag, 1994, XXX-1191 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Muljačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Sebbene questo manuale fosse ideato nell'ormai lontano 1988 esso vede luce, a cura di W. Kurschner (1945-, professore di linguistica generale e germanica all'Universita di Osnabriick (sede di Vechta, appena ora. Una delle ragioni che hanno differito la sua pubblicazione è il fatto che fino al 1990 non esisteva un indirizzario dei linguisti attivi nella ex RDT. Le poche persone che già nel 1989 risposero all'appello dalla Germania Orientale appartenevano quasi esclusivamente all'Istituto Centrale di Linguistica dell'Accademia delle Scienze (ZISW di Berlino (Est e neanche essi erano liberi di rispondere all'intero Questionario (in base a ordini ricevuti hanno dovuto "saltare" ogni risposta alle domande Nr. 5, 6, 16, 18 e 31 (cf. W. Kurschner, "Notizen zur Entstehung des Linguisten-Handbuchs", vol. I, XII-XIV e il divertente e che queste domande si riferivano a cose del tutto "normali" (per es. ai numeri dei telefoni privato e d'ufficio e alle attività svolte fra la fine degli studi e l'ultimo incarico di lavoro.

  6. Environmental changes in the Moulay Bousselham lagoon (Morocco) during the last 7 000 years using a multiproxy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourarah, Bendahhou; Maanan, Mohamed; Conceição Freitas, Maria; Leroy, Suzanne; Andrade, César; Cearreta, Alejandro; Cruces, Anabela

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research is to reconstruct Holocene environmental changes in Moulay Bousselham lagoon using a multi-proxy approach to the study of sediments of two short cores: biological (e.g., pollen, foraminifera and diatoms), physicochemical (isotopes, chemical composition) and sedimentary (grain size, clay minerals). The research highlights the role of climatic variations and human interference in the evolution of this lagoon. The results show that at the beginning of the Holocene this area corresponded to a wide coastal bay, including the surface of Moulay Bousselham present-day lagoon and Merja Ras Ed-Dora. The dating's obtained in the base of the sediment cores range from 6790-6640 BP (end of the Atlantic and early Sub-boreal). Sand predominates in this section of the cores, with low content of organic matter and high content of bioclasts. Ammonia tepida is the predominant species but Haynesina germânica, Quinqueloculina semínula,Cibicides lobatulus,Criboelphidium oceanensis and Miliolinella sobrotunda are also presente. At the base, foraminifera assemblages show a relative abundance of Planorbulina mediterranensis, Rosalina anomala, Rosalina irregularis, Miliolinella subrotunda and Cibicides lobatulus. These are typical of a shallow environment with normal marine salinity. During the sub-boreal period (6640-4520 BP), a sandy barrier developed and the lagoon evolved to a brackish lagoon with low salinity. Sedimentation is homogeneous, the content of silt and clay is high (90%), calcium carbonate content is usually lower than 20% and the organic material exhibited the highest values (> 10%). Ammonia tepida is also the dominant species but C. oceanensis and H. germanica are secondary. The lagoon was closed in drier conditions and has gradually filled by sediments coming from the watershed, represented by an illite-chlorite association. The lagoon evolved to a sabkha. We must emphasize the role of deforestation caused by the Romans (2100 BP) in that period

  7. Testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata com o evoluir da idade Positive skin test and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliação da positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata em crianças com asma brônquica e/ou rinite alérgica em diferentes faixas etárias. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: foi observada a positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata, por testes de puntura, frente a diferentes alérgenos de mesma procedência: poeira total e Dermatophagóides sp, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae e Blomia tropicalis, Penicillium sp, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergillus fumigatus, grama bermuda, capim de pasto, epitélio de cão, epitélio de gato, penas, Blatella germanica, lã. Foram selecionadas 713 crianças divididas em grupos conforme a faixa etária: grupo I (6 a 11 meses, II (1 a 3 anos e 11 meses, III (4 a 8 anos e 11 meses e IV (9 a 15 anos. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o cálculo do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: o total de diferenças significativas entre os vários grupos foi: I e II = 5; II e III = 5; II e IV = 5; III e IV = 6; I e III = 10 e I e IV = 10 CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que a positividade ao teste de hipersensibilidade imediata foi maior com o evoluir da idade, havendo positividade já aos doze meses de vida, sendo esta positividade significativamente maior a partir de quatro anos de idade.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: we observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool. We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11

  8. Phenoptosis in arthropods and immortality of social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsev, V M

    2014-10-01

    In general, there are no drastic differences in phenoptosis patterns in plant and animal organisms. However, there are some specific features characteristic for insects and other arthropods: 1) their development includes metamorphosis with different biochemical laws at consecutive developmental stages; 2) arthropods can reduce or stop development and aging when in a state of diapause or temporal cold immobility; 3) their life cycle often correlates with seasonal changes of surroundings; 4) polymorphism is widespread - conspecifics differ by their lifespans and phenoptosis features; 5) lifespan-related sexual dimorphism is common; 6) significant situational plasticity of life cycle organization is an important feature; for example, the German wasp (Paravespula germanica) is obligatorily univoltine in the temperate zone, while in tropical regions its lifespan increases and leads to repeated reproduction; 7) life cycles of closely related species may differ significantly, for example, in contrast to German wasp, some tropical hornets (Vespa) have only one reproduction period. Surprisingly, many insect species have been shown to be subjected to gradual aging and phenoptosis, like the highest mammals. However, queens of social insects and some long-lived arachnids can apparently be considered non-aging organisms. In some species, lifespan is limited to one season, while others live much longer or shorter. Cases of one-time reproduction are rather rare. Aphagia is common in insects (over 10,000 species). Cannibalism is an important mortality factor in insects as well as in spiders. In social insects, which exist only in colonies (families), the lifetime of a colony can be virtually unlimited. However, in case of some species the developmental cycle and death of a colony after its completion are predetermined. Most likely, natural selection in insects does not lengthen individual lifespan, but favors increase in reproduction efficiency based on fast succession of

  9. Biophysical characterization of the honeybee DSC1 orthologue reveals a novel voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel subfamily: CaV4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin-Badaroudine, Pascal; Moreau, Adrien; Simard, Louis; Cens, Thierry; Rousset, Matthieu; Collet, Claude; Charnet, Pierre; Chahine, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Bilaterian voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaV) evolved from voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (CaV). The Drosophila melanogaster Na(+) channel 1 (DSC1), which features a D-E-E-A selectivity filter sequence that is intermediate between CaV and NaV channels, is evidence of this evolution. Phylogenetic analysis has classified DSC1 as a Ca(2+)-permeable Na(+) channel belonging to the NaV2 family because of its sequence similarity with NaV channels. This is despite insect NaV2 channels (DSC1 and its orthologue in Blatella germanica, BSC1) being more permeable to Ca(2+) than Na(+) In this study, we report the cloning and molecular characterization of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) DSC1 orthologue. We reveal several sequence variations caused by alternative splicing, RNA editing, and genomic variations. Using the Xenopus oocyte heterologous expression system and the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique, we find that the channel exhibits slow activation and inactivation kinetics, insensitivity to tetrodotoxin, and block by Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) These characteristics are reminiscent of CaV channels. We also show a strong selectivity for Ca(2+) and Ba(2+) ions, marginal permeability to Li(+), and impermeability to Mg(2+) and Na(+) ions. Based on current ion channel nomenclature, the D-E-E-A selectivity filter, and the properties we have uncovered, we propose that DSC1 homologues should be classified as CaV4 rather than NaV2. Indeed, channels that contain the D-E-E-A selectivity sequence are likely to feature the same properties as the honeybee's channel, namely slow activation and inactivation kinetics and strong selectivity for Ca(2+) ions. PMID:27432995

  10. Phenoptosis in arthropods and immortality of social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsev, V M

    2014-10-01

    In general, there are no drastic differences in phenoptosis patterns in plant and animal organisms. However, there are some specific features characteristic for insects and other arthropods: 1) their development includes metamorphosis with different biochemical laws at consecutive developmental stages; 2) arthropods can reduce or stop development and aging when in a state of diapause or temporal cold immobility; 3) their life cycle often correlates with seasonal changes of surroundings; 4) polymorphism is widespread - conspecifics differ by their lifespans and phenoptosis features; 5) lifespan-related sexual dimorphism is common; 6) significant situational plasticity of life cycle organization is an important feature; for example, the German wasp (Paravespula germanica) is obligatorily univoltine in the temperate zone, while in tropical regions its lifespan increases and leads to repeated reproduction; 7) life cycles of closely related species may differ significantly, for example, in contrast to German wasp, some tropical hornets (Vespa) have only one reproduction period. Surprisingly, many insect species have been shown to be subjected to gradual aging and phenoptosis, like the highest mammals. However, queens of social insects and some long-lived arachnids can apparently be considered non-aging organisms. In some species, lifespan is limited to one season, while others live much longer or shorter. Cases of one-time reproduction are rather rare. Aphagia is common in insects (over 10,000 species). Cannibalism is an important mortality factor in insects as well as in spiders. In social insects, which exist only in colonies (families), the lifetime of a colony can be virtually unlimited. However, in case of some species the developmental cycle and death of a colony after its completion are predetermined. Most likely, natural selection in insects does not lengthen individual lifespan, but favors increase in reproduction efficiency based on fast succession of

  11. A Comparison of the Decontaminating Effects of Hydroponic Plants on Domestic Sewage%几种水培植物对生活污水的净化效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 刘磊; 袁平成; 郭恢财; 胡小飞; 高勇生

    2014-01-01

    The decontaminating effects of ten wetland plant species including Pontederia cordata,Iris ger-manica,Phragmitas communis, Acorus calamus Linn, Vetiveria zizanoides, Scirpus validus, Zizania latifolia, Cyperus alternifolius,Thalia dealbata,Echinodorus amazonicus were studied by using simulated solution culture experiment .The results showed:( 1 ) the annual average rates of pollutant removal of the ten plants were be-tween 40%and 70%,and the removal ability for 4 pollutants showed the order of TP ﹥NH4+-N﹥TN﹥COD.The highest TP removal rate was that of Thalia dealbata being 78%,the highest NH4+-N removal rate was that of Pontederia cordata being 74%,the highest TN removal rate was that of Iris germanica being 70%, the highest COD removal rate was that of Pontederia cordata being 65%;( 2) the average seasonal TP removal rates of the ten species showed the order of autum ﹥ summer ﹥ spring﹥ winter,however the NH4+-N,TN and COD removal rates showed the order of summer ﹥spring﹥autum﹥winter .%利用模拟自然湿地的静态水培试验法,研究了梭鱼草、鸢尾、芦苇、菖蒲、香根草、水葱、茭白、旱伞草、再力花、大皇冠等10种人工湿地植物对生活污水的净化效果。结果表明:(1)10种植物对污染物的年平均去除率在40%~70%,对4种污染物的去除能力由大到小表现为TP、NH4+-N、TN、COD。 TP去除率最高的为再力花,达78%,NH4+-N去除率最高的为梭鱼草,达74%,TN去除率最高的为鸢尾,达70%,COD去除率最高的为梭鱼草,达65%。(2)对TP的去除率由大到小依次表现为秋季、夏季、春季、冬季,对NH4+-N、TN和COD的去除率由大到小依次表现为夏季、春季、秋季、冬季。

  12. Temporal Assemblage Turnovers of Foraminiferal Communities from the Caribbean, United Kingdom and Mediterranean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent

    2016-04-01

    Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities were quantitatively determined using the assemblage turnover index (ATI), and contributing species were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). The live foraminiferal communities were examined as metacommunities (all stations) and assemblages (groups of stations defined by cluster analysis) over one and two year periods at Caroni Swamp, Claxton Bay (E Trinidad), Cowpen Marsh (NE England) and Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain). Major assemblage turnovers (when ATI > x + σ) of the Caroni Swamp metacommunity and assemblages coincided with seasonal changes from dry to wet conditions in 2011 and 2012. The abundant species (Ammonia tepida, Ammotium salsum, Arenoparella mexicana, Trochammina advena, Trochammina laevigata and Trochammina inflata) contributed the most to assemblage turnovers but showed no preference to either dry or wet conditions. At Claxton Bay major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity and mid assemblage coincided with seasonal change and calcareous species (A. tepida and Triloculina oblonga) increased during wet conditions and decreased during dry conditions, while agglutinated species (T. advena and A. salsum) fluctuated oppositely. At Cowpen Marsh major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity coincided with the start of summer and winter. Assemblages at higher elevations (mainly Jadammina macrescens and Haplophragmoides spp.) were responsible for the summer turnover, while the winter turnover was led by the assemblage at lower elevations (mainly Haynesina germanica, Elphidium earlandi, Elphidium williamsoni, Elphidium excavatum and Quinqueloculina spp.). At Bay of Cádiz, the foraminiferal assemblage at a tidal height of 1.5 to 1.7 m above the hydrographic zero was examined within three separate plots, and the seasonal occurrence of assemblage turnovers differed between plots. Thus, replicate samples and multiple plots may be necessary to overcome spatial

  13. Foraminiferan Prey in the Annual Life-cycle of the Predatory Opisthobranch Gastropod Retusa obtusa (Montagu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, A. J.

    1994-06-01

    From February to June species of Foraminifera were the only food found in gizzards of young Retusa obtusa (Montagu) in the Forth Estuary, Scotland. Then, in July, newly settled Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant) also began to be eaten although foraminiferans continued to be consumed in increasing frequency until September. Foraminiferans became scarce in R. obtusa from October to January during which time H. ulvae increasingly dominated the diet. Foraminiferans and H. ulvae both reached their highest frequencies in the gizzards of adults during February-April. Finally, foraminiferans became predominant again as H. ulvae became rare in older, post-reproductive R. obtusa in April and May prior to the death of predators in May and June. The highest count was 31 foraminiferans in one gizzard, the overall mean was 5·6 per gizzard and monthly means ranged from 1·6 in January to 9·7 in February 1993. Throughout most of the period of predation on H. ulvae (August-January), counts of foraminiferans were markedly higher in those gizzards which lacked H. ulvae than where H. ulvae was also present. Only earlier (July) and later (February and March), did counts with H. ulvae present approach and even exceed (in March) those where H. ulvae was absent. Foraminiferans in the gizzards reflected the mudflat population in species composition [almost all Haynesina germanica (Ehrenburg)]. Yet the snails, even the biggest ones, largely restricted their diet to the smaller foraminiferans (mostly 100-150 μm diameter), rarely taking the abundant individuals measuring 200-350 μm. Foraminiferans were cleared from the gizzard in ˜12 h, implying maximum consumption in the field of ˜4800 Foraminifera m -2 day -1 in September, and a total of ˜2747 by a single R. obtusa in the course of a year's growth from February to February, after which the biggest specimens of R. obtusa soon die. It is estimated that foraminiferans supply ˜60% more food than do H. ulvae during a lifetimes's growth but that H

  14. 重庆地区过敏性疾病儿童吸入性变应原分布特点%Distribution characteristics of inhaled allergen of 13 841 cases with allergic disease in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 李博; 罗征秀; 罗健; 蒋永慧; 刘恩梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the distribution characteristics of inhaled allergen in Chongqing area and to provide references for preventing allergic diseases. Methods-.All cases were collected from the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University from May 2005 to December 2009.13 841 children with allergic diseases underwent skin prick test(SPT). The distribution characteristics were analyzed by SPSS 17.0. Results-.The total positive rate of allergen was 80.3%, of which Dermal ophagoides farinae (Der f) was the highest (67.6%),then followed by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus(Der p)(67.5%) and Blomia tropicalis(42.8%). From May 2005 to December 2009, the positive rate and positive degree of the 3 kinds of mites were stable except in 2006. With the age increasing, the positive rate ascended in mites (Der f,Der p, Blomia tropicalis), American cockroach, Blatella germanica.cat hair and dog dander,but Pollen I ,Mycetes IV and ragweed showed opposite tendency. The 13 categories sensibiligen could be divided into 4 clusters;Der p and Der f,Blomia troplis,Blatella germanica.and others. Conclusion;Dermatophagoides farinae,Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis are the most prevalent allergens in Chongqing area in the past 5 years. The different age groups show different reactions in SPT. The clinical characters of Blomia troplis are different from Der p and Der f, and specific immune therapy that points to Blomia troplis in subtropical areas should be paid attention.%目的:探讨重庆地区儿童过敏性疾病患者吸入性变应原特点,协助过敏性疾病预防及治疗.方法:对重庆医科大学附属儿童医院2005年5月-2009年9月共13 841例过敏性疾病患儿行皮肤点刺试验(Skin prick test,SPT),应用SPSS17.0对数据进行统计学处理,分析吸入性变应原特点.结果:13 841例患儿吸入性变应原皮肤点刺试验阳性率80.3%,其中阳性率最高的变应原依次为粉尘螨67.6%(9 356例)、屋尘螨67

  15. 攀枝花市城区病媒生物现状调查%Disease Vector Survey in Urban Area of Panzhihua Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祖华; 唐刚

    2009-01-01

    Objective To find out the species and seasonal activity pattern of disease vectors in the urban area of Panzhihua, and provide basis for the prevention and control of vector - borne diseases. Methods Rodents were captured by trap during night; mosquitoes by mosquito capturing set; flies by cage; cockroaches by sticking. Results Four species of rodents in 3 genera in 1 family were found, and sewer rat was the predomi-nant species, accounting for 67. 58%, the total density was 3.32×10-3/trap, the natural density in rural area was highest in August. Seven species of mosquitoes in 4 genera in 2 subfamilies were found, culex pipi-ens fatigans was the predominant species, accounting for 58. 60%, the total density was 2. 86/h, the highest density was observed in livestock sheds in June; thirteen species of flies in 8 genera in 3 families were found. Musca domestica and Lucilia serieata were the predominant species, accounting for 34. 52% and 25.05% re-spectively. The total density was 8. 75/cage. The density in rural produce market was highest in June. Three species of cockroaches in 2 genera in 2 families were found, blattella gcrmanica was the predominant species, accounting for 91.07 %. The total density was 0. 46/piece and the harmful rate was 20. 64%, the density and harmful rate in food bar was highest, the peak season was in August. Conclusion Species and seasonal activity pattern of disease vectors in Panzhihua are clear.%目的 了解攀枝花市城区病媒生物的种类及其季节消长规律,为预防和控制媒介生物传播疾病的发生和流行提供依据.方法 鼠类调查采用夹夜法;蚊类采用人工小时法;蝇类采用笼诱法;蟑螂采用粘捕法.结果 鼠类有1科3属4种,褐家鼠为优势种,占捕获鼠总数的67.58%,总密度为3.32×103只/夹,农村自然村密度为最高,8月为全年密度高峰.蚊类有2亚科4属7种,致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获蚊总数的58.60%,总密度为2.86只/人工

  16. Analysis on biological vector control result in Jurong city from 2008 to 2010%2008-2010年句容市病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓雷; 陈世军; 吴晓军; 李水明

    2012-01-01

    目的 为了解句容市病媒生物的种群、数量、分布及季节消长规律,为制定科学合理的病媒生物防治方案提供依据.方法 按照《江苏省病媒生物监测方案》的要求,鼠密度监测采用夜夹法,蚊类监测采用诱蚊灯法,蝇类监测采用诱蝇笼诱法,蟑螂监测采用蟑螂屋诱捕法,每月进行密度监测.结果 3年平均鼠密度为0.38%,褐家鼠为优势鼠种;蚊密度为0.66只/人工小时,淡色库蚊为优势蚊种;蝇密度为1.95只/个,家蝇为优势蝇种;蟑螂密度为0.28只/张,德国小蠊为优势种.结论 对鼠、蟑螂的防治应采取加强卫生宣传以及治理环境和化学药物并重的综合治理方针;对蚊、蝇的防治应主要采取搞好环境卫生、清除孳生地的综合治理措施.%Objective In order to understand the type, quantity, distribution and seasonal fluctuation rule of vector in Jurong city, and provide scientific basis for vector control. Methods According to" Jiangsu Province Infection carrier Biology Monitor Plan" ,the mouse density monitor using night trap method to clamp the law, the mosquito monitor using tempts the mosquito lamp law,the fly monitor using the cage to tempt the law, the cockroach monitor u-sing the cockroach room to entrap the law, carrying out the density monitor for each month. Results Three annual mouse density was 0. 38% ,Rattus norvegicus was the dominant species. The mosquito density was 0. 66 pieces per artificial hour,Culex pipiens pallens was the dominant species. The cockroach density was 0. 28 pieces,Blaltella german-ica was the dominant species. Conclusion It is necessary to adopt the comprehensive program of public order policy as well as the environment monitor and chemical insecticides. To the mosquito and flies, it is supposed mainly to do well in the environmental sanitation and the elimination breed place.

  17. Human impact, geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators for mapping and monitoring of a Mediterranean urban-beach with Posidonia oceanica (Gulf of Cagliari-Sardinia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Buosi, Carla; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    . Reflecting the poor state of the Posidonia upper limit, during data collection it has been documented the presence of banquette, mainly composed of Caulerpa prolifera, with which the Posidonia competes for the substrate. The roles of Posidonia oceanica in coastal defence (sediment retainment, hydrodynamics attenuation), fish nursery and water oxygenation have been largely recognized. The health of the Posidonia meadow is also linked to the biotic communities. In order to evaluate the ecosystem quality of the investigated area, living benthic foraminiferal assemblages (Rose Bengal stained) were analysed. Benthic foraminifera are useful as bioindicator proxies for characterization of specific environments in coastal systems, because foraminifera have short life cycles reacting quite quickly to both short and long-term changes in marine and transitional-marine environments on both global and local scale. Results demonstrate, in medium-term scale, the human modification, and in short-term scale, the consequent human conditioning in sediment transport. The benthic foraminiferal biocoenosis and biotic indices decrease in the samples characterized by high environmental stress and are linked to the poor state of the Posidonia upper limit. The low abundance values and the dominance of indicative opportunistic species, such as Ammonia tepida, Haynesina germanica and bolivinids, are the result of these stressed conditions.

  18. A Study on Relationship between Nitrogen Accumulation of Severa Wetland Plant Species and Biomass of Their Rhizospheric Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria%几种湿地植物的氮素累积量与其根际固氮菌总数之间相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦; 陈建中; 戴丽; 郑潭

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the correlation of nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation with rhizospheric microbes, as well as the assimilative potentials of several wetland plant species, such relationships of Phragmites communis, Zizania caduciflora Hand Mazz, Cyperus papyrus Linn, Scirpus validus Vahl, Canna indica and Iris germanica Linn were studied in combination with the research on wetland restoration and its demonstration technologies for Miju River estuary situated at the northern Erhai Lake. The correlation between nitrogen accumulation of Phragmites communis and Canna indica and biomass of their rhizospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria was found evidently positive, whilst that of the others was unmarked. Furthermore, simple regression and partial correlation analyses were also conducted to focus on the influence of environmental factors of the wetland system such as total nitrogen in surface soil, total nitrogen and dissolved oxygen in water body. In general, all of the factors would make rather great impacts on the biomass of rhizospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria. However, the correlation of nitrogen accumulation of Phragmites communis and Canna with their rhizospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria was slightly affected by those environmental factors, and it was further confirmed that there were co-metabolic activities between their nitrogen accumulation and rhizospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria.%为研究湿地植物的氮、磷累积量与其根际微生物之间的相关性,并调查湿地植物的净化潜能,结合位于洱海北部的弥苴河河口湿地恢复和示范技术,对芦苇、茭草、纸莎草.水葱、美人蕉和鸢尾6种湿地植物进行了相关性研究分析。结果表明,芦苇,美人蕉氮素累积量与其根际固氮菌总数呈显著正相关关系,而其他4种湿地植物的相关性不显著。针对湿地系统的环境因素,如表层土壤全氮、湿地水体总氮和溶解氧的影响,也作了简单的回归