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Sample records for blattella germanica dictyoptera

  1. Toxicity of Myristica fagrans seed compounds against Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Chul; Jang, Young-Su; Hieu, Tran Trung; Lee, Chong-Kyu; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-05-01

    The insecticidal constituents of hexane-soluble fraction from a methanolic extract of the seeds from Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae) against adult females of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal activity of 13 Myristica seed compounds against female B. germanica was examined by using the filter-paper contact toxicity and vapor phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of the other 23 known compounds of Myristica seed and currently used insecticides: dichlorvos, deltamethrin, permethrin, and propoxur. In contact toxicity tests using female B. germanica, (IS)-(-) -beta-pinene (0.06 mg/cm2) was the most toxic insecticide, based on 24-h LD50 values. The insecticidal activity of this compound was comparable with that of permethrin (0.05 mg/cm2). (1R)-(+) -Camphor, (1S)-(-) -camphor, dipentene, (1R)-(+) -3-pinene, and (+)-alpha-terpineol (0.10-0.14 mg/cm2) were more toxic than propoxur (0.19 mg/cm2). (E)-Sabinene hydrate and propoxur were almost equitoxic. Potent insecticidal activity also was observed with (R)-(+) -citronellal, (S)-(-) -citronellal, (R)-(-) -alpha-phellandrene, (1S)-(-) -alpha-pinene, (1R)-(+) -alpha-pinene, and safrole (0.27-0.48 mg/cm2). In vapor phase toxicity tests, the compounds tested were effective in closed but not in open containers. These results indicate that the effect of these compounds was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Myristica seed compounds described merit further study as potential insecticides or as leads for the control of cockroaches.

  2. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality. PMID:27294115

  3. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Fithamlak Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG, Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%, Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L. (Dictyoptera: Blattidae could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality.

  4. Insecticide resistance in Blattella germanica (L.)(Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) from food producing establishments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1993-01-01

    Abstract-A number of cases of Blartella germanica control failure were reported to the Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory from 1987 to 1991. A screening of the insecticide resistance in B. germancia in some selected locations was conducted with permethrin using tarsal contact tests to estimate KT......,(/WHO/VBC/75.593). Based on these data more detailed measurement of the resistance in the German Cockroaches from chosen locations was then assessed by topical application techniques; 2.5 p1 insecticide in acetone on the ventral ...

  5. [Determination of insecticide-resistance and resistance mechanisms of Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pantoja Cristina; Alvarez Gavilán, Yudelmis; de Armas Rodríguez, Yaxsier; Bisset Lazcano, Juan A

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the level of resistance to four insecticides of 3 Blatella germanica strains collected from various places in the City of Havana province was evaluated. These strains were resistant to two pyrethroids (cypermethrin and lambda-cyalothrine) and to organophosphorate malathion but susceptible to carbamate propoxur. The values of alpha and beta esterases, acetylcholinesterase and gluthatione-S-transferase were estimated in three strains involved in the study. The results of the study showed high esterase activity in all the strains, mainly beta esterases and two of the three strains presented with high gluthation-S-transferase enzyme. No changes in acetylcholinesterase were demonstrated in relation to the reference strain. The association of levels of resistance to insecticides, the possible resistance mechanisms in each strain and the results of the enzymatic activity were also analyzed.

  6. Toxicity of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against a field-collected strain of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, B; Limoee, M; Khodavaisy, S; Zamini, G; Izadi, S

    2015-09-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) has been recognized as a serious health problem throughout the world. Control failures due to insecticide resistance and chemical contamination of environment have led some researchers focus on the other alternative strategy controls. Microbial insecticides such as those containing entomo pathogenic fungi could be of high significance. Lecanicillium muscarium and Beauveria bassiana grow naturally in soils throughout the world and act as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease. Thus, these two species could be considered as entomopathogenic fungi. The current study conducted to evaluate the toxicity of Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Conidial formulations of L. muscarium (PTCC 5184) and B. bassiana (PTCC5197) were prepared in aqueous suspensions with Tween 20. Bioassays were performed using two methods including submersion of cockroaches in conidial suspension and baiting. Data were analyzed by Probit program and LC50 and LC90 were estimated. The obtained results indicated that both fungi species were toxic against German cockroach however; Beauveria bassiana was significantly 4.8 fold more toxic than L. muscarium against German cockroach using submersion method.

  7. Deep sequencing of organ- and stage-specific microRNAs in the evolutionarily basal insect Blattella germanica (L. (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae.

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    Alexandre S Cristino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs have been reported as key regulators at post-transcriptional level in eukaryotic cells. In insects, most of the studies have focused in holometabolans while only recently two hemimetabolans (Locusta migratoria and Acyrthosiphon pisum have had their miRNAs identified. Therefore, the study of the miRNAs of the evolutionarily basal hemimetabolan Blattella germanica may provide valuable insights on the structural and functional evolution of miRNAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Small RNA libraries of the cockroach B. germanica were built from the whole body of the last instar nymph, and the adult ovaries. The high throughput Solexa sequencing resulted in approximately 11 and 8 million reads for the whole-body and ovaries, respectively. Bioinformatic analyses identified 38 known miRNAs as well as 11 known miRNA*s. We also found 70 miRNA candidates conserved in other insects and 170 candidates specific to B. germanica. The positive correlation between Solexa data and real-time quantitative PCR showed that number of reads can be used as a quantitative approach. Five novel miRNA precursors were identified and validated by PCR and sequencing. Known miRNAs and novel candidates were also validated by decreasing levels of their expression in dicer-1 RNAi knockdown individuals. The comparison of the two libraries indicates that whole-body nymph contain more known miRNAs than ovaries, whereas the adult ovaries are enriched with novel miRNA candidates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study has identified many known miRNAs and novel miRNA candidates in the basal hemimetabolan insect B. germanica, and most of the specific sequences were found in ovaries. Deep sequencing data reflect miRNA abundance and dicer-1 RNAi assay is shown to be a reliable method for validation of novel miRNAs.

  8. Effects of Two Temperature Storage Regimes on the Efficacy of 3 Commercial Gel Baits against the German Cockroach, Blattella germanica L. (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae

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    E Oz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To compare the effectiveness of 3 commercial gel bait formulations containing fipronil (Goliathã Cockroach Gel 0.05% AI, chlorpyrifos-A (Clean Baitã Gel, 2% AI, and chloropyrifos-B (Serpaã Gel 2% AI against German cock­roaches (Blattella germanica when stored at 23°C and 30° C after treatment."nMethods: Laboratory bioassays consisted of placing groups of fifteen cockroaches (a random combination of adult, mixed sex and large nymphs-stage 6 into a 5 L cylindrical plastic container with one drop of product (avg 0.10 g ± 0.01 g applied to a 76 mm x 26 mm glass microscope slide affixed to the bottom of each container (one product tested per container. Cumula­tive mortality was assessed at 6 h, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 d after application. To determine the further effects of storage tempera­ture after treatment on residual activity of the gels, a drop of each product was applied to separate glass microscope slides and stored at either 23º C (warm or 30º C (hot under dark conditions for 0, 1, 7, 14, 30, 45, 60 and 90 d after applica­tion."nResults: Freshly applied baits (day 0 containing fipronil provided complete cockroach mortality (100% within 5 d whereas chloryrifos-A and chlorpyrifos-B provided »72% and 88% mortality, respectively. Generally, cockroach mortality was greater when gels were stored at 30°C compared with 23º C."nConclusion: The fipronil gel formulation proved to be as efficacious as the chlorpyrifos gels and in some instances sur­pased the latter formulations depending on storage time and temperature by providing »90% mortality at 90 d post treat­ment.

  9. Repellence and toxicity of Schinus molle extracts on Blattella germanica.

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    Ferrero, A A; Chopa, C Sánchez; González, J O Werdin; Alzogaray, R A

    2007-06-01

    The biological activities of ethanol and petroleum ether extracts from leaves and fruits of Schinus molle against adults of Blattella germanica were examined by repellence test and topical application. All extracts produced significant repellent effect and mortality.

  10. De novo transcriptome of the Hemimetabolous German cockroach (Blattella germanica.

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    Xiaojie Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is an important insect pest that transmits various pathogens mechanically and causes severe allergic diseases. This insect has long served as a model system for studies of insect biology, physiology and ecology. However, the lack of genome or transcriptome information heavily hinder our further understanding about the German cockroach in every aspect at a molecular level and on a genome-wide scale. To explore the transcriptome and identify unique sequences of interest, we subjected the B. germanica transcriptome to massively parallel pyrosequencing and generated the first reference transcriptome for B. germanica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,365,609 raw reads with an average length of 529 bp were generated via pyrosequencing the mixed cDNA library from different life stages of German cockroach including maturing oothecae, nymphs, adult females and males. The raw reads were de novo assembled to 48,800 contigs and 3,961 singletons with high-quality unique sequences. These sequences were annotated and classified functionally in terms of BLAST, GO and KEGG, and the genes putatively coding detoxification enzyme systems, insecticide targets, key components in systematic RNA interference, immunity and chemoreception pathways were identified. A total of 3,601 SSRs (Simple Sequence Repeats loci were also predicted. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The whole transcriptome pyrosequencing data from this study provides a usable genetic resource for future identification of potential functional genes involved in various biological processes.

  11. [The HindIII polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA in the German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.)].

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    Mukha, D V; Lazebnaia, I V; Sidorenko, A P

    1997-01-01

    Structural polymorphism of rDNA from Blattella germanica was analyzed in six colonies of Moscow city different regions. Two electrophoretic variants of HindIII fragments of rDNA were detected by using 28S-like rDNA probe.

  12. The insecticidal effect of diatomaceous earth against adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the insecticidal effect of diatomaceous earth (DE) against adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica. Methods: This cross sectional study has been done on the laboratory strain of German cockroaches. Two stages, nymph and adult, were exposed to six dose rates of the DE, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g/m2, at 24, 48 and 72 h exposure period. Mortality (number of dead cockroaches) was assessed after 24 h. Other exposed specimens were transferred to the beakers contained foo...

  13. 德国小蠊抗药性机理%Advances in mechanisms of insecticide resistance in Blattella germanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡

    2011-01-01

    德国小蠊(Blattella germanica)是一种重要的室内卫生害虫,化学防治是目前主要的防治手段,但抗药性已逐渐成为制约德国小蠊防治的关键因素.德国小蠊抗药性的产生存在多种机理,本文从行为抗性、表皮穿透性降低、代谢抗性、靶标抗性及微生物降解等方面对德国小蠊抗药性产生机理进行了综述,重点阐述了近年来德国小蠊抗药性机理最新的研究进展.%Blattella germanica (L.) is an important household insect pest, and chemical insecticides are currently the main control means. Insecticide resistance has gradually become a major obstacle to control Blattella germanica. The mechanisms of insecticide resistance are multiple and are reviewed from behavioral resistance, reduction of cuticle penetration, metabolic resistance, target resistance and microbial degradation. In this paper, we concentrate on the research progress of the mechanisms of insecticide resistance in Blattella germanica in recent years.

  14. Diet shapes the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica.

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    Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Maiques, Elisa; Angelova, Alexandra; Carrasco, Purificación; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The gut microbiota of insects contributes positively to the physiology of its host mainly by participating in food digestion, protecting against pathogens, or provisioning vitamins or amino acids, but the dynamics of this complex ecosystem is not well understood so far. In this study, we have characterized the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica by pyrosequencing the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S rRNA gene of the whole bacterial community. Three diets differing in the protein content (0, 24 and 50%) were tested at two time points in lab-reared individuals. In addition, the gut microbiota of wild adult cockroaches was also analyzed. In contrast to the high microbial richness described on the studied samples, only few species are shared by wild and lab-reared cockroaches, constituting the bacterial core in the gut of B. germanica. Overall, we found that the gut microbiota of B. germanica is highly dynamic as the bacterial composition was reassembled in a diet-specific manner over a short time span, with no-protein diet promoting high diversity, although the highest diversity was found in the wild cockroaches analyzed. We discuss how the flexibility of the gut microbiota is probably due to its omnivorous life style and varied diets.

  15. Stage-dependent tolerance of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica for dichlorvos and propoxur.

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    Qian, K; Wei, Xq; Zeng, Xp; Liu, T; Gao, Xw

    2010-01-01

    tage-dependent dichlorvos and propoxur tolerance in a field population of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica Linnaeus (Blatodea: Blattellidae), was investigated in the laboratory using a topical application bioassay. The results showed the 6 week-old nymphs were more tolerant to dichlorvos and propoxur than the other ages tested. LD₅₀ values of dichlorvos and propoxur for the 6 week-old nymphs were 2.003 µg per insect and 5.296 µg per insect, respectively. Tolerance ratios of 18.55-fold and 4.98-fold for LD₅₀ were obtained from 6-week-old nymphs compared to 4 week-old nymphs. The specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from 1 week-old nymphs was the highest among all tested developmental stages of nymphs and adult males and females. The specific activity of AChE decreased significantly with increasing age. The sensitivity of AChE to dichlorvos was the highest with a k(i) value of 3.12 × 10⁴ mol⁻¹min⁻¹ in the last nymphal stage of B. germanica (about 6 weeks-old). The AChE from 4 week-old nymphs was the most sensitive to propoxur, with the highest k(i) value being 2.63 × 10⁵ mol⁻¹ min⁻¹. These results indicated that the different developmental stages and sexes of B. germanica affected the inhibition of AChE by dichlorvos and propoxur.

  16. Evaluation of New Schemes Efficacy for Blatta Orientalis and Blattella Germanica Control in Food Units with HACCP Implementation

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    VINELA REFUGJATI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica are the most common pests in the food industry. The aim of this study is the evaluation of new treatment schemes effectiveness as well as the monetary cost, humans and environment toxicity against Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica. The study was carried out in 28 food units infested with Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis in Tirana. The duration of the study was 24 months. The treatment efficacy of 2.15% imidacloprid (in gel form is tested for 12 months, in thirteen units meanwhile one unit served as a control unit. The monetary cost of insecticide mentioned was calculated using the quantity and treatment duration of insecticide applied. For this reason, we calculated the quantity of gel baits used in seven food units as well as the quantity of insecticide in spray form used in seven others food units for a period of 12 months. Technical and safety data sheets were used to assess human and environment safety. Insect elimination was achieved by the end of the ninth week. This study found that in the units which used imidacloprid the short term cost was 21 Euro / unit, while in other units which used the classic method the cost was 8.3 Euro / unit. Our study identified that at the units which used imidacloprid the annual cost was 68 Euro while in the other category the cost was 78 Euro.Technical and safety data sheets detected that insecticides in gel form are safer for human and environment. As in analog studies conducted by foreign researchers, we found that the use of insecticides in gel form is the right choice for Blatta orientalis and Blattella germanica control.

  17. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

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    M Shahi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city.Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO.Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides.Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  18. Evaluation of Five Local Formulated Insecticides against German Cockroach (Blattella germanica L. in Southern Iran

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    M Shahi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. Con­trol of this species has been very difficult to achieve. Toxicity of cypermethrin EC10%, deltamethrin EC5%, diazi­non EC0.5%, lambda-cyhalothrin EC5% and Negon® (permethrin+propoxur oil liquid1% commercial for­mula­tions were investigated against adult males of German cockroaches collected from four hospitals of Bandar Abbas City, southern Iran, during 2006. These insecticides have been used for cockroach con­trol in this city. Methods: The tests were carried out only on males by the glass jar contact method recommended by the WHO. Results: Maximum mortality rates of 20, 35, 90, and 100% were obtained after one hour contact to label-recom­mended doses of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambad-cyhalothrin, diazinon and permethrin+propoxur insecti­cides, respectively. KT50 results were different from 5.68 min for permethrin+propoxur mixture to 240.37 min for cyper­methrin. German cockroach showed < 80 per cent mortality using three pyrethroid insecticides. Conclusion: It seems that the label-recommended concentrations of these insecticides were wrong and lower than WHO advised for cockroach control. For monitoring of resistance it is recommended to do more tests using the pure ac­tive ingredient of these insecticides.

  19. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in cockroaches Blattella germanica

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    S Lambiase

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on tissues and organs of individuals belonging to a species of Blattaria (Blattella germanica treated with various doses of this toxic material. The pathologies found became more serious as the dosage increased and were present throughout the entire digestive system, in the fat body and in the male gonads: in these areas cell and tissue breakdown and severely damaged spermiogenesis were observed. In particular, the testicles, Malpighian tubules and fat body accumulated an amorphous basophilic PAS-positive substance. Furthermore, the NOS-dependent NADPH diaphorase activity pattern in the retina and optic lobes was more evident in the treated than in the control insects.

  20. The insecticidal effect of diatomaceous earth against adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed Akbar Hosseini; Sahar Bazrafkan; Hassan Vatandoost; Mohammad Reza Abaei; Mussa Soleimani Ahmadi; Maryam Tavassoli; Mansoreh Shayeghi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the insecticidal effect of diatomaceous earth (DE) against adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica.Methods:cockroaches. Two stages, nymph and adult, were exposed to six dose rates of the DE, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 g/m2, at 24, 48 and 72 h exposure period. Mortality (number of dead cockroaches) was assessed after 24 h. Other exposed specimens were transferred to the beakers contained food and water for counting the retard mortality rate after 1 week. This cross sectional study has been done on the laboratory strain of German Results: Increasing in dose rates of DE increased mortality rate, so that the lowest and highest mortality rates were observed in 2.5 and 25 g/m2, respectively. The results of the statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the lethality of 50% of DE plus water on the German cockroach nymphs.Conclusions:Due to the resistance of German cockroach against organochloride organophosphorus, carbamate and pyrethriodes insecticides, it is suggested to use DE for insect’s control.

  1. Octopamine Levels in Blattella Germanica L. Tissues by Capillary Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection

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    Shuren Jiang

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Distribution and levels of octopamine (OA, one of the biogenic amines in the invertebrate nervous system, may have significant effects on insect physiological processes including growth, feeding and reproduction. In this paper capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD and mass selective detection (GC-MS were used to determine the content of OA in Blattella germanica L. central nervous system (CNS, and that of OA in cockroach stressed by kinds of insecticides, known octopaminergic agonists and some essential oils. A derivatization method for organic extracts via reaction with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA was developed. The resulting OA derivatives were confirmed by GC-MS to be tris-pentafluoropropionyl-OA. The method was used to quantify the amount of OA in insect issues by capillary GC-ECD through an extraction-derivatization-liquid/liquid partition procedure. Average OA content in normal cockroaches was determined to be 68.49 ± 7.31 ng/g tissue (N=5 determinations. It was shown that insecticides including chlordimeform, methomyl, permethrin, chlorfluazuron, malathion, trichlorfon and some oxazolidine agonists, essential oils including eugenol, cinnamic alcohol, phenyl ethyl alcohol could led to significant increase of OA levels in the cockroach CNS comparing with which in insect treated by 1-butanone. Malathion, trichlorfon, chlorfluazuron and cinnamic alcohol were shown to be able to cause a 20- fold increase in OA levels.

  2. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

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    López-Sánchez, Maria J; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  3. Study of features of physical and chemical properties of household chemicals on population dynamics of Blattella Germanica (L. in Kyiv

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    Георгій Васильович Кобеньок

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of studying the ecology of premises is to study the negative impact on the domestic environment some environmental factors of anthropogenic origin. In the article the possibility of using the method of biological indication is considered to analyze environmental risks emerging in the artificial environment of modern premises. For example of Blattella Germanica (L. it is investigated the possible effect of the toxic properties of synthetic detergents to negative fluctuations in the population of this species of insects-sinanthropus

  4. Hierarchical genetic analysis of German cockroach (Blattella germanica populations from within buildings to across continents.

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    Edward L Vargo

    Full Text Available Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents. About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species.

  5. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J López-Sánchez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  6. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  7. The Notch pathway regulates both the proliferation and differentiation of follicular cells in the panoistic ovary of Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irles, Paula; Elshaer, Nashwa; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2016-01-01

    The Notch pathway is an essential regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation during development. Its involvement in insect oogenesis has been examined in insect species with meroistic ovaries, and it is known to play a fundamental role in cell fate decisions and the induction of the mitosis-to-endocycle switch in follicular cells (FCs). This work reports the functions of the main components of the Notch pathway (Notch and its ligands Delta and Serrate) during oogenesis in Blattella germanica, a phylogenetically basal species with panoistic ovary. As is revealed by RNAi-based analyses, Notch and Delta were found to contribute towards maintaining the FCs in an immature, non-apoptotic state. This ancestral function of Notch appears in opposition to the induction of transition from mitosis to endocycle that Notch exerts in Drosophila melanogaster, a change in the Notch function that might be in agreement with the evolution of the insect ovary types. Notch was also shown to play an active role in inducing ovarian follicle elongation via the regulation of the cytoskeleton. In addition, Delta and Notch interactions were seen to determine the differentiation of the posterior population of FCs. Serrate levels were found to be Notch-dependent and are involved in the control of the FC programme, although they would appear to play no crucial role in panoistic ovary oogenesis.

  8. The cockroach Blattella germanica obtains nitrogen from uric acid through a metabolic pathway shared with its bacterial endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

    2014-07-01

    Uric acid stored in the fat body of cockroaches is a nitrogen reservoir mobilized in times of scarcity. The discovery of urease in Blattabacterium cuenoti, the primary endosymbiont of cockroaches, suggests that the endosymbiont may participate in cockroach nitrogen economy. However, bacterial urease may only be one piece in the entire nitrogen recycling process from insect uric acid. Thus, in addition to the uricolytic pathway to urea, there must be glutamine synthetase assimilating the released ammonia by the urease reaction to enable the stored nitrogen to be metabolically usable. None of the Blattabacterium genomes sequenced to date possess genes encoding for those enzymes. To test the host's contribution to the process, we have sequenced and analysed Blattella germanica transcriptomes from the fat body. We identified transcripts corresponding to all genes necessary for the synthesis of uric acid and its catabolism to urea, as well as for the synthesis of glutamine, asparagine, proline and glycine, i.e. the amino acids required by the endosymbiont. We also explored the changes in gene expression with different dietary protein levels. It appears that the ability to use uric acid as a nitrogen reservoir emerged in cockroaches after its age-old symbiotic association with bacteria.

  9. 水乳剂对地下大型超市德国小蠊杀灭效果研究%Effect of water emulsion against Blattella germanica at large underground supermarket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 霍新北; 康殿民; 赖世宏; 解力

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the field killing effect of 4.5% permethrin EC and 1.8% D-tetramethrin a-gainst Blattella germanica. Methods Blattella germanica was treated with Korea KS-6-1 -type sprayer constantly a-long the slit. Results Twenty-eight days after treatment, the highest dropping rate of Blattella germanica was 99. 11 % and the lowest was 97.58% in the five supermarket regions. Conclusion The field use of 4.5% Per-methrin EC and 1.8% D-tetramethrin has a good quick killing effect against Blattella germanica, and better control effect against Blattella germanica is in supermarkets.%目的 探讨4.5%氯菊酯+1.8%右旋胺菊酯水乳油对现场德国小蠊的杀灭效果.方法 对德国小蠊用KS-6-1型喷雾器沿缝隙常量处理.结果 28d超市五大区域用药后德国小蠊密度下降率最高为99.11%,最低为97.58%.结论 4.5%氯菊酯+1.8%右旋胺菊酯水乳油用于现场,对德国小蠊具有较好的快速杀灭作用,对于大型超市杀灭德国小蠊有较好的控制效果.

  10. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, R.B., E-mail: rblopes@cenargen.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Alves, S.B. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  11. Unlike in Drosophila Meroistic Ovaries, hippo represses notch in Blattella germanica Panoistic ovaries, triggering the mitosis-endocycle switch in the follicular cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Irles

    Full Text Available During insect oogenesis, the follicular epithelium undergoes both cell proliferation and apoptosis, thus modulating ovarian follicle growth. The Hippo pathway is key in these processes, and has been thoroughly studied in the meroistic ovaries of Drosophila melanogaster. However, nothing is known about the role of the Hippo pathway in primitive panoistic ovaries. This work examines the mRNA expression levels of the main components of the Hippo pathway in the panoistic ovary of the basal insect species Blattella germanica, and demonstrates the function of Hippo through RNAi. In Hippo-depleted specimens, the follicular cells of the basal ovarian follicles proliferate without arresting cytokinesis; the epithelium therefore becomes bilayered, impairing ovarian follicle growth. This phenotype is accompanied by long stalks between the ovarian follicles. In D. melanogaster loss of function of Notch determines that the stalk is not developed. With this in mind, we tested whether Hippo and Notch pathways are related in B. germanica. In Notch (only-depleted females, no stalks were formed between the ovarian follicles. Simultaneous depletion of Hippo and Notch rescued partially the stalk to wild-type. Unlike in the meroistic ovaries of D. melanogaster, in panoistic ovaries the Hippo pathway appears to regulate follicular cell proliferation by acting as a repressor of Notch, triggering the switch from mitosis to the endocycle in the follicular cells. The phylogenetically basal position of B. germanica suggests that this might be the ancestral function of Hippo in insect ovaries.

  12. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R B; Alves, S B

    2011-01-01

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 10(5) conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available.

  13. EFFECT OF LAMBDA-CYHALOTHRIN IN THE RELEASE OF OOTHECA, SPERM VIABILITY AND MOTILITY IN BLATELLA GERMANICA (L. (DICTYOPTERA: BLATELLIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino, J.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are one of the most important worldwide household pests. The objective of the current research was to assess exposure of lambda-cyhalothrin on release of ootheca, and sperm viability and motility of Blatella germanica (Linnaeus. No premature release of female oothecas were evident, but mortality in males (LT = 1h 6 min was higher than in females (LT = 1h 54 50 50 min. Lambda-cyhalothrin produced effects on inhibition of sperm viability (EC = 1130 mg·L-1 50 and sperm motility (EC = 660, 6 mg·L-1 of B. germanica.

  14. The identification of a bacterial strain BGI-1 isolated from the intestinal flora of Blattella germanica, and its anti-entomopathogenic fungi activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y H; Wang, X J; Zhang, F; Huo, X B; Fu, R S; Liu, J J; Sun, W B; Kang, D M; Jing, X

    2013-02-01

    A bacterial strain BGI-1 was isolated from the gut of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.) and was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on 16S rDNA sequence and morphological, physiological, and biochemical characters. The strain BGI-1 inhibited the growth of Beauveria bassiana; the diameter of the inhibition zone exceeded 30 mm. Vesicles were observed in B. bassiana hyphae on the edge of the inhibition zone. Fermentation of BGI-1 reduced the conidial germination rate by 12%. Further studies demonstrated that B. bassiana infections in German cockroaches orally treated with the extracts of BGI-1 fermentation were significantly weakened. Cumulative mortality rate was 49.5% in the treatment group at the 20 d, while that of the control group was 62.3%. The study intends to understand the relationship between the intestinal flora and the cockroach. Those microbes with anti-entomopathogenic fungi activity might contribute to resisting the infection of pathogenic fungi.

  15. 德国小蠊肠道细菌抗真菌的初步研究%ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF INTESTINAL BACTERIA OF BLATTELLA GERMANICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤历; 廉婕; 陆小军; 戴玉容; 谭晓珊; 郑常格

    2005-01-01

    初步研究表明来自德国小蠊Blattella germanica Linnaeus肠道的细菌能产生广谱的抗真菌活性物质,对白色念珠菌Candida albican、深红酵母Rhodotorula rubra(Demme)Lodder、丝核菌Rhixoctonia solani Huhn.、黄萎轮枝孢菌Verticillium alboatrum Reinke、镰刀菌Fusarium solani(mart.)Sacc.、黄曲霉Aspergillus flavus Link、黑曲霉Aspergillus niger VanTieghem都有明显的抑制作用.推测蜚蠊肠道细菌有助其抵抗病原真菌,同时也为开发用于医药、农业的广谱抗真菌的活性物质提供新途径.

  16. 德国小蠊触角感器的扫描电镜观察%Observation on the antennal sensilla of Blattella germanica with scanning electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迅; 农向群; 张泽华; 李照会

    2009-01-01

    Antennal sensilla of adult and nymph Blattella germanica (L.) were observed by scanning electron microscope. It was found that there were a large number of sensilla on the antennas; they are sensilla chaetica (type I and II), sensilla basiconica, trichoid sensilla, cambered sensilla, campaniformia sensilla, marginal sensillum, and elliptical sensilla. Among of them, six sensilla, I.e. Chaetic sensillum Ⅰ and Ⅱ, sensilla basiconica, trichoid sensilla, cambered sensilla and marginal sensillum, were found in the insect in all stages. Hat block sensillum was only found on adults. Male and female adults have all types of sensilla. The antenna of mature nymph beared most segments, while young nymph's sensilla had minimum length and base diameter.%用电子显微镜观察德国小蠊Blattella germanica(L.)雌成虫、雄成虫、老熟若虫和低龄若虫的触角,发现其上分布有大量感器,为刺形感器(Ⅰ、Ⅱ型)、锥形感器、毛形感器、弧形感器、帽形感器、边缘感器和椭圆感器.其中刺形感器(Ⅰ、Ⅱ型)、锥形感器、毛形感器、弧形感器和边缘感器在各种虫态均有分布,帽形感器仅见于成虫触角鞭节上.在各种不同虫态中,雌雄成虫含有所有种类的感器,老熟若虫触角亚节数最多,低龄若虫的各类感器的感毛长度和基部横径普遍较小.

  17. Persistence of double-stranded RNA in insect hemolymph as a potential determiner of RNA interference success: evidence from Manduca sexta and Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Jennie S; Bellés, Xavier; Richards, Elaine H; Reynolds, Stuart E

    2013-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a specific gene silencing mechanism mediated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which has been harnessed as a useful reverse genetics tool in insects. Unfortunately, however, this technology has been limited by the variable sensitivity of insect species to RNAi. We propose that rapid degradation of dsRNA in insect hemolymph could impede gene silencing by RNAi and experimentally investigate the dynamics of dsRNA persistence in two insects, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, a species in which experimental difficulty has been experienced with RNAi protocols and the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, which is known to be highly susceptible to experimental RNAi. An ex vivo assay revealed that dsRNA was rapidly degraded by an enzyme in M. sexta hemolymph plasma, whilst dsRNA persisted much longer in B. germanica plasma. A quantitative reverse transcription PCR-based assay revealed that dsRNA, accordingly, disappeared rapidly from M. sexta hemolymph in vivo. The M. sexta dsRNAse is inactivated by exposure to high temperature and is inhibited by EDTA. These findings lead us to propose that the rate of persistence of dsRNA in insect hemolymph (mediated by the action of one or more nucleases) could be an important factor in determining the susceptibility of insect species to RNAi.

  18. Investigation on resistance to common insecticides of blattella germanica in Lianyungang City%连云港市德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏春清; 周日辉; 赵兴

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究并掌握连云港市德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗性情况,为合理使用杀虫剂提供科学依据.方法 采用常用的药膜接触法,测定德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷和残杀威抗药性.结果 连云港市德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷和残杀威的抗性系数分别为38.2、6.0和1.8,其抗性水平分别为高度抗性、中度抗性和低度抗性.结论 连云港市德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷抗和残杀威均产生不同程度的抗性,在防制蟑螂中,应根据抗性情况合理选择杀虫剂,以提高蟑螂的防制效果.%Objective To study and understand the resistance to common insecticides of blattella germanica in Lianyungang, and provide scientific basis for rational use of insecticides. Method Use the common drug contacting method of drug sensitive layers to determiner the resistance to cypermethrin, acephate and propoxur of blattella germanica. Results The resistance coefficients of blattella germanica to cypermethrin, acephate and propoxur were 38. 2, 6. 0, 1. 8, and the resistance levels were high, moderate and low resistance, respectively. Conclusions Blattella germanica had different resistance to cypermethrin, acephate and propoxur. We should select appropriate insecticides to improve the control effect of cockroach according to their resistance to drugs.

  19. 三种抗生素对德国小蠊肠道菌去除效果的研究%A STUDY OF THE REMOVAL OF INTESTINAL FLORA IN BLATTELLA GERMANICA USING THREE ANTIBIOTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浩; 张凡; 黄艳红; 霍新北

    2012-01-01

    Dilution-plate method and PCR method were used to evaluate the removal efficiency of intestinal flora in Blattella germanica using three antibiotics, rifampicin, gentamicin and penicillin in different concentrations (50.0, 100. 0 and 200. 0 μg/ml) . The results showed that intestinal flora in Blattella germanica were sensitive to gentamicin and rifampicin, not so sensitive to penicillin. At a concentration of 200. 0 μg/ml, gentamicin and rifampicin can efficiently remove the intestinal flora without causing the normal life of Blattella germanica and penicillin was not. The study will obtain the intestinal flora free population of Blattella germanica and facilitate the further study in relation between the insect and intestinal bacteria.%利用稀释涂布法和PCR法评价了3种抗生素利福平、庆大霉素和青霉素在不同的浓度(50.0100.0及200.0μg/ml)对德国小蠊肠道菌的去除效果.结果表明:德国小蠊肠道菌对庆大霉素和利福平敏感,对青霉素不敏感.在不影响德国小蠊正常生活的情况下,200.0 μg/ml浓度时,庆大霉素对德国小蠊肠道菌的去除效果最好,利福平次之,青霉素最差.本研究将为“无肠道菌”德国小蠊种群的建立以及虫体与肠道菌之间关系的进一步研究提供便利.

  20. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  1. Effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate on propoxur pharmacokinetics in Blattella germanica (Blattodea: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Arroyo, H; Koehler, P G; Valles, S M

    2001-10-01

    Effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) on propoxur pharmacokinetics were examined in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Treatment of adult male German cockroaches with the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitor, PBO, or the esterase inhibitor, DEF, increased propoxur toxicity by 2- and 6.8-fold, respectively, implicating hydrolysis as a major detoxification route of propoxur in the German cockroach. However, significant hydrolytic metabolism could not be demonstrated conclusively in vitro resulting in a conflict between in situ bioassay data and in vitro metabolic studies. In vitro propoxur metabolism with NADPH-fortified microsomes produced at least nine metabolites. Formation of metabolites was NADPH-dependent; no quantifiable metabolism was detected with cytosolic fractions. However, microsomal fractions lacking an NADPH source did produce a low, but detectable, quantity of metabolites (1.6 pmol). PBO inhibited NADPH-dependent propoxur metabolism in a dose-dependent fashion, implicating cytochrome P450 monooxygenases as the enzyme system responsible for the metabolism. Interestingly, DEF also inhibited the NADPH-dependent metabolism of propoxur, albeit to a lower extent. Treatment with PBO or DEF also caused a significant reduction in the cuticular penetration rate of propoxur. The data demonstrate that unanticipated effects are possible with synergists and that caution must be exercised when interpreting synergist results.

  2. Resistance of Blattella germanica to common used insecticides in Yancheng city%盐城市区德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慧; 陈胤忠

    2011-01-01

    目的 测定盐城市区蟑螂对溴氰菊酯、敌敌畏、残杀威、乙酰甲胺磷、高效氯氰菊酯5种杀虫剂的抗药性,以便通过抗药性水平在全市开展有效、科学的灭蟑工作.方法 采用500 ml三角烧瓶药膜接触法,测定德国小蠊半数击倒时间.结果 现场德国小蠊对上述5种杀虫剂的抗性系数分别为0.16、5.43、0.0013、1.13和11.03.盐城市区德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯为高抗性,对敌敌畏为中度抗性,对乙酰甲胺磷为低度抗性,而对溴氰菊酯、残杀威敏感.结论 应该根据抗药性合理选择杀虫剂,以提高蟑螂的防治效果.%Objective To determine resistance of Blattella germanica to deltamethrin, dichlorvos , propoxur, acephate,high effect cypermethrin in Yancheng city,and develop scientifical and reasonable work of killing cockroaches. Methods Using the method of medicine membrane - touching in 500 ml flask to find out the KT50 of Blattella germanica. Results The resistance index of field collected strains of Blattella germanica to above mentioned insecticides were 0. 16,5.43.0.0013,1. 13 and 11.03. Blattella germanica in Yancheng city showed high resistance to high effect cypermethrin, middle resistance to dichlorvos ,low resistance to acephate and sensitive to deltamethrin and propoxur. Conclusion It is necessary to select appropriate insecticides according to the situation of resistance so as to improve cockroach control effect.

  3. Resistance of Blattella germanica to five kinds of insecticides%德国小蠊对5种杀虫剂的抗药性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯威远; 蔡伟; 赵岩; 王磊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解海淀区现场品系德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗性水平,为合理选择用药提供依据.方法 采用药膜接触法测定抗性水平.结果 现场品系德国小蠊对氯氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯、残杀威、乙酰甲胺磷和敌敌畏的抗性系数分别为7.03、3.20、2.90、7.57和>13.13.结论 海淀区德国小蠊对残杀威没有产生明显的抗药性,对溴氰菊酯产生了耐药性,而对氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷和敌敌畏产生了明显的抗药性.%Objective To determine the resistance of Blattella germanica to five commonly used insecticides in Haidian district and provide the evidence for rational insecticides selection. Methods The resistance was examined by the method of contacting with chemical cover. Results The resistance index of field collected strains to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, propoxur, acephate and dichlorvos were 7.03,3.20,2.90,7.57 and > 13. 13 respectively. Conclusion The field strain in Haidian district has no significant resistance to propoxur. However, it has developed low resistance to deltamethrin and high resistance to cypermethrin, acephate and dichlorvos.

  4. Cockroaches (periplaneta americana and blattella germanica: reservoirs of multi drug resistant (MDR bacteria in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Udoinyang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological examination of external surfaces and internal guts of Periplaneta americana and Blattela germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using disc diffusion methods. Of the 317 bacteria isolated from the external surfaces and internal guts of P. americana, 275 (86.8% were Gram-negative bacilli, while 42 (13.2% were Gram-positive bacteria. Of the 204 bacterial isolates from B. germanica, 175 (85.8% were Gram negative, while 29 (14.2% were Gram positive bacteria. The bacteria isolated were Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae and Providencia spp. Among the Gram positive bacteria, only 75.8% S. aureus and 76.5% B. cereus were sensitive to Streptomycin and Gentamycin, while their resistance profiles to antibiotics in decreasing order were as follows: Chloramphenicol (41.7%, Amoxicillin (40.3%, Streptomycin (36.1%, Tetracycline (36.0%, Erythromycin (35.5%, Gentamicin (34.0%, Penicillin (34.6%, Cephalothin (27.8%, Sulfamethoxazole (23.4%, Ciprofloxacin (18.4% and Levofloxacin (17.7%. Less than 50% of E. cloacae and Providencia spp were resistant to Streptomycin, while ˂ 40% of P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to Chloramphenicol. Of the 353 (67.8% multi drug resistant bacteria, 121 (23.2% were resistant to 3 antibiotics, 232 (65.7% were resistant to 4-10 antibiotics. The antibiotic resistant Salmonella spp. and P. mirabilis had Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR indexes ranging from 0.27 to 0.82. These findings suggest cockroaches in Uyo as potential vectors of medically important multiple drug-resistant bacteria.

  5. Testing decreasing variabililty of cockroach forewings through time using four Recent species: Blattella germanica,Polyphaga aegyptiaca, Shelfordella lateralis and Blaberus craniifer, with implications for the study of fossil cockroach forewings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew J. Ross

    2012-01-01

    Vr(s)ansk(y) (2000) considered there is decreasing variability in the forewings of cockroaches through time,based on a study of fossil and Recent species.This study tests his theory,based on a study of four Recent species of cockroaches:Blattella germanica (Blattellidae),Polyphaga aegyptiaca (Polyphagidae),Shelfordella lateralis (Blattidae) and Blaberus craniifer (Blaberidae).The new results,based on the coefficient of variation (CV) of the number of veins,indicate that Recent species can be more variable than fossil species and therefore do not support the theory.The results also show that at least 30 complete wings of the same species are required for a reliable CV value that is comparable between species.

  6. Resistance of Blattella germanica to four kinds of common used insecticides in Shanghai%上海市德国小蠊对4种常用杀虫剂的抗药性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪霞; 徐仁权; 冷培恩; 张春哲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the resistance of Blattella germanica to four kinds of common used insecticides in Shanghai. Methods The surface contact method was used. Results The field population of B. Germanica had different resistance to deltamethrin, cypermethrin, propoxur and dichlorovos. The resistance ratios to these tested insecticides were 3.39 - 16.87, 1.41 - 13.61, 0.57-4.39 and 4.44-4.89 respectively. Of which, the resistance of CN population to deltamethrin and cypermethrin was higher. Conclusion The resistance of B. Germanica field population to four kinds of insecticides differs greatly, so the cockroach control by chemical method must be selected suitable insecticides.%目的 全面了解上海市德国小蠊对4种常用杀虫药剂的抗药性,指导科学、合理使用杀虫剂.方法药膜接触法.结果德国小蠊野外种群对溴氰菊酯、氯氰菊酯、残杀威和敌敌畏均产生了不同程度的抗药性,其抗性系数分别为3.39~16.87、1.41 ~ 13.61、0.57~4.39和4.44~4.89,其中CN种群对溴氰菊酯和氯氰菊酯的抗性较高.结论上海地区德国小蠊不同种群对4种杀虫剂的敏感度有很大差异,进行化学防治时必须选择合适的杀虫剂.

  7. 德国小蠊对3种常用杀虫剂的抗性调查%Resistance of Blattella germanica to three commonly used insecticides in Baoshan district of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨迎宇

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解2010年上海市宝山区的德国小蠊对溴氰菊酯、残杀威和高效氯氰菊酯的抗药性,以便科学合理使用杀虫剂.方法 药膜接触法.结果 上海市宝山区现场品系德国小蠊对溴氰菊酯、残杀威、高效氯氰菊酯的KT50分别为48.86、25.39、34.79 min,其抗性系数分别是敏感品系德国小蠊的9.18、1.83、6.09倍.结论 上海市宝山区现场品系德国小蠊对溴氰菊酯和高效氯氰菊酯已产生抗药性,对残杀威尚处敏感水平.%Objective To investigate the resistance of Blattella germanica to deltamethrin, propoxur, beta-eyper-methrin in Baoshan district of Shanghai in 2010, and give guidance to use insecticides scientifically. Methods The method of contact with chemical insecticides in jar was used. Results The KT50 of field-collected population of B. Germanica to deltamethrin, propoxur, beta-cypermethrin were 48. 86, 25. 39 and 34. 79 min respectively. The resistance ratios to deltamethrin, propoxur, beta-cypermethrin were 9.18, 1. 83 and 6. 09 respectively. Conclusion The field-collected population of B. Germanica from Baoshan district of Shanghai have developed resistance to deltamethrin and beta-cypermethrin, but they are susceptible to propoxur.

  8. 旅客列车德国小蠊对5种杀虫剂的抗药性监测%Resistance surveillance of Blattella germanica to five kinds of insecticides in passenger train

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米登书; 陈明超; 王彦恒; 马建民; 蒋邓桓; 朱湘仪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the resistance of Blattella germanica to acephate, propoxur,clocythrin,betacypermethrin and fipronil.Methods Residual smearing and contacting method.Results On the basis of KT50,the beta-cypermethrin was the shortest, the fipronil was the longest, and from short to long the sequence were betacypermethrin, propoxur, clocythrin, acephate and fipronil.The Blattella germanica had emerged high resistance to fipronil( R > 30) ,resistance coefficient to beta-cypermethrin and clocythrin were 6.30 and 3.69 respectively, and resistance coefficient to propoxur was below 2 but the deadly effect during 24 h was 46.67%.Conclusion The Blattella germanica from passenger train were sensitive to acephate, and should give priority to consider using it,reduce the use of fipronil ,beta-cypermethrin and clocythrin ,use propoxur carefully ,and use insecticides in a planned way by turns.%目的 研究旅客列车德国小蠊对乙酰甲胺磷、残杀威、三氟氯氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯、氟虫腈等杀虫剂的抗药性.方法 采用WHO推荐的果酱瓶药膜法.结果 KT50最短为高效氯氰菊酯(19 min),最长为氟虫腈(>120 min).从低到高按高效氯氰菊酯、残杀威、三氟氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷、氟虫腈顺序排列.氟虫睛抗性系数>30,属高抗;高效氯氰菊酯的抗性系数为6.30,三氟氯氰菊酯的抗性系数为3.69,已产生抗药性;残杀威抗性系数<2,但24 h致死效果下降率达46.67%,说明亦产生抗药性.乙酰甲胺磷的抗性系数为1,致死效果下降率较低.结论 旅客列车德国小蠊对乙酰甲胺磷较敏感,提示在今后的防治工作中可考虑优先使用,同时应减少氟虫腈、高效氯氰菊酯、三氟氯氰菊酯的使用量,慎用残杀威,有计划地交替、轮换用药.

  9. Resistance of Blattella germanica to five kinds of insecticides in Shandong Province%山东省德国小蠊对5种杀虫剂的抗药性调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学军; 赖世宏; 赵志刚; 宫学诗; 霍新北

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解山东省德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性现状,指导科学、合理选择和使用杀虫剂.方法 药膜接触法.结果 山东省7个地区德国小蠊野外品系对氯氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯、乙酰甲胺磷和残杀威的抗性系数分别为3.57 ~ 37.99、2.11 ~28.49、1.83~ 8.42、1.31 ~7.44、0.84~ 1.87.其中济南、淄博、德州和曲阜野外品系对溴氰菊酯抗性水平较高,济南、淄博和东营野外品系对氯氰菊酯抗性水平较高.结论 山东省部分地区德国小蠊对5种常用杀虫剂均产生了不同程度的抗药性,其中对氯氰菊酯和溴氰菊酯的抗性水平最高;对高效氯氰菊酯和乙酰甲胺磷的抗药性处于中、低度水平,对残杀威为低度抗性.%Objective To study the resistance of Blattella germanica to common used insecticides in Shandong Province,and provide evidence for using insecticides scientifically and reasonably. Methods Residual film method. Results The resistance ratios of seven field-collected strains to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, beta-cyper-methrin, acephate and propoxur were 3. 57 - 37. 99, 2. 11 - 28. 49, 1. 83 - 8. 42, 1. 37 - 7. 44 and 0. 84 - 1. 87 respectively. The resistance ratios of deltamethrin were high in Jinan,Zibo, Dezhou and Qufu for field-collected strains. The resistance also reached the high level to cypermethrin in Jinan, Zibo and Dongying for three field-collected strains. Conclusion Currently, different resistance levels to common insecticides have been developed in seven geographic populations of Blattella germanica within Shandong Province. Among the five commonly used insecticides, the resistance levels to cypermethrin and deltamethrin are the highest, followed by beta-cypermethrin and acephate, and the resistance levels to propoxur are low.

  10. 江苏省部分地区德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性调查%Resistance of Blattella germanica to common used insecticides in some areas in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧; 张爱军; 杨维芳; 褚宏亮; 孙俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解江苏省部分地区德国小蠊对溴氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯、敌敌畏、残杀威、乙酰甲胺磷5种常用杀虫剂的抗药性程度,以便通过抗性程度来指导科学、合理的用药.方法 药膜接触法.结果 江苏省4个地市的德国小蠊野外品系对上述5种杀虫剂的平均抗性系数分别为17.0、8.4、3.2、1.6和4.4.南京、南通、淮安品系对溴氰菊酯的抗性倍数最高,分别为22.9、20.6、16.1;丹阳品系对高效氯氰菊酯的抗性程度最高(R=10.9).各品系德国小蠊对残杀威的抗性程度较低(R=1.6).结论 江苏地区4个野外品系德国小蠊对溴氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯、敌敌畏和乙酰甲胺磷均产生不同程度的抗性.%Objective To estimate the susceptibility or resistance of Blattella germanica, including normal strain and four field-collected strain to deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, dichlorvos, propoxur and acephate in some areas in Jiangsu Province. Methods Contacting with chemical cover. Results The average resistance ratios of field-collected strains to deltamethrin, beta-cypermethrin, dichlorvos, propoxur and acephate were 17.0, 8.4, 3.2, 1.6 and 4.4 respectively. The resistance ratios of deltamethrin were high in Nanjing, Nantong and Huaian four tield - collected strain( R = 22. 9 , 20. 6 , 16.1). The resistance also reached the high level to beta - cypermethrin in Danyang strain ( R = 10. 9) . The average resistance ratios of field - collected strains to propoxur was low ( R = 1. 6). Conclusion Field collected strains of Blattella germanica in Jiangsu Province have already developed different resistance to four kinds of insecticides.

  11. Mineral oil and aliphatic alcohols: toxicity and analysis of synergistic effects on German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, S R; O'Brien, T E

    2011-10-01

    Two mineral oils and 12 linear primary alcohols were studied, alone and in combination, to determine their contact toxicity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). The more toxic oil, PD23 (LD50 = 1.45 mg per cockroach) was used for combination studies. Alcohols with carbon chain lengths of C3 and C8 through C12 were the most toxic, with LD50 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 mg. C1 (methanol) and C14 (1-tetradecanol) were least toxic, with LD50 values of 2.35 and 1.75 mg, respectively. Eight of the 12 combinations of a nonlethal dose of PD23 oil with an LD10 dose of alcohol produced significantly greater mortality than predicted under the assumption of additive effects. A sample of five synergistic oil + alcohol combinations, covering most of the alcohol carbon chain length range over which synergy occurred, was further studied by calculating LD50 values for three fixed mixture ratios (80:20, 50:50, and 20:80) of each combination. Results were analyzed using both graphical techniques (isobole analysis) and by nonlinear regression. At least one, but not necessarily all, of the three fixed ratio combinations of each oil + alcohol pairing indicated synergy. The conclusions drawn from the isobole and regression analyses were consistent.

  12. 汕头市德国小蠊抗药性测试%Pesticide resistance test of Blattella germanica in Shantou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志霞; 谢广昭; 徐八一; 陈宏辉; 黄建云

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the resistance status of Blattella gennanica in Shantou to 3 kinds of insecticides, and provide evidences for scientifically using insecticides. Method Blattella gennanica were collected and bred for 1 generation in the lab, then tested by drop method. Results The resistance coefficients of Blattella gennanica to dichlorvos, propoxur and deltamethrin were 0.92, 1.20 and 38.72, respectively. Conclusions Blattella gennanica had no resistance against to dichlorvos and propoxur. On the contrary, there was high resistance against deltamethrin. We should strengthen the insecticide resistance monitoring work of deltamethrin and scientific and rational use of it.%目的了解汕头市德国小蠊对3种杀虫剂的抗药性状况,为科学使用杀虫剂提供依据。方法在汕头市区采集德国小蠊,实验室培养一代后采用点滴法进行测定。结果德国小蠊对敌敌畏、残杀威、溴氰菊酯的抗性系数分别为0.92、1.20、38.72。结论德国小蠊对敌敌畏、残杀威无明显抗药性,对溴氰菊酯产生了高度抗性,应加强对菊酯类杀虫剂的抗药性监测工作及其科学合理的使用。

  13. 甘肃省铁路辖区德国小蠊对杀虫剂的敏感性调查%Sensibility of Blattella germanica to insecticides in the railway region of Gansu province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米登书; 陈明超; 王建强; 马春文; 孙光伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the sensibility and lethal effect of Blattella germanica on acephate, propoxur, cyhalothrin, beta - cypermethrin and fipronil in the railway region of Gansu province. Methods The pesticide smeared jam bottle drug membrane contact method advocated by WHO was used in this study. Results The resistance coefficients of B. germanica from Lanzhou and Jiayuguan railway region were 2.17 and 12.34 to beta-cypermethrin and 2.87 and 4.96 to clocythrin, respectively. The killing effects of clocythrin and propoxur on B. germanica from Lanzhou railway region were 90.00% and 53.33% , respectively, and 40.00% against those from the Jiayuguan railway region. Conclusion The usage amount of beta-cypermethrin and clocythrin should be reduced and care given to the usage of propoxur. Priority should be given to the usage of acephate and fipronil alternately so as to delay and reduce the resistance among cockroaches.%目的 了解甘肃省铁路辖区德国小蠊对乙酰甲胺磷、残杀威、三氟氯氰菊酯、高效氯氰菊酯、氟虫腈5种杀虫剂的敏感性和致死效果.方法 采用WHO推荐的果酱瓶药膜接触法.结果 兰州、嘉峪关铁路辖区野生种群对高效氯氰菊酯抗性系数分别为2.17、12.34倍,对三氟氯氰菊酯抗性系数分别为2.87、4.96倍.三氟氯氰菊酯对兰州铁路地区野生种群致死效果下降率达90.00%,其次是残杀威(53.33%);残杀威、三氟氯氰菊酯对嘉峪关铁路地区野生种群致死效果下降率均为40.00%.结论 在对德国小蠊防治工作中应减少对高效氯氰菊酯、三氟氯氰菊酯的使用量,慎用残杀威,优先考虑使用乙酰甲胺磷、氟虫腈,有计划地交替、轮换使用杀虫剂.

  14. 国际航行船舶携带德国小蠊抗药性调查%Investigation on insecticide resistance of Blattella germanica collected from international voyage ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周炯林; 丁言良; 胡攀; 林纲

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解国际航行船舶携带的德国小蠊抗药性情况,为口岸防治合理用药提供科学依据.方法 采集国际航行船舶上孳生的德国小蠊自然种群,带回实验室繁育,培养1代后,取2~3周龄雄性成虫,用药膜接触法测定其对丙烯菊酯、溴氰菊酯、敌敌畏、仲丁威、残杀威、毒死蜱、高效氯氰菊酯7种杀虫剂的抗性倍数.结果 采自3艘国际航行船舶的德国小蠊对7种杀虫剂的抗性依次为2.54~5.56、2.18~5.14、3.98~5.87、1.57~1.91、0.83~1.27、1.06~1.59、2.89~3.93倍.结论 3艘国际航行船舶携带的德国小蠊对菊酯类及有机磷类杀虫剂敌敌畏已产生耐药性或抗药性,对氨基甲酸酯类杀虫剂及毒死蜱较为敏感,口岸防治德国小蠊可采用氨基甲酸酯类杀虫剂.%Objective To evaluate the insecticide resistance of Blattella germanica collected from international voyage ships. Methods B. germanicas were collected from international voyage ships and bred in laboratory, male insects of the first offspring aged 2-3 weeks were collected to evaluate their resistance to allethrin, deltamethrin, DDVP, fenobucarb, propoxur, chlorpyrifos, and decamethrim. The resistance was determined by the insecticide film contact method. Results The resistance level of B. germanica from three ships against allethrin, deltamethrin, DDVP, fenobucarb, propoxur, chlorpyrifos, and decamethrim was 2.54-5.56, 2.18-5.14, 3.98-5.87, 1.57-1.91, 0.83-1.27, 1.06-1.59 and 2.89-3.93 times of the susceptible strain, respectively. Conclusion The B. germanica from the three ships have developed different degrees of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides and DDVP, but still susceptible to carbamate insecticides and chlorpyrifos. The carbamate insecticides can be used for controlling cockroaches in ports.

  15. 抗药性与敏感性德国小蠊乙酰胆碱酶的活性比较%A comparative study on the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the pesticides resistant strains of Blattella germanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王式春; 林琳; 刘渠; 张起文; 沈培林; 韦薇; 王德全

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究德国小蠊抗药性与乙酰胆碱酯酶活性的关系.方法 采用化学比色方法对敏感品系和抗性品系的德国小蠊分别测试乙酰胆碱酯酶,对比两者的测定值,分析抗性品系和敏感品系德国小蠊乙酰胆碱酯酶的差异.结果 敏感品系和抗性品系德国小蠊的乙酰胆碱酯酶活性分别是2.863和5.609,抗性品系德国小蠊酶活性显著高于敏感品系,两者酶活性比值为1.96.结论 乙酰胆碱酯酶活性与德国小蠊抗药性有关.%Objective To study the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in insecticide resistant German cockroaches.Methods Different strains and gender of German cockroaches were used in this study. Colorimetric method was used to determine the activity of acetylcholinesternse. Results Blattella germanica were studied for their acetylcholinesterase activity.AChE activity in the insecticide resistant and insecticide sensitive strains was 2.863 and 5.609, respectively. AChE activity of the field strain was significantly higher than the susceptible strain. And the ratio of AChE activity between the resistant and the sensitive strain was 1.96. Conclusion The activity of AChE from the field strains was correlated with the pesticides resistance.

  16. Modulation of the behavioral and electrical responses to the repellent DEET elicited by the pre-exposure to the same compound in Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfara, Valeria; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón A; González-Audino, Paola A

    2016-01-01

    Insects under different stimuli from the environment modify behavioural responses due to changes in the sensitivity of neurons at the peripheral and/or at the central level of the nervous system. This phenomenon is called neuronal plasticity, and sensory adaptation is an example of it. An insect repellent is a chemical that produces oriented movements of the insects away from its source. In this work we studied the modulation of the behavioural and electrical response to the repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) in males of the German cockroach B. germanica produced by previous exposure to the same repellent. Methods. We determined repellency using a circular arena, one half of which was treated with DEET. The time spent by insects in each half of the arena was measured, and a repellency coefficient (RC) was calculated. The RCs of pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed insects were compared. To determine a possible role of nitric oxide in the modulation of the response to DEET after pre-exposure, the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC) was applied on cockroaches' antennae. The electrical activity of the cockroaches' antennae in response to DEET was recorded using electroantennogram (EAG) technique. The response to DEET was recorded also after a long stimulation with the same repellent, and after topical application of SNAC and dbcGMP (a cGMP analogue) on the antennae. Results. We found that previous exposure of B. germanica males to the repellent DEET produced an increase of the repellency at the behavioural level, measured as RC. A possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in the transduction pathway of this phenomenon is suggested, since treatment of the cockroaches with the NO donor SNAC also produced an increase of the repellency elicited by DEET. On the other hand, the response of the cockroaches' antennae exposed to DEET was determined electrophysiologically. The electrical activity in response to DEET decreased when the insects' antennae were

  17. Modulation of the behavioral and electrical responses to the repellent DEET elicited by the pre-exposure to the same compound in Blattella germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Sfara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Insects under different stimuli from the environment modify behavioural responses due to changes in the sensitivity of neurons at the peripheral and/or at the central level of the nervous system. This phenomenon is called neuronal plasticity, and sensory adaptation is an example of it. An insect repellent is a chemical that produces oriented movements of the insects away from its source. In this work we studied the modulation of the behavioural and electrical response to the repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET in males of the German cockroach B. germanica produced by previous exposure to the same repellent. Methods. We determined repellency using a circular arena, one half of which was treated with DEET. The time spent by insects in each half of the arena was measured, and a repellency coefficient (RC was calculated. The RCs of pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed insects were compared. To determine a possible role of nitric oxide in the modulation of the response to DEET after pre-exposure, the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC was applied on cockroaches’ antennae. The electrical activity of the cockroaches’ antennae in response to DEET was recorded using electroantennogram (EAG technique. The response to DEET was recorded also after a long stimulation with the same repellent, and after topical application of SNAC and dbcGMP (a cGMP analogue on the antennae. Results. We found that previous exposure of B. germanica males to the repellent DEET produced an increase of the repellency at the behavioural level, measured as RC. A possible role of nitric oxide (NO in the transduction pathway of this phenomenon is suggested, since treatment of the cockroaches with the NO donor SNAC also produced an increase of the repellency elicited by DEET. On the other hand, the response of the cockroaches’ antennae exposed to DEET was determined electrophysiologically. The electrical activity in response to DEET decreased when the

  18. 北京市朝阳区德国小蠊对杀虫剂抗性分布情况调查%Study on geographic distribution of insecticides resistance of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Chaoyang district, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛军旗; 张洪江; 张政; 王仲华; 孟凤霞

    2009-01-01

    Objective To know the resistance situation and its geographic distribution of German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Chaoyang district. Methods German cockroaches were trapped from eight sites belonging to different geographic zone. The insecticides film contact method was used to the detection of resistance. The resistance level of German cockroach from different sites was analyzed by average linkage method. Results There was significant difference among the resistance level of cockroach to seven insecticides (X~2=26.880, P=0.000). It had the highest resistance to organophosphorus insecticides (X~2=20.494, P=0.000). The resistance levels of cockroach from 8 sites were also significantly different (X~2=29.143, P=0.000), which could be classified into four groups by duster analysis. Conclusion The resistance of cockroach to insecticides was different in different areas in Chaoyang district, so the same control method.%目的 了解朝阳区不同区域德国小蠊对杀虫剂的抗性水平及分布情况.方法 按行政区划选定8个取样点,采集每个取样点的德国小蠊自然种群,带回实验室繁育,用药膜接触法测定其对7种杀虫剂的抗性系数.比较德国小蠊对7种杀虫剂的抗性程度差别;比较8个取样点德国小蠊种群的抗性差别,并以类平均法做聚类分析.结果 德国小蠊对7种杀虫剂的抗性程度差异具有统计学意义(X~2=26.880,P=0.000),对有机磷类杀虫剂的抗性最高(X~2=20.494,P=0.000);8个取样点德国小蠊种群对杀虫剂抗性水平差异亦有统计学意义(X~2=29.143,P=0.000),根据聚类分析结果和专业知识可将其划分为4类.结论 朝阳区德国小蠊对杀虫剂存在地理位置差别,抗性监测和指导用药时"以点代面"做法不可取.

  19. Application Research of the Median Lethal Concentration of 5 Insecticides in the Bait against Blattella germanica%5种杀虫剂对德国小蠊的半数致死浓度及其在饵剂中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华; 黄鸿; 欧剑峰; 李志刚

    2016-01-01

    [目的]测定5种杀虫剂对德国小蠊的半数致死浓度(LC50)及以LC50值为基础浓度在饵剂中的应用效果.[方法]采用点滴法测定药剂的LC50值、参照GB/T 13917.7-2009进行室内药效测定及现场药效试验采用粘捕法进行密度测定.[结果]氟虫腈、毒死蜱、残杀威、氟虫胺和吡虫啉对德国小蠊的LC50值分别为71.82、806.78、1361.52、7087.67、7874.56mg/L.以LC50值为基础浓度制定的0.01%氟虫腈饵剂、0.1%毒死蜱饵剂、0.2%残杀威饵剂、1%氟虫胺饵剂和1%吡虫啉饵剂对德国小蠊的室内药效试验结果显示,8d内死亡率均大于94.44%.现场防治试验结果显示,第30天的密度下降率分别为100.00%、95.13%、98.67%、100.00%和100.00%.[结论]以5种杀虫剂LC50值为基础浓度配制的饵剂对德国小蠊具有很好的室内药效和现场防治效果,LC50是制定德国小蠊饵剂的基础浓度.%[Aims] The aim of this study was to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) of 5 insecticides on adults of Blattella germanica and to test baits efficacy in LC50 in laboratory bioassay and field trials.[Methods] LC50 were determined by topical application methods.Methods of laboratory bioassay were based on GB/T 13917.7-2009.Field tests were made at 5 sites to evaluate the effects of the baits application by sticky trap catches.[Results] The LC50 of fipronil,chlorphrifos,propoxur,sulfluramid and imidacloprid against B.germanica were 71.82,806.78,1361.52,7087.67 and 7874.56 mg/L respectively.The mortality of B.germanica were higher than 94.44% after 8 days after treatment with each type of baits in 0.01% fipronil,0.1%chlorphrifos,0.2%propoxur,1% sulfluramid and 1% imidacloprid.The density reduction were 100.00,95.13,98.67,100.00 and 100.00% respectively after 30 days in the field control.[Conclusions] The baits application in LC50 of 5 insecticides had remarkable efficacy against B.germanica both in laboratory and

  20. Relationship between the activities of Glutathione S-transferase and Acetylcholinesterase of Blattella germanica and its resistance%德国小蠊谷胱甘肽S-转移酶和乙酰胆碱酯酶活力与抗药性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东亚; 褚宏亮; 杨维芳; 孙俊

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the relationship between the activities of glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase of Blattella germanica and its resistance, and then provide scientific evidence for the establishment of resistance detection by biochemistry. Methods The insecticide film was used to identify the resistance of German cockroach to four kinds of insecticides. The enzyme activity was tested by spectrophotometry. Results The resistance ratio of B. germanica to four insecticides was 1.08, 2.35, 7.47, 10.92, respectively. GSTs activity of resistant strain was much higher than that of susceptibility strain, and the difference was very significant. AChE activity of resistant strain was lower than that of susceptibility strain, and the difference was significant. Conclusion B.germanica had high resistance to beta-cypermethrin and deltamethrin, and low resistance to DDVP and propoxur. The increase of GSTs activity could speed up the metabolism of pesticides, leading to the decrease of B. germanica susceptibility. AChE as an orgnaophosphorus and carbamate insecticides target enzyme, the decrease of the activity led to the decline of B. germanica susceptibility. The results indicated that the changes of enzyme activity had the close relationship with the development of resistance.%目的 了解德国小蠊的谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GSTs)和乙酰胆碱酯酶(ACHE)与抗药性的关系,为探讨德国小蠊抗性机制及建立抗性生化检测方法提供理论依据.方法 采用药膜法测定德国小蠊对4种常用杀虫剂的抗性水平,采用分光光度法测定酶活性.结果 德国小蠊对DDVP、残杀威、溴氰菊酯和高效氯氰菊酯抗性系数分别为1.08、2.35、7.47和10.92.对德国小蠊抗性和敏感品系GSTs、AChE活力比较结果表明,抗性品系GSTs活力相对于敏感品系明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),抗性品系AChE活力相对于敏感品系明显下降,差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 德

  1. 5种德国小蠊全虫蛋白提取方法的效果比较%Comparison of five methods of protein extraction from Blattella germanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳红; 霍新北; 王钰雅; 张凡

    2012-01-01

    目的 寻找一种适合德国小蠊全虫蛋白提取的方法,为德国小蠊蛋白质组研究提供依据.方法 以丙酮为溶剂对德国小蠊雌雄成虫进行脱脂,并利用TCA/丙酮、RIPA裂解液、Tris-HCl、1%SDS和裂解液5种蛋白提取液提取全虫蛋白,通过Bradford法测定蛋白浓度,十二烷基磺酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳比较脱脂前及脱脂后各种蛋白提取方法的提取效果.结果 脱脂处理有助于德国小蠊成虫蛋白的提取;5种蛋白提取方法中,RIPA裂解液对2种成虫蛋白提取效果最好,电泳后雌雄成虫蛋白条带分别为13条和16条,其次分别为1%SDS、Tris-HCl及裂解液,TCA/丙酮提取法效果最差.结论 丙酮脱脂可以明显提高德国小蠊成虫蛋白的提取效果;RIPA裂解液相对更适合于提取德国小蠊雌雄成虫的全虫蛋白质.%Objective To explore a suitable method of protein extraction from German cockroach (Blaltella germanica) in order to provide a basis for proteomic studies of B. germanica. Methods The adults of B. germanica were defatted with acetone and five protein extracts (TCA/aeetone, RIPA, Tris-HCl, 1% SDS and lysate) were used for protein extraction. The concentration of protein was measured with the Bradford methods and the efficacy of protein extraction of the individual method before and after defatting was compared by SDS-PAGE analysis. Results Defatting contributed to the extraction of protein from B. germanica. In the five protein extraction methods, RIPA lysate was most effective. The results showed that the protein bands of female and male adults were 13 and 16, respectively, followed by the methods of SDS, Tris-HCl and lysate, with the TCA/acetone method being the least effective in terms of protein extraction. Conclusion Defatting with acetone makes for protein extraction from B. germanica; and RIPA lysate is more effective for protein extraction from adult B. germanica.

  2. Characterization of antigenic epitopes of BgGSTD1 from Blattella germanica and its three dimensional structure modeling%德国小蠊变应原BgGSTD1的抗原表位特征及三维结构建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 胡玉静; 金珊珊; 杨海伟; 魏继福; 何韶衡

    2011-01-01

    Objective : We conducted bioinforrnatic analyzes to identify and characterize the structural properties of Delta-glutathione S -transferase ( BgGSTD1) from Blattella germanica. , which gave the clue for the diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy . Methods: BLAST was applied to search for the proteins ,which show high similarities with BgGSTD 1. Clustalx 1. 83 was used for sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction. Antigenic epitopes of BgGSTD1 were predicted by the software of DNA Star. The motif and three -dimensional structure modeling were analyzed by online software in Scan Prosite and SWISS -MODEL web server. Results: The phylogenetic analysis found that BgGSTD 1 showed highest similarity with the glutathione S-transferase identified from Periplaneta americana. BgGSTD1 was a global protein , mainly containing α+β secondary structure. Its antigenic epitope were mostly located on 9 - 10, 58 -61 , 79 -81, 86 - 87 , 179 - 180 , 189 - 190 , 216 regions. Motif analysis found that BgGSTD 1 had a soluble glutathione S-transferase N-terminal domain and a soluble glutathione S -transferase C-terminal domain. Threedimensional structure of BgGSTD1 was also constructed. Conclusion: It seemed that the predicted structure could reflect the real tertiary structure of BgGSTD 1 , which was useful for the further study of structure -func-tion relationship .%目的:通过生物信息学方法了解德国小蠊变应原BgGSTD1的结构特征,为蟑螂变态反应性疾病的诊断和治疗提供线索.方法:在NCBI数据库中获得BgGSTD1蛋白序列,Blast得到其相似序列,并应用Clustalx 1.83构建同源进化树,联合应用DNA Star多种方法预测其抗原表位,在Scan Prosite数据库中进行Motif预测,并应用SWISS- MODEL服务器进行自动建模,得到其三维结构.结果:德国小蠊BgGSTD1与美洲大蠊谷胱甘肽转移酶在进化上具有较近的亲缘关系.BgGSTD1主要为α+β结构的混合蛋白,

  3. Ovicidal activity of noviflumuron when fed to adult German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J Edward

    2005-06-01

    Ovicidal activity of the benzoylphenylurea noviflumuron was evaluated in the laboratory on three adult groups (virgin females, virgin males, and fertilized, nongravid females) of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), through ingestion of treated bait. Novifumuron caused significant ovicidal effects at concentrations ranging from 10 to 5000 ppm after 5-d feeding exposure to virgin and fertilized females. Untreated females produced little or no viable oothecae when mated with virgin males that had previously ingested bait (5-d exposure) with 1000 ppm or 5000 ppm noviflumuron. The highest tested concentration of noviflumuron (5000 ppm) caused 100% ovicidal activity through two ovarian cycles for all three adult groups. Noviflumuron seems to have broader ovicidal activity against B. germanica than reported for other benzoylphenylurea insecticides and can potentially impact cockroach populations through a combination of nymphal mortality and ovicidal activity.

  4. Oral toxicity, formulation effects, and field performance of flufenoxuron against the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, B L; Appel, A G; Demark, J J; Bennett, G W

    1992-08-01

    Laboratory and field studies on the benzoylphenyl urea (BPU) chitin synthetase inhibitor flufenoxuron (DPX EY-059) showed great potential for its use in suppressing infestations of German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). When fed continuously to fifth (last) instars, the LC50 of flufenoxuron was estimated at 0.82 ppm (95% FL, 0.76-0.87 ppm). A rating scale specific for BPU effects was developed and shown to be positively correlated with the insect's exposure to concentration of flufenoxuron. Manipulating the particle size of wettable powder formulations of flufenoxuron significantly altered their activity in contact bioassays. Larger particles (volume mean diameter, 12.2 mu; range, 10-20 mu) were more active. Field trials in multifamily housing with this wettable powder formulation at 0.033 and 0.066% (AI) achieved high level (greater than 80%) population suppression within 8 wk of treatment. The potential for the use of flufenoxuron in B. germanica management programs is discussed.

  5. Spinosad affects chemical communication in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbachi, Wafa; Bensafi, Hanene; Adjami, Yasmine; Ouakid, Mohamed L; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Everaerts, Claude

    2009-12-01

    Spinosad is a biopesticide, derived from fermentation by the soil-dwelling actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa, which is used to control a variety of insects. Spinosad kills a wide range of insect pests when ingested or topically applied, by overexciting the nervous system, yet is harmless to mammals and many predatory insects. Other modes of action of this insecticide have not been documented. Here, we report that a non-lethal dose of spinosad causes adult male and female German cockroach, Blattella germanica, to exhibit altered responses to their aggregation pheromone as well as to have a changed cuticular hydrocarbon profile.

  6. Energetic Cost of Subacute Chlorpyrifos Intoxication in the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Kristensen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The energetic cost of a sublethal treatment with chlorpyrifos was estimated by use of direct microcalorimetry to measure metabolic heat in susceptible and resistant strains of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. Moreover, one of the detoxifcation enzyme systems known to be involved...... in detoxifcation of chlorpyrifos, glutathione-S-transferase, was measured. Individual cockroaches were exposed for 20 min on a glass-surfaces treated with 1.14 ...  g/cm2 of chlorpyrifos. There was no difference in glutathione-S-transferase activity of susceptible or resistant strains after the treatment. The heat...... production increased in the susceptible strain ...  30 min after exposure and declined again after ... 120 min to the basal level. The energetic cost of the exposure to the insecticide corresponds ... 5 h of normal metabolism. There were no signifcant differences in heat production after toxic treatment...

  7. Duration of Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits Toxicity against Blattella germanica Strains of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the duration of fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits toxicity against Ger-man cockroach strains in Iran during 2003-2004. In order to conduct this study, nine German cockroach strains were used. Newly emerged adult male German cockroaches starved for one scotophase (12 h, and ingested fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits for 2 h. After the given time was over, the bait was removed and replaced with mouse pellet. Mortality was re-corded at 12 intervals for 144 h (6 days. Mortality data of the replicates were pooled and was tested using probit analysis. Both gel baits were toxic to adult male German cockroaches. In the ingested bait method, the susceptible strain showed LT50 of 47.1 and 11.3 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively, and the average LT90 was 74.2 and 19.3 h, respec¬tively. LT50 of the feral German cockroach strains varied 14.9 h from 30.5 to 45.4 h and 4.4 h from 12.4 to 16.8 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively. All German cockroach strains showed a similar susceptibility to fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, compared with the susceptible laboratory strain. The steep slopes of ingested bait mortality curves indicated that the feral German cockroach strains were homogenous to fipronil and imidacloprid ingested gel baits. These results suggest that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits appear to have considerable potential as a bait for insecticide-resistant strains of German cockroach.

  8. Level of CYP4G19 Expression Is Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in Blattella germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-zhou Guo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available German cockroaches have become a large problem in the Shenzhen area because of their pesticide resistance, especially to pyrethroid. A pyrethroid called “Jia Chong Qing” to prevent pests for a long time were found to be resistant to “Jia Chong Qing” with resistance index of 3.88 measured using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that both CYP4G19 mRNA and CYP4G19 protein expression levels in the wild strain were substantially higher than that of a sensitive strain. dsRNA segments derived from the target gene CYP4G19 were prepared using in vitro transcription and were microinjected into abdomens of the wild strain. Two to eight days after injection, the result showed that CYP4G19 mRNA expressions were significantly reduced in the groups injected with dsRNAs.

  9. Repellent Activity of Eight Essential Oils of Chinese Medicinal Herbs t oBlattella germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight e ssential oil s of Chinese medicinal herbs ( Angelica sinensis , Curuma aeruginosa , Cyperus rotundus , Eucalyptus robusta , Illicium verum , Lindera aggregate , Ocimum basilicum , and Zanthoxylum bungeanum w ere obtained by hydrodistillation and the essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta leaves was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 22 components of the essential oil of E. robusta were identified. The principal compounds in E . robusta essential oil were α- p inene (28.74% and 1,8- c ineole (27.18%, spathulenol (6.63%, globulol (6.53% and ρ - m enth-1-en-8-ol (5.20%. The 8 essential oil s and two main components, α -pinene and 1, 8-cineole of the essential oil of E. robusta were evaluated repellency against nymphs of the German cockroaches . Strong repellency (Class V was obtained for Cyperus rotundus and Eucalyptus robusta essential oils and α- p inene and 1, 8- c ineole . However, Illicium verum essential oil possessed weak (Class I repellency. At a concentration of 5 ppm, all the 8 essential oils and the two compounds showed repellent activity after one hour exposure. At 1 ppm concentration, essential oil of Cyperus rotundus showed strong repellency and Class IV repellency was obtained for essential oil of E. robusta and the two compounds after one hour exposure. However, essential oils of I . verum and Lindera aggregata showed strong attractiveness to the German cockroaches at a concentration of 1 ppm .

  10. [The yeast community associated with the digestive tract of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.

  11. Laboratory investigations on the effect of selected disinfectants on survival of the cockroaches Blattella germanica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racewicz, M

    1983-01-01

    It was ascertained that lysol 2% and 5% showed the most toxic effect in control of cockroaches in the contact method (23.3% and 95.5% mortality after 24 hours of exposure), and that chloramine 1%, 3% and 5% was the most effective food poison (after 19 days exposure 100% of the insects died). When injecting disinfectant into the body cavity, the cockroaches showed a ten times higher sensibility to formalin and chloramine than to lysol. The use, however, of disinfectant in the contact method (particularly lysol 2%) together with an insecticide based on propoxur, allowed to reduce its dose to a half, what gave better results than the use of an insecticide alone in a normal dose.

  12. Effect of insulin on Blattela germanica Linnacus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolghasemi E; Moosa Kazem SH; Abolhasani M; Davoudi M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the sensitivity of Blattela germanica L (B. germanica L) to differenct doses of insulin. Methods: B. germanica were reared in laboratory conditions at (25±2) ℃ and (50±5)% relative humidity (RH), and exposure period of 12:12 L/D. Different concentrations, viz. 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μ of insulin N, R, (N+R) were prepared and injected to 10 treated cockroaches with another 10 cockroaches which were injected with normal saline as control group. Results: Insulin N with a dose of 20 μ caused more than 70% mortality of B. germanica in this study. There was a significant difference between 20 μ of insulin N with other doses of 5, 10, 15 and 25 μ, and its comparison with other forms of medication also showed obvious difference (P<0.05). Conclusions:It can be concluded that effective drug doses of insulin which can be used as posion bait or gel against German cockroaches could be utilized in the control of B. germanica in the future field studies.

  13. Integration of repellents, attractants, and insecticides in a "push-pull" strategy for managing German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalyanya, G; Moore, C B; Schal, C

    2000-05-01

    "Push-pull" is a behavior manipulation strategy in which behavior-modifying stimuli are integrated with a pest control agent. We evaluated the efficacy of an insecticide bait in combination with attractants ("pull"), repellents ("push"), or both ("push-pull") using a hydramethylnon-based bait, feces-contaminated surfaces as an attractant, and methyl neodecanamide-treated surfaces to repel cockroaches. Both adult males and first-instar German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), chose shelters nearest the attractant-treated surfaces and farthest from the repellent-treated surfaces. Food consumption was highest from food nearest the preferred shelters, and mortality was highest when the insecticide bait was near the preferred shelter. These patterns were more apparent in first instars than in adults. Our results from large arena studies in the laboratory show that the push-pull strategy can be used to displace pests from resources or commodities that are to be protected, and simultaneously lure the pest to an attractant source coupled with a pest control agent. Concentrating cockroaches into a limited area should facilitate the precision-targeting of the pest population and promises to reduce insecticide use.

  14. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran.Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method.Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas.Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  15. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran. Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method. Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas. Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  16. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  17. Barumiki antocyjanowe u Iris germanica [Anthocyanin pigments in Iris germanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szczepańska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin pigments occurring in the flowers of Iris germanica were investigated in five varieties: Rota, Wedgewood, Empress of India, Deputate Nomblot and Joanna. The relation between the colour of the flower and the amount of the pigment was studied. The pigments were extracted from the dry plant material with 1% hydrochloric acid in methanol. Paper chromatography and colorimetric determinations were used for identification of the pigments and their quantitative determination. The results allow the following conclusions: 1. The varieties investigated were characterized toy the occurrence of delphinidine glycoside; 2. The colour intensity is dependent on the anthocyanin pigments; 3. The colour spectrum of Iris sp. flowersis greatly extended by yellow copigments.

  18. Genetic diversity of medlar (Mespilus germanica) germplasm using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The medlar (Mespilus germanica) is a pome fruit related to pear (Pyrus sp.) and hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) that has been cultivated for many centuries for its edible fruit. It was also an important medicinal plant in the Middle Ages. The center of origin for Mespilus is the Trans-Caucasus region and t...

  19. A DEVICE FOR DETECTION OF RESIDUAL ACTIVITY OF BETA-CYFLUTHRIN (RESPONSAR 12.5% SC AS A NEW PYRETHROID ON DIFFERENT SPECIES AGAINST BLATELLA GERMANICA (ORTHOPTERA: BLATTELLIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ladonni

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin (Responsar 12.5% SC, against a standard susceptible strain of German cockroach, Blattella germanica, using three different dosages, at three different exposure times, on two types of surface, parlous (mosaic and non parous (glassed ceramic of tiles. Comparison of the resifts indicated that beta-cyfluthrin at 12.5 a.i.mg/m2, has negligent residual activity on both mosaic and glazed ceramic tiles from one to two weeks. However at 25 a.i.mg/m2 (highest dosage, had the longest residual activity on mosaic, it was active for six, seven and nine weeks, while on glazed ceramic tiles the residual activity increased slightly to seven and nine and nine weeks, when the nymphac were exposed for 10, 15 and 20 min, respectively. These results of the bio-assay test indicate that 12.5 a.i.mg/m2 is too low for any residual spraying. Application of beta-cyfluthrin at a target dosage rate of 25 and 37.5 a.i.mg/m2 showed longer residual deposit effect than the earlier dosage. Hence these dosages could be recommended for light and heavy infested area, respectively. This study is also recommends a simple device for measuring the residual activity of insecticides against German cockroach either in laboratory or in the field conditions.

  20. Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites with Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Legendre

    Full Text Available Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites. Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera-and stem-mantises-would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya, a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary. This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya, which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies.

  1. Increasing parasitism by the German yellow jacket wasp, Paravespula germanica, on dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Y

    1998-04-01

    During the past two decades, parasitism by the German yellow jacket wasp, Paravespula germanica, on lactating dairy cattle has occurred in Israel during August to October annually, affecting up to 65% of cows in certain herds. The nibbled and exposed tissues of teats and sometimes udders become infested by bacteria, especially Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Actinomyces pyogenes, causing clinical and subclinical mastitis. Normally, German wasps are primarily insect predators, but the urbanization around many dairy farms has reduced open space and associated standard food sources, i.e. insects, plants and carcasses. This has resulted in P. germanica nesting more often on dairy farms. In some instances, when high densities of P. germanica correspond with scarcity of prey, a segment of the wasp population preys primarily on the older and heavier cows with weak defensive behaviour. The teat feeding colonies of P. germanica may have an advantage, in that they are less dependent on fluctuations in the number of prey insects.

  2. Toxicity of selected pesticides to the groundwater copepod Parastenocaris germanica (Crustacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenboom J; Boessenkool JJ; ECO

    1994-01-01

    De toxiciteit van negen verschillende bestrijdingsmiddelen of afbraakproducten voor de grondwater copepod Parstenocaris germanica is onderzocht. De onderzochte stoffen zijn geselecteerd vanwege hun potentieel gevaar voor grondwater bewonende metazoen. Niet alle experimenten lieten een duidelijke

  3. Primer registro de Blattella germanica Linnaeus, 1767 (Blattodea: Blattellidae en Coquimbo y La Serena, Región de Coquimbo, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe el primer registro formal de la cucaracha alemana en Coquimbo y en La Serena, Región de Coquimbo, norte de Chile. Además, se discute brevemente las implicaciones sanitarias que este insecto podría tener para la región de Coquimbo.

  4. Detection of Bendiocarb and Carbaryl Resistance Mechanisms among German Cockroach Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae Collected from Tabriz Hospitals, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insecticide resistance is one of the serious problems for German cockroach control program. This study was conducted to determine the bendiocarb and Carbaryl resistance mechanisms in German cockroaches using the piperonyl butoxide (PBO.Methods: Bioassay tests were conducted with 4 to 6 different concentrations of both insecticides with four replicates of 10 susceptible strain cockroaches per concentration to determine of discriminative concentration. After determining discriminative concentration, the result was compared to wild strain. The levels of susceptibility and resistance ratio (RR and synergism ratio (SR were calculated for each five wild strains. Moreover resistance mechanisms in wild strains were determined using PBO synergist in vivo.Results: Hospital strains showed different levels of resistance to bendiocarb and carbaryl compared to susceptible strain. The bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance ratios ranged from 2.11 to 7.97 and 1.67 to 2 at LD50 levels, respec­tively. The synergist PBO significantly enhanced the toxicity of bendiocarb and carbaryl to all strains with different degrees of synergist ratio, 1.31, 1.39, 3.61, 1.78, 1.62 and 2.1 fold for bendiocarb, 1.19, 1.18, 1.12. 1.29, 1.45 and 1.11- fold for carbaryl, suggesting monooxygenase involvement in bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance.Conclusion: The synergetic effect of PBO had the highest effect on bendiocarb and resistance level was significantly reduced, which indicates the important role of monoxidase enzyme in creating resistance to Bendiocarb. Piperonyl butoxide did not have a significant synergistic effect on carbaryl and did not significantly break the resistance.

  5. 残杀威对宾馆德国小蠊的灭效观察%Field killing effect of Propoxur against Blattella germanica in hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 王学军; 宫艳春

    2005-01-01

    目的残杀威(Propoxur)应用于宾馆灭蟑方法及药效的探讨.方法使用美国Model 2600型超低容量喷雾器喷洒20%残杀威乳油.结果应用超低容量喷雾器充分发挥残杀威乳油对德国小蠊的杀灭作用,施药3次30 d后灭效高达98%.结论 20%残杀威乳油应用于现场对德国小蠊具有较好的快速杀灭作用,轮换用药对德国小蠊抗性的升高和缓解具有积极的作用.

  6. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

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    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC. 13 compounds were received, 8 of them were identified as the substances of phenolic origin: flavonoids (quercetine, taxofolin, luteolin, hydroxycoric acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic, polyphenolic compounds (epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin. The sum of identified phenolic compounds amounted to 78,24% of all compounds found by the given method.

  7. A unique box in 28S rRNA is shared by the enigmatic insect order Zoraptera and Dictyoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Wang

    Full Text Available The position of the Zoraptera remains one of the most challenging and uncertain concerns in ordinal-level phylogenies of the insects. Zoraptera have been viewed as having a close relationship with five different groups of Polyneoptera, or as being allied to the Paraneoptera or even Holometabola. Although rDNAs have been widely used in phylogenetic studies of insects, the application of the complete 28S rDNA are still scattered in only a few orders. In this study, a secondary structure model of the complete 28S rRNAs of insects was reconstructed based on all orders of Insecta. It was found that one length-variable region, D3-4, is particularly distinctive. The length and/or sequence of D3-4 is conservative within each order of Polyneoptera, but it can be divided into two types between the different orders of the supercohort, of which the enigmatic order Zoraptera and Dictyoptera share one type, while the remaining orders of Polyneoptera share the other. Additionally, independent evidence from phylogenetic results support the clade (Zoraptera+Dictyoptera as well. Thus, the similarity of D3-4 between Zoraptera and Dictyoptera can serve as potentially valuable autapomorphy or synapomorphy in phylogeny reconstruction. The clades of (Plecoptera+Dermaptera and ((Grylloblattodea+Mantophasmatodea+(Embiodea+Phasmatodea were also recovered in the phylogenetic study. In addition, considering the other studies based on rDNAs, this study reached the highest congruence with previous phylogenetic studies of Holometabola based on nuclear protein coding genes or morphology characters. Future comparative studies of secondary structures across deep divergences and additional taxa are likely to reveal conserved patterns, structures and motifs that can provide support for major phylogenetic lineages.

  8. Future prospects for the rare, late-flowering Gentianella germanica and Gentianopsis ciliata in Dutch nutrient-poor calcareous grasslands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Luijten, S.H.; Ellis-Adam, A.C.; den Nijs, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the population biology of two calcareous grassland gentians, Gentianella germanica and Gentianopsis ciliata, in relation to the habitat management currently practiced in The Netherlands. There, at the margin of their range, both species are rare. Gentianella germanica persists on six rema

  9. Phylogeny of cockroaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Blattodea), with placement of aberrant taxa and exploration of out-group sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djernæs, Marie; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Picker, Mike D.

    2012-01-01

    We addressed the phylogeny of cockroaches using DNA sequence data from a broad taxon sample of Dictyoptera and other non-endopterygotan insect orders. We paid special attention to several taxa in which relationships are controversial, or where no molecular evidence has been used previously......: Nocticolidae, a family of small, often cave-dwelling cockroaches, has been suggested to be the sister group of the predaceous Mantodea or of the cockroach family Polyphagidae; Lamproblatta, traditionally placed in Blattidae, has recently been given family status and placed as sister to Polyphagidae......; and Saltoblattella montistabularis Bohn, Picker, Klass & Colville, a jumping cockroach, which has not yet been included in any phylogenetic studies. We used mitochondrial (COI + COII and 16S) and nuclear (18S and 28S) genes, and analysed the data using Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML...

  10. Resistance of Blattella gemanica to commonly used pesticides in Tianjin%天津市德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 吴彤宇; 张咏枸; 李培羽; 郝连义; 张静

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the current resistance of the Blattella germanica (L.) to commonly used pesticides in Tianjin, and provide evidence for better cockroaches control. Methods The residual film method recommended by WHO was applied to measure the median knockdown time (KT50) for B. Germanica. Batches of B. Germanica were exposed to five insecticide residues (dichlorovos, acephate, propoxur, betacypermethrin and permethrin) in glass jars to determine their knockdown resistance levels. Resistance ratios were calculated as Rrso=KT50 of the test strain/KT50 of the susceptible strains. Results The KT50 for field-collected B. Germanica in Nankai, Jinnan, Hexi, Tanggu, Dongli, Xiqing and Beichen were 6.15, 6.49, 8.37, 8.22, 7.84, 9.29 and 12.40 min to dichlorovos, 74.28, 65.36, 29.52, 30.23, 30.67, 58.64 and 33.08 min to acephate, and 24.97, 40.63, 27.17, 24.43, 40.73, 42.44 and 40.91 min to propoxur, respectively. The RR50 values for B. Germanica of dichlorovos, acephate and propoxur were below 3. The KT50 to betacypermethrin for field populations in Nankai, Tanggu and Xiqing were 32.61, 36.50 and 51.00 min respectively, with the RR50 ranging from 6.48 to 10.71 times. The values for Jinnan, Hexi, Dongli and Beichen were all greater than 120.00 min, with the RR50 greater than 20. The KT50 to permethrin for field populations in Nankai, Jinnan, Hexi, Dongli and Beichen were all above 120.00 min, with the RR50 greater than 20. However, the KT50 value for Xiqing strains was 26.96 min, with the RR? Lower than 5, and the value for Tanggu population was 14.10 min, with the RR50 lower than 3. Conclusion B. Germanica control in Tianjin requires reduced administration of betacypermethrin and permethrin along with increased carbamates such as propoxur and organophosphorus pesticides such as dichlorovos and acephate.%目的 了解天津市德国小蠊对常用杀虫剂的抗药性现状,为制定科学的防治措施提供依据.方法 采用WHO推荐的药膜

  11. Identifying possible sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera: a combined molecular and morphological phylogeny of Dictyoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djernæs, Marie; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Termites (Isoptera) offer an alternative model for the development of eusociality which is not dependent on a high degree of relatedness as found between sisters in hymenopterans (bees, wasps, ants). Recent phylogenetic studies have established that termites belong within the cockroaches as sister to the subsocial Cryptocercidae. Cryptocercidae shares several important traits with termites, thus we need to understand the phylogenetic position of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to determine how these traits evolved. However, placement of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is still uncertain. We used both molecular (12S, 16S, COII, 18S, 28S, H3) and morphological characters to reconstruct the phylogeny of Dictyoptera. We included all previously suggested sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera as well as taxa which might represent additional major cockroach lineages. We used Bayes factors to test different sister groups for Cryptocercidae+Isoptera and assessed character support for the consensus tree based on morphological characters and COII amino acid data. We used the molecular data and fossil calibration to estimate divergence times. We found the most likely sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to be Tryonicidae, Anaplecta or Tryonicidae+Anaplecta. Anaplecta has never previously been suggested as sister group or even close to Cryptocercidae+Isoptera, but was formerly placed in Blaberoidea as sister to the remaining taxa. Topological tests firmly supported our new placement of Anaplecta. We discuss the morphological characters (e.g. retractable genitalic hook) that have contributed to the previous placement of Anaplecta in Blaberoidea as well as the factors that might have contributed to a parallel development of genitalic features in Anaplecta and Blaberoidea. Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is placed in a clade with Tryonicidae, Anaplecta and possibly Lamproblattidae. Based on this, we suggest that wood-feeding, and the resultant need to conserve nitrogen, may have been an important

  12. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

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    Mariana Lozada

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication, foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded, or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted. Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.

  13. Functional xanthophyll cycle and pigment content of a kleptoplastic benthic foraminifer: Haynesina germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Bruno; Méléder, Vona; Geslin, Emmanuelle

    2017-01-01

    Some shallow water benthic foraminifera are able to retain functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) from their food source, i.e. diatoms. Here we assessed the functionality of the kleptoplast xanthophyll cycle (XC, i.e. the main diatom short-term photo-regulation mechanism) and we surveyed Haynesina germanica kleptoplast pigment composition over time and at different light regimes. Six common diatom lipophilic pigments were detected, two chlorophylls (Chl a, Chl c) and four carotenoids (fucoxanthin and by-products, diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin and β-carotene), the same pigment profile as the diatom species frequently isolated at the sampling site. The xanthophyll cycle (XC) was functional with kleptoplast diatoxanthin (DT) content increase with concomitant diadinoxanthin (DD) decrease after short term light exposure. DT/(DT+DD) and DT/DD ratios increased significantly in specimens exposed to low light and high light in comparison to specimens maintained in the dark. Specimens placed in very low light after the light treatments reverted to values close to the initial ones, suggesting that H. germanica XC is functional. A functional XC is an indication of H. germanica kleptoplasts capacity for short-term photo-protection from photo-oxidative damages caused by excess of light. Furthermore, the pigment survey suggests that H. germanica preserved some chloroplasts over a longer time than others and that pigment content is influenced by previous light history. Finally, the current study highlighted seasonal differences, with higher pigment contents in winter specimens (27.35 ± 1.30 ng cell-1) and lower in summer specimens (6.08 ± 1.21 ng cell-1), a quantitative and qualitative composition suggesting light acclimation to low or high light availability, according to the season. PMID:28231315

  14. A proteomic approach for studying insect phylogeny: CAPA peptides of ancient insect taxa (Dictyoptera, Blattoptera as a test case

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    Gäde Gerd

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropeptide ligands have to fit exactly into their respective receptors and thus the evolution of the coding regions of their genes is constrained and may be strongly conserved. As such, they may be suitable for the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within higher taxa. CAPA peptides of major lineages of cockroaches (Blaberidae, Blattellidae, Blattidae, Polyphagidae, Cryptocercidae and of the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis were chosen to test the above hypothesis. The phylogenetic relationships within various groups of the taxon Dictyoptera (praying mantids, termites and cockroaches are still highly disputed. Results Tandem mass spectrometry of neuropeptides from perisympathetic organs was used to obtain sequence data of CAPA peptides from single specimens; the data were analysed by Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Interference. The resulting cladograms, taking 61 species into account, show a topology which is in general agreement with recent molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses, including the recent phylogenetic arrangement placing termites within the cockroaches. When sequence data sets from other neuropeptides, viz. adipokinetic hormones and sulfakinins, were included, the general topology of the cladogram did not change but bootstrap values increased considerably. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of neuropeptides of insects for solely phylogenetic purposes and concludes that sequences of short neuropeptides are suitable to complement molecular biological and morphological data for the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships.

  15. Variations in phytodetritus derived carbon uptake of the intertidal foraminifera Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukovits, Julia; Bukenberger, Patrick; Enge, Annekatrin; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Heinz, Petra

    2016-04-01

    Phytodetritus represents a major component of particulate organic carbon in intertidal mudflats. Estuaries and tidal currents yield an extensive amount of these particles that display a substantial nutrient source for littoral food webs. For benthic foraminifera, a group of marine protists, phytodetritus serves as the main food source. Foraminifera are considered to play a significant role in marine carbon turnover processes and show seasonally very high population densities in intertidal sediments. Therefore, it is important to gather explicit data about the specific carbon uptake behavior of intertidal foraminiferal species. In this study, laboratory feeding experiments were carried out to observe phytodetrital carbon uptake of foraminiferal specimen collected in the German Wadden Sea. Artificially produced phytodetritus was labelled with 13C to follow carbon ingestion into foraminiferal cytoplasm over time at different simulated conditions. The experiments were performed with monocultures under exclusion of other meiofauna. Chlorophyte detritus (Dunaliella tertiolecta) was fed to the two common species Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica. Ammonia tepida showed a significantly higher affinity to this food source than H. germanica. Testing the effect of temperature revealed a significant decrease of carbon ingestion with increasing temperature in H. germanica. Observations focusing on A. tepida showed a rising phytodetrital carbon content in the biomass of juvenile individuals in contrast to adult foraminifera. In general, carbon uptake reaches saturation levels a few hours after food supply. Furthermore, A. tepida benefits from constant availability of fresh food rather than from a high amount of phytodetritus derived from a single food pulse. Our investigations showed that the foraminiferal impact on intertidal processing of phytodetrital carbon sources is species specific, temperature related and depends on developmental stage and input dynamics

  16. Effect of light on photosynthetic efficiency of sequestered chloroplasts in intertidal benthic foraminifera (Haynesina germanica and Ammonia tepida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauffrais, Thierry; Jesus, Bruno; Metzger, Edouard; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Jorissen, Frans; Geslin, Emmanuelle

    2016-05-01

    Some benthic foraminifera have the ability to incorporate functional chloroplasts from diatoms (kleptoplasty). Our objective was to investigate chloroplast functionality of two benthic foraminifera (Haynesina germanica and Ammonia tepida) exposed to different irradiance levels (0, 25, 70 µmol photon m-2 s-1) using spectral reflectance, epifluorescence observations, oxygen evolution and pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry (maximum photosystem II quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) and rapid light curves (RLC)). Our results clearly showed that H. germanica was capable of using its kleptoplasts for more than 1 week while A. tepida showed very limited kleptoplastic ability with maximum photosystem II quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm = 0.4), much lower than H. germanica and decreasing to zero in only 1 day. Only H. germanica showed net oxygen production with a compensation point at 24 µmol photon m-2 s-1 and a production up to 1000 pmol O2 cell-1 day-1 at 300 µmol photon m-2 s-1. Haynesina germanica Fv/Fm slowly decreased from 0.65 to 0.55 in 7 days when kept in darkness; however, it quickly decreased to 0.2 under high light. Kleptoplast functional time was thus estimated between 11 and 21 days in darkness and between 7 and 8 days at high light. These results emphasize that studies about foraminifera kleptoplasty must take into account light history. Additionally, this study showed that the kleptoplasts are unlikely to be completely functional, thus requiring continuous chloroplast resupply from foraminifera food source. The advantages of keeping functional chloroplasts are discussed but more information is needed to better understand foraminifera feeding strategies.

  17. 残杀威与氯菊酯混配剂对德国小蠊杀灭效果的研究%Observation on the efficacy of mixture Propoxur and Permethrin to kill Blattella germanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万华

    2006-01-01

    目的观察残杀威与氯菊酯混配剂对宾馆德国小蠊杀灭效果观察.方法对柳州两家宾馆客房和餐馆进行现场灭蟑试验.结果施药前德国小蠊密度:客房平均为70只/15 min,行政办公室35只/15 min,厨房230只/15 min,包厢110只/15 min,大厅95只/15 min;施药后1 d,厨房、包厢等发现大量死德国小蠊,密度下降了91.5%~94.3%,7 d后灭效达到100%.结论残杀威和氯菊酯混配剂对德国小蠊杀灭效果好,达到了有效控制德国小蠊的目的.

  18. First Report of German Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as Reservoirs of CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase- and OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Batna University Hospital, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucif, Lotfi; Gacemi-Kirane, Djamila; Cherak, Zineb; Chamlal, Naima; Grainat, Nadia; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    Here we report the isolation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from German cockroaches caught in the burn unit of Batna University Hospital in Algeria. Nine of 12 isolates harbored the blaCTX-M-15 ESBL gene. One Enterobacter cloacae isolate belonging to sequence type 528 coexpressed the blaOXA-48, blaCTX-M-15, and blaTEM genes. Our findings indicate that cockroaches may be one of the most dangerous reservoirs for ESBL and carbapenemase producers in hospitals.

  19. 德国小蠊共生菌沃尔巴克氏体的分子检测与分析%Molecular identification and analysis of wsp gene of Wolbachia symbiotic in Blattella germanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金小宝; 褚夫江; 朱家勇

    2008-01-01

    目的 检测共生菌沃尔巴克氏体(Wolbachia)在德国小蠊体内的感染情况.方法 应用沃尔巴克氏体wsp基因的1对通用引物(81F,691R),通过聚合酶链反应、T-A克隆和序列测定,将所得wsp基因序列与GenBank中的已知Wolbachia品系wsp基因进行同源性分析.结果 成功地从德国小蠊成虫的总DNA中扩增到一段317bp的wsp基因片段,与GenBank中的已知Wolbachia品系wsp基因同源性最高可达95%.结论 沃尔巴克氏体Wolbachia共生菌可能广泛存在于德国小蠊体内,为进一步研究德国小蠊的孤雌生殖与Wolbachia的相关关系等研究奠定了基础.

  20. The Comparison Among Antibacterial Activity of Mespilus germanica Extracts and Number of Common Therapeutic Antibiotics “In Vitro”

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    Farideh Tabatabaei-Yazdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance is a serious and growing phenomenon in contemporary medicine and has emerged as one of the pre-eminent public health concerns of the 21st century. Objectives: In this study, antibacterial activity of Mespilus germanica extract against some pathogenic bacterial strains (Streptococcus pyogene, Listeria innocua, Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, maceration extraction method was used for M. germanica extract. Disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect and broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS-18 statistical software and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: Antimicrobial activity was assessed by inhibition diameters which were found to range from 8 to 21.5 mm for the two extracts against all the bacterial strains tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for the extracts were later determined by three fold serial dilutions method and they ranged 2 - 64 mg/mL against all the strains and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC for the extracts were later determined by three fold serial dilutions method and they ranged 4 - 128 mg/mL against all the strains. Conclusions: The M. germanica extract showed the more effective impact on the growth S. pyogene and L. innocua than E. aerogenes and K. pneumoniae (P < 0.05. M. germanica in comparison with common therapeutic antibiotics had more inhibitory effect on some of the studied strains in vitro.

  1. Efficacy of synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosol in the control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae in cookhouses

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    V.K. Agrawal, Rina Tilak , K.K. Dutta Gupta

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: A field trial was carried out in cookhouses in an urban area to evaluate theefficacy of synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin and propoxur aerosols (2% inthe control of German cockroaches (Blatella germanica.Methods: A total of six cookhouses were selected by simple random sampling method (two each forthe two insecticide treatments and two for control.Results: It was observed that 89.36–87.8 and 77.95–59.74% reductions were achieved with propoxurand synthetic pyrethroid treatment respectively by first week post-treatment. The reduction in propoxurtreated areas by eight weeks post-treatment was 82.98–76.13%, whereas the reduction in thesame time period in synthetic pyrethroid treated areas ranged from 14.36% to an increase in density bya phenomenal 157.86% in one of the treated sites.Interpretation & conclusion: The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol (2% treatment oversynthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13% allethrin in the control of cockroach infestation incookhouses in urban area.

  2. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

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    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  3. Antennal and cephalic organelles in the social wasp Paravespula germanica (Hymenoptera, Vespinae): form and possible function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Ifaat; Plotkin, Marian; Ermakov, Natalya Y; Barkay, Zahava; Ishay, Jacob S

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with hairs and organelles present on the head and antennae of the German wasp, Paravespula germanica, and their possible role in sensing the physical and chemical ambience, as well as in intercommunicating both while in flight outside or in the nest. Via scanning electron microscope photography, we detected on the frons plate of the wasp's head, hairs that were about 300 microm long and comprised the longest hairs on the body of the wasps. Additionally, the two antennae bore along their entire length photoreceptors, placoids, campaniforms, trichoids, and agmons. These organelles are located at high but variable density along the antennal segments. The paper provides the dimensions of each of the mentioned organelles, and discusses the possible functions of the organelles as well as of the hairs on the frons. Photographs taken via atomic force microscope reveal that the epicuticle of the antenna is of two typical shapes; one, bearing both longitudinal stripes as well as transverse bands that are about 1 mum in width, and a second granulated form. Conceivably, the wasp uses the various organelles mentioned to communicate with its mates that are some distance away, somewhat like the use of radar by humans.

  4. Volatile compounds in medlar fruit (Mespilus germanica L. at two ripening stages

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    Veličković Milovan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medlar is the fruit of Mespilus germanica L. in the family of Rosaceae. The fruit can be eaten only if ‘bletted’ (softened by frost or longer storage. The effect of the maturation stages on the volatile compounds of the medlar fruit was investigated during two different stages. Volatile flavour substances were isolated from the minced pulp of unripe and full ripe medlar fruits by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE with methilen chloride as the extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-FID-MS. Hexanoic and hexadecanoic acids were the predominant acids, hexanal and (E-2-hexenal were the predominant aldehydes, (Z-3-hexenol and hexanol were the predominant alcohols, with p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpiene (the terpenes responsible for the characteristic medlar flavour being also present. The C6 aliphatic compounds, such as hexanal and (E-2-hexenal, were observed as the major volatile constituents in the green stage. In contrast, hexanol and (Z-3-hexenol were the main volatiles in ripe fruits.

  5. Autocology and Ethnopharmacology of Mespilus germanica L. in the North of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    sadat Tabatabaei, Neda; Mazandaranee, Masomeh

    2008-01-01

    In late century increase side effects consume of chemical drug and appearance different diseases and cansers in result increase importance use of medicinal plants. Mespilus germanica 1. is one of the most endemic medicine shrubs in temperate fortest of Golestan province and belongs to Rosaceae with common name Kondos. Mespilus is deciduous shrub. This plant has wide dispersion in side forest of Caspian sea in north of Iran. From sea level to 1200 meter. field observation in this research showed that this plant growth in soils with clay_silty and sandy tissue, PH in 6.9, EC in 0.7, organic carbon 3.25 percent, nitrogen 33 percent, absorbable phosphor is 8.6 P.P.m, absorbable potassium is 90 P.P.m. Phenology study showed that flower appearance from May to June and seed ripe in November and propagation is in way seed or bud. Ethnobotany and Ethnopharmacology data obtained from the two rural healirs about common name, natural habitat, part uses, consumption method and it uses for treatment of frequent diseases such as blood pressure, heart tonic, heart rato and leaf extract is useful for mouth and throat infection, fruit is for relaxant and purgative use in remedy diarrhea and its seed useful for expel bladder stone. Results Test quality of secondary metabolites in ripe and un ripe fruits of this plant showed that flavonoide of ripe fruit is more than un ripe fruit. But the quality of tannins in un ripe fruit is more.

  6. Evolution of fatty acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L. mesocarp at different stages of ripening

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    Strnad, M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of medlar (Mespilus germanica L. varied significantly among the ripening stages sampled at 157, 172 and 187 DAFs (days after full bloom. Twenty-one different fatty acids were detected in preclimacteric fruit and 17 when the climacteric began. Principal fatty acids, determined in medlar fruit harvested from October (157 and 172 DAFs to November (187 DAF were mainly palmitic acid (16:0, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, and a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. While the content of saturated fatty acids [palmitic acid (16:0 and stearic acid (18:0] increased, the content of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids [linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (18:3n-3] decreased through ripening, in parallel with pulp darkening. The percentage of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid in ripe, hard fruits was 60.0 and 13.5 % of dry wt at 157 DAF which decreased throughout ripening, remaining at 28.7 and 5.6 % of dry wt, respectively, in the fully softened and darkened pulp. A marked decreases in the double bond index, percentage of unsaturation and the ratio of unsaturation/saturation were also seen throughout the medlar ripening. The contribution of unsaturated fatty acid to the total fatty acid content decreased markedly as the medlar fruit became progressively softer and darkened.La composición en ácidos grasos del níspero (Mespilus germanica L. varió significativamente entre los estados de maduración muestreados a los 157, 172 y 187 DAFs (días después de la floración. Veinte y un ácidos grasos diferentes fueron detectados en el fruto preclimatérico y 17 cuando comenzó el climaterio. Los ácidos grasos principales encontrados en nísperos, recolectados desde Octubre (157 y 172 DAFs hasta Noviembre (187 DAF, fueron principalmente ácido palmítico (16:0, ácido linoléico (18:2n-6, y ácido a-linolénico (18:3n-3. En tanto que el contenido en ácidos grasos saturados (ácido palmítico (16:0 y ácido esteárico (18:0 aumentó, el

  7. Foraging behavior related to habitat characteristics in the invasive wasp Vespula germanica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAOLA D'ADAMO; MARIANA LOZADA

    2007-01-01

    the feeding site until depleting the resource. In the present study we analyzed how environmental cues affect wasps' behavior when re-locating a protein food source. We studied this behavior in two different natural habitats: closed and open habitats.As closed habitats have more references to orient wasps to the feeding site than open habitats,we hypothesized that they would return to the foraging site more frequently in closed habitats than in open ones. We tested this hypothesis by studying wasp behavior in three different natural habitat conditions: (i) closed habitats, (ii) open habitats, and (iii) open habitats artificially modified by adding five sticks with flagging. Experiments consisted of training individual wasps to feed from a certain array, and at the testing phase we removed food and displaced the array by 60 cm. Therefore, we recorded wasps' choices when returning to the training area, by counting both the wasps' first approaches and the number of visits to the original feeding site and the displaced array. Wasps' behavior while re-locating a protein food source was different if foraging at open or closed habitats. Wasps more frequently revisited a previous feeding location when foraging in closed habitats than when foraging in open ones. Furthermore, wasps more frequently visited the displaced array than the original feeding site in all three treatments. Nevertheless, when wasps were trained in closed habitats,they returned to the original feeding site more frequently than if trained in open ones.Interestingly, when five sticks with flagging were added in open habitats, wasps responded similarly as in closed habitats without these references. The results show that foraging behavior in V. germanica seems to be different in closed and open habitats, probably associated with the existence of references that guide foragers when re-locating undepleted resources.

  8. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity ofMespilus germanica L. fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hale Seilmi Canbay; Ersin Atay; Serdal Ot

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first culturedMespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees.Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey) were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs), and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20)%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70)% and(8.53 ± 0.25)%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2) mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  9. Encroachment of cockroach and drug-resistance of Blattella germanica in the households in Wuhan urban area%武汉市城区居民住户蟑螂侵害调查及德国小蠊抗药性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽娟; 姜家驹; 李莺; 张腊梅; 刘小泉

    2009-01-01

    @@ 近几年来常接到居民电话咨询,说家中发现大量小虫子,不知道是什么虫子没见过,希望我们帮忙杀灭,前去调查发现均为德国小蠊.根据武汉市蟑螂监测,德国小蠊的侵害情况和密度有不断上升的趋势,己成为当前灭蟑工作的难点和面临的新课题.为了解武汉市城区居民家中受蟑螂侵害情况,为制定防治对策提供科学依据,于2008年开展了此次调查.

  10. [Effectiveness of 2,6-dihalogenbenzoyl urea derivatives as potential inhibitors of chitin biosynthesis regarding the house fly Musca domestica L. and cockroach Blatella germanica L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styczyńska, B; Krzemińska, A; Sobótka, W; Balicki, R

    1989-01-01

    The biological activity was determined of 20 compounds from the group of asymmetrically substituted urea derivatives. They were derivatives of 1-(hetero)-aryl-3(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)urea, compounds in Table 1, (1-12) which represented three groups of compounds: a) monochlorine or trifluoromethyl derivatives of benzene, b) monomethyl-substituted 2-pyridine derivatives, c) a derivative of 5-bromo-3-pyridine, and symmetrical derivates (Table 2 compounds 1-8) 2.2; 3.3; 4.4 groupings: a) N-(2,6-dichlorobenzoyl)urea derivatives, and b) N-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzoyl)urea derivatives. The experiment was carried out on larvae and adult forms of M. domestica L. and Blatella germanica L. The tested substances were administered in food to the insects. Of the tested compounds complete inhibition of the development of flies was caused by the compound designated with the symbol AG 6. Compounds AG 13, AG 15 and AG 17 given to larvae inhibited the development of the insects by 33 to 100% acting mainly in later phases of the development (pupation). Compound AG 5 was found to be a very strong inhibitor of the development of cockroaches acting on larvae and adult females Of 800 tested larvae exposed to concentrations 0.001 to 1% none reached the adult phase. The exposed adult females formed cocoons but no larvae hatched from them.

  11. Pest control in Albania: an example of collaboration in technical and scientific development in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Velo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2007, a severe cockroach (Blattella germanica infestation was reported on the premises of the Scutari Regional Hospital. The hospital was infested by cockroaches despite regular insecticide treatment by local pest control officers. The failure of treatment required a careful evaluation of the problem. It also created the opportunity for a more complete analysis of pest control in Albania.

  12. Study of the extracts from the tradition Tibetan herb Myricaria germanica for FCA induced arthritis on SD rats%藏药翁布提取物对SD大鼠FCA诱导性关节炎的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍敏; 曾阳; 陈振宁

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究单味藏药翁布(Myricaria germanica (L.) Desv.)对SD大鼠佐剂性关节炎(AA)的作用.方法:以SD大鼠为实验动物,采用Freund's佐剂作为致炎因子,复制急性关节炎症并伴随继发性风湿性关节模型,用不同提取物灌胃24d,测定体重、关节炎指数、足趾肿胀度.结果:藏药翁布各提取物显著抑制SD大鼠关节炎指数、足趾肿胀度.结论:藏药翁布提取物对Freund's佐剂诱导性关节炎有显著的抗炎作用.

  13. Brownie, a Gene Involved in Building Complex Respiratory Devices in Insect Eggshells

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    [Background]: Insect eggshells must combine protection for the yolk and embryo with provisions for respiration and for the entry of sperm, which are ensured by aeropyles and micropyles, respectively. Insects which oviposit the eggs in an egg-case have a double problem of respiration as gas exchange then involves two barriers. An example of this situation is found in the cockroach Blattella germanica, where the aeropyle and the micropyle are combined in a complex structure called the ...

  14. Conservation of fruitless' role as master regulator of male courtship behaviour from cockroaches to flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynen, Elke; Ciudad, Laura; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2011-05-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, male courtship behaviour is regulated by the fruitless gene. In D. melanogaster, fruitless encodes a set of putative transcription factors that are sex-specifically spliced. Male-specific variants are necessary and sufficient to elicit male courtship behaviour. Fruitless sequences have been reported in other insect species, but there are no data available on their functional role. In the present work, we cloned and sequenced fruitless in males of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and we studied its expression in male brain and testes. B. germanica fruitless encodes a 350-amino acid protein with BTB and Zinc finger domains typical of fruitless sequences. Upon RNAi-mediated knockdown of fruitless in B. germanica, males no longer exhibit courtship behaviour, thus implying that fruitless is necessary for male sexual behaviour in our cockroach model. This suggests that the role of fruitless as master regulator of male sexual behaviour has been conserved along insect evolution, at least from cockroaches to flies.

  15. The blattodeas.s. (Insecta, dictyoptera) of the Guiana shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Dominic A; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L; Wilson, Megan M; Ware, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblattaberenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodeas.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under-sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under-sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics.

  16. Investigation on the cockroach' s infestation situation in Kaifeng city%开封市蟑螂侵害状况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 唐振强

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand and grasp the infestation situation of cockroach in Kaifeng city and provide scientific basis for cockroach. Methods Unified stick-trap was applied in the surveillance. Results Blattella ger-manica was the absolutely dominant species in Kaifeng city, which accounted for 100%. In different places , there was the highest density index at restaurant, the following were hotel and supermarket. Conclusion Blattella germanica is the dominant species. Hotel and supermarket are the focus of the industry where cockroach breeds and does harm. And it is necessary to monitor and control cockroach in these places.%目的 了解和掌握开封市蟑螂侵害状况,为进一步防治蟑螂提供科学依据.方法 粘捕法.结果 开封市区德国小蠊为绝对优势种,占100%.不同场所中餐饮密度指数最高,其次为宾馆和超市.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮、宾馆和超市是蟑螂孳生和危害的重点行业,应加强对这些行业单位蟑螂的监测和防治.

  17. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera of the Guiana Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A. Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp. and Suriname (136 spp. rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics.

  18. A Novel Use for Potassium Alum as Controlling Agent Against Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Elham M

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present our results on the use of potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide. This compound has the potential to rid our homes, schools, hotels, restaurants, and ships of cockroach infestations. This compound is environmentally friendly and has no hazardous effects on plant, animal, or human ecosystems. Alum was approved for medical use a long time ago. In our laboratory, we developed a novel method using potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide to kill the most common cockroach in the subtropical region, Periplaneta americana (L.). Adult and nymph-staged cockroaches were left to feed on potassium alum per individual insect after a period of food deprivation. The mortality was recorded as LT50. The younger nymphs the third and early fourth instars died within 4 d of feeding after consuming an average of 0.3 mg per individual insect. Gravid females were highly susceptible to alum toxicity and experienced a higher mortality rate, with an average of 3 mg per individual female. The oothecae of the normal untreated females were 8.1 mm long and 4.13 mm wide and weighed 94 mg. The eggs laid by the treated gravid females were underweight and exhibited a dwarfism shape, and these eggs did not hatched if the females consumed the potassium alum before laying eggs. The results revealed that the adult male and female cockroaches have to consume 1 mg and 2.7 mg, respectively, of potassium alum to kill 100% of them after 1 month of ingestion. The potassium alum had to be ingested by the cockroaches to affect mortality. The effect of potassium alum was attributed to chronic toxicity and not acute toxicity. The potential applications of this novel technique will be discussed.

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of Toxicity of Insecticide Formulations from Different Classes against American Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhma Syed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the insecticidal efficacy of four different classes of insecticides: pyrethroids, organophosphates, phenyl-pyrazoles and neo-nicotenoids. One representative chemical from each class was selected to compare the toxicity: deltamethrin from pyrethroids, Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP from organophosphates, fipronil from phenyl-pyrazoles and imidacloprid from neo-nicotenoids. The objective of this study was to determine which of these insecticides were most effective against American cockroach.These insecticides were tested for their LC50 values against Periplaneta americana under topical bioassay method, using different concentrations for each chemical.Fipronil 2.5% EC was highly effective at all concentrations applied, while DDVP 50% EC was least toxic amongst all. One way analysis of variance confirmed significant differences between mortality of P. americana and different concentrations applied (P< 0.05.Locality differentiation is an important factor in determining the range of resistance between various localities, as all three localities behaved differently in terms of their levels of resistance.

  20. Tergal and pleural structures contribute to the formation of ectopic prothoracic wings in cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Neto, Moysés

    2016-01-01

    Wings were a fundamental morphological innovation for the adaptive radiation of insects, the most diversified group among all animals. Pterygote insects have two pairs of wings, the mesothoracic (T2) forewings and the metathoracic (T3) hindwings, whereas the prothorax (T1) is wingless. Using RNA interference approaches, we have found that the gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) determines the wingless identity of T1 in the cockroach Blattella germanica. Interference of Scr triggers the formation of ectopic wing structures in T1, which are formed from the expansion of the latero-posterior region of the pronotum, along with a contribution of the epimeron, a pleurite of T1. These data support the theory of a dual origin for insect wings, from pronotal (tergal origin theory) and pleural (pleural origin theory) structures and genes. PMID:27853616

  1. Indoor Allergen Levels and Household Distributions in Nine Cities Across China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi Wu; NORBACK Dan; GJESING Birgitte; ZHONG Nan Shan; SPANGFORT DMichael; LAI Xu Xin; ZHAO De Yu; ZHANG Chun Qing; CHEN Jian Jun; ZHANG Luo; WEI Qing Yu; CHEN Shi; LIU En Mei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chinese allergic subjects have high levels of sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) and other indoor allergens. This study quantifies common indoor allergen levels in Chinese households. Methods Dust samples were collected from nine cities. Major allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae, and specific antigens of Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and cockroach species Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were measured by ELISA. Results HDM allergens were found in dust samples from bedding in 95% of the Chinese households. The median levels varied from Conclusion HDM allergens are present in bedding dust samples from most Chinese households. Cities in southern and central China have relatively high levels of HDM major allergens compared to cities in northern and western China. Antigens of storage mites and cockroaches are not as common as HDM allergens.

  2. Clinical analysis of the skin prick test in Shanghai area%上海地区过敏患者皮肤点刺试验临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立英; 郭胤仕; 王菁兰; 王怡玮; 许以平

    2011-01-01

    To understand the predominant allergens for allergic diseases existed in Shanghai area, distributions and changes of these allergens, 1 407 allergic patients underwent skin prick test(SPT) were entered into this study.It was showed that 5 most encountered allergens with positive reactions were Dermatophagoides farinae (64.89 %), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (58.56 % ), Blomia tropicalis (40.58 %), Blattella germanica (21.32 % ) and Periplaneta americana (20.90 % ).House dust mites, such as (D.farinae, D.pteronyssinus and Blattella germanica) demonstrated the highest positive rate.Patients allergic to house dust mites(D.farinae, D.pteronyssinus and Blattella germanica ), cockroaches(Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), dog dander, cat dander and shrimp were all age-related.The positive rate to house dust mites,cockroaches, dog dander, cat dander and pollens in patients with respiratory allergic diseases was significantly higher than in patients with allergic skin disease(P<0.05).These data indicate that house dust mites are the predominant allergens for allergic diseases in Shanghai area, and patients allergic to house dust mites, cockroaches, dog dander, cat dander and shrimp are age-related, but unrelated to sex.Patients with respiratory allergic disease had a higher positive rate than patients with allergic skin diseases.%为了解上海地区过敏性疾病的主要过敏原,探讨过敏患者过敏原的分布情况及变化规律,收集1 407例过敏患者的皮肤点刺试验资料.结果显示,阳性率位于前五位的过敏原依次为粉尘螨64.89%、屋尘螨58.56%、热带螨40.58%、德国小蠊21.32%和美洲大蠊20.90%.以尘螨(粉尘螨、屋尘螨和热带螨)的阳性率最高.过敏患者对尘螨(粉尘螨、屋尘螨和热带螨)、蟑螂(德国小蠊和美洲大蠊)、狗毛屑、猫毛屑及虾过敏与年龄有关.呼吸道过敏性疾病患者对尘螨、蟑螂、狗毛屑、猫毛屑和

  3. 信阳市蟑螂密度监测及侵害现况的调查研究%Investigation and research on the density of cockroaches and disoperation in Xinyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑华; 方世民; 徐威; 张英

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解信阳市蟑螂种类、密度、季节消长情况,为信阳市消灭蟑螂提供科学依据.方法 用粘捕法进行调查.结果 在各类环境中共捕获蟑螂1 328只,其中德国小蠊1 193只,美洲大蠊135只,平均侵害率为7.36%,密度为0.65只/张.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,活动高峰在夏秋季,宾馆和餐饮单位密度较高,应加强蟑螂监测和防制工作.%Objective To understand the type, density and seasonal fluctuation of cockroach in Xinyang City and provide scientific basis for the elimination of cockroach. Method Sticky traps method. Results We had captured 1 328 cockroaches in all kinds of environments, among which 1 193 were blattella germanica and 135 were periplaneta americana. The average disoperation rate was 7. 36% , and the density was 0. 65 cockroach per piece of paper. Conclusions Blattella germanica was the predominant species, and was active in summer and autumn. There were high density of cockroaches in hotels and restaurants, therefore, this units should strengthen the monitor and control of cockroach.

  4. 郑州市蟑螂种群密度及侵害情况的调查研究%Investigation on cockroach density and infestation in Zhengzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁中良; 王广州; 王志刚; 韩曲波

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解郑州市蟑螂种群密度和侵害情况,为蟑螂防治提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法对郑州市三区监测点进行蟑螂侵害、密度情况调查.结果 在各类环境共捕获蟑螂3 843只,平均侵害率为16.66%,密度为2.33只/张.德国小蠊占98.41%,为优势种群.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮业、宾馆、农贸市场、浴池密度较高.应采取综合防治措施,有效降低蟑螂侵害率,控制蟑螂密度.%Objective To understand the infestation and density of cockroach, and provide scientific basis for killing cockroach in Zhengzhou city. Methods Using sticky traps to investigate cockroach infestation and density situation at three test points. Results Totally 3 843 cockroaches were caught in different environments in Zhengzhou city in 2010. The average infestation rate reached 16. 66%. The average index of density was 2. 33 pieces. Blattella germanica(9&. 41% ) was the dominant species in various environments. Conclusion Blattella germanica is the dominant species in various environment. There are high density of cockroaches in catering trades, hotel, agricultural market and public baths. It is necessary to take comprehensive control measures and strengthen the technical training to prevent and control cockroaches. Using drugs rationally so as to reduce the infestation rate of cockroaches and control the density of cockroaches effectively.

  5. Social facilitation of insect reproduction with motor-driven tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzsák, Adrienn; Dieffenderfer, James; Bozkurt, Alper; Schal, Coby

    2014-05-22

    Tactile stimuli provide animals with important information about the environment, including physical features such as obstacles, and biologically relevant cues related to food, mates, hosts and predators. The antennae, the principal sensory organs of insects, house an array of sensory receptors for olfaction, gustation, audition, nociception, balance, stability, graviception, static electric fields, and thermo-, hygro- and mechanoreception. The antennae, being the anteriormost sensory appendages, play a prominent role in social interactions with conspecifics that involve primarily chemosensory and tactile stimuli. In the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) antennal contact during social interactions modulates brain-regulated juvenile hormone production, ultimately accelerating the reproductive rate in females. The primary sensory modality mediating this social facilitation of reproduction is antennal mechanoreception. We investigated the key elements, or stimulus features, of antennal contact that socially facilitate reproduction in B. germanica females. Using motor-driven antenna mimics, we assessed the physiological responses of females to artificial tactile stimulation. Our results indicate that tactile stimulation with artificial materials, some deviating significantly from the native antennal morphology, can facilitate female reproduction. However, none of the artificial stimuli matched the effects of social interactions with a conspecific female.

  6. The hammock: a reservoir of allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca X. M. Rego

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asthma affects approximately 10% of the world's population. Sensitization to allergens is an important risk factor, and exposure to allergens is associated with disease severity. METHODS: We performed skin tests to evaluate allergen sensitization to mites, cockroaches, cats, dogs, and molds in 73 asthmatic patients. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to assay the mite and cockroach allergens found in dust from the bedding, hammocks, bedroom floors, living rooms, and kitchens of 29 patients and 14 controls. RESULTS: Fifty patients (68.5% had positive skin test responses. There were positive responses to D. pteronyssinus (52.0%, B. tropicalis (53.4%, T. putrescentiae (15.0%, E. maynei (12.3%, L. destructor (8.2%, B. germanica (20.5%, P. americana (21.9%, Felis catus (10.9%, C. herbarium (2.7%, A. alternata (4.1%, and P. notatun (1.3%. The exposure to mite and cockroach allergens was similar in the patients and the controls. The Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Group 1 levels were highest in the beds and hammocks. The Blattella germanica Group 1 levels were highest in the kitchens, living rooms and hammocks. DISCUSSION: The positive skin tests to mites, cockroaches and cats were consistent with previous studies. D pteronyssinus was the most prevalent home dust mite, and hammocks were a source of allergens. To improve asthma prophylaxis, it is important to determine its association with mite allergen exposure in hammocks.

  7. Local enhancement promotes cockroach feeding aggregations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lihoreau

    Full Text Available Communication and learning from each other are part of the success of animal societies. Social insects invest considerable effort into signalling to their nestmates the locations of the most profitable resources in their environment. Growing evidence also indicates that insects glean such information through cues inadvertently provided by their conspecifics. Here, we investigate social information use in the foraging decisions by gregarious cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.. Individual cockroaches given a simultaneous choice in a Y-olfactometer between the odour of feeding conspecifics and the mixed odour of food plus non-feeding conspecifics showed a preference for the arm scented with the odour of feeding conspecifics. Social information (the presence of feeding conspecifics was produced by cockroaches of all age classes and perceived at short distance in the olfactometer arms, suggesting the use of inadvertently provided cues rather than signals. We discuss the nature of these cues and the role of local enhancement (the selection of a location based on cues associated with the presence of conspecifics in the formation of feeding aggregations in B. germanica. Similar cue-mediated recruitments could underpin a wide range of collective behaviours in group-living insects.

  8. Brownie, a gene involved in building complex respiratory devices in insect eggshells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Irles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insect eggshells must combine protection for the yolk and embryo with provisions for respiration and for the entry of sperm, which are ensured by aeropyles and micropyles, respectively. Insects which oviposit the eggs in an egg-case have a double problem of respiration as gas exchange then involves two barriers. An example of this situation is found in the cockroach Blattella germanica, where the aeropyle and the micropyle are combined in a complex structure called the sponge-like body. The sponge-like body has been well described morphologically, but nothing is known about how it is built up. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a library designed to find genes expressed during late chorion formation in B. germanica, we isolated the novel sequence Bg30009 (now called Brownie, which was outstanding due to its high copy number. In the present work, we show that Brownie is expressed in the follicle cells localized in the anterior pole of the oocyte in late choriogenesis. RNA interference (RNAi of Brownie impaired correct formation of the sponge-like body and, as a result, the egg-case was also ill-formed and the eggs were not viable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results indicate that the novel gene Brownie plays a pivotal role in building up the sponge-like body. Brownie is the first reported gene involved in the construction of complex eggshell respiratory structures.

  9. A role for Taiman in insect metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Lozano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in vitro have reported that the Methoprene-tolerant (Met and Taiman (Tai complex is the functional receptor of juvenile hormone (JH. Experiments in vivo of Met depletion have confirmed this factor's role in JH signal transduction, however, there is no equivalent data regarding Tai because its depletion in larval or nymphal stages of the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus results in 100% mortality. We have discovered that the cockroach Blattella germanica possesses four Tai isoforms resulting from the combination of two indels in the C-terminal region of the sequence. The presence of one equivalent indel-1 in Tai sequences in T. castaneum and other species suggests that Tai isoforms may be common in insects. Concomitant depletion of all four Tai isoforms in B. germanica resulted in 100% mortality, but when only the insertion 1 (IN-1 isoforms were depleted, mortality was significantly reduced and about half of the specimens experienced precocious adult development. This shows that Tai isoforms containing IN-1 are involved in transducing the JH signal that represses metamorphosis. Reporter assays indicated that both T. castaneum Tai isoforms, one that contains the IN-1 and another that does not (DEL-1 activated a JH response element (kJHRE in Krüppel homolog 1 in conjunction with Met and JH. The results indicate that Tai is involved in the molecular mechanisms that repress metamorphosis, at least in B. germanica, and highlight the importance of distinguishing Tai isoforms when studying the functions of this transcription factor in development and other processes.

  10. The Mantodea (Dictyoptera: Insecta of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil: First List of Species and Geographical Records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Heleodoro

    2016-12-01

    Resumo. Este trabalho apresenta a primeira lista de espécies de louva-a-deus do Rio Grande do Norte, bem como sua distribuição dentro do Estado. Os registros das espécies são oriundos de espécimes depositados na Coleção Entomológica “Adalberto Antonio Varela Freire”, localizada na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte. Essa coleção possui um total de 1.816 espécimes de Mantodea depositados, representando 30 espécies distribuídas em 16 gêneros.

  11. Cockroaches of genus Muzoa: morphology of the male genital sclerites and description of one new species (Dictyoptera, Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Nyctiborinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Bravo, Andrés H

    2013-01-01

    The male genital sclerites of cockroaches of genus Muzoa Hebard 1921 are described for first time and the new species Muzoa curtalata sp. n. is described and ilustrated. A dichotomous key to identify the species of genus Muzoa is given.

  12. Cockroaches of genus Muzoa: morphology of the male genital sclerites and description of one new species (Dictyoptera, Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Nyctiborinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Velez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The male genital sclerites of cockroaches of genus Muzoa Hebard, 1921 are described for first time and the new species Muzoa curtalata sp. n. is described and ilustrated. A dichotomous key to identify the species of genus Muzoa is given.

  13. Efficacy of imidacloprid and fipronil gels over synthetic pyrethroid and propoxur aerosols in control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Agrawal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Resistance amongst cockroaches has been reported to most of the sprayinsecticides apart from the problem of food contamination and inconvenience. Gel baits which canbe selectively applied have been found effective in control of cockroaches in laboratory studies butvery few field studies are available. This trial was planned to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil(0.01% and imidacloprid (2.15% gels over synthetic pyrethroid (0.02% deltamethrin + 0.13%allethrin and propoxur (2% aerosols in control of cockroaches in the field.Methods: Survey was done to find out pre-treatment density in catering establishments and housesby visual count and sticky trap methods. A total of 10 catering establishments and 10 houseshaving high cockroach infestation were selected by sampling (two catering establishments andhouses for each insecticidal treatment and two for control. Propoxur and synthetic pyrethroidaerosols were used for spraying the infested sites once only. Single application of fipronil andimidacloprid gels was used as crack and crevice treatment. Visual count method gave betterindications of cockroach infestation as compared to sticky trap method, hence, the same was followedfor post-treatment evaluation every week up to 12 weeks.Results: Synthetic pyrethroid could not bring about the desired reduction in cockroach infestationin the present study. Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation upto 96.8% at the end of 12 weeks whereas imidacloprid application resulted in 90.9% reduction andpropoxur resulted in 77.5%. However, propoxur was more effective in reducing the cockroachdensity by first week in comparison to imidacloprid and fipronil gels but its efficacy started decliningafter 8th week. Difference was found statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis H-test.Conclusion: The study reports the efficacy of propoxur aerosol, imidacloprid gel and fipronil gelbaits for control of cockroaches.

  14. Fine structural description of the compound eye of the Madagascar 'hissing cockroach' Gromphadorhina portentosa(Dictyoptera: Blaberidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monalisa Mishra; Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow

    2008-01-01

    The compound eyes of the wingless adults of the Madagascar' hissing cockroach' Gromphador hina portentosa Sachum, 1853 were examined by light and electron microscopy.Each eye contains 2 400-2 500 mostly hexagonal facets. However, irregularities affecting both shape and size of the ommatidia are relatively common, especially towards the margins of the eye. An individual ommatidium of this eucone type of apposition eye contains eight retinula cells, which give rise to a centrally-fused, tiered rhabdom. The distal end of the latter is funnel-shaped and accommodates the proximal end of the cone in its midst. Further below, the rhabdom (then formed by the rhabdomeres of four retinula cells) assumes a squarish profile with microvilli aligned in two directions at right-angle to each other. Cross sections through the proximal regions of the rhabdom display triangular rhabdom outlines and microvilli (belonging to 3-4 retinula cells different from those involved in the squarish more distal rhabdom) that run in three directions inclined to one another by 120°. Overall the organization of the eye conforms to the orthopteroid pattern and particularly closely resembles that of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. However, since G.portentosa possesses fewer ommatidia, this could be a consequence of its inability to fly. On the other hand, the large size of the facets and the voluminous rhabdoms suggest considerable absolute sensitivity and an ability to detect the plane of linearly polarized light. Based on the pattern of rnicrovillus orientations in combination with the crepuscular lifestyle G. portentosa leads and the habitat it occurs in, the prediction is made that this insect uses its green receptors for e-vector discrimination in the environment of down-welling light that reaches the forest floor.

  15. Killing effect of pyrethroid aerosol compounds for mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches%油基拟除虫菊酯复配气雾剂实验室杀虫效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭伟龙; 艾乐乐; 钱万红; 陈超

    2012-01-01

    目的 筛选几种油基拟除虫菊酯复配气雾剂,在实验室观察其对淡色库蚊、家蝇和德国小蠊的杀灭效果.方法 根据GB/T 13917.2-2009,用圆筒法测定气雾杀虫剂对3种昆虫的半数击倒时间(KT50),根据GB/T13917.10-2009,测试模拟现场实验效果.结果 对淡色库蚊的杀灭实验中,1号和3号配方的KT50均<1 min,其他2种配方均<2min;对家蝇的杀灭实验中,3号配方的击倒时间最短,为0.90 min,其他3种配方均<2 min;对德国小蠊的杀灭实验中,KT50值均<1 min;3种试虫的24 h死亡率均为100%.模拟现场实验中,4种配方对3种试虫的1h击倒率和24 h死亡率均为100%.结论 4种复配杀虫剂配方均达到了快速杀灭蚊、蝇和蜚蠊的效果,可以进入下一步实验.%Objective To identify efficacy of pyrethroid aerosol insecticides in killing Culex pipiens pallens, Musca domestica and Blattella germanica. Methods KT50 is one of four kinds of aerosol insecticides on three types of insects were tested according to GB/T 13917.2 - 2009 in hermetic round canister. Killing efficacy in simulated fields was tested according to GB/T 13917.10-2009. Results The KT50 values of four kinds of aerosol insecticides were less than 2 minutes for Cx. Pipiens pallens and M. domestica, and less than 1 minute for B. germanica. The 24 h-mortality of insects used in the hermetic round canister was 100%. The one -hour killing efficacy of the four aerosol insecticides in simulated fields for Cx. Pipiens pallens, M. domestica and B. germanica was 100%. Conclusion The four aerosol insecticides all showed fast killing effects for Cx. Pipiens pallens, M. domestica and B. germanica.

  16. 南通市蟑螂抗性及防制对策的研究%Study on the resistance of cockroach and its control strategy in Nantong city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章士军; 王智泉; 陈郁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To control the density of cockroach by detecting the resistance of Blattella germanica and rational administration. Method Using drug films to detect the drug resistance of cockroach, study the killing efficacy by chemical control. Results Blattella germaruca was the dominant species and the resistance ratio of tested wild strains to propoxur, Lambda - cyhalothrin and acephate were 1. 20. 5. 66. 5. 14 and 5. 10 respectively, and all were low level of resistance. Conclusions Rational administration according to resistance test, comprehensive ecological improvement can control cockroach density for a long time.%目的 通过对德国小蠊抗药性的检测,合理用药,从而控制蟑螂密度.方法 根据蟑螂抗药性监测方案采用药膜法进行检测;利用化学防治,进行杀灭效果研究.结果 德国小蠊为绝对优势种,德国小蠊现场品系对残杀威、高效氯氰菊酯和乙酰甲胺磷抗性系数分别是0.89、4.78和0.64,均属于低度抗性.经现场用药处理后德国小蠊得到有效控制.结论 根据抗性结果,合理用药与环境治理相结合能在较长时间内有效控制蟑螂密度.

  17. Cloning and sequence analysis of para sodium channel cDNA fragment from silkworm, Bombyx mori%家蚕Para钠通道cDNA片段克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳; 刘丽花; 汪洋

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that a point mutation of a target gene is related to insecticide resistance to pyrethroids. The para sodium channel in the insect central nervous system is the target of pyrethroid insecticides. We used the RT-PCR method to clone the para sodium ion channel in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (GenBank No. EF521818).The full length of this cDNA fragment is 4 882 base pairs and its partial ORF is 3 986 bp translated into 1 328 amino acids. BLAST analysis demonstrated that the cloned cDNA fragment is virtually identical to the para sodium channel a subunit gene amplified from other insects. Amino acid homology of the cloned fragment with para sodium channel a subunit genes from Heliothis virescens Fabricius, Aedes aegypti L. , Blattella germanica L. , Drosophila melanogaster Meigen and Musca domestica L. was 95%, 82%, 80%, 79% and 77% respectively.%昆虫神经系统para型钠离子通道是拟除虫菊酯类杀虫剂的主要靶标,已有的研究表明钠离子通道基因发生点突变与昆虫对菊酯类杀虫剂的抗性密切相关.本文通过RT-PCR方法克隆获得了编码家蚕Bombyx mori L.钠离子通道的cDNA片段(GenBank No.EF521818),该片段全长4 882 bp,部分ORF包含3 986 bp核苷酸,翻译成1 328个氨基酸.蛋白序列分析表明,PCR扩增获得的家蚕钠离子通道eDNA片段所编码的氨基酸与其他昆虫的para型钠离子通道α亚基的氨基酸具有很高的同源相似性,与棉铃虫Heliothis virescens Fabricius、埃及伊蚊Aedes aegypti L.、德国小蠊Blattella germanica L.、果蝇Drosophila melanogaster Meigen和家蝇Musca domestica L.的相似性分别为95%、82%、80%、79%、77%.

  18. 兰州市2006-2010年蟑螂监测结果分析%Analysis on the monitoring result of cockroaches in Lanzhou City from 2006 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守斌; 齐跃军; 金俊成

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the growth and decline rules of cockroaches in Lanzhou, and complete the national detection task. Method Sticky capture method. Results 31 258 cockroaches, were captured, and all of them were blattella germanica From 2006 to 2010, the density of cockroaches in farmers markets, hotels, restaurants, residential quarters and hospitals were 3.30 cockroaches/sheet, 4.50 cockroaches/sheet, 2.68 cockroaches/sheet, 3.86 cockroaches/sheet, and 0. 51 cockroach/sheet, respectively; and the infestation rates were 11.03% , 33. 56% , 16. 43% ; 18. 89% , and 6.02% , respectively. Conclusions Blattella germanica was -the dominant species. The density of cockroach increased from February to August each year gradually, and reached its peak in September and October. At the same time the peak of infestation rate also appeared in October. We should control the density of cockroaches by using the seasonal and climatic changes ' influence on the growth and decline of cockroaches and combining with environmental management%目的 了解兰州地区蟑螂消长规律,完成国家监测任务.方法 粘捕法.结果 捕获蟑螂31258只,均为德国小蠊,2006-2010年农贸市场、宾馆、餐饮单位、居民社区和医院蟑螂密度分别为3.30只/张、4.50只/张、2.68只/张、3.86只/张、0.51只/张,侵害率分别为11.03%、33.56%、16.43%、18.89%、6.02%.蟑螂密度每年2~8月逐步升高,9~10月出现一高峰,侵害率的高峰出现在10月.结论 应充分利用季节和气候变化规律对蟑螂消长的影响,结合环境治理开展蟑螂密度控制工作.

  19. 蟑螂密度监测及侵害状况的调查与分析%Investigation and analysis of cockroach density surveillance and infestation condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵宗贤; 蔡蓉; 苏琦; 范刚

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解淮安市城区蟑螂种群、密度、分布、季节消长变化及侵害状况,为合理灭蟑提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法进行监测,晚放晨收,每月监测一次.结果 布放粘蟑纸6480张,回收张数6245张,阳性张数163张,粘捕蟑螂数590只,密度0.10只/张,侵害率2.52%.德国小蠊为优势种群.结论 淮安市城区蟑螂种群构成以德国小蠊为主,侵害率以农贸市场和宾馆较高,应进一步加强优势种群的监测与抗药性监测的调查研究,为制定科学合理的病媒生物防治工作提供依据.%Objective To realize the species, density, distribution, seasonal fluctuation and infestation condition of cockroach in Huaian city,and provide scientific basis for cockroach control. Methods The stick-catch method was used to survey once a month, which placed the stick-cockroach paper at night and recovered it in the next morning. Results 6 480 stick-cockroach papers had been putted on and 6 245 had been recovered. 590 cockroaches had been caught on 163 stick-cockroach papers,and the population density was 0. 10 cockroaches per paper and the infestation rate was 2. 52% . Blattella germanica was the dominant species. Conclusion Blattella germanica is the primary cockroach species of Huaian city and there is a higher infestation rate in markets and hotels. It is necessary to strengthen the investigation of dominant species and insecticide resistance surveillance, so that could provide evidence for developing scientific and rational programs for vectors prevention and control.

  20. Transcription factor E93 specifies adult metamorphosis in hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, Enric; Manjón, Cristina; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Martín, David

    2014-05-13

    All immature animals undergo remarkable morphological and physiological changes to become mature adults. In winged insects, metamorphic changes either are limited to a few tissues (hemimetaboly) or involve a complete reorganization of most tissues and organs (holometaboly). Despite the differences, the genetic switch between immature and adult forms in both types of insects relies on the disappearance of the antimetamorphic juvenile hormone (JH) and the transcription factors Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and Broad-Complex (BR-C) during the last juvenile instar. Here, we show that the transcription factor E93 is the key determinant that promotes adult metamorphosis in both hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects, thus acting as the universal adult specifier. In the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica, BgE93 is highly expressed in metamorphic tissues, and RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of BgE93 in the nymphal stage prevented the nymphal-adult transition, inducing endless reiteration of nymphal development, even in the absence of JH. We also find that BgE93 down-regulated BgKr-h1 and BgBR-C expression during the last nymphal instar of B. germanica, a key step necessary for proper adult differentiation. This essential role of E93 is conserved in holometabolous insects as TcE93 RNAi in Tribolium castaneum prevented pupal-adult transition and produced a supernumerary second pupa. In this beetle, TcE93 also represses expression of TcKr-h1 and TcBR-C during the pupal stage. Similar results were obtained in the more derived holometabolous insect Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting that winged insects use the same regulatory mechanism to promote adult metamorphosis. This study provides an important insight into the understanding of the molecular basis of adult metamorphosis.

  1. Investigation on cockroach population distribution and its infestation situation in Yichun city in 2008%2008年宜春市蜚蠊种群分布及侵害状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠英; 龙海; 龙奇达; 何秋霞; 程小军; 高华兵

    2009-01-01

    目的 掌握宜春市蜚蠊种群分布、季节消长及侵害状况,为科学防治提供依据.方法 采用粘捕法调查,将捕获蜚蠊进行分类鉴定.结果 宜春市有2种蜚蠊分布,其中德国小蠊为优势种,占59.13%;黑胸大蠊占40.87%.6-8月为蜚蠊活动高峰期.以农贸市场密度最高,其他依次为餐饮店、居民区、宾馆、医院.结论 德国小蠊现已成为宜春市主要优势种,应将其列为今后防治的重点.%Objective To grasp the populatian distribution and seasonal fluctuation of cockroach and its infectation situation in Yichun. Methods Cockroach were collected by baits and traps, and then identified. Results There were 2 species of cockroaches. Blattella germanica was the dominant species, accounting for 59.13%. Periplaneta fuliginosa accounted for 40.87%. The activity peak of the cockroach was from June to August. The order of cockroach distributed in different areas was farm produce trade market, restaurant, residential area, hotel and hospital. Conclusion B. germanica was the dominant species in Yichun, which suggested that we should put the emphasis on the control of it in the future.

  2. 某部蟑螂种群密度与侵害状况调查分析%Investigation of the density and infestation of the cockroach in one certain troops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝海水; 第五进学; 唐裕杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解某部蟑螂侵害率和密度水平,为蟑螂防治提供依据.方法 采用粘蟑纸粘捕法调查餐饮区、疗养区、体检中心、居住区、附属医院蟑螂侵害率和密度水平.结果 在各类环境中共捕获蟑螂1173只,均为德国小蠊,平均侵害率为13.33%,密度为1.96只/张.侵害率及密度:餐饮区>疗养区>体检中心>居住区>附属医院.结论 德国小蠊为优势种群,餐饮区、疗养区密度较高,应加强该区域蟑螂监测和防治工作.%Objective To investigate the density and infestation rate of cockroach and provide evidence for preventing and controlling cockroach in one certain troops. Methods The density and infestation rate, of dinning area, sanitarium area,physical examination center, residential area and affiliated hospital were monitored by sticky traps. Results All traped 1 173 cockroaches were Blattella germanica. The average infestation rate was 13. 33 % and the average index of density was 1. 96 pieces. The infestation rate and density was as follows: dinning area > sanitarium area > physical examination center > residential area > affiliated hospital. Conclusion Blallella germanica is the dominant species in this troops. The density and infestation rate of dining area and sanitarium area is higher and the investigation,prevention and control of regional cockroach should be improved.

  3. Observation the preventive and control effect of optigard adhesive bait on kill cockroaches%欧扑得灭蟑胶饵防治蜚蠊效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏俊锋; 孟刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate cockroach invasion in dining - room of an guesthouse, and observe the preventive and control effect of Optigard cockroach bait. Method Adhesive catch method was used for density investigation,and Optigard cockroacb bait for chemical control. Results The density index was 11. 14 pieces per box per night before control, and BlatteUa germanica was the dominant species, which accounted for 99. 46%. One month after using the bait.the density was 0.1 per box per night with the mortality rate of 99. 10% . Conclusions The Optigard cockroach bait has good efficacy against Blattella germanica in the guesthouse dining - room with invaded badly, it can control the Cockroaches effectively.%目的 调查某宾馆餐饮部蟑螂侵害情况和采用欧扑得灭蟑胶饵防治的效果.方法 密度调查采用粘捕法,化学防治采用欧扑得灭蟑胶饵.结果 防治前密度指数为11.14只/盒·夜,德国小蠊为绝对优势种,占总捕获数的99.46%.施药后1个月密度指数为0.1只/盒·夜,杀灭率为99.10%.结论 该宾馆餐饮部德国小蠊侵害严重,欧扑得灭蟑胶饵能有效控制其密度.

  4. Identifying genes related to choriogenesis in insect panoistic ovaries by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellés Xavier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ovarioles are classified into two categories: panoistic and meroistic, the later having apparently evolved from an ancestral panoistic type. Molecular data on oogenesis is practically restricted to meroistic ovaries. If we aim at studying the evolutionary transition from panoistic to meroistic, data on panoistic ovaries should be gathered. To this end, we planned the construction of a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH library to identify genes involved in panoistic choriogenesis, using the cockroach Blattella germanica as model. Results We constructed a post-vitellogenic ovary library by SSH to isolate genes involved in choriogenesis in B. germanica. The tester library was prepared with an ovary pool from 6- to 7-day-old females, whereas the driver library was prepared with an ovary pool from 3- to 4-day-old females. From the SSH library, we obtained 258 high quality sequences which clustered into 34 unique sequences grouped in 19 contigs and 15 singlets. The sequences were compared against non-redundant NCBI databases using BLAST. We found that 44% of the unique sequences had homologous sequences in known genes of other organisms, whereas 56% had no significant similarity to any of the databases entries. A Gene Ontology analysis was carried out, classifying the 34 sequences into different functional categories. Seven of these gene sequences, representative of different categories and processes, were chosen to perform expression studies during the first gonadotrophic cycle by real-time PCR. Results showed that they were mainly expressed during post-vitellogenesis, which validates the SSH technique. In two of them corresponding to novel genes, we demonstrated that they are specifically expressed in the cytoplasm of follicular cells in basal oocytes at the time of choriogenesis. Conclusion The SSH approach has proven to be useful in identifying ovarian genes expressed after vitellogenesis in B. germanica. For

  5. Infestation of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) in the human dwelling environments: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Periplaneta americana, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa are the most common worldwide cockroaches that mentioned in the "22 common pest" or "22 dirty" species named as "group I". They are able to infest any type of buildings. A meta-analysis review was conducted between January 2015 and July 2016 on any literature published about infestation of cockroaches. Scientific reports and papers about infestation of cockroaches and relevant topics were collected from various specific scientific websites such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Springer, Elsevier, Scopus, and Google Scholar. About 271 scientific reports and papers were collected and after a preliminary review, 63 were selected to become part of the detailed synthesis review and meta-analysis. Results showed that the global world mean infestation trend of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species ranged 49.0-55.0, 40.0-70.0 and 60.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species were 52.3, 55.2 and 65.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the global world mean infestation of cockroaches and P. americana cockroach species (P=0.019). The global mean infestation trend of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world ranged 55.0-65.0 and 50.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world were 60.4 and 57.7%, respectively. Although some factors affect the infestation of cockroaches and the sanitation and quality structure of the buildings are also being improved. While as present study reveal that the globally the world infestation trend of cockroaches are being increased and recent studies also indicate that the prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the decades

  6. Linear alcohol ethoxylates: insecticidal and synergistic effects on German cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattellidae) and other insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Steven R; Appel, Arthur G

    2007-06-01

    Sixteen linear ethoxylated alcohol surfactants (AEOs) were studied to determine their contact insecticidal activity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Within groups of AEOs of equal carbon chain length, insecticidal activity, measured as LT50 values (in minutes) and 24-h mortality after treatment, was inversely related to the amount of ethoxylation. There was a highly significant negative relationship between the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value of the AEO and contact toxicity. The AEO with the lowest HLB value, Tomadol 23-1 (HLB = 3.7), produced the greatest 24-h cockroach mortality. The contact activity of Tomadol 23-1 was evaluated against a wide range of other insect species. Most species were killed within 24 h by direct exposure (1-4 microl of a 50% ethanol solution) to Tomadol 23-1 or by spray exposure to an aqueous solution. Tomadol 23-1, at a sublethal concentration, was tested in combination with representative members of the carbamate, nicotinoid, organophosphate, pyrethrum, pyrethroid, and pyrrole insecticide classes. Significant synergism was demonstrated in combinations of Tomadol 23-1 and chlorfenapyr, clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and pyrethrum. Tomadol 23-1 significantly reduced the insecticidal activity of propoxur, suggesting antagonism. The insecticidal activity of Tomadol 23-1 was synergized by coapplication with a sublethal amount of piperonyl butoxide, indicating the involvement of cytochrome P450 microsomal monooxygenases in insect metabolism of AEO surfactants.

  7. 家蚕para钠通道cDNA片段克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳; 刘丽花; 汪洋

    2011-01-01

    昆虫神经系统para型钠离子通道是拟除虫菊酯类杀虫剂的主要靶标,已有的研究表明钠离子通道基因发生点突变与昆虫对菊酯类杀虫剂的抗性密切相关。本文通过RT-PCR方法克隆获得了编码家蚕Bombyx mori L.钠离子通道的cDNA片段(GenBank No.EF521818),该片段全长4882bp,部分ORF包含3986bp核苷酸,翻译成1328个氨基酸。蛋白序列分析表明,PCR扩增获得的家蚕钠离子通道cDNA片段所编码的氨基酸与其他昆虫的para型钠离子通道α亚基的氨基酸具有很高的同源相似性,与棉铃虫Heliothis virescens Fabricius、埃及伊蚊Aedes aegypti L.、德国小蠊Blattella germanica L.、果蝇Drosophila melanogaster Meigen和家蝇Musca domestica L.的相似性分别为95%、82%、80%、79%、77%。

  8. LINKAGE OF KNOCKDOWN RESISTANCE AND THE SODIUM CHANNEL GENE MUTATION IN CULEX PIPIENS PALLENS *%淡色库蚊(Culex pipiens Pallens)与击倒抗性(kdr)相关的钠通道基因突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋锋林; 赵彤言; 董言德; 曹晓梅; 张晓龙

    2005-01-01

    本研究采用RT-PCR技术,使用简并引物分别从淡色库蚊(Culex pipiens pallens)敏感品系和抗溴氰菊酯品系中扩增出钠通道ⅡS4~ⅡS6区域的基因片段,长度为359bp.该基因片段所编码的氨基酸与黑尾果蝇(Drosophila melanogaster)、家蝇(Musca domestica)、埃及伊蚊(Aedes aegypti)、冈比亚按蚊(Anopheles gambiae)及德国小蠊(Blattella germanica)等昆虫相应区域的氨基酸序列具有较高的同源性,其同源性分别为95.8%,95.0%,100.0%,98.3%和95.0%.经序列比对,确认抗溴氰菊酯品系淡色库蚊钠通道基因在1014位点发生了突变:该位点的碱基"A"突变为"T",其对应氨基酸由亮氨酸(L)变为苯丙氨酸(F),该突变(L1014F型)在多种昆虫中较为常见.

  9. THE INVAZIVE ENTOMOFAUNA OF THE HEMIMETABOLA GROUP FOR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asea M. Timuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Moldova is investigated invasive entomofauna with the economic and ecological impact. Until now settled 118 species of the Hemimetabola group, belonging of 2 subclasses, 2 superorder and 7 orders. These 118 species were corellation with the database of Fauna Europaea and recorded are 24 species (20.3%, but for 94 (79.6% mentioned with the "absent" and "no data". In the meantime there were recorded 12 other species: Blatta orientalis, Cimex lectularius, Lepisma saccharina, Periplaneta americana, Trialeurodes vaporariorum – 1983, Blattella germanica – 2003, Leptoglossus occidentalis – 2010, Tachycines asynamorus, Dociostaurus tartarus – 2011, Scaphoideus titanus, Perillus bioculatus – 2013, Nezara viridula – 2014. According periods penetration it was found that 1 species have entered the XVII century, 1 in the XVIII, 14 in the XIX, 73 in the XX and 25 in the XXI. The registration invasive insects in countries of interest is in: Bulgaria – 48 species; Poland – 40; Romania – 25; other countries –5.

  10. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia.

  11. The microRNA toolkit of insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylla, Guillem; Fromm, Bastian; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Is there a correlation between miRNA diversity and levels of organismic complexity? Exhibiting extraordinary levels of morphological and developmental complexity, insects are the most diverse animal class on earth. Their evolutionary success was in particular shaped by the innovation of holometabolan metamorphosis in endopterygotes. Previously, miRNA evolution had been linked to morphological complexity, but astonishing variation in the currently available miRNA complements of insects made this link unclear. To address this issue, we sequenced the miRNA complement of the hemimetabolan Blattella germanica and reannotated that of two other hemimetabolan species, Locusta migratoria and Acyrthosiphon pisum, and of four holometabolan species, Apis mellifera, Tribolium castaneum, Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster. Our analyses show that the variation of insect miRNAs is an artefact mainly resulting from poor sampling and inaccurate miRNA annotation, and that insects share a conserved microRNA toolkit of 65 families exhibiting very low variation. For example, the evolutionary shift toward a complete metamorphosis was accompanied only by the acquisition of three and the loss of one miRNA families. PMID:27883064

  12. Molecular basis of the remarkable species selectivity of an insecticidal sodium channel toxin from the African spider Augacephalus ezendami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria; Smith, Jennifer J.; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Gilchrist, John; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Nicholson, Graham M.; Bosmans, Frank; King, Glenn F.

    2016-07-01

    The inexorable decline in the armament of registered chemical insecticides has stimulated research into environmentally-friendly alternatives. Insecticidal spider-venom peptides are promising candidates for bioinsecticide development but it is challenging to find peptides that are specific for targeted pests. In the present study, we isolated an insecticidal peptide (Ae1a) from venom of the African spider Augacephalus ezendami (family Theraphosidae). Injection of Ae1a into sheep blowflies (Lucilia cuprina) induced rapid but reversible paralysis. In striking contrast, Ae1a was lethal to closely related fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) but induced no adverse effects in the recalcitrant lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that Ae1a potently inhibits the voltage-gated sodium channel BgNaV1 from the German cockroach Blattella germanica by shifting the threshold for channel activation to more depolarized potentials. In contrast, Ae1a failed to significantly affect sodium currents in dorsal unpaired median neurons from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. We show that Ae1a interacts with the domain II voltage sensor and that sensitivity to the toxin is conferred by natural sequence variations in the S1–S2 loop of domain II. The phyletic specificity of Ae1a provides crucial information for development of sodium channel insecticides that target key insect pests without harming beneficial species.

  13. Lack of repellency of three commercial ultrasonic devices to the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGNENG HUANG; BHADRIRAJU SUBRAMANYAM

    2006-01-01

    Three commercial ultrasonic devices (A, B, and C) were tested for their ability to repel the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in Plexiglas(R) enclosures. Device A generated peak frequencies at 26 kHz and 34 kHz, and produced a 95 ± 1 dB sound pressure level (SPL) at 50 cm distance (0 dB = 20 log10[20 μPa/20μPa]). Device B generated peak frequencies at 27 kHz and 35 kHz, and produced a 92 ±4 dB SPL. Device C generated a wide range of frequencies between 28-42 kHz and produced an 88 ± 2 dB SPL. Ultrasound from any of the three devices did not demonstrate sufficient repelling ability against the German cockroach in the tests. The result failed to provide evidence that ultrasonic technology could be used as an effective pest management tool to repel or eliminate the German cockroach.

  14. 2007-2009年武汉市江夏区蟑螂密度调查%A survey on density of cockroach in Jiangxia district in Wuhan from 2007 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余前峰; 刘智; 彭建军; 吴太平; 田俊华

    2011-01-01

    目的 掌握江夏区2007-2009年蟑螂的种群变化和季节消长,为开展蟑螂防治工作提供科学依据.方法 粘捕法.结果 3年共捕获德国小蠊和黑胸大蠊2种计3050只,德国小蠊为优势种,占总数的93.5%;蟑螂全年活动,4-10月密度均较高,密度最高峰期在6-8月.结论 基本摸清全区不同生境蟑螂的种群构成和活动情况.%Objective To provide scientific basis for cockroach control by grasping of community structure and the seasonal fluctuation in 2007 -2009. Methods Cockroach traps. Results Totally 3 050 were captured and two species were found in this survey. Blattella germanica was predominant species, accouted for 93.5%. Cockroach were active throughout the year, the density of which were higher between April and October, and the highest density generally appeared from June to August. Conclusion The community structure and seasonal fluctuation of cockroach were preliminary known.

  15. Habitat influences on diversity of bacteria found on German cockroach in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xue; YE Lefu; GE Feng

    2009-01-01

    Cockroaches are worldwide indoor pests carrying microorganisms of medical importance.German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) were sampled in five habitats (hospital, restaurant, office home, and market) in Beijing, and the bacteria were isolated from their external surface and alimentary tract and identified using a Biolog identification system.Cockroach densities significantly differed among habitats (market > home > office > restaurant > hospital).However, no significant differences in bacterial abundance carried by individual German cockroaches (of either sex) were found among habitats.The bacterial abundance in the gut was significantly higher than that on the surface.There were no significant differences in bacterial species richness observed among habitats, sex, carrying position or their interaction.Cluster analysis showed that cockroach densities and bacterial abundance found in the market differed significantly from the other four habitats.The bacterial diversity was not significantly reduced in sensitive facilities such as hospital and restaurant, even though pesticide and bactericide were more frequently applied there.The implications of these findings were discussed in this article.

  16. Mutual mate choice: when it pays both sexes to avoid inbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihoreau, Mathieu; Zimmer, Cédric; Rivault, Colette

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical models of sexual selection predict that both males and females of many species should benefit by selecting their mating partners. However, empirical evidence testing and validating this prediction is scarce. In particular, whereas inbreeding avoidance is expected to induce sexual conflicts, in some cases both partners could benefit by acting in concert and exerting mutual mate choice for non-assortative pairings. We tested this prediction with the gregarious cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). We demonstrated that males and females base their mate choice on different criteria and that choice occurs at different steps during the mating sequence. Males assess their relatedness to females through antennal contacts before deciding to court preferentially non-siblings. Conversely, females biased their choice towards the most vigorously courting males that happened to be non-siblings. This study is the first to demonstrate mutual mate choice leading to close inbreeding avoidance. The fact that outbred pairs were more fertile than inbred pairs strongly supports the adaptive value of this mating system, which includes no "best phenotype" as the quality of two mating partners is primarily linked to their relatedness. We discuss the implications of our results in the light of inbreeding conflict models.

  17. Cockroaches as carriers of human intestinal parasites in two localities in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinfu, Addisu; Erko, Berhanu

    2008-11-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.

  18. Mutual mate choice: when it pays both sexes to avoid inbreeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lihoreau

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of sexual selection predict that both males and females of many species should benefit by selecting their mating partners. However, empirical evidence testing and validating this prediction is scarce. In particular, whereas inbreeding avoidance is expected to induce sexual conflicts, in some cases both partners could benefit by acting in concert and exerting mutual mate choice for non-assortative pairings. We tested this prediction with the gregarious cockroach Blattella germanica (L.. We demonstrated that males and females base their mate choice on different criteria and that choice occurs at different steps during the mating sequence. Males assess their relatedness to females through antennal contacts before deciding to court preferentially non-siblings. Conversely, females biased their choice towards the most vigorously courting males that happened to be non-siblings. This study is the first to demonstrate mutual mate choice leading to close inbreeding avoidance. The fact that outbred pairs were more fertile than inbred pairs strongly supports the adaptive value of this mating system, which includes no "best phenotype" as the quality of two mating partners is primarily linked to their relatedness. We discuss the implications of our results in the light of inbreeding conflict models.

  19. Insecticide resistance and nutrition interactively shape life-history parameters in German cockroaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kim; Ko, Alexander E.; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2016-06-01

    Fitness-related costs of evolving insecticide resistance have been reported in a number of insect species, but the interplay between evolutionary adaptation to insecticide pressure and variable environmental conditions has received little attention. We provisioned nymphs from three German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations, which differed in insecticide resistance, with either nutritionally rich or poor (diluted) diet throughout their development. One population was an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain; the other two populations originated from a field-collected indoxacarb-resistant population, which upon collection was maintained either with or without further selection with indoxacarb. We then measured development time, survival to the adult stage, adult body size, and results of a challenge with indoxacarb. Our results show that indoxacarb resistance and poor nutritional condition increased development time and lowered adult body size, with reinforcing interactions. We also found lower survival to the adult stage in the indoxacarb-selected population, which was exacerbated by poor nutrition. In addition, nutrition imparted a highly significant effect on indoxacarb susceptibility. This study exemplifies how poor nutritional condition can aggravate the life-history costs of resistance and elevate the detrimental effects of insecticide exposure, demonstrating how environmental conditions and resistance may interactively impact individual fitness and insecticide efficacy.

  20. Molecular basis of the remarkable species selectivity of an insecticidal sodium channel toxin from the African spider Augacephalus ezendami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria; Smith, Jennifer J.; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Gilchrist, John; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Nicholson, Graham M.; Bosmans, Frank; King, Glenn F.

    2016-01-01

    The inexorable decline in the armament of registered chemical insecticides has stimulated research into environmentally-friendly alternatives. Insecticidal spider-venom peptides are promising candidates for bioinsecticide development but it is challenging to find peptides that are specific for targeted pests. In the present study, we isolated an insecticidal peptide (Ae1a) from venom of the African spider Augacephalus ezendami (family Theraphosidae). Injection of Ae1a into sheep blowflies (Lucilia cuprina) induced rapid but reversible paralysis. In striking contrast, Ae1a was lethal to closely related fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) but induced no adverse effects in the recalcitrant lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that Ae1a potently inhibits the voltage-gated sodium channel BgNaV1 from the German cockroach Blattella germanica by shifting the threshold for channel activation to more depolarized potentials. In contrast, Ae1a failed to significantly affect sodium currents in dorsal unpaired median neurons from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. We show that Ae1a interacts with the domain II voltage sensor and that sensitivity to the toxin is conferred by natural sequence variations in the S1–S2 loop of domain II. The phyletic specificity of Ae1a provides crucial information for development of sodium channel insecticides that target key insect pests without harming beneficial species. PMID:27383378

  1. Irradiated vegetal extracts of mormodica charantia and cymbopogom nardus for the control of Blatella germanica; Extratos vegetais irradiados de mormodica charantia e cymbopogom nardus no controle de Blatella germanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahme, Ligia Cardoso; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes. Lab. de Analise e Deteccao de Alimentos]. E-mail: lignah@hotmail.com; villavic@net.ipen.br; Potenza, Marcos Roberto Potenza [Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Sanidade Vegetal. Lab. de Protecao e Clinica Vegetal

    2000-07-01

    Pertaining to one of the groups oldest of the world; the cockroach possess a great adaptive capacity and if they find gifts in diverse environments, being usually found in residences; independent if conserved well. Besides causing infestations, the cockroach cause serious riots and illnesses, therefore they act as vectors of pathogenic agents. Had to these events the interest to control these insects it magnified. One of the control forms oldest that come very being used; they are the vegetal extracts, in order to identify alternative products that substitute the conventional insecticides and that they do not cause problems to the environment. In the experiment cool parts of the plants had been used (leaves and flowers), that they had been triturated and homogenized in the ratio of 1:9 distilled water parts. The gotten mass was filtered in paper filter and solution gotten stored in freezer for posterior use. The radiated botanical species in the watery extract form had been Aloe arborescens, Delonix regia, Hemerocalis flaval, in the doses of 0 kGy, 2,5 kGy, 5 kGy and 10 kGy. The vegetal extract soon was supplied to the insects through the alimentary diet (feline ration), which was dived during one minute in the respective extract and supplied to the insects after the drying in ambient temperature. The used cockroach met in nymphs of and stadium of development and confined in plastic containers of 10 cm of re-covered diameter and 8 cm of height with teladas covers. The evaluations had elapsed during 7 days, where they had been gotten resulted with 12% of efficiency in the Aloe arborescens species and no result in Hemerocalis flaval.

  2. [Hymenolepis nana var. fraterna (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) in Leucophaea maderae (Dictyoptera: Blattidae): the host-parasite conflict after experimental inhibition of haemocytic reaction (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesson, B; Leger, N

    1978-01-01

    Development of non-encapsulated cysticercoids of Hymenolepis nana var. fraterna, in the haemocoele of Leucophaea maderae occured after the inhibition of the haemocytic reaction by irradiation or injection of a soluble antigen of Hymenolepis nana. Fine structure of the tegument of free larvae is observed and the mechanism of a possible defence of the parasite by the microvillar coat, discussed.

  3. The evolutionary transition from subsocial to eusocial behaviour in Dictyoptera: phylogenetic evidence for modification of the "shift-in-dependent-care" hypothesis with a new subsocial cockroach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellens, Roseli; D'Haese, Cyrille A; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Legendre, Frédéric; Wheeler, Ward C; Grandcolas, Philippe

    2007-05-01

    Cockroaches have always been used to understand the first steps of social evolution in termites because they are close relatives with less complex and integrated social behaviour. Termites are all eusocial and ingroup comparative analysis would be useless to infer the origin of their social behaviour. The cockroach genus Cryptocercus was used as a so-called "prototermite" model because it shows key-attributes similar to the termites (except Termitidae): wood-feeding, intestinal flagellates and subsocial behaviour. In spite of these comparisons between this subsocial cockroach and eusocial termites, the early and remote origin of eusocial behaviour in termites is not well understood yet and the study of other relevant "prototermite" models is however needed. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out to validate a new "prototermite" model, Parasphaeria boleiriana which shows a peculiar combination of these key-attributes. It shows that these attributes of Parasphaeria boleiriana have an independent origin from those of other wood-eating cockroaches and termites. The case of P. boleiriana suggests that a short brood care was selected for with life on an ephemeral wood resource, even with the need for transmission of flagellates. These new phylogenetic insights modify evolutionary hypotheses, contradicting the assumption made with Cryptocercus model that a long brood care is necessary for cooperation between broods in the "shift-in-dependent-care" hypothesis. An ephemeral wood resource is suggested to prompt generation overlap and the evolution of cooperation, even if brood care is shortened.

  4. 集贸市场蜚蠊侵害和抗药性调查及综合防制研究%Infestation and pesticide resistance of cockroaches in market and relevant comprehensive control measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽娟; 刘迪; 刘小泉; 刘俊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infestation and population distribution of cockroaches in the market and the pesticide resistance of Blattella germanica to provide a basis for comprehensive control measures. Methods The infestation of cockroaches was investigated by visual inspection; the density of cockroaches was measured by cockroach glue board; the pesticide resistance of B. Germanica was determined by residual film method. The pesticides to which the cockroaches were sensitive were used for comprehensive control. Results The infestation rate of cockroaches in the market was 86.67%, and the density was 4.19 cockroaches/board/night. The levels of resistance (folds) of 6. Germanica to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, propoxur, chlorpyrifos, dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate (DDVP), cypermethrin, permethrin, tetramethrin, and azamethiphos were 2.65, 3.82, 1.77, 3.51, 11.19, 5.21, 6.51, 12.00, and 2.11, respectively. The pesticides to which the cockroaches were sensitive and developed low resistance achieved a killing rate of 96.19%. Conclusion There is a high infestation rate of cockroaches in the market of Wuhan city, China. B. Germanica is the dominant species of the cockroaches and has developed high resistance to DDVP and tetramethrin. Comprehensive control measures, including environmental treatment and pesticide use, should be taken to control the density of cockroaches below a harmless level.%目的 了解集贸市场蜚蠊侵害情况、种群分布及德国小蠊的抗药性,为制定防制对策提供依据.方法 采用目测法调查蜚蠊侵害情况,用粘蟑板测定其密度,用药膜接触法测定抗药性,采用敏感和低抗的药物进行综合防制.结果 集贸市场蜚蠊侵害率为86.67%,密度为4.19只/(张·夜);德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯、残杀威、毒死蜱、敌敌畏、氯氰菊酯、氯菊酯、胺菊酯、甲基吡(嗯)磷9种杀虫剂的抗药性分别为2.65、3.82、1.77、3.51、11.19、5.21、6.51

  5. Trapping and Monitoring Techniques of Insect Vectors of Mosquito and Cockroach in Frontier Ports%医学蚊媒和蜚蠊的诱集监测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雄峰; 黄恩炯; 于姗姗; 高博; 蔡享忠; 张莉; 马晓光

    2012-01-01

    The trapping method of insect vectors to improve the trapping and monitoring techniques in frontier ports was set up.A trapping device and two new kinds of attractants were designed for the insect vectors monitoring.The efficiency of the device combined with new insect attractants was verified in frontier port of Fujian.5 species of mosquito were captured and the Culex pipiens quinquefasciatu was a dominant species.And 4 species of cockroach were captured with the Blattella germanica a dominant species.The composite system of device and new attractant have a better efficiency than the composite system of device and regular attractant when trapping mosquito(t=8.190,P〈0.01) and cockroach(F=5.859,p〈0.05).The composite system of device and new attractant has a better efficiency and helps to improve the ability of trapping and monitoring insect vectors in frontier ports.%[目的]改进医学媒介昆虫蚊类和蜚蠊的诱集方法,提高口岸对蚊媒和蜚蠊的诱捕能力和监测技术。[方法]使用由本研究设计的多种昆虫诱集装置配合新型昆虫引诱剂,在福建口岸诱集蚊虫和蟑螂,进行效果初步验证。[结果]诱集实验捕获蚊虫5个种,共计1089只,致倦库蚊(Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus)为优势种;蜚蠊4个种,共计380只,德国小蠊(Blattella germanica)为优势种。诱集装置与新型诱剂的组合使用对蚊虫(t=8.190,P〈0.01)和蜚蠊(F=5.859,p〈0.05)的诱集效果均明显好于常规方法。[结论]采用诱集装置并配合新型引诱剂的方法能够获得较好的监测效果,该方法可用于口岸蚊媒和蜚蠊的诱集监测。

  6. Synergistic effect of some essential oils on toxicity and knockdown effects, against mosquitos, cockroaches and housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idin Zibaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and knockdown effect of Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their mixed formulation on Periplaneta Americana (L., Blattella germanica (L., Supella longipalpa, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi and Musca domestica were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In all bioassay five different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used by filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods, all essential oils was toxic to cockroaches, mosquitos and housefly species the lowest and the highest LC50 belong to mixed formulation on B. germanica (LC50 6.1 and E. globulus on P. americana (LC50 27.7 respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50 values for cockroaches ranged from 1403.3 min with 0.625% E. globulus (for P. americana to 2.2 min with 10% mixed formulation for A. stephensi. The KT50 values ranged from 0.1 to 1090.8 min for 10% and 0.625 for mixed formulation and R. officinalis respectively. The mortality after 24 h for mixed formulation was 100% but for single essential oils ranged from 81.5 to 98.3 for P. americana treated with R. officinalis and A. stephensi treated with E. globulus respectively. Studies on persistence of essential oils on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 14 and 16 peaks for E. globules and R. officinalis respectively. α-Pinene (39.8%, 1, 8-Cineole (13.2%, Camphene (9.1% and Borneol (3.7% were present in major amounts for R. officinalis and 1,8-Cineole (31.4%, α-Pinene (15.3%, d-Limonene (9.7% and α-Terpinolen (5.3% were present in major amounts for E. globulus respectively. Our results showed that two surveyed essential oils has compatible with synergistic effect on various insect species, furthermore it is useful for applying as integrated pest management tool for studied insects management, especially in

  7. Cockroach density and invasion situation in 2010 of Mianyang City%绵阳市2010年蜚蠊种群密度及侵害现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒亚; 谭刚; 郑幸福; 史映红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the cockroaches invasion situation in Mianyang City, and provide scientific basis for cockroaches control. Method According to Vector biological monitoring scheme in China and 2010 vector biological monitoring implementation scheme of Mianyang. Selecting Daximen district, Youxian district and Gaoshui district as monitoring points, and cockroaches densities were detected by sticky traps method. Results They were 3 kinds of cockroaches in Mianyang, they were Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana and smoky brown cockroach, the proportions of them were 96. 18, 2.09% and 1. 73% , respectively. Blattella germanica was the dominant species. The density of cockroaches in farm products markets was 0. 85, in repast was 0. 87, hospital was 0. 11, hotel was 0. 23, dweller house was 0. 28. The repasts density was the highest The infestation rate in farm products markets was 16. 36% , catering trade was 9. 30% , hospital was 6. 38% , hotel was 4. 72% , dweller houses was 2. 62% , the infestation rate of farm products markets was the highest Conclusions Grasping the cockroaches density in Mianyang could provide scientific basis for developing comprehensiveness prevention control measures.%目的 通过了解绵阳市蜚蠊侵害情况,为防治蜚蠊提供科学的方法.方法 按照《全国病媒生物监测方案》和《绵阳市2010年病媒生物监测实施方案》,选取大西门片区、游仙片区和高水片区设置监测点,采用粘捕法测定蜚蠊密度.结果 绵阳市蜚蠊主要有德国小蠊、美洲大蠊和黑胸大蠊,分别占96.18%、2.09%和1.73%,德国小蠊为优势种.各类生境蜚蠊密度分别为农贸市场0.85只/张、餐饮0.87只/张、医院0.11只/张、宾馆0.23只/张、居民区0.28只/张,餐饮密度最高.各类生境蜚蠊侵害率分别为农贸市场的16.36%、餐饮占9.30%、医院占6.38%、宾馆占4.72%、居民区占2.62%,农贸市场侵害率最高.结论 掌握绵阳市

  8. 2009年北京市西城区病媒生物调查分析%Vector investigation of Xicheng district in Beijing in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦迪; 申同洋; 王效凤; 赵秀英; 杜晓旭

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解2009年北京市西城区病媒生物的种群构成和季节消长情况,为病媒生物及媒介传染病防治工作提供依据和建议.方法 成蚊密度调查采用CO灯诱法;蝇密度调查采用笼诱法;鼠密度调查采用夹夜法;蟑螂密度调查采用粘捕法.结果 蚊类主要为淡色库蚊(81.04%)和白纹伊蚊;蝇类主要为麻蝇(43.76%)、丝光绿蝇、丽蝇、家蝇和夏厕蝇;蟑螂均为德国小蠊;鼠类主要为褐家鼠和小家鼠,各占鼠总数的50%.8月下旬为蚊类活动高峰期;蝇类在5月下旬和8月下旬呈现2个活动高峰,以8月下旬最高;蟑螂在2月和9月呈现2个活动高峰,以9月最高;鼠类受春秋季灭鼠影响,季节性并不明显.结论 淡色库蚊、麻蝇、德国小蠊、褐家鼠和小家鼠为优势种.蚊类、蝇类、蟑螂有明显的季节性,鼠类季节性不明显.%Objective To investigate constitution and seasonal fluctuation of vector of Xicheng district in 2009, then provide scientific basis and proposal for vector control and prevention of vector-borne diseases. Methods Light trap, cage trap, mouse trap and mucilage glue trap were used to catch mosquitoes, flies, rodents and cockroaches respectively. Results The mosquitoes were mainly Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes albopictus, Culex pipiens pallens was 81. 04% . The flies were mainly flesh fly ,Lucilia serkata, Calliphoridae, Musca domestica and Fanni-acanicularis, the flesh fly was 43. 76%. The rodents were mainly Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus which was 50% respectively. The cockroach was all Blattella germanica. The active peak of mosquitoes was in late August. The two peaks of fly were in late May and late August,and the latter s peak was higher. The cockroach's two peaks were in February and September, and the latters peak was higher. Under the influence of deratization in spring and autumn, seasonality of rodents was unconspicuous. Conclusion Culex pipiens pallens , flesh

  9. Bioconversion of methanol to value-added mevalonate by engineered Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 containing an optimized mevalonate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Liang; Cui, Jin-Yu; Cui, Lan-Yu; Liang, Wei-Fan; Yang, Song; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2016-03-01

    Methylotrophic biosynthesis using methanol as a feedstock is a promising and attractive method to solve the over-dependence of the bioindustry on sugar feedstocks derived from grains that are used for food. In this study, we introduced and engineered the mevalonate pathway into Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 to achieve high mevalonate production from methanol, which could be a platform for terpenoid synthesis. We first constructed a natural operon (MVE) harboring the mvaS and mvaE genes from Enterococcus faecalis as well as an artificial operon (MVH) harboring the hmgcs1 gene from Blattella germanica and the tchmgr gene from Trypanosoma cruzi that encoded enzymes with the highest reported activities. We achieved mevalonate titers of 56 and 66 mg/L, respectively, in flask cultivation. Introduction of the phaA gene from Ralstonia eutropha into the operon MVH increased the mevalonate titer to 180 mg/L, 3.2-fold higher than that of the natural operon MVE. Further modification of the expression level of the phaA gene by regulating the strength of the ribosomal binding site resulted in an additional 20 % increase in mevalonate production to 215 mg/L. A fed-batch fermentation of the best-engineered strain yielded a mevalonate titer of 2.22 g/L, which was equivalent to an overall yield and productivity of 28.4 mg mevalonate/g methanol and 7.16 mg/L/h, respectively. The production of mevalonate from methanol, which is the initial, but critical step linking methanol with valuable terpenoids via methylotrophic biosynthesis, represents a proof of concept for pathway engineering in M. extorquens AM1.

  10. Allergy-related Evidences in Relation to Serum IgE:Data from the China State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, 2008-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN BaoQing; CHEN DeHui; ZHENG PeiYan; HUANG HuiMin; LUO WenTing; ZENG Guang Qiao; ZHANG XiaoWen

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the serum total IgE (tIgE) and specific IgE (sIgE) to common allergens among allergic patients in Guangzhou, China. Methods7 085 patients were examined for tIgE and sIgE to 15 allergens, based on the protocols of reversed enzyme allergosorbent test and the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results3 758(53.04%) patients tested positive for tIgE, and 4 640(65.49%) for sIgE.Der pteronyssinus,Der farinae, eggs, and cow’s milk were the most common allergens leading to higher positive rates of sIgE responses. Several peaks of sensitization were:Der pteronyssinus,Der farinae, and Blomia tropicalis at age 10-12; cow’s milk at age below 3; eggs at age 4-6. The mean level and positive rate of tIgE tended to increase in subjects sensitized to more allergens. Sensitization toDer pteronyssinus (OR, 1.6;P<0.05),Der farinae (OR, 1.5;P<0.05),Blomia tropicalis (OR, 1.4;P<0.05), Blattella germanica (OR, 1.5;P<0.05), cow’s milk (OR, 1.3;P<0.05), and soy beans (OR, 2.0;P<0.05) were independently correlated with allergy-related conditions in preliminary diagnosis. ConclusionThe major allergens in Guangzhou includeDer pteronyssinus, Der farinae, cow’s milk, and eggs. Sensitization to these allergens appears to be predictors of allergy-related disorder.

  11. Prevalence of sensitivity to cockroach allergens and IgE crossreactivity between cockroach and house dust mite allergens in Chinese patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-qing; LAI Xu-xin; Birgitte Gjesing; Michael Dho Spangfort; ZHONG Nan-shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Cockroaches are an important indoor allergen source causing allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the cockroach prevalence in mainland of China and the cross-reactivity of IgE between cockroach and house dust mite allergen in Chinese patients.Methods The cockroach sensitization pattern was based on a skin prick test (SPT) obtained from a national multicenter prevalence study, in which 6304 patients from 25 allergy centers across China participated. Factors, including different regions of China, age, gender and the correlations between the American and German cockroaches and house dust mite Der p were investigated. Eighteen out of 1236 clinical sera from south China were selected to perform the cross-inhibition assay between house dust mites and cockroaches.Results Totally 25.7% of patients were SPT positive to the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana, Per a) and 18.7% SPT positive to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Bla g). The prevalence of positive cockroach SPT was higher in southern than in northern China, higher in adults than in children, and higher in males than in females.Patients had relatively low levels of cockroach SPT reactions, mainly class 1 or 2. Of the SPT positive cockroach patients,88% were also SPT positive to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p). An IgE cross-inhibition study confirmed that Der P sensitization could cause false positive SPT reactions against cockroach.Conclusions A relatively high prevalence of cockroach sensitivity was found in mainland of China. However, a cross-inhibition study showed that only a small number of patients appear to have Bla g and/or Per a as primary sensitizing source. The importance of cockroaches as a risk factor for sensitization and triggers of allergic symptoms in mainland of China needs to be further investigated.

  12. 曲阜市蜚蠊种群密度调查及综合防制方法的研究%Survey of population density of cockroach and its integrated control strategies in Qufu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥力; 宋华; 孔凡吉

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution and density of cockroach in Qufu, and provide the scientific evidence for its control. Methods Sticky traps method and insecticide stimulating method were used in this study. Results There were 388 rooms investigated, and a total of 497 cockroaches were caught, which were all Blattella germanica. It included 312 adult cockroach (62.78%) and 185 nymphae (37.22%), respectively. The average infestation rate reached 17.27%. The average density index was 0.62 pieces/box · night. Conclusion It should strengthen the management for key trade and take integrated measure to control the expansion of cockroaches in Qufu.%目的 掌握曲阜市蜚蠊种群分布和密度情况,为制定防制对策提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法、药激法进行调查.结果 本次共调查房间388间,捕获蜚蠊497只,均为德国小蠊.其中成虫312只,占62.78%,若虫185只,占37.22%,药激法蜚蠊平均侵害率为17.27%,粘捕法平均密度指数为0.62只/(盒·夜).结论 曲阜市蜚蠊在不同行业和场所的分布及侵害情况有所不同,必须加强对重点行业的管理,采取综合性防制措施,控制蜚蠊在全市扩散和蔓延.

  13. 远洋船蟑螂密度调查及其杀灭效果观察%The density monitor and efficacy of controlling cockroaches on ocean-going ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育兵; 严峥; 夏本立; 尹莉; 王武芳; 郭鹏; 石静; 巩立; 许晓华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To monitor the density, discriminate the species and observe efficacy of controlling cockroaches using a set of insecticides on two ocean-going ships. Methods Observing the density by the method of adhibiting ,then making a discriminationg for its pecies. Using a set of insecticides which were composed of granular bait and gel bait to decrease the density of cockroaches. Results The density of cockroaches were 1.06 and 2.39 pieces per piece per night respectively, all the cockroaches adhibited were Blattella germanica. After using insecticides for seven days,the average density of cockroaches declined by 87.03%. The density declined by 94.14% after three months. Conclusion The methed of using a set of insecticides could get an ideal effect against cockroaches,which is worth popularizing on ships.%目的 了解远洋船上嶂螂种群、密度,观察套餐法在远洋船上杀灭嶂螂的效果.方法 用粘捕法进行蟑螂密度调查,对粘捕到的嶂螂进行种类鉴定,采用套餐法对远洋船上蟑螂进行现场杀灭试验.结果 甲、乙两船饮食场所的蟑螂密度分别为1.06和2.39只/(张·夜);嶂螂的优势种群为德国小蠊;投药后1周嶂螂密度下降率为87.03%,3个月后嶂螂密度下降率达94.14%.结论 远洋船上采用套餐法灭蟑值得推广.

  14. There are more asthmatics in homes with high cockroach infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarinho E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although asthma has been commonly associated with sensitivity to cockroaches, a clear causal relationship between asthma, allergy to cockroaches and exposure levels has not been extensively investigated. The objective of the present study was to determine whether asthma occurs more frequently in children living in homes with high cockroach infestation. The intensity of household infestation was assessed by the number of dead insects after professional pesticide application. Children living in these houses in the metropolitan area of Recife, PE, were diagnosed as having asthma by means of a questionnaire based on the ISAAC study. All children had physician-diagnosed asthma and at least one acute exacerbation in the past year. Children of both sexes aged 4 to 12 years who had been living in the households for more than 2 years participated in this transverse study and had a good socioeconomic status. In the 172 houses studied, 79 children were considered to have been exposed to cockroaches and 93 not to have been exposed. Children living in residences with more than 5 dead cockroaches after pesticide application were considered to be at high infestation exposure. Asthma was diagnosed by the questionnaire in 31.6% (25/79 of the exposed group and in 11.8% (11/93 of the non-exposed group (P = 0.001, with a prevalence ratio of 3.45 (95%CI, 1.48-8.20. The present results indicate that exposure to cockroaches was significantly associated with asthma among the children studied and can be considered a risk factor for the disease. Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were the species found in 96% of the infested houses.

  15. 城区居民家庭蟑螂侵害现状及防治对策%Invasion situation of cockroach and its control strategies in urban area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶慧; 崔华; 宋华

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解和掌握曲阜市蟑螂种群分布和密度情况,为制定蟑螂防治对策提供科学依据.方法 采用粘捕法、药激法2种调查方法.结果 本次共调查房间388间,捕获蟑螂497只,均为德国小蠊,其中成虫312只、占62.78%,若虫185只、占37.22%,蟑螂平均侵害率为37.27%,蟑螂粘捕盒法平均密度指数为0.52只/(盒·夜).结论 曲阜市蟑螂在不同行业和场所的分布及侵害情况比较严重,必须加强对重点行业的管理,采取综合防治措施.%Objective In order to understand and grasp species and density of cockroach in urban area of Qufu city and provide scientific data for cotrolling. Methods Sticky traps nightly and insecticide stimulating method. Results Of the investigated rooms,497 cockroaches were caught. They were all Blattella germanica. The adult and nymph were 312 and 185 pieces,occupied 62.78% and 37.22% respectively. The average invasion rate reached 37.27%. The average index denisty was 0. 52 pieces per box for every night. Conclusion The distribution and invasion of cockroaches are severe in different place. It is necessary to strengthen the management for important place and cotrol the expandsion of cockroaches with integrated management in Qufu city.

  16. 几种剂型对蟑螂的药效研究%Effect of several kinds of formulation against cockroaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩招久; 陈超; 姜志宽; 钱万红

    2011-01-01

    目的 测试毒饵、喷射剂和杀虫气雾剂对蟑螂的杀灭效果.方法 室内药效试验和模拟现场试验.结果 测试的2个毒饵、2个喷射剂和11个杀虫气雾剂对德国小蠊室内药效和现场模拟防治均有优良的效果,达到了国标A级(GBT 13917.10-2009).喷射剂和杀虫气雾剂杀灭蟑螂的速度比毒饵快,毒饵对环境和人体影响较小.结论 目前市场上防治蟑螂的毒饵、喷射剂、杀虫气雾剂对德国小蠊均有优良的药效,可根据防治需要进行选择.%Objective To evaluate the control effect of baits, sprayers and aerosols against cockroaches.Methods Laboratory bioassay and simulated field test. Results Two baits, two sprayers and eleven aerosols tested in this study showed excellent control effect against Blattella germanica, reaching grade A of national standards (GBT 13917.10 -2009). Sprayers and aerosols killed cockroaches more quickly than baits, while baits were more compatible. Conclusion Most of the baits, sprayers and aerosols in the market can control cockroaches well, and publics can make choice based on their needs indoors cockroach control.

  17. 温州市室内蜚蠊种群调查%Investigation of population of cockroaches indoors in Wenzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐毅; 倪朝荣; 庄仁莲; 曹建海; 黄周良; 陈胜则

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the population and distribution of cockroaches in Wenzhou,China.Methods The density of cockroaches was monitored by sticky-trap method in different areas and industries to analyze the population,distribution,and seasonal fluctuation of cockroaches.Results Blattella germanica was the dominant species of cockroaches indoors in Wenzhou,accounting for 97.91% of all cockroaches.For industry,the density of cockroaches was the highest in restaurants (4.28 cockroaches/trap) and farmers' markets (3.33 cockroaches/trap).For area,the density of cockroaches was the highest in Dongtou Island (5.13 cockroaches/trap).The density of cockroaches reached the peak level in June and November.Conclusion Cockroach infestation is severe indoors in Wenzhou.It is necessary to enhance the monitoring and control of cockroaches.%目的 调查分析温州市蜚蠊种群及分布特征.方法 采用粘捕法在全市按地域和行业分布进行密度监测,分析蜚蠊种群、分布、季节消长等特征.结果 温州市室内以德国小蠊为优势种群,占97.91%;密度分布以餐饮业和农贸市场为高,分别为4.28和3.33只/张;同时海岛洞头在地域分布中密度最高,为5.13只/张;季节消长呈现6月和11月双高峰.结论 温州市室内蜚蠊侵害情况严重,应加强防制工作.

  18. 常州市蜚蠊种群分布及侵害调查%Investigation on the population distribution and infestation of the cockroaches in Changzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淦; 张建陶; 王鹂; 林琴; 赵立凡

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To grasp the population distribution and infestation situation of cockroaches so as to provide evidences for scientific control of cockroach in Changzhou. METHODS Used sticky card trap method. RESULTS There were 3 species of cockroaches distributing and testing for 3 species under 2 genera, 2 families, and Blattella germanica was the dominant species, accounting for 93.39%. The infestation rate of cockroaches reached 46.98% , infestation situation of cockroaches in farm produce trade market was the most serious, the others were restaurants, supermarkets, hotels, food making rooms, bar and tea rooms, bathrooms. CONCLUSION The infestation with cockroaches is seriously in Changzhou. The effective measures should be taken to prevent and control the cockroaches.%目的 掌握常州市蜚蠊种群分布和侵害状况,为科学防制提供依据.方法 采用粘捕法.结果全市共有3种蜚蠊分布,分类鉴定为2科2属3种,优势种为德国小蠊,占93.39%.蜚蠊侵害率为46.98%,农贸市场侵害最严重,其他有餐饮业、商场超市、宾馆、食品加工厂、酒吧茶室、浴室.结论 常州市各行业蜚蠊侵害严重,应采取有效措施进行防制.

  19. Characterization of Am IT, an anti-insect β-toxin isolated from the venom of scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukkache, Naoual; ElJaoudi, Rachid; Chgoury, Fatima; Rocha, Marisa Teixeira; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-25

    In the present study, a 'novel' toxin, called Am IT from the venom of scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus is isolated and characterized. A detailed analysis of the action of Am IT on insect axonal sodium currents is reported. Am IT was purified through gel filtration followed by C18 reversed-phase HPLC. Toxicity of Am IT in vivo was assessed on male German cockroach (Blattella germanica) larvae and C57/BL6 mice. Cross-reactivity of Am IT with two β-toxins was evidenced using (125)I-iodinated toxin-based radioimmunoassays with synaptosomal preparations from rat brain. The complete amino acid sequence of Am IT was finally determined by Edman sequencing. Am IT was observed to compete with AaH IT4 purified from the venom of scorpion Androctonus australis in binding assays. It was recognized by an antibody raised against a β-type toxin, which indicated some structural similarity with β-toxins (or related toxin family). The 'novel' toxin exhibited dual activity since it competed with anti-mammal toxins in binding assays as well as showed contracting activity to insect. The toxin competed with radio-labeled β-toxin Css IV by binding to Na(+) channels of rat brain synaptosomes. Analysis of toxin amino acid sequences showed that Am IT shares high structural identity (92%) with AaH IT4. In conclusion, Am IT not only reveals an anti-insect compound properties secreted by 'Old World' scorpions, paralyzing insect larvae by binding to Na(+) channels on larvae's nerve-cell membranes, but also exerts toxic activity in mice, which is similar to anti-mammal toxins from 'New World' scorpions (North and South Americas). Therefore, Am IT appears to be structurally and functionally similar to AaH IT4.

  20. Increased Expression of P-Glycoprotein Is Associated With Chlorpyrifos Resistance in the German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weiyuan; Jiang, Chu; Zhou, Xiaojie; Qian, Kun; Wang, Lei; Shen, Yanhui; Zhao, Yan

    2016-09-15

    A principal method for control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is the broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate); however, extensive and repeated application has resulted in the development of resistance to chlorpyrifos in this insect. Evidence suggests that ATP-binding cassette protein transporters, including P-glycoprotein, are involved in insecticide resistance. However, little is known of the role of P-glycoprotein in insecticide resistance in the German cockroach. Here, we developed a chlorpyrifos-resistant strain of German cockroach and investigated the relationship between P-glycoprotein and chlorpyrifos resistance using toxicity assays; inhibition studies with two P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil and quinine; P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity assays; and western blotting analysis. After 23 generations of selection from susceptible strain cockroaches, we obtained animals with high resistance to chlorpyrifos. When P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity was inhibited by verapamil and quinine, we observed enhanced susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in both control and chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroaches. No significant alterations of P-glycoprotein expression or ATPase activity were observed in cockroaches acutely exposed to LD50 doses of chlorpyrifos for 24 h, while P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity were clearly elevated in the chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroach strain. Thus, we conclude that P-glycoprotein is associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach and that elevated levels of P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity may be an important mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach.

  1. Analysis on inroads situation and control effect of cockroach at a residential building%某居民楼蟑螂侵害及防治效果调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹广庆; 周光智; 王治; 李平; 文瑜; 程绪浩

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查某部居民楼蟑螂侵害情况和防治效果.方法 用药激法调查蟑螂密度,化学防治采用奋斗呐滞留喷洒和优士灭蟑胶饵.结果 德国小蠊为绝对优势种,防治前不同房间平均密度为2.3 ~16.8只/间,施药后3d密度为0.1~1.3只/间,杀灭率为91.07%~ 97.67%,15 d后为0只/间,杀灭率为100%.结论 该住宅楼蟑螂侵害严重,滞留喷洒结合灭蟑胶饵、颗粒饵杀灭蟑螂效果显著,值得推广.%Objective To investigate cockroach invasion in room of a residential building, and observe the preventive and control effect. Methods Medication excite killing method was used for density investigation, 5 % alpha - cypermethrin( Fendona) wettable powder and gel bait for chemical control. Results Blattella germanica was the dominant species. The density was 2.3- 16. 8 pieces per room in different apartment before control,after using control method , the density was 0. 1-1. 3 pieces per room with the mortality rate of 91. 07% -91.61% three days later, and the density was 0 pieces per room with the mortality rate of 100% fifteen days later. Conclusion The cockroach invasion is serious at this residential building. The method of using remained spray and gel bait has high efficacy a-gainst cockroach and deserves to be recommended.

  2. Skin sensitization to cockroach allergens: a nationwide, multi-center survey on bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis among outpatients%全国多中心支气管哮喘与过敏性鼻炎门诊患者对蟑螂变应原皮肤反应性的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝清; 李靖; 钟南山

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of allergy to two common species of cockroaches(Periplaneta americana and Blatteila germaniea) among outpatients with bronchial asthma(asthma) and allergic rhinitia from an epidemiological perspective,and to provide evidences for further research on insecthypersensitivity. Methods A total of 6081 outpatients with asthma and allergic rhinitis, registered to clinicsof respiratory diseases, pediatrics or allergic diseases in 25 Three Grade-A hospitals, were included in thestudy. These patients were studied using a standardized questionnaire and skin prick tests for cockroachallergens. Results Among patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis, response to one of the cockroachescorrelated well with that to another,as did the grades of response ( P <0.001). The overall rate of responseto Periplaneta americana was 26.34% vs 19.37% to Blattella germanica. Higher rate of response was foundin the south as compared with northern and eastern regions of China. In those allergic to cockroach,grade 2reactions appeared predominant, with strong-positive outcomes seen only in rare cases. Positive allergy toPeriplaneta americana and Blattella germanica was identified in 28% and 19% of males vs 25% and 15% offemales,30% and 24% of adults vs 23% and 14% of children,respectively. About 90% cockroach-allergicpatients concurrently tested positive to house dust mites. Conclusions Cockroach appears to be one of majorallergens among patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. The rate of response is higher with Periplanetaamericana than with Blattella germaniea. Higher prevalence of allergy to cockroach is found in males than infemales,and in adults than in children. Cross-reactions may be implied between antigens of cockroach andhouse dust mite.%目的 探讨支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)和过敏性鼻炎患者对常见蟑螂(美洲大蠊和德国小蠊)的过敏水平及一些流行病学的特点,同时比较对不同品种蟑螂间的研究,为深

  3. Effects of integrated cockroach control in supermarkets%超市蜚蠊综合防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚宏亮; 张育富; 刘大鹏; 杨维芳; 刘慧; 陈志龙; 孙俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of integrated cockroach control in supermarket. Methods Three supermarkets, two as experimental sites and one as control, were selected for test. Integrated control measures, which comprised environmental improvement assisted by chemical control, were taken in the experimental sites. The control effects were evaluated with relative density decrease rate as the indicator. Results All the cockroaches captured in the supermarkets were Blattella germanica. Cockroaches were mainly distributed in the fresh food section, cooked food section, storehouse, bakery, food section, vegetable and fruit section, etc., while the cockroach density in the grocery section was relatively low. The cockroach densities in the two experimental sites decreased by 89.96% and 81.38% three days after integrated control measures, by 93.89% and 90.21% three weeks after the measures, and by 95.05% and 89.27% two months after the measures. Conclusion Cockroaches invade the supermarkets seriously, with B. Germanica as the dominant species. Integrated control measures can be used to quickly and effectively decrease the cockroach density in supermarket, and the control effects were durable.%目的 评价综合防治措施对超市蜚蠊的防治效果.方法 选择3家超市,其中2家作为试验场所,1家作为对照.试验场所采取环境治理为主,化学防治为辅的综合防治措施;以相对密度下降率为指标评价防治效果.结果 超市蜚蠊种类均为德国小蠊;主要侵害生鲜区、熟食区、库房、面包房、食品区和蔬果区等,百货区密度较低;采取综合防治措施3d后蜚蠊密度明显下降,超市A及超市B密度下降率分别为89.96%和81.38%;3周后密度下降率分别为93.89%和90.21%;2个月后密度下降率分别为95.05%和89.27%.结论 超市蜚蠊侵害严重,优势种为德国小蠊;综合防治措施可快速有效地降低蜚蠊密度,并且具有较长的持效期.

  4. ANALYSIS ON THE COCKROACH FAUNA TRAITS OF WUXI FROM 2006 TO 2009%无锡市2006~2009年蜚蠊群落特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈元; 陈继平; 兰策介; 杨维芳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解无锡市蜚蠊群落的动态特征.为灭蟑工作控制提供依据.[方法]采用粘蟑纸法从2006-2009年对全市5种环境类型中的蜚蠊进行连续监测,并对监测结果进行统计分析.[结果]2006-2009年无锡市蜚蠊密度和侵害率的平均值分别为1.44只/张和23.75%,种类主要为德国小蠊、美洲大蠊和黑胸大蠊,其中德国小蠊为绝对优势种.蜚蠊常年都有发生,其中7-10月为密度高、活动频繁,密度、侵害率与气温显著相关(P<0.01).经群落相似性分析(Similarity=-85%,Stress=0.06),5种环境类型分为两组,第1组为农贸市场、餐饮店和宾馆,蜚蠊密度与侵害率都较高;第2组为医院和居民住房,蜚蠊密度与侵害率都较低.[结论]德国小蠊是无锡市灭蟑的主要种类,农贸市场、餐饮店和宾馆是开展灭蟑工作的主要环境类型.%[Objective] To know the changing traits of cockroach in Wuxi, and get information for cockroach control.[Methods ] Sticky trap method was used to monitor the cockroach in 5 habitat types from 2006 to 2009, and analyzed monitoring data. [ Results] From 2006 to 2009, the mean value of cockroach density and infestation rate was 1.44 (ind/p) and 23.75% , respecitvely. Cockroach fauna was composed of Blattella germaruca, Periplaneta amencana and P. fuliginosa. B. germanica was the absolutely dominant species. Cockroach could be trapped every month. The high density and frequent movement period was from July to October. Density and infertation rate had significant association with air temperature (P < 0.01). 5 habitat types were divided into 2 groups by fauna similarity analysis ( Similarity=85% , Stress=0.06). The first group was composed of farm produce market, eating house and hotel, and had high density and infestation rate. The second group contained hospital and houses, and had low density and infestation rate. [Conclusion] B. germanica was the firstly species to control. The farm produce market

  5. Investigation on supermarket infestation of cockroaches and the control measures%大型超市蜚蠊侵害调查与防治措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张育富; 褚宏亮; 杨维芳; 刘大鹏; 陈志龙; 刘慧; 孙俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the infestation and population distribution of cockroaches in supermarkets in Nanjing city, providing scientific basis for the control of cockroaches in supermarkets. Methods Four large supermarkets located in different positions in Nanjing city were selected and sticky trap method was applied to determine the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches. The cockroach species were identified with the number counted and the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches calculated. Results A total of 8894 cockroaches, all of which were Blattella germanica, were captured. It was found that the infestation of cockroaches in the supermarkets was serious with the encroachment rate amounting to 72.64% and the density being 16.78 per piece. Cockroaches were mainly distributed in storehouse, fresh section, deli section, produce section, food section and bakery of the supermarkets, where there were food and water. But relatively light infestation was seen in the department sections. Conclusion B. germanica has become the dominant species in the supermarkets, where infestation of cockroaches is serious, especially in the areas that are rich in food and water. Comprehensive control measures should be taken to effectively reduce the encroachment rate and the density of cockroaches.%目的 了解南京市大型超市蜚蠊侵害及种群分布等情况,探讨其防治措施,为超市蜚蠊防治提供科学依据.方法 选择南京市不同方位4家大型超市,采用粘捕法调查侵害率和密度,现场鉴定蜚蠊种类并计数,了解超市不同区域的蜚蠊分布情况,并分析其原因.结果 共捕获蜚蠊8894只,均为德国小蠊;超市蜚蠊侵害严重,侵害率达72.64%,密度为16.78只/张,主要分布在食源和水源丰富的库房、生鲜区、熟食区、蔬果区、食品区和面包房,百货区蜚蠊侵害程度相对较轻.结论 德国小蠊已成为超市侵害的优势种,以食源和水源丰富的区域

  6. 上海市嘉定区病媒生物监测结果分析%Investigation on vectors in Jiading district, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武峥嵘; 王韶华; 徐友祥

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand vector species and seasonal fluctuations in Jiading district, providing the evidence for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. Methods The surveillance sites were set up according to the national vector surveillance project. The densities of vectors like rodents, flies, mosquitoes and cockroaches were investigated by the methods of night trapping, cage trapping, light trapping and paste trapping, respectively. Results The rodents in the district were identified to be of 3 species, 2 genus, 1 family, with Mus musculus (69.23%) being the dominant species followed by Rattus norvegicus (21.15%). The peak density of rodents was seen in September. There were 4 species, 4 genus and 3 family of flies in the district, with Musca domestica being the dominant species, accounting for 68.49% . July saw the peak density of flies. There were 3 species, 2 genus and 2 families of mosquitoes in this district. Of which Culex pipiens pallens was dominant, accounting for 73.83%, followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (12.58%) and Anopheles sinensis (13.59%). The density of mosquitoes peaked in August. The cockroaches collected in the district belonged to 2 species, 2 genus and 2 families. The dominant species was Blattella germanica (89.29%), its peak density seen in July. Conclusion M. musculus, M. domestica, Cx. pipiens pallens and B. germanica are the dominant species of the vectors. The peak density of rodents is seen in September and that of other vectors in July.%目的 了解嘉定区病媒生物的种类及其季节消长规律,为预防和控制病媒生物传播疾病的发生和流行提供依据.方法 按照《全国病媒生物监测方案(试行)》设置监测点,分别以夹日法、笼诱法、灯诱法和粘捕法调查鼠、蝇、蚊、蜚蠊的种类和密度.结果 调查发现嘉定区鼠类1科2属3种,小家鼠为优势鼠种(占69.23%),其次是褐家鼠(占21.15%),鼠密度9月最高;蝇类3科4属4种,家蝇

  7. Investigation of cockroahes at Fujian Changle ports%福建长乐辖区口岸蜚蠊本底调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林伟; 洪兆祥; 连维春; 张述铿; 吕安榕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the population composition, seasonal growth and decline on cockroach at the opening wharfs of Fujian Changle ports, and to provide scientific basis for prevention and control. Methods Standard trap boxes method was adopted, which was taken two times between early and late ten-days once a month, lasting for twelve months. Results A total of 1 443 cockroaches were caught, and identified as 2 families, 2 genus and 4 species. In which, Blattella germanica (47.82%) and Periplaneta americana (25.85%) were the dominant species, the year average density of cockroaches was 0.23/box. Conclusion The cockroach density at Changle ports is comparative lower than the national control standard, but we still need to do surveillance on cockroach well. This investigation can provides a feasible technology material for the cockroaches surveillance at Changle wharfs in the future.%目的 了解福建长乐辖区口岸各开放码头蜚蠊的种群构成、季节消长情况,为口岸防治蜚蠊和鉴别输入性蜚蠊种类提供科学依据.方法 统一采用标准诱捕盒法,每月上下旬各监测1次,连续12个月.结果 2008-2009年调查共捕获各类蜚蠊1 443只,经分类鉴定隶属于2科2属4种;优势种为德国小蠊,其次是美洲大蠊;长乐辖区口岸蜚蠊年平均密度为0.23只/盒.结论 长乐辖区口岸蜚蠊密度低于国家标准,但仍需进一步做好口岸蜚蠊监测工作;本次调查为今后辖区口岸蜚蠊防治工作提供切实的技术资料.

  8. 天津市餐饮业蟑螂侵害状况调查%Survey of infestation of cockroaches in food and beverage industries in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴彤宇; 郝连义; 王伟; 张静; 秦娜; 李培羽; 李今越

    2011-01-01

    Objective To survey the infestation of cockroaches in food and beverage industries in Tianjin. Methods The infestation status of cockroaches was surveyed by choosing 10 eating houses selected from each district and counties of Tianjin in April,august and October,respectived. Results Totally 180 eating houses were surveyed and the average density of cockroasch was 3.57% ,The infestation rates of cockroach surveyed in April, August and October were 46.1% , 45.0% and 40.56% without significant difference (P>0.05). Blattella germanica was the predominat species. Conclusion Infestation rate of cockroaches in food and beverage industries in Tianjin is serious and effective measures be adopted to control the infestation of cockroach in Tianjin..%目的 调查天津市餐饮业蟑螂侵害状况,为餐饮业蟑螂防治提供依据.方法 分别于2009年4,8,10月三次在全市每区县随机抽取的10家餐馆采用粘捕法进行蟑螂侵害调查.结果 全市18区县共调查180家餐饮业,平均密度为3.57,三次调查的侵害分别为46.1%,45.0%,40.56%,统计学无显著意义(P=0.526);监测中捕获均为德国小蠊,为餐饮业的优势种群;农村与城市侵害比较无显著性差异(P=0.466);餐馆不同部位的侵害不同,操作间侵害最严重.结论 天津市餐饮业蟑螂侵害状况较严重,应采取有效的防治措施,防治中应注重重点部位的防治,以提高防治效果.

  9. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  10. Surveillance and control of cockroach populations from 2010 to 2012 in Changzhou, Jiangsu, China%常州市2010-2012年蜚蠊密度监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹淦; 张建陶; 王鹂

    2015-01-01

    目的:掌握常州市蜚蠊种群、分布、密度及季节消长等动态变化,为常州市蜚蠊防治提供科学依据。方法采用粘捕法调查,捕获蜚蠊进行种群鉴定及分类计数。结果全市共有3种蜚蠊分布,分类鉴定为2科2属3种,德国小蠊为优势种,占捕获总数的92.16%。6-10月为蜚蠊活动高峰期,各行业中农贸市场密度及侵害率最严重,其他较严重行业有餐饮店、宾馆等。结论常州市农贸市场、餐饮店、宾馆等重点行业蜚蠊侵害严重,应采取有针对性的措施进行综合防制。%Objective To determine the species and density of cockroaches and their seasonality in the urban areas so as to provide evidence for scientific control of cockroaches in Changzhou. Methods The density of cockroaches was monitored by sticky⁃trap method and were then identified and counted. Results There were 3 species of cockroaches distributing and testing for 3 species under 2 genera, 2 families, and Blattella germanica was the predominant species, accounting for 92.16%. The active peak of cockroaches was between June and October. Infestation situation of cockroaches in farm produce trade market was the most serious, the others were restaurants, hotels, and so on. Conclusion The infestation of cockroaches was serious in farm produce trade market, restaurants, and hotels. The effective measures should be taken to prevent and control the cockroaches targeted.

  11. Efficacy of 2%deltamethrin insect?resistant mat against cockroach%2%溴氰菊酯防虫垫对蜚蠊的灭效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾乐乐; 张海洋; 朱长强; 郑剑; 贾德胜; 黎胜; 谭伟龙; 姜志宽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of 2% deltamethrin insect?resistant mat against cockroach in the lab and field. Methods Carrying on with the method of GB/T 13917.1-2009 to observe the efficacy of 2% deltamethrin insect?resistant mat against cockroach in the laboratory and conducting an experiment against cockroach in a major hospital ward in Nanjing. Results The laboratory test showed that KT50 of insect?resistant mat was 13.4 min against Periplaneta americana and 9.6 min against Blattella germanica. The mortality was 100% after 72 h. No large numbers of dead cockroach appeared after 1 d, 3 d and 7 d. After 30 d, the declining rate of density was 43.1%, 68.5% after 60 d. Conclusion The 2%deltamethrin insect?resistant mat has better effects on killing cockroach in the laboratory. Short term efficacy against cockroach was not obvious, but it can be used with the quick killing insects against cockroach in hospital.%目的 观察2%溴氰菊酯防虫垫对蜚蠊的防治效果.方法 依照GB/T 13917.1-2009,观察2%溴氰菊酯防虫垫的实验室灭蠊效果,选取南京市某三甲医院的某个病区观察现场灭蠊效果.结果 防虫垫实验室药效实验中,室温存放2年的2%溴氰菊酯防虫垫对美洲大蠊的半数致死时间(KT50)为13.4 min,对德国小蠊的KT50为9.6 min,72 h死亡率为100%.现场实验,施放1、3、7 d均只出现少量蜚蠊死亡,30 d后蜚蠊密度下降率为43.1%,60 d后密度下降率为68.5%.结论 2%溴氰菊酯防虫垫实验室存放2年对两种蜚蠊仍有较好的杀灭效果,现场杀灭德国小蠊,短期效果不明显,与快速灭蠊药剂配合使用可作为医院长效灭蠊产品.

  12. 菏泽市蜚蠊侵害现状调查%Heze City cockroach invasion situation investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维英; 刘素芬

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解菏泽市城区蜚蠊的侵害状况,分析蜚蠊传播的影响因素,防止与蜚蠊相关的虫媒传染病的发生流行.方法 选择农贸市场1处、餐饮2处、宾馆1处、医院1家和居民区1个,应用粘捕法进行密度监测,统计数量并分类鉴定.结果 菏泽市蜚蠊以德国小蠊为优势种群,没有发现其它种类的蜚蠊.在调查的165个监测点中,134个监测点有蜚蠊滋生,阳性率81.2%,虫密度8.75只/间.结论 菏泽市的蜚蠊侵害以医院、宾馆、居民住宅为主,餐饮行业侵害率较低,农贸市场没有发现蜚蠊侵害.%Objective About Heze City cockroach invasion situation and analysis of factors influencing the spread of cockroaches, prevent the occurrence of epidemic associated with cockroach insect borne infectious diseases.Method 1 farmers'markets, 2 restaurants, 1 hotels, 1 hospitals and 1 residential areas, the application of sticky trap method for density monitoring, statistics and classification of identification.Result Heze City cockroach Blattella germanica was the dominant species, no other species was found. In a survey of 165 monitoring points, 134 monitoring points,there are cockroaches breeding,the positive rate was 81.2%, 8.75/insect density.Conclusion Heze City of cockroaches in hospitals,hotels,residential based,catering industry infestation rate is low,farmers market found no cockroaches.

  13. 儿童变应性鼻炎吸入性和食入性变应原比较%Inhalation versus food allergens in children with allergic rhinitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卡凡; 邝立

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨佛山地区儿童变应性鼻炎(AR)患者吸入性和食入性变应原的种类和分布情况.方法 选取300例近2年门诊儿童AR患者进行吸入性和食入性变应原皮肤点刺试验,分析比较佛山地区AR患者变应原分布特点.结果 300例儿童患者中,吸入组变应原SPT阳性反应243例(81.00%),变应原排列前位的为屋尘螨、粉尘螨、热带螨、德国小蠊、狗毛;食入组中SPT阳性反应105例(35.00%),变应原排列依次为螃蟹、虾、花生、桃子.结论 佛山地区AR患者的主要变应原是尘螨、蟑螂及海鲜类食入性变应原.%Objective To investigate the distribution of inhalation and food allergens in children with allergic rhinitis in Fosha.Methods 300 children were detected by skin prick test in the past two years and then analyzed the distribution of allergens.Results In the inhalation group,243 of 300 cases (81.00%) got positive reaction; the top allergens were house dust mite,farina mite,tropical mite,blattella germanica,and dog hair.In the food group,the ratio of positive reaction was 35.00% (105/300); the top common allergens were crab,shrimp,peanut,and peach.Conclusions The main allergens of children with allergic rhinitis in Foshan include dust mites,cockroaches,and seafood.

  14. Aeroallergen spectrum of patients with child allergic rhinitis in Changsha area of China%长沙地区562例变应性鼻炎患儿变应原谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟竹青; 王芳; 王天生; 李亮明; 谭国林

    2011-01-01

    目的:调查长沙地区变应性鼻炎患儿的变应原分布情况及其阳性率,并分析其相关因素.方法:应用13种标准化吸入变应原对562例变应性鼻炎患儿进行变应原皮肤点刺试验,并详细采集病史资料.结果:457例呈阳性反应(81.3%),其主要变应原均为粉尘螨和屋尘螨,其次为热带螨、美洲大蠊、德国小蠊及狗毛等.花粉变应原在该组十分少见,城市儿童变应性鼻炎的患病率显著高于农村(P<0.01).结论:长沙地区变应性鼻炎患儿的主要变应原为尘螨,与居住环境有关,多数患儿可应用螨变应原进行特异性免疫治疗.变应原皮肤点刺试验应用于儿童变应性鼻炎的诊断是一种安全的方法.%Objective:To investigate aeroallergen spectrum and allergy positive rates of patients with child allergic rhinitis and analyze its related factors. Method:Skin prick test was carried out in 562 cases with child allergic rhinitis using 13 inhaled allergens, and detailed history was collected in all cases. Result: Four hundred and fifty-seven (81. 3%) of 562 cases showed positive reaction to at least one allergen out of 13 allergens. The most common allergens found in patients was dermatophagoides farinae and dermatophagoides pteronyssinus,and positive reaction was 93. 1% in child allergic rhinitis, followed by tropical mite, periplaneta americana, blattella germanica and dog hair. The pollen allergen, most common in American and European, was pretty rare in this study. The prevalence of child allergic rhinitis was significantly higher in urban than in rural(P<0. 01). There was no adverse effect appeared in children with allergic rhinitis underwent skin prick test. Conclusion: The major allergen of allergic rhinitis is mite for child allergic rhinitis, and relates to housing enviroment. Most of patients with child allergic rhinitis can be treated by the mite specific immunotherapy. The skin prick test is a safe technique for diagnosis of

  15. Aeroallergen spectrum of patients with allergic rhinitis in Enshi area%恩施州地区变应性鼻炎患者的吸入变应原谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 周意; 万静; 刘忠

    2011-01-01

    目的:调查恩施州地区变应性鼻炎患者变应原的分布,并分析其相关因素.方法:应用13种标准化吸入变应原对463例疑似变应性鼻炎患者进行皮肤点刺实验,并详细采集病史资料.结果:387例(83.6%)患者变应原呈阳性反应,阳性率相对较高的变应原依次为粉尘螨、屋尘螨、热带螨、美洲大蠊、德国小蠊及狗毛.对单类变应原呈阳性反应的占51.9%,其中大多数是螨类,占49.6%.变应原阳性强弱与家族史、是否伴哮喘、年龄及居住环境显著相关.结论:恩施州地区变应性鼻炎的主要变应原为尘螨,其阳性强弱与遗传、哮喘、年龄及居住环境有关.%Objective: To investigate aeroallergen spectrum of patients with allergic rhinitis in Enshi area and analyze its related factors. Method:Skin prick test was carried out in 463 patients with allergic rhinitis with 13 inhaled allergens. Detailed history was collected in all cases. Result: Three hundred and eigty-seven cases(83. 6 %)showed positive reaction to at least one allergen of 13 allergens. The most common allergens found in patients were dermatophagoides farinae and dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, followed by tropical mite、periplaneta americana,blattella germanica and dog hair. The positive reaction rate of single specie allergen were 51.9%, and most of them was positive to mites(49. 6 %). The positive reaction degree was significantly related to family history, asthma ,age and housing enviroment. Conclusion:The major allergen of allergic rhinitis was mite. The positive reaction degree related to genetics, asthma, age and housing enviroment.

  16. Screening effective insecticides for controlling mosquito, fly and cockroach%对蚊蝇和蟑螂有效防治药剂的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄静; 靳增军; 王志强; 王建蕊; 王向文; 李现亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective The effect of four kinds of insecticides against Culex pipiens pallens,Musca domestica and Blattella germanica were determined, in order to provide scientific data for vector control. Methods Under laboratory conditions, using soaking, topical application and residual smearing methods. Results The LC50 of delta-methrin to mosquito was 0. 009 1 mg/L, and the toxicity was the highest. The toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin was the second and its LC50 to mosquito was 0. 012 6 mg/L. The toxicity of tetramethrin was the lowest. The LD50 of lambda-cyhalothrin was 0.008 3 礸/ ? to fly. Propoxur was the lowest toxicity. For cockroach, the KT50 of lambda-cyhalothrin, delta-methrin and fenobucarb were 10. 24,10. 85 and 12. 96 min respectively. Conclusion For fly and cockroach, the toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin was the highest. The toxicity of delta-methrin to mosquito was the strongest. The control effect of beta-cyfluthrin was the best of them.%目的 掌握多种药剂对淡色库蚊、家蝇和德国小蠊的杀灭效果,为有效控制媒介生物提供依据.方法 在室内条件下分别采用幼虫浸渍法、微量点滴法、三角烧瓶药膜法.结果 溴氰菊酯对淡色库蚊幼虫敏感性最高,毒力最大,LC50为0.009 1 mg/L;高效氯氟氰菊酯次之,LC50为0.0126 mg/L;胺菊酯毒力较弱.家蝇对高效氯氟氰菊酯敏感性同样最高,LD50为0.008 3μg/♀,残杀威毒力最弱.高效氯氟氰菊酯、溴氰菊酯和仲丁威对德国小蠊的KT50分别为10.24、10.85和12.96 min,毒力较强.结论 家蝇、德国小蠊对高效氯氟氰菊酯的敏感性最高,淡色库蚊幼虫对溴氰菊酯的敏感性最高,但高效氯氰菊酯的杀灭效果强于其他.

  17. [Anne Arold. Kontrastive Analyse...] / Paul Alvre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvre, Paul, 1921-2008

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Arold, Anne. Kontrastive analyse der Wortbildungsmuster im Deutschen und im Estnischen (am Beispiel der Aussehensadjektive). Tartu, 2000. (Dissertationes philologiae germanicae Universitatis Tartuensis)

  18. Texas Studies in Bilingualism. Spanish, French, German, Czech, Polish, Sorbian, and Norwegian in the Southwest. (With a Concluding Chapter on Code-Switching and Modes of Speaking in American Swedish.) Studia Linguistica Germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Glenn G., Ed.

    This book contains studies of seven non-English languages spoken in Texas, Oklahoma and Louisiana, as well as a final chapter based on data obtained from Swedish-English bilinguals in Massachusetts, Illinois, and Minnesota. The individual studies are: Lurline H. Coltharp, "Invitation to the Dance: Spanish in the El Paso Underworld"; Janet B.…

  19. 萜类化合物对德国小蠊驱避活性的研究%Repellent activity evaluation of terpenoids against German cockroaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩招久; 王宗德; 姜志宽; 钱万红; 陈金珠; 郑卫青

    2012-01-01

    Objective To screen and evaluate the repellent activity of terpenoids compounds isolated or synthesized from turpentine against adult male German cockroaches(Blattella germanica). Methods Bioassay with dipped filter papers. Results Among those 43 terpenoids compounds, four compounds, namely hydroxycitronellal, menthol, hydroxy-citronellal propionate and campholenic aldehyde propylene glycol 1,3 - acetal displayed the most powerful activity in the preliminary screening test using dipped filter paper at the dose of 340 礸/cm2. Further test with geometric series doses for the RD50s (dose of 50% repellency) reveal that the RD50s were 154. 7, 56. 2, 165. 9 and 151. 3 礸/cm2 for hydroxycitronellal, menthol, hydroxycitronellal propionate and campholenic aldehyde propylene glycol 1,3?acetal respectively, less than diethyltoluamide (DEET) with the RD50 of 194.5 礸/cm2. Conclusion It is supposed that these four terpenoids, hydroxycitronellal, menthol, hydroxycitronellal propionate and campholenic aldehyde propylene glycol 1 ,3 - acetal would be potential and promising cockroach repellents.%目的 筛选评估萜类化合物对德国小蠊的驱避活性.方法 滤纸浸液法生物测定.结果 43个萜类化合物在剂量为340 μg/cm2时对德国小蠊雄性成虫驱避活性的初步测试结果显示,羟基香茅醛、薄荷醇、羟基香茅醛丙酸酯、龙脑烯醛缩-1,3-丙二醇等4个化合物表现出了较高的驱避活性.对这4个化合物采用几何浓度梯度进一步测试,并与目前广泛应用的昆虫驱避剂避蚊胺(DEET)进行比较.羟基香茅醛、薄荷醇、羟基香茅醛丙酸酯、龙脑烯醛缩-1,3-丙二醇的驱避中量(RD50)分别为154.7、56.2、165.9和151.3μg/cm2,均低于DEET的RD50(194.5 μg/cm2).结论 本项研究结果说明,羟基香茅醛、薄荷醇、羟基香茅醛丙酸酯、龙脑烯醛缩-1,3-丙二醇具有作为蟑螂驱避剂的应用前景.

  20. 济宁市蜚蠊侵害现况及抗药性调查%Study of cockroach infestation and insecticide resistance in the City of Jining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝学安; 梁玉民

    2011-01-01

    目的 掌握济宁市蜚蠊侵害现况及其抗药性、种群分布、季节消长和密度等情况. 方法 采用粘捕法捕捉蜚蠊,调查其种类及侵害程度;采用三角烧瓶药膜接触法检测蜚蠊抗药性. 结果 本次共回收有效粘蟑纸5400张,捕获蜚蠊715只,均为德国小蠊,其中成虫421只(占58.9%),若虫294只(占41.1%);蟑螂总密度为0.13只/张,侵害率为9.11%;蜚蠊密度以5~8月最高.场所蜚蠊密度以宾馆最高,侵害率医院最高,其次是餐饮和宾馆,居民区最低.济宁市德国小蠊对高效氯氰菊酯已产生高抗药性,对残杀威、溴氰菊酯和敌敌畏仍然敏感. 结论 济宁市宾馆、餐饮、医院为蜚蠊高侵害场所,并有向居民区快速扩散的趋势,必须加强对重点行业的管理,采取综合性防制措施,控制蜚蠊扩散和蔓延.%Objective To ascertain the level of cockroach infestation in the City of Jining and determine the insecticide resistance, population distribution, seasonal variations, and density of cockroaches. Methods Cockroaches caught with glue traps were used to investigate the types of cockroaches and extent of their infestation. An Erlenmeyer flask was used to expose cockroaches to a film of pesticide to test resistance. Results Five thousand four hundred sticky traps were collected and 715 cockroaches were caught. All were Blattella germanica, consisting of 421 adults (58. 9%) and 294 nymphs (41. 1%). Cockroach density was 0. 13 per trap and the rate of infestation was 9. 11%. Cockroach density peaked in May, June, July, and August. Infestation was worst in hospitals, followed by restaurants and hotels; density was lowest in residential areas. Cockroaches in the City of Jining were highly resistant to beta-cypermethrin but still suscepti-ble to propoxur, deltamethrin, and dichlorvos. Conclusion Hotels, restaurants, and hospitals were heavily infested, and infestation is rapidly spreading to residential areas. Management of key

  1. 宜昌市城区常见病媒生物监测调查研究%Research on main vector in urban area of Yichang city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱彬彬; 李枝金; 李慧甫; 沈超; 薛宏俊; 杜平; 雷晓春

    2011-01-01

    目的 掌握宜昌市城区常见病媒生物种群及季节消长规律,为科学制定病媒生物防治方案提供有力依据.方法 采用夹夜法监测鼠密度,诱蚊灯法监测蚊密度,笼诱法监测蝇密度,粘捕法监测蟑螂密度.结果 宜昌市城区鼠类以褐家鼠、小家属为优势鼠种,分别占捕鼠总数的67.44%和27.91%;蚊类以致倦库蚊、骚扰阿蚊、白纹伊蚊为优势种,分别占捕获总量的40.78%、25.22%、18.07%;蝇类以家蝇、丝光绿蝇、巨尾阿丽蝇为优势种,分别占捕蝇总数的39.66%、15.76%和13.55%;蟑螂以德国小蠊、美洲大蠊为优势种,分别占捕蟑总量的59.17%、25.00%.4种病媒生物密度均有明显的季节性,5-9月为活动高峰期.结论 根据不同季节、不同生境,采用科学方法防控病媒生物.%Objective To investigate the population and density of main vector in urban area of Yichang city. Methods The rat density was monitored by night traps, mosquito density by the light traps, fly density by cage traps and cockroach density by the glue traps. Results Major rat species were Rattus norvegicus(67.44% ) and Mus mus-culm(27.9\\%) , major mosquito species were CuLex pipens quinquefasciatus (40. 78% ) ,Armigeres subalbatus (25. 22% ) and Aedes albopictus( 18.07% ) ,major fly species were Musca domestica(39.66% ) ,Lucilia sericata( 15.76% ) and Aldrichi-na grahami( 13.55% ) ,major cockroach species were Blattella germanica(59.17% ) and Periplaneta americana(25.00% ). The density of main vector was rather higher from May to September. Conclusion It is necessary to take scientific method for controlling vector according to different season and environment.

  2. 2005-2010年浙江省磐安县病媒生物监测结果分析%Analysis of vector density surveillance in Pan' an county, Zhejiang province from 2005 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应凯满; 郑柏福

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the density of primary vector species and their seasonal fluctuation in Pan 'an county for improvement of prevention and control strategies. Methods Light traps, cage traps, roach pastes and night traps were used to capture mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rodents, respectively, for density calculations. Results From 2005 to 2010, the average density of mosquitoes in Pan'an county was 2.04 per lamp-hour, with the prominent species being Culex pipiens pallens /Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus accounting for 71.81%. The average density of flies was 1.83 per cage with Chrysomya megacephala and Musca domestica as the predominant species, which accounted for 52.62% and 37.81%, respectively. The density of cockroaches was 0.91 per paste, with Blattella germanica as the predominant species (92.10%). The rodent density was 0.89%with Niviventer fulvescens as the predominant species (37.60%). Most mosquitoes and flies appeared in May; the former became most active in July and the latter in June through August. Cockroaches and rats were observed throughout the year with relatively high roach density from March to October and generally peak rodent density in September. Conclusion The population composition and seasonal fluctuation of primary vectors in Pan'an county are clarified.%目的 掌握浙江省磐安县主要病媒生物种群密度及其消长规律,为控制病媒生物的危害提供科学依据.方法 采用诱蚊灯法监测蚊密度,笼诱法监测蝇密度,粘捕法监测蜚蠊密度,夹夜法监测鼠密度.结果 2005-2010年磐安县蚊类平均密度为2.04只/(灯·h),以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的71.81%;蝇密度指数为1.83只/笼,优势种为家蝇和大头金蝇,分别占捕获总数的52.62%和37.81%;蜚蠊密度为0.91只/张,优势种为德国小蠊,占捕获总数的92.10%;鼠密度为0.89%,优势种为针毛鼠,占捕获总数的37.60%.蚊和蝇5月开始活动,蚊类于7

  3. Research on population and distribution of three medical insects in Yulin urban area of Shaanxi province%陕西省榆林市城区3种病媒昆虫种群及分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘建军; 吕文; 高鸿; 李东波; 孙养信

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the population composition, density and distribution of vectors in Yulin urban area, providing evidence for control of these insects. Methods Human baited net trap method and lamp baited trap method were employed for mosquito collection, cage-trapping for fly collection and sticky-paste for cockroach collection. Results Mosquitoes caught belonged to 5 species 4 genera, with Culex pipiens pallens being the dominant species. The average density based on the human baited net trap method was 19.11 per net per hour, or 1.61 per lamp per hour based on lamp baited trap method. The density in the urban area was higher than that in the villages. Flies belonged 23 species 19 genera 5 family, and the common species were Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia sericata, Musca domestica, Muscina stabulans, Boettcherisca peregrine and L. cuprina, accounting for 36.49%, 20.41%, 14.78%, 10.61%, 8.65% and 2.61%, respectively. The average density was 4.42/ cage, the highest density observed in the farm produce markets. Cockroach density was 16.28/piece ? night, highest observed in the restaurants, with Blattella germanica being the predominant species. The peak of flies and cockroaches was in August, and that of mosquitoes in July. Conclusion The population composition, density and distribution of vectors were basically grasped. Integrated measures should be taken with focus on such major areas as restaurants, farm produce markets and residential areas.%目的 调查榆林市城区蚊、蝇、蜚蠊3种病媒昆虫种类、数量及分布,为开展病媒生物防制工作提供科学依据.方法 蚊类调查采用入帐诱法和诱蚊灯法,蝇类采用笼诱法,蜚蠊采用粘捕法.结果 捕获蚊类4属5种,淡色库蚊为优势种,帐诱法总密度为19.11只/(顶·h),诱蚊灯法总密度为1.61只/(灯·h),蚊密度城区高于周边农村.捕获蝇类5科19属23种,常见蝇种有大头金蝇、丝光绿蝇、家蝇、厩腐蝇、棕尾别麻蝇和铜

  4. Analysis of vector surveillance in Ningbo, 2014%宁波市2014年病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐荣; 马晓; 朱光锋; 王桂安; 许国章

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide scientific data for vector control after investigating its community structure and seasonal fluctuation in Ningbo, 2014. Methods Mouse trap, light trap, cage trap and glue trap were used to catch rodents, mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches respectively. Results The rodents were identified as 4 species of 3 genera, 1 family and Rattus norvegicus was predominant species and occupied 62.17%. The mosquitoes were identified as 4 species, 3 genera, 1 family and the dominant species, Culex pipiens pallens, occupied 61.54%. The flies belonged to 13 species of 7 genera, 3 families. Musca domestica was predominant species and occupied 24.10%. The cockroach were identified as 3 species of 2 genera, 1 family and Blattella germanica was predominant species and occupied 80.90%. Rodents and cockroaches were active throughout the year and active period was from April to October. Seasonality of mosquitoes and flies was obvious. The active peak of mosquitoes and flies were both on July. Conclusion The community structure and seasonal fluctuation of vector were preliminarily known. It should strengthen monitoring and control of vectors and vector borne diseases in Ningbo.%目的 调查宁波市2014年病媒生物鼠、蚊、蝇、蜚蠊的种群构成和季节消长,为开展病媒生物防制工作提供科学依据.方法 鼠类监测采用夹夜法;蚊类监测采用诱蚊灯法;蝇类监测采用笼诱法;蜚蠊监测采用粘捕法.结果2014年全年共捕获鼠类1科3属4种,褐家鼠为优势种,占捕鼠总数的62.17%;蚊类1科3属4种,淡色库蚊为优势种,占61.54%;蝇类3科7属13种,家蝇为优势种,占24.10%;蜚蠊1科2属3种,德国小蠊为优势种,占80.90%.鼠类和蜚蠊全年均有活动,没有明显的季节性;蚊类和蝇类活动有明显的季节性,高峰期均为6月.结论 基本掌握了宁波市病媒生物鼠、蚊、蝇、蜚蠊的种群构成和季节消长规律.建议加强对病媒生物及其传播疾病的长期监

  5. Analysis of vector surveillance from 2011 to 2013 in Zhejiang province, China%浙江省2011-2013年病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑜燕; 龚震宇; 侯娟; 郭颂; 王金娜; 凌锋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province from 2011 to 2013, the aim is to provide scientific and technical support for the prevention and control of vectors. Methods Mosquitoes, flies, rodents and cockroaches were monitored with mosquito lamps, cage traps, traps set at night and glue traps. Results From 2011 to 2013, the mosquito density was 1.52, 1.33 and 1.62 per lamp⁃hour, respectively, with the highest density found in livestock pens, and the dominant species were Culex pipiens pallen (sure not Cx. quinquefasciatus), accounting for 57.44%. Mosquitoes appeared from April and peak in June through August. The fly density was 8.77, 5.67 and 3.47 per cage, respectively, with the dominant species were Chrysomya megacephala from 2011 to 2012, which became Musca domestica in 2013. The rodent density was 0.89%, 0.81%and 0.78%, respectively, with the dominant species were Rattus norvegicus, accounting for 57.70%. Rodents were observed throughout the whole year. The cockroach density was 0.54, 0.37 and 0.35 per glue trap, respectively, with the dominant species were Blattella germanica, accounting for 88.42%. Conclusion Species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province were analyzed through 3-year surveillance, mitigation measures should be taken accordingly to control vectors.%目的:了解2011-2013年浙江省居民区病媒生物种群构成、密度及其变化趋势,为浙江省病媒生物防控提供理论基础。方法蚊、鼠、蝇、蜚蠊分别采用诱蚊灯法、夹夜法、笼诱法和粘捕法进行监测。结果2011-2013年浙江省蚊密度分别为1.52、1.33和1.62只/(灯·h),牲畜棚最高,以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的57.44%,高峰期为6-8月;蝇密度分别为8.77、5.67和3.47只/笼,2011-2012年以大头金蝇为主要优势蝇种,其次为家蝇,2013年则以家蝇为主

  6. 通化市2010年病媒生物监测情况分析%Surveillance of vectors in Tonghua in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏; 于洁; 黄庆江; 王志刚; 刘亚芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To learn species distribution and seasonal fluctuation of mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rats in Tonghua. Methods Survey mosquito density with the trap-mosquito lamp method,fly density with the trap-fly cage method,rat density with the trap method,cockroach density with the stick cockroach plate method. Results 2 309 mosquitoes were captured, which belonged to 5 species and 3 genera. The dominant species was Aedes vexans. 1 373 flies were captured, which belonged to 27species, 17genera and 5 families. The dominant species are Musca domesti-ca,Muscina stabulans and Lucilia sericata. 370 rats were captured,which belonged to 3 species, 3 genera and 1 family. The dominant species was Raltus norvegicus. 5 850 cockroaches were captured, which were Blattella germanica in all the habitats,the cockroach density was 1. 73 pieces per sticky sheet, the encroachment rate was 17. 77% . Conclusion The sewer will not be ignored to control the mosquito larva breeding area. The regular drug prevention will be taken to control its breeding. It is the important means and measures to control the dominant fly species breeding. Cockroaches are controlled by the method of integrated management that mainly take environment management and control the key area in all the trade. It is the best time to carry out large area deratization in the spring.%目的 为了解通化市蚊、蝇、蟑螂、鼠种群分布特点和季节消长.方法 蚊监测:采用诱蚊灯法;蝇监测:采用诱蝇笼法;蟑螂监测:采用粘捕法;鼠监测:采用鼠夹法.结果 蚊监测:共捕获成蚊2309只,隶属3属5种,优势种刺扰伊蚊.蝇监测:全年共捕获成蝇1373只,隶属5科17属27种,优势种家蝇、厩腐蝇、丝光绿蝇.蟑螂监测:共捕蟑螂5850只,密度指数为2.73只/张,侵害率为17.77%.鼠监测:共捕获鼠370只,隶属1科3属3种,优势种群为褐家鼠.结论 控制通化市区蚊虫孳生地,下管道将成为不容忽视的场所.应定期采取

  7. Investigation on the population construction and infestation of cockroach in the hospital%医院蟑螂种群构成及侵害状况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝顶; 姜海; 孙恩涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查芜湖市医院内蟑螂种群构成及侵害状况,为蟑螂的有效防治提供科学依据. 方法 用诱捕法和药激法捕获蟑螂,并进行种类鉴定、计数及数据分析.结果 共捕获蟑螂574只,分类鉴定为美洲大蠊、黑胸大蠊、澳洲大蠊和德国小蠊;医院内各生境类型均有蟑螂孳生繁衍,其中门诊部、住院部和食堂内蟑螂以德国小蠊为优势种,行政办公室以美洲大蠊为优势种.医院蟑螂平均侵害率为80.33%( 294/366),平均孳生密度为1.57只/间;其中医院食堂蟑螂侵害最严重,侵害率为100% (54/54),与门诊部、住院部和行政办公室相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且蟑螂平均孳生密度为4.74只/间;住院部普通病房受嫜螂侵害最严重,侵害率为93.65%(59/63),与高干病房、值班室、ICU和手术室相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),且蟑螂平均孳生密度为1.71只/间.结论 芜湖市医院蟑螂侵害状况较为普遍,其中医院食堂和住院部普通病房内蟑螂侵害严重,蟑螂防治工作十分紧迫.%Objective To survey the population construction and infestations of cockroaches in different habitat, so as to provide evidences for cockroaches control in the hospital. Methods To catch cockroaches by the sticky traps method and the medicine stir up method, and the cockroaches were isolated, identified and counted. Results 574 cockroaches were caught. They were resided respectively in 2 families, 2 genera and 4 species, namely Periplaneta. americana, P. fuliginosa, P. australariae and Blattella germanica. Cockroaches were caught in different habits. In the outpatient department, inpaticnt department and canteen, the preponderant species of species composing was B. germanica. With the difference, P. americana was the predominant cockroach breed in the office of hospital administration. The average infestation rate reached 80. 33 % (294/366) , and the average density of cockroaches was 1. 57

  8. FGLamide Allatostatin genes in Arthropoda: introns early or late?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Francisco; Bendena, William G; Chang, Belinda S W; Tobe, Stephen S

    2009-07-01

    FGLamide allatostatins are invertebrate neuropeptides which inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Dictyoptera and related orders and also show myomodulatory activity. The FGLamide allatostatin (AST) gene structure in Dictyoptera is intronless within the ORF, whereas in 9 species of Diptera, the FGLamide AST ORF has one intron. To investigate the evolutionary history of AST intron structure, (intron early versus intron late hypothesis), all available Arthropoda FGLamide AST gene sequences were examined from genome databases with reference to intron presence and position/phase. Three types of FGLamide AST ORF organization were found: intronless in I. scapularis and P. humanus corporis; one intron in D. pulex, A. pisum, A. mellifera and five Drosophila sp.; two introns in N. vitripennis, B. mori strains, A. aegypti, A. gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus. The literature suggests that for the majority of genes examined, most introns exist between codons (phase 0) which may reflect an ancient function of introns to separate protein modules. 60% of the FGLamide AST ORFs introns were between the first and second base within a codon (phase 1), 28% were between the second and third nucleotides within a codon (phase two) and 12% were phase 0. As would be required for correct intron splicing consensus sequence, 84% of introns were in codons starting with guanine. The positioning of introns was a maximum of 9 codons from a dibasic cleavage site. Our results suggest that the introns in the analyzed species support the intron late model.

  9. Clinical analysis of lnhaled al ergens in 579 children with al ergic rhinitis in Guangzhou%广州地区579例儿童过敏性鼻炎患者吸入过敏原的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大威; 丘小汕; 何健荣; 刘立

    2015-01-01

    .58% and 74.78%, respectively. The next in order were dog dander, cat dander, Blattella germanica, Cladosporium herbarum, mouldⅡ, treeⅠ, Alternaria, weed and Staphlococcus. 121 cases were positive with a single allergen occupying 26.9% of the total number of all positive cases including 107 cases of mites. Besides, 261 cases were positive with two types of allergens and 68 cases with three or more allergens. The positive rate of SPT test was related to age (P 7~10 years old (75.0) > 5~6 years old (64.1%). Conclusion Household dust mites and dermatophagoides were the most common allergens in children with AR in Guangzhou. Most allergy suffers possessed allergic constitutions, and were allergic to more than one type of allergens. It is noticeable that the positive rate of SPT was related to age.

  10. 天津市东丽区病媒生物密度调查结果与分析%Vector density survey results and analysis of Dongli district, Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To get an insight into the species of biological vectors and their seasonal fluctuation in Dongli district, Tianjin, providing a scientific basis for the control of the hazards of biological vectors. Methods The national biological vector surveillance program was followed for the selection of the surveillance sites, with the night trapping method, trapping lamp method, cage trap method and adhesive killing method used to investigate the density of the rats, mosquitoes, flies and cockroaches. Results It was found that Rattus norvegicus was the dominant species in Dongli district, accounting for 79.55% of the total, followed by Mus musculus, accounting for 20.45%. The rat density peaked in August, followed in May. The density of mosquitoes varied with different habitats with the highest density seen in the livestock shed accounting for 19.52/(lights · h), followed by farmer houses, green parks, hospitals and residential areas. Musca domestica was the dominant fly species, accounting for 58.40% of the total number of the captured. The brown-tail Boettcherisca peregrina and M. sorbes accounted for 20.41% and 7.13%, respectively, the habitats listed in a descending order in terms of the number of flies captured were farmers' houses> markets > residential > green belt. The dominant species of cockroach was Blattella germanica, accounting for 99.81% of the total number of the captured, with its density and infestation rates highest in the farmers market. Conclusion Of all the surveillance sites investigated, the highest rat density is seen in catering industry, the highest rat density of mosquitoes in cattle sheds and the highest density of flies and cockroaches in farmers markets. Prevention and control of the vectors should be taken seriously.%目的 了解天津市东丽区病媒生物的种类及其季节消长规律,为控制病媒生物的危害提供科学依据.方法 按照全国病媒生物监测方案设置监测点,分别采用夹夜法、诱蚊灯

  11. Characteristics of aeroallergens of children with allergic rhinitis in Foshan%佛山地区儿童变应性鼻炎患者吸入性变应原特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于青青; 王跃建; 唐隽; 刘悦胜; 刘美华; 马新苗

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distribution of aeroallergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) in Foshan city and to analyze the relevant factors.Methods 562 children with AR treated at our outpatient department from September,2012 to September,2015 underwent skin prick tests (SPT) with allergopharma skin prick kit,which included 11 kinds of standardized common aeroallergens.The positive rate of variety of allergens was calculated.Their gender,age,family history,and histories of asthma and eczema were analyzed.Results The total positive rate of aeroallergens was 82.56% (464/562).The positive rates of dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (80.64%),dermatophagoides farina (78.66%),and tropical mites (59.31%) were the top three and the positive rates of dog hair (15.36%),cat hair (12.63%),and Blattella germanica (12.32%) came next.Among the positive patients,16 cases (3.30%) were allergic to only one aeroallergen,39(8.02%) to two,and 431 (88.68%)to three or more than three.The positive rate of SPT was different in three different age groups and the highest one was that of the 10-14 years old group (90.18%),that of the 7-10 years old group (87.57%) came next,and that of the 3-7 years old group (79.73%) was the lowest,but with no statistical differences between each two groups (x2=2.452,P>0.05).There was statistical difference in the positive rate of SPT between the female group and the male group (x2=7.195,P<0.05).The positive rate correlated with family history and histories of eczema and asthma.Conclusions The main aeroallergens in children with allergic rhinitis in Foshan city tested by SPT are dermatophagoides pteronyssinus,dermatophagoides farina,and tropical mites.The positive rate of aeroallergens correlates with the sex and age of children.The positive rate of children with family history and the histories of asthma and eczema is much higher than that of the control group.Early skin prick test is helpful for the early diagnosis and

  12. Allergen characteristic and clinical detection meaning of children asthma%儿童哮喘过敏原特征及其临床检测意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴栩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore allergen characteristic and clinical detection meaning of children asthma. Methods With case-control study method, 135 children with asthma and 140 healthy children through physical examination were respec-tively accepted questionnaire investigation, skin prick test and serum allergen detection. The positive rates of inhaled allergens and food allergens, family history of asthma and history of hypersensitivity disease, IgE positive rate of serum were compared be-tween the two groups. Results The positive rates of allergen such as dust mite, pollen, cat dog dander, plumery, Blattella ger-manica, milk, egg white and flesh in the asthma group were much higher than those of the control group (P<0. 05). Multiple factors analysis result showed that these factors of family history of allergy (OR=3. 662), history of asthma of first-degree relative (OR=8. 388), history of asthma of second-degree relative (OR=5. 775), allergic rhinitis history (OR=5. 569), drug allergy history (OR=7. 942) and eczema history (OR=6. 716) in the asthma group were much higher than those of the control group (P<0. 01). The positive rates of TIgE and SIgE in the asthma group were respectively 48. 1% and 65. 2%, both much higher than those of the control group (22. 9% and 27. 1%, both P<0. 01). Conclusion The influencing factors of asthma include family history of asthma, family history of allergy, eczema history, inhaled allergens and food allergens. Skin prick test and serum IgE detection play an important role in detecting allergen of children asthma.%目的:探讨儿童哮喘的过敏原特征及其临床检测意义。方法采用病例对照的研究方法,对135例哮喘患儿和140例健康体检儿童分别进行问卷调查、皮肤点刺试验、血清过敏原检测等,比较分析2组的吸入性过敏原和食物性过敏原的阳性率、哮喘既往家族史及过敏性疾病史、血清学IgE阳性率等。结果哮喘组的尘螨、花粉、猫狗皮毛

  13. Pyrigemmula, a novel hyphomycete genus on grapevine and tree bark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magyar, Donat; Shoemaker, R.A.; Bobvos, J.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The anamorphic taxon Pyrigemmula aurantiaca gen. et sp. nov. is described and illustrated from specimens that were collected from the inner bark of living woody hosts (Vitis vinifera, Pyrus communis, Mespilus germanica, Platanus hybrida, Elaeagnus angustifolia) and plant debris in Hungary. The fungu

  14. First European Report of Social Wasps Trapped in Response to Acetic acid, Isobutanol, 2-Methyl-2-propanol, and Heptyl butyrate in Tests Conducted in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five species of social wasps were captured in trapping tests in Hungary that evaluated the attractiveness of acetic acid, isobutanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, and heptyl butyrate to social wasps. Both Vespula vulgaris (L.) and Vespula germanica (Fabr.), were captured in traps baited with isobutanol, t...

  15. The First Treatise in Comparative Education Rediscovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The Latin essay "De re Scholastica Anglica cum Germanica Comparata" (English and German school education compared) published in 1795-1798 by the Freiberg/Saxony grammar school principal Friedrich August Hecht is the first treatise in comparative education. The rediscovery of the text, its earlier mentioning in the history of comparative…

  16. Tacitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, F. R. D.

    As a controversial figure in classical studies, "Tacitus the historian" and "Tacitus the stylist" are pictured in a personal synthesis of new approaches to Tacitean scholarship. The literary character and purpose of the "Agricola" and "Germanica" are discussed prior to an examination of Tacitus' views on the decline of oratory in the "Dialogus".…

  17. Also, spielen wir Theater / Aarne Vinkel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vinkel, Aarne, 1918-2006

    1998-01-01

    Rets. rmt.: Kitching, Laurence. Europe's itinerant players and the advent of German-language theatre in Reval, Estonia. Unpublished petitions of the Swedish era, 1630-1692, in the Reval City Archives. Frankfurt am Main : P. Lang, 1996 (German sudies in Canada; 7); Das deutschsprachige Theater im baltischen Raum, 1630-1918. Frankfurt am Main : P. Lang, 1997 (Thalia Germanica; 1)

  18. The Impact of Geomorphology and Human Disturbances on the Faunal Distributions in Tiquara and Angico Caves of Campo Formoso, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vieira de Araujo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of fauna is important for the understanding of communities and ecosystems, enabling the design of actions for conservation. In the present piece of work, we identified total 45 morphospecies belonging to the order Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Dictyoptera, Araneida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Plecoptera, Amphipoda, Zygentoma, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Psocoptera from two distinct types of caves of Campo Formoso, state of Bahia in Brazil. It was made to provide subsidies for conservation studies. The targeted caves were Tiquara Cave suffered for many years from saltpeter extraction and Angico Cave less visited cave having high tourist potential. Though the conservation status is much better in Angico cave, but we found comparatively more morphospecies in Tiquara cave.

  19. Evolving expression patterns of the homeotic gene Scr in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Karla D; Hrycaj, Steven; Mahfooz, Najmus; Popadic, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    While the mRNA expression patterns of homeotic genes have been examined in numerous arthropod species, data on their protein accumulation is extremely limited. To address this gap, we analyzed the protein expression pattern of the hox gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) in six hemimetabolous insects from four divergent orders (Thysanura, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera and Hemiptera). Our comparative analysis reveals that the original domain of SCR expression was likely confined to the head and then subsequently moved into the prothorax (T1) in winged insect lineages. The data also show a trend toward the posteriorization of the anterior boundary of SCR expression in the head, which starts in the mandibles (Thysanura) and then gradually shifts to the maxillary (Orthoptera) and labial segments (Dictyoptera and Hemiptera), respectively. In Thermobia (firebrat) and Oncopeltus (milkweed bug) we also identify instances where SCR protein is not detected in regions where mRNA is expressed. This finding suggests the presence of a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism of Scr in these species. Finally, we show that SCR expression in insect T1 legs is highly variable and exhibits divergent patterning even among related species. In addition, signal in the prothoracic legs of more basal insect lineages cannot be associated with any T1 specific features, indicating that the acquisition of SCR in this region preceded any apparent gain of function. Overall, our results show that Scr expression has diverged considerably among hemimetabolous lineages and establish a framework for subsequent analyses to determine its role in the evolution of the insect head and prothorax.

  20. Jan Amos Komenský - tänapäeva alushariduse suur eelkäija

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Tutvustus: Jan Amos Komenský. Didactica magna : Stora undervisningsläran, Göteborg, 1989 ; Jan Amos Komenský. Orbis sensualium pictus quadrilinguis : hoc est: omnium fundamentalium, in mundo rerum & in vita actionum, pictura & nomenclatura latina, germanica, hungarica & bohemica, Praha ; Bratislava, 1958. Tallinna Ülikooli pedagoogilise seminari üliõpilased Triinu Lüüde ja Anneli Virves lugesid teoseid inglise keeles ning esinesid ettekannetega Tallinna Ülikooli pedagoogilise seminari 2. kasvatuse ajaloo konverentsil

  1. 蜚蠊的鉴别诊断 ( 续 )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费守华

    1998-01-01

    @@ 2.6 我国室内蜚蠊主要种类形态描述蜚蠊虽然种类较多,但绝大多数种类营野栖生活,仅少数种类栖于室内.根据已有资料和全国各地调查结果,我国室内蜚蠊种类已发现有18种:美洲大蠊Periplaneta americana、澳洲大蠊Periplaneta australasiae、黑胸大蠊Periplaneta fuliginosa、褐斑大蠊Periplaneta brunnea、日本大蠊Periplaneta japonica、淡赤褐大蠊Periplaneta fallax、斑蠊 Neostylopyga rhombifolia、丽郝氏蠊Hebardina concinna、金边土鳖Opisthoplatia orientalis、广纹小蠊Blattella latistriga、德国小蠊Blattella germanica、拟德国小蠊Blattella lituricollis、蔗蠊Pycnoscelus surinamensis、冀地鳖Polyphaga planeyi、中华真地鳖 Eupolyphaga sinensis、云南真地鳖 Eupolyphaga limbata、西藏真地鳖 Eupolyphaga thibetana 、京都亚洲蠊Asiablatta kyotens;其中常见种有6种:美洲大蠊、澳洲大蠊、黑胸大蠊、褐斑大蠊、日本大蠊、德国小蠊.下面对我国室内蜚蠊6个常见种的形态特征予以描述:

  2. Effect of temperature on the progamic phase in high-mountain plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, G; Wagner, J

    2012-03-01

    Progamic processes are particularly temperature-sensitive and, in lowland plants, are usually drastically reduced below 10 °C and above 30 °C. Little is known about how effectively sexual processes of mountain plants function under the large temperature fluctuations at higher altitudes. The present study examines duration and thermal thresholds for progamic processes in six common plant species (Cerastium uniflorum, Gentianella germanica, Ranunculus alpestris, R. glacialis, Saxifraga bryoides, S. caesia) from different altitudinal zones in the European Alps. Whole plants were collected from natural sites shortly before anthesis and kept in a climate chamber until further processing. Flowers with receptive stigmas were hand-pollinated with allopollen and exposed to controlled temperatures between -2 and 40 °C. Pollen performance (adhesion to the stigma, germination, tube growth, fertilisation) was quantitatively analysed, using the aniline blue fluorescence method. Pollen adhesion was possible from -2 to 40 °C. Pollen germination and tube growth occurred from around 0 to 35 °C in most species. Fertilisation was observed from 5 to 30-32 °C (0-35 °C in G. germanica). The progamic phase was shortest in G. germanica (2 h at 30 °C, 12 h at 5 °C, 24 h at 0 °C), followed by R. glacialis (first fertilisation after 2 h at 30 °C, 18 h at 5 °C). In the remaining species, first fertilisation usually occurred after 4-6 h at 30 °C and after 24-30 h at 5 °C. Thus, mountain plants show remarkably flexible pollen performance over a wide temperature range and a short progamic phase, which may be essential for successful reproduction in the stochastic high-mountain climate.

  3. Fluoride gases damages on agricultural and ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, V.; Padalino, O.

    1968-01-01

    Reports are presented concerning fluoride gases from a brick furnace, damaging agricultural and ornamental plants: Prunus armeniaca L. var. Reale d'Imola, Vitis vinifera L. var. Cardinal, Gladiolus spp., Pinus pinea L., Iris germanica L., that are particularly sensitive to these gases. There are descriptions of the morphological alterations and the authors have proven the presence of fluoride in the chemically analyzed samples. There is a list of plants found near the brick furnace that have been classified as (I) highly sensitive; (II) moderately sensitive; (III) very little sensitivity; (IV) immune to fluoride gases. 10 references, 9 figures.

  4. Revision of the enigmatic insect family Anthracoptilidae enlightens the evolution of Palaeozoic stem-dictyopterans

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    Zhaoying Guan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The position of the Palaeozoic Anthracoptilidae has been a major problem of insect systematics for over a century. The previous hypotheses suggested affinities of Anthracoptilidae with the Palaeodictyopteroida, Protorthoptera, Hypoperlida, stem-Mantodea, Paraneoptera, Holometabola, or Eoblattida. Herein we put forward a new hypothesis based mainly on a comprehensive re-evaluation of the wing venation characters and re-examination of the type material of Anthracoptilus perrieri and Mesoptilus dolloi. The Anthracoptilidae are considered as belonging to the paoliid lineage, sister group of the Dictyoptera. In particular this result refutes the presence of Mantodea in the Paleozoic fossil record. The two families Strephocladidae and Strephoneuridae, are considered as junior synonyms of the Anthracoptilidae, while the previous synonymy of the Anthracoptilidae with the Ischnoneuridae is rejected. We consider the Permarrhaphidae, previously considered as synonym of the Anthracoptilidae, (and Permarrhaphus as Insecta incertae sedis. The following new taxa are proposed: Mesoptilus carpenteri sp. nov. from the early Permian of Wellington Formation in Oklahoma (USA which extends the range and distribution of the genus; Pseudomesoptilus gen. nov. is designated to include Mesoptilus sellardsi; Strephocladus permianus sp. nov. from the middle Permian of South of France; Westphaloptilus gallicus gen. et sp. nov. from the Bashkirian of the North of France.

  5. CAPA-peptides of praying mantids (Mantodea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Rene; Predel, Reinhard

    2010-03-01

    Dictyoptera which consist of cockroaches, termites, and praying mantids are among the oldest pterygote insects known. Whereas the localization and sequences of neuropeptides from a number of cockroaches are very well known, nearly nothing is known about the neuropeptides typical of praying mantids. In this study, the neuroanatomy of the median neuroendocrine system in the abdominal ventral nerve cord and the sequences of the CAPA-peptides which are expressed in the respective neuroendocrine cells were analyzed. Altogether, 40 species belonging to different families of Mantodea were included. In contrast to cockroaches, the mantids mostly express two CAPA-periviscerokinins (PVKs), only in Mantis religiosa a third PVK was identified. These PVKs are sequence-related to the PVKs of basal cockroaches (Polyphagidae). In a group of closely related Mantodea (Paramantinae), extended forms of PVK-2 were observed. As shown, these forms are possibly the result of substitutions in the N-terminal cleavage sites of the respective PVKs. No trace of a CAPA-pyrokinin was found in any of the praying mantids.

  6. Primer registro de Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae en la Argentina First record of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae in Argentina

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    Maité Masciocchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus es un véspido social nativo de la región Holártica. En este trabajo reportamos la primera detección de esta especie en Argentina. Obreras de esta avispa fueron capturadas cerca de la ciudad de San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina en Febrero de 2010, mientras se tomaban muestras de otra avispa invasora, Vespula germanica (Fabricius o chaqueta amarilla, de morfología externa y hábitos similares a la anteriormente mencionada. Además, detallamos algunos caracteres de identificación y características biológicas.Vespula vulgaris (Linnaeus is a social vespid native to the Holarctic region. The first detection of this species in Argentina is here reported. Workers were captured close to San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina during February 2010, while sampling for another successful invader, the German wasp or Yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (Fabricius. Both these wasp species are very similar morphologically and share a number of common habits. Also, some identification features and biological characters are here explained.

  7. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Tilahun Birkneh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated.

  8. Baratas (Insecta, Blattaria sinantrópicas na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Synantropic cockroaches (Insecta, Blattaria from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    José Albertino Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A coleta de baratas na cidade de Manaus resultou em seis espécies associadas às habitações, estabelecimentos comerciais e educacionais, sendo quatro predominantemente dentro das habitações, Blatella germanica (Linnaeus, 1758, Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758, P. australasiae (Fabricius, 1775 e duas fora das habitações, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758 e Blaberus parabolicus Walker, 1868. P. americana foi comum tanto interna como externamente às instalações urbanas; P. australasiae foi predominante em barcos; P. surinamensis e B. parabolicus foram invasoras ocasionais de residências na estação chuvosa. São apresentadas fotos coloridas, em tamanho natural, para reconhecimento das espécies.Collection of cockroaches from Manaus resulted in six species associated to human house, commercial buildings and educational buildings, being four species found predominantly indoor, Blatella germanica (Linnaeus, 1758, Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 and P. australasiae (Fabricius, 1775 and two species found predominantly outdoor, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Blaberus parabolicus Walker, 1868 the latter two occasionally house-infesting species in the rainy season. P. americana was common either indoor and outdoor and P. australasiae infesting mainly boats. Color figures in natural size are presented for all species in order to help their identification.

  9. Studies on insecticidal activities and action mechanism of novel benzoylphenylurea candidate NK-17.

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    Yongqiang Li

    Full Text Available Insecticidal activity of NK-17 was evaluated both in laboratory and in field. It was found that the toxicity of NK-17 against S. exigua was 1.93 times and 2.69 times those of hexaflumuron and chlorfluazuron respectively, and the toxicity of NK-17 against P. xylostella was 1.36 times and 1.90 times those of hexaflumuron and chlorfluazuron respectively, and the toxicity of NK-17 against M. separate was 18.24 times those of hexaflumuron in laboratory, and 5% NK-17 EC at 60 g a.i ha(-1 can control S. exigua and P. xylostella with the best control efficiency of about 89% and over 88% respectively in Changsha and Tianjin in field. The insecticidal mechanism of NK-17 was explored for the first time by utilizing the fluorescence polarization method. NK-17 could bind to sulfonylurea receptor (SUR of B. germanica with stronger affinity comparing to diflubenzuron and glibenclamide, which suggested that NK-17 may also act on the site of SUR to inhibit the chitin synthesis in insect body and the result can well explain that NK-17 exhibited stronger toxicity against B. germanica than diflubenzuron and glibenclamide in vivo.

  10. Insect chymotrypsins: chloromethyl ketone inactivation and substrate specificity relative to possible coevolutional adaptation of insects and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Adriana R; Sato, Paloma M; Terra, Walter R

    2009-03-01

    Insect digestive chymotrypsins are present in a large variety of insect orders but their substrate specificity still remains unclear. Four insect chymotrypsins from 3 different insect orders (Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, and two Lepidoptera) were isolated using affinity chromatography. Enzymes presented molecular masses in the range of 20 to 31 kDa and pH optima in the range of 7.5 to 10.0. Kinetic characterization using different colorimetric and fluorescent substrates indicated that insect chymotrypsins differ from bovine chymotrypsin in their primary specificity toward small substrates (like N-benzoyl-L-Tyr p-nitroanilide) rather than on their preference for large substrates (exemplified by Succynil-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide). Chloromethyl ketones (TPCK, N- alpha-tosyl-L-Phe chloromethyl ketone and Z-GGF-CK, N- carbobenzoxy-Gly-Gly-Phe-CK) inactivated all chymotrypsins tested. Inactivation rates follow apparent first-order kinetics with variable second order rates (TPCK, 42 to 130 M(-1) s(-1); Z-GGF-CK, 150 to 450 M(-1) s(-1)) that may be remarkably low for S. frugiperda chymotrypsin (TPCK, 6 M(-1) s(-1); Z-GGF-CK, 6.1 M(-1) s(-1)). Homology modelling and sequence alignment showed that in lepidopteran chymotrypsins, differences in the amino acid residues in the neighborhood of the catalytic His 57 may affect its pKa value. This is proposed as the cause of the decrease in His 57 reactivity toward chloromethyl ketones. Such amino acid replacement in the active site is proposed to be an adaptation to the presence of dietary ketones.

  11. Laboratory efficacy test methods and criterions of cockroach baits%蜚蠊毒饵室内药效评估方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任东升; 刘京利; 宁俊艳; 刘起勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of 11 kinds of cockroach baits. Methods Ten adults of Btauella germanica (half male and half female) with feed, water and cockroach baits were put into a beaker. Three replications were made for each bait with blank control. Twenty-four hours later, the cockroach baits were taken out and the LT50, water loss rate and feeding amount were calculated. Results All of the eleven kinds of cockroach baits can kill B. germanica within 96 hours, meeting grade A of national standards (GB/T 13917.7-2009), but their LT50, water loss rate and feeding amount are quite different. Conclusion Eleven kinds of cockroach baits can effectively kill B, germanica. Comprehensive evaluation based on the needs and site conditions should be done to select the most suitable cockroach bait.%目的 探讨11种蜚蠊毒饵对德国小蠊室内药效评估方法.方法 每个烧杯放10只德国小蠊成虫,雌雄各半,放置饲料、水和灭蟑毒饵,每种毒饵重复3次,同时设空白对照;24h后取出毒饵,计算毒饵的失水率、取食量和毒饵对蜚蠊的致死中时间(LT50).结果 11种蜚蠊毒饵在96h内都可杀死德国小蠊,达到了国标A级(GB/T 13917.7-2009),但其LT50、失水率和取食量有很大差异.结论 11种蜚蠊毒饵均可有效杀灭德国小蠊,具体使用可根据需要和现场情况,综合评价选择最适合的蜚蠊毒饵.

  12. Comparative Bio-activity Guided Characterization of Biocide from Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communius L Seeds Oil

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    Asnake G. Ede

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the characterization of biocide from Jatropha (Jatropha curca and castor (Ricinus communius L seeds oil. The biocide potential of the seeds oil was evaluated against termite (Odontotermes obesus and cockroach (Blattela germanica. The bioassay study showed that Jatropha 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 48 hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. Castor 10% oil caused 100% mortality in 60hrs and 72 hrs against termite and cockroach, respectively. The LD50 was determined to be 0.64% and 1.24% for termite and cockroach, respectively for jatropha oil after 72hrs exposure. It was determined to be 1.43% and 1.08% for termite and cockroach respectively for castor oil. The biocidal potential of the oil is statistically significant (p<0.05 when compared with blank and solvent controls at all concentration tested. Various physicochemical parameters were also evaluated in accordance with American standard testing method specifications.

  13. Contributions on the diagnosis of fluorine damage. I. Fluorine damage in indicator plants in the wild flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsdorf, W.

    1960-01-01

    In an area of Central Germany affected by gaseous waste containing fluorine, the wild flora and some cultivated plants were investigated as to their suitability as indicators of fluorine pollution. As a result of three years of observation a list of 59 species is presented, four susceptibility groups being distinguished on the basis of the macroscopic symptoms of the damage (necrosis on the leaf tips and margins, less frequently in the zones between the ribs). Vitis vinifera L., Carpinus betula L., Iris germanica L., Arrenatherum clatius (L.) J.u.C. Presl and Dactylis glomenata L. proved to be extremely sensitive. The intensity of the symptoms is influenced, among other things, by a number of environmental factors (topographic features, predominant direction of winds, precipitation and degree of afforestation). 6 references.

  14. Conodont Evidence for the Age of the Panxian Fauna,Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zuoyu; SUN Yuanlin; HAO Weicheng; JIANG Dayong

    2006-01-01

    Detailed conodont analysis on the Yangjuan-Chupiwa section, Xinmin, Panxian County,Guizhou Province, revealed a conodont sequence including four Anisian conodont zones, viz. Nicoraella germanica Zone, Nc. Kockeli Zone, Paragondolella bifurcata Zone and Neogondolella constricta Zone.These zones indicate that the upper Guanling Formation consists of strata from the Bithynian to the Illyrian of the Anisian. Appearance of Neogondolella constricta suggests that the Anisian/Ladinian boundary might be in the overlying Yangliujing Formation. The Panxian Fauna with well-preserved marine reptile and fish fossils is proved to belong to the lower part of the conodont Nc. Kockeli Zone in the studied area. Thus, the age of the Panxian Fauna could be the early Pelsonian of the Anisian.

  15. La guerra del Gaddus

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    Giuliano Cenati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available I diari di guerra gaddiani sono un documento memorialistico notevole sotto vari profili: biografico, storico, antropologico e anche letterario. Partito per il fronte della Grande Guerra con la baldanza dell’interventista figlio di buona famiglia, il giovane autore vi registra il tracciato di una crisi esistenziale in cui si rispecchia la stessa crisi nazionale italiana, attraverso la disfatta di Caporetto e l’esperienza annichilente della cattività germanica. Referto analitico, meticoloso, ossessivo della propria vicenda psicologica e militare, l’annotazione frastagliata di Gadda ora si inarca verso la contemplazione tragica di alti ideali disattesi ora inclina alla contraffazione umoristica del vissuto. Il risentimento etico-civile e il grottesco pluristilistico del futuro narratore sono davvero enucleati lungo la scrittura del Giornale di guerra e di prigionia, che si viene configurando come inopinato laboratorio di composizione letteraria e in pari tempo lacerante regesto di aberrazioni sociopolitiche.

  16. Chemical-physical and ecological characterisation in the environmental project of a polluted coastal area: the Bagnoli case study

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    I. BERGAMIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bagnoli Bay (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Naples, Italy has been impacted for about one century by heavy anthropogenic pollution due to an important steel plant. A multidisciplinary environmental research, aimed at the reclamation of the marine contaminated area, was planned in order to evaluate, through quantitative data, the chemical-physical and ecological characteristics of marine sediments; the latter ones are strictly related to the composition and structure of benthic foraminiferal assemblages. A comprehensive statistical approach, considering all data, was attempted in order to single out the influence of pollutants on the single species distribution. The results show strong heavy metal pollution (Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the vicinity of the industrial plant. Many foraminiferal species (Haynesina germanica, Miliolinella subrotunda,Quinqueloculina parvula, have a good tolerance to some trace metals while, Bulimina sublimbata, Elphidiummacellum and Miliolinella dilatata show a good tolerance to PAHs pollution.

  17. The impact of ocean acidification on the functional morphology of foraminifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nikki; Godbold, Jasmin A; Austin, William E N; Paterson, David M

    2013-01-01

    Culturing experiments were performed on sediment samples from the Ythan Estuary, N. E. Scotland, to assess the impacts of ocean acidification on test surface ornamentation in the benthic foraminifer Haynesina germanica. Specimens were cultured for 36 weeks at either 380, 750 or 1000 ppm atmospheric CO2. Analysis of the test surface using SEM imaging reveals sensitivity of functionally important ornamentation associated with feeding to changing seawater CO2 levels. Specimens incubated at high CO2 levels displayed evidence of shell dissolution, a significant reduction and deformation of ornamentation. It is clear that these calcifying organisms are likely to be vulnerable to ocean acidification. A reduction in functionally important ornamentation could lead to a reduction in feeding efficiency with consequent impacts on this organism's survival and fitness.

  18. THE PAINT FORMULATION IN LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN USAGE AS P. americana COCKROACH CONTROL MEASURES

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    Lulus Susanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKecoa adalah salah satu jenis serangga yang dianggap kotor dan merupakan seranggavektor. Scbagian besar kecoa yang ditemukan di sekitar pemukiman adalah Periplanetaamericana, Periplaneta brunea, Periplaneta australisea, Blatella germanica, Supellalongipalpa, Neostylopiga rhombifoUa dan Nauphaeta cinerea. Beberapa kecoa juga dapatmenularkan virus, bakteria, worm, protozoit dan jamur.Pengcndalian kecoa secara fogging dengan menggunakan insektisida masih kurangefektif dan praktis, sehingga dibutuhkan alternatif pengcndali. Dalam rangka untuk mencarimetode alternatif pengcndalian kecoa, maka akan dilakukan percobaan menggunakan cat kayuyang ditambahkan dengan insektisida.Dalam penelitian ini, insektisida cat kayu menggunakan bahan aktif Lambdacyhalothrin10WP. Pertama-tama dibuat beberapa solusi dari cat insektisida dalam dosis banyak. Kemudiancat papan kayu lapis. Setelah kcring sekitar satu hari, kemudian melakukan pengujian bioassayterhadap kecoa {Periplaneta americana . Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kayuinsektisida cat dengan dosis minimal 1,591% efektif untuk membunuh kecoa hingga 95%.Kata kunci: kecoa, cat berinsektisida, lambdacyhalothrinABSTRATCCockroaches are still considered to be disgusting insects and vector. Mostlycockroaches that are found around the resident, such as Periplaneta americana, Periplanetabrunea,Periplaneta australisea, Blatella germanica, Supella longipalpa, NeostylopigarhombifoUa and Nauphaeta cinerea. There are can transmit virus, bakteria, worm, protozoit andfungi.The methods for cocroaches control by using the fogging with insecticide is still lesseffective and practical, so it will need a controlling alternative. In order to find the alternativemethods for control the cockroach, it will conduct an experiments using impregnated paint woodby insecticide.In this research, insecticide paint wood using an active materials Lambdacyhalothrin10WP. For the first, it make some solution from insecticide paint in

  19. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil

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    Sheikh, Munir A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant potential of 11 medicinally or economically important plant materials indigenous to Pakistan. The materials were extracted with 80% methanol and examined  for their antioxidant activity under different storage conditions using sunflower and soybean oils as oxidation substrates. Preliminary antioxidant activity assessment among the extracts was conducted with the TLC-test and by measuring percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation. The rhizome of Iris germanica, leaves of Lawsonia alba, and M. oleifera, coffee (Coffee arabica beans, rice (Oryza sativa bran, wheat bran and oats (Avenis sativa groats and hull, which showed higher antioxidant activity among the extracts, were further evaluated using soybean and sunflower oils as oxidation substrates. The vegetable oils were stabilized with extracts at a dosage of 0.12% (w/w, and individually subjected to accelerated (65 oC, 15 days and ambient (6 months storage. The oxidative deterioration level was monitored for the measurement of antioxidant activity index (AI, peroxide value (PV, conjugated dienes and trienes contents. Overall, the extracts of coffee beans, oat groats and hull, Iris germanica and M. oleifera leaves were found to be the most effective in extending oxidative stability, and retarding PV, primary and secondary oxidation products of soybean and sunflower oils. The order of efficiency of the plant extracts for stabilization of the subject oils was as follows: oat groats and hull > coffee beans > M. oleifera leaves > Lawsonia alba > Iris germanica > rice bran > wheat bran. Significant differences in the antioxidant potential of some of the extracts for stabilization of substrate oils were observed under ambient and accelerated storage conditions and thus demonstrated a variable antioxidant prospective of the extracts under different analytical protocols.El presente trabajo se ha realizado para investigar la capacidad

  20. Oils of insects and larvae consumed in Africa: potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids

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    Womeni Hilaire Macaire

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the beneficial aspects of some insects consumed in sub-Saharan Africa, based on examples of insects consumed in Cameroon, to present their potential as sources of lipids and essential fatty acids. In Africa, termites, larvae of raphia weevil, caterpillars, crickets, bees, maggots, butterflies, weevil, etc. are significant sources of food. These insects belong mainly to the orders of : Isoptera, Orthoptera, Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Depending on the species, insects are rich in proteins, minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Zn, P, Fe and/or vitamins (thiamine/B1, riboflavine/B2, pyridoxine/B6, acid pantothenic, niacin. The composition of oils extracted from the following six insects consumed in Cameroon was investigated : larvaes of raphia weevil (Rhynchophorus phoenicis, crickets (Homorocoryphus nitidulus, grasshopper (Zonocerus variegates, termites (Macrotermes sp., a variety of caterpillars (Imbrasia sp. and an unidentified caterpillar from the forest (UI carterpillar. The extraction yields of oil were 53.75%, 67.25%, 9.12%, 49.35%, 24.44% and 20.17% respectively for raphia weevil larvae, crickets, devastating crickets, termites, Imbrasia and UI caterpillar. The oil from raphia weevil mainly contains 37.60% of palmitoleic acid and 45.46% of linoleic acid. The oil from crickets is principally made up of palmitoleic acid (27.59%, linoleic acid (45.63% and α-linolenic acid (16.19%. The oil from grasshoppers is composed of palmitoleic acid (23.83%, oleic acid (10.71%, linoleic acid (21.07%, α-linolenic acid (14.76% and γ-linolenic acid (22.54%. The main components of termite oil are : palmitic acid (30.47%, oleic acid (47.52% and linoleic acid (8.79%. Palmitic acid (36.08% and linolenic acid (38.01% are the two dominant fatty acids of Imbrasia oil. As Imbrasia oil, UI caterpillar oil is composed of palmitic acid (30.80% and linolenic acid (41.79%. Stearic acid (7.04%, oleic acid

  1. Nota Gotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gendre

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalla documentazione presentata, ancorché in modo non completo, si può constatare che ogni qual volta il testo greco presenta i1 verbo nella posizione 'in incastro', 2 anche in quello gotico troviamo la stessa situazione. E benché crediamo a una sostanziale dipendenza dal greco dalla prassi sintattica gotica, 3 tuttavia riteniamo che non si possa del tutto escludere di trovarsi in presenza di uno stesso tratto sintattico, cioé di uno stesso modo di distribuire l'informazione, secondo un preciso ordine dei costituenti di frase, di origine indoeuropea. La "spezzatura di ciò che secondo il nostro sentimento linguistico è unito [ ... ] è comune sia tra i Greci che tra i Latini e gli Indiani4 e si trova in tracce ben riconoscibili anche nell'epica germanica".5 Purtroppo, come già G. Bonfante, anche noi pur "scandagliando l'epopea germanica [non abbiamo] trovato nulla in questo senso".6 La presenza sicura di questo tratto nel gotico però e, per chi come noi gli dà valore, l 'uso della tmesi 7 in testi epici germanici 8 sono 1í ad avvalorare l'ipotesi che la posizione 'in incastro' del verbo rappresenta "il modo più antico, facilmente c omprensibile dal p unto di v ista psicologico, di ordinare le paro le n ella frase idg". 9 È ben vero che il passo del Vangelo di Luca (2, 25 "7tveuμa. Tiv &ytov E7t' a.u't6v", reso in gotico "ahma weihs was ana imma", sembrerebbe opporsi a quanto è stato appena affermato. Ma cosí non è. Infatti, "il ne faut pas perdre de vue que Wulfila a suivi un manuscrit grec du type de *K ou *Kt, mais que la version gotique présente des leçons propre à 1cxo5" .1 O E molti manoscritti appartenenti al 'Ti po I' 11 riportano la lezione "7tveuμa. &ytov Tiv". 12 Pertanto, l'unica conclusione che da questo esempio si deve trarre è che il grande Vescovo dei Goti abbia avuto sotto gli occhi un testo di questa ultima famiglia e, come è nel suo stile, ne sia stato condizionato.

  2. Spatial distribution of living (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera in the Loire estuary (western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahid, M.; Geslin, E.; Coynel, A.; Gorse, L.; Vella, C.; Davranche, A.; Zozzolo, L.; Blanchet, L.; Bénéteau, E.; Maillet, G.

    2016-12-01

    Ninety-seven surface sediment samples were collected in September 2012 from intertidal and subtidal areas along the Loire estuary (western France). The main objective of this work is to study the spatial distributional patterns of living benthic foraminifera and their link to the environmental parameters (distance to sea, elevation, grain size, total organic carbon, trace metals, sedimentary carbonates, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the Loire estuary. Foraminiferal analysis was also extended to the dead assemblages in thirty-three surface samples from the lower inner estuary. The highest absolute densities of living benthic foraminifera are found in the lower inner estuary within the polyhaline domain. This is attributed to the presence of mudflats with abundant food source, i.e. microphytobenthos. The low densities found in the outer estuary (euhaline domain) are attributed partly to the sandy nature of the sediments and the food source inhabiting this substrate. The near absence of foraminifera in the inner estuary (mesohaline and polyhaline domains) is inferred to the physical disturbance resulting from the regular dredging of the navigation channel. The living assemblages are dominated by three typical estuarine species: Ammonia tepida and Haynesina germanica in the intertidal mudflats of the lower inner estuary and Cribroelphidium excavatum in the sandy subtidal sediments of the lower inner and outer estuary. In the Loire estuary, H. germanica has an unusual intermediate geographical distribution along the estuary between A. tepida and C. excavatum while in most temperate estuaries this species is present upstream in the mesohaline domain. This is most likely the result of the regular dredging of the navigation channel damaging its natural habitat. This might be also the explanation for the total absence of agglutinated species usually dominating the oligohaline domain. The canonical correspondence analysis shows that elevation (and its link to time

  3. Can benthic foraminifera be used as bio-indicators of pollution in areas with a wide range of physicochemical variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Pinto, Anita Fernandes Souza; Frontalini, Fabrizio; da Fonseca, Maria Clara Machado; Terroso, Denise Lara; Laut, Lazaro Luiz Mattos; Zaaboub, Noureddine; da Conceição Rodrigues, Maria Antonieta; Rocha, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    The Ria de Aveiro, a lagoon located in the NW coast of Portugal, presents a wide range of changes to the natural hydrodynamical and physicochemical conditions induced for instance by works of port engineering and pollution. In order to evaluate the response of living benthic foraminifera to the fluctuations in physicochemical parameters and pollution (metals and TOC), eight sediment samples were collected from canals and salt pans within the Aveiro City, in four different sampling events. During the sampling events, salinity showed the most significant fluctuations among the physicochemical parameters with the maximum range of variation at Troncalhada and Santiago salt pans. Species such as Haynesina germanica, Trochammina inflata and Entzia macrescens were found inhabiting these hypersaline environments with the widest fluctuations of physicochemical parameters. In contrast, Ammonia tepida dominated zones with high concentrations of metals and organic matter and in lower salinity waters. Parameters related to benthic foraminiferal assemblages (i.e., diversity and evenness) were found to significantly decline in stations polluted by metals and characterized by higher TOC content. Foraminiferal density reduced significantly in locations with a wide range of physicochemical temporal variability. This work shows that, even under extreme conditions caused by highly variable physicochemical parameters, benthic foraminiferal assemblages might be used as valuable bioindicators of environmental stress.

  4. Phylogeny of novel naked Filose and Reticulose Cercozoa: Granofilosea cl. n. and Proteomyxidea revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, David; Chao, Ema E-Y; Nikolaev, Sergey; Yabuki, Akinori; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Berney, Cédric; Pakzad, Ursula; Wylezich, Claudia; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Naked filose and reticulose protozoa were long lumped as proteomyxids or left outside higher groups. We cultivated eight naked filose or reticulose strains, did light microscopy, 18S rDNA sequencing and phylogeny (showing all are Cercozoa), and sequenced 80 environmental 18S-types. Filose species belong in subphylum Filosa and reticulose ones in subphylum Endomyxa, making proteomyxids polyphyletic. We therefore transfer the classically mainly reticulose Proteomyxidea to Endomyxa, removing evident filosans as new class Granofilosea (including Desmothoracida, Acinetactis and new heliomonad family Heliomorphidae (new genus Heliomorpha (=Dimorpha)). Five new species of Limnofila gen. n. (L. mylnikovi; L. anglica; L. longa; L. oxoniensis; L. borokensis, previously misidentified as Biomyxa (=Gymnophrys) cometa) form a large freshwater clade (new order Limnofilida). Mesofila limnetica gen., sp. n. and Nanofila marina gen., sp. n. group separately in Granofilosea (Cryptofilida ord. n.). In Endomyxa, a new genus of reticulose proteomyxids (Filoreta marina, F. japonica, F. turcica spp. n., F. (=Corallomyxa) tenera comb. n.) forms a clade (Reticulosida) related to Gromiidea/Ascetosporea. Platyreta germanica gen., sp. n. and Arachnula impatiens are related vampyrellids (Aconchulinida) within a large clade beside Phytomyxea. Biomyxidae and Rhizoplasmidae fam. n. remain incertae sedis within Proteomyxidea. Gymnophrydium and Borkovia are revised. The reticulose Corallomyxa are unlike Filoreta and possibly Amoebozoa, not Cercozoa.

  5. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  6. 水分胁迫对两种旱生花卉生理生化的影响%Effects of Water Stress on Physiology and Biochemistry of Two Terrestrial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈之欢

    2002-01-01

    以盆栽德国鸢尾(Iris germanica L.)和松果菊(Echinacea purpurea Moench.)试材,研究了水分胁迫对这两种旱生花卉形态指标生理生化指标的影响.结果表明,在水分胁迫期间,叶片的组织含水量,叶绿素及类胡萝卜素含量呈下降趋势;还原糖含量在水分胁迫初期增加,然而在后期却减少;细胞膜透性和丙二醛(MDA)含量呈上升趋势;而蛋白质含量则变化复杂.同时表明,松果菊比德国鸢尾反应敏感,说明德国鸢尾比松果菊有较强的抗旱性.

  7. Tracking the Hercules 265 marine gas well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C.; Özgökmen, Tamay; Snyder, Susan; Schwing, Patrick; O'Malley, Bryan J.; Beron-Vera, Francisco J.; Olascoaga, Maria J.; Zhu, Ping; Ryan, Edward; Chen, Shuyi S.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Hollander, David; Murawski, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    On 23 July 2013, a marine gas rig (Hercules 265) ignited in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The rig burned out of control for 2 days before being extinguished. We conducted a rapid-response sampling campaign near Hercules 265 after the fire to ascertain if sediments and fishes were polluted above earlier baseline levels. A surface drifter study confirmed that surface ocean water flowed to the southeast of the Hercules site, while the atmospheric plume generated by the blowout was in eastward direction. Sediment cores were collected to the SE of the rig at a distance of ˜0.2, 8, and 18 km using a multicorer, and demersal fishes were collected from ˜0.2 to 8 km SE of the rig using a longline (508 hooks). Recently deposited sediments document that only high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the rig suggesting higher pyrogenic inputs associated with the blowout. A similar trend was observed in the foraminifera Haynesina germanica, an indicator species of pollution. In red snapper bile, only HMW PAH metabolites increased in 2013 nearly double those from 2012. Both surface sediments and fish bile analyses suggest that, in the aftermath of the blowout, increased concentration of pyrogenically derived hydrocarbons was transported and deposited in the environment. This study further emphasizes the need for an ocean observing system and coordinated rapid-response efforts from an array of scientific disciplines to effectively assess environmental impacts resulting from accidental releases of oil contaminants.

  8. Cloning, functional characterization, and mode of action of a novel insecticidal pore-forming toxin, sphaericolysin, produced by Bacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Nakashima, Kenta; Ishida, Chiharu; Kawamura, Tadayuki; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2007-05-01

    An insecticidal protein produced by Bacillus sphaericus A3-2 was purified to elucidate its structure and mode of action. The active principle purified from the culture broth of A3-2 was a protein with a molecular mass of 53 kDa that rapidly intoxicated German cockroaches (Blattela germanica) at a dose of about 100 ng when injected. The insecticidal protein sphaericolysin possessed the undecapeptide motif of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and had a unique N-terminal sequence. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was equally as potent as the native protein. Sphaericolysin-induced hemolysis resulted from the protein's pore-forming action. This activity as well as the insecticidal activity was markedly reduced by a Y159A mutation. Also, coapplication of sphaericolysin with cholesterol abolished the insecticidal action, suggesting that cholesterol binding plays an important role in insecticidal activity. Sphaericolysin-lysed neurons dissociated from the thoracic ganglia of the German cockroaches. In addition, sphaericolysin's activity in ganglia was suppressed by the Y159A mutation. The sphaericolysin-induced damage to the cockroach ganglia was greater than the damage to the ganglia of common cutworms (Spodoptera litura), which accounts, at least in part, for the higher sensitivity to sphaericolysin displayed by the cockroaches than that displayed by cutworms.

  9. Antiinflammatory activities of Hungarian Stachys species and their iridoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háznagy-Radnai, Erzsébet; Balogh, Ágnes; Czigle, Szilvia; Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Blazsó, Gábor

    2012-04-01

    The antiinflammatory activities of aqueous extracts prepared from the aerial parts of ten Hungarian Stachys species were investigated in vivo in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema test after intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats. Some of the extracts were found to display significant antiphlogistic effects when administered intraperitoneally and orally; in particular, the extracts of S. alpina, S. germanica, S. officinalis and S. recta demonstrated high activity following intraperitoneal administration. At the same dose of 5.0 mg/kg, these extracts exhibited similar or greater potency than that of the positive control diclofenac-Na. The main iridoids present in the investigated extracts, ajugoside, aucubin, acetylharpagide, harpagide and harpagoside, were also assayed in the same test, and high dose-dependent antiphlogistic effects were recorded for aucubin and harpagoside. These results led to the conclusion that most probably iridoids are responsible for the antiinflammatory effect of Stachys species, but other active constituents or their synergism must also be implicated in the antiinflammatory effect.

  10. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  11. Pioneer vegetation on ash dumps in Oswiecim (southern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarczuk, T.; Kuczynski, B.

    1972-01-01

    The authors found fifty-three plant species growing on the ash dumps in Oswiecim, while in 1963 twenty-two species only were encountered there. Most of the self-sown plants belong to calciphilous, ruderal and xerophilous species. The pH of the ashes amounts to 9.5. Some of them, e.g. Matricaria chamomilla are index plants for acid habitats; others were hitherto encountered in wet habitats, e.g. Rumex obtusifolias, Myricaria germanica, Epilobium roseum, and others. Their occurrence on ash dumps is possible thanks to the considerable amount of precipitation (465 mm) during the vegetative period. The mosses are the pioneers of these dumps, e.g. Funaria hygromertrica and Bryum argenteum, which usually appear on the site of fire. The authors are of the opinion that a better knowledge of the plants appearing spontaneously on dumps and waste heaps may provide many useful conclusions which will help to obtain positive results at the recultivation of spoil heaps and industrial wastes. 9 references, 3 tables.

  12. Unlocking the Karyological and Cytogenetic Diversity of Iris from Lebanon: Oncocyclus Section Shows a Distinctive Profile and Relative Stasis during Its Continental Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Samad, Nour; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Hidalgo, Oriane; El Zein, Rana; Douaihy, Bouchra; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an important target of conservation concern and horticultural interest, Lebanese irises yet have a confusing taxonomic history and species’ delimitation is often considered problematic, more especially among royal irises (Iris section Oncocyclus). Indeed, these irises of exceptionally large and spectacular flowers have radiated across Caucasus and eastern Mediterranean giving rise to a number of strict endemic taxa, many of them being considered under threat. Whilst efforts have mostly focused on clarifying the evolutionary relationships in the group based on morphological and molecular data, karyological and cytogenetic characters have been comparatively overlooked. In this study, we established for the first time the physical mapping of 35S rDNA loci and heterochromatin, and obtained karyo-morphological data for ten Lebanese Iris species belonging to four sections (Iris, Limniris, Oncocyclus and Scorpiris). Our results evidenced distinctive genomic profiles for each one of the sections, where Oncocyclus irises, while having the lowest chromosome numbers, exhibit both the highest number of 35S loci and CMA3+ sites. The continental radiation of royal irises has been accompanied by a relative karyological and cytogenetic stasis, even though some changes were observed regarding karyotype formula and asymmetry indexes. In addition to that, our results enabled taxonomic differentiation between I. germanica and I. mesopotamica–two taxa currently considered as synonyms–and highlighted the need for further studies on populations of I. persica and I. wallasiae in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. PMID:27525415

  13. Wilfried Kürschner (Hg., Linguisten-Handbuch: Biographische und bibliographische Daten deutschsprachiger Sprachwissenschaftlerinnen und Sprachwissenschaftler der Gegenwart, I-II, Tübingen, Gunter Narr Verlag, 1994, XXX-1191 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarko Muljačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Sebbene questo manuale fosse ideato nell'ormai lontano 1988 esso vede luce, a cura di W. Kurschner (1945-, professore di linguistica generale e germanica all'Universita di Osnabriick (sede di Vechta, appena ora. Una delle ragioni che hanno differito la sua pubblicazione è il fatto che fino al 1990 non esisteva un indirizzario dei linguisti attivi nella ex RDT. Le poche persone che già nel 1989 risposero all'appello dalla Germania Orientale appartenevano quasi esclusivamente all'Istituto Centrale di Linguistica dell'Accademia delle Scienze (ZISW di Berlino (Est e neanche essi erano liberi di rispondere all'intero Questionario (in base a ordini ricevuti hanno dovuto "saltare" ogni risposta alle domande Nr. 5, 6, 16, 18 e 31 (cf. W. Kurschner, "Notizen zur Entstehung des Linguisten-Handbuchs", vol. I, XII-XIV e il divertente e che queste domande si riferivano a cose del tutto "normali" (per es. ai numeri dei telefoni privato e d'ufficio e alle attività svolte fra la fine degli studi e l'ultimo incarico di lavoro.

  14. Distribution and morphological abnormalities of recent foraminifera in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (North Adriatic Sea, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MELIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Marano and Grado Lagoon, is a northern Adriatic wetland system of relevant naturalistic and economic value, that is constantly under quality control in accordance with the current environmental directives. Benthic foraminifers community with its morphological abnormalities were investigated in the recent sediments (about 10 years old of 21 stations collected in the framework of the “MIRACLE” Project which aimed at testing the coexistence of clam farming with high Hg contamination. Euryhaline foraminifers, well known in Mediterranean brackish-waters, mainly characterizes the total assemblage. A. tepida dominates in areas characterized by low salinity, high clay and Corg content, but also to anthropogenic pressure. E. gunteri and H. germanica are recorded in the western sector of the lagoon, which is more affected by salinity variations and agricultural activities. Slightly higher values of assemblage diversity appear in less restricted areas of the lagoon or, at least, where physical parameters such as temperature and salinity are less variable. The test abnormalities, carried out on total assemblage, shows that the FAI (Foraminiferal Abnormality Index values always exceed 1% of the total assemblage, with clear decreasing gradients from inland to the sea (from N to S and from W to E in the studied area.

  15. Chemical composition and screening of the antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of extracts of Stachys species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA S. LAZAREVIĆ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available GC and GC/MS analyses of the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Stachys germanica subsp. heldreichii (Boiss Hayek, Stachys iva Griseb., Stachys plumosa Griseb. and Stachys scardica Griseb., Balkan peninsula endemics, were performed. One hundred and seventy-nine constituents, accounting for 88.8–98.1% of the total composition of the extracts, were identified. The common feature of the diethyl ether extracts was the high content of terpenoids and fatty acid-derived compounds, while the common feature of the ethyl acetate extracts was the prevalence of fatty acid-derived compounds. A disk diffusion method was used for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of the extracts against a panel of microorganisms (bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella enteritidis; fungi: Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The total antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum method. The preliminary bioassay results indicated that the diethyl ether extract of S. plumosa could be a possible source of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  16. 某住宅楼蟑螂防治效果观察%Observation on the control efficiency against cockroaches in a residential building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹广庆; 王治; 李平; 文瑜; 周光智

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate cockroach damage and control efficiency of a residential building. Methods Kill cockroach through the methods of remained spray and gel bait, and evaluate the efficacy by damage rate and density descent rate of cockroach. Results The damage rate of cockroach was 87. 50% and 12.50% before and after controlling for 3 days, respectively. The density descent rate was 86.67% ~ 100. 00% , and there was no statistically significant difference before and after control (P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusions The blattella gremanica damage was serious in the residential building, and the methods of remained spray and gel bait had high efficiency against cockroach.%目的 观察某部住宅楼蟑螂侵害情况和防治效果.方法 采用滞留喷洒和胶饵杀灭蟑螂,用蟑螂侵害率和密度下降率评价灭蟑效果.结果 蟑螂侵害率防治前为87.50%,防治后3d为12.50%(3/24),密度下降率为86.67%~100.00%,防治前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 该住宅楼德国小蠊侵害严重,滞留喷洒结合灭蟑胶饵杀灭蟑螂效果显著.

  17. Testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata com o evoluir da idade Positive skin test and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Carvalho Neves Forte

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliação da positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata em crianças com asma brônquica e/ou rinite alérgica em diferentes faixas etárias. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: foi observada a positividade aos testes cutâneos de hipersensibilidade imediata, por testes de puntura, frente a diferentes alérgenos de mesma procedência: poeira total e Dermatophagóides sp, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae e Blomia tropicalis, Penicillium sp, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergillus fumigatus, grama bermuda, capim de pasto, epitélio de cão, epitélio de gato, penas, Blatella germanica, lã. Foram selecionadas 713 crianças divididas em grupos conforme a faixa etária: grupo I (6 a 11 meses, II (1 a 3 anos e 11 meses, III (4 a 8 anos e 11 meses e IV (9 a 15 anos. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o cálculo do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: o total de diferenças significativas entre os vários grupos foi: I e II = 5; II e III = 5; II e IV = 5; III e IV = 6; I e III = 10 e I e IV = 10 CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que a positividade ao teste de hipersensibilidade imediata foi maior com o evoluir da idade, havendo positividade já aos doze meses de vida, sendo esta positividade significativamente maior a partir de quatro anos de idade.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: we observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool. We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11

  18. Environmental changes in the Moulay Bousselham lagoon (Morocco) during the last 7 000 years using a multiproxy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourarah, Bendahhou; Maanan, Mohamed; Conceição Freitas, Maria; Leroy, Suzanne; Andrade, César; Cearreta, Alejandro; Cruces, Anabela

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research is to reconstruct Holocene environmental changes in Moulay Bousselham lagoon using a multi-proxy approach to the study of sediments of two short cores: biological (e.g., pollen, foraminifera and diatoms), physicochemical (isotopes, chemical composition) and sedimentary (grain size, clay minerals). The research highlights the role of climatic variations and human interference in the evolution of this lagoon. The results show that at the beginning of the Holocene this area corresponded to a wide coastal bay, including the surface of Moulay Bousselham present-day lagoon and Merja Ras Ed-Dora. The dating's obtained in the base of the sediment cores range from 6790-6640 BP (end of the Atlantic and early Sub-boreal). Sand predominates in this section of the cores, with low content of organic matter and high content of bioclasts. Ammonia tepida is the predominant species but Haynesina germânica, Quinqueloculina semínula,Cibicides lobatulus,Criboelphidium oceanensis and Miliolinella sobrotunda are also presente. At the base, foraminifera assemblages show a relative abundance of Planorbulina mediterranensis, Rosalina anomala, Rosalina irregularis, Miliolinella subrotunda and Cibicides lobatulus. These are typical of a shallow environment with normal marine salinity. During the sub-boreal period (6640-4520 BP), a sandy barrier developed and the lagoon evolved to a brackish lagoon with low salinity. Sedimentation is homogeneous, the content of silt and clay is high (90%), calcium carbonate content is usually lower than 20% and the organic material exhibited the highest values (> 10%). Ammonia tepida is also the dominant species but C. oceanensis and H. germanica are secondary. The lagoon was closed in drier conditions and has gradually filled by sediments coming from the watershed, represented by an illite-chlorite association. The lagoon evolved to a sabkha. We must emphasize the role of deforestation caused by the Romans (2100 BP) in that period

  19. No evidence of enemy release in pathogen and microbial communities of common wasps (Vespula vulgaris in their native and introduced range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Lester

    Full Text Available When invasive species move to new environments they typically experience population bottlenecks that limit the probability that pathogens and parasites are also moved. The invasive species may thus be released from biotic interactions that can be a major source of density-dependent mortality, referred to as enemy release. We examined for evidence of enemy release in populations of the common wasp (Vespula vulgaris, which attains high densities and represents a major threat to biodiversity in its invaded range. Mass spectrometry proteomic methods were used to compare the microbial communities in wasp populations in the native (Belgium and England and invaded range (Argentina and New Zealand. We found no evidence of enemy release, as the number of microbial taxa was similar in both the introduced and native range. However, some evidence of distinctiveness in the microbial communities was observed between countries. The pathogens observed were similar to a variety of taxa observed in honey bees. These taxa included Nosema, Paenibacillus, and Yersina spp. Genomic methods confirmed a diversity of Nosema spp., Actinobacteria, and the Deformed wing and Kashmir bee viruses. We also analysed published records of bacteria, viruses, nematodes and fungi from both V. vulgaris and the related invader V. germanica. Thirty-three different microorganism taxa have been associated with wasps including Kashmir bee virus and entomophagous fungi such as Aspergillus flavus. There was no evidence that the presence or absence of these microorganisms was dependent on region of wasp samples (i.e. their native or invaded range. Given the similarity of the wasp pathogen fauna to that from honey bees, the lack of enemy release in wasp populations is probably related to spill-over or spill-back from bees and other social insects. Social insects appear to form a reservoir of generalist parasites and pathogens, which makes the management of wasp and bee disease difficult.

  20. [Skin reactivity frequency to aeroallergens in patients with clinical symptoms of allergic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Méndez, Isabel Cristina; Arana-Muñoz, Oswaldo; López-García, Aída Inés; Rivero-Yeverino, Daniela; Caballero-López, Chrystopherson Gengyny; Papaqui-Tapia, Sergio; Camero-Martínez, Heriberto; Vázquez-Rojas, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: El diagnóstico de las enfermedades alérgicas debe basarse en la historia clínica alergológica adecuada y en una prueba inmunológica de sensibilización; la de mayor sensibilidad y especificidad es la prueba cutánea por punción. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de la reactividad cutánea hacia aeroalérgenos, por grupos etarios, en pacientes del Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital Universitario de Puebla, México. Métodos: Se realizó estudio transversal que incluyó a pacientes de 2 a 64 años de edad, con síntomas sugestivos de enfermedad alérgica, en quienes se realizaron pruebas cutáneas con aeroalérgenos; los criterios diagnósticos fueron los de las guías internacionales. Se calcularon frecuencias, porcentajes y medidas de dispersión. Resultados: De 173 pacientes, 63 % fue del sexo femenino. La edad media fue de 22.3 años. La frecuencia de la reactividad cutánea para Quercus sp. fue 12.72 %, Periplaneta americana 9.83 %, Dermatophagoides farinae 9.25 %, Cynodon dactylon 8.09 %, Blatella germanica 8.09 %, Holcus halepensis 6.94 %, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 6.36 %, Schinus molle 5.78 %, Fraxinus uhdei 5.20 %, Lolium perenne 5.20 %, Ambrosia eliator 5.20 % y Artemisa tridentata 4.62 %. Conclusión: Los Dermatophagoides son los aeroalérgenos más identificados, pero en el presente estudio fue más común un polen, probablemente debido a factores geográficos-medioambientales, aunque no fue así en el análisis por grupos etarios.

  1. Phenoptosis in arthropods and immortality of social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsev, V M

    2014-10-01

    In general, there are no drastic differences in phenoptosis patterns in plant and animal organisms. However, there are some specific features characteristic for insects and other arthropods: 1) their development includes metamorphosis with different biochemical laws at consecutive developmental stages; 2) arthropods can reduce or stop development and aging when in a state of diapause or temporal cold immobility; 3) their life cycle often correlates with seasonal changes of surroundings; 4) polymorphism is widespread - conspecifics differ by their lifespans and phenoptosis features; 5) lifespan-related sexual dimorphism is common; 6) significant situational plasticity of life cycle organization is an important feature; for example, the German wasp (Paravespula germanica) is obligatorily univoltine in the temperate zone, while in tropical regions its lifespan increases and leads to repeated reproduction; 7) life cycles of closely related species may differ significantly, for example, in contrast to German wasp, some tropical hornets (Vespa) have only one reproduction period. Surprisingly, many insect species have been shown to be subjected to gradual aging and phenoptosis, like the highest mammals. However, queens of social insects and some long-lived arachnids can apparently be considered non-aging organisms. In some species, lifespan is limited to one season, while others live much longer or shorter. Cases of one-time reproduction are rather rare. Aphagia is common in insects (over 10,000 species). Cannibalism is an important mortality factor in insects as well as in spiders. In social insects, which exist only in colonies (families), the lifetime of a colony can be virtually unlimited. However, in case of some species the developmental cycle and death of a colony after its completion are predetermined. Most likely, natural selection in insects does not lengthen individual lifespan, but favors increase in reproduction efficiency based on fast succession of

  2. Efficacy of fipronil gel over imlprothrin +cypermethrin aerosol in control of cockroaches (Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijender K Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cockroaches are offensive pests visually and expel unpleasant smelling secretion that spoils the flavor of food and environment. This trial was done to test Strikeout bait gel (fipronil 0.055% developed by Parijat Industries (India Pvt. Ltd. for its efficacy against Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica, under field conditions in certain catering establishments of a city in Uttar Pradesh. Material and Methods: Ten catering establishments with high infestation based on pretreatment cockroach density assessment (Four for fipronil gel, four for imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol and two without any treatment to act as a control were considered for inclusion in trial. Single application of fipronil gel/ imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol was used as crack and crevice treatment. The visual assessment data for cockroach density in treatment and control catering establishments were considered for computation of percent reduction of cockroach infestation in the respective catering establishments. Results: Single application of fipronil gel was able to reduce cockroach infestation up to 96.0% at the end of 12 weeks whereas it was 20% in imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol treated areas. Differences were found statistically significant. However, imlprothrin+ cypermethrin aerosol was more effective (52.0% in reducing the cockroach density by first week in comparison to fipronil gel (47.8% but its efficacy started declining after 5th week onwards. Interpretation and Conclusion: The study reports the efficacy of Strikeout bait gel (fipronil 0.055% for control of cockroaches in catering establishments. The application Strikeout bait gel (fipronil 0.055% was found more convenient to both operators and clients and there was minimal disruption at workplace.

  3. Volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus are semiochemicals for eusocial wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Microbes are ubiquitous on plant surfaces. However, interactions between epiphytic microbes and arthropods are rarely considered as a factor that affects arthropod behaviors. Here, volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus were investigated as semiochemical attractants for two eusocial wasps. The fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from apples, and the volatile compounds emitted by fungal colonies were quantified. The attractiveness of fungal colonies and fungal volatiles to social wasps (Vespula spp.) were experimentally tested in the field. Three important findings emerged: (1) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 2750 % more wasps on average than unbaited control traps; (2) the major headspace volatiles emitted by A. pullulans were 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol; and (3) a synthetic blend of fungal volatiles attracted 4,933 % more wasps on average than unbaited controls. Wasps were most attracted to 2-methyl-1-butanol. The primary wasp species attracted to fungal volatiles were the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica) and the German yellowjacket (V. germanica), and both species externally vectored A. pullulans. This is the first study to link microbial volatile emissions with eusocial wasp behaviors, and these experiments indicate that volatile compounds emitted by an epiphytic fungus can be responsible for wasp attraction. This work implicates epiphytic microbes as important components in the community ecology of some eusocial hymenopterans, and fungal emissions may signal suitable nutrient sources to foraging wasps. Our experiments are suggestive of a potential symbiosis, but additional studies are needed to determine if eusocial wasp-fungal associations are widespread, and whether these associations are incidental, facultative, or obligate.

  4. Expression and characterisation of a Psoroptes ovis glutathione S-transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison J; Huntley, John; Van den Broek, Adri; Coates, David; Isaac, R Elwyn

    2002-04-19

    The astigmatid mite Psoroptes ovis is the causative agent of sheep scab, a highly contagious parasitic disease of sheep. Infection causes severe allergic dermatitis, resulting in damage to the fleece and hide, loss of condition and occasional mortality. Interest in the P. ovis allergens led us to characterise a glutathione S-transferase (GST) which displays homology to GST allergens isolated from the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and the cockroach, Blatella germanica. A cDNA encoding a mu-class GST from P. ovis was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified for biochemical analysis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the purified product was homogeneous and had an apparent molecular weight of 30 kDa. The recombinant GST (rGST) is active towards the substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), whereas 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) is a poor substrate. The recombinant protein was also tested for recognition by IgE and IgG antibodies in serum from P. ovis naïve and P. ovis infested sheep. Neither IgE nor IgG antibodies were detected to the rGST. Prausnitz--Küstner testing with rGST did not provoke a characteristic weal and flare response. Biopsies collected at the PK test sites were stained for eosinophils, neutrophils, mast cells and basophils. Neutrophil, mast cell and basophil counts were not significantly different to the controls. Eosinophil numbers were significantly higher than controls, but were not due to an IgE response.

  5. 医院蟑螂侵害调查与防治研究%Investigation and control of cockroaches in hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雪玲; 刘增加; 史锋庆; 付清海; 张文香; 温煜; 胡淑芳; 雷光文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the degree of cockroaches invasion in hospital, and formulate the control measures. Methods Investigating cockroaches invasion situation by eye and using insecticide trap method, using glue trap to determine the density of cockroaches. Results The invasion rate of cockroaches adult and nymph was 10.27% which was three times more than the national standard. 73% departments exceeded the provided standard, neurosurgery and general surgery department reached nearly 7 times. The positive density index was 12. 02 pieces per room. The egg positive rate was 2. 74% which exceeded the national standards. Two kinds of cockroaches were investigated, they were Blattella geunanica (55. 3% ) and Periplaneta japonica(4A. 7% ). Conclusion The invasion situation of cockroaches is serious in hospitals. It is necessary to control cockroaches and eliminate breeding ground combined with environmental features.%目的 探讨医院蟑螂侵害度,制定防治措施.方法 采用目测法、药驱法调查蟑螂侵害情况,粘捕法测定密度.结果 蟑螂成、若虫侵害率10.27%,超过国家标准3倍,超标的科室占73%,其中神经外科和普通外科超标近7倍.阳性密度指数为12.02只/间,卵荚阳性率为2.74%,均超过国家标准.查见蟑螂种群2种,德国小蠊占55.3%,日本大蠊占44.7%.结论 医院内蟑螂危害严重,应结合医院环境及功能特点采取防治措施,消灭蟑螂孳生地.

  6. Dissociation between skin test reactivity and anti-aeroallergen IgE: Determinants among urban Brazilian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Rafael V.; Ponte, João C. M.; da Cunha, Sérgio S.; Simões, Silvia M.; Cruz, Álvaro A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Matos, Sheila M.; Silva, Thiago Magalhães; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L.; Cooper, Philip J.; Barreto, Maurício L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The dissociation between specific IgE and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens, a common finding in populations living in low and middle-income countries, has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Few studies have investigated the determinants of this dissociation. In the present study, we explored potential factors explaining this dissociation in children living in an urban area of Northeast Brazil, focusing in particular on factors associated with poor hygiene. Methods Of 1445 children from low income communities, investigated for risk factors of allergies, we studied 481 with specific IgE antibodies to any of Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica allergens. Data on demographic, environmental and social exposures were collected by questionnaire; serum IgG and stool examinations were done to detect current or past infections with viral, bacterial, protozoan and intestinal helminth pathogens. We measured atopy by skin prick testing (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to aerollergens in serum (by ImmunoCAP). SIgE reactivity to B. tropicalis extract depleted of carbohydrates was measured by an in-house ELISA. Total IgE was measured by in house capture ELISA. SNPs were typed using Illumina Omni 2.5. Results Negative skin prick tests in the presence of specific IgE antibodies were frequent. Factors independently associated with a reduced frequency of positive skin prick tests were large number of siblings, the presence of IgG to herpes simplex virus, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections, living in neighborhoods with infrequent garbage collection, presence of rodents and cats in the household and sIgE reactivity to glycosylated B. tropicalis allergens. Also, SNP on IGHE (rs61737468) was negatively associated with SPT reactivity. Conclusions A variety of factors were found to be associated with decreased frequency of SPT such as unhygienic

  7. Differential effects of the recombinant toxin PnTx4(5-5) from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer on mammalian and insect sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Ana L B; Matavel, Alessandra; Peigneur, Steve; Cordeiro, Marta N; Tytgat, Jan; Diniz, Marcelo R V; de Lima, Maria Elena

    2016-02-01

    The toxin PnTx4(5-5) from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer is extremely toxic/lethal to insects but has no macroscopic behavioral effects observed in mice after intracerebral injection. Nevertheless, it was demonstrated that it inhibits the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) - subtype of glutamate receptors of cultured rat hippocampal neurons. PnTx4(5-5) has 63% identity to PnTx4(6-1), another insecticidal toxin from P. nigriventer, which can slow down the sodium current inactivation in insect central nervous system, but has no effect on Nav1.2 and Nav1.4 rat sodium channels. Here, we have cloned and heterologous expressed the toxin PnTx4(5-5) in Escherichia coli. The recombinant toxin rPnTx4(5-5) was tested on the sodium channel NavBg from the cockroach Blatella germanica and on mammalian sodium channels Nav1.2-1.6, all expressed in Xenopus leavis oocytes. We showed that the toxin has different affinity and mode of action on insect and mammalian sodium channels. The most remarkable effect was on NavBg, where rPnTx4(5-5) strongly slowed down channel inactivation (EC50 = 212.5 nM), and at 1 μM caused an increase on current peak amplitude of 105.2 ± 3.1%. Interestingly, the toxin also inhibited sodium current on all the mammalian channels tested, with the higher current inhibition on Nav1.3 (38.43 ± 8.04%, IC50 = 1.5 μM). Analysis of activation curves on Nav1.3 and Nav1.5 showed that the toxin shifts channel activation to more depolarized potentials, which can explain the sodium current inhibition. Furthermore, the toxin also slightly slowed down sodium inactivation on Nav1.3 and Nav1.6 channels. As far as we know, this is the first araneomorph toxin described which can shift the sodium channel activation to more depolarized potentials and also slows down channel inactivation.

  8. Temporal Assemblage Turnovers of Foraminiferal Communities from the Caribbean, United Kingdom and Mediterranean regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent

    2016-04-01

    Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities were quantitatively determined using the assemblage turnover index (ATI), and contributing species were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). The live foraminiferal communities were examined as metacommunities (all stations) and assemblages (groups of stations defined by cluster analysis) over one and two year periods at Caroni Swamp, Claxton Bay (E Trinidad), Cowpen Marsh (NE England) and Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain). Major assemblage turnovers (when ATI > x + σ) of the Caroni Swamp metacommunity and assemblages coincided with seasonal changes from dry to wet conditions in 2011 and 2012. The abundant species (Ammonia tepida, Ammotium salsum, Arenoparella mexicana, Trochammina advena, Trochammina laevigata and Trochammina inflata) contributed the most to assemblage turnovers but showed no preference to either dry or wet conditions. At Claxton Bay major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity and mid assemblage coincided with seasonal change and calcareous species (A. tepida and Triloculina oblonga) increased during wet conditions and decreased during dry conditions, while agglutinated species (T. advena and A. salsum) fluctuated oppositely. At Cowpen Marsh major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity coincided with the start of summer and winter. Assemblages at higher elevations (mainly Jadammina macrescens and Haplophragmoides spp.) were responsible for the summer turnover, while the winter turnover was led by the assemblage at lower elevations (mainly Haynesina germanica, Elphidium earlandi, Elphidium williamsoni, Elphidium excavatum and Quinqueloculina spp.). At Bay of Cádiz, the foraminiferal assemblage at a tidal height of 1.5 to 1.7 m above the hydrographic zero was examined within three separate plots, and the seasonal occurrence of assemblage turnovers differed between plots. Thus, replicate samples and multiple plots may be necessary to overcome spatial

  9. Phantom spiders: notes on dubious spider species from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitling, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A surprisingly large number of European spider species have never been reliably rediscovered since their first description many decades ago. Most of these are probably synonymous with other species or unidentifiable, due to insufficient descriptions or missing type material. Here we discuss about 50 of these cases, declare some names as nomina dubia and establish the following new or re-confirmed synonymies: Agelena mengeella Strand, 1942 = Allagelena gracilens (C. L. Koch, 1841 syn. conf.; Anyphaena accentuata obscura (Sundevall, 1831 = Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802 syn. conf.; Anyphaena accentuata obscura Lebert, 1877 = Anyphaena accentuata (Walckenaer, 1802 syn. nov.; Araneus diadematus stellatus C. L. Koch, 1836 = Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus diadematus islandicus (Strand, 1906 = Araneus diadematus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus quadratus minimus Simon, 1929 = Araneus quadratus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Araneus quadratus subviridis (Franganillo, 1913 = Araneus quadratus Clerck, 1757 syn. nov.; Centromerus unctus (L. Koch, 1870 = Leptorhoptrum robustum (Westring, 1851 syn. nov.; Clubiona caliginosa Simon, 1932 = Clubiona germanica Thorell, 1871 syn. nov.; Coelotes atropos anomalus Hull, 1955 = Coelotes atropos (Walckenaer, 1830 syn. nov.; Coelotes atropos silvestris Hull, 1955 = Coelotes atropos (Walckenaer, 1830 syn. nov.; Coelotes obesus Simon, 1875 = Pireneitega pyrenaea (Simon, 1870 syn. conf.; Coelotes simoni Strand, 1907 = Coelotes solitarius (L. Koch, 1868 syn. nov.; Diplocephalus semiglobosus (Westring, 1861 nomen oblitum = Entelecara congenera (O. P.-Cambridge, 1879 syn. nov.; Drassodes voigti (Bösenberg, 1899 = Scotophaeus blackwalli (Thorell, 1871 syn. conf.; Erigone decens Thorell, 1871 = Hylyphantes graminicola (Sundevall, 1830 syn. nov.; Liocranoeca striata gracilior (Kulczynski, 1898 = Liocranoeca striata (Kulczynski, 1882 syn. conf.; Phlegra rogenhoferi (Simon, 1868 = Phlegra cinereofasciata

  10. 重庆地区过敏性疾病儿童吸入性变应原分布特点%Distribution characteristics of inhaled allergen of 13 841 cases with allergic disease in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 李博; 罗征秀; 罗健; 蒋永慧; 刘恩梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the distribution characteristics of inhaled allergen in Chongqing area and to provide references for preventing allergic diseases. Methods-.All cases were collected from the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Chongqing Medical University from May 2005 to December 2009.13 841 children with allergic diseases underwent skin prick test(SPT). The distribution characteristics were analyzed by SPSS 17.0. Results-.The total positive rate of allergen was 80.3%, of which Dermal ophagoides farinae (Der f) was the highest (67.6%),then followed by Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus(Der p)(67.5%) and Blomia tropicalis(42.8%). From May 2005 to December 2009, the positive rate and positive degree of the 3 kinds of mites were stable except in 2006. With the age increasing, the positive rate ascended in mites (Der f,Der p, Blomia tropicalis), American cockroach, Blatella germanica.cat hair and dog dander,but Pollen I ,Mycetes IV and ragweed showed opposite tendency. The 13 categories sensibiligen could be divided into 4 clusters;Der p and Der f,Blomia troplis,Blatella germanica.and others. Conclusion;Dermatophagoides farinae,Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis are the most prevalent allergens in Chongqing area in the past 5 years. The different age groups show different reactions in SPT. The clinical characters of Blomia troplis are different from Der p and Der f, and specific immune therapy that points to Blomia troplis in subtropical areas should be paid attention.%目的:探讨重庆地区儿童过敏性疾病患者吸入性变应原特点,协助过敏性疾病预防及治疗.方法:对重庆医科大学附属儿童医院2005年5月-2009年9月共13 841例过敏性疾病患儿行皮肤点刺试验(Skin prick test,SPT),应用SPSS17.0对数据进行统计学处理,分析吸入性变应原特点.结果:13 841例患儿吸入性变应原皮肤点刺试验阳性率80.3%,其中阳性率最高的变应原依次为粉尘螨67.6%(9 356例)、屋尘螨67

  11. 攀枝花市城区病媒生物现状调查%Disease Vector Survey in Urban Area of Panzhihua Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祖华; 唐刚

    2009-01-01

    Objective To find out the species and seasonal activity pattern of disease vectors in the urban area of Panzhihua, and provide basis for the prevention and control of vector - borne diseases. Methods Rodents were captured by trap during night; mosquitoes by mosquito capturing set; flies by cage; cockroaches by sticking. Results Four species of rodents in 3 genera in 1 family were found, and sewer rat was the predomi-nant species, accounting for 67. 58%, the total density was 3.32×10-3/trap, the natural density in rural area was highest in August. Seven species of mosquitoes in 4 genera in 2 subfamilies were found, culex pipi-ens fatigans was the predominant species, accounting for 58. 60%, the total density was 2. 86/h, the highest density was observed in livestock sheds in June; thirteen species of flies in 8 genera in 3 families were found. Musca domestica and Lucilia serieata were the predominant species, accounting for 34. 52% and 25.05% re-spectively. The total density was 8. 75/cage. The density in rural produce market was highest in June. Three species of cockroaches in 2 genera in 2 families were found, blattella gcrmanica was the predominant species, accounting for 91.07 %. The total density was 0. 46/piece and the harmful rate was 20. 64%, the density and harmful rate in food bar was highest, the peak season was in August. Conclusion Species and seasonal activity pattern of disease vectors in Panzhihua are clear.%目的 了解攀枝花市城区病媒生物的种类及其季节消长规律,为预防和控制媒介生物传播疾病的发生和流行提供依据.方法 鼠类调查采用夹夜法;蚊类采用人工小时法;蝇类采用笼诱法;蟑螂采用粘捕法.结果 鼠类有1科3属4种,褐家鼠为优势种,占捕获鼠总数的67.58%,总密度为3.32×103只/夹,农村自然村密度为最高,8月为全年密度高峰.蚊类有2亚科4属7种,致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获蚊总数的58.60%,总密度为2.86只/人工

  12. Analysis on biological vector control result in Jurong city from 2008 to 2010%2008-2010年句容市病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓雷; 陈世军; 吴晓军; 李水明

    2012-01-01

    目的 为了解句容市病媒生物的种群、数量、分布及季节消长规律,为制定科学合理的病媒生物防治方案提供依据.方法 按照《江苏省病媒生物监测方案》的要求,鼠密度监测采用夜夹法,蚊类监测采用诱蚊灯法,蝇类监测采用诱蝇笼诱法,蟑螂监测采用蟑螂屋诱捕法,每月进行密度监测.结果 3年平均鼠密度为0.38%,褐家鼠为优势鼠种;蚊密度为0.66只/人工小时,淡色库蚊为优势蚊种;蝇密度为1.95只/个,家蝇为优势蝇种;蟑螂密度为0.28只/张,德国小蠊为优势种.结论 对鼠、蟑螂的防治应采取加强卫生宣传以及治理环境和化学药物并重的综合治理方针;对蚊、蝇的防治应主要采取搞好环境卫生、清除孳生地的综合治理措施.%Objective In order to understand the type, quantity, distribution and seasonal fluctuation rule of vector in Jurong city, and provide scientific basis for vector control. Methods According to" Jiangsu Province Infection carrier Biology Monitor Plan" ,the mouse density monitor using night trap method to clamp the law, the mosquito monitor using tempts the mosquito lamp law,the fly monitor using the cage to tempt the law, the cockroach monitor u-sing the cockroach room to entrap the law, carrying out the density monitor for each month. Results Three annual mouse density was 0. 38% ,Rattus norvegicus was the dominant species. The mosquito density was 0. 66 pieces per artificial hour,Culex pipiens pallens was the dominant species. The cockroach density was 0. 28 pieces,Blaltella german-ica was the dominant species. Conclusion It is necessary to adopt the comprehensive program of public order policy as well as the environment monitor and chemical insecticides. To the mosquito and flies, it is supposed mainly to do well in the environmental sanitation and the elimination breed place.

  13. Epidemiological investigation on invasion situation of cockroaches in civil aircraft%民航客机蜚蠊侵害状况的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁朝晖; 王锦平; 冯显炘; 彭伟年; 卢江民; 王晓雨; 林国川

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide scientific evidence for studying biological characteristic of cockroaches and control countermeasures by investigating the species distribution and inroads situation of cockroaches in civil aircraft.Methods In August 2015,the onsite investigations were done for 19 A320 and A321 aircrafts harbored at Sanya airport and Haikou airport for getting the cockroach density.The difference of cockroache density was compared by aircraft type,aircraft age and the 4 areas of the aircraft.Results The total invasion rate was 84.21% on 19 aircrafts.Blauella germanica is the dominant specie.The invasion rates of cockroaches was not statistically significant neither by the comparison of aircraft type (x2 =1.362,P>0.05) nor by the comparison of aircraft age (x2=0.281,P > 0.05).But statistical significance on cockroaches density was found in the comparison of 4 areas of aircrafts (x2=14.629,P<0.01).Conclusions The comprehensive countermeasures,including environmental,physical and chemical controls,should be adopted according to the aircraft structure,operation and safety requirements.%目的 通过对民航客机蜚蠊种群分布及侵害情况的调查,为研究客机蜚蠊的生态特性及防治对策提供依据. 方法 2015年8月,采用现况调查的方法对三亚及海口机场的19架A320及A321客机进行蜚蠊密度监测;比较两种不同机型、不同机龄以及客机4个不同部位蜚蠊侵害情况. 结果 共调查19架客机,蜚蠊总侵害率为84.21%;客机蜚蠊以德国小蠊为优势种群.不同机型客机的蜚蠊侵害率差异无统计学意义(x2=1.362,P>0.05);不同机龄客机蜚蠊侵害率差异无统计学意义(x2 =0.281,P>0.05);客机不同部位蜚蠊密度差异有统计学意义(x2=14.629,P<0.01). 结论 应根据客机特殊的结构、运行特点、安全要求,并结合德国小蠊在客机上的分布特点,采取环境治理、物理防治、化学防治等综合防治措施.

  14. Human impact, geomorphological and bio-environmental indicators for mapping and monitoring of a Mediterranean urban-beach with Posidonia oceanica (Gulf of Cagliari-Sardinia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Sandro; Pusceddu, Nicola; Frongia, Paolo; Buosi, Carla; Passarella, Marinella; Ibba, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    . Reflecting the poor state of the Posidonia upper limit, during data collection it has been documented the presence of banquette, mainly composed of Caulerpa prolifera, with which the Posidonia competes for the substrate. The roles of Posidonia oceanica in coastal defence (sediment retainment, hydrodynamics attenuation), fish nursery and water oxygenation have been largely recognized. The health of the Posidonia meadow is also linked to the biotic communities. In order to evaluate the ecosystem quality of the investigated area, living benthic foraminiferal assemblages (Rose Bengal stained) were analysed. Benthic foraminifera are useful as bioindicator proxies for characterization of specific environments in coastal systems, because foraminifera have short life cycles reacting quite quickly to both short and long-term changes in marine and transitional-marine environments on both global and local scale. Results demonstrate, in medium-term scale, the human modification, and in short-term scale, the consequent human conditioning in sediment transport. The benthic foraminiferal biocoenosis and biotic indices decrease in the samples characterized by high environmental stress and are linked to the poor state of the Posidonia upper limit. The low abundance values and the dominance of indicative opportunistic species, such as Ammonia tepida, Haynesina germanica and bolivinids, are the result of these stressed conditions.

  15. 2010-2011年深圳世界大学生运动会相关场所主要病媒生物监测结果分析%Analysis of surveillance results of main vectors in Shenzhen Universiade venues from 2010 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志峰; 庄厚雄; 王永刚; 方琼; 曹丽; 林宝妮

    2012-01-01

    Objective To surveil the population distribution and density fluctuation of the main yeetors in Shenzhen Universiade venues from 2010 to 2011, and to provide a scientific basis for controlling vectors. Methods The CO2 light trap was used for the surveillance of adult mosquitoes, the raosq - ovilrap for Aedes albopictus, the cage for flies and rats, and sticky board for cockroaches. Results Culex pipiens pallens was the dominant species of mosquitoes caught in Shenzhen Universiade venues, accounting for 89.47% (476/532), and Ae. Albopictus accounted for 9.96% of all caught mosquitoes. The dominant species of caught flies was Chrysomya megacephala (37.83% , 2428/6419), followed by Lucilia cuprina (19.16% , 1230/6419), and Boettcherisca peregrina (17.36%, 1114/6419). Rattus norvegicus was the dominant species of caught rats, accounting for 88.37% (38/43). Blallella germanica was the dominant species of caught cockroaches, accounting for 97.15% (477/491). Compared with the data obtained in 2010, the densities of main vectors decreased significantly in 2011. During the Universiade held in Shenzhen, the densities oi main vectors were kept at low levels. The density of adult mosquitoes decreased by 20.55%, and the mosquito and oviposition positive index of Ae. Albopiclus decreased by 77.70%, and the densities of flies, rats, and cockroaches decreased by 91.29%, 44.38%, and 73.10%, respectively. Conclusion Surveillance and control significantly decreased the densities of the main vectors in Shenzhen Universiade venues and prevented the adverse effects of vectors during Universiade.%目的 2010-2011年通过对大学生运动会(大运会)相关场所主要病媒生物进行监测,掌握病媒生物的种群分布和密度消长情况,为病媒生物控制提供科学依据.方法 成蚊监测采用C02诱蚊灯法,伊蚊专项监测采用诱蚊诱卵器法,蝇类、鼠类监测采用笼诱法,蜚蠊监测采用粘捕法.结果 大运会场馆蚊虫的优势种为

  16. 锰污染土壤渗漏液与径流生态拦截净化系统的植物筛选%Screening of plant species for establishing an retention and purification ecosystem of soil infiltration water and surface runoff in manganese polluted area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星; 文仕知; 陈永华; 郝君; 刘凯; 吴子剑

    2012-01-01

    Screening of plant species were carried out for establishing an ecosystem for retention and purification of soil infiltration water and surface runoff in Xiangtan manganese polluted area. The results obtained from a five month plant growth period indicate that mushroom grass had a very low survival rate while Arundo donax var. versicolor and Acorus calamus Linn had a negative value in its biomass increment. In comparison, the other nine plant species, Thalia dealbata, Boehmeria, Canna warscewiezii A. Dietr, Phragmites australis, Typha orientalis Presl, Pontederia cordala, Nerium oleander, Pontederia cordata, Sofistem bulrush and Iris germanica grew well in the manganese polluted sites. The manganese contents in shoots of the nine plant species were all more than 1000 mg/kg and their zinc, copper and cadmium contents were also relatively high, with the ratio of the metal content in above-ground tissues to that in roots being greater than 1. In contrast, the above-ground tissue to root ratio of zinc, copper, manganese and cadmium contents in A. calamus and that of zinc, copper, and cadmium contents in A. donax var versicolor were lower than 1, suggesting that the metal accumulation in roots due to weak heavy metal transfer abilities of these species had led to poisoning effects on the pant growth. The highest manganese uptake in above-ground tissues of Boehmeria reached 217.8 mg per plant. The next uptake value was given by T. dealbata, Boehmeria, followed in turn by C. warscewiezii, Dietr, P. australis, P. cordata and S. bulrush.%为建立锰污染土壤渗漏液和径流收集处理系统,在湘潭锰矿废弃地开展了植物筛选试验.5个月植物生长的试验结果表明,香菇草成活率低,花叶芦竹、菖蒲生长量下降,而再力花、苎麻、紫叶美人蕉、芦苇、香蒲、夹竹桃、梭鱼草、水葱和德国鸢尾长势良好,其地上部分锰的含量多高于1 000 mg/kg,锌、铜、镉的含量也相对较高,锰含量地上

  17. Analysis of inhaled allergen spectrum of children with allergic rhinitis in Guangzhou%广州地区儿童变应性鼻炎患者吸入变应原谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁; 周丽枫; 陈彦球; 罗仁忠; 陶佳; 刘碧霞

    2012-01-01

    calculated. And the gender, age, living environment, history of asthma, eczema, history and family history of clinical data were analyzed. Result; The positive rate of SPT was 84. 82% (531/626). The dust mites(76. 36%) and the house dust mite(72. 84%) have the highest positive rate, then the positive rate of the dog hairdl. 98%) ,cat hair(7. 03%) and Blattella rmaniica(4. 31%) was degressively. The positive rate was significantly correlated with family history, history of eczema and asthma. The positive rate was correlated with the gender, independent of the living environment. The intensity of the test has no significant correlation with gender* and was significantly correlated with other factors. The positive rate of SPT has significant difference in ages and the highest positive rate of SPT was in the 1(W14 age group, the SPT rate was 93. 8%. Three groups have significant differences in the positive rate of mite, dog hair and cat hair. Conclusion:The main inhaled allergen in children with allergic rhinitis in Guangzhou area tested by SPT was mite, dog hair and cat hair,respectively. The different ages, living environment, family history, history of eczema and allergic rhinitis children with asthma were related with the pathogenesis and development of AR in childhood. Our results have the contribution to early diagnosis and intervention of children with allergic rhinitis in Guangzhou area.

  18. Risk factors of acarines sensitization for respiratory allergic diseases of children in Guangzhou urban districts%广州地区儿童呼吸道变态反应性疾病螨性变应原相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德晖; 钟南山; 江梅; 李靖; 孙宝清; 林育能; 潘小安; 钟帼钰; 陈庆宜; 陈福雄

    2010-01-01

    cockroach (47.0% ,86/183), cat (34.4%,63/183), Blatella germanica ( 29.5%, 54/183 ), mixed moulds ( 19.7%, 36/183 ), mixed grass pollens ( 15.9%, 29/183 ), Artemisia vulgaris ( 7.7%, 14/183 ), Ambrosia artemisifolia ( 5.5%, 10/183 ). The patients (146/183 cases) who were positive reactivity in mites were concomitant reactivity to multiple allergens(115/146 cases, 78.8%). Only 11 cases with negative reactivity in acaridan were combine with multiple allergens(11/37 cases, 29.7%). There was more statistically significant between in positive/negative skin reaction with acaridan( x 2= 33. 099, P <0. 001). Patients whose underwent skin reaction "+ +" with Der p or Der f or Blomia tropicalis was defined positive. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that ages,iteretur rhinitis,ocular symptoms and respiratory symptoms were risk factors for respiratory allergic diseases of children in Guangzhou urban districts. Family allergic histories,inhabited environment and food habits et al, were not risk factors. Conclusions The allergy is the important factor in respiratory allergy disease. House dust mites were the most prevalent allergens in children with asthma and (or) rhinitis in Guangzhou urban. Those patients with asthma and (or) allergic rhinitis usually have the positive skin prick tests. With the growing up, the children with respiratory allergic disease are more sensitive to acarines sensitization. To estimate allergen patterns of sensitizations in patients from different geographic areas, age groups as well as asthma and (or) rhinitis contribute to earlier diagnosis and earlier prevention.