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Sample records for blastocystis hominis sobre

  1. [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of blastocystis hominis].

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    Trabelsi, Sonia; Ali, Ichraf Ben Haj; Khaled, Samira

    2010-03-01

    Blastocystis hominis is an intestinal parasite known since long. It is cosmopolitan and lives in the colon. It is still the subject of controversy regarding its pathogenicity and possibly opportunistic character. We exhibit in this article the results obtained for 4 years on the epidemiological, clinical and biological character and opportunistic Blastocystis hominis, often overlooked in the examination of parasitological laboratories city. This is a retrospective study of 3257 stool examination (PSE), performed in the Mycology Laboratory of Parasitology of the Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis over a period of 4 years (January 2005-December 2008). Detection of Blastocystis hominis has been made by microscopic examination of samples by direct examination and concentration. Blastocystis was found in 7.27% of cases and 48.5% in men. Endolimax nanus is the parasite most frequently associated with Blastocystis (40.4% of cases). The port was symptomatic in 72.1% of cases, diarrhea is the symptom most often found (27.7%). There is a seasonal distribution; in fact, it is more frequently diagnosed in summer and autumn. The absence of gravity and the saprophytic nature of this infection do not lead to an indication for treatment even among profoundly immunosuppressed individuals. Only the persistence of clinical disorders associated with the detection of the parasite and in the absence of other micro-organisms and intestinal parasites justifies the treatement. Metronidazole is the molecule used conventionally.

  2. Isolate resistance of Blastocystis hominis to metronidazole.

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    Haresh, K; Suresh, K; Khairul Anus, A; Saminathan, S

    1999-04-01

    Isolates of Blastocystis hominis from infected immigrant workers from Indonesia, Bangladesh and infected individuals from Singapore and Malaysia were assessed for growth pattern and degree of resistance to different concentrations of metronidazole. Viability of the cells was assessed using eosin-brillian cresyl blue which stained viable cells green and nonviable cells red. The Bangladeshi and Singaporean isolates were nonviable even at the lowest concentration of 0.01 mg/ml, whereas 40% of the initial inoculum of parasites from the Indonesian isolate at day one were still viable in cultures with 1.0 mg/ml metronidazole. The study shows that isolates of B. hominis of different geographical origin have different levels of resistance to metronidazole. The search for more effective drugs to eliminate th parasite appears inevitable, especially since surviving parasites from metronidazole cultures show greater ability to multiply in subcultures than controls.

  3. Blastocystis hominis among food vendors in Xochimilco markets.

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    Cruz Licea, Verónica; Plancarte Crespo, Agustín; Morán Alvarez, Cristina; Valencia Rojas, Silvia; Rodríguez Sásnchez, Gustavo; Vega Franco, Leopoldo

    2003-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a pathogenic protozoon that lives in the human bowel and causes diarrhea: the mode of transmission is a passive one, through the ingestion of stool-contaminated water or foods that contain infective forms of the parasite. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis among food vendors in the markets within the Xochimilco jurisdiction, Mexico City, Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which food vendors answered an epidemiological questionnaire and underwent a serial stool culture. The frequency of the intestinal parasitoses reported was estimated and an analysis was carried out associating the presence of Blastocystis hominis with socio-economic and hygienic factors using the odds ratio at a 95% confidence interval. The frequency of intestinal parasites and commensals was 50.4%; Blastocystis hominis was found in 48 (41.7%) food vendors. The risk analysis showed that Blastocystis hominis was associated with: male gender, poor personal hygiene habits, personal history of parasitosis, and family history of parasitosis. The prevalence reported is high when compared with other populations studied. The relevance of this report lies on the fact that food vendors handle foods and could transmit the infection to consumers.

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of Blastocystis hominis infection in children.

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    O'Gorman, M A; Orenstein, S R; Proujansky, R; Wadowsky, R M; Putnam, P E; Kocoshis, S A

    1993-02-01

    Blastocystis hominis, a protozoan whose pathogenicity has been questioned, is sometimes found in the human gastrointestinal tract. We sought to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis in stool and to characterize clinical features of infection with Blastocystis in children. Forty-six (3%) of 1,736 patients undergoing fecal microscopy at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1988, harbored Blastocystis. Of these 46 children, 75% had exposure to well water or had been in developing countries. Thirty-nine of the 46 (85%) experienced gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss. Blastocystis was the only parasite found in 35 of those 39 symptomatic children. Symptoms resolved within one month in 90% of patients receiving antiparasitic pharmacotherapy, but in only 58% (P < .04) of those receiving no therapy. We conclude that children infected with Blastocystis often experience gastrointestinal symptoms and that treatment increases the rate of symptomatic improvement. We speculate that Blastocystis is a human pathogen.

  5. [Standardization of Blastocystis hominis diagnosis using different staining techniques].

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    Eymael, Dayane; Schuh, Graziela Maria; Tavares, Rejane Giacomelli

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out from March to May 2008, with the aim of evaluating the effectiveness of different techniques for diagnosing Blastocystis hominis in a sample of the population attended at the Biomedicine Laboratory of Feevale University, Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul. On hundred feces samples from children and adults were evaluated. After collection, the samples were subjected to the techniques of spontaneous sedimentation (HPJ), sedimentation in formalin-ether (Ritchie) and staining by means of Gram and May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG). The presence of Blastocystis hominis was observed in 40 samples, when staining techniques were used (MGG and Gram), while sedimentation techniques were less efficient (32 positive samples using the Ritchie technique and 20 positive samples using the HPJ technique). Our results demonstrate that HPJ was less efficient than the other methods, thus indicating the need to include laboratory techniques that enable parasite identification on a routine basis.

  6. Characteristics of Factors of Protozoa Blastocystis hominis Persistence.

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    Potaturkina-Nesterova, N I; Il'ina, N A; Bugero, N V; Nesterov, A S

    2016-10-01

    Persistence activity manifested in the expression of anti-lysozyme, anti-lactoferrin, and antihistone factors promoting inactivation of natural anti-infection resistance factors in the body was revealed in Blastocystis hominis protozoa. Activities of these factors were ranged. The frequency of these factors in clinical isolates of blastocyst decreased in the following order: anti-lactoferrin activity (84.5±3.7%)→anti-lysozyme activity (64.8±5.7%)→anti-histone activity (48.1±2.3%). In healthy humans, the corresponding parameters were 7.3±1.3, 5.3±0.9, and 3.3±0.4%, respectively (pprotozoa.

  7. Significance of Blastocystis hominis in patients referred for ...

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    Objective: To determine the prevalence and related clinical manifestation of B. hominis infection in patients referred for bacteriological ... with a worldwide distribution. However ... abdominal pain and peripheral blood eosinophilia. However ...

  8. Chronic diarrhea caused by Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. in immunocompetent patient-a case report

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    Andriyani, Y.; Rozi, M. F.; Saragih, R. H.; Darlan, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. are commonly associated with immunocompromised patients. Severe clinical manifestation can be produced by this organism. It varies according to immune status, and subtype of this organism. Unfortunately, we found an immunocompetent patient with chronic diarrhea caused by this organism. A 38- year old male was admitted to Adam Malik General Hospital because of watery diarrhea since four days ago. Administration of fluid replacement was done to this patient, but the frequency of diarrhea did not decrease. Loperamide as anti-spasmodic was also given in each episode of diarrhea. Surprisingly, fecal smear examination revealed that this patient positive for Blastocystis hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. Thus, diarrhea was resolved for four days without giving any anti-parasitic drugs to the patient.

  9. Stress exacerbates infectivity and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: in vitro and in vivo evidences.

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    Samudi Chandramathi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection. METHODS/FINDINGS: Three-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (acontrol; (bstress-induced; (cB. hominis infected; (dstress-induced with B. hominis infection; (n = 20 respectively. Stress was induced for an hour daily (30 days using a Belly Dancer Shaker. Weight gain was monitored, stool samples were collected for B. hominis screening and blood for the determination of differential count, levels of immunoglobulin, oxidative damage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC proliferation upon induction with solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag. Group (b exhibited the highest level of weight gain. Group (d had higher levels of parasite cyst count in stools, serum IgE, oxidized protein and lipid compared to the group (c. Levels of monocyte and antioxidant in group (d were decreased and their PBMCs showed highest inhibition of proliferation level when exposed to Blasto-Ag. Monocyte level in Group (b showed insignificant difference compared to group (a but was significantly lower compared to group (c. Antioxidant levels in group (c were generally lower compared to group (a and (b. Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c was higher compared to group (a and (b. CONCLUSION: The pathogenicity and augmentation of B. hominis infection is enhanced when stress is present. Lifestyles today are becoming increasingly stressed and the present findings suggest that the parasite which has been reported to be one of the most common organisms seen in

  10. Clinical efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii or metronidazole in symptomatic children with Blastocystis hominis infection.

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    Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Eren, Makbule; Dogan, Nihal; Reyhanioglu, Serap; Yargic, Zeynel Abidin; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2011-03-01

    Although many Blastocystis infections remain asymptomatic, recent data suggest it also causes frequent symptoms. Therapy should be limited to patients with persistent symptoms and a complete workup for alternative etiologies. The goal of this study was to compare the natural evolution (no treatment) to the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) or metronidazole for the duration of diarrhea and the duration of colonization in children with gastrointestinal symptoms and positive stool examination for Blastocystis hominis. This randomized single-blinded clinical trial included children presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea-vomiting, flatulence) more than 2 weeks and confirmed B. hominis by stool examination (B. hominis cysts in the stool with microscopic examination of the fresh stool). The primary end points were clinical evaluation and result of microscopic stool examination at day 15. Secondary end points were the same end points at day 30. Randomization was performed by alternating inclusion: group A, S. boulardii (250 mg twice a day, Reflor®) during 10 days; group B, metronidazole (30 mg/kg twice daily) for 10 days; group C, no treatment. At day 15 and 30 after inclusion, the patients were re-evaluated, and stool samples were examined microscopically. On day 15, children that were still symptomatic and/or were still B. hominis-infected in group C were treated with metronidazole for 10 days. There was no statistically significant difference between the three study groups for age, gender, and the presence of diarrhea and abdominal pain. On day 15, clinical cure was observed in 77.7% in group A (n, 18); in 66.6% in group B (n, 15); and 40% in group C (n:15) (p boulardii has potential beneficial effects in B. hominis infection (symptoms, presence of parasites). These findings challenge the actual guidelines.

  11. Presencia de Blastocystis Hominis como agente causal de enfermedades gatrointestinales en la comuna 7 (Gaira del Distrito de Santa Marta

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    Sonja Liliana Lozano Socarras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La Blastocystis hominis es un protozoo que causa cuadros diarreicos. Es altamente prevalente en poblaciones que no cuentan con servicios adecuados de higiene, alcantarillado y salud pública. La infección con Blastocystis hominis frecuentemente concomita con otros enteropatógenos de reconocida patogenicidad, además se ha reportado como parásito oportunista en pacientes con VIII SIDA. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar la presencia de Blastocystis hominis en pacientes de consulta externa con síntomas asociados a enfermedades gastrointestinales, en la comuna 7 del distrito de Santa Marta, Colombia, durante el mes de Enero a Diciembre de 2004. El método de diagnóstico utilizado fue examen coproparasitológico seriado y el número de pacientes analiza-dos fue de 291. Los resultados muestran una alta presencia de Blastocystis hominken pacientes con enfermedad diarreica residentes en Gaira. Un alto porcentaje de la población parasitada (62,6% presento como único agente causal de la enfermedad diarreica al Blastocystis hominis lo que sugiere la presencia de otras enfermedades que pueden involucrar un compromiso inmunológico, el efecto será una respuesta inmune débil contra el parásito.

  12. Blastocystis Hominis and Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children: Is there an Association between Them?

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    Toro Monjaraz, Erick Manuel; Vichido Luna, Miguel Angel; Montijo Barrios, Ericka; Cervantes Bustamante, Roberto; Zárate Mondragón, Flora; Huante Anaya, Alfonso; Cadena León, José; Mendez, Monserrat Cazares; López Ugalde, Martha; Ramirez Mayans, Jaime A

    2017-08-03

    Chronic abdominal pain has many etiologies, one of them being parasites. The aim of this study was to find an association between chronic abdominal pain in children and Blastocystis hominis (Bh). Clinical files of patients with Bh and functional abdominal pain were reviewed. A comparison was made between patients who showed an improvement of their symptoms and those who did not. Out of the 138 patients who had functional abdominal pain and Bh, 37 patients did not receive any treatment (26.8%), while 101 received it and were treated with different antimicrobial agents (73.2%); regarding the improvement of symptoms, a statistically significant difference (p abdominal pain in children has different etiologies; however, we have documented through this work that it is appropriate to provide antimicrobial treatment for patients with Bh and chronic abdominal pain. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Prueba de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro para Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar, Balantidium coli

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    Rito Zerpa Larrauri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Pruebas de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro para Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar y Balantidium coli, así como el cultivo para protozoarios intestinales, han sido publicados escasamente en la literatura médica. En nuestro medio aún no se ha comunicado pruebas de susceptibilidad in vitro para los parásitos mencionados. Objetivos: Plantear una alternativa de prueba de susceptibilidad antiparasitaria in vitro y conocer su resistencia frente a los antimicrobianos. Diseño: Estudio prospectivo, descriptivo. Instituciones: Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel Alcides Carrión", Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, e Instituto Especializado de Salud del Niño, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Cultivos de Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica-E. dispar y Balantidium coli frente a cinco antimicrobianos. Métodos: Se trabajó con 64 cultivos de Blastocystis hominis, 16 de Entamoeba histolytica-dispar y 16 de Balantidium coli, frente a cinco antimicrobianos: metronidazol, cotrimoxazol, tetraciclina, furazolidona y ciprofloxacina. Las cepas de B. hominis, E. histolytica-E. dispar fueron cultivadas en el medio de Pavlova modificado, de 500 muestras de heces de niños con diagnóstico de parasitosis intestinal y las de B. coli de heces de cerdo. Las pruebas de susceptibilidad in vitro se realizaron con el método de microcultivos en el medio de Pavlova modificado, en pocitos con 200 uL del medio sin antiparasitarios (control y con antiparasitarios en 10 concentraciones, desde 128 ug/mL hasta 0,25 ug/mL; luego de incubación a 36º C por 48 horas, la lectura por examen microscópico directo comparó el desarrollo en el medio control con el desarrollo en los pocitos conteniendo los antimicrobianos. Principales medidas de resultados: Concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM. Resultados: Se encontró para B. hominis, con metronidazol CIM 90: 64 ug/mL y CIM 50: 2 ug/mL; para E. histolytica-E. dispar con

  14. [Frequency and in vitro susceptibility antiparasitic of Blastocystis hominis from patients admitted to the Hospital Regional Lambayeque, Peru].

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    Silva-Díaz, Heber; Flores-Esqueche, Lorena; Llatas-Cancino, Dunalia; Guevara Vásquez, Génesis; Silva-García, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    To describe the frequency and antiparasitic in vitro susceptibility of Blastocystis hominis in patients admitted to theHospital Regional Lambayeque, Peru. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to August 2015 at 313 patients of all ages. B. hominis detection was performed on serial fecal samples by direct microscopic examination and microculture in modified Locke solution. The in vitro susceptibility testing against the drug metronidazole, nitazoxanide, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin was performed in 24 strains of B. hominis, which grew up (microculture method) in 10 double concentrations of each antimicrobial (from 256 ug/ml to 0.5 ug/mL) plus a control. 46.3% (145/313) of the sample had B. hominis, also the age between 12 to 17 years and 60 years was associated with higher frequency of parasites (OR: 2.93 and 2.62). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 90 of metronidazole and nitazoxanide was 3.19 ug/mL and 11.19 ug/ml, respectively, whereas the MIC 90 of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin were above 256 ug/mL. B. hominis occurs in high frequency in patients admitted to the Hospital Regional in Lambayeque, proving to be an important problem of public health in the region. Also B. hominis isolated from these patients were shown to be susceptible in vitro to low concentrations of metronidazole and nitazoxanide so they could be chosen for treatment of this parasite.

  15. ¿ Blastocystis spp. O B. hominis ? ¿PROTOZOARIO O CHROMISTA? I ¿Blastocystis spp. OR B. hominis ? ¿ PROTOZOA OR CHROMIST ?

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    Rodolfo Devera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Some feedback and input to a letter to the editor published in the latest issue of Saber journal in which some aspects of the taxonomy of the parasite Blastocystis spp. occur are discussed

  16. Frequency of Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in stool samples examined at the Parasitology Laboratory of the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the São Paulo State University, Araraquara Freqüência de Blastocystis hominis e outros enteroparasitas em amostras de fezes examinadas no Laboratório de Parasitologia da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara

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    Júlio César Miné

    2008-12-01

    como comparar diferentes métodos para a pesquisa desse protozoário em amostras de fezes. Foram estudadas 503 amostras de fezes submetidas ao exame direto a fresco, às técnicas de Faust e cols, Lutz e de Rugai e cols, além das colorações pela hematoxilina férrica, tricrômio e de Kinyoun modificada. Entre as 503 amostras examinadas, 174 (34,6% apresentaram-se positivas para a presença de parasitas intestinais. O protozoário e o helminto mais freqüentes foram Entamoeba coli (14,6% e Strongyloides stercoralis (6,7%, respectivamente. Blastocystis hominis foi observado em 23 (4,6% amostras fecais com consistência predominantemente pastosa, não caracterizando quadro diarréico. Apesar da baixa freqüência de Blastocystis hominis encontrada na região de Araraquara, comparativamente a outras regiões brasileiras, é importante a realização do diagnóstico laboratorial desse protozoário. O encontro de Blastocystis hominis em material fecal é indicativo de contaminação de alimentos e água de consumo, desde que se admita a rota de transmissão oral-fecal desse parasita, o que implica na orientação da população sobre as medidas de saneamento básico e higiene como meio para se controlar problemas de saúde ocasionados pelos enteroparasitas.

  17. Parasitoses intestinais de indígenas da comunidade Mapuera (Oriximiná, Estado do Pará, Brasil: elevada prevalência de Blastocystis hominis e encontro de Cryptosporidium sp e Cyclospora cayetanensis Intestinal parasitosis in Indians of the Mapuera community (Oriximiná, State of Pará, Brazil: high prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and finding of Cryptosporidium sp and Cyclospora cayetanensis

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    Jaila Dias Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a ocorrência de parasitoses intestinais em indígenas da aldeia Mapuera (Oriximiná, Estado do Pará, Brasil. No contexto de apreciações congêneres, expressa contribuição para adequado conhecimento do assunto, significativo sob o ponto de vista médico-sanitário. O exame parasitológico das fezes, de 83 pessoas, realizado por meio de quatro métodos, pode ser considerado como dotado de razoável amplitude para estabelecer diagnósticos. Ocorreu encontro de cistos de protozoários e de ovos de helmintos de múltiplos tipos, até mesmo em expressivas porcentagens, merecendo destaque a muito freqüente presença de Blastocystis hominis (57,8%, como também o encontro de Cryptosporidium sp (3,6% e de Cyclospora cayetanensis (10,8%, comentado especificamente. O verificado demonstra que tais índios vivem em ambiente onde prevalecem más condições higiênicas, em especial, facilitador da disseminação de protozoários e helmintos pelo contato com o solo ou ingestão de água e alimentos contaminados.Occurrences of intestinal parasitosis in Indians of the Mapuera community (Oriximiná, State of Pará, Brazil were evaluated. Within the context of group assessment, this study makes a contribution towards adequate knowledge of this subject, which is significant from a medical-sanitary point of view. Parasitological examination of feces from 83 individuals, performed using four different methods, could be considered to have reasonable amplitude for establishing diagnoses. Protozoan cysts and helminth eggs of many types were found, even with significant percentages. The frequent presence of Blastocystis hominis (57.8%, along with findings of Cryptosporidium sp (3.6% and Cyclospora cayetanensis (10.8%, deserved highlighting with specific comments. The findings show that these Indians live in an environment in which poor hygiene conditions prevail. In particular, these facilitate the dissemination of protozoa and helminths through

  18. Evaluation of the Roche LightMix Gastro parasites multiplex PCR assay detecting Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, cryptosporidia, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Blastocystis hominis.

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    Friesen, J; Fuhrmann, J; Kietzmann, H; Tannich, E; Müller, M; Ignatius, R

    2018-03-23

    Multiplex PCR assays offer highly sensitive and specific tools for the detection of enteric pathogens. This prospective study aimed at comparing the novel Roche LightMix Modular Assay Gastro Parasites (LMAGP) detecting Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Blastocystishominis, and Dientamoebafragilis with routine laboratory procedures. Stool specimens (n = 1062 from 1009 patients) were consecutively examined by LMAGP, R-Biopharm Ridascreen enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) detecting G. duodenalis or E. histolytica/dispar, and microscopy of wet mounts. Discrepant results were analysed by in-house PCR. D. fragilis or B. hominis were detected by LMAGP in 131 (14.4%) and 179 (19.9%; 16 samples positive by microscopy; p PCR). G. duodenalis was detected by LMAGP, EIA, or microscopy in 20, 16, or 9 of 1039 stool samples, respectively; all four samples missed by EIA were confirmed by in-house PCR. In total, 938 stool samples were analysed for E. histolytica/dispar. Nine of ten EIA-positive samples were negative by LMAGP but positive by in-house PCR for E. dispar. One E. histolytica infection (positive by both LMAGP and in-house PCR) was missed by EIA and microscopy. Parasites only detected by microscopy included Enterobius vermicularis eggs (n = 3) and apathogenic amoebae (n = 27). The data call for routine use of multiplex PCR assays for the detection of enteric protozoan parasites in laboratory diagnostics. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estudio comparativo de la frecuencia de Blastocystis hominis en niños en edad preescolar de una zona urbana y una rural de la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias y su relación con las manifestaciones clínicas y factores de riesgo

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    Mavianis Pinilla Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las parasitosis intestinales son infecciones comunes a nivel mundial y de mayor prevalencia en las comunidades empobrecidas de países en desarrollo. A finales de los ochenta el Blastocystis hominis no era reportado rutinariamente, representando solo un problema de diagnóstico diferencial; pero en los noventa mediante un oportuno diagnóstico aumenta su prevalencia de 1,5 a 10% en los países desarrollados y de 30 a 50 % en países en desarrollo. Objetivo: comparar la frecuencia de Blastocystis hominis en niños de preescolar de una zona urbana (Crespo y una rural (Boquilla de Cartagena Bolívar y su relación con las manifestaciones clínicas, factores de riesgo. Materiales y métodos: se analizaron mediante la técnica de coprológico seriado, 286 muestras de materia fecal de niños de 1 a 5 años que procedían de una zona urbana y una zona rural de la ciudad de Cartagena de indias. Resultados: se encontraron parásitos en el 38,5% (55/143 de los niños de la zona urbana y el 79% (113/143 de la zona rural. Se encontró asociación entre la presencia de parásitos con la procedencia de los niños evaluados (X2= 48,53; p<0,0001. Se encontró una frecuencia de 51,1% de B. hominis en la zona urbana y 44,8% en la zona rural. Conclusiones: la falta de seguimiento y control de los casos problema sugiere la necesidad de formular e implementar medidas orientadas a mejorar la calidad de vida en las zonas estudiadas.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis

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    Fadime Eroğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis pathogenicity and classification was newly illuminated with molecular genetic studies and recently the parasite was found in the focus of many researchers. Several molecular methods such as; polymerase chain reaction (PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing analyses can be used in genotyping of Blastocystis. Blastocystis parasites may cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, irritability, anorexia, cramps, vomiting, dehydration, insomnia, nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue symptoms and also could be asymptomatic cases. In this review, it was aimed to summarize the associations between Blastocystis subtypes and pathogenicity.

  1. Blastocytosis hominis Infection

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    ... increases in places with inadequate sanitation and poor personal hygiene. Risk factors Blastocystis is common, and anyone can ... you have blastocystis or another gastrointestinal infection, good personal hygiene can help keep you from spreading the infection ...

  2. Association of Blastocystis subtypes with diarrhea in children

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    Zulfa, F.; Sari, I. P.; Kurniawan, A.

    2017-08-01

    Blastocystis hominis is an intestinal zoonotic protozoa that epidemiological surveys have shown, is highly prevalent among children and may cause chronic diarrhea. This study aimed to identify Blastocystis subtypes among children and associate those subtypes to pathology. The study’s population was children aged 6-12 years old divided into asymptomatic and symptomatic (diarrhea) groups. The asymptomatic samples were obtained from primary school students in the Bukit Duri area of South Jakarta, while the symptomatic samples were obtained from patients who visited nearby primary health centers (Puskesmas). Symptomatic stool samples were examined inParasitology Laboratory FKUI. Microscopic examination of the stool samples was performed to screen for single Blastocystic infection, followed by culture, PCR of 18S rRNA, and sequencing. In the study, 53.2% of children (n = 156) harbored intestinal parasites, Blastocysts sp. A single infection of Blastocystis sp. was present in 69 (44.23%) samples, comprised of 36 symptomatic and 33 asymptomatic participants. The Blastocystis subtypes (STs) identified in this study were STs 1-4 ST3 was the most dominant and was observed with statistically significant higher frequency in the symptomatic group. ST4 was only found in one sample in the symptomatic group. While ST1 and ST2 were found more frequently in the asymptomatic group, no statistical association was observed. ST3 is more likely to be associated with clinical symptoms than ST1 and ST2.

  3. A retrospective metagenomics approach to studying Blastocystis.

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    Andersen, Lee O'Brien; Bonde, Ida; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2015-07-01

    Blastocystis is a common single-celled intestinal parasitic genus, comprising several subtypes. Here, we screened data obtained by metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA for Blastocystis by searching for subtype-specific genes in coabundance gene groups, which are groups of genes that covary across a selection of 316 human faecal samples, hence representing genes originating from a single subtype. The 316 faecal samples were from 236 healthy individuals, 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 67 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The prevalence of Blastocystis was 20.3% in the healthy individuals and 14.9% in patients with UC. Meanwhile, Blastocystis was absent in patients with CD. Individuals with intestinal microbiota dominated by Bacteroides were much less prone to having Blastocystis-positive stool (Matthew's correlation coefficient = -0.25, P < 0.0001) than individuals with Ruminococcus- and Prevotella-driven enterotypes. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between Blastocystis and communities of gut bacteria using a metagenomics approach. The study serves as an example of how it is possible to retrospectively investigate microbial eukaryotic communities in the gut using metagenomic datasets targeting the bacterial component of the intestinal microbiome and the interplay between these microbial communities. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Intestinal parasite infections in a rural community of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina Valença; Barreto, Magali Muniz; Andrade, Rosemary de Jesus; Sodré, Fernando; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini; Peralta, José Mauro; Igreja, Ricardo Pereira; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods, fecal culture, nested PCR and PCR/Sequencing. Overall prevalence by parasitological analyses was 64.3% (189 out of 294 cases). Blastocystis sp. (55.8%) was the most prevalent, followed by Endolimax nana (18.7%), Entamoeba histolytica complex (7.1%), hookworm infection (7.1%), Entomoeba coli (5.8%), Giardia intestinalis (4.1%), Iodamoeba butchilii (1.0%), Trichuris trichiura (1.0%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%). Prevalence of IPIs was significantly different by gender. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. and BLAST search revealed five different subtypes: ST3 (34.0%), ST1 (27.0%), ST2 (27.0%), ST4 (3.5%), ST8 (7.0%) and a non-identified subtype. Our findings demonstrate that intestinal parasite infection rates in rural areas of the Sumidouro municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are still high and remain a challenge to public health. Moreover, our data reveals significant genetic heterogeneity of Blastocystis sp. subtypes and a possible novel subtype, whose confirmation will require additional data. Our study contributes to the understanding of potential routes of transmission, epidemiology, and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in rural areas both at a regional and global scale.

  5. Diversity of Blastocystis subtypes in dogs in different geographical settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wenqi; Cuttell, Leigh; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blastocystis is a ubiquitous, globally distributed intestinal protist infecting humans and a wide range of animals. Several studies have shown that Blastocystis is a potentially zoonotic parasite. A 1996 study reported a 70% Blastocystis prevalence in Brisbane pound dogs while another...... study found that pet dogs/cats of 11 symptomatic Blastocystis infected patients harboured at least one Blastocystis subtype (ST) in common with the patient. These results raised the possibility that dogs might be natural hosts of Blastocystis. In this study, we aimed to investigate this hypothesis...... by estimating the prevalence of Blastocystis carriage and characterising the diversity of STs in dogs from three different environmental settings and comparing these STs with the range that humans harbour. Methods: Two hundred and forty faecal samples from dogs from three different geographical regions...

  6. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Blastocystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tamalee; Bush, Stephen; Ellis, John; Harkness, John; Stark, Damien

    2015-08-01

    Blastocystis is the most common human enteric protist with controversial clinical significance. Metronidazole is considered a first-line treatment for Blastocystis infection; however, there has been increasing evidence for the lack of efficacy of this treatment. Treatment failure has been reported in several clinical cases, and recent in vitro studies have suggested the occurrence of metronidazole-resistant strains. In this study, we tested 12 Blastocystis isolates from 4 common Blastocystis subtypes (ST1, ST3, ST4, and ST8) against 12 commonly used antimicrobials (metronidazole, paromomycin, ornidazole, albendazole, ivermectin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX], furazolidone, nitazoxanide, secnidazole, fluconazole, nystatin, and itraconazole) at 10 different concentrations in vitro. It was found that each subtype showed little sensitivity to the commonly used metronidazole, paromomycin, and triple therapy (furazolidone, nitazoxanide, and secnidazole). This study highlights the efficacy of other potential drug treatments, including trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ivermectin, and suggests that current treatment regimens be revised. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. A molecular prevalence of Blastocystis hominis in patients referred to medical diagnosis laboratories in Khorramabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim Badparva

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: The microscopic diagnosis is challenged by morphological characteristics and other intervening factors, and the PCR method, which has higher sensitivity and specification than other diagnostic methods, is recommended. Concerning the prevalence of the parasite, the world has been divided into two parts of developed and developing countries by the researchers, with 10% and 50% prevalence rates respectively. The 6.5% prevalence in the cited population in Khorramabad is in the range of the prevalence in the developed countries. Therefore, the result is justifiable since springs provide most of the drinking water in the region. However, since ranching is a popular occupation in the region, the prevalence rate is alarming. Therefore, following health instructions and appropriate clothing when exposing to livestock are recommended. In addition, the results of this study and similar studies in the developing countries, on the one hand, and the increasing prevalence of 23% in the US as a developed country, on the other hand, have disturbed the previous division.

  8. Clinical significance and taxonomy of Actinobacillus hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V

    2001-01-01

    with this microorganism seem to be rare, the fact that 37 of 46 strains characterized in this study have been found in Copenhagen indicates that under-reporting may occur. A. hominis is phenotypically relatively homogeneous but can be difficult to differentiate from other Actinobacillus species unless extensive...... biochemical testing is performed. Mannose-positive strains of A. hominis are especially difficult to differentiate from A. equuli. Attempts to identify A. hominis by automatic identification systems may lead to misidentifications. Ribotyping and DNA-DNA hybridization data show that A. hominis is a homogeneous...

  9. Blastocystis phylogeny among various isolates from humans to insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Koyama, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Erika; Takami, Kazutoshi

    2016-12-01

    Blastocystis is a common unicellular eukaryotic parasite found not only in humans, but also in various kinds of animal species worldwide. Since Blastocystis isolates are morphologically indistinguishable, many molecular biological approaches have been applied to classify these isolates. The complete or partial sequences of the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA) are mainly used for comparisons and phylogenetic analyses among Blastocystis isolates. However, various lengths of the partial SSU rDNA sequence have been used for phylogenetic inference among genetically different isolates. Based on the complete SSU rDNA sequences, consensus terminology of nine subtypes (STs) of Blastocystis sp. that were supported by phylogenetically monophyletic nine clades was proposed in 2007. Thereafter, eight additional kinds of STs comprising non-human mammalian Blastocystis isolates have been reported based on the phylogeny of SSU rDNA sequences, while STs 11 and 12 were only proposed on the base of partial sequences. Although many sequence data from mammalian and avian Blastocystis are registered in GenBank, only limited data on SSU rDNA are available for poikilotherm-derived Blastocystis isolates. Therefore, the phylogenetic positions of the reptilian/amphibian Blastocystis clades are unstable. The phylogenetic inference of various STs comprising mammalian and/or avian Blastocystis isolates was verified herein based on comparisons between partial and complete SSU rDNA sequences, and the phylogenetic positions of reptilian and amphibian Blastocystis isolates were also investigated using 14 new Blastocystis isolates from reptiles with all known isolates from other reptilians, amphibians, and insects registered in GenBank. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Location and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis in the porcine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wang

    Full Text Available Blastocystis is an ubiquitous, enteric protozoan of humans and many other species. Human infection has been associated with gastrointestinal disease such as irritable bowel syndrome, however, this remains unproven. A relevant animal model is needed to investigate the pathogenesis/pathogenicity of Blastocystis. We concluded previously that pigs are likely natural hosts of Blastocystis with a potentially zoonotic, host-adapted subtype (ST, ST5, and may make suitable animal models. In this study, we aimed to characterise the host-agent interaction of Blastocystis and the pig, including localising Blastocystis in porcine intestine using microscopy, PCR and histopathological examination of tissues. Intestines from pigs in three different management systems, i.e., a commercial piggery, a small family farm and a research herd (where the animals were immunosuppressed were examined. This design was used to determine if environment or immune status influences intestinal colonisation of Blastocystis as immunocompromised individuals may potentially be more susceptible to blastocystosis and development of associated clinical signs. Intestines from all 28 pigs were positive for Blastocystis with all pigs harbouring ST5. In addition, the farm pigs had mixed infections with STs 1 and/or 3. Blastocystis organisms/DNA were predominantly found in the large intestine but were also detected in the small intestine of the immunosuppressed and some of the farm pigs, suggesting that immunosuppression and/or husbandry factors may influence Blastocystis colonisation of the small intestine. No obvious pathology was observed in the histological sections. Blastocystis was present as vacuolar/granular forms and these were found within luminal material or in close proximity to epithelial cells, with no evidence of attachment or invasion. These results concur with most human studies, in which Blastocystis is predominantly found in the large intestine in the absence of

  11. A retrospective metagenomics approach to studying Blastocystis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lee O'Brien; Bonde, Ida; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    a selection of 316 human faecal samples, hence representing genes originating from a single subtype. The 316 faecal samples were from 236 healthy individuals, 13 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 67 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The prevalence of Blastocystis was 20.3% in the healthy individuals......Blastocystis is a common single-celled intestinal parasitic genus, comprising several subtypes. Here, we screened data obtained by metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA for Blastocystis by searching for subtype-specific genes in coabundance gene groups, which are groups of genes that covary across...... and 14.9% in patients with UC. Meanwhile, Blastocystis was absent in patients with CD. Individuals with intestinal microbiota dominated by Bacteroides were much less prone to having Blastocystis-positive stool (Matthew's correlation coefficient = -0.25, P

  12. Blastocystis in a Gut Microbia Context and Aspects of Blastocystis Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lee Poul O'Brien

    Blastocystis is a single-celled intestinal parasite of undetermined clinical and public health importance comprising 17 subtypes (species), of which 9 have been found in humans. In the first study of this thesis, general trends in Blastocystis research are accounted for, and the general assumptio...

  13. Clinical significance and taxonomy of Actinobacillus hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V

    2001-01-01

    Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections with this micr......Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections...

  14. OCCURRENCE OF Blastocystis spp. IN UBERABA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    CABRINE-SANTOS, Marlene; CINTRA, Eduardo do Nascimento; CARMO, Rafaela Andrade do; NASCENTES, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira; PEDROSA, André Luiz; CORREIA, Dalmo; OLIVEIRA-SILVA, Márcia Benedita de

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG) through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie’s method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from...

  15. Blastocystis, an unrecognized parasite: an overview of pathogenesis and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Poirier, Philippe; Viscogliosi, Eric; Dionigia, Meloni; Texier, Catherine; Delbac, Frédéric; Alaoui, Hicham El

    2013-10-01

    Blastocystis sp. is among the few enteric parasites with a prevalence that often exceeds 5% in the general population of industrialized countries and can reach 30-60% in developing countries. This parasite is frequently found in people who are immunocompromised (patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or cancer) and a higher risk of Blastocystis sp. infection has been found in people with close animal contact. Such prevalence in the human population and the zoonotic potential naturally raise questions about the impact of these parasites on public health and has increased interest in this area. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shed new light on the pathogenic power of this parasite, suggesting that Blastocystis sp. infection is associated with a variety of gastrointestinal disorders, may play a significant role in irritable bowel syndrome, and may be linked with cutaneous lesions (urticaria). Despite recent significant advances in the knowledge of the extensive genetic diversity of this species, the identification of extracellular proteases as virulence factors and the publication of one isolate genome, many aspects of the biology of Blastocystis sp. remain poorly investigated. In this review, we investigate several biological aspects of Blastocystis sp. (diversity and epidemiology, diagnosis tools and pathophysiology). These data pave the way for the following challenges concerning Blastocystis sp. research: deciphering key biological mechanisms and pathways of this parasite and clarification of its clinical impact in humans.

  16. Blastocystis spp.: revisión literaria de un parásito intestinal altamente prevalente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana M Amaya S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Blastocystis spp., se ha identificado como un patógeno emergente causante de diarrea en hombre y en animales. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sobre las principales características de este parásito y su rol patogénico. Metodología: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre ciclo de vida, subtipos, epidemiología, y sus posibles factores de virulencia Estas revisiones fueron extraídas de bases de datos como PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, SCIELO, EBSCO y HINARI. Resultados: Blastocystis spp., es de interés por su alta prevalencia en diferentes grupos poblacionales, constante en los estudios epidemiológicos de las parasitosis humanas. Se ha evidenciado en pacientes asintomáticos y en otros con síntomas gastrointestinales, lo que depende del subtipo presente en el portador, sin embargo, esta divergencia se presta para problemas de interpretación. Conclusiones: A pesar de los estudios epidemiológicos, terapéuticos e inmunológicos que se han realizado aún no se tiene claro su ciclo de vida completo, factores de virulencia y patogenicidad.

  17. Mycoplasma hominis Induces Mediastinitis after a Tonsillar Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grancini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis is commonly involved in genitourinary tract infections. We report a 59-year-old man who developed a M. hominis-associated mediastinitis following acute tonsillar infection.

  18. Diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of Mycoplasma hominis meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Elisabeth H. L.; Winter, Heinrich L. J.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Metzemaekers, Joannes D. M.; Arends, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Meningitis in adults due to infection with Mycoplasma hominis is rarely reported. Here, we document the third case of M. hominis meningitis in an adult individual, developed upon neurosurgery following a subarachnoid haemorrhage. Our findings are noteworthy, because the presence of M. hominis in

  19. First report of Blastocystis infections in cattle in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weining; Tao, Wei; Gong, Binbin; Yang, Hang; Li, Yijing; Song, Mingxin; Lu, Yixin; Li, Wei

    2017-11-15

    Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal protists of humans and can also infect a variety of other mammals and birds. Blastocystis infections and subtype distribution in cattle have been documented, while nothing is known about those in China. Herein, a total of 526 dairy cattle from northeast China were sampled and investigated for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Blastocystis and the potential role of bovine animals in zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis. The parasite was identified in 54 (10.3%) fecal specimens by nested PCR and DNA sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Sequence analysis enabled identification of four Blastocystis subtypes (STs). Among those, subtype ST10 (75.9%, 41/54) has the highest frequency, followed by ST14 (18.5%, 10/54), ST4 (3.7%, 2/54), and ST5 (1.9%, 1/54). High prevalence and widespread distribution of ST10 and ST14 in cattle observed herein, together with analysis of their host distribution patterns in earlier studies, indicated some host-adapted potential in the two subtypes. The identification of human-pathogenic subtypes ST4 and ST5 might imply a potential zoonotic risk of cattle origin. This is the first study exploring the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Blastocystis in cattle in China. The host range of subtype ST4 was extended. The findings of this study should be helpful for a better understanding of the epidemiology and public health potential of Blastocystis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of recombination in Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Iben Søgaard; Boesen, Thomas; Mygind, Tina

    2002-01-01

    disequilibrium and distance between the segregating sites, by the homoplasy ratio (H ratio), and by compatibility matrices. The gap gene showed well-supported evidence for high levels of recombination, whereas recombination was less frequent and not significant within the other genes. The analysis revealed......B-hitL, excinuclease ABC subunit A (uvrA) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) genes. The level of variability of these M. hominis genes was low compared with the housekeeping genes from Helicobacter pylori and Neisseria meningitidis, but only few M. hominis isolates had identical sequences in all genes...... intergenic and intragenic recombination in M. hominis and this may explain the high intraspecies variability. The results obtained in the present study may be of importance for future population studies of Mycoplasma species....

  1. The relation between Blastocystis and the intestinal microbiota in Swedish travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Joakim; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Angelin, Martin; Johansson, Anders; Evengård, Birgitta; Granlund, Margareta

    2017-12-11

    Blastocystis sp. is a unicellular eukaryote that is commonly found in the human intestine. Its ability to cause disease is debated and a subject for ongoing research. In this study, faecal samples from 35 Swedish university students were examined through shotgun metagenomics before and after travel to the Indian peninsula or Central Africa. We aimed at assessing the impact of travel on Blastocystis carriage and seek associations between Blastocystis and the bacterial microbiota. We found a prevalence of Blastocystis of 16/35 (46%) before travel and 15/35 (43%) after travel. The two most commonly Blastocystis subtypes (STs) found were ST3 and ST4, accounting for 20 of the 31 samples positive for Blastocystis. No mixed subtype carriage was detected. All ten individuals with a typable ST before and after travel maintained their initial ST. The composition of the gut bacterial community was not significantly different between Blastocystis-carriers and non-carriers. Interestingly, the presence of Blastocystis was accompanied with higher abundances of the bacterial genera Sporolactobacillus and Candidatus Carsonella. Blastocystis carriage was positively associated with high bacterial genus richness, and negatively correlated to the Bacteroides-driven enterotype. These associations were both largely dependent on ST4 - a subtype commonly described from Europe - while the globally prevalent ST3 did not show such significant relationships. The high rate of Blastocystis subtype persistence found during travel indicates that long-term carriage of Blastocystis is common. The associations between Blastocystis and the bacterial microbiota found in this study could imply a link between Blastocystis and a healthy microbiota as well as with diets high in vegetables. Whether the associations between Blastocystis and the microbiota are resulting from the presence of Blastocystis, or are a prerequisite for colonization with Blastocystis, are interesting questions for further studies.

  2. Molecular design of Mycoplasma hominis Vaa adhesin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Fedosova, Natalya U.; Kjeldgaard, Morten

    2001-01-01

    The variable adherence-associated (Vaa) adhesin of the opportunistic human pathogen Mycoplasma hominis is a surface-exposed, membrane-associated protein involved in the attachment of the bacterium to host cells. The molecular masses of recombinant 1 and 2 cassette forms of the protein determined...

  3. Neonate with Mycoplasma hominis meningoencephalitis given moxifloxacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenbeest, Joanne G.; Said, Ines; Jaeger, Bregje; van Hest, Reinier M.; van de Beek, Diederik; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory

  4. Homo homini : [luuletused] / Valeria Ränik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ränik, Valeria, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Homo homini ; "Tegelikult on täiuslik kõik..." ; Mõned kõned ; "Vihmadest lekib lagi..." ; "Sündisid siia, et maksta maksu..." ; "Mingis kohas, mingil ajal..." ; "Emajõgi, Amme jõgi..." ; Kaktus ; Eraelamus ; "Minevikule vesi peale..."

  5. Low prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in active ulcerative colitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, N G; Bart, A; Verhaar, N; van Nood, E; Kootte, R; de Groot, P F; D'Haens, G R; Ponsioen, C Y; van Gool, T

    2015-05-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is thought to originate from a disbalance in the interplay between the gut microbiota and the innate and adaptive immune system. Apart from the bacterial microbiota, there might be other organisms, such as parasites or viruses, that could play a role in the aetiology of UC. The primary objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in a cohort of patients with active UC and compare that to the prevalence in healthy controls. We studied patients with active UC confirmed by endoscopy included in a randomised prospective trial on the faecal transplantation for UC. A cohort of healthy subjects who served as donors in randomised trials on faecal transplantation were controls. Healthy subjects did not have gastrointestinal symptoms and were extensively screened for infectious diseases by a screenings questionnaire, extensive serologic assessment for viruses and stool analysis. Potential parasitic infections such as Blastocystis were diagnosed with the triple faeces test (TFT). The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. were compared between groups by Chi-square testing. A total of 168 subjects were included, of whom 45 had active UC [median age 39.0 years, interquartile range (IQR) 32.5-49.0, 49 % male] and 123 were healthy subjects (median age 27 years, IQR 22.0-37.0, 54 % male). Blastocystis sp. was present in the faeces of 40/123 (32.5 %) healthy subjects and 6/45 (13.3 %) UC patients (p = 0.014). Infection with Blastocystis is significantly less frequent in UC patients as compared to healthy controls.

  6. Palpebral myiasis in a Danish traveler caused by the human bot-fly (Dermatobia hominis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Regitze; Holst, Bengt; Krogh, Erik

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis......ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis...

  7. The Mycoplasma hominis vaa gene displays a mosaic gene structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Emmersen, Jeppe M. G.; Jensen, Lise T.

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis contains a variable adherence-associated (vaa) gene. To classify variants of the vaa genes, we examined 42 M. hominis isolated by PCR, DNA sequencing and immunoblotting. This uncovered the existence of five gene categories. Comparison of the gene types revealed a modular...

  8. A comparison between hominy chop and defatted maize germ meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defatted maize germ meal (DMG) is arbitrarily rated at a lower economic value than maize meal or hominy chop (HC). Five treatments with 15 steers each were fed different inclusion levels of DMG (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), replacing hominy chop during the fattening period. Slaughter data were collected for carcass ...

  9. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Rose Anne; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Nishi, Letícia; Araujo, Silvana Marques

    2008-08-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI) leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference) persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1%) and 36 reference individuals (25.7%) were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively). Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%), Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7%) and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7%) were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947) or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046) in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  10. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Anne Kulik

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1% and 36 reference individuals (25.7% were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively. Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%, Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%, Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7% and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7% were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947 or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046 in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  11. Draft genome sequence of the intestinal parasite Blastocystis subtype 4-isolate WR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Wawrzyniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal protistan parasite Blastocystis is characterized by an extensive genetic variability with 17 subtypes (ST1–ST17 described to date. Only the whole genome of a human ST7 isolate was previously sequenced. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Blastocystis ST4-WR1 isolated from a laboratory rodent at Singapore.

  12. Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess following heart-lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Yoshida, Hisao; Yamamoto, Norihisa; Kimura, Keigo; Ueda, Akiko; Nishi, Isao; Akeda, Yukihiro; Tomono, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    We report the first case of Mycoplasma hominis periaortic abscess after heart-lung transplantation. The absence of sternal wound infection delayed the diagnosis, but the patient successfully recovered with debridement surgeries and long-term antibiotic therapy. Owing to the difficulty in detection and the intrinsic resistance to beta-lactams, M. hominis infections are prone to being misdiagnosed and undertreated. M. hominis should be suspected in cases where conventional microbiological identification and treatment approaches fail. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Genomic and gene variation in Mycoplasma hominis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend

    1987-01-01

    DNAs from 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from various habitats, including strain PG21, were analyzed for genomic heterogeneity. DNA-DNA filter hybridization values were from 51 to 91%. Restriction endonuclease digestion patterns, analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, revealed...... no identity or cluster formation between strains. Variation within M. hominis rRNA genes was analyzed by Southern hybridization of EcoRI-cleaved DNA hybridized with a cloned fragment of the rRNA gene from the mycoplasma strain PG50. Five of the M. hominis strains showed identical hybridization patterns....... These hybridization patterns were compared with those of 12 other mycoplasma species, which showed a much more complex band pattern. Cloned nonribosomal RNA gene fragments of M. hominis PG21 DNA were analyzed, and the fragments were used to demonstrate heterogeneity among the strains. A monoclonal antibody against...

  14. Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from children and rhesus monkeys in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Wu, Zhiliang; Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2009-03-23

    To investigate the possible transmission of Blastocystis organisms between local rhesus monkeys and children in Kathmandu, Nepal, we compared the subtype (ST) and sequence of Blastocystis isolates from children with gastrointestinal symptoms and local rhesus monkeys. Twenty and 10 Blastocystis isolates were established from 82 and 10 fecal samples obtained from children and monkeys, respectively. Subtype analysis with seven sequence-tagged site (STS) primers indicated that the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. ST1, ST2 and ST3 was 20%, 20% and 60% in the child isolates, respectively. In contrast to human isolates, ST3 was not found in monkey isolates and the prevalence of ST1 and ST2 was 50% and 70%, respectively, including three mixed STs1 and 2 and one isolate not amplified by any STS primers, respectively. Since Blastocystis sp. ST2 has been reported as the most dominant genotype in the survey of Blastocystis infection among the various monkey species, sequence comparison of the 150bp variable region of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene was conducted among ST2 isolates of humans and monkeys. Sequence alignment of 24 clones developed from ST2 isolates of 4 humans and 4 monkeys showed three distinct subgroups, defined as ST2A, ST2B and ST2C. These three subgroups were shared between the child and monkey isolates. These results suggest that the local rhesus monkeys are a possible source of Blastocystis sp. ST2 infection of humans in Kathmandu.

  15. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. dos Santos C.S., McIntosh D., Berto B.P., de Jesus V.L.T., da Rocha C.N.C., Fernandes J.I., Scott F.B. & Lopes C.W.G. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil. [Diagnóstico de Pentatrichomonas hominis em gatos no sudeste do Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:25-31, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: carolinespitz@yahoo.com.br The parabasalid flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is recognized as the causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats. A second species of parabasalid flagellate Pentatrichomonas hominis, has also been reported in association with domestic cats, albeit almost exclusively as a commensal organism. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that P. hominis may also be involved in feline gastro-intestinal disorders including diarrhea and that the incidence of infection with P. hominis may have been underestimated due to it being misidentified as T. foetus. The aim of the current study was to establish the basis for routine morphological identification of P. hominis employing light microscopy and to apply the methodology to the examination of cases of diarrhea in a laboratory population of Brazilian domestic cats (n =39. A detailed morphological description of P. hominis isolated from 11 cats with diarrhea was produced and molecular analyses were performed in support of the morphological data and to demonstrate the absence of T. foetus in infected cats. All animals with diarrhea were demonstrated to be infected solely with P. hominis. The findings of the current study provide a straight forward and validated method for the differential diagnosis of P. hominis and contribute to the on-going debate surrounding the pathogenic potential of this parabasalid flagellate.

  16. Cardiobacterium hominis and Cardiobacterium valvarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonavent, Tina Bennett; Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Kristensen, Kjeld Skødebjerg

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiobacterium hominis and Cardiobacterium valvarum are well known, though rare, etiologic agents of infective endocarditis. Cardiac devices are increasingly implanted. Case Reports: Two cases of infective episodes in pacemaker (PM) treated patients with respectively C. hominis and C...

  17. Serological differentiation of microsporidia with special reference to Trachipleistophora hominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheney S.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Myositis is a common clinical syndrome in advanced stages of AIDS. Trachipleistophora hominis (phylum Microspora has been detected in several cases of painful, immobilising myositis in AIDS patients. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and Western blotting of protein profiles separated by SDS PAGE were used to determine whether this species could be detected and differentiated by serology. Sixteen microsporidia, including several species known to infect man and species infecting fish, crustaceans and a mosquito, were used as antigen. Each species had a unique profile of SDS PAGE-separated proteins. In Western blots, mouse antiserum, raised to T. hominis and selected for its high ELISA specificity, bound to antigens ranging from less than 25 kDa to greater than 250 kDa with major bands at 39-44 kDa and 98-150 kDa on T. hominis protein profiles. The serum also recognised some high molecular weight antigens in the profiles of Vavraia culicis, Heterosporis anguillarum, and three species of Pleistophora but none in the remaining genera examined. It was concluded that ELISA and Western blotting could be used to detect and differentiate T. hominis in muscle biopsy tissue from patients with myositis. However, sera from T. hominis infected patients in the terminal stages of AIDS would not be useful for detection of infections because of a sharp decline in antibody level.

  18. First genotyping of Blastocystis sp. in dairy, meat, and cashmere goats in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Ke; Yin, Yan-Ling; Yuan, Ya-Jie; Tang, Huan; Ren, Guan-Jing; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Li, Zi-Xuan; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2017-12-01

    Blastocystis is one of the most common parasites inhabiting in small intestines of human and animals. Although its pathogenicity has been remaining controversial, the possibility of zoonotic transmission between human and animals was recognized. The goat was one of the most important economic animals supplying people with cashmere, meat, and dairy products. However, few studies were to investigate Blastocystis infection in goats. A total of 789 faecal specimens of goats (including 362 of dairy, 193 of meat and 234 of cashmere goats) were collected from multiple regions of Shaanxi province in northwestern China to investigate the colonization frequency and subtypes of Blastocystis, and to assess the zoonotic potential of these goats. The respective colonization frequencies of Blastocystis in dairy, meat and cashmere goats were 54.1% (196/362), 40.4% (78/193) and 78.6% (184/234). The prevalence of Blastocystis in pre-weaned (0-2-month) goats was significantly lower than that in goats of other age groups, and the highest colonization was observed in goats of 7-11-month age group. Sequence analysis of Blastocystis positive samples indicated the presence of seven subtypes in these goats, including six known subtypes (STs1, 3, 4, 5, 10, 14) and one possible novel subtype (isolate Sd26), with the subtype 10 as the predominant one. Additionally, zoonotic subtypes were found in dairy (ST1, ST3 and ST5) and cashmere (ST4 and ST5) goats, but not detected in meat goats. These results showed that Blastocystis is highly prevalent, widely distributed and genetically diverse in goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China, and zoonotic potential of dairy and cashmere goats to transmit Blastocystis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Irritable bowel syndrome: frequency and phylogenetic relationship of Blastocystis sp. from Mexican patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Miranda, M E; Jiménez-González, D E; Rodríguez-Campa, M E; González-Angulo, A; Hernández-Castellanos, R; Sara Arroyo-Escalante, A; Romero-Valdovinos, M; Martínez-Hernández, F; Flisser, A; Maravilla, P

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies reported increased presence of Blastocystis in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and an etiologic role has been proposed. The pathogenic role of Blastocystis is controversial, because it is frequently found not only in individuals with enteric symptoms but also in healthy and asymptomatic subjects. Furthermore, there are few studies of blastocistosis in Mexico. To assess the frequency of Blastocystis sp. in IBS patients using molecular techniques and to describe its phylogenetic relationship with sequences of other countries. IBS patients according to Rome III criteria were enrolled. In all patients evaluations included: colonoscopies, coproparasitoscopic studies, coproculture, fecal virus screening. PCR and sequencing for Blastocystis sp. were also performed. We recruited 11 men and 51 women with a mean age of 45.6 (SD ± 15.7) years. Eighty-six percent of the IBS patients presented a normal colonoscopy, 8% showed polyps and 6% diverticular disease. Blastocystis sp. was identified in 25% patients (all of them with normal colonoscopy), while two patients had Endolimax nana and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that major sequences of Mexican carriers clustered together with sequences of parasites from Japan and Denmark; furthermore, two sequences from IBS patients were grouped in a single cluster. Blastocystis sp. was identified in 25% of the IBS patients. Our data support the hypothesis of clonal lineages in distinct geographical areas in the world.

  20. Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Caused by Cardiobacterium hominis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davie Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiobacterium hominis, a member of the HACEK group of organisms, is an uncommon but important cause of subacute bacterial endocarditis. First-line therapy is a third-generation cephalosporin due to rare beta-lactamase production. The authors report a case involving endovascular infection due to C hominis that initially tested resistant to third-generation cephalosporins using an antibiotic gradient strip susceptibility method (nitrocephin negative, but later proved to be susceptible using broth microdilution reference methods (a ‘major’ error. There are limited studies to guide susceptibility testing and interpretive breakpoints for C hominis in the medical literature, and the present case illustrates some of the issues that may arise when performing susceptibility testing for fastidious organisms in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  1. Sterols of Pneumocystis carinii hominis organisms isolated from human lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneshiro, E S; Amit, Z; Chandra, Jan Suresh

    1999-01-01

    in conjunction with analyses of chemically synthesized authentic standards. The sterol composition of isolated P. carinii hominis organisms has yet to be reported. If P. carinii from animal models is to be used for identifying potential drug targets and for developing chemotherapeutic approaches to clear human...... infections, it is important to determine whether the 24-alkylsterols of organisms found in rats are also present in organisms in humans. In the present study, sterol analyses of P. carinii hominis organisms isolated from cryopreserved human P. carinii-infected lungs and from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were...

  2. Distribution of Blastocystis subtypes isolated from humans from an urban community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Valença Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocystis is a cosmopolitan protist parasite found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is highly prevalent in developing countries. Recent molecular studies have revealed extensive genetic diversity, which has been classified into different subtypes (STs based on sequence analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Blastocystis is one of the most common fecal parasites in Brazil, but the diversity of subtypes remains unknown in the country. This study aimed to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs in an urban community in Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods A total of 64 stool samples positive for Blastocystis in Pavlova’s medium were subtyped by PCR and sequenced using primers targeting the small subunit rRNA gene, in addition to phylogenetic analysis and subtype-specific PCR using sequence-tagged-site (STS primers. Results Endolimax nana (14%, Entamoeba complex (10.5%, Taenia sp. (0.6%, Trichuris trichiura (1.3% and Enterobius vermicularis (1.3% were detected in Blastocystis-positive samples. Of the 64 samples tested by PCR/DNA sequencing, 55 were identified as ST1 (42%, ST3 (49%, ST2 (7% and ST4 (2%, and the presence of mixed ST (ST1 + ST3 infection was detected in nine samples (14%. Conclusions DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Brazilian Blastocystis isolates identified four different subtypes. To our knowledge, this study provided the first genetic characterization of Blastocystis subtypes in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also identified ST4 for the first time in Brazil. Further studies are necessary to determine the distribution of STs across human populations in Rio de Janeiro.

  3. Analysis of a Mycoplasma hominis membrane protein, P120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Mathiesen, SL; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg

    1994-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody mAb 26.7D generated against a clinical isolate of Mycoplasma hominis 7488 was shown to react with a surface-exposed epitope on a 120-kDa protein (P120). The gene encoding the protein was cloned and sequenced, and the transcriptional start point was determined by primer...

  4. Antigenic and genomic homogeneity of successive Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lise Torp; Thorsen, P; Møller, B

    1998-01-01

    Sixty Mycoplasma hominis isolates were obtained from the cervices of pregnant women and from the ears or pharynges of their newborn babies. The isolates were examined by SDS-PAGE and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Antigenic and genomic profiles were obtained for 16 series with two or more...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Human Gut Symbiont Roseburia hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travis, Anthony J.; Kelly, Denise; Flint, Harry J

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the human gut symbiont Roseburia hominis A2-183(T) (= DSM 16839(T) = NCIMB 14029(T)), isolated from human feces. The genome is represented by a 3,592,125-bp chromosome with 3,405 coding sequences. A number of potential functions contributing to host...

  6. Common occurrence of Cryptosporidium hominis in horses and donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fuchun; Liu, Aiqin; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Sumei; Qi, Meng; Zhao, Wei; Shi, Yadong; Wang, Jianling; Wei, Jiujian; Zhang, Longxian; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-09-01

    Extensive genetic variation is observed within the genus Cryptosporidium and the distribution of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in humans and animals appears to vary by geography and host species. To better understand the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in horses and donkeys, we characterized five horse-derived and 82 donkey-derived Cryptosporidium isolates from five provinces or autonomous regions (Sichuan, Gansu, Henan, Inner Mongolia and Shandong) in China at the species/genotype and subtype levels. Three Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified based on the analysis of the SSU rRNA gene, including Cryptosporidium parvum (n=22), the Cryptosporidium horse genotype (n=4), and Cryptosporidium hominis (n=61). The identification of C. hominis was confirmed by sequence analysis of the HSP70 and actin genes. Subtyping using sequence analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene identified 21 C. parvum isolates as subtype IIdA19G1, the four horse genotype isolates as subtypes VIaA15G4 (n=2) and VIaA11G3 (n=2), and the 61 C. hominis isolates as IkA16G1 (n=59) and IkA16 (n=2). The common finding of C. hominis reaffirms the heterogeneity of Cryptosporidium spp. in horses and donkeys and is possibly a reflection of endemic transmission of C. hominis in these animals. Data of the study suggest that horses and donkeys as companion animals may potentially transmit Cryptosporidium infections to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbiological and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus hominis isolates from blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS, Staphylococcus hominis represents the third most common organism recoverable from the blood of immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to characterize biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, define the SCCmec (Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec type, and genetic relatedness of clinical S. hominis isolates. METHODOLOGY: S. hominis blood isolates (n = 21 were screened for biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. Methicillin resistance was evaluated using the cefoxitin disk test and the mecA gene was detected by PCR. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the broth microdilution method. Genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and SCCmec typed by multiplex PCR using two different methodologies described for Staphylococcus aureus. RESULTS: Of the S. hominis isolates screened, 47.6% (10/21 were categorized as strong biofilm producers and 23.8% (5/21 as weak producers. Furthermore, 81% (17/21 of the isolates were methicillin resistant and mecA gene carriers. Resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, and trimethoprim was observed in >70% of isolates screened. Each isolate showed a different PFGE macrorestriction pattern with similarity ranging between 0-95%. Among mecA-positive isolates, 14 (82% harbored a non-typeable SCCmec type: eight isolates were not positive for any ccr complex; four contained the mec complex A ccrAB1 and ccrC, one isolate contained mec complex A, ccrAB4 and ccrC, and one isolate contained the mec complex A, ccrAB1, ccrAB4, and ccrC. Two isolates harbored the association: mec complex A and ccrAB1. Only one strain was typeable as SCCmec III. CONCLUSIONS: The S. hominis isolates analyzed were variable biofilm producers had a high prevalence of methicillin resistance and resistance to other antibiotics, and high genetic diversity. The results of this study strongly suggested that S. hominis isolates harbor

  8. High occurrence of Blastocystis sp. subtypes 1-3 and Giardia intestinalis assemblage B among patients in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Joakim; Granlund, Margareta; Samuelsson, Linn; Koskiniemi, Satu; Edebro, Helén; Evengård, Birgitta

    2016-06-29

    Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite with worldwide distribution but the distribution of Blastocystis and its subtypes in East Africa is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in Zanzibar, Tanzania and report the prevalence of intestinal parasites using both molecular methods and microscopy. Stool samples were collected from both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic outpatients in Zanzibar. In addition to microscopy, real-time PCR for Blastocystis, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Dientamoeba fragilis was used. Blastocystis subtypes were determined by a conventional PCR followed by partial sequencing of the SSU-rRNA gene. Genetic assemblages of Giardia were determined by PCR with assemblage specific primers. Intestinal parasites were detected in 85 % of the 174 participants, with two or more parasites present in 56 %. Blastocystis sp. and Giardia intestinalis were the most common parasites, identified by PCR in 61 and 53 % of the stool samples respectively, but no correlation between carriage of Blastocystis and Giardia was found. The Blastocystis subtype distribution was ST1 34.0 %, ST2 26.4 %, ST3 25.5 %, ST7 0.9 %, and 13.2 % were positive only by qPCR (non-typable). The Giardia genetic assemblages identified were A 6.5 %, B 85 %, A + B 4.3 %, and non-typable 4.3 %. The detection rate with microscopy was substantially lower than with PCR, 20 % for Blastocystis and 13.8 % for Giardia. The prevalence of Blastocystis increased significantly with age while Giardia was most prevalent in children two to five years old. No correlation between diarrhoea and the identification of Giardia, Blastocystis, or their respective genetic subtypes could be shown and, as a possible indication of parasite load, the mean cycle threshold values in the qPCR for Giardia were equal in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic patients. Carriage of intestinal parasites was very

  9. Meningitis in a Chinese adult patient caused by Mycoplasma hominis: a rare infection and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Menglan; Wang, Peng; Chen, Sharon; Du, Bin; Du, Jinlong; Wang, Fengdan; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma hominis, a well known cause of neonatal infection, has been reported as a pathogen in urogenital infections in adults; however, central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare. We report here the first case of M. hominis meningitis in China, post neurosurgical treatment for an intracerebral haemorrhage in a 71-year-old male. Case presentation We describe a 71-year-old man who developed M. hominis meningitis after neurosurgical treatment and was successfully treated with...

  10. Rapid PCR Detection of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum

    OpenAIRE

    Scott A. Cunningham; Jayawant N. Mandrekar; Jon E. Rosenblatt; Robin Patel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We compared laboratory developed real-time PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma hominis and for detection and differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and parvum to culture using genitourinary specimens submitted for M. hominis and Ureaplasma culture. Methods. 283 genitourinary specimens received in the clinical bacteriology laboratory for M. hominis and Ureaplasma species culture were evaluated. Nucleic acids were extracted using the Total Nucleic Acid Kit on the MagNA Pure 2.0...

  11. Activity of medicinal plants from Ghana against the parasitic gut protist Blastocystis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremer Christensen, Charlotte; Soelberg, Jens; Stensvold, Christen R

    2015-01-01

    ; an ethanolic, a warm, and a cold water extract, at a final concentration of 1mg/mL for the initial screening, and in a range from 0.0156 to 1mg/mL for determination of inhibitory concentrations. The obligate anaerobic parasitic gut protist Blastocystis (subtype 4) was used as a 48h old subcultivated isolate...

  12. Draft genome sequence of the intestinal parasite Blastocystis subtype 4-isolate WR1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Courtine, Damien; Osman, Marwan; Hubans-Pierlot, Christine; Cian, Amandine; Nourrisson, Céline; Chabe, Magali; Poirier, Philippe; Bart, Aldert; Polonais, Valérie; Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; El Alaoui, Hicham; Belkorchia, Abdel; van Gool, Tom; Tan, Kevin S. W.; Ferreira, Stéphanie; Viscogliosi, Eric; Delbac, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    (ST1-ST17) described to date. Only the whole genome of a human ST7 isolate was previously sequenced. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Blastocystis ST4-WR1 isolated from a laboratory rodent at Singapore. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  13. Cardiothoracic Transplant Recipient Mycoplasma hominis: An Uncommon Infection with Probable Donor Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sampath

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of infection with Mycoplasma hominis following cardiothoracic organ transplantation and its source of transmission have not been well-defined. Here, we identify and describe infection with M. hominis in patients following cardiothoracic organ transplantation after reviewing all cardiothoracic transplantations performed at our center between 1998 and July 2015. We found seven previously unreported cases of M. hominis culture positive infection all of whom presented with pleuritis, surgical site infection, and/or mediastinitis. PCR was used to establish the diagnosis in four cases. In two instances, paired single lung transplant recipients manifested infection, and in one of these pairs, isolates were indistinguishable by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. To investigate the prevalence of M. hominis in the lower respiratory tract, we tested 178 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluids collected from immunocompromised subjects for M. hominis by PCR; all were negative. Review of the literature revealed an additional 15 cases of M. hominis in lung transplant recipients, most with similar clinical presentations to our cases. We recommend that M. hominis should be considered in post-cardiothoracic transplant infections presenting with pleuritis, surgical site infection, or mediastinitis. M. hominis PCR may facilitate early diagnosis and prompt therapy. Evaluation for possible donor transmission should be considered.

  14. The Case Report of Trigger Finger Improved with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The Purpose of this study is to investigate and report the effectiveness of Hominis Placenta using Pharmacopuncture treatment for trigger finger. Methods : 3 Patients are admitted at Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation, Bu-Chun Jaseng Oriental Medicine Hospital, diagnosed as Trigger finger and treated with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture. Each cases are measured and assessed by Quinnell's classification of triggering and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale scores. Results : 3 Patients of trigger finger have a different kind of cause and fingers lesion they have, but nodules are not significantly found up, so we could classify all of 3 patients to diffuse type. After treatment of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture, spontaneous pain and tenderness, grades of triggering are decreased significantly. We would expect that Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture has a effect on degenerative diseases of diffuse type's tendon sheath. Conclusions : Trigger finger is generally divided into two stages, inflammatory and degenerative stage, and when degenerative stage, Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture appears to be effective.

  15. Gastrodiscoides hominis infection in a Nigerian- case report | Dada ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'agit d'un rapport d'un cas d'un enfant Nigerian âgé de sept ans qui s'est présenté atteints des traits de la sous alimentation et de l'anénue également atteint des gastrodiscoides hominis et ascaris lumbricoides. A la suite de la clairance des vers on a remarqué une enorme amélioration dans le statut de la santé de cet ...

  16. Distribution and phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. subtypes isolated from IBD patients and healthy individuals in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Abbasi, M R; Naderi, N; Hasani, Z; Mirsamadi, E S; Stensvold, C R; Balaii, H; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, H; Zali, M R

    2017-12-01

    Blastocystis is a single-celled intestinal parasite commonly found in humans and a broad range of animals all over the world. In humans, its role in health and disease remains unsettled. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of Blastocystis and Blastocystis subtypes (ST) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and control subjects. A total of 71 stool samples were collected from IBD patients, 69 and 2 of whom had ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD), respectively. Moreover, 166 stool samples from healthy subjects were included as control samples. All stool samples were cultivated, and 550-bp fragments of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene was amplified from Blastocystis-positive cultures. All PCR-positive samples were sequenced. Blastocystis was observed in 9 (12.67%) and 35 (21.1%) IBD patients and healthy controls, respectively. There was no statistically significant correlation between IBD and presence of Blastocystis (P = 0.147). There was a statistically significant correlation between age and Blastocystis colonization in the IBD group (P patients, respectively, while in the healthy control group, subtypes 1, 2, and 3 were found in 14 (40%), 12 (34.28%), and 9 (25.72%), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed no variation in the distribution of subtypes nor intra-subtype genetic diversity between samples acquired from IBD patients and healthy controls. This study showed a trend towards a lower prevalence of Blastocystis in IBD patients than in control subjects. ST3 sequences isolated from IBD patients and control individuals did not appear to differ genetically.

  17. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jeong-hun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. In herbal acupuncture group, 100% motor recovery was 7 case, 75% was 1 case, and 25% motor recovery term was 7.38±5.21 days, 50% was 11.00±6.16 days, 75% was 15.13±9.55 days, 100% was 23.14±7.97 days. In control group, 100% motor recovery was 4 case, 75% was 2 case, 25% below was 2 case and 25% motor recovery term was 11.17±4.96days, 50% was 18.17±6.82 days, 75% was 29.50±6.95 days, 100% was 44.00±11.49 days. The above results indicate that Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture is a useful effect on Bell's palsy. thus, continuous herbal acupunture study will be needed for more clinical application on Bell' palsy.

  18. Diversity and host specificity of Blastocystis in syntopic primates on Rubondo Island, Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášová, J.; Uzlíková, M.; Kostka, M.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Huffman, M. A.; Modrý, David

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 11 (2011), s. 1113-1120 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930615; GA ČR GA524/06/0264; GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Blastocystis * subtypes * Primates * transmission Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.393, year: 2011

  19. Subtyping of Blastocystis sp. isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Raafat T; El-Bali, Mohammed A; Mohamed, Anhar A; Abdel-Fatah, Mona A; El-Malky, Mohamed A; Mowafy, Nawras M; Zaghlool, Dina A; Bakri, Rowaida A; Al-Harthi, Saeed A

    2017-04-07

    Blastocystis is a group of cosmopolitan gastrointestinal parasite of humans and a wide variety of animals. These anaerobic protozoans include more than 17 specific small-subunit ribosomal RNA subtypes, of which nine are found in humans with a variable geographical distribution. Until now, no study has described the Blastocystis subtypes present in Saudi Arabia. In total, 1,262 faecal samples were collected from patients with gastrointestinal complaints and asymptomatic individuals visiting two major hospitals. All samples were analysed by F1/R1 diagnostic PCR, microscopy and culture methods. The subtypes of Blastocystis sp. isolates were determined by the sequenced-tagged site (STS)-based method. One-hundred-thirty-three positive cases were detected by F1/R1 diagnostic PCR, of which 122 were also positive by the culture method and 83 by direct microscopy. The sensitivities of direct microscopy and the culture method were 62% and 92%, respectively. Subtype (ST3) was the most prevalent (80.5%), followed by ST1 (14.5%) and ST2 (5%). ST4, ST5, ST6 and ST7 were not detected in this study. ST3 infections were significantly predominant (P city, revealing a rather moderate prevalence of 10.5% and the presence of three subtypes, ST1, ST2, and ST3. ST3 was the most predominant, particularly among symptomatic patients.

  20. Development of real-time PCR for detection of Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, A.; Svenstrup, Helle Friis; Fedder, J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma hominis is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, bacterial vaginosis, post partum fever, sepsis and infections of the central nervous system often leading to serious conditions. Association with development of female infertility has also been suggested, but different....... Information on bacterial load in genital swabs can be obtained. The assay allowed detection of M. hominis in a closed system reducing the risk of contamination by amplicon carry-over......., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap), as a target. RESULTS: Real-time PCR was optimized to detect 10 copies of M. hominis PG21 genomic DNA. A fluorescence signal was measured for all 20 other M. hominis isolates, and melting curves analysis showed variations in the melting temperature in agreement...

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Blastocystis sp. in Various Animal Groups from Two French Zoos and Evaluation of Potential Zoonotic Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cian

    Full Text Available Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite infecting humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. It exhibits an extensive genetic diversity and 17 subtypes (STs have thus far been identified in mammalian and avian hosts. Since several STs are common to humans and animals, it was proposed that a proportion of human infections may result from zoonotic transmission. However, the contribution of each animal source to human infection remains to be clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to expand our knowledge of the epidemiology and host specificity of this parasite by performing the largest epidemiological survey ever conducted in animal groups in terms of numbers of species screened. A total of 307 stool samples from 161 mammalian and non-mammalian species in two French zoos were screened by real-time PCR for the presence of Blastocystis sp. Overall, 32.2% of the animal samples and 37.9% of the species tested were shown to be infected with the parasite. A total of 111 animal Blastocystis sp. isolates were subtyped, and 11 of the 17 mammalian and avian STs as well as additional STs previously identified in reptiles and insects were found with a varying prevalence according to animal groups. These data were combined with those obtained from previous surveys to evaluate the potential risk of zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis sp. through the comparison of ST distribution between human and animal hosts. This suggests that non-human primates, artiodactyls and birds may serve as reservoirs for human infection, especially in animal handlers. In contrast, other mammals such as carnivores, and non-mammalian groups including reptiles and insects, do not seem to represent significant sources of Blastocystis sp. infection in humans. In further studies, more intensive sampling and screening of potential new animal hosts will reinforce these statements and expand our understanding of the circulation of Blastocystis sp. in animal and human

  2. Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates from synanthropic and zoo animals and identification of a new subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, C. R.; Alfellani, M. A.; Nørskov-Lauritsen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Blastocystis isolates from 56 Danish synanthropic and zoo animals, 62 primates primarily from United Kingdom (UK) collections and 16 UK primate handlers were subtyped by PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A new subtype (ST) from primates and artiodactyls was identified and designated...... infections from primates by their handlers had occurred in these cases. Data from published studies of non-human primates, other mammals and birds were collected and interpreted to generate a comprehensive overview on the ST distribution in such animals. On the basis of information on 438 samples...

  3. External ophthalmomyiasis due to Dermatobia hominis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Moltó, A; Molina Martín, J C; Mengual Verdú, E; Hueso Abancens, J R

    2018-03-23

    A 46-year-old woman with no relevant medical history, native of Honduras and resident in Spain for one and a half months. The patient went to the Emergency Department due to inflammation of the upper eyelid of the right eye, with an area that simulated an abscess. This was drained (obtaining hardly any purulent content). Treatment was prescribed with oral and topical antibiotics, as well as an anti-inflammatory drug. One week later the patient returned, with improvement of the inflammatory signs, but with discomfort and corneal erosions. After eversion of the upper eyelid, a «worm» type parasite emerged from the tarsus. The extraction was completed with a clamp, and was later identified as Dermatobia hominis (Dh) by examination of a fresh specimen. The subsequent outcome of the patient was favourable. Preseptal cellulitis in patients from tropical and sub-tropical areas can be caused by Dh. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Meningitis in a Chinese adult patient caused by Mycoplasma hominis: a rare infection and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Menglan; Wang, Peng; Chen, Sharon; Du, Bin; Du, Jinlong; Wang, Fengdan; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Yingchun

    2016-10-12

    Mycoplasma hominis, a well known cause of neonatal infection, has been reported as a pathogen in urogenital infections in adults; however, central nervous system (CNS) infections are rare. We report here the first case of M. hominis meningitis in China, post neurosurgical treatment for an intracerebral haemorrhage in a 71-year-old male. We describe a 71-year-old man who developed M. hominis meningitis after neurosurgical treatment and was successfully treated with combined azithromycin and minocycline therapy of 2 weeks duration, despite delayed treatment because the Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) yielded no visible organisms. The diagnosis required 16S rDNA sequencing analysis of the cultured isolate from CSF. Literature review of M. hominis CNS infections yielded 19 cases (13 instances of brain abscess, 3 of meningitis, 1 spinal cord abscess and 1 subdural empyema each). Delay in diagnosis and initial treatment failure was evident in all cases. With appropriate microbiological testing, antibiotic therapy (ranging from 5 days to 12 weeks) and often, multiple surgical interventions, almost all the patients improved immediately. Both our patient findings and the literature review, highlighted the pathogenic potential of M. hominis together with the challenges prompted by rare infectious diseases in particular for developing countries laboratories with limited diagnostic resources.

  5. Hematoma and abscess formation caused by Mycoplasma hominis following cesarean section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, Hisato; Koshiba, Akemi; Daimon, Yasushi; Noguchi, Toshifumi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma species cannot be identified by routine bacteriological culture methods and are resistant to common antimicrobial agents. Mycoplasma hominis usually colonizes the lower urogenital tract and causes pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, chorioamnionitis, rupture of fetal membranes, preterm labor, postpartum fever, postabortal fever, and neonatal infection. This organism is highly prevalent in cervicovaginal cultures of sexually active women. M. hominis, M. genitalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and U. parvum may invade and infect placental and fetal tissues, leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. M. hominis occasionally causes nongenitourinary infection of the blood, wounds, central nervous system, joints, or respiratory tract. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman who developed abdominal wound hematoma and abscess after cesarean section. The wound was drained, but her high fever persisted, in spite of antibiotic treatment using flomoxef sodium and imipenem·cilastatin sodium. Because the exudate exhibited M. hominis growth in an anaerobic environment, we administered the quinolone ciprofloxacin. This therapy resolved her fever, and her white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level diminished to the normal ranges. To our knowledge, there are four published articles regarding the isolation of M. hominis from postcesarean incisions. Based on the current study and the literature, infection by this pathogen may cause hematoma formation with or without abscess after cesarean section or in immunosuppressed postoperative patients. In such cases, physicians may need to suspect Mycoplasma infection and initiate appropriate antibacterial treatment as soon as possible in order to avoid persistent fever. PMID:21339933

  6. Association of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum with some indicators of nonspecific vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Ramírez, L; Gil, C; Zago, I; Yáñez, A; Giono, S

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the isolation rates of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum from three populations of women and also to relate the presence of these microorganisms with some indicators of nonspecific vaginitis. Three hundred vaginal swabs were taken from delivery, pregnant and control (not pregnant) women. Cultures were done in E broth supplemented with arginine or urea. M. hominis was isolated in 5% at delivery, 12% from pregnant and 5% from control women and U. urealyticum was isolated in 21%, 31% and 28% respectively. There was statistical difference in the isolation rate of M. hominis in pregnant women respect to the other groups. Both microorganisms were more frequently isolated in women with acid vaginal pH, amine-like odor in KOH test, clue cells and leucorrhea. M. hominis was isolated in 17% and U. urealyticum in 52% from women with nonspecific vaginitis. M. hominis was isolated in 2% and U. urealyticum in 13% from women without nonspecific vaginitis. Although the presence of clue cells and amine-like odor in KOH test have relationship with Gardnerella vaginalis, these tests could also suggest the presence of these mycoplasmas.

  7. Activity of medicinal plants from Ghana against the parasitic gut protist Blastocystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer Christensen, Charlotte; Soelberg, Jens; Stensvold, Christen R; Jäger, Anna K

    2015-11-04

    The plants tested in this study were examples of plants historically used to treat or alleviate several types of stomach disorders manifested by e.g. stomachache, diarrhoea or dysentery. These plants have been consumed typically as a decoction, sometimes mixed with other flavourings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-Blastocystis activity of 24 plant parts from 21 medicinal plants from Ghana. The medicinal plants were collected in the Greater Accra region of Ghana. Every plant part was tested in three different extracts; an ethanolic, a warm, and a cold water extract, at a final concentration of 1 mg/mL for the initial screening, and in a range from 0.0156 to 1mg/mL for determination of inhibitory concentrations. The obligate anaerobic parasitic gut protist Blastocystis (subtype 4) was used as a 48 h old subcultivated isolate in the final concentration of 10(6) cells/mL. Plant extracts inoculated with Blastocystis were incubated at 37 °C for 24 h and 48 h. Both MIC minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) assays and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) assays were performed after 24 h and 48 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was derived after 24 h and 48 h. Antimicrobial activity was tested against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria for all 24 plant parts at a final concentration of 1mg/mL. Screening of the 24 different plant parts showed significant anti-Blastocystis activity of six of the ethanolic extracts: Mallotus oppositifolius, IC50, 24 h 27.8 µg/mL; Vemonia colorata, IC50, 24 h 117.9 µg/mL; Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, cortex IC50, 24 h 255.6 µg/mL; Clausena anisata, IC50, 24 h 314.0 µg/mL; Z. zanthoxyloides, radix IC50, 24 h 335.7 µg/mL and Eythrina senegalensis, IC50, 24 h 527.6 µg/mL. The reference anti-protozoal agent metronidazole (MTZ) had an IC50, 24 h of 7.6 µg/mL. Only C. anisata showed antimicrobial activity at a concentration of 800 µg/mL. Six ethanolic plant extracts showed significant anti

  8. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycoplasma hominis antibodies in infertile women serum samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Friis Svenstrup, Helle; Fedder, Jens

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besides Chlamydiae trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis may also cause infertility due to damage of the Fallopian tubes. Therefore serum samples from infertile women were analyzed for antibodies to M. hominis. METHODS: Sera from 304 infertile women were investigat...

  9. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

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    Sitara S R Ajjampur

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC, isolate B (ST7-B and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H, we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  10. Cloning, sequencing and variability analysis of the gap gene from Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Jacobsen, Iben Søgaard; Melkova, Renata

    2000-01-01

    The gap gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The gene was cloned and sequenced from the Mycoplasma hominis type strain PG21(T). The intraspecies variability was investigated by inspection of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns...... after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the gap gene from 15 strains and furthermore by sequencing of part of the gene in eight strains. The M. hominis gap gene was found to vary more than the Escherichia coli counterpart, but the variation at nucleotide level gave rise to only a few...... amino acid substitutions. To verify that the gene was expressed in M. hominis, a polyclonal antibody was produced and tested against whole cell protein from 15 strains. The enzyme was expressed in all strains investigated as a 36-kDa protein. All strains except type strain PG21(T) showed reaction...

  11. The infection of Mycoplasma hominis after total knee replacement: Case report and literature review

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    Hong-Jiu Qiu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mycoplasma hominis infection is a rare postoperative complication after joint replacement. Based on our knowledge, there were only two cases reported by Korea all over the world currently. A case of postoperative Mycoplasma hominis infection after total knee replacement in our hospital was reported in this article. It was confirmed through mass spectrometer and Mycoplasma cultivation and treated by the first stage debridement, polyethylene insert replacement, and then drainage and irrigation combined with sensitive antibiotics after the operation. We observed that the C reactive protein (CRP level correlates with the development of disease, while the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR remains at a high level, indicating the relevance between the Mycoplasma hominis infection caused by knee joint replacement and CRP. This study aims to report the case and review relevant literature.

  12. Mycoplasma hominis: an incidental but significant finding by routine bacteriological culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Jan Berg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2009-01-01

    bacteriological culture during a 4-year period. Methods: Dpt. of Clinical Microbiology, Aalborg Hospital serves a population of 0.5 mio. Aerobic bacteriologic cultures are routinely carried out on 5% horse blood agar and chocolate agar (SSI Diagnostika, DK) at 35 °C in 5% CO2. The finding of translucent, pinpoint...... not respond to surgical drainage of the abscesses (if present) and prolonged empirical intravenous therapy with a β-lactam antibiotic and metronidazole (median 9 days). The tentative diagnosis of M. hominis prompted a change of antibiotic therapy to either moxifloxacin or clindamycin which was followed...... by resolution of symptoms and normalisation of CRP (median 9 days). Conclusion: M. hominis is a rare finding by prolonged incubation of conventional blood agar. A pathogenic role of M. hominis was supported by the lack of clinical response to surgical drainage and prolonged empirical antibiotic therapy...

  13. An infant case with hydrocephalus as the initial manifestation of Mycoplasma hominis-associated meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taku, Keisuke; Hoshina, Takayuki; Haro, Kaoru; Ichikawa, Shun; Kinjo, Tadamune; Takahashi, Mayu; Akiba, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Kusuhara, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    We report an infant with hydrocephalus as the initial manifestation of Mycoplasma hominis-associated meningitis, who recovered without appropriate antimicrobial treatment. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene by polymerase chain reaction amplification using universal primers and pathogen-specific primers was useful for the diagnosis and the investigation of serial detection status of the pathogen. This method may be helpful for the assessment of the frequency and the prediction of severity in M. hominis-associated central nervous system infection in infants, and investigating the association between M. hominis and the development of hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eprinomectin 1% Inyectable in control of Dermatobia hominis in naturally infested cattle

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    Cristiano Grisi do Nascimento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Nascimento C.G., Correia T.R., Oliveira G.F., Coumendouros K., Moraes P.A., Calado S.B., Bragaglia G.N., Rosa S.C., Toma S.B. & Scott F.B. [Eprinomectin 1% Inyectable in control of Dermatobia hominis in naturally infested cattle.] Eprinomectina 1%Injetável no controle de Dermatobia hominis em bovinos naturalmente infestados. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:81-84, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Tecnologia e Inovação em Agropecuária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, Ecologia, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: scott.fabio@gmail.com The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of injectable eprinomectin 1% on the control of Dermatobia hominis in naturally infested cattle. We selected 20 calves, crossbred Gir and Holstein breed, male and female, separated into two groups, control and treated. The control group of animals received no treatment, while the animals of the treated group received eprinomectin formulation of 1% at a single dose of 1 mL/50 kg body weight (200mcg of eprinomectin/kg per injectable route. On days +7 and +14 a count of the total number of live larvae of D. hominis on both sides of the animal for the purpose of evaluation of the effectiveness was performed. Statistical analysis of average living larvae of D. hominis counted among the groups, control and treated, showed that there was a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 between groups on days +7 and +14. The investigational product showed an efficacy of 100% results in both experimental days. The injectable eprinomectin 1%, shown to be effective in cattle naturally infested by D. hominis (the human bot fly.

  15. Mycoplasma hominis: an incidental but significant finding by routine bacteriological culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Jan Berg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: M. hominis is part of the normal mucosal flora and is primarily associated with infections in the genitourinary tract. Most infections occur following delivery or genitourinary instrumentation, but are also seen in immunocompromised patients. We present 4 cases diagnosed by routine ba...... Serum Institut, Copenhagen (by courtesy to Jørgen Skov). Results: The four patients were immunocompetent women (23-56 years of age) without significant comorbidity (Table). In all patients M. hominis were obtained in pure culture. At the time of diagnosis three patients had abscesses...

  16. Cloning, sequencing and variability analysis of the gap gene from Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Jacobsen, Iben Søgaard; Melkova, Renata

    2000-01-01

    The gap gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The gene was cloned and sequenced from the Mycoplasma hominis type strain PG21(T). The intraspecies variability was investigated by inspection of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns...... after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the gap gene from 15 strains and furthermore by sequencing of part of the gene in eight strains. The M. hominis gap gene was found to vary more than the Escherichia coli counterpart, but the variation at nucleotide level gave rise to only a few...

  17. Furuncular Myiasis Caused by Dermatobia hominis in a Traveler Returning from the Amazon Jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuşcu, Ferit; Özsoy, Kerem Mazhar; Ulu, Aslıhan; Kurtaran, Behice; Kömür, Süheyla; İnal, Ayşe Seza; Taşova, Yeşim; Aksu, Hasan Salih Zeki

    2017-09-01

    A 39-year-old man who was returning from the Amazon Jungle and had no medical history presented with a furuncular lesion on his right parietal scalp. Despite receiving appropriate antimicrobial treatment, his lesion did not heal. After surgical intervention, a Dermatobia hominis larva was extracted. The human botfly D. hominis is the most common causative agent of furuncular myiasis among travelers returning from Central and South America. Surgery is the main treatment option, and secondary bacterial infection should be kept in mind.

  18. [Pyomyositis, sacroiliitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Staphylococcus hominis in a immunocompetent woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Rodríguez, N; Durán Muñoz, O

    2006-12-01

    In absence of risk factors, osteoarticular infections by coagulase-negative staphylococci are very infrequent. We described the case of a immunocompetent 73-year-old-woman that suffered pyomyositis, left sacroiliitis and spondylodiscitis involving the first and second thoracic vertebrae by Staphylococcus hominis. This multifocal infection occurred five-weeks after intramuscular administration of NSAI for treatment of low back pain associated with a herniated disc L4-L5. This is the first know case of a multifocal muscle skeletal infection by Staphylococcus hominis in a patient immunocompetent.

  19. Predominance of Blastocystis sp. Infection among School Children in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithyamathi, Kalimuthu; Chandramathi, Samudi; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest cross-sectional study in recent years was carried out to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban and rural school children from five states namely Selangor, Perak, Pahang, Kedah and Johor in Peninsula Malaysia. This information would be vital for school authorities to influence strategies for providing better health especially in terms of reducing intestinal parasitism. A total of 3776 stool cups was distributed to 26 schools throughout the country. 1760 (46.61%) responded. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in both rural and urban areas was 13.3%, with Blastocystis sp (10.6%) being the most predominant, followed by Trichuris trichiura (3.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%) and hook worm infection (0.9%). Only rural school children had helminthic infection. In general Perak had the highest infection (37.2%, total, n = 317), followed by Selangor (10.4%, total, n = 729), Pahang (8.6%, total, n = 221), Kedah (6.2%, total, n = 195) and Johor (3.4%, total, n = 298). School children from rural schools had higher infection (13.7%, total, n = 922) than urban school children (7.2%, total, n = 838). Subtype (ST) 3 (54.3%) is the most predominant ST with persons infected with only ST1 and ST3 showing symptoms. Blastocystis sp infection significantly associated with low household income, low parent's education and presence of symptoms (p<0.05). It is critical that we institute deworming and treatment to eradicate the parasite especially in rural school children.

  20. Molecular characterization and epidemiological investigation of Cryptosporidium hominis IkA18G1 and C. hominis monkey genotype IiA17, two unusual subtypes diagnosed in Swedish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbad, Marianne; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Insulander, Mona; Beser, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis is considered a strictly human-adapted species, and it is only occasionally diagnosed in animals. However, two variants, C. hominis monkey genotype and C. hominis Ik, were originally described in non-human hosts, monkeys and horses, respectively. During a Swedish national Cryptosporidium study, where all samples were analyzed at the small subunit rRNA and the 60 kDa (gp60) glycoprotein loci, we identified two patients infected with C. hominis monkey genotype (subtype IiA17) and two infected with C. hominis subtype IkA18G1. The isolates were further analyzed at the actin and the 70 kDa heat shock protein loci, and these analyses showed that these two subtype families are closely related to each other and to human-adapted C. hominis as well as to Cryptosporidium cuniculus. The two patients with C. hominis monkey genotype infection (a father and son) had visited a monkey farm in Thailand prior to infection, while the two cases with C. hominis Ik were unrelated, both probably infected in Sweden. This is the first time that a monkey genotype infection in humans has been related to contact with monkeys and where the gp60 subtype was identified. It is also the first time that human infection caused by C. hominis subtype Ik is described. Even though we were not able to detect any parasites in the animal samples, zoonotic transmission cannot be ruled out in any of these cases because both subtype families are regarded as animal adapted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis in endometriosis lesions

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    F. Azizvakili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retrograde of menstrual blood into the peritoneal cavity is one of the accepted theories for initiation of endometriosis although indicated that other factors are involved in pathogenesis. Investigation of infectious agents is important in this regard. Objective: To investigate the presence of bacterial infections; Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis as risk factors in endometriosis lesions. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Sarem Hospital in 2014. DNA was extracted from 90 paraffin-embedded blocks included 40 endometriosis tissue samples, 23 samples of endometrial tissue from the same patients and 27 samples of endometrial tissue of the patients without endometriosis, and molecular analysis were performed using polymerase chain reaction. Results were analyzed by Fisher Exact Test and McNemar Test. Findings: Chlamydia trachomatis infection was seen in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 3 (13% normal tissue from patients and 10 (37% in patient without endometriosis. Mycoplasma hominis was diagnosed in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 7 (30.4% of normal tissue from patients and one patient without endometriosis (3.7%. These differences show significant relations between infection with Mycoplasma hominis and endometriosis. Conclusion: The findings of this study did not show significant association between Chlamydia trachomatis infections and endometriosis. However; it seems Mycoplasma hominis infection can increase the risk of endometriosis incidence.

  2. The Effects of the Hominis Placenta Herbal acupuncture on Sleep pattern disturbance

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    Youn Hyoun-min

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study has been designed and performed to identify the effects of Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture which is usually used in reducing sleep pattern disturbances. Methods : The study subjects studied included 48 patients who were admitted in hospital located in Pusan, and they were classified into 2 groups : 25 patients in the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture and 23 patients in the control group who were treated by acupuncture. The both group injected on GB20, GB12 and HT7 for 5 days without medicine. The sleep pattern disturbance score was measured by using 15 questions according to Korean Sleep Scale A(Oh, Jin Joo. Song, Mi Soon. Kim, Shin Mi. 1998. Results & conclusions : The sleep pattern disturbance score of the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture was significantly lower than that of the control group. (t= 7.00 p= .00 These results provided that Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture of GB20, GB12 and HT7 was effective for relieving sleep pattern disturbances, it is need more sample's number and more treatmentt's duration.

  3. Microbiological and molecular characterization of human clinical isolates of Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus sciuri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-González, Elvira; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Martínez-Vázquez, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Diaz, Esteban; González-Santiago, Omar; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococci reported as causative agents of nosocomial infections has risen in the last decade. The aim of this study was to characterize biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, SCCmec type, and genetic relatedness in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus sciuri recovered from humans. Clinically relevant isolates of S. cohnii (n = 15), S. hominis (n = 9), and S. sciuri (n = 6), were collected from patients. Biofilm formation was evaluated using crystal violet staining, drug susceptibility was assessed using the broth microdilution method, and methicillin resistance was measured using the cefoxitin disk test. SCCmec was typed using 2 different methodologies, and genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sixty percent (9/15) of S. cohnii, 33% (3/9) of S. hominis, and 50% (3/6) of S. sciuri isolates were categorized as weak producers of biofilm. None of the isolates were resistant to vancomycin or linezolid. All 3 species showed a high resistance (> 66%) to ampicillin, levofloxacin, erythromycin, and ceftriaxone, and the majority of the isolates were methicillin-resistant. PFGE revealed that the S. cohnii isolates comprised 1 dominant clone. The S. cohnii, S. hominis, and S. sciuri isolates analyzed in this study showed a high methicillin resistance and resistance to other antimicrobials. The results of this study strongly suggest that coagulase-negative staphylococci harbour new SCCmec elements. We report the first case of a clone of S. cohnii associated with human disease.

  4. Biological Activities of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture prepared by Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis

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    Geun-young Seo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS are continuously produced at a high rate as a by-product of aerobic metabolism. Since tissue damage by free radical increases with age, the reactive oxygen species(ROS such as hydrogen peroxide(H2O2, nitric oxide(NO. Several lines of evidence provided that ROS appears to cause to develop aging-related various diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular disease. In this study, we have conducted to investigate the biological activities of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture by measuring total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, Superoxide dismutase(SOD-like activity, Nitrite scavenging ability in vitro. The total polyphenol contents of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture was 24.6㎖/㎖. Elctron donation ability on DPPH was 49.4%. The 2,2'-azinobis-3-ehtlbezothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical decolorization (ABTS was 50.01%, similar to the DPPH free radical scavenging. The superoxide dismutase (SOD-like activities of hominis placenta herbal acupuncture was 50.876%. The nitrite scavenging abilities at pH 1.5, pH 3.0, pH 6.0 were 52.8%, 29.4%, 15.4%, respectively; these abilities decreased as pH increased. We conclude that Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture may be useful as potential sources of antioxidant.

  5. A case of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamori, Katsushi; Katayama, Toshiko; Kumagai, Masahiro

    2007-08-01

    We report the 34th imported case of cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in Japan, which is not a habitat of the fly. A 41-year-old Japanese man noticed an insect-sting-like papule on his left upper back during his stay in Ecuador in March 2004. After his return home, the lesion gradually increased to become a red subcutaneous nodule with a central pore from which serosanguineous fluid drained. Because antimicrobial treatment under a diagnosis of inflammatory atheroma was ineffective, the lesion was incised and a 3rd instar larva of D. hominis was then found and removed. We checked the literature on D. hominis myiasis reported from Japan, and noted the fact, which nobody had previously pointed out, that in Japan only one case of D. hominis myiasis had been diagnosed correctly before a larva was found, and most of the cases were misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated, including 11 cases given unnecessary resection of the nodules. Doctors in Japan should be aware of myiasis so that patients are neither anxious about the disease nor suffer pain, and doctors avoid performing unnecessary resections of the lesions.

  6. Pentatrichomonas hominis: prevalence and molecular characterization in humans, dogs, and monkeys in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Chao; Ying, Meng; Gong, Peng-Tao; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Ju; Li, He; Zhang, Xi-Chen

    2016-02-01

    Pentatrichomonas hominis is an anaerobic amitochondrial flagellated protist that primarily colonizes the large intestines of a number of species, including cats, dogs, nonhuman primates, and humans. The prevalence of this parasite in dogs, monkeys, and humans is, however, poorly understood. In this study, a total of 362 fecal samples including 252 dogs, 60 monkeys, and 50 humans from northern China were collected for an epidemiological survey of P. hominis infection.The average prevalence of P. hominis infection determined by nested PCR was 27.38% (69/252), 4.00% (2/50), and 46.67% (28/60) in dogs, humans, and monkeys, respectively. The prevalence was significantly higher in 6-month-old dogs (41.53%) and children (7.69%) than in older dogs (14.39%) and adults (0%) (P dogs, monkeys, and humans, especially in children and young dogs. Given the infection prevalence, P. hominis may pose a risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission.

  7. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  8. Co-infection by Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in asymptomatic cats

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    Caroline Spitz dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite well known for its significance as a venereally transmitted pathogen in cattle, has been identified as a cause of chronic large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats in many countries of the world. In Brazil, several studies on the diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis have been performed, but until now, no study was made regarding feline trichomoniasis. Thus, this is the first study to report the occurrence of T. foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in cats using morphological and molecular analysis. Feces from 77 cats were examined, four of which (5.2% were positive for the presence of parabasalids. Morphological analysis of stained smears revealed piriform trophozoites showing the three anterior flagella, elongated nucleus and axostyle ending abruptly in fillet, characteristic of T. foetus. In scanning and transmission electron microscopy, identification characters similar to those previously reported for T. foetus were observed. The cultures containing trophozoites were submitted for molecular analysis, which resulted positive for T. foetus DNA using specific primers (TFR3 and TFR4, and all samples were positive and subjected to sequencing in which they showed 99.7-100% similarity with another isolate sequencing of T. foetus (JX960422. Although no trophozoite with consistent morphology of P. hominis has been visualized in the samples, differential diagnosis was performed using specific primers for P. hominis (TH3 and TH5 amplicon. In three of the four samples (3.89% sequencing revealed 100% similarity when compared with another sequence of P. hominis deposited in Genbank (KC623939. Therefore, the present study revealed through the diagnostic techniques employed the simultaneous infection by T. foetus and P. hominis in the feces of cats. However, it was necessary to use more than one technique for the diagnosis of the co-infection. These results demonstrate the importance of a correct diagnosis to allow an

  9. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins from Mycoplasma hominis strains detected by SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1987-01-01

    The proteins of 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis were compared by SDS-PAGE in gradient gels, by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis of extracts of 35S-labelled cells and by immunoblot analysis of cell proteins. The strains examined included the M. hominis type strain PG21 and 13 others...... isolated variously from genital tract, mouth, blood, upper urinary tract and a wound. These 14 strains shared 76-99% of proteins in SDS-gradient gel analysis and 41-72% in the 2D gels. As expected, the immunoblot analysis likewise revealed the existence of an extensive common protein pattern in M. hominis...

  10. Occurrence of Blastocystis sp. in water catchments at Malay villages and Aboriginal settlement during wet and dry seasons in Peninsular Malaysia

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    Samseh Abdullah Noradilah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the tropics, there are too few studies on isolation of Blastocystis sp. subtypes from water sources; in addition, there is also an absence of reported studies on the occurrence of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in water during different seasons. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the occurrence of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in river water and other water sources that drained aboriginal vicinity of highly endemic intestinal parasitic infections during wet and dry seasons. Water samples were collected from six sampling points of Sungai Krau (K1–K6 and a point at Sungai Lompat (K7 and other water sources around the aboriginal villages. The water samples were collected during both seasons, wet and dry seasons. Filtration of the water samples were carried out using a flatbed membrane filtration system. The extracted DNA from concentrated water sediment was subjected to single round polymerase chain reaction and positive PCR products were subjected to sequencing. All samples were also subjected to filtration and cultured on membrane lactose glucuronide agar for the detection of faecal coliforms. During wet season, Blastocystis sp. ST1, ST2 and ST3 were detected in river water samples. Blastocystis sp. ST3 occurrence was sustained in the river water samples during dry season. However Blastocystis sp. ST1 and ST2 were absent during dry season. Water samples collected from various water sources showed contaminations of Blastocystis sp. ST1, ST2, ST3 and ST4, during wet season and Blastocystis sp. ST1, ST3, ST8 and ST10 during dry season. Water collected from all river sampling points during both seasons showed growth of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes, indicating faecal contamination. In this study, Blastocystis sp. ST3 is suggested as the most robust and resistant subtype able to survive in any adverse environmental condition. Restriction and control of human and animal faecal contaminations to the river and other water sources

  11. Blastocystis infection in Malaysia: Evidence of waterborne and human-to-human transmissions among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes of Orang Asli

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    Anuar Tengku Shahrul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocystis has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact on public health. However, the transmission of this parasite has not been conclusively determined. Methods To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional survey aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out among three Orang Asli tribes (Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi in selected villages at Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Results Of 500 individuals, 20.4% (102 were detected positive for Blastocystis; 13.3% (20/150 of Proto-Malays, 21.6% (30/139 of Negritos and 24.7% (52/211 of Senois were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The positive cases showed a decrease with increasing age and most of the positive cases were observed in individuals less than 15 years old. Multivariate analysis confirmed that drinking untreated water and the presence of other family members infected with Blastocystis were significant risk factors of infection among the three tribes and overall population studied. Conclusion Essentially, the findings highlighted that Blastocystis infection is prevalent among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the subtype of Blastocystis is needed. The present study also revealed that this infection may be transmitted through waterborne and human-to-human contact. Therefore, interventions with the provision of clean water supply for the communities and health education especially to the parents are urgently required.

  12. Blastocystis infection in Malaysia: evidence of waterborne and human-to-human transmissions among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes of Orang Asli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abdul; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Moktar, Norhayati

    2013-02-22

    Blastocystis has been described as the most common intestinal parasite in humans and has an increased impact on public health. However, the transmission of this parasite has not been conclusively determined. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional survey aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with Blastocystis infection was carried out among three Orang Asli tribes (Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi) in selected villages at Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 20.4% (102) were detected positive for Blastocystis; 13.3% (20/150) of Proto-Malays, 21.6% (30/139) of Negritos and 24.7% (52/211) of Senois were positive for Blastocystis, respectively. The positive cases showed a decrease with increasing age and most of the positive cases were observed in individuals less than 15 years old. Multivariate analysis confirmed that drinking untreated water and the presence of other family members infected with Blastocystis were significant risk factors of infection among the three tribes and overall population studied. Essentially, the findings highlighted that Blastocystis infection is prevalent among Orang Asli communities in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the subtype of Blastocystis is needed. The present study also revealed that this infection may be transmitted through waterborne and human-to-human contact. Therefore, interventions with the provision of clean water supply for the communities and health education especially to the parents are urgently required.

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in Greek female outpatients, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Mavromanolaki, Viktoria Eirini; Nioti, Eleni; Stafylaki, Dimitra; Minadakis, George

    2017-11-28

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma species are opportunistic pathogens associated with urogenital infections, complications during pregnancy and postpartum infections. Appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment is necessary to achieve an optimal therapeutic outcome. This study evaluated the prevalence and the antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. isolated from 1,008 endocervical samples of outpatients in Crete, Greece, during a five-year period (2012-2016), using the commercially available Mycoview kit (Zeakon diagnostics, France). Ureaplasma spp. was isolated from 116 patients (11.5%), M. hominis from 6 (0.6%), while coinfection with both mycoplasmas was demonstrated in 17 (1.7%). All Ureaplasma strains were susceptible to josamycin and doxycycline. Doxycycline, minocycline and ofloxacin were the most potent antibiotics against M. hominis. Docycycline was proved the most active and is still the drug of choice for the treatment of genital mycoplasma infections. Local surveillance to monitor changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities is necessary to guide treatment strategies.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Strain Sprott (ATCC 33131), Isolated from a Patient with Nongonococcal Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F

    2015-07-09

    Presented here is the complete and annotated genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Sprott (ATCC 33131). The chromosome comprises 695,214 bp, which is approximately 30 kb larger than the syntenic genome of M. hominis PG21(T). Tetracycline resistance of strain Sprott is most probably conferred by the tetM determinant, harbored on a mosaic transposon-like structure. Copyright © 2015 Calcutt and Foecking.

  15. Symbiotic Association with Mycoplasma hominis Can Influence Growth Rate, ATP Production, Cytolysis and Inflammatory Response of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarita, Valentina; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Pintus, Gianfranco; Hirt, Robert P.; Fiori, Pier L.

    2016-01-01

    The symbiosis between the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and the opportunistic bacterium Mycoplasma hominis is the only one currently described involving two obligate human mucosal symbionts with pathogenic capabilities that can cause independent diseases in the same anatomical site: the lower urogenital tract. Although several aspects of this intriguing microbial partnership have been investigated, many questions on the influence of this symbiosis on the parasite pathobiology still remain unanswered. Here, we examined with in vitro cultures how M. hominis could influence the pathobiology of T. vaginalis by investigating the influence of M. hominis on parasite replication rate, haemolytic activity and ATP production. By comparing isogenic mycoplasma-free T. vaginalis and parasites stably associated with M. hominis we could demonstrate that the latter show a higher replication rate, increased haemolytic activity and are able to produce larger amounts of ATP. In addition, we demonstrated in a T. vaginalis-macrophage co-culture system that M. hominis could modulate an aspect of the innate immuno-response to T. vaginalis infections by influencing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by human macrophages, with the parasite-bacteria symbiosis outcompeting the human cells for the key substrate arginine. These results support a model in which the symbiosis between T. vaginalis and M. hominis influences host-microbes interactions to the benefit of both microbial partners during infections and to the detriment of their host. PMID:27379081

  16. Epidemiological investigation and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in outpatients with genital manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tiejun; Ye, Aiqing; Xie, Xinyou; Huang, Jun; Ruan, Zhi; Kong, Yingying; Song, Jingjuan; Wang, Yue; Chen, Jiangzhong; Zhang, Jun

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and drug resistance of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in outpatients with genital manifestation from 2005 to 2013 in Hangzhou, China. A total of 2689 female and 2336 male patients with various genital symptoms were included in this study. Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed by using the mycoplasma IST-2 kit. The prevalence rate of Ureaplasma species was 39.9%, M hominis was 1.2% in female patients, and the coinfection rate was 13.4%; while in males, the prevalence rate of Ureaplasma species was 18.8%, M hominis was 0.4%, and the coinfection rate was 2.9%. Moreover, significantly high positive rates for mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma species M hominis) and were found in 16–20-year-old females (65.2%) and males (27.3%). Ureaplasma species and M hominis displayed relatively lower resistance rates (Ureaplasma species to quinolones (ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) were much higher (>50%) and increased significantly from 2005 to 2013. Our study indicates that high positive rates of Ureaplasma species and M hominis were found in young outpatients with genital symptoms, and monitoring the local drug resistance is critical for prevention of the occurrence of resistant strains.

  17. Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in cervical fluid of pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilova, Ivana; Pliskova, Lenka; Kutova, Radka; Hornychova, Helena; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid and their association with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and/or histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). A prospective study of 68 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by PPROM between 24(0/7) and 36(6/7) weeks was conducted. Cervical fluid and amniotic fluid were collected from all women at the time of admission. The Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid were identified using specific real-time PCR. Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA were identified in 59% (40/69) of the cervical fluid samples. Women with the presence of Ureaplasma species DNA with and without Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid had a higher rate of MIAC alone [35% (14/40) versus 11% (3/28); p = 0.02] and a higher rate of the presence of both MIAC and HCA [30% (12/40) versus 4% (1/28); p = 0.01] than women without Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid. The presence of Ureaplasma species DNA with and without Mycoplasma hominis DNA in the cervical fluid is associated with a higher risk of MIAC or MIAC and HCA together in pregnancies complicated by PPROM.

  18. Genetic Diversity and Distribution of Blastocystis Subtype 3 in Human Populations, with Special Reference to a Rural Population in Central Mexico

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    Liliana Rojas-Velázquez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis subtype 3 (ST3 is a parasitic protist found in the digestive tract of symptomatic and asymptomatic humans around the world. While this parasite exhibits a high prevalence in the human population, its true geographic distribution and global genetic diversity are still unknown. This gap in knowledge limits the understanding of the spread mechanisms, epidemiology, and impact that this parasite has on human populations. Herein, we provided new data on the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of Blastocystis ST3 from a rural human population in Mexico. To do so, we collected and targeted the SSU-rDNA region in fecal samples from this population and further compared its genetic diversity and structure with that previously observed in populations of Blastocystis ST3 from other regions of the planet. Our analyses reveled that diversity of Blastocystis ST3 showed a high haplotype diversity and genetic structure to the world level; however, they were low in the Morelos population. The haplotype network revealed a common widespread haplotype from which the others were generated recently. Finally, our results suggested a recent expansion of the diversity of Blastocystis ST3 worldwide.

  19. The Mycoplasma hominis P120 membrane protein contains a 216 amino acid hypervariable domain that is recognized by the human humoral immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1997-01-01

    In the antigenically heterogeneous species Mycoplasma hominis a monoclonal antibody, mAb 26.7D, was previously found to recognize a 120 kDa polypeptide from M. hominis 7488. This antibody did not react with the type strain PG21. The homologous gene from M. hominis PG21 was cloned and sequenced an...... response. Such a variable domain may be important in evasion of the host's immune response, and thus aid survival of the micro-organism....

  20. Genetic recombination and Cryptosporidium hominis virulent subtype IbA10G2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Xiao, Lihua; Cama, Vitaliano A; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H; Guo, Meijin; Feng, Yaoyu

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the emergence and spread of virulent subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, the predominant species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. Intensive transmission of virulent subtype IbA10G2 in the study area might have resulted in genetic recombination with other subtypes. Moreover, we identified selection for IbA10G2 at a 129-kb region around the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene in chromosome 6. These findings improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of C. hominis subtypes and the spread of virulent subtypes.

  1. Comparación de seis métodos coproscópicos para el diagnóstico del cromista Blastocystis spp | Comparison of six coproscopics methods for the diagnosis of the chromista Blastocystis spp

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    Milagros Figueroa Lara,

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. es uno de los parásitos intestinales zoonóticos de mayor prevalencia y distribución mundial. Está caracterizado por una gran variabilidad genética, lo que dificulta su estudio, generando controversias en cuanto a características morfológicas, ciclo vital, criterios diagnósticos y rol patógeno. Se evaluaron seis técnicas de laboratorio para la identificación de Blastocystis spp. en 391 muestras fecales de pacientes de ambos sexos y diferentes edades que asistieron al Laboratorio Clínico Universitario (LCU y a los laboratorios de emergencia y general del Servicio Autónomo del Hospital Universitario Antonio Patricio de Alcalá (SAHUAPA, Cumaná, estado Sucre, Venezuela, durante mayo-junio de 2013. Se consideró el examen directo como estándar de oro para la detección del cromista, y como pruebas de comparación los métodos de concentración: sedimentación espontánea en tubo (SET y Ritchie modificado, y las coloraciones: tinta china modificada, safranina-azul de metileno y May-Grünwald-Giemsa. Se obtuvo una prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal de 32,74% con el examen directo, con mayor frecuencia de Blastocystis spp. (17,39%. Al comparar los métodos de concentración y coloración, se pudo evidenciar que las técnicas que ofrecieron mejores porcentajes de sensibilidad fueron la tinción de May-Grünwald-Giemsa (94,12%, seguido de la tinta china modificada (92,65%; por último, la utilización de safranina-azul de metileno (76,47%, en cuanto a los porcentajes de especificidad superaron el (99,00% con índices Kappa excelentes (> 0,75. Los métodos de concentración resultaron con porcentajes de sensibilidad relativamente bajos, mientras que la especificidad se mantuvo por encima de (99,00%, razón por la cual los métodos de tinción tinta china y May-Grünwald-Giemsa pueden ser incluidos como técnicas complementarias para la detección y estudio morfológico de Blastocystis spp.

  2. Prevalence and genetic diversity of the intestinal parasites Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in household dogs in France and evaluation of zoonotic transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marwan; Bories, Jessica; El Safadi, Dima; Poirel, Marie-Thérèse; Gantois, Nausicaa; Benamrouz-Vanneste, Sadia; Delhaes, Laurence; Hugonnard, Marine; Certad, Gabriela; Zenner, Lionel; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2015-11-30

    Several parasites including the protozoa Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. may be causative agents of gastrointestinal symptoms in domestic dogs, and there may be a potential risk of transmission to owners. While France is one of the largest European countries in terms of its canine population, little data is available about the molecular epidemiology of these two parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in household dogs in France, and to evaluate the zoonotic risk of Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by genotyping the corresponding isolates. To this end, 116 faecal samples were collected from household dogs regardless of breed, age or gender, living in the Lyons area, France. Various intestinal protozoa and helminths were identified by light microscopy. Screening for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were subsequently performed by PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rDNA coding region, followed by direct sequencing of the PCR products and analysis of the sequences obtained for genotyping. The overall prevalence of dogs infected with at least one gastrointestinal parasite was 42.2% (49/116). After light microscopy examination of faecal samples, the most common parasites found were the protozoa Giardia sp. (25.0%) and Cystoisospora sp. (19.8%). Using molecular methods, four dogs (3.4%) were shown to be infected by Blastocystis sp. and carried either subtype (ST) 2, commonly identified in various animal groups, or ST10, frequently found in bovids. Three dogs (2.6%) were positive for C. canis, infecting humans episodically. The low prevalence of both parasites, combined with the identification of C. canis and Blastocystis sp. ST2 and ST10 in the canine population, strongly suggests that dogs play a negligible role as zoonotic reservoirs for both parasites and do not seem to be natural hosts of Blastocystis sp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

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    Gie-Bele Vargas-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret's and in Pavlova's media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST. Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively, whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima's D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret's than in Pavlova's medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05. We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be

  4. Life on arginine for Mycoplasma hominis: clues from its minimal genome and comparison with other human urogenital mycoplasmas.

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    Sabine Pereyre

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic human mycoplasma. Two other pathogenic human species, M. genitalium and Ureaplasma parvum, reside within the same natural niche as M. hominis: the urogenital tract. These three species have overlapping, but distinct, pathogenic roles. They have minimal genomes and, thus, reduced metabolic capabilities characterized by distinct energy-generating pathways. Analysis of the M. hominis PG21 genome sequence revealed that it is the second smallest genome among self-replicating free living organisms (665,445 bp, 537 coding sequences (CDSs. Five clusters of genes were predicted to have undergone horizontal gene transfer (HGT between M. hominis and the phylogenetically distant U. parvum species. We reconstructed M. hominis metabolic pathways from the predicted genes, with particular emphasis on energy-generating pathways. The Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway was incomplete, with a single enzyme absent. We identified the three proteins constituting the arginine dihydrolase pathway. This pathway was found essential to promote growth in vivo. The predicted presence of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase suggested that arginine catabolism is more complex than initially described. This enzyme may have been acquired by HGT from non-mollicute bacteria. Comparison of the three minimal mollicute genomes showed that 247 CDSs were common to all three genomes, whereas 220 CDSs were specific to M. hominis, 172 CDSs were specific to M. genitalium, and 280 CDSs were specific to U. parvum. Within these species-specific genes, two major sets of genes could be identified: one including genes involved in various energy-generating pathways, depending on the energy source used (glucose, urea, or arginine and another involved in cytadherence and virulence. Therefore, a minimal mycoplasma cell, not including cytadherence and virulence-related genes, could be envisaged containing a core genome (247 genes, plus a set of genes required for

  5. High rates of double-stranded RNA viruses and Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz Becker, Débora; dos Santos, Odelta; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in world, with 276.4 million new cases each year. T. vaginalis can be naturally infected with Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonasvirus species. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. vaginalis infected with four distinct T. vaginalis viruses (TVVs) and M. hominis among isolates from patients in Porto Alegre city, South Brazil. An additional goal of this study was to investigate whether there is association between metronidazole resistance and the presence of M. hominis during TVV infection. The RNA expression level of the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) gene was also evaluated among metronidazole-resistant and metronidazole-sensitive T. vaginalis isolates. A total of 530 urine samples were evaluated, and 5.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Among them, 4.51% were isolated from female patients and 1.12% were from male patients. Remarkably, the prevalence rates of M. hominis and TVV-positive T. vaginalis isolates were 56.7% and 90%, respectively. Most of the T. vaginalis isolates were metronidazole-sensitive (86.7%), and only four isolates (13.3%) were resistant. There is no statistically significant association between infection by M. hominis and infection by TVVs. Our results refute the hypothesis that the presence of the M. hominis and TVVs is enough to confer metronidazole resistance to T. vaginalis isolates. Additionally, the role of PFOR RNA expression levels in metronidazole resistance as the main mechanism of resistance to metronidazole could not be established. This study is the first report of the T. vaginalis infection by M. hominis and TVVs in a large collection of isolates from South Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intestinal Protozoan Infections with Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Blastocystis and Dientamoeba among Schoolchildren in Tripoli, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marwan; El Safadi, Dima; Cian, Amandine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Nourrisson, Céline; Poirier, Philippe; Pereira, Bruno; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Pinon, Anthony; Lambert, Céline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Dabboussi, Fouad; Delbac, Frederic; Favennec, Loïc; Hamze, Monzer; Viscogliosi, Eric; Certad, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal protozoan infections are confirmed as major causes of diarrhea, particularly in children, and represent a significant, but often neglected, threat to public health. No recent data were available in Lebanon concerning the molecular epidemiology of protozoan infections in children, a vulnerable population at high risk of infection. In order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of intestinal pathogenic protozoa, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a general pediatric population including both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. After obtaining informed consent from the parents or legal guardians, stool samples were collected in January 2013 from 249 children in 2 schools in Tripoli, Lebanon. Information obtained from a standard questionnaire included demographic characteristics, current symptoms, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits. After fecal examination by both microscopy and molecular tools, the overall prevalence of parasitic infections was recorded as 85%. Blastocystis spp. presented the highest infection rate (63%), followed by Dientamoeba fragilis (60.6%), Giardia duodenalis (28.5%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10.4%). PCR was also performed to identify species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium, subtypes of Blastocystis, and assemblages of Giardia. Statistical analysis using a logistic regression model showed that contact with family members presenting gastrointestinal disorders was the primary risk factor for transmission of these protozoa. This is the first study performed in Lebanon reporting the prevalence and the clinical and molecular epidemiological data associated with intestinal protozoan infections among schoolchildren in Tripoli. A high prevalence of protozoan parasites was found, with Blastocystis spp. being the most predominant protozoans. Although only 50% of children reported digestive symptoms, asymptomatic infection was observed, and these children may act as unidentified

  7. Prevalencia de Blastocystis sp. y otros protozoarios comensales en individuos de Santa Rosa de Agua, Maracaibo, estado Zulia

    OpenAIRE

    Calchi La Corte, Marinella; Rivero de Rodríguez, Zulbey; Bracho Mora, Angela; Villalobos, Rafael; Acurero de Yamarte, Ellen; Maldonado, Adriana; Chourio-Lozano, Glenis; Díaz, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Con la finalidad de determinar la prevalencia de Blastocystis sp. y especies de protozoarios comensales intestinales del hombre según diferentes aspectos como la edad y el sexo, se evaluaron muestras de heces de 111 individuos varones y mujeres de todas las edades, pobladores de Santa Rosa de Agua, Maracaibo, estado Zulia. Cada muestra fecal se analizó a través de un examen al fresco, tinción de lugol y técnica de concentración de Ritchie. Se utilizó la tinción de hematoxilina férrica para id...

  8. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-like Mycoplasma on the infection of HEp-2 cells by the TW-183 strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E A; Wadowsky, R M

    2000-02-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  9. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-Like Mycoplasma on the Infection of HEp-2 Cells by the TW-183 Strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Elias A.; Wadowsky, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  10. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria A Burmistrova

    Full Text Available Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh, for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection.

  11. Cryptosporidium y blastocistis hominis como agentes patógenos en el síndrome diarréico

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    Ligia I. Moncada

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En una comunidad de escasos recursos de Bogotá se tomaron muestras de heces de niños menores de diez años con diarrea y de niños sin diarrea. Las muestras del grupo de estudio y del grupo control resultaron negativas para el Cryptosporidium. Se encontraron positivas para Blastocistis hominis 17 muestras del grupo de estudio (8.3%. y 5 del grupo control (10.4%. Los síntomas predominantes fueron fiebre, dolor abdominal y pérdida del apetito. El B. hominis se asoció con la Escherichia coli, Salmonella campylobacter, E. histiolytica, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides y rotavírus. No se confirmó el papel que en los últimos años se le atribuye al Cryptosporidium y al B. hominis como agentes productores de diarrea.

  12. Cryptosporidiosis outbreak in a child day-care center caused by an unusual Cryptosporidium hominis subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Pilar; Almagro-Nievas, Diego; Cieloszyk, Joanna; Lóbez, Silvia; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    2015-12-01

    This work describes the genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia involved in an outbreak in a nursery school in Granada, Spain, that affected seven children under the age of 4. Nucleic acids were extracted from the seven stool samples positive to Cryptosporidium or Giardia by microscopy and/or immunochromatography. The species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium were identified by PCR-RFLP and PCR of the SSUrRNA and gp60 genes, respectively. The assemblages of Giardia duodenalis isolates were characterized by PCR of the tpi gene. PCR products were sequenced and analyzed. All of the isolates were positive for Cryptosporidium hominis. Five of them belonged to subtype IaA11R2, one to subtype IbA10G2R2, and the other could not be identified. Three of these samples were positive for G. duodenalis by PCR, two belonging to the assemblage A, and the other one to assemblage B. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IaA11R2 as a cause of an outbreak in Europe where subtype IbA10G2R2 is the most frequently identified. In the case of Giardia, an outbreak could not be confirmed because of the low number of positive samples and the low genetic variability of the amplified fragments for assemblage A of tpi gene. A new subtype, of Cryptosporidium hominis named IaA11R2, has been described as a cause of an outbreak in a nursery school in Granada, Spain. However an outbreak of giardiasis could not be confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelinghuys, Mathys J; Ehlers, Marthie M; Dreyer, Andries W; Lombaard, Hennie A; Kock, Marleen M

    2014-03-28

    Genital mycoplasmas colonise up to 80% of sexually mature women and may invade the amniotic cavity during pregnancy and cause complications. Tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones are contraindicated in pregnancy and erythromycin is often used to treat patients. However, increasing resistance to common antimicrobial agents is widely reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women. Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained from 96 pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in Gauteng, South Africa. Specimens were screened with the Mycofast Revolution assay for the presence of Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis. The antimicrobial susceptibility to levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline were determined at various breakpoints. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was used to speciate Ureaplasma positive specimens as either U. parvum or U. urealyticum. Seventy-six percent (73/96) of specimens contained Ureaplasma spp., while 39.7% (29/73) of Ureaplasma positive specimens were also positive for M. hominis. Susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin were 59% (26/44) and 98% (43/44) respectively. Mixed isolates (Ureaplasma species and M. hominis) were highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline (both 97% resistance). Resistance of Ureaplasma spp. to erythromycin was 80% (35/44) and tetracycline resistance was detected in 73% (32/44) of Ureaplasma spp. Speciation indicated that U. parvum was the predominant Ureaplasma spp. conferring antimicrobial resistance. Treatment options for genital mycoplasma infections are becoming limited. More elaborative studies are needed to elucidate the diverse antimicrobial susceptibility patterns found in this study when compared to similar studies. To prevent complications in pregnant women, the foetus and the neonate, routine screening for the presence of genital mycoplasmas is

  14. THE METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF UROGENITAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MYCOPLASMA HOMINIS AND UREAPLASMA SPP.

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    O. V. Zarucheynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide distribution of urogenital mycoplasmas in the population, the high frequency of carrier state and a long asymptomatic course of disease, the lack of specific clinical symptoms making the diagnosis impossible without using of special laboratory tests. The review focuses on indications for mycoplasma infection screening and for an appointmentof antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic methods of urogenital infections, associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp., with their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are described.

  15. Sequencing analysis reveals a unique gene organization in the gyrB region of Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Søren; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    of which showed similarity to that which encodes the LicA protein of Haemophilus influenzae. The organization of the genes in the region showed no resemblance to that in the corresponding regions of other bacteria sequenced so far. The gyrA gene was mapped 35 kb downstream from the gyrB gene.......The homolog of the gyrB gene, which has been reported to be present in the vicinity of the initiation site of replication in bacteria, was mapped on the Mycoplasma hominis genome, and the region was subsequently sequenced. Five open reading frames were identified flanking the gyrB gene, one...

  16. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  17. Post-embrionic development of the digestive tube of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus (Diptera, Cuterebridae

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    Ana Maria Vieira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tube of 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 was studied anatomically. The specimens were dissected in buffer saline under a stereomicroscope, and the digestive tubes were placed on slides and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Each tube was measured using a micrometric eye piece, and drawings were made with camera lucida. The results showed that the midgut, the hindgut and the Malpighian tubules with their ducts grow gradually during the larval development. The oesophagus and the salivary glands with their ducts grow only during the moult from the 2nd to the 3rd instar. In the pupal period, salivary glands grow gradually but disappeared after the 20th day. After metamorphosis the digestive tube regressed. This is expected since adult D. hominis lives about nine days without feeding. This fly, similar to other calyptratae muscoid flies shows no vestige of a crop during all post-embrionic development, and the adult has no salivary glands.

  18. Selection of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 deletion mutants by cultivation in the presence of monoclonal antibody 552

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Ladefoged, S; Birkelund, S

    1995-01-01

    characterized. The mutants showed deletions of a various number of repeats. The deletions were accompanied by a decrease in size of the proteins. With increasing size of deletions, agglutination and growth inhibition by MAb 552 became less pronounced. Spontaneous aggregation of the mutant M. hominis cells...

  19. Relevant prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum serogroups in HIV-1 infected men without urethritis symptoms

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    CORDOVA Caio Mauricio Mendes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available M. hominis and U. urealyticum are the better-known mycoplasma species pathogenic to the human genitourinary tract, causing mainly urethritis, bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy complications. In HIV-infected patients, the prevalence and role of these species is still not well known. The aim of this work was to determinate the prevalence of these species in this group of male patients (HIV group, in comparison to a group of men with clinical symptoms of urethritis (STD group. M. hominis was isolated from 7.5% patients (8/106 and U. urealyticum from 18.9% patients (20/106 from the HIV group, being among these 62.5% and 85% in significant concentrations, respectively. In the STD group these rates were 0.9% (1/110 for M. hominis and 13.6% (15/110 for U. urealyticum, being 100% and 93.3% in significant concentrations, respectively. We could demonstrate infection rates by these mycoplasma species in the HIV group as high as the one found in the STD one, what may indicate the occurrence of opportunistic infections in our population. This fact is discussed here because in immunosuppressed patients, specially M. hominis has been reported causing severe infections, even systemically.

  20. A high-affinity human monoclonal IgM antibody reacting with multiple strains of Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, SA; Birkelund, Svend; Borrebaeck, CA

    1990-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies were produced against Mycoplasma hominis by in vitro immunization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a healthy seropositive donor using low amounts of antigen (5 ng/ml). The immune B lymphocytes were subsequently immortalized by Epstein-Barr virus transformation...

  1. Microbial load of umbilical cord blood Ureaplasma species and Mycoplasma hominis in preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Pliskova, Lenka; Menon, Ramkumar; Kutova, Radka; Musilova, Ivana; Maly, Jan; Andrys, Ctirad

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate Ureaplasma species and M. hominis DNA in the umbilical cord blood and its correlation with its microbial load in the amniotic fluid, as a measure of microbial burden in fetal inflammatory response and neonatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (pPROM). A retrospective study of 158 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by pPROM between 24(0/7) and 36(6/7) weeks was conducted. Amniotic fluid was obtained from all women by transabdominal amniocentesis, and umbilical cord blood was obtained by venipuncture from umbilical cords immediately after the delivery of the neonates. The Ureaplasma species and M. hominis DNA was quantitated using absolute quantification techniques. Ureaplasma species and M. hominis DNA was identified in 9% of the umbilical cord blood samples. No correlation between the amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood microbial load was observed. The presence of Ureaplasma species and M. hominis DNA in the umbilical cord blood had no impact on short-term neonatal morbidity. A high microbial load of genital mycoplasma Ureaplasma species DNA in the umbilical cord in pregnancies complicated by pPROM is not associated with a high fetal inflammatory response and is therefore not associated with serious neonatal morbidity.

  2. Inquiry of cases of myiasis by Dermatobia hominis in dogs of the southern zone of Rio de Janeiro municipality in 2000

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    Bianca Chiganer Cramer-Ribeiro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Zona Sul do Município do Rio de Janeiro, foi realizado um inquérito sobre os casos de miíases por larvas de Dermatobia hominis (berne em cães atendidos em 34 clínicas e consultórios veterinários durante 2000, para identificar fatores predisponentes a esta parasitose e contribuir na compreensão dos seus aspectos epidemiológicos e na sua prevenção. Pelo menos um caso foi atendido em 24 estabelecimentos, sendo os cães de raça definida, adultos, machos e de pelagem curta e clara os mais acometidos. Os locais do corpo mais afetados foram aqueles de fácil acesso às moscas: membros, dorso, região lombar, cabeça e pescoço. Na maioria dos casos, não foram observadas complicações durante e após o tratamento e o tempo de cura foi menor que cinco dias. Como não se observou determinada época do ano com maior ocorrência de casos, deve-se realizar programas preventivos durante o ano todo, baseados em dados epidemiológicos como as características fenotípicas (raça, cor e comprimento de pelagem, idade e sexo dos animais acometidos. Os proprietários devem ser encorajados a procurar por orientação veterinária quando houver larvas nos animais e a manter boas condições higiênicas ambientais. A prevenção deve ser aplicada principalmente nas áreas que propiciam um ambiente favorável à sobrevivência e proliferação da D. hominis e das moscas vetoras de seus ovos, pois a maior parte dos animais afetados adquiriu a parasitose em viagens a sítios fora da área estudada, possibilitando que casos de berne fossem observados em cães residentes em uma área predominantemente urbana como a Zona Sul.

  3. Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium in the Vaginal Microbiota and Persistent High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection

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    Sally N. Adebamowo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies have suggested that the vaginal microenvironment plays a role in persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV infection and thus cervical carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has been shown that some mycoplasmas are efficient methylators and may facilitate carcinogenesis through methylation of hrHPV and cervical somatic cells. We examined associations between prevalence and persistence of Mycoplasma spp. in the vaginal microbiota, and prevalent as well as persistent hrHPV infections.MethodsWe examined 194 Nigerian women who were tested for hrHPV infection using SPF25/LiPA10 and we identified Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis in their vaginal microbiota established by sequencing the V3–V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. We defined the prevalence of M. genitalium, M. hominis, and hrHPV based on positive result of baseline tests, while persistence was defined as positive results from two consecutive tests. We used exact logistic regression models to estimate associations between Mycoplasma spp. and hrHPV infections.ResultsThe mean (SD age of the study participants was 38 (8 years, 71% were HIV positive, 30% M. genitalium positive, 45% M. hominis positive, and 40% hrHPV positive at baseline. At follow-up, 16% of the women remained positive for M. genitalium, 30% for M. hominis, and 31% for hrHPV. There was a significant association between persistent M. hominis and persistent hrHPV (OR 8.78, 95% CI 1.49–51.6, p 0.01. Women who were positive for HIV and had persistent M. hominis had threefold increase in the odds of having persistent hrHPV infection (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.31–8.74, p 0.008, compared to women who were negative for both.ConclusionWe found significant association between persistent M. hominis in the vaginal microbiota and persistent hrHPV in this study, but we could not rule out reverse causation. Our findings need to be replicated in larger, longitudinal studies and if confirmed

  4. Comparative genomic analysis reveals occurrence of genetic recombination in virulent Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes and telomeric gene duplications in Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaqiong; Tang, Kevin; Rowe, Lori A; Li, Na; Roellig, Dawn M; Knipe, Kristine; Frace, Michael; Yang, Chunfu; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-04-18

    Cryptosporidium hominis is a dominant species for human cryptosporidiosis. Within the species, IbA10G2 is the most virulent subtype responsible for all C. hominis-associated outbreaks in Europe and Australia, and is a dominant outbreak subtype in the United States. In recent yearsIaA28R4 is becoming a major new subtype in the United States. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of two field specimens from each of the two subtypes and conducted a comparative genomic analysis of the obtained sequences with those from the only fully sequenced Cryptosporidium parvum genome. Altogether, 8.59-9.05 Mb of Cryptosporidium sequences in 45-767 assembled contigs were obtained from the four specimens, representing 94.36-99.47% coverage of the expected genome. These genomes had complete synteny in gene organization and 96.86-97.0% and 99.72-99.83% nucleotide sequence similarities to the published genomes of C. parvum and C. hominis, respectively. Several major insertions and deletions were seen between C. hominis and C. parvum genomes, involving mostly members of multicopy gene families near telomeres. The four C. hominis genomes were highly similar to each other and divergent from the reference IaA25R3 genome in some highly polymorphic regions. Major sequence differences among the four specimens sequenced in this study were in the 5' and 3' ends of chromosome 6 and the gp60 region, largely the result of genetic recombination. The sequence similarity among specimens of the two dominant outbreak subtypes and genetic recombination in chromosome 6, especially around the putative virulence determinant gp60 region, suggest that genetic recombination plays a potential role in the emergence of hyper-transmissible C. hominis subtypes. The high sequence conservation between C. parvum and C. hominis genomes and significant differences in copy numbers of MEDLE family secreted proteins and insulinase-like proteases indicate that telomeric gene duplications could potentially contribute to

  5. Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in intestinal tissue specimens of cats by chromogenic in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostegl, Meike M; Wetscher, Andreas; Richter, Barbara; Nedorost, Nora; Dinhopl, Nora; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2012-02-10

    In this retrospective study 102 cats were analyzed for the presence of trichomonads in intestinal tissue sections using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Two intestinal trichomonad species are described in cats: Pentatrichomonas hominis and Tritrichomonas foetus. While P. hominis is considered a mere commensal, T. foetus has been found to be the causative agent of feline large-bowel diarrhea. For the detection of both agents within intestinal tissue CISH assays using three different probes were performed. In the first CISH run a probe specific for all relevant members of the order Trichomonadida (OT probe) was used. In a second CISH run all positive samples were further examined on three consecutive tissue sections using the OT probe, a probe specific for the family of Tritrichomonadidae (Tritri probe) and a newly designed probe specifically detecting P. hominis (Penta hom probe). In total, four of the 102 cats were found to be positive with the OT probe. Thereof, one cat gave a positive reaction with the P. hominis probe and three cats were positive with the T. foetus probe. All Trichomonas-positive cats were pure-bred and between 8 and 32 weeks of age. In one cat positive for T. foetus large amounts of parasites were found in the gut lumen and invading the intestinal mucosa. The species of the detected trichomonads were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing of a part of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. In this study, the usefulness of CISH to detect intestinal trichomonads within feline tissue samples was shown. Additionally, the specific detection of P. hominis using CISH was established. Generally, it was shown that CISH is well suited for detection and differentiation of trichomonosis in retrospective studies using tissue samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Host Cell Responses to Persistent Mycoplasmas - Different Stages in Infection of HeLa Cells with Mycoplasma hominis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfe, Miriam; Deenen, René; Degrandi, Daniel; Köhrer, Karl; Henrich, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a facultative human pathogen primarily associated with bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease, but it is also able to spread to other sites, leading to arthritis or, in neonates, meningitis. With a minimal set of 537 annotated genes, M. hominis is the second smallest self-replicating mycoplasma and thus an ideal model organism for studying the effects of an infectious agent on its host more closely. M. hominis adherence, colonisation and invasion of HeLa cells were characterised in a time-course study using scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy and microarray-based analysis of the HeLa cell transcriptome. At 4 h post infection, cytoadherence of M. hominis to the HeLa cell surface was accompanied by differential regulation of 723 host genes (>2 fold change in expression). Genes associated with immune responses and signal transduction pathways were mainly affected and components involved in cell-cycle regulation, growth and death were highly upregulated. At 48 h post infection, when mycoplasma invasion started, 1588 host genes were differentially expressed and expression of genes for lysosome-specific proteins associated with bacterial lysis was detected. In a chronically infected HeLa cell line (2 weeks), the proportion of intracellular mycoplasmas reached a maximum of 10% and M. hominis-filled protrusions of the host cell membrane were seen by confocal microscopy, suggesting exocytotic dissemination. Of the 1972 regulated host genes, components of the ECM-receptor interaction pathway and phagosome-related integrins were markedly increased. The immune response was quite different to that at the beginning of infection, with a prominent induction of IL1B gene expression, affecting pathways of MAPK signalling, and genes connected with cytokine-cytokine interactions and apoptosis. These data show for the first time the complex, time-dependent reaction of the host directed at mycoplasmal clearance and the counter measures of

  7. Large outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection transmitted through the public water supply, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerström, Micael; Schönning, Caroline; Lilja, Mikael; Lebbad, Marianne; Ljung, Thomas; Allestam, Görel; Ferm, Martin; Björkholm, Britta; Hansen, Anette; Hiltula, Jari; Långmark, Jonas; Löfdahl, Margareta; Omberg, Maria; Reuterwall, Christina; Samuelsson, Eva; Widgren, Katarina; Wallensten, Anders; Lindh, Johan

    2014-04-01

    In November 2010, ≈27,000 (≈45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens.

  8. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis GP60 subtypes worldwide

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    Catalina Avendaño V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic parasite very important in animal health as well as in public health. It is because this is one of the main causes of diarrhea in children, calves, lambs and other variety of youth mammalians in a lot of countries. The globalization has enabled the exchange of biological material in different regions worldwide, encouraging the spread of diseases and exposure to these biological agents to different environmental conditions, inducing adaptation through genetic changes. Based in the polymorphism of the gene for GP60, this review intended to present the distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in humans and calves worldwide. The subtype that affects cattle more frequently corresponds to IIaA15G2R; while the subtype most frequently isolated from human samples is IaA19G2.

  9. Clinical Review of the Effects of Hominis Placental Pharmacopuncture in the Treatment of Facial Spasm Patients

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    Jo Na-Young

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of treatment with Hominis Placental pharmacopuncture (HPP for 32 patients with hemifacial spasm. Methods: We treated facial spasm patients with acupuncture and HPP at Sabaek (ST2, Seung-eup (ST1, Gwallyeo (SI18, Chanjuk (BL2, Sajukgong (TE23, Hagwan (ST7, Hyeopgeo (ST6, Jichang (ST4, Wan-gol (SI4 and Yepung (TE17, and we investigated the effect by using Scott’s scale. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS/10.0 for windows program with descriptive statistics, the paired t-test, and the Shapiro-Wilk normality test. Results: After treatment, the grade of the spasm’s intensity based on Scott’s description were decreased significantly. About 72% of the patients felt that the combination treatment had produced excellent results. Conclusion: These data suggested that HPP can be useful for treating facial spasm patients.

  10. Heterogeneity and compartmentalization of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis genotypes in autopsy lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    2001-01-01

    The extent and importance of genotype heterogeneity of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis within lungs have not previously been investigated. Two hundred forty PCR clones obtained from respiratory specimens and lung segments from three patients with fatal P. carinii pneumonia were investigated....... Not all genotypes present in the lungs at autopsy were detected in the diagnostic respiratory samples. Compartmentalization of specific ITS and mtLSU rRNA sequence types was observed in different lung segments. In conclusion, the interpretation of genotype data and in particular ITS sequence types...... in the assessment of epidemiological questions should be cautious since genotyping done on respiratory samples cannot a priori be assumed to represent all genotypes present within the lung....

  11. [Usefulness of conventional polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis in female outpatient's genital samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Gonzalo; Barraza, Gabriela; Vera, Andrea; Wozniak, Aniela; García, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. are microorganisms responsible for genitourinary and pregnancy pathologies. Nucleic acid amplification methods have shown several advantages, but have not been widely studied for the detection of these microorganisms. To implement a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the microorganisms and to compare its results versus the methods currently used at our laboratory. 91 available samples were processed by PCR, culture (M. hominis y Ureaplasma spp.) and wet mount (T vaginalis). Results were compared and statistically analyzed by kappa agreement test. 85, 80 and 87 samples resulted in agreement for the detection of M. hominis, Ureaplasma spp. y T. vaginalis, respectively. For M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp., agreement was substantial, whereas for T. vaginalis it was moderate, however, for the latter, PCR detected more cases than wet mount. We recommend the implementation of PCR for detection of T. vaginalis whereas culture kit is still a useful method for the other microorganisms.

  12. Fatal nosocomial meningitis caused by Mycoplasma hominis in an adult patient: case report and review of the literature

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    Sophie Reissier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis due to Mycoplasma hominis in adults is rarely described, with only three cases having been reported to date. A case of fatal meningitis in a 39-year-old patient after a neurosurgical procedure for a subarachnoid haemorrhage is reported herein. Identification and treatment were significantly delayed because of the rarity of the aetiology and difficulty identifying this organism with the routinely used conventional methods, such as Gram staining and agar growth on standard agar plates. Clinical procedures and the treatment of ‘culture-negative’ central nervous system infections is a real challenge for clinical microbiologists and clinicians, and M. hominis has to be considered as a potential, although very uncommon, pathogen.

  13. A Clinical Study on 1 Case of Patient with Bilateral Simultaneous Bell's Palsy Treated by Hominis Placenta Herbal-Acupuncture

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    Kwon, Kang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was carried out to investigate the progress of bilateral simultaneous facial palsy and the effect of Hominis Placenta herbal-acupunture and the other oriental medical therapies. Methods : We used two methods to research the progress of disease. 1. Diagnosis - Facial muscle test, Taste test, Hearing test, Photographies, Lab-finding 2. Treatment - Acupuncture, Herbal-acupuncture, Electroacupuncture, Herb-med Results : The onset of Rt. facial palsy was earlier than Lt. facial palsy 3days. The reaction on the treatment of Rt. facial palsy was more dull than Lt. facial palsy. In terms of treatment period, Rt. facial palsy was very longer than Lt. facial palsy. Conclusion : According to the above results, we discoveried that Hominis Placenta herbal-acupunture and the other oriental medical therapies had good influence on the bilateral simultaneous facial palsy. In the future, we should endeavor to know influence between Rt. and Lt. face in case of bilateral simultaneous Bell's palsy.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activities of cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene against Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleha, Radek; Mosio, Petra; Vydrzalova, Marketa; Jantovska, Alexandra; Bostikova, Vanda; Mazurova, Jaroslava

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of five natural substances against 50 clinical isolates of Mycoplasma hominis. The in vitro activity of selected natural compounds, cinnamon bark oil, anethole, carvacrol, eugenol and guaiazulene, was investigated against 50 M. hominis isolates cultivated from cervical swabs by the broth dilution method. All showed valuable antimicrobial activity against the tested isolates. Oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (MBC90 = 500 µg/mL) however was found to be the most effective. Carvacrol (MBC90 = 600 µg/mL) and eugenol (MBC90 = 1000 µg/mL) also possessed strong antimycoplasmal activity. The results indicate that cinnamon bark oil, carvacrol and eugenol have strong antimycoplasmal activity and the potential for use as antimicrobial agents in the treatment of mycoplasmal infections.

  15. Clinical significance of asymptomatic urogenital Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in relation to seminal fluid parameters among infertile Jordanian males

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    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The differences in the occurrence of M. hominis were statistically insignificant among infertility and control groups, but it was significant for U. urealyticum (p=0.046. M. hominis occurs more frequently in the semen of infertile-varicose male and normal seminal fluid quality. It seems to have no adverse effects on sperm motility but it might decline the fertility potential in such cases. U. urealyticum on the other hand have no clear significant impacts on sperm motility. The mean values for sperm motility, concentrations, and viscosity were not affected by the presence of the two species. Despite the significant presence of Ureaplasma among infertility, further studies were needed to clarify their potential effect on semen quality and infertility status.

  16. Association between preterm labor and genitourinary tract infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Gram-negative bacilli, and coryneforms

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    Alaa El-Dien M.S. Hosny

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the main risk factors for PTL were vaginal infection with T. vaginalis, M. hominis, coryneforms, and Gram-negative bacilli, and their determinants (vaginal pH>5, positive whiff test, heavy vaginal bleeding. Both young age (< 20 years and poor obstetric history were also the risk factors. Therefore, screening for genitourinary tract infections is strongly recommended to be included in prenatal care.

  17. Effect of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture on the Dysmenorrhea (A Pilot study, Single blind, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Su-Min Kim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment on Dysmenorrhea of Women. Methods : 49 subjects who were suffering from dysmenorrhea volunteered to answer the MMP(Measure of Menstrual Pain and MSSL(Menstrual Symptom Severity List questionnaire. They were divided into two groups, a Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment group(Experiment al group, n=25 and a Normal Saline(N/S treatment group(Control group, n=24. The two groups were injected on the CV4, S36, Sp9 and Sp6 acupuncture point. They were treated totally five times depending on the individual menstruation cycles. The scores of MMP and MSSL were measured overall three times before and after the menstruation cycle. The collected data were analyzed as paired t-test, independent t-test using SPSS 12.0 WIN Program. Results : As a result of the evaluation by MMP and MSSL, a significant improvement on dysmenorrhea was made in the two groups(p<0.05, and both scores of Experiment group were decreased more than Control group. But there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions : The Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment and the Normal Saline treatment were effective in decreasing the symptom of Dysmenorrhea.

  18. Interaction of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 with Human Dendritic Cells: Interleukin-23-Inducing Mycoplasmal Lipoproteins and Inflammasome Activation of the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goret, J; Béven, L; Faustin, B; Contin-Bordes, C; Le Roy, C; Claverol, S; Renaudin, H; Bébéar, C; Pereyre, S

    2017-08-01

    Mycoplasma hominis lacks a cell wall, and lipoproteins anchored to the extracellular side of the plasma membrane are in direct contact with the host components. A Triton X-114 extract of M. hominis enriched with lipoproteins was shown to stimulate the production of interleukin-23 (IL-23) by human dendritic cells (hDCs). The inflammasome activation of the host cell has never been reported upon M. hominis infection. We studied here the interaction between M. hominis PG21 and hDCs by analyzing both the inflammation-inducing mycoplasmal lipoproteins and the inflammasome activation of the host cell. IL-23-inducing lipoproteins were determined using a sequential extraction strategy with two nondenaturing detergents, Sarkosyl and Triton X-114, followed by SDS-PAGE separation and mass spectrometry identification. The activation of the hDC inflammasome was assessed using PCR array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We defined a list of 24 lipoproteins that could induce the secretion of IL-23 by hDCs, 5 with a molecular mass between 20 and 35 kDa and 19 with a molecular mass between 40 and 100 kDa. Among them, lipoprotein MHO_4720 was identified as potentially bioactive, and a synthetic lipopeptide corresponding to the N-terminal part of the lipoprotein was subsequently shown to induce IL-23 release by hDCs. Regarding the hDC innate immune response, inflammasome activation with caspase-dependent production of IL-1β was observed. After 24 h of coincubation of hDCs with M. homini s, downregulation of the NLRP3-encoding gene and of the adaptor PYCARD-encoding gene was noticed. Overall, this study provides insight into both protagonists of the interaction of M. hominis and hDCs. IMPORTANCE Mycoplasma hominis is a human urogenital pathogen involved in gynecologic and opportunistic infections. M. hominis lacks a cell wall, and its membrane contains many lipoproteins that are anchored to the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. In the present study, we focused on

  19. Two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Cryptosporidium hominis reveal protein–ligand interactions including a structural basis for observed antifolate resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Amy C., E-mail: aca@dartmouth.edu [Dartmouth College, Department of Chemistry, Burke Laboratories, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of DHFR-TS from C. hominis reveals a possible structural basis for observed antifolate resistance in C. hominis DHFR. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals residue substitutions that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors. Cryptosporidium hominis is a protozoan parasite that causes acute gastrointestinal illness. There are no effective therapies for cryptosporidiosis, highlighting the need for new drug-lead discovery. An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) from C. hominis, determined at 2.8 and 2.87 Å resolution, reveals that the interactions of residues Ile29, Thr58 and Cys113 in the active site of C. hominis DHFR provide a possible structural basis for the observed antifolate resistance. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals active-site differences that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors.

  20. Comparative Study of Wheatley’s Trichrome Stain and In-vitro Culture against PCR Assay for the Diagnosis of Blastocystis sp. in Stool Samples

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    Nabilah Amelia MOHAMMAD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the performance of routine permanent stain and cultivation method in comparison with polymerase chain reaction assay as the reference technique to detect Blastocystis sp.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among aboriginal populations that reside in Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia in Feb to Mar 2015. A total of 359 stool samples were examined using Wheatley’s trichrome stain, in-vitro cultivation in Jones’ medium and PCR assay. Positive amplicons were subjected to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.Results: Fifty-six (15.6% samples were detected positive with Blastocystis sp. by Wheatley’s trichrome stain and 73 (20.3% by in-vitro culture, while PCR assay detected 71 (19.8% positive samples. Detection rate of Blastocystis sp. was highest in combination of microscopic techniques (27.9%. The sensitivity and specificity of Wheatley’s trichrome staining and in-vitro culture techniques compared to PCR assay were 49.3% (95% CI: 37.2-61.4 and 92.7% (95% CI: 89.1-95.4 and 39.4% (95% CI: 28.0-51.8 and 84.4% (95% CI: 79.7-88.4, respectively. However, the sensitivity [60.6% (95% CI: 48.3-71.9] of the method increased when both microscopic techniques were performed together. False negative results produced by microscopic techniques were associated with subtype 3. The agreement between Wheatley’s trichrome stain, in-vitro culture and combination of microscopic techniques with PCR assay were statistically significant by Kappa statistics (Wheatley’s trichrome stain: K = 0.456, P<0.001; in-vitro culture: K = 0.236, P<0.001 and combination techniques: K = 0.353, P<0.001.Conclusion: The combination of microscopic technique is highly recommended to be used as a screening method for the diagnosis of Blastocystis infection either for clinical or epidemiological study to ensure better and accurate diagnosis.

  1. Desenvolvimento das gônadas de Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Cuterebridae

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    Edy de Lello

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento das gônadas do berne (D. hominis durante o período pupal. As pupas desenvolvidas de larvas com peso superior a 650 mg, deram imagos fêmeas, enquanto que as desenvolvidas daquelas pesando entre 500 e 650 mg deram macho, tendo havido um erro ao redor de 5%. Até o oitavo dia de pupação os testículos crescem mais que os ovários; a partir daí diminui o desenvolvimento, parando de crescer entre o vigésimo e vigésimo quinto dias. A espermatogênese inicia por volta do sétimo dia de pupa quando é grande o número de espermatócitos. No décimo dia alguns testículos apresentam considerável número de espermátides e os espermatozóides começam a aparecer por volta do vigésimo dia. A espermiogênese desenvolve-se sem interrupção e ao final da pupação quase toda loja testicular está repleta de espermatózóides. Os machos começam a nascer dois dias antes das fêmeas. Nessas, os ovaríolos aparecem formados por volta do oitavo dia de pupa; os folículos se individualizam por volta do vigésimo dia de pupa onde se distingue os trofócitos com núcleos politênicos e citoplasmas bem basófilos, enquanto o ovócito tem citoplasma mais acidófilo e núcleo com cromatina bastante frouxa. A vitelogênese tem início ao redor do vigésimo quinto dia de pupa e se completa ao nascimento da imago. A ligação das gônadas com suas respectivas estruturas somáticas acontece ao redor do décimo terceiro dia de pupação.Gonadal development of Dermatobia hominis during pupal period is described. Pupae developing from larvae weighing above 650 mg turned into female flies whereas the ones from larvae weighing between 500 and 600 mg turned into males (with plus of minus 5% of error. Up to the 8th day of pupation the testes are larger than the ovaries; from that time on they decrease their speed of development and stop growing between the 20th and 25th day. The spermatogenesis starts around the 7th day when there

  2. Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat

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    MiJung Yeom

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

  3. Cryptosporidium hominis Is a Newly Recognized Pathogen in the Arctic Region of Nunavik, Canada: Molecular Characterization of an Outbreak.

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    Karine Thivierge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings, and has been repeatedly associated with impaired physical and cognitive development. In May 2013, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in the Arctic region of Nunavik, Quebec. Human cryptosporidiosis transmission was previously unknown in this region, and very few previous studies have reported it elsewhere in the Arctic. We report clinical, molecular, and epidemiologic details of a multi-village Cryptosporidium outbreak in the Canadian Arctic.We investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis using a descriptive study of cases with onset between April 2013 and April 2014. Cases were defined as Nunavik inhabitants of any age presenting with diarrhea of any duration, in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by stool microscopy in a specialised reference laboratory. Cryptosporidium was identified in stool from 51 of 283 individuals. The overall annual incidence rate (IR was 420 / 100,000 inhabitants. The IR was highest among children aged less than 5 years (1290 /100,000 persons. Genetic subtyping for stool specimens from 14/51 cases was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Sequences aligned with C. hominis subtype Id in all cases. No common food or water source of infection was identified.In this first observed outbreak of human cryptosporidiosis in this Arctic region, the high IR seen is cause for concern about the possible long-term effects on growth and development of children in Inuit communities, who face myriad other challenges such as overcrowding and food-insecurity. The temporal and geographic distribution of cases, as well as the identification of C. hominis subtype Id, suggest anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission. Barriers to timely diagnosis delayed the recognition of human cryptosporidiosis in this remote setting.

  4. Detection of T. vaginalis,M. hominis,M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum using Multiplex PCR

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    Tamara Brunelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction. The sexually transmitted diseases include a large group of infections affecting both the sexes. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the Prato area during the period September 2010 – July 2011. Methods.We analysed different kind of samples (urine, endocervical swabs, urethral swabs, seminal fluids from hospitalized patients or referred to the Prato clinic subjects.The DNA was obtained using EZ1-DNA extraction kit and EZ1 instrument.The DNA was then amplified using the Seeplex STD6 kit (Seegene, Korea, identifying multiple pathogens simultaneously (T. vaginalis, M. hominis, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae e U. urealyticum. The revelation was performed by electrophoresis on microchip (instrument Multina, Shimadzu, Japan. Results. 1136 samples from Italian and foreign patients were examined: 876 were endocervical swabs (77%, 103 urethral swabs (9%, 103 seminal fluids (9%, and 54 urines (5%. The number of females was higher than males [894 (78.7% vs 242 (21.3%]; the mean age of females was 37.0±11.6 years, whereas that of males was 41.5 ±12.63 years.The prevalence of urogenital pathogens was: 15 positive samples for T. vaginalis (1.3%, 56 for M. hominis (4.9%, 13 for M. genitalium (1.1%, 28 for C. trachomatis (2.5%, 8 for N. gonorrhoeae (0.7% and 87 for U. urealyticum (7.7%.Among all positive, 25 subjects were positive for more than one pathogen and in particular: one was positive for the presence of 4 pathogens, five presented 3 pathogens simultaneously and the remaining nineteen for 2 pathogens. Conclusions. This study provides data on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the hospital of Prato.

  5. PCR-Múltiple para el diagnóstico de Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum y Ureaplasma urealyticum

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    Nadia Rodríguez-Preval

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum y Ureaplasma urealyticum son especies relacionadas con enfermedades del tracto genitourinario, y particularmente con la uretritis no gonocócica (UNG en el hombre. Los cultivos de estos microorganismos resultan complicados, por lo que las técnicas moleculares, principalmente la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, se han convertido en el principal método de detección de estos organismos. Objetivo: Implementar un método molecular basado en tecnología de genes para el diagnóstico de estas cuatro especies de micoplasmas genitales, aplicándolo en muestras clínicas de pacientes con UNG. Material y métodos: Se crearon las condiciones para un PCR-Múltiple para identificar estas especies empleando como muestra ADN de referencia, utilizando los juegos de cebadores complementarios a fragmentos de los genes de la proteína adhesiva de M. genitalium (MgPa, ARN ribosomal 16S de M. hominis, región espaciadora entre los genes del ARN ribosomal 16S y 23S de U. parvum, y de la región espaciadora adyacente al gen de la ureasa y específico para U. urealyticum, siendo un método específico y sensible. Resultados: Al analizar 34 muestras de exudado uretral, 27 correspondieron a la clase Mollicutes, obteniéndose 14,8% de positividad a M. genitalium, 18,5% a M. hominis, 11,1% a U. urealyticum y 3,7%. a U. parvum. Con este trabajo se realizó por primera vez el diagnóstico de M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. parvum y U. urealyticum en muestras uretrales de pacientes cubanos. Conclusión: Se recomienda incluir el diagnóstico de estas especies en un mayor número de pacientes cubanos con síntomas uretrales, para validar el método propuesto y conocer la relación de estos microorganismos con la UNG.

  6. Morphology of human Fallopian tubes after infection with Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis--in vitro organ culture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Funch, P; Fedder, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female infertility can be caused by scarring and occlusion of the Fallopian tubes. Sexually transmitted bacteria can damage the delicate epithelial layer of human Fallopian tubes (HFT). Genital mycoplasmas are associated with human reproductive failure. Yet, there is not enough evidence...... that mycoplasmas can cause tubal factor infertility. We analysed the effects of infections with Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium on the HFT epithelium and compared them with the effects of infections with genital pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. METHODS: We used an in vitro...

  7. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in genital samples collected over 6 years at a Serbian university hospital

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    Dusan Skiljevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are implicated in a wide array of infectious diseases in adults and children. Since some species have innate or acquired resistance to certain types of antibiotics, antibiotic susceptibility testing of mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract assumes increasing importance. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in genital samples collected between 2007 and 2012. Methods: Three hundred and seventy three patients presenting with symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases, infertility or risky sexual behaviour, who had not taken antibiotics in the previous 6 weeks and had ≥10 WBC per high power field on genital smears were studied. Urethral samples were taken in men and endocervical samples in women. The mycoplasma IST-2 kit was used for organism identification and for testing susceptibility to doxycycline, josamycin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and pristinamycin. Results: U. urealyticum was isolated from 42 patients and M. hominis from 11 patients. From 9.8% of isolates, both organisms were grown. All M. hominis isolates were resistant to tetracycline, clarithromycin and erythromycin while U. urealyticum was highly resistant to clarithromycin (94.6%, tetracycline (86.5%, ciprofloxacin (83.8% and erythromycin (83.8%. M. hominis was sensitive to doxycycline (83.3% and ofloxacin (66.7% while most U. urealyticum strains were sensitive to doxycycline (94.6%. Limitations: Inability of the commercial kit used in the study to detect other potentially pathogenic urogenital mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma genitalium. Conclusion: There is significant resistance of U. urealyticum and M. hominis to tetracycline and macrolides. The most active tetracycline for genital mycoplasmas was found to be doxycycline, which continues to be the drug of first choice.

  8. Co-infections with Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis in a human immunodeficiency virus positive woman with vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Dhawan, Benu

    2013-01-01

    A 30-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected woman presented with vaginal discharge and associated vulval irritation. The vaginal swabs tested positive for Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis by both culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The specimen also tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) by cryptic plasmid and omp1 gene PCR assays. The patient was successfully treated with azithromycin based on the antibiotic susceptibility testing results of U. parvum and M. hominis by microbroth dilution. Since sexually transmitted infections enhance the transmission of HIV, HIV-positive patients should be screened routinely for these pathogens.

  9. Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue

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    Yasuyo Hijikata

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata1, Takashi Kano2, Lu Xi31Toyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, Japan; 2Kano Clinic, Osaka city, Osaka, Japan; 3Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute, Si-chuan Province, ChinaObjective: Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method: Placenta Hominis (PH, steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion: Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia.Keywords: placenta, antler glue, Cervi Cornus Colla, anemia, aplastic anemia

  10. Nonconserved Residues Ala287 and Ser290 of the Cryptosporidium hominis Thymidylate Synthase Domain Facilitate Its Rapid Rate of Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan,L.; Martucci, W.; Vargo, M.; Atreya, C.; Anderson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis TS-DHFR exhibits an unusually high rate of catalysis at the TS domain, at least 10-fold greater than those of other TS enzymes. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have mutated residues Ala287 and Ser290 in the folate-binding helix to phenylalanine and glycine, respectively, the corresponding residues in human and most other TS enzymes. Our results show that the mutant A287F, the mutant S290G, and the double mutant all have reduced affinities for methylene tetrahydrofolate and reduced rates of reaction at the TS domain. Interestingly, the S290G mutant enzyme had the lowest TS activity, with a catalytic efficiency {approx}200-fold lower than that of the wild type (WT). The rate of conformational change of the S290G mutant is {approx}80 times slower than that of WT, resulting in a change in the rate-limiting step from hydride transfer to covalent ternary complex formation. We have determined the crystal structure of ligand-bound S290G mutant enzyme, which shows that the primary effect of the mutation is an increase in the distance between the TS ligands. The kinetic and crystal structure data presented here provide the first evidence explaining the unusually fast TS rate in C. hominis.

  11. First report of Sneathia sanguinegens together with Mycoplasma hominis in postpartum prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaskova, Iva; Nemec, Petr; Vanerkova, Martina; Malisova, Barbora; Tejkalova, Renata; Orban, Marek; Zampachova, Vita; Freiberger, Tomas

    2017-08-14

    The presence of more than one bacterial agent is relatively rare in infective endocarditis, although more common in prosthetic cases. Molecular diagnosis from a removed heart tissue is considered a quick and effective way to diagnose fastidious or intracellular agents. Here we describe the case of postpartum polymicrobial prosthetic valve endocarditis in a young woman. Sneathia sanguinegens and Mycoplasma hominis were simultaneously detected from the heart valve sample using broad range 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing while culture remained negative. Results were confirmed by independent PCR combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Before the final agent identification, the highly non-compliant patient left from the hospital against medical advice on empirical intravenous treatment with aminopenicillins, clavulanate and gentamicin switched to oral amoxycillin and clavulanate. Four months after surgery, no signs of inflammation were present despite new regurgitation and valve leaflet flail was detected. However, after another 5 months the patient died from sepsis and recurrent infective endocarditis of unclarified etiology. Mycoplasma hominis is a rare causative agent of infective endocarditis. To the best of our knowledge, presented case is the first report of Sneathia sanguinegens detected in this condition. Molecular techniques were shown to be useful even in polymicrobial infective endocarditis samples.

  12. Evaluation of First Voided Urine Samples For Detection of Ureaplasma Uriealyticum and Mycoplasma Hominis in Urinary Tracts of Men and Women Suffering from Nongonococcal and Nonspecific Urethritis

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    M Mohamadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ureaplasma uriealyticum is one of the most important causes of Nongonococcal and Nonspecific urethritis (NGU & NSU in men. Mycoplasma hominis too has a causal role in NGU & NSU. This study aimed to investigate whether it is possible to detect Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma uriealyticum in first voided urine samples in men suffering from NGU & NSU without complaints of urethral secretions and in women with clinical symptoms despite negative vaginal secretion culture test results. Methods: First voided urine samples were taken from 150 patients (21 women & 129 men suffering from NGU & NSU who referred to the Division of Bacteriology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2004-2005. Samples were examined by culture method. Results: Cultures were positive for Mycoplasma and Ureoplasma in 49 (32.6 % of the 150 samples. Of the 21 samples taken from women, 5 samples were positive for Mycoplasma & Ureoplasma (2 samples Mycoplasma, 3 samples Ureaplasma. Samples from 44 men were positive for Ureoplasma & Mycoplasma(17 samples Mycoplasma, 4 samples Ureaplasma and 23 samples were positive for both. Ureoplasma urealyticum was detected in 30 samples (20% and Mycoplasma hominis, was detected in 42 samples (28%. Conclusion: The results of this study provides evidence that culture tests can be done using voided urine in order to detect Mycoplasma hominis and ureaplasma urealyticum in patients suffering from Nongonococcal urethris; men who do not have urethral secretions and women with clinical symptoms despite negative vaginal secretion culture test results.

  13. DNA sequencing reveals limited heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon among five Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, T; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the intraspecies heterogeneity within the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma hominis, five isolates with diverse antigenic profiles, variable/identical P120 hypervariable domains, and different 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns were analysed. The 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon was amplified...

  14. ヒト精子運動に及ぼす Ureaplasma urealyticum 及び Mycoplasma hominis の影響

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Myung Woong; Choi, Tae Kyung; Matsuo, Yoshiyasu; Yoshii, Zensaku

    1984-01-01

    The human spermatozoal motility was significantly affected by the whole culture solution and slightly less significantly by the microbial cell suspension of Ureaplasma urealyticum but not the microbial metabolites (culture supernatant). The same phenomenon was observed with the preparations of Mycoplasma hominis in somewhat less degree.

  15. Cytokine concentrations in seminal plasma from subfertile men are not indicative of the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis in the lower genital tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; Trum, J. W.; Bleker, O. P.; van der Veen, F.; Spanjaard, L.; Dankert, J.

    2000-01-01

    The inflammatory response to the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum or Mycoplasma hominis in the lower genital tract of subfertile men without any signs or symptoms of infection was investigated by measuring the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum isolated during a population-based study concerning women infertility in northeast Romania

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    Mareş Mihai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on 1068 infertile women under initial evaluation. For Mycoplasma hominis, the highest resistance rates were registered for ciprofloxacin (72.22%, followed by macrolides and ofloxacin. For Ureaplasma urealyticum, the ciprofloxacin resistance was also high (51.72%, while the resistance rates to other tested antibiotics were significantly lower.

  17. Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum y bacterias aeróbicas en el semen de hombres que consultan por infertilidad Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and aerobic bacteria present in the semen from men attending infertility service

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    Bertha Victoria Rodríguez Pendás

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infecciones en el semen humano pueden alterar la calidad espermática, y vincularse con problemas de infertilidad masculina. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de infecciones por Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum y bacterias aeróbicas en el semen de hombres que consultan por infertilidad, e identificar si existe relación entre las infecciones encontradas y las alteraciones en las variables de calidad del semen. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, para evaluar muestras de semen de 140 hombres, con edades entre 20 y 45 años, provenientes de las consultas de infertilidad del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. Se realizó un espermograma completo, que incluyó leucocitospermia, siguiendo los lineamientos de la OMS, para determinar las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas del semen. Las muestras de semen fueron cultivadas en agar sangre y agar chocolate a 37° C en atmósfera de CO2 para investigar bacterias aeróbicas, y se utilizó un juego de reactivos (Mycoplasma System Plus que permite realizar el cultivo, la identificación, el conteo semicuantitativo y el antibiograma de micoplasmas/ureaplasma urogenitales. Se tuvo en cuenta los aspectos éticos, y los resultados obtenidos se analizaron mediante cálculo de por cientos y la aplicación de la prueba de chi cuadrado. Resultados: de las 140 muestras de semen evaluadas, 58 (41,4 % mostraron la presencia de infecciones, de ellas 37 correspondieron a Ureaplasma urealyticum (25,7 %, 2 a Micoplasma hominis (1,4 % y 19 a bacterias aeróbicas (13,8 %. Al comparar las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas del semen con los sujetos infectados y no infectados, no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en ninguna de las variables de calidad espermática evaluadas. Conclusiones: la frecuencia total de infecciones, en la muestra estudiada, fue relativamente alta, pero no asociada a alteraciones en las variables seminales

  18. Antibacterial Resistance in Ureaplasma Species and Mycoplasma hominis Isolates from Urine Cultures in College-Aged Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine-King, Marissa A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect nearly 20% of women age 15 to 29 and account for an estimated $3.5 billion in costs. Antibiotic resistance prolongs UTI treatment, and resistance profiles vary regionally. This regional variation is an important consideration in guiding empirical treatment selection. Regional studies in the United States have identified tetracycline resistance in over one-third of Ureaplasma species isolates, but no studies have evaluated antibiotic resistance levels in college-aged women with a first-time UTI. We tested a panel of antibiotics and determined the MICs of Ureaplasma species (60 U. parvum and 13 U. urealyticum) and 10 Mycoplasma hominis isolates obtained from urine from college-aged women with a first-time UTI. Low antibiotic resistance was found in this population of women with a first-time UTI. All M. hominis and U. urealyticum isolates were sensitive. However, two U. parvum isolates were resistant, with one to levofloxacin (MIC, 4 μg/ml) and one to tetracycline (MIC, 8 μg/ml). For the Ureaplasma spp., the MIC90s were highest against gentamicin (21 μg/ml) and lowest against doxycycline (0.25 μg/ml). In a comparison of MIC levels between Ureaplasma spp., U. urealyticum had significantly higher MICs against each antibiotic except doxycycline. For the resistant isolates, the genetic mechanisms of resistance were determined. PCR amplification identified tetM to be present in the tetracycline-resistant isolate and an S83W mutation within the parC gene of the quinolone-resistant isolate. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide molecular and phenotypic evidence of the S83W parC mutation conferring levofloxacin resistance in U. parvum isolated from a patient in the United States. PMID:28827422

  19. Update on Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis Typing Based on Nucleotide Sequence Variations in Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions of rRNA Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Hung; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Tang, Xing; Jin, Shaoling; Li, Baozheng; Bartlett, Marilyn S.; Lu, Jang-Jih; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens D.; Olsson, Mats; Lucas, Sebastian B.; Roux, Patricia; Cargnel, Antonietta; Atzori, Chiara; Matos, Olga; Smith, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis isolates from 207 clinical specimens from nine countries were typed based on nucleotide sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2, respectively) of rRNA genes. The number of ITS1 nucleotides has been revised from the previously reported 157 bp to 161 bp. Likewise, the number of ITS2 nucleotides has been changed from 177 to 192 bp. The number of ITS1 sequence types has increased from 2 to 15, and that of ITS2 has increased from 3 to 14. The 15 ITS1 sequence types are designated types A through O, and the 14 ITS2 types are named types a through n. A total of 59 types of P. carinii f. sp. hominis were found in this study. PMID:9508304

  20. Frequency of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in women with systemic lupus erythematosus Freqüência da infecção pelo Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum em mulheres portadoras de lupus eritematoso sistêmico

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    Alcyone A. Machado

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and Mycoplasma hominis (MH have been detected in the urine of women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. We evaluated the presence of these mycoplasma in the endocervix of women presenting SLE. A total of 40 SLE patients (mean age 40.2 years, and 51 healthy women (mean age 30.9 years, were studied. Endocervical swabs were cultured in specific liquid media for MH or UU, detected by a quantitative color assay, and considered positive at >10³ dilutions. Statistical analysis was performed using the two-tailed Fisher test. UU was detected in 52.5 % of patients and in 11.8% of controls (p= 0.000059. MH was detected in 20% of patients and 2% controls (p=0.003905. Both mycoplasmas were detected in 7.3% patients and 0% controls (pUreaplasma urealyticum (UU e Mycoplasma hominis (MH têm sido detectados em urina de mulheres com lupus eritematoso sistêmico (LES. Avaliamos a presença destes mycoplasmas no endocervix de mulheres apresentando LES. Um total de 40 pacientes com LES (idade média de 40,2 anos, e 51 mulheres sadias (idade média de 30.9 anos, foram estudadas. Swabs do endocervix foram cultivados em meio líquido específico para MH e UU, detectados por teste colorimétrico quantitativo, considerando positivo diluições > 10³ . Análise estatística foi feita usando teste de Fisher. UU foi detectado em 52,5% das pacientes e em 11,8% dos controles (p= 0.000059. MH foi detectado em 20% das pacientes e 2% dos controles (p=0.003905. Ambos mycoplasmas foram detectados em 7,3 % das pacientes e 0% dos controles (p<0.000001. Os resultados aqui reportados corroboram com a associação de infecção por mycoplasma e LES. Estes agentes podem estimular a produção de clones autoreativos.

  1. "The rate of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Mycoplasma Hominis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum in females with habitual abortion and its comparison with control group "

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    Salari MH

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Females abortion is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.In this study frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was studied in 125 females with habitual abortion by direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. The results obtained were as follow: Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 18 (14.4% females with habitual abortion and 18 (7.2% normal population (P=0.0139. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 39(31.2% females with habitual aboration and 48 (19.2% normal population (P=0.0045. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct immunofluorescence test in 9 (7.2% of cases and 2 (0.8% of control groups (P=0.0002. the antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured. The valuable titer of antibody (>1/16 was detected in 15 (12% of cases and 8 (3.2% of control groups (P=0.0004.The results show that chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum may be responsible for some cases of abortion.

  2. Effects of Hominis Placenta Aqua-acupuncture on Kidney and Liver Intoxicated by HgCI2 in Rats

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    Lee, Sang-Keel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was perfomled to examine the therapeutic effect of aqua-acupuncture solution of Hominis Placenta(HP on kidney and liver intoxicated by HgCl2 in rats. Methods: 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture were carried out everyday for 8 days on corresponding bilateral loci of Shinsu(BL23 and Kansu(BL18, respectively, after mercuric chloride intoxication in rats. Thereafter BUN, creatinine, GOT, GPT, ALP, -GT, albumin and total bilirubin were measured before intoxication, and at the 4th and the 8th experimental day. Histopathological and immunochemical observation were also carried out. Results: 1. It showed significant decreases of BUN in the group of 10% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu on the 4th experimental day as compared with the control group. 2. It showed significant decreases of creatinine in the group of 10% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu on the 4th and the 8th experimental days as compared with the control group. 3. There were not any significant changes of GOT, GPT, ALP, γ-GT, albumin and total bilirubin in the HP aqua-acupuncture groups compared with the control group. 4. By the histopathological observations on kidney under a light microscope, all the 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu showed the preventive effect on tubulo-interstitial necrosis and muItifocal calcification in tubular lumen respectively compared with the control group. 5. By the histopathological observations on liver under a light mIcroscope, the groups 10% and 25% HP aqua-acupuncture into Kansu did not show any significant changes in the liver compared with the control group. 6. By the immunochemical analysis of heat shock protein(hsp and glucose-regulated protein(grp in rat renal cortex, the expressions of hsp70 and grp78 were decreased in the and HP aqua-acupuncture into Shinsu respectively compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results suggest that Hominis Placenta aqua-acupuncture have an effect on prevention and protection of

  3. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino médio de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae midgut

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    Edy de Lello

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 midgut is internally lined by an epithelium of polytenic cells, some low others prismatic with well developed brush border. Their apical portion are enlarged by secretory vesicles, forming button-like structures that are pinched off to the lumen, some accompained by the nucleus characterizing apocrine and holocrine secretions. This epithelium is gradually renewed by small, non polytenic regenerative cells, found scattered at its basal portion. At the end of the third instar the metamorphosis begins. The epithelial cells present signs of degeneration and at the first day of pupation the regenerative cells increase in number. By the 5th day of pupation these regenerative cells, besides being increased in number, differentiate themselves into two layers: one similar to the dense conective tissue that sustainning the larval epithelium is pinched off to the midgut lumen forming the "yellow bodies"; the other, develops right under it as the imaginal epitelium. The disorganized muscles bundles of the midgut wall, are invaded by phagocytes. At the end of pupation the midgut has a low prismatic epithelium with brush-border. In the adult, the torax portion of the midgut has prismatic homogeneously basophilic epithelium while in the abdominal portion the epithelium is made of high prismatic cells full of small vacuoles. The larval midgut epithelium suffers programmed cell death non compatible with apoptose. During the metamorphosis the midgut lenght diminishes from 31mm in the larva to 14mm in the adult.

  4. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino anterior de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae foregut

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    Ana Maria Vieira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foregut in D. hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 as the majority of the larval Diptera somatic tissue, is made up of polytenic cells, and grows at the expenses of the polytenization of its nuclei followed by the increase in size of each cell. The oesophagus, of ectodermic origem, is interiorly covered by a chitinous squamous epithelium that rests upon a very thin basal lamina. This sheet is surrounded by thick muscle bundles. The oesophagus intussuscepts the midgut forming the cardia. The cardia, with three epithelial layers: two internal ones, of ectodermal origin and one external of endodermic origin. At the anterior portion of the cardia, between these two types of epithelium, there is a cluster of small, non polytenic cells, forming the imaginal disk of the foregut. Metamoiphosis begins at the end of the larval period with signs of nuclear degeneration of all the polytenic cells, as well as the increase in number of the imaginal disk ones. The oesophagic portion intussuscepted into the cardia, everts; its cells suffer apoptosis and are replaced by the new cells growing from the imaginal disk. The external layer cells also degenerate and are pinched off into the lumen of the very anterior portion of the midgut. The newly formed oesophagus intussuscepts "de novo" to form the two internal layers of the adult cardia. At the same time the midgut regenerative cells grow anteriorly to form the new external layer of the adult cardia.

  5. Resposta imune-humoral e celular em bovinos da raça Nelore imunizados com extrato de larvas (L2 e L3 de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 Immune humoral and cellular response of nelore bovines immunized with larvae extract (L2 and L3 of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781

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    Nelson Luis Mello Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As larvas da Dermatobia hominis provocam lesões ulcerativas, danificando o tecido subcutâneo e conseqüentemente a pele do hospedeiro. O couro é o subproduto que sofre maior depreciação, o que, muitas vezes, impossibilita seu aproveitamento na industrialização. Atualmente o controle químico é utilizado como forma de combate à dermatobiose, entretanto, leva ao acúmulo de substâncias tóxicas nos animais e no ambiente. No presente trabalho, foram avaliadas as respostas imune-humoral e celular de bovinos imunizados com extrato antigênico preparado com larvas de D. hominis. Três grupos de oito bezerras da raça Nelore com 10 meses de idade foram usados, tendo o primeiro grupo (A recebido aplicação de extrato imunogênico de larvas de D. hominis, com intervalos de quinze dias; o grupo (B, utilizado como controle, não recebendo nenhum tipo de tratamento; e o grupo (C recebendo o tratamento ectoparasiticida à base de Dichlorvos associado a Cypermetrina. Neste mesmo período, foram avaliados o leucograma e os níveis de IgG contra D. hominis pela técnica de enzimoimunoensaio-ELISA. Quanto à avaliação da imunidade humoral, verificou-se que os animais do grupo A apresentaram maior produção de IgG contra D. hominis, com níveis máximos de anticorpos circulantes aos 45 dias após a primeira imunização. Estes animais também apresentaram maior produção de neutrófilos, eosinófilos e monócitos que os dos grupos B e C. O número de nódulos de larvas encontrado nos animais do grupo C foi 148,3% maior que nos animais dos grupos A e B. A comprovação da resposta imune celular e humoral, parcialmente caracterizadas, bem como a redução do número de nódulos, são indicadores que a imunização contra D. hominis foi parcialmente protetora para os bovinos imunizados.Dermatobia hominis larvae cause ulcerative lesions and damage to subcutaneous tissue and skin of the host. Leather is the subproduct which undergoes major depreciation

  6. Ultrastructure of the ovary of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: cuterebridae. I. Development during the 3rd larval instar

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    E. A. Gregorio

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure and distribution of gonial and somatic cells in the ovary of Dermatobia hominis was studied during the 3rd larval instar. In larvae weighing between 400 and 500 mg, the ovary is partially divided into basal and apical regions by oblong somatic cells that penetrate from the periphery; these cells show ovoid nucleus and cytoplasm full of microtubules. In both regions, gonial cells with regular outlines, large nucleus and low electron-density cytoplasm are scattered among the interstitial somatic cells. These later cells have small nucleus and electrodense cytoplasm. Clear somatic cells with small nucleus and cytoplasm of very low electron-density are restrict to the apical region of the gonad. Degenerating interstitial somatic cells are seen in the basal portion close to the ovary peduncle. During all this larval period the morphological features of the ovary remain almost the same. At the end of the period there is a gradual deposition of glycogen in the cytoplasm of the somatic cells, increase in the number and density of their mitochondria plus nuclear modification as membrane wrinkling and chromatin condensation in masses.

  7. Dermabacter hominis: a usually daptomycin-resistant gram-positive organism infrequently isolated from human clinical samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Natal, I; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Medina-Pascual, M J; Albersmeier, A; Valdezate, S; Guerra-Laso, J M; Rodríguez, H; Marrodán, T; Parras, T; Tauch, A; Soriano, F

    2013-01-01

    During a 12-year period, Dermabacter hominis was isolated from 21 clinical samples belonging to 14 patients attending a tertiary hospital in León, Spain. Samples included blood cultures (14), peritoneal dialysis catheter exit sites (three), cutaneous abscesses (two), an infected vascular catheter (one) and a wound swab (one). Identification was made by API Coryne™ V2.0, Biolog™ GP2 and 16S rRNA gene amplification. Six febrile patients had positive blood cultures (one, two or three sets) and all of them were treated with teicoplanin (two patients), vancomycin, ampicillin plus gentamicin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ciprofloxacin (one each). An additional patient with a single positive blood culture was not treated, the finding being considered non-significant. In the remaining seven patients the organism was isolated from a single specimen and three of them received antimicrobial treatment (ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone plus vancomycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid). At least ten patients had several underlying diseases and conditions, and no direct mortality was observed in relation to the isolated organism. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, rifampin and linezolid. Resistance to other antibiotics varied: erythromycin (100%), clindamycin (78.5%), ciprofloxacin (21.4%) and gentamicin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, benzylpenicillin and imipenem 7.1% each. Thirteen isolates were highly resistant to daptomycin with MICs ranging from 8 to 48 (MIC90 = 32 mg/L); only one was daptomycin-sensitive (MIC = 0.19 mg/L). PMID:25356327

  8. PCR Research of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis Cells of Sichuan Province%四川地区阴道毛滴虫内人型支原体的PCR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓燕; 王雅静; 毕世樑; 张仁刚

    2009-01-01

    20 isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis were collected from clinical patients in hospital. After pure cultivation, genomic DNA of T. vaginalis was extracted. A pair of specific 16S rDNA primers was designed based on the sequence of Mycoplasma hominis. M. hominis in T. vaginalis cells were detected by PCR. Altogether 20 isolates of T. vaginalis were collected, 13 out of 20 T. vaginalis isolates harboured M. hominis, and the symbiosis ratio between T. vaginalis and M. hominis was up to 65%. It suggested that the symbiotic relationship between T. vaginalis and M. hominis occurred commonly in Sichuan, China.%从临床上分离获得20株阴道毛滴虫虫株,经纯化培养后,提取基因组DNA.以人型支原体16S rDNA序列设计特异性引物,利用PCR技术检测阴道毛滴虫内的人型支原体,结果有13株为人型支原体阳性,感染率为65%,表明阴道毛滴虫与人型支原体的共生关系在中国四川具有普遍性.

  9. Freqüência de infecção pelo Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum em mulheres inférteis e relação com repercussões clínicas Frequency of infection with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in infertile women and clinical repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Araujo Penna

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar a freqüência de infecção pelo Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum e relacioná-la a variáveis clínicas de mulheres inférteis. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com 322 pacientes inférteis submetidas à coleta de swab endocervical para pesquisa de Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum, de outubro de 2002 a maio de 2004. Todas as pacientes foram submetidas a protocolo básico de investigação clínica e laboratorial da infertilidade. Como controle, utilizou-se série histórica de 51 mulheres não gestantes, previamente pesquisadas quanto aos agentes infecciosos estudados. RESULTADOS: a freqüência de infecção pelo Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum foi de 4,9% nas pacientes inférteis e 13,8% no grupo controle. Entre as pacientes inférteis observou-se relação entre a presença dos dois patógenos e alterações no resultado da histerossalpingografia (OR: 3,20; IC 95%: 1,05-9,73, presença de dispareunia (OR: 10,72; IC 95%: 3,21-35,77 e corrimento vaginal (OR: 8,5; IC 95%: 2,83-26,02, além de cultura endocervical positiva para Escherichia coli (OR: 16,09; IC 95%: 4,95-52,25. CONCLUSÃO: a taxa de infecção pelo Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum é baixa em pacientes inférteis e está associada a seqüelas reprodutivas tardias.PURPOSE: to determine the frequency of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infection, and relate it to the associated clinical variables of infertile women. METHODS: transversal study involving 322 infertile women, submitted to collection of endocervix swab for research of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infecction, from October 2002 to May 2004. All patients were submitted to a basic infertility investigation protocol. As control, a historical series of 51 non-pregnant women previously investigated as for the studied infectious agents, was used. RESULTS: the frequency of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infection was 4

  10. The genome of the obligate intracellular parasite Trachipleistophora hominis: new insights into microsporidian genome dynamics and reductive evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heinz

    Full Text Available The dynamics of reductive genome evolution for eukaryotes living inside other eukaryotic cells are poorly understood compared to well-studied model systems involving obligate intracellular bacteria. Here we present 8.5 Mb of sequence from the genome of the microsporidian Trachipleistophora hominis, isolated from an HIV/AIDS patient, which is an outgroup to the smaller compacted-genome species that primarily inform ideas of evolutionary mode for these enormously successful obligate intracellular parasites. Our data provide detailed information on the gene content, genome architecture and intergenic regions of a larger microsporidian genome, while comparative analyses allowed us to infer genomic features and metabolism of the common ancestor of the species investigated. Gene length reduction and massive loss of metabolic capacity in the common ancestor was accompanied by the evolution of novel microsporidian-specific protein families, whose conservation among microsporidians, against a background of reductive evolution, suggests they may have important functions in their parasitic lifestyle. The ancestor had already lost many metabolic pathways but retained glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway to provide cytosolic ATP and reduced coenzymes, and it had a minimal mitochondrion (mitosome making Fe-S clusters but not ATP. It possessed bacterial-like nucleotide transport proteins as a key innovation for stealing host-generated ATP, the machinery for RNAi, key elements of the early secretory pathway, canonical eukaryotic as well as microsporidian-specific regulatory elements, a diversity of repetitive and transposable elements, and relatively low average gene density. Microsporidian genome evolution thus appears to have proceeded in at least two major steps: an ancestral remodelling of the proteome upon transition to intracellular parasitism that involved reduction but also selective expansion, followed by a secondary compaction of genome

  11. DNA sequencing reveals limited heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon among five Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, T; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the intraspecies heterogeneity within the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma hominis, five isolates with diverse antigenic profiles, variable/identical P120 hypervariable domains, and different 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns were analysed. The 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon was amplified...... by PCR and the PCR products were sequenced. Three isolates had identical 16S rRNA sequences and two isolates had sequences that differed from the others by only one nucleotide....

  12. Genomic resources and draft assemblies of the human and porcine varieties of scabies mites, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Holt, Deborah C; Seemann, Torsten; Currie, Bart J; Fischer, Katja; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2016-06-02

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is a parasitic arachnid and cause of the infectious skin disease scabies in humans and mange in other animal species. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where secondary group A streptococcal and Staphylococcus aureus infections of scabies sores are thought to drive the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We sequenced the genome of two samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis obtained from unrelated patients with crusted scabies located in different parts of northern Australia using the Illumina HiSeq. We also sequenced samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from a pig model. Because of the small size of the scabies mite, these data are derived from pools of thousands of mites and are metagenomic, including host and microbiome DNA. We performed cleaning and de novo assembly and present Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis draft reference genomes. We have constructed a preliminary annotation of this reference comprising 13,226 putative coding sequences based on sequence similarity to known proteins. We have developed extensive genomic resources for the scabies mite, including reference genomes and a preliminary annotation.

  13. Comparison of Assays for Sensitive and Reproducible Detection of Cell Culture-Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, George D.; Rochelle, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the three most commonly used assays for detecting Cryptosporidium sp. infections in cell culture: immunofluorescent antibody and microscopy assay (IFA), PCR targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific DNA, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific mRNA. Monolayers of HCT-8 cells, grown in 8-well chamber slides or 96-well plates, were inoculated with a variety of viable and inactivated oocysts to assess assay performance. All assays detected infection with low doses of flow cytometry-enumerated Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, including infection with one oocyst and three oocysts. All methods also detected infection with Cryptosporidium hominis. The RT-PCR assay, IFA, and PCR assay detected infection in 23%, 25%, and 51% of monolayers inoculated with three C. parvum oocysts and 10%, 9%, and 16% of monolayers inoculated with one oocyst, respectively. The PCR assay was the most sensitive, but it had the highest frequency of false positives with mock-infected cells and inactivated oocysts. IFA was the only infection detection assay that did not produce false positives with mock-infected monolayers. IFA was also the only assay that detected infections in all experiments with spiked oocysts recovered from Envirochek capsules following filtration of 1,000 liters of treated water. Consequently, cell culture with IFA detection is the most appropriate method for routine and sensitive detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in drinking water. PMID:22038611

  14. Digital signage sobre IP

    OpenAIRE

    Casademont Filella, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Projecte que versa sobre el disseny i la implementació d'un sistema de Digital Signage (Cartelleria Digital) sobre IP, creant un gestor que permeti controlar de forma remota tot un conjunt de petits dispositius connectats a pantalles que emeten continguts multimèdia com vídeos, imatges, feeds rss...

  15. Apuntes sobre esporotricosis

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Se hace una breve reseña histórica de las primeras comunicaciones sobre esporotricosis. Se destaca la amplia difusión de la enfermedad en nuestro país. 3. Se hace notar la no existencia de datos bibliográficos sobre formas extracutáneas. 4. Se llama la atención sobre la eficaz ayuda de la intradermo-reacción con esporotriquina en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. 5- Se comunica un caso de esporotricosis verrugosa tratado con anfotericin B, con excelentes resultados

  16. Apuntes sobre esporotricosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Londoño

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una breve reseña histórica de las primeras comunicaciones sobre esporotricosis. Se destaca la amplia difusión de la enfermedad en nuestro país. 3. Se hace notar la no existencia de datos bibliográficos sobre formas extracutáneas. 4. Se llama la atención sobre la eficaz ayuda de la intradermo-reacción con esporotriquina en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. 5- Se comunica un caso de esporotricosis verrugosa tratado con anfotericin B, con excelentes resultados

  17. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among Young Children with and without Diarrhea in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit G Tellevik

    Full Text Available Although enteroparasites are common causes of diarrheal illness, few studies have been performed among children in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among young children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and identify risk factors for infection.We performed an unmatched case-control study among children 12 months (P = 0.003; OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.5-7.8. Among children aged 7-12 months, those who were breastfed had lower prevalence of G. lamblia infection than those who had been weaned (P = 0.012.Cryptosporidium infection is common among young Tanzanian children with diarrhea, particularly those living with HIV, and infection is more frequent during the rainy season. G. lamblia is frequently implicated in asymptomatic infections, but rarely causes overt diarrheal illness, and its prevalence increases with age.

  18. Frecuencia y fuentes de Blastocystis sp. en niños de 0 a 5 años de edad atendidos en hogares infantiles públicos de la zona urbana de Calarcá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Liliana Londoño-Franco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. No se han descrito las fuentes potenciales de infección por Blastocystis sp. en Colombia. Objetivos. Estimar la frecuencia de Blastocystis sp. y explorar posibles asociaciones entre la infección, las manifestaciones clínicas y algunas fuentes ambientales. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo con una población de 1.993 menores de 5 años (lactantes y preescolares de estratos socioeconómicos 1 y 2, atendidos en hogares infantiles de Calarcá, Colombia. Se calculó una muestra de 275 y se seleccionó aleatoriamente a los participantes en 10 % de los hogares infantiles. Se practicaron exámenes coprológicos y encuestas y se tomaron muestras para la identificación del parásito en heces, uñas, animales domésticos y algunas fuentes ambientales. Se hicieron preparaciones en fresco con lugol al 1 % y se utilizó una técnica de concentración con formol-éter. Se estimaron prevalencias y razones de momios; para las variables cualitativas se utilizó el test de ji al cuadrado y, para las cuantitativas, la prueba t de Student. Resultados. La prevalencia de infección en los niños fue de 57,5 %. Hubo asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la presencia del parásito en heces y su hallazgo en recipientes de agua de panela (OR=1,70; IC95% 1,05-2,79, en los pisos de madera o de tierra en la vivienda (OR=3,43; IC95% 1,12-10,48, y en alimentos diferentes a la leche en el tetero (OR=3,23; IC95% 1,41-4,41; y se encontró una prevalencia alta sin asociación en muestras de uñas (OR=1,62; IC95% 0,99-2,67. La diarrea fue más frecuente en niños con Blastocystis sp. (45 % que en aquellos sin el parásito (33 % (OR: 1,95; IC95% 0,99-2,77 (p<0,05. Conclusiones. Blastocystis sp. se asoció significativamente con síntomas de diarrea en los niños menores de 5 años y se encontró distribuido ampliamente en el ambiente y en el agua. Se requeriría determinar si hay huéspedes específicos para genotipos pat

  19. Inferencias sobre Grafos

    OpenAIRE

    Sira M. Allende; Carlos N. Bouza

    2002-01-01

    El estudio de un juego puede ser modelado asumiendo que solo algunas partidas son observadas. Entonces el árbol del juego debe ser estimado utilizando información muestral. Similarmente ocurre al obtener información sobre el comportamiento de las decisiones tomadas por individuos muestreados sobre un árbol de decisión teórico. Al considerar una medida de probabilidad que caracterice el comportamiento de redes aleatorias se puede obtener un estimado del árbol asociado. Este problema es el anal...

  20. Sobre software libre

    OpenAIRE

    Matellán Olivera, Vicente; González Barahona, Jesús; Heras Quirós, Pedro de las; Robles Martínez, Gregorio

    2004-01-01

    220 p. "Sobre software libre" reune casi una treintena de ensayos sobre temas de candente actualidad relacionados con el software libre (del cual Linux es su ex- ponente más conocido). Los ensayos que el lector encontrará están divididos en bloques temáticos que van desde la propiedad intelectual o las cuestiones económicas y sociales de este modelo hasta su uso en la educación y las administraciones publicas, pasando por alguno que repasa la historia del software libre en l...

  1. Microsporidia and Cryptosporidium in horses and donkeys in Algeria: detection of a novel Cryptosporidium hominis subtype family (Ik) in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatamna, Abd Elkarim; Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Xiao, Lihua; Rost, Michael; McEvoy, John; Saadi, Ahmed Rachid; Aissi, Meriem; Kváč, Martin

    2015-03-15

    A total of 219 and 124 individual fecal samples of horses and donkeys, respectively, were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Encephalitozoon spp., and Enterocytozoon bieneusi DNA by genus-specific nested PCR. Isolates were genotyped by sequence analysis of SSU rRNA, GP60, TRAP-C1, COWP, and HSP70 loci in Cryptosporidium, and the ITS region in microsporidia. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected on 3/18 horse farms and 1/15 farms where donkeys were kept. Overall, five (2.3%) horse and two (1.6%) donkey specimens were PCR positive for Cryptosporidium. Genotyping at SSU and GP60 loci revealed that three isolates from horses and donkeys were C. parvum subtype family IIaA16G1R1, one isolate from a horse was, C. muris RN66, and one isolate from a donkey was C. muris TS03. An isolate from a horse shared 99.4% and 99.3% similarity with Cryptosporidium hominis and C. cuniculus, respectively, at the SSU locus. This isolate shared 100% identity with C. hominis at the TRAP-C1, COWP, and HSP70 loci, and it was from the novel gp60 subtype family IkA15G1. Microsporidia were found on 6/18 horse and 2/15 donkey farms. E. bieneusi was identified in 6.8% (15/219) and 1.6% (2/124), and Encephalitozoon cuniculi was identified in 1.8% (4/219) and 1.6% (2/124), of horses and donkeys, respectively. Three genotypes of E. cuniculi (I, II and III) were detected in horses, and E. cuniculi genotype II was detected in donkeys. Four genotypes of E. bieneusi (horse1, horse 2, CZ3, D) were described in horses. An additional five horses and two donkeys were positive for E. bieneusi, but the isolated were not genotyped. Neither Cryptosporidium nor microsporidia prevalence were affected by sex, age, type of breeding, or whether the host was a horse or a donkey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of anti-tubercular activity and biomass of fermented food associated Staphylococcus hominis strain MANF2 using Taguchi orthogonal array and Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusro, Ameer; Aarti, Chirom; Dusthackeer, Azger; Agastian, Paul

    2018-04-14

    The prime focus of the present investigation was to optimize statistically the anti-tubercular activity and biomass of fermented food associated Staphylococcus hominis strain MANF2 using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). The anti-tubercular activity of strain MANF2 was determined against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using luciferase reporter phase assay. Among varied media examined, the isolate exhibited impressive anti-tubercular activity with paramount relative light unit reduction of >90% in de Man Rogose Sharpe (MRS) broth. Primarily, the anti-tubercular activity and biomass of strain MANF2 were estimated in MRS broth by optimizing eight diversified parameters using one factor at a time (OFAT) method after working out a series of experiments. The most significant contributing factors selected through OFAT tool were optimized using Taguchi approach with a standard OA layout of L18 (2 2  × 3 6 ). Results demonstrated the significant (P ≤ 0.05) influence of pH, temperature, yeast extract, magnesium sulphate, and glycerol on response variables. These controlled variables were further optimized using BBD matrix at N = 46 by second-order polynomial equation. The fermentation medium of pH 6.5 constituting yeast extract (0.5% w/v), magnesium sulphate (0.1% w/v), and glycerol (1.5% v/v), being further incubated at 30 °C showed enhanced anti-tubercular activity (98.7%) and approximately 4 fold increment in the bacterial biomass yield (8.3 mg/mL) with respect to traditional OFAT method. Three-dimensional response plots of the quadratic model showed interdependent interaction between the significant variables. In conclusion, the present study revealed the first report on the optimization of anti-tubercular activity and biomass of S. hominis via Taguchi OA as well as BBD design, and thus, paved a path for its proficient applications in pharmaceutical industries as dynamic mycobactericidal agent in future. Copyright © 2018

  3. Inferencias sobre Grafos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira M. Allende

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de un juego puede ser modelado asumiendo que solo algunas partidas son observadas. Entonces el árbol del juego debe ser estimado utilizando información muestral. Similarmente ocurre al obtener información sobre el comportamiento de las decisiones tomadas por individuos muestreados sobre un árbol de decisión teórico. Al considerar una medida de probabilidad que caracterice el comportamiento de redes aleatorias se puede obtener un estimado del árbol asociado. Este problema es el analizado en este trabajo. Algunos resultados experimentales obtenidos usando Recocido Simulado ilustran el procedimiento. Su papel en el estudio de modelos económicos y de mercadeo es discutido.

  4. Escrito sobre el cuerpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Malalana Ureña

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El catálogo, en una edición bilingüe español-inglés, es una pequeña guía de la exposición Shirin Neshat. Escrito sobre el cuerpo, muestra que se integra dentro de los actos de PHOTOESPAÑA13, el festival internacional de fotografía y artes visuales. El esquema del libro es sencillo y los textos son extremadamente divulgativos. El primero de ellos, Escrito sobre el cuerpo (pp. 10-15, cuyo autor es Octavio Zaya, comisario de la exposición, resume la trayectoria de esta intelectual, que "interactúa" con la fotografía y los formatos audiovisuales, y nos presenta la argumentación narrativa de los documentos expuestos, contextualizando la obra recopilada.

  5. Investigation on Symbiosis of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis in Some Areas of Guizhou Province%贵州省部分地区阴道毛滴虫与人型支原体共生情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡贵榕; 衣凤芸; 杨宇箭; 程其会; 王丽娟; 吴家红

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解贵州地区阴道毛滴虫临床分离株与人型支原体共生情况。方法:以贵州部分地区女性阴道毛滴虫病患者阴道后穹隆分泌物中采集的阴道毛滴虫虫株,实验室达到纯培养后,采用Chelex-100的方法提取滴虫基因组DNA,设计人型支原体16S rDNA特异引物,进行聚合酶链式反应( PCR),琼脂糖凝胶电泳法对PCR产物进行分析,观察滴虫细胞内人型支原体共生情况。结果:从临床共采集到165株虫株中,83株获得纯培养;83株中人型支原体检测结果显示有47株阳性,阳性率为56.6%。结论:阴道毛滴虫虫株与人型支原体共生情况在我国贵州地区普遍性存在。%Objective:To investigate the symbiosis of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis in Guizhou Province. Methods:The clinical strains of T. vaginalis were collected from the hospitals and family planning service stations in Guiyang city and Anshun city. After pure culture in lab,the ge-nome DNA of T. vaginalis was extracted by Chelex-100,and 16S rDNA fragment of M. hominis was amplified by PCR with the specific primers. Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis was conducted and the symbiosis of M. hominis in T. vaginalis was observed. Results:A total of 165 strains were collected from the hospitals and family planning service stations,and 83 clinical strains attained pure culture,of which 47 strains were detected positively for M. hominis. The positive rate was 56. 6%. Conclusions:The symbiosis of M. hominis in T. vaginalis is prevalent in Guizhou province.

  6. The effect of Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture on Leg spasticity of stroke patients (A Pilot study, Double blind, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-hwan Noh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture(HPP on lower limb spasticity control in stroke patients. Methods : Twenty stroke patients with Leg spasticity were randomly divided into two groups, a Distilled water Pharmacopuncture(group I and a HPP(group II. The number of Pharmacopuncture was 5 times a week and acupuncture treatment was 3 times a week for 3 weeks. Modified Ashworth Scale(MAS, H-reflex/M-response ratio(H/M ratio, Berg Balance Scale(BBS and Time Up & Go(TUG were used for evaluation of spasticity control before experiment, after 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks. Results : Group I showed significant improvement(p<.05 in BBS but no significant improvement in MAS, H/M ratio, and TUG. Group II showed significant improvement(p<.05 in MAS, BBS, and TUG, but no significant improvement in H/M ratio. The results showed significant difference in TUG, but no significant difference in MAS, H/M ratio and BBS between 2 groups. Conclusion : These results showed that HPP might decrease lower limb spasticity and increase leg motor function in stroke patients. Further studies will be required to examine more cases in the long period for the effect on lower limb in spasticity by HPP.

  7. Explaining an Unusually Fast Parasitic Enzyme: Folate Tail-Binding Residues Dictate Substrate Positioning and Catalysis in Cryptosporidium hominis Thymidylate Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci,W.; Vargo, M.; Anderson, K.

    2008-01-01

    The essential enzyme TS-DHFR from Cryptosporidium hominis undergoes an unusually rapid rate of catalysis at the conserved TS domain, facilitated by two nonconserved residues, Ala287 and Ser290, in the folate tail-binding region. Mutation of these two residues to their conserved counterparts drastically affects multiple steps of the TS catalytic cycle. We have determined the crystal structures of all three mutants (A287F, S290G, and A287F/S290G) in complex with active site ligands dUMP and CB3717. The structural data show two effects of the mutations: an increased distance between the ligands in the active site and increased flexibility of the folate ligand in the partially open enzyme state that precedes conformational change to the active catalytic state. The latter effect is able to be rescued by the mutants containing the A287F mutation. In addition, the conserved water network of TS is altered in each of the mutants. The structural results point to a role of the folate tail-binding residues in closely positioning ChTS ligands and restricting ligand flexibility in the partially open state to allow for a rapid transition to the active closed state and enhanced rate of catalysis. These results provide an explanation on how folate tail-binding residues at one end of the active site affect long-range interactions throughout the TS active site and validate these residues as targets for species-specific drug design.

  8. Co-infection with vaginal Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis increases adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong-Wook; Hwang, Han-Sung; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong-Won; Kim, Young-Han

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) in patients with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and to determine the effect of these organisms on pregnancy outcomes based on the density of colonization. The study group consisted of 184 women with preterm labor or PPROM. Vaginal cultures for UU and MH were performed for all patients at admission, and the placentas were histologically evaluated after delivery. The prevalence of positive vaginal fluid cultures for genital mycoplasma was 62.5% (112/179). This group included 99 patients carrying only UU and 13 carrying both organisms. No patients were found to carry only MH. Compared to patients only positive for UU, patients with both organisms showed significantly decreased gestational age at birth and birth weight, and significant increases in the incidences of preterm birth, NICU admissions and histologic chorioamnionitis. Vaginal MH tends to be detected with UU, and patients carrying both organisms simultaneously had more severe adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to patients in preterm labor or PPROM who were only positive for UU.

  9. Terraplenes sobre suelos colapsables

    OpenAIRE

    Arnedo Gaute, Diego

    2004-01-01

    Esta tesina está motivada por el diseño y construcción del Canal Segarra-Garrigues. El trazado del canal atraviesa varios pequeños valles de fondo llano mediante terraplenes sobre los cuales circula el canal. En estas vaguadas se encuentran suelos limo-arcillosos de baja densidad cuya potencia puede llegar a ser de varios metros. Estos materiales, debido a su estructura abierta, son potencialmente colapsables una vez cargados si experimentan incrementos de humedad. Las deformacion...

  10. DISCUTINDO SOBRE SEXTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana da Conceição de Barros

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Na contemporaneidade, os sujeitos vêm se utilizando das diversas tecnologias digitais, para exporem e compartilharem sua intimidade, com intuito de seduzirem e tornarem-se visíveis. Esse fenômeno vem sendo chamado de sexting, e vem sendo aderido por sujeitos de várias faixas etárias. Assim, leitor/a, convido você a pensar sobre o sexting e o que a escola tem a ver com essa prática?

  11. Excertos sobre o sedentarismo

    OpenAIRE

    Palma,Alexandre; Vilaça,Murilo Mariano; Assis,Monique Ribeiro de

    2014-01-01

    O sedentarismo tem sido tratado como algo perfeitamente determinável, objetivo e, portanto, que pode ser apreendido. Por outro lado, o conceito de sedentarismo ainda permanece questionável e, por conseguinte, os instrumentos mostram-se inconsistentes. Neste sentido, o objetivo do presente estudo foi mostrar que diferentes discursos de verdade vêm concorrendo por esse conceito, o que nos motiva a pensar qual é a verdade ou, até mesmo, se há alguma verdade sobre ele. Após apresentarmos diferent...

  12. Sobre historia mundial hoy

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    Vera Weiler

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de globalización son una realidad; su enorme impacto sobre la vida humana los ha convertido en un tema recurrente sobre el que se escribe y se comenta a diario también en Colombia. Los libros que de ellos tratan, ante todo los que 10 hacen en tono crítico, baten records en la industria editorial en todo el mundo. Las expectativas que acerca del futuro abrigan cientos de millones de personas se relacionan con 10 que ellas esperan, para bien o para mal, de la globalización. Las posturas que los gobernantes ocupan al respecto en el mundo son, cuando menos de aceptación, generalmente de activa participación en pos de la globalización. Por un lado, crece la preocupación y se multiplican las protestas; por el otro, dominan los razonamientos de los especialistas en materia de maximización de los rendimientos de los capitales que presentan la globalización, al estilo que se viene imponiendo, como el camino ineludible del gobierno universal de la eficiencia. ¿Tienen que decir algo los historiadores frente a todo esto?.

  13. The efficacy of a nested PCR in detecting cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of Sarcoptes scabiei var. Hominis for diagnosing scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, J E; Kim, C W; Kim, S S

    2018-04-06

    A widespread scabies infestation, associated to long-term residence in nursing homes, is becoming a serious issue in developed countries. Mineral oil examination is regarded as the gold standard in diagnosing scabies, but the sensitivity of this method is generally low-approximately 50%. Molecular tests may contribute to enhance the sensitivity of current tests for laboratory diagnosis of human scabies. In this study, we developed new primers for a nested PCR for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis to increase the sensitivity of a previously developed conventional PCR. Clinically suspected scabies patients underwent dermoscopy-guided skin scraping with microscopic examination. The diagnosis was positive for scabies when mites or eggs were found under the microscope, and patients were then designated as 'microscopy-positive'. Patients in the 'microscopy-negative' group presented with negative microscopic results. Skin scrapings were collected from both groups for PCR. Of the total 63 samples, 28 were microscopy-positive and 35 were negative with no differences in sex and age between the two groups. All microscopically proven scabies cases were positive with the cox1 nested PCR. Among microscopy-negative ones, S. scabiei DNA was detected in 9 samples. If sensitivity of the cox1 nested PCR is considered 100% (95% CI, 90.51-100), then sensitivity of microscopy is 75.68% (95% CI, 58.80-88.23; P = 0.004). Nested PCR can be successfully used as an alternative method for diagnosing suspected scabies patient. Therefore, infection control measures and treatments can be initiated before significant transmission occurs, minimizing the risk of outbreaks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. What is «to act for an end»? Francisco Suarez’ answer in the ms De beatitudine (1579 and in De ultimo fine hominis (1628

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    Rosa Colmenarejo Fernández

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the work and teaching of Francisco Suárez (Granada, 1548-Lisbon, 1617 in the shaping of modern thought has been widely studied in areas such as political philosophy and law, metaphysics, and epistemology. However, the moral philosophy of Suarez, in particular that which, as he himself explains, was needed as a basis for his moral theology, has yet to be analyzed. In this paper, we propose to elucidate some aspects of Suarez’s theory of human agency final causality. We compare two of his commentaries, from different periods, on the I-IIae of Thomas Aquinas’ Summa theologiae: the unpublished manuscript De beatitudine (1579 and Suarez’s treatise De ultimo fine hominis, the first of five treatises on morality posthumously published by Baltasar Álvares (1628. The question analyzed here, the nature of final causality, is assumed as a heuristic instrument to acquaint readers with both the sources studied and the philosophical import of Suárez’ doctrine on morality. The findings suggest the following: i the closeness, still with doubts, of Suárez’ 1579 commentary to Thomas’ doctrine of human agency final causality; (ii in the 1628 commentary, his partial assumption of Thomas’ doctrine on the role of intellect in free choice, and his clear determination in the assertion that the locus finis is the will. Working with these nuances, we illustrate some connection points that show both how 16th century scholasticism deals with philosophical tradition to explain a new image of man, and how subsequent moral philosophy is influenced by these theories while rejecting their theological foundation.

  15. Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Calliphoridae as new biological vector of eggs of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 (Diptera: Oestridae in Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinho Clarissa Rezende

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note was to record for the first time the finding of Hemilucilia segmentaria acting as biological vector of Dermatobia hominis, during a study of the diversity of Calliphoridae at Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The insects were captured using traps baited with chicken vicera, for a period of 28-30 h twice per month. In the period of one year, 1987 insects were collected, 7.5% of which belonged to the H. segmentaria; of these a female was captured in May 2001, carrying a mass of 20 eggs on the left side of its abdomen.

  16. 阴道毛滴虫与人型支原体共生对铁氧还蛋白基因影响%Effects of the Symbiosis of Trichomonas Vaginalis with Mycoplasma Hominis on Ferredoxin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 温雯静; 薛长贵

    2011-01-01

    We isolated 30 Trichomonas vaginalis for the PCR detection from the gynecological outpatients in the Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University using the specific 16s rDNA primers of Mycoplasma hominis. The results showed that there were 25 cases of Mycoplasma hominis infection, with the infection rate of 83. 33%. This gave a clew that the symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis with Mycoplasma hominis may be of certain generality in China. We sequenced the ferredoxin gene of 10 Trichomonas vaginalis where 5 Mycoplasma hominis were positive and five negative, and found that the ferredoxin (Fd) gene of the 10 Trichomonas vaginalis were exactly the same. But compared to the genes in the GenBank. A comparative analysis of the gene revealed that there were 3 more ctg bases at the 200th position of encoding leucine, but this did not lead to changes in reading frame. The gene homology was 99%.%采用人型支原体16s rDNA的特异引物,对从郑州大学附属医院妇科门诊患者分离到的30株阴道毛滴虫进行PCR检测,结果有25株感染人型支原体,感染率为83.33%,这显示了阴道毛滴虫和人型支原体之间的共生关系在中国具有普遍性.并对10株阴道毛滴虫(5株人型支原体阳性和5株人型支原体阴性)的铁氧还蛋白(Fd)基因进行测序,探讨人型支原体对Fd基因的影响,结果发现10株阴道毛滴虫的Fd基因完全相同,但与GenBank中的基因进行比较分析,在第200位多出ctg三个碱基,编码亮氨酸,但并未导致读码框架改变.基因同源性为99%.

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis among outpatients in central Greece: absence of tetracycline resistance gene tet(M over a 4-year period study

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    A. Ikonomidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 301 men and women attending local urologists and gynaecologists in the state of Thessaly, central Greece, were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis DNA. Investigation of the tet(M gene, which confers tetracycline resistance in these genera, was also performed. Low incidence of C. trachomatis and Mycoplasma spp. as well as high prevalence of Ureaplasma spp., especially among women, were found. The tet(M gene was absent in all cases, notably in a region where doxycycline administration remains the first therapeutic option unless special medical conditions direct otherwise.

  18. Voz sobre frame relay

    OpenAIRE

    D´Elia, Gabriel Anibal

    2000-01-01

    Esta tesis trata el tema de VOFR, desde la digitalización de la voz hasta su transmisión a través de dicha red, así también como la comparación con otros medios de transporte como VOIP. Dada las características del protocolo frame relay y su disponibilidad se eligió como el medio más apropiado para la transmisión de voz y datos en forma integrada sobre una misma red. El trabajo comienza con una breve explicación de la voz, su digitalización y forma actual de transmisión a través de una red di...

  19. Sobre la muerte voluntaria

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    Juan Álvarez-Cienfuegos Fidalgo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available El problema de cómo morir en nuestra sociedad se ha convertido en una inquietud para los ciudadanos y la reflexión moral. Especialmcnte por dos razones: por el desarrollo de la tecnología médica y por el hecho de que la mayor parte de los fallecimientos tienen lugar fuera del hogar, donde tradicionalmente ocurra el deceso. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo acercarse a esta cuestión. Para ello, se parte de la autonomía del ciudadano, con derecho a decidir sobre lo que considera cuál sea su manera de vivir y de morir. A tal fin, se hace una breve introducción sobre el dolor, el suicidio y la muerte, desde un punto de vista antropológico, pasando, después, a mostrar las cuestiones relacionadas con el problema de la eutanasia, donde la atención se dirigirá, ante todo, al enjuiciamiento crítico del tenso equilibrio en el que se mantienen dos principios fundamentales de la bioética: el de no maleficencia y el de autonomía del ciudadano.The problem of how to die in modern society has become a concern for both the citizen and moral reflection for two reasons in particular: due to developments in medical technology, and because most deaths occur outside the honre, where they traditionaÍlY took place. This paper addresses this issue, starting from citizen autonomy, the right to decide on what s/he considers to be his or her way of living and dying. To this end, a brief introduction considers pain, suicide and death from an anthropological viewpoint. Questions related to the problem of euthanasia are then exposed, with particular attention to, above all the critical judgement of the tense balance in which two fundamental principies of bioethics are held, the principle of non-maleficence and that of citizen autonomy.

  20. Mycoplasma hominis Symbiosis and Trichomonas vaginalis Metronidazole Resistance%人型支原体共生与阴道毛滴虫甲硝唑耐药性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王频佳; 谢成彬

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究人型支原体(Mycoplasma hominis)的共生与阴道毛滴虫(Trichomonas vaginalis)甲硝唑耐药性的关系.方法 2010年11月至2011年7月,自四川省妇幼保健院妇科门诊患者生殖道分泌物中分离出160株阴道毛滴虫,用梯度浓度1 024、512、256……4、2和1 μg/ml甲硝唑分别处理该批虫株,以死亡率≥90%的最低浓度作为甲硝唑最小致死浓度(MLC).以160个阴道毛滴虫分离株中提取的DNA为模板,用PCR技术特异性扩增人型支原体16S rRNA基因,检测滴虫细胞内是否有人型支原体共生.对检出人型支原体DNA的分离株用32μg/ml多西环素清除支原体,比较清除前后甲硝唑MLC的变化.结果 160个阴道毛滴虫分离株中甲硝唑MLC为1~8μg/ml的占61.3%(98/160),16~32μg/ml的占26.3%(42/160),64~256μg/ml的占12.5%(20/160).PCR检测结果显示,有61株(38.1%)检出人型支原体DNA,其中MLC为1~8μg/ml的分离株检出率为13.3%(13/98),16~32μg/ml的分离株检出率为73.8%( 31/42),64~256μg/ml的分离株检出率为85.0%(17/20),不同MLC范围的分离株人型支原体检出率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).用多西环素处理后,61株中仅有8株支原体被清除,清除前后甲硝唑MLC无明显变化.结论 四川地区的阴道毛滴虫分离株对甲硝唑表现出一定程度的耐药性,人型支原体的共生可能与之有关,但尚未发现直接证据.%Objective To investigate the relation of Mycoplasma hominis symbiosis and the resistence of Trichomonas vaginalit to metronidazole. Methods From November 2010 to July 2011, 160 isolates of T. Vaginalis were collected from the genital tract secretion of gynecological out-patients at the Sichuan Provincial Hospital for Women and Children. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) to metronidazole of these isolates was determined by an in. Vitro sensitivity assay with different concentration gradients of metronidazole (from 1 to 1 024 μg/ml), and M

  1. Identification and determination of the viability of Giardia lamblia cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts in human fecal and water supply samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Vanessa; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Alves, Margarida; Lobo, Maria Luísa; Sousa, Maria C; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were evaluated for species-specific detection and viability determination of Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis in human fecal and water supply samples. A total of 50 fecal human samples positive for G. lamblia cysts, 38 positive for C. parvum, and 23 positive for C. hominis were studied. Also, 18 water supply samples positive for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 were studied by FISH and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated MAbs. Eighteen percent of the fecal samples parasitologically positive for G. lamblia presented viable and nonviable cysts, and 5% of those positive for Cryptosporidium spp. presented viable and nonviable oocysts. Of the 18 water supply samples analyzed, 6 (33%) presented Giardia spp. viable and nonviable cysts and 2 (11%) presented viable and nonviable Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. G. lamblia identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the beta-giardin gene in the fecal and water samples found positive by FISH and FITC-conjugated MAbs. C. parvum and Cryptosporidium muris were identified, by PCR and sequencing of the small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene, in seven and one water samples, respectively. Our results confirm that this technique enables simultaneous visualization, species-specific identification, and viability determination of the organisms present in human fecal and water supply samples.

  2. Puente sobre el Maracaibo

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    Equipo Editorial

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Para salvar el lago de Maracaibo (Venezuela, el conocido ingeniero italiano Riccaido Morandi ha presentado un proyecto de puente para ferrocarril y carretera, de hormigón pretensado, de tramos independientes, constituyendo un sistema Gerber, que tiene una longitud total de 8.720 m y un vano central de 400 m de luz. Este último tramo, en unión de los dos adyacentes al mismo, constituirán, una vez terminada la obra, un conjunto continuo. El tablero del puente se halla a una altura de 45 m sobre el nivel del agua en la zona del canal, con objeto de permitir la navegación. El tablero, de 20,90 m de anchura total, se ha subdividido en tres partes, dos simétricas respecto al eje, laterales, de 7,20 m de anchura, para la circulación en sentidos opuestos por carretera, una plataforma central, de 5 m de ancho, para el ferrocarril y dos andenes para el paso de peatones y servicios.

  3. Sobre el nombre "Quechua"

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    Rodolfo Cerrón-Palomino

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los primeros problemas con el que a menudo tropiezael estudioso de los idiomas ágrafos, como es el caso de las lenguasaborígenes de América, es el de su denominación (glotónimo.En la medida ,en que, por razones históricas, las noticias sobretales lenguas, y por consiguiente los primeros estudios sobre lasmismas, surgen a partir del contacto con los miembros de la civilización occidental, los nombres de los distintos idiomas, así comode los grupos étnicos que los manejan, son el resultado casi siempre arbitrario cie designaciones fortuitas hechas por viajeros, misiioneros y exploradores, quienes por lo general se basan, para ello, bien en descripciones físicas de los grupo étnicos, en ciertos indios geográficos que constituyen el habitat de los mismos, e incluso en prejuicios que se nutren de un marcado europocentrismo.

  4. Algunos apuntes sobre comunidad

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    Clara Pérez Cárdenas

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Comunidad es, entre los temas de estudio del curriculum de los residentes en Medicina General Integral, uno de aquellos en las que mayores dificultades encontramos para poderlo impartir, pues la bibliografía sobre el tema está un tanto dispersa. Es un aspecto que los propios residentes no evalúan con justeza; sin embargo es de sumo interés que como profesionales de la salud no obviemos que nuestro trabajo de promoción, prevención y tratamiento, debe darse a nivel de individuo, pero también en las familias y en la comunidad como un todo, y por lo tanto debamos incorporar, al menos, nociones de lo que es una comunidad y qué es participación comunitaria para tener idea de cómo fomentarla, única vía para que nuestras acciones de salud sean más efectivasCommunity is one of the most difficult subjects to be taught among those included in the curriculum of General Comprehensive Medicine residents, since bibliography on this topic is a bit dispersed. This aspect, which is not properly evaluated by residents, is very important for health professionals to do our work of promotion, prevention and treatment not only at the level of the individual, but also at the level of the family and of the community as a whole. Therefore, we need to have some notions about community and community participation to be able to promote them, as the only way to make our health actions more effective

  5. Informe preliminar sobre paludrina

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    Aquiles Peñuela Rozo

    1948-05-01

    Full Text Available En el año de 1945, Curd Davey y Rose eligieron la pirimidina como substancia de experimentación debido a que esta substancia se encuentra en las nucleo-proteinas y por su presencia en algunas sulfadrogas especial mente la sulfadiazina, de conocidas propiedades anti-palúdicas. Ensayaron la pirimidina y derivados en infestaciones por plasmodium gallinaceum en gallinas; y comprobaron que estas substancias tenían realmente acción antipalúdica. Pero al trasladar sus experiencias al hombre, encontraron que la pirimidina y sus derivados eran demasiado tóxicos. Pensando, entonces, en la similitud química del grupo de la pirimida y de la guanidina, incluyeron este último grupo en los compuestos para ensayar, descubriendo que la inclusión de la guanidina aumentaba grandemente la acción de las substancias en experiencia. Se obtuvo de esta manera un producto denominado en el numero 4-888, o paludrina, cuya fórmula o nombre químico es N. P. clorofenil N5 isopropildiguanidina, droga que se encontró muy activa contra las formas sanguíneas del Plasmodium Gallinaceum y que también se hallo activa contra las formas exoeritrocíticas del parásito. Esta capacidad de obrar sobre la fase exoeritrocítica es prácticamente exclusiva de esta substancia. Hasta hace poco tiempo esta fase exoeritrocítica, había sido demostrada solamente en trabajos de experimentación en las  aves; pero en la actualidad ha quedado también demostrada en la enfermedad humana, por experiencias del Filipino Nolasco and África, quien logro demostrar el plasmodium Vivax en el tejido retículo endotelial del pulmón de enfermos de paludismo, aunque ya Brug, en el año de 1940 había hecho comunicaciones en el mismo sentido. Se comprende la grande importancia de la paludrina, en el tratamiento del paludismo; si se considera que las recidivas de la enfermedad son debidas a la existencia de esta fase xeoeritrocítica.

  6. Ensaios sobre economia do empreendorismo

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielito Rauter Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Esta tese é composta por três ensaios sobre Economia do Empreendedorismo. O primeiro deles trata sobre os determinantes do empreendedorismo no Brasil a partir de modelos de escolha ocupacional, usando os microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra por Domicílios (PNAD) do ano de 2012. A estratégia empírica adotada empregou os modelos de escolha discreta na estimação da escolha ocupacional. Os resultados demonstraram que existem efeitos significativos para as variáveis: anos de estudos iniciai...

  7. Conversaciones sobre el litoral cordillerano

    OpenAIRE

    Browne,Enrique; Browne,Tomás

    2009-01-01

    Dos arquitectos dialogan sobre los Andes desde su propia vivencia. El territorio de Chile se entiende como límite natural entre mar y cordillera, donde suceden apretadamente una serie de eventos particulares: fallas geológicas, cerros que penetran en las ciudades y torrentes que bajan al mar caracterizan y diferencian sus paisajes.

  8. Sobre Humanismo y Medicina

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    Adolfo de Francisco Zea

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En esta disertación sobre “Humanismo y Medicina”, título del libro que tuve ocasión de publicar hace un par de años, destacaré algunas de las relaciones que existen entre la medicina y las bellas artes, concretamente la música y la pintura. La Medicina tiene como objeto de su acción al Hombre. Definida como la ciencia y el arte de prevenir, curar o aliviar la enfermedad, no tiene como meta la simple prolongación de la vida biológica.

    Su tarea consiste en postergar la muerte, prevenir o reducir los padecimientos y las deformidades, curar las enfermedades, ampliar las capacidades biológicas y psicológicas de los seres humanos y ocuparse de los sufrimientos de las personas. Para Tristam Engelhardt, es la Medicina de las personas.

    Se concibe a la persona humana como el individuo de conciencia reflexiva normal que es a la vez miembro pleno de la comunidad, con los deberes y derechos que presuponen su pertenencia a ella. A esta acepción de carácter moral de la persona humana, que corresponde a lo que se llama persona “en sentido estricto”, se agrega la acepción social, que hace relación con aquellas personas a las que se otorgan prácticamente los mismos derechos, como es el caso de los niños, de los individuos que perdieron el carácter de personas por padecer de lesiones cerebrales o demencia, y de aquellos que nunca llegarán a serlo como los retrasados mentales profundos.

    Al sostener que no todos los seres humanos son personas “en sentido estricto”, la Bioética que expone Engelhardt impone, sin embargo, como obligación moral, tratar a estos últimos con pleno respeto y comprensión. Lo que es importante acerca de nosotros mismos como seres humanos, es el hecho real de que seamos personas; no simplemente nuestra pertenencia al género Horno sapiens como tal.

    Para Víctor Frankl, la persona humana es de carácter espiritual y en tal virtud, es diferente del organismo psicofísico cuya

  9. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania

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    Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  10. Associação entre presença de Mycoplasma hominis e Ureaplasma urealyticum e níveis de citocinas pró e antiinflamatórias no líquido amniótico de gestação de termo

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity has been described in term deliveries and its role on the immune modulation is of interest to the better understanding of the underlying labor processes. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the amniotic fluid of term pregnancies and to evaluate its influence on cytokines production at the end of pregnancy. A cross sectional study was conducted with fifty five pregnant women out of l...

  11. Sobre aprendizaje escolar y neurociencias

    OpenAIRE

    Terigi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    En el marco de una creciente difusión de los discursos de y sobre las neurociencias en el campo educativo en Argentina, donde enunciados extraídos del discurso neurocientífico comienzan a transformarse en emblemas de política pública, este trabajo, escrito desde el punto de vista de la educación escolar, se propone situar los alcances y límites de los aportes de estas disciplinas para comprender el aprendizaje escolar. En él se postula que la aparición rutilante de las neurociencias en educac...

  12. Polinomios perfectos sobre F2

    OpenAIRE

    Cely Rojas, Valeria

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo muestra el status de los números perfectos y el análogo de los números perfectos en los anillos de polinomios. Además, se presentan las demostraciones de algunas propiedades de los polinomios perfectos sobre F2 de forma comprensible, basadas en el trabajo realizado por los profesores Luis Gallardo y Oliver Rahavandrainy. / Abstract. This work shows the status artis of perfect numbers and their analogue in the rings of polynomials. Proofs of some properties of perfect polynomials ...

  13. Contabilidad del impuesto sobre beneficios

    OpenAIRE

    Luceño Martínez, Haizea

    2017-01-01

    Este Trabajo Fin de Grado pretende dar una explicación al tratamiento contable del Impuesto de Sociedades. Siendo un impuesto que hay que contabilizar, pero que se calcula siguiendo criterios fiscales, lleva a tener que realizar ajustes que tendrán su repercusión contable. El punto de partida no es otra que la norma de registro y valoración 13ª del PGC, que versa sobre cómo hay que proceder a contabilizar el Gasto por Impuesto de Sociedades, que se compone tanto del Gasto por Impuesto Co...

  14. Recursos y enlaces sobre comunidades de aprendizaje

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Esteban, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Obras y artículos sobre el proyecto Comunidades de Aprendizaje desarrollado en el Estado español. Tesis doctorales sobre comunidades de aprendizaje. Fundamentación teórica de las comunidades de aprendizaje. Sitios en Internet relacionados con las comunidades de aprendizaje y proyectos afines de desarrollo comunitario en contextos escolares.

  15. Efecto cristal. Reflexiones sobre arquitectura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arq. Carlos Pantaleón Panaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ESPEJISMO es una ilusión óptica debido a la reflexión total de la luz cuando atraviesa capas de aire de densidad distinta, con lo cual los objetos lejanos dan una imagen invertida, como si se reflejaran sobre el agua, tal como ocurre en las llanuras de los desiertos. 1 La definición de espejismo nos explica que es una ilusión, una ficción, un desvarío, un delirio. Algo que no es real ni verdadero, la apariencia engañosa de algo que no existe. ¿Pero no existe, realmente? Tal vez se pueda decir, desde algún punto de vista, que una imagen ilusoria no es real. Pero ¿podríamos afirmarlo desde el punto de vista del fenómeno de la percepción? Si lo vemos, ¿no tendríamos derecho a decir que es real? ¿Algo tiene que ser material y poder tocarse, para ser real? ¿No basta simplemente con verlo? Este artículo de reflexión trata sobre el tema de lo ilusorio, de los espejismos y apariencias engañosas que, no obstante su naturaleza falaz, existen y se perciben, y son procesados por nuestra mente como fenómenos sensoriales que conforman nuestra percepción. El hilo conductor es un viaje a través de diferentes paisajes espejados: el del azar, el de las artes y el de la arquitectura. 1Diccionario de la Real Academia Española

  16. Puente sobre el rio Medway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman, Fox, Ingenieros

    1963-02-01

    have been prestressed both longitudinally and transversally. Between the two circulation roadways an elastic barrier has been placed, supported on metal posts.El puente sobre el río Medway tiene la misión de salvar dicho río en el nuevo trazado de carretera necesario para aliviar el denso tráfico estival entre Dower y Londres. Está situado en las proximidades de la ciudad de Rochester. La estructura se ha construido utilizando las vías de concurso. De todos los tipos presentados se eligió una estructura de hormigón armado. La longitud total de la obra es de 1.000 m. Los tres tramos principales de la obra salvan el río. El central es de 152 m de luz, y los dos adyacentes son de 103 m cada uno. Los accesos tienen un total de 18 tramos, que arrojan una longitud de 654 m. La anchura del puente es de 34 m, y la calzada se ha subdividido en dos direcciones de tráfico de 7,30 m cada una y, además, se han dejado dos espaldones laterales de 2,40 m de anchura. En planta se puede admitir que el puente tiene una alineación recta con una ligerísima curva, y que en el plano vertical presenta una pendiente de desagüe entre las pilas 9 y 10. Los estribos son de hormigón armado: tipo celular el del este y de hormigón en masa el del oeste. Los estribos se apoyan sobre pilotes hexagonales de hormigón armado cuya circunferencia circunscrita tiene 55 cm de radio y de 12 a 20 m de longitud. Cuando el firme se hallaba a profundidades inferiores a 6 m, los estribos se cimentaban directamente sobre el firme. Las pilas constituyen pórtico y tienen una altura variable de 9 a 30 m sobre el nivel del suelo. Los tramos de acceso forman una estructura continua simplemente apoyada. Cada tramo se compone de ocho vigas longitudinales de 30 a 41 m de longitud y de 190 toneladas cada una. Estas vigas son del tipo pretensado y prefabricado. El tramo central es del tipo cantilever, constituido por dos brazos, de 30 m de longitud, formados por vigas cajón. Cada una de estas vigas consta

  17. Puente sobre el Oosterschelde, Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoving, H. T.

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available This new bridge, forming part of the Delta project, is made of concrete, and was built by successive overhangs. Precast units were mainly used. The bridge is 5,000 m long, and is 11.85 m wide. The main spans are 95 m in length, except one, which can be opened up to sea traffic, which is 40 m long. The free height of the bridge over the sea is 15 m, which is insufficient for large ships. This required that one of the spans, in deep water, should open up, on hinges, and provide free passage to large ships. The intermediate bridge supports are of special interest. They rest on piles which go down to 38 m. They are hollow, cylindrical, of 4.35 m external diameter, and are driven into the ground in several stages, as they penetrate through the sands at the bottom of the Oosterschelde. To drive them in, an excavating device, inside the pile, was utilised, and also a dredging and suction mechanism, to clean out the bottom, and allow the piles to sink by gravity. But when external friction did not allow this to happen, the piles were weighed down with up to 500 tons of ballast. A series of three of these piles, in a row, makes up each bridge support. A cross member over the pile heads supports, in turn, the bridge deck. The bridge was built in successive sections, overhanging from each support, and then finally connected with a central portion. Use of precast units has been very extensive, so that the bridge can be justiaflably regarded as being prefabricated.Este nuevo puente, que forma parte del Plan de obras denominadas del Delta, es de hormigón y se ha construido por el procedimiento de voladizos sucesivos, utilizando, en su mayor parte, elementos prefabricados. Tiene una longitud total de 5.000 m; una anchura de 11,85 m; tramos principales de 95 m de luz, salvo uno, levadizo, que tiene 40 m. La altura libre sobre las ag^uas del mar es de 15 m, que es insuficiente para las naves de gran tonelaje; esto exigió que uno de sus tramos, en aguas

  18. Somos un envase : Discursos sobre el aborto

    OpenAIRE

    Löcher, Jennifer Irene

    2014-01-01

    No hay persona que no tenga opinión acerca del asunto y, cada vez más, la sociedad argentina debate sobre la pregunta de si se debe legalizar/despenalizar el aborto o no. Nunca antes se habló tanto sobre el tema públicamente: se publican artículos en los diarios, hay manifestaciones a favor y hay manifestaciones en contra de la legalización del aborto. El siguiente trabajo pretende relevar y analizar discursos que circulan socialmente alrededor del debate sobre el aborto. (Párrafo extraíd...

  19. Estudo multicasos sobre atividades inovativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos sobre competitividade argumenta-se que as empresas necessitam de estratégias baseadas em inovações e de capacidades internas em constantes e intensas transformações, não somente nos padrões tecnológicos, mas também no encadeamento do processo de gestão das atividades inovativas, como processos dinâmicos, não lineares e diversificados, em função de múltiplos fatores dos ambientes interno e externo. Para contribuir com essas discussões, neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo multicasos em quatro indústrias de médio e grande portes, de segmentos, densidades tecnológicas e históricos com inovações diferentes entre si. Como principais resultados, salientam-se o encadeamento das atividades inovativas como parte de uma estratégia organizacional para obter resultados com inovação e a afluência de todas as pessoas, e não somente as alocadas em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, para o cumprimento dessa estratégia.

  20. Notas sobre publicaciones medievales portuguesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis MARTÍN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Contra lo que debiera suceder, la proximidad con Portugal no incita al conocimiento de su historia y son muy raros los manuales de Historia de España en los que se concede a la Edad Media Portuguesa la importancia que realmente tiene, y en los tratados de Historia Medieval Europea el espacio dedicado a Portugal es mínimo, al menos hasta la época de los Descubrimientos; por otra parte, son contados los medievalistas españoles que se interesan por la historia de Portugal. Ante estos silencios y ante la escasa presencia en las bibliotecas españolas de obras portuguesas el estudiante de historia puede pensar que el país vecino carece de medievalistas de relieve, que su historia medieval está por hacer... y nada más lejos de la realidad como intentaré probar en este breve comentario, sin ánimo exhaustivo, sobre algunas de las últimas publicaciones aparecidas en Portugal.

  1. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewmaker, P L; Whitney, A M; Humrighouse, B W

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324(T), 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496(T), and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300(T). A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Los derechos de autor sobre obtenciones vegetales

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    Rosario Silva Gilli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Las creaciones en la agricultura. Los derechos de autor sobre obtenciones vegetales. El Convenio Internacional para la protección de las obtenciones vegetales (París 1961 y sus revisiones de Ginebra 1972, 1978,1991 Objeto de la protección legal. Condiciones del cultivar. Alcance de la protección. La protección de obtenciones vegetales en el Mercosur. Los Derechos de autor en el Mercosur. El Protocolo de Armonización de normas sobre Propiedad Intelectual en el Mercosur. El Acuerdo de Cooperación y facilitación sobre la protección de las obtenciones vegetales en los Estados Partes del Mercosur.  Alcance de la normativa Mercosur. Los Derechos sobre cultivares en Uruguay. Los Derechos de autor como derechos humanos. ¿Derechos de autor vs. derecho de propiedad intelectual? Reflexión final

  3. Conocimientos sobre incontinencia urinaria en pacientes hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Guillen Lopez

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de conocimientos sobre incontinencia urinaria (IU en pacientes hospitalizados. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal, descriptivo; se entrevistó una muestra por saturación de 325 pacientes hospitalizados de 30 años a más del Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (HNCH, Lima - Perú, utilizando un cuestionario de conocimientos sobre incontinencia, considerándose como adecuado conocimiento cuando había más de 50% de aciertos en él. Resultados: Solamente 35.7% tuvieron conocimiento adecuado sobre IU. Hasta 90% conocía acerca del éxito del tratamiento y posibilidad de curación de los pacientes incontinentes. Sin embargo, 75% consideraron erróneamente que la IU era consecuencia inevitable del envejecimiento, mientras menos de 50% de pacientes conocía el papel de ciertos medicamentos y ejercicios en la IU. Conclusiones: Se demostró un pobre conocimiento general sobre la IU, siendo necesaria una intervención de los profesionales de la salud en la educación de la población, sobre todo hospitalizada y con factores predisponentes para desarrollar IU, para así poder modificar las ideas erróneas que existen sobre el tema. (Rev Med Hered 2003; 14: 186-194.

  4. PERSPECTIVAS INFANTILES SOBRE LA TERRITORIALIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOELIA ENRIZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a different approach to children's ideas about the geographical area in the particular context of the Mbyá Guarani population, from Misiones (Argentine. The territorial fragility, that is exposed to the indigenous people in Argentina aremanifested daily in several areas. Mbyá population, has been crossed by the boundaries of national states of Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. The sedentary and enclosures land processes in different states, have prompted changes in the logic of subsistence, housing and community organization. In Misiones province case, bureaucratic accreditation of land titles is postponed, the state is not committed to the realization of this right.RESUMEN: En este trabajo nos proponemos un acercamiento a las diversas ideas infantiles sobre el territorio habitado, en el contexto particular de la población mbyá guaraní de Misiones. La fragilidad territorialidad a la que es expuesta la población indígena en Argentina se manifiestan cotidianamente en diversas áreas. La población mbyá, ha sido surcada por los límites de los estados nacionales de Paraguay, Brasil y Argentina. La sedentarización y los cercamientos de tierras en los diferentes estados, han impulsado transformaciones de las lógicas de subsistencia, de habitación y organización comunitaria. En el caso de la provincia de Misiones la acreditación burocrática de los títulos de tierras se encuentra aplazada, el estado no se compromete con la concreción de este derecho.

  5. Consideraciones preliminares sobre la credibilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Verdugo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A modo de introducción al Seminario Interno de Profesores de la Facultad de Teología de la PUC, el autor recuerda, en primer lugar, lo que suele entenderse por "credibilidad" y, también, algunos de los criterios generales por los cuales algo o alguien adquiere la calidad de creíble (el que sea razonable, relevante o significativo, capaz de producir gozo estético, etc.. Luego, en la parte más extensa, el autor vuelve a llamar la atención sobre la necesidad de atender a los condicionamientos culturales de la fe cristiana. La fe, al igual que toda experiencia humana, está culturalmente mediada. Tomar conciencia de ese hecho y asumir las consecuencias metodológicas es indispensable para una teología que quiere poner atención a los desafíos actuales y contribuir así a la credibilidad del cristianismoThis article reprints the introductory session to the internal seminar of lecturers from the Faculty of Theology of the UC. In the first place, the author sums up what is usually understood by `credibility' and the general criteria through which something or someone gains credibility (being reasonable, relevant or significant, capable of producing aesthetic pleasure. Then the author deals at length with the need to take notice of the cultural conditionings of the Christian faith. The faith, the same as any other human experience, is culturally mediated. It is crucial for theology to become aware of this fact and come to terms with its methodological consequences, if it wants to face current challenges and so contribute to the credibility of Christianity

  6. Consenso mexicano sobre la dispepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carmona-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde la publicación de las guías de dispepsia 2007 de la Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología ha habido avances significativos en el conocimiento de esta enfermedad. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura en PubMed (01/2007 a 06/2016 con el fin de revisar y actualizar las guías 2007 y proporcionar nuevas recomendaciones basadas en evidencia. Se incluyeron todas las publicaciones en español e inglés, de alta calidad. Se redactaron enunciados que fueron votados utilizando el método Delphi. Se estableció la calidad de la evidencia y la fuerza de las recomendaciones según el sistema GRADE para cada enunciado. Treinta y un enunciados fueron redactados, votados y calificados. Se informan nuevos datos sobre definición, clasificación, epidemiología y fisiopatología. La endoscopia debe realizarse en dispepsia no investigada cuando hay datos de alarma o falla al tratamiento. Las biopsias gástricas y duodenales permiten confirmar infección por Helicobacter pylori y excluir enfermedad celiaca, respectivamente. Establecer una fuerte relación médico-paciente, cambios en la dieta y en el estilo de vida son útiles como medidas iniciales. Los bloqueadores H2, inhibidores de la bomba de protones, procinéticos y fármacos antidepresivos son efectivos. La erradicación de H. pylori puede ser eficaz en algunos pacientes. Con excepción de Iberogast y rikkunshito, las terapias complementarias y alternativas carecen de beneficio. No existe evidencia con respecto a la utilidad de prebióticos, probióticos o terapias psicológicas. Los nuevos enunciados proporcionan directrices basadas en la evidencia actualizada. Se presenta la discusión, el grado y la fuerza de la recomendación de cada uno de ellos.

  7. DISERTACIÓN SOBRE JUSTICIA Y EQUIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuri P. Tamura M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available «Disertación sobre equidad y justicia» es básicamente una respuesta a una inquietud en particular que yo tenía sobre las distintas posiciones que existen sobre estos dos temas y cómo definir cuál es la más acertada. Hice una descripción del punto de vista de Amartya Sen –la violación de los derechos sobre la propiedad privada es justificable si evitan las hambrunas2– frente al de Robert Nozick –la propiedad privada es un derecho fundamental y como tal debe ser respetado3–, sin embargo, aunque ambos enfoques son totalmente contrarios tienen mucho sentido, por lo cual es bastante difícil decidirse por uno en particular. Fue de esta forma, enfrentando sus opiniones, que yo logré desarrollar una posición frente a estas dos perspectivas, y así dar mi opinión al DISERTACIÓN SOBRE JUSTICIA Y EQUIDAD SAYURI P. TAMURA M. Estudiante de Economía y Negocios Internacionales de la Universidad ICESI. respecto. Al final, llegué a una conclusión, que aunque no es la más original y tampoco es la única, tiene mucho sentido y seguramente de ser posible, la situación del país podría cambiar para bien.

  8. Impuesto sobre las transacciones financieras: Justicia fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Mariño, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    7 p.[Variante del título de la publicación : Boletín electrónico de Hegoa] [ESP] El Impuesto sobre las transacciones financieras se basa en establecer un gravamen sobre las operaciones financieras con el fin de estabilizar los mercados como consecuencia de la disminución de la especulación a corto plazo. Además es una fuente de financiación de inversiones socialmente deseables. Diez países de la Unión Europea han expresado su deseo de introducir el ITF, sin emba...

  9. A foodborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Vestergaard, L. S.

    2009-01-01

    separate salad bar ingredients were found to be likely sources: peeled whole carrots served in a bowl of water, grated carrots, and red peppers (in multivariate analysis, whole carrots: OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.0; grated carrots: OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.9; peppers: OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.6). We speculate...

  10. Investigación educativa reciente sobre México

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez-DelaPeña, Francisco J.; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca

    1985-01-01

    Se presenta una muestra de la investigación educativa sobre México: 22 disertaciones doctorales aceptadas en universidades norteamericanas entre 1982 y 1984. Dos estudios conciernen a la teoría del capital humano; cinco tratan diversos aspectos relacionados con la administración educativa; uno es sobre la televisión; otro sobre las habilidades fonéticas de los niños; uno más es sobre profesionalización de los médicos; cuatro tocan aspectos de política educativa; tres tratan sobre los maestros...

  11. Sobre una Rodoficea parasita de Gelidiaceas

    OpenAIRE

    Seoane Camba, Juan Antonio

    1982-01-01

    En este trabajo se hace un estudio de una Rodofícea parásita, encontrada sobre Gelidium cantabricum Seoane-Camba y Gelidium sesquipedale (Clemente) Thuret. Por sus características generales atribuímos esta planta al género Gelidiocolax. descrito por Gardner en 1927 para un parásito de Gelidium pulchrum Gardner de las costas americanas del Pacífico...

  12. Reflexiones sobre el concepto de justicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor C. Pascual Planchuelo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo constituye una reflexión sobre el concepto de Justicia. No se centra, como tantos estudios al respecto, en el plano teórico y metafísico, sino que atiende problemas de mayor actualidad: la opinión de los ciudadanos, la postura de los profesionales y otros asuntos controvertidos del ámbito del Derecho.

  13. Trayectorias (sobre ruedas): un ensayo visual sobre los carritos de supermercado en la ciudad

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Edgar Gómez

    2014-01-01

    El siguiente trabajo es un breve bosquejo de las posibilidades del concepto de trabajo “trayectoria”. Una trayectoria no es sólo, en el sentido literal del término, el trazo del movimiento sobre un camino, sino que busca establecer una reflexión sobre las posibilidades de recolección de registros visuales/digitales/móviles para la investigación etnográfica desde la aleatoriedad del movimiento por la ciudad. El concepto de trayectoria busca dialogar con el de “flâneur” de De Certeau y Benjamin...

  14. II Jornadas sobre Emprendimiento Social y Colectivo

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Investigación en Gestión de Empresas

    2013-01-01

    La línea temática principal del encuentro es el emprendimiento social y colectivo así como las diferentes líneas de investigación de los institutos y centros de la Red relacionadas, como: responsabilidad social, empleo y reincorporación al trabajo, inserción laboral, servicios sociales y dependencia, género, cambios legislativos, utilidad social, medio ambiente, desarrollo local,... Centro de Investigación en Gestión de Empresas (2013). II Jornadas sobre Emprendimiento Social y Colectivo. ...

  15. Literatura infantil sobre problemas infantiles: la diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro Fernández, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Debido al creciente número de casos de diabetes infantil que se está dando en la sociedad actual, no es raro encontrarse en las aulas cada vez más casos de esta enfermedad. Por esta razón, he decidido analizar dos libros sobre esta temática, para hacer un acercamiento del material seleccionado a las aulas y poder desarrollar junto con los niños un aprendizaje colectivo y cooperativo. En este trabajo se expone la importancia de la literatura y la literatura infantil como una ...

  16. Soportes apoyados sobre vigas pretensadas (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been awarded a prize by the Prestreesed Concrete Institute. It refers to a number of flyovers on the Arroyo Seco, of California. This river has been canalized, to help drainage in case of heavy rainfall. The canal runs through a highly populated zone, and a motor road and accessory ramps had to cross the canal. The resulting design involves three prestressed girders, lightly arched in a parabolic outline, resting on each river shore, running along the line of the bridge, over the canal. It was decided that the bridge piles should not rest on the river bed, in order not to reduce its flow capacity. The girders of a maximum length of 39 ms, are box shaped, and stiffened with thin diaphragms. The cylindrical pile, 1.50 m in diameter, is an integral part of the girder, and applies to it a concentrated load of about 4000 tons. The girders rest on reinforced concrete cubes, which in turn are supported by concrete slabs and piles driven into the soil.Esta obra ha sido premiada por el Prestressed Concrete Institute y se refiere a una serie de pasos superiores sobre el Arroyo Seco, en California, que se ha canalizado para servir de desagüe en el caso de avenidas torrenciales. El canal se halla en una zona de edificación densa y se trata del paso—sobre aquél—de una autopista y rampas de acceso. La solución adoptada consistió en tres vigas pretensadas, ligeramente arqueadas con perfil parabólico, apoyadas en las dos márgenes y situadas en correspondencia con los tres soportes, sobre el propio canal, ya que ninguno de aquéllos debía apoyarse en el lecho de este último al objeto de no disminuir su capacidad de desagüe. Las vigas—de unos 39 m de longitud la mayor—son del tipo cajón, rigidizadas con unos diafragmas de pequeño espesor. El soporte cilíndrico, de 1,50 m de diámetro, se solidariza con la viga y le transmite una notable carga concentrada, del orden de 4.000 toneladas. Los apoyos de estas vigas son simples dados

  17. Ensayo sobre la melancolía

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    Marta Chacón Salinas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es un intento de delimitar la melancolía del conjunto de los trastornos depresivos y de reflexionar sobre sus características tal como aparecen en el discurso de los melancólicos. Se consideran algunas hipótesis en la línea psicoanalítica freudiana y lacaniana (Lambottc, Kristeva para entender cómo se va constituyendo en sus características principales: la intolerancia a la pérdida del objeto y el desfallecimiento del símbolo que le impide elaborar este duelo.

  18. Comentarios sobre dibujo analítico

    OpenAIRE

    Mata Botella, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Cuaderno de apoyo a la docencia del DIBUJO DE ARQUITECTURA que pretende hacer reflexionar al alumno (de primero o segundo de carrera) sobre un tipo de dibujo que aquí se ha llamado “dibujo analítico”. Un dibujo que a través de operaciones gráficas y conceptuales como la esquematización y la selección de información, tiende a alejarse de la descripción del objeto arquitectónico para adentrarse en determinados aspectos o dimensiones que subyacen en el proyecto arquitectónico. Unas notas intr...

  19. Sobre la evaluación docente

    OpenAIRE

    Chamizo, José Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Las universidades requieren una reflexión profunda sobre sus metas primordiales para construir una cultura de la evaluación de la actividad de enseñanza, la cual es diferente de la de investigación. La idea principal es que el proceso de evaluación sumativa, burocrático, superficial y cerrado, sea transformado en uno que involucre a los profesores y sea y abierto. Universities require a deep reflection on their ultimate goals to build a culture of evaluation on teaching activities, which a...

  20. Refuerzo de pavimentos sobre arcillas expansivas

    OpenAIRE

    Zornberg, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    El refuerzo de la capa base de pavimentos se ha utilizado a los efectos de: (i) aumentar la vida útil de un pavimento manteniendo el espesor de la capa base, o (ii) disminuir el espesor de la capa base manteniendo la vida útil del pavimento. Este artículo describe una tercera aplicación del refuerzo basal de pavimentos, a saber, la mitigación de grietas longitudinales inducidas en pavimentos construidos sobre subrasantes compuestas de arcillas expansivas. Aunque todavía existe la necesidad de...

  1. Cinco puntos sobre la revista Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Bertone Crippa, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    El humor, como género y narrativa mediática, ocupa un lugar destacado al interior del campo del periodismo gráfico argentino. Como emergente contemporáneo dentro de este ámbito, la revista Barcelona se vuelve un objeto de estudio sugestivo al trabajar, a partir del registro del humor, sobre la agenda y la enunciación de los medios gráficos de actualidad. De esta manera, se analizan las condiciones de producción del discurso de Barcelona para ver qué novedades aporta al campo del hu...

  2. Observaciones sobre colostomía

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    Jaime Escobar T.

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión sobre 133 casos de colostomías hechas en pacientes del Hospital San Juan de Dios de Bogotá en un período de cinco años; el 43.7 por ciento de los casos eran heridas por arma de fuego. La mortalidad global fue de 16.5 por ciento. La colostomía derivativa, en ASA, ha bajado la mortalidad en las heridas de colon en dicho hospital.

  3. Tributos sobre a folha ou sobre o faturamento? Efeitos quantitativos para o Brasil

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    Tiago V Cavalcanti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estuda os impactos alocativos e de bem-estar de uma reforma tributária que substitui os impostos sobre a folha de salários por outro que incide sobre a receita. Para isso, desenvolve-se um modelo neoclássico de crescimento econômico com impostos sobre a receita e sobre a folha de salários. As simulações com parâmetros da economia brasileira mostram que tal reforma tributária tem um efeito negativo no bem-estar, no estoque de capital de longo prazo e consequentemente no produto per capita de longo prazo. Contudo, o emprego aumenta.This paper studies the impacts of a tax reform which substitutes taxes on labor income by taxes on total revenue. In order to accomplish that, we construct and solve a general equilibrium neoclassical growth model with taxes on labor income and total revenue. The numerical simulations with Brazilian parameters show that such tax reforms would negatively affect welfare, the capital stock, and consequently per capita output. However, employment would increase. Such effects are quantitatively important.

  4. Sobre Geoestatística e mapas

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    Paulo Milton Barbosa Landim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Geologia, até há bem pouco tempo, era freqüentemente considerada uma ciência baseada em interpretações puramente qualitativas dos fenômenos geológicos. Nos últimos 40 anos, porém, tem sido notável a mudança da fase descritiva para a utilização de métodos quantitativos, principalmente na área da Geologia Aplicada. Entre tantos temas relacionados com a quantificação em Geologia o assunto abordado neste artigo, que pretende ser de cunho didático, diz respeito à aplicação da Geoestatística na confecção de mapas geológicos. Na primeira parte do trabalho é feita uma introdução sobre os aspectos quantitativos na interpretação dos fenômenos geológicos, em seguida conceitos básicos sobre a metodologia geoestatística e, na última parte, uma aplicação clássica da geoestatística linear, baseada nos conceitos de estacionaridade da covariância e do variograma, para a confecção de mapas.

  5. Estrategia educativa sobre sexualidad sana en adolescentes

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    Carmen Olivera Carmenates

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención con el objetivo de elaborar una estrategia educativa para incrementar conocimientos sobre sexualidad sana en un grupo de adolescentes de la escuela Secundaria Básica Alfredo Gómez del Municipio Camagüey entre octubre de 2012 y febrero de 2013. La muestra fue de 37 estudiantes. Se aplicó una encuesta que se convirtió en el registro primario de datos, confeccionada según criterios de expertos y la bibliografía. Una vez analizados los resultados se procedió a diseñar la estrategia educativa y posteriormente a su evaluación. Los datos se procesaron de forma automatizada. Antes de aplicar la estrategia educativa se comprobó que los adolescentes no tenían un adecuado conocimiento sobre la sexualidad sana. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de los estudios de intervención.

  6. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites in children with diarrhea

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    Mutalip Çiçek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to determine the role of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites in the diarrheal diseases in children with 0-15 years old Van district.Materials and methods: In this study, stool samples of 450 children were examined for parasites. In the study, nativ-lugol, formaldehyde-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods and trichrome staining methods were used to detect parasites in stool samples. Additionally, sedimentation methods and modified acid fast staining method were used to detect the Cryptosporidium oocysts.Results: Parasites were found in 154 (34.2% among 450 children’s with diarrhea. In this study; the ratios of parasites were as follow: Giardia intestinalis 13.5%, Blastocystis hominis 10%, Entamoeba coli 3.78%, Cryptosporidium spp. 2.2%, Hymenolepis nana 1.33 %ve Ascaris lumbricoides 1.11%.Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar 0.89%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.78%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.89%, Entamoeba hartmanni 0.89%, Trichomonas hominis 0.67%, Enteromonas hominis 0.67%,Conclusion: In the investigate, it was found that Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis were most prominent agents in children with diarrhea in our vicinity and Cryptosporidium spp also was an important agent which should be investigated carefully in especially risk group in routine laboratory studies.

  7. Apuntes sobre el Cultivo del Cacao

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    Ochoa Horacio

    1940-03-01

    Full Text Available Por muchos años permaneció el cultivo del cacao en nuestro país, en un deplorable atraso técnico; el agricultor a duras penas si tenía conocimientos generales de su explotación y, de una industria que tuvo su auge debido a la extensividad de las plantaciones, hoy sólo resta una reducida porción de ella. ¿Qué factores operaron esa tan notoria reducción hasta el punto de que exportadores en otros tiempos nos convertimos en importadores obligados de ese producto? Hay muchas razones de orden técnico y de orden económico. Los cacaotaleros obtenían halagadoras retribuciones cuando el jornal consistía en la alimentación que se le daba a la peonada y cuando, generoso, añadía una sobretasa en dinero. Bajo ese sistema de explotación, el descuadre que pudiera ocasionar tanto las enfermedades criptogámicas como los plagas, no era suficiente como para provocar el pesimismo en el hacendado y por tanto inducirlo al abandono de la plantación. A medida que las condiciones sociales del campesino se fueron modificando y su standard de vida aumentaba, cambió fundamentalmente el mecanismo de la industria Se observó entonces que los árboles morían y que era pobre la producción; que lo que en tiempos pasados fuera un negocio lucrativo, se les había convertido en una actividad improductiva y, para controlar estos fenómenos que se generalizaban en todas las zonas cacaotaleras, opusieron la ignorancia, el rutinarismo y la desidia. Lentamente se han ido modificando los conceptos antiguos sobre el trabajo cultural y los cuidados que con relación a las enfermedades y plagas requiere este delicado cultivo; la rutina está echando paso atrás y las experiencias científicas que procuran la prosperidad del plantío, se ponen en práctica en algunas zonas . Esto da esperanza para la reconstitución de la industria cacaotalera en nuestro país, que cuenta con inmensas regiones de óptima calidad para hacerla florecer sobre bases nuevas, con

  8. Sobre a moralidade do direito em Kant

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    Joãosinho Beckenkamp

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2009v8n1p63 Na atual literatura sobre a fi losofi a prática de Kant há uma tendência a negligenciar a distinção feita na Metaphysik der Sitten entre direito (Jus e ética (Ethica, a ponto de ser a doutrina do direito de Kant vista como uma mera aplicação do imperativo categórico. Este artigo procura mostrar que Kant apresenta em sua doutrina do direito uma série de argumentos que logram estabelecer o direito de modo inteiramente independente da ética.

  9. Zubiri et alii sobre la consciencia

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    Solari, Enzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent literature on science and philosophy related to consciousness, the description and analysis are not always appropriate for the phenomenical consciousness that one wants to explain. From this one can sustain, contrary to some approaches to neuroscience and analytic philosophy, that the fact of consciousness previously requires a better phenomenological description and a more precise conceptual analysis.En la reciente literatura científica y filosófica sobre la consciencia no siempre se describe ni analiza adecuadamente cuál es esa consciencia fenoménica que se desea explicar. De ahí que se argumente, contra ciertas aproximaciones de la neurociencia y la filosofía analítica, que el hecho de la consciencia necesita previamente de una mejor descripción fenomenológica y de una más ajustada analítica conceptual.

  10. Notas de historia sobre ética

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando Forero Caballero

    1998-01-01

    La primera reglamentación de que se tiene noticia sobre la profesión médica es la dictada por el rey Hamurabi de Babilonia, en la cual se protocolizó el códice que lleva su nombre, hacia los 2000 años antes de Cristo. En el Egipto antigua, los libros Herméticos del Dios Thoh contenían profundos preceptos de moral médica y conceptos científicos importantes de la medicina de entonces. En Persia y Arabia, los libros  Zendavesta y Vendia contenían principios de deontología médica, lo mismo que en...

  11. Reflexiones sobre contabilidad privada y contabilidad nacional

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    José Arturo Gutiérrez

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Se discuten las interrelaciones de la contabilidad privada y la contabilidad nacional, insistiendo en sus condicionantes internos contradictorios en relación con la sobredeterminación de la formación económico-social vigente. En relación con ello se introduce la reflexión sobre la unidad contradictoria entre empresa y capital, esto es, la base técnica frente a su determinante socioeconómico, conflicto que la propia contabilidad privada expresa: al describir el capital aporta necesariamente el conocimiento de la producción social. De allí su probable compatibilidad con el propósito de la contabilidad nacional, y, por extensión, ambiental.

  12. IMPRESSÕES SOBRE A JORNADA

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    Gabrie Rodrigues da Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre os dias 10 e 13 de Outubro de 2008 ocorreu na Universidade Federal de Goiás – UFG campus de Catalão a IX Jornada sobre o Trabalho. Evento realizado anualmente pelo CEGeT (Centro de Estudos de Geografia do Trabalho, da UNESP/FCT campus de P. Prudente. No entanto, no ano de 2006 foi realizado na UNIOESTE campus de Marechal Cândido  Rondon/PR, através da iniciativa do Geolutas (Grupo de Estudos das Lutas no Campo e na Cidade que se prontificou a iniciar uma nova fase do evento, a de migração para outras Universidades, onde existem as células do CEGeT.

  13. Sobre el Boletín

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    Andrés Arias

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available En la página de Internet de la Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango se indica que una de la funciones principales del Boletín es la de reseñar la novedades bibliográfica que van apareciendo en el país. "Novedades": de lo nuevo, tanto en las publicaciones como en las reseñas. Es decir, si lo que asegura la página de la Biblioteca es cierto, quien se acerca al Boletín debe encontrarse con comentarios recientes sobre libros recientes. Con guía que le ayuden a elegir entre las mil ofertas que hay en el mercado bibliográfico. Pero bien sabemos que este objetivo no se cumple.

  14. Notas de historia sobre ética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Forero Caballero

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La primera reglamentación de que se tiene noticia sobre la profesión médica es la dictada por el rey Hamurabi de Babilonia, en la cual se protocolizó el códice que lleva su nombre, hacia los 2000 años antes de Cristo. En el Egipto antigua, los libros Herméticos del Dios Thoh contenían profundos preceptos de moral médica y conceptos científicos importantes de la medicina de entonces. En Persia y Arabia, los libros  Zendavesta y Vendia contenían principios de deontología médica, lo mismo que en el Código de Manu de las Indias y en los libros de la época de Confucio en la China.

  15. Notas sobre Matisia longiflora Gleas. (Bombacaceae Notas sobre Matisia longiflora Gleas. (Bombacaceae

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    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del grupo de géneros de bombacáceas de hojas simples que componen la tribu Quararibeae (= Matisieae Hutchinson, es Matisia Humb. & Bonpl. el que cuenta con mayor número de especies en Colombia. Al respecto se presentaron recientemente algunas consideraciones preliminares sobre la diversidad de especies en este grupo en Colombia (Fernández Alonso, 1991.

  16. Miradas francesas sobre la Guerra Civil

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    Jean-Marc DELAUNAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Como muestra el asunto hoy vigente —pero relativamente discreto— de la venta del edificio que abrigó el antiguo taller parisino donde Picasso hizo su Guernica (1937, la Guerra Civil española sigue siendo en Francia una referencia mayor de la historia contempóranea. Al ritmo de las conmemoraciones decenales de su estallido (1996/2006, se ha desarrollado una verdadera marea memorial nutrida tanto por la apertura de archivos escritos y audiovisuales como por la desinhibición de los nietos de exiliados condicionados durante tanto tiempo por la historia de la derrota de sus padres y abuelos. Animan el debate las tribulaciones de la vida política española actual, entre neofranquismo, republicanismo y nacionalismos centralistas y/o regionales. Por haber sido la unica vía de salida, Francia —metropolis y África del norte— se vio más involucrada que cualquier otro país al recibir la aplastante mayoría de los exiliados. Aunque los verdaderos especialistas en dicha guerra son poco numerosos, todo un mundillo se ha otorgado el derecho y la capacidad de escribir sobre ella como descendientes de exiliados o activistas políticos, sobre todo en el sur de Francia. Todos los medios se ven afectados: desde la literatura estrictamente histórica al internet. De las obras eruditas, de vulgarización —también para la juventud— a las memorias arrancadas al olvido; de las actas de los coloquios a los tebeos; de los álbumes fotográficos a los documentales (siempre pro republicanos. Al tiempo toda la producción histórica generalista o militar junta a los partidarios de una visión anticomunista, neutralista o manifestamente pro franquista. La Guerra Civil española, que había encontrado una Francia dividida, la reencuentra de nuevo como tal a pesar de todos los intentos de mediación científica.

  17. Reflexiones sobre la crisis. Vidas y Memorias

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    Estela Vázquez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se plantea analizar la deslegitimación de la política y de los políticos, así como del acto de votar. Encuadrado en el marco del contexto de la crisis argentina de los últimos años, quiere responder, por medio de la entrevista oral y la historia de vida, a cómo se ve desde la ciudadanía el ejercicio de la democracia, las prácticas políticas, la alternancia en el poder y de qué forma todo esto influye en las vidas personales de los entrevistados. Asimismo, se entrelaza el análisis del espectáculo político con el público que ofrecen los medios de comunicación y de entretenimiento, con lo que se viene a concluir que es cada vez más difícil distinguir en el debate social la ficción de los hechos y personajes verdaderamente reales. Para este trabajo se analizan tres trayectorias laborales de ex-empleados de la administración pública, y sus apreciaciones sobre el despido, vinculando estas experiencias de vida a la formación de sus ideas sobre la política y los políticos.. Sus lugares de trabajo eran el Registro Civil, la Secretaría de Educación y la Legislatura, respectivamente.__________________ABSTRACT:This article tries to analyse the discredit of politics and politicians along with the act of voting. Placed in the context of the Argentine crisis, it wants to determinate through oral interview and life story how citizens see the exercise of democracy, the political practices and the power switching, to establish how they have influenced in the lifes of the persons being interviewed. At the same time, it interlaces an analysis of he political spectacle shown to the public by the media, to conclude that is becoming more a more difficult to distinguish the fiction from the real characters in the social debate.

  18. El puente Bendorf sobre el Rin (Alemania

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    Hirschfeld, Kurt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available This recently completed bridge over the Rhine is 524 m long, and is a reinforced concrete structure, built by successive overhangs, without the aid of formwork or scaffolding. The centre span is 208 m in length, and the other six vary between 43 and 71 m. The deck consists of two independent parts, including a continuous box girder, with a hinge at the crown of the main span. It is stiffened with transversal diaphragms, spaced every 34 m. The piles rest on pneumatic caissons, which go down to 16 m below the river bed. The attachment between the piles and the caissons is rigid, at the central pile, and at the other piles it operates through a roller bearing. The central span was constructed without intermediate supports for the first 40 m, and beyond that stage, for greater safety, a provisional movable tower was built, as a temporary point of support for the free overhang. The various sections were concreted and post-tensioned with 32 mm bars, by the Dywidag procedure. Account was taken of the varying deformations that took place at each section, so as to add the necessary counter-deflection that finally enabled the two sides of the arch to meet at the crown at the calculated point.Este puente, recientemente construido, sobre el Rin, tiene una longitud total de 524 m, es de hormigón armado y se ha realizado por el procedimiento de voladizos sucesivos, sin entramado auxiliar ni cimbras. La luz del tramo central es de 208 m, y las de los otros seis oscilan entre 43 y 71 m. La estructura del tablero se compone de dos partes independientes, formadas por una viga tipo cajón, continua, con una articulación en la clave del tramo central y rigidizada con diafragmas transversales espaciados a 34 m. Las pilas centrales se apoyan sobre cajones neumáticos que descienden 16 m debajo del fondo del río. La unión entre estas pilas y la estructura cajón es rígida, y de tipo rodillo en las otras pilas. El tramo central se ha construido por voladizos

  19. REPRESENTAÇÃO SOCIAL DOS ENFERMEIROS SOBRE CUIDADOS PALIATIVOS

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho de Britto, Sabrina Maria; de Souza Ramos, Raquel; dos Santos, Érick Igor; da Silva Veloso, Olga; Melo da Silva, Aline; de Aguiar Mariz, Rosângela Guiomar

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O presente estudo refere-se a um processo de investigação sobre a representação social dos enfermeiros sobre cuidados paliativos. Objetivos: identificar a estrutura das representações sociais dos enfermeiros sobre cuidados paliativos; discutir as repercussões dessas representações no cotidiano da prática assistencial. Materiais e Métodos: Para a realização deste estudo foram abordados 70 enfermeiros que atuam nas enfermarias do serviço de Clínica Médica. A técnica para coleta de d...

  20. Pistas para pensar las significaciones imaginarias sobre la invariancia

    OpenAIRE

    Bilyk, Pablo Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Este escrito propone un primer esbozo de nominalizaciones sobre las significaciones imaginarias en torno a la idea de invariancia, con el fin de comenzar a mapear categorías para transitar que nos permitan pensar las construcciones fantasmáticas sobre el no-cambio. En definitiva, se trata de avanzar sobre la problematización de los modos de funcionamiento, constitución y reconfiguraciones de las hegemonías en los entramados sociales contemporáneos. Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicación Soc...

  1. Estudio sobre encofrados de madera modernos

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    de la Peña Aznar, Juan M.

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The author continues the development of the subject «Modern Timber Formwork», by summing up the comparative examination —already carried out in Part III of this Study— of the different types of glued timber existing on the market. In addition, the loads and stresses allowable for coniferous timber and the proposal for establishing Regulations for the Timber Section of the Research and Experimental Forestry Institute of Spain are given. In part V of the author's Study, published in this article, the important subject of the glues used for joining timber, a truly vital point in order to obtain louvered timber beams which are simply glued together, is approached.

    El autor continúa el desarrollo del tema sobre «Encofrados de madera modernos», resumiendo el estudio comparativo —ya hecho en la Parte III de este Estudio— de las diferentes vigas de madera encolada existentes en el mercado dando, además, las cargas y tensiones admisibles para maderas coníferas y la propuesta de Reglamentación de la Sección de Maderas del Instituto Forestal de Investigaciones y Experiencias de España. En la parte V del Estudio del autor, publicada en este articulo, se aborda el importante tema de las colas empleadas para las uniones de madera, algo realmente vital para la obtención de vigas de madera en celosía simplemente encoladas.

  2. Sobre a diversidade de sentidos de comunidade

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    Silva, Rosalina Carvalho da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo neste trabalho foi realizar algumas reflexões sobre as implicações da expansão do uso do termo comunidade e sua diversidade de sentidos. Pretendemos discutir os usos indiscriminados do termo nem sempre acompanhados da devida reflexão e crítica. A partir das perspectivas da sociologia, saúde e psicologia social identificamos que o termo ainda permanece arraigado aos ideais de comunidades naturais próprios aos períodos do feudalismo e do pós-revolução industrial. Esta concepção pode camuflar formas impositivas de trabalho em muitos dos quais o termo comunidade é empregado praticamente como sinônimo de população-alvo e participação comunitária é vista meramente como freqüência às atividades propostas por profissionais que determinam quem são as comunidades. Comprometem-se assim, as práticas emancipatórias. Para repensarmos comunidades, hoje, consideramos necessário relevar os aspectos processuais relacionais, dialógicos e identitários em constantes mudanças. Assim, a condição de comunidade extrapola a delimitação geográfica para as possibilidades de pertencimento e participação através dos espaços simbolicamente delimitados

  3. NOTAS SOBRE A IRRACIONALIDADE DA GUERRA

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    Edilene Leal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo, procedemos a uma análise sobre a irracionalidade da guerra em tempos cada vez mais caracterizados pela evolução da racionalidade técnica, ou seja, em tempos contemporâneos. Esse é o ponto a partir do qual traçamos, aqui, um percurso argumentativo dividido em duas partes. Na primeira, reconstituímos elementos da concepção de guerra de filósofos como Maquiavel, Clausewitz e Kant, destacando, nos dois primeiros pensadores, a prerrogativa de que a guerra é racional quando se configura meio para fins políticos. Na segunda parte, confrontamos essa racionalidade política da guerra com a dupla dimensão técnica que a guerra assumiu: de um lado, a guerra como um fim em si mesmo e não mais como meio da ação política; de outro, a dimensão racionalizante da guerra como resultado do progresso técnico e científico, atualizada como guerra do terror.

  4. Estudio sobre encofrados de madera modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Aznar, Juan M.

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a compendium of almost all of the existing literature, in addition to important contributions by the author, on forms —an important aspect of the building industry, as their cost is not infrequently as high or higher than that of the actual concrete poured. Thus, to the benefit of architects, engineers, site supervisors and carpenters, data are provided, as well as charts and calculations for a rational use of these forms, whether wooden, metal or of other material.

    En esta artículo sa compendia casi toda la literatura existente, así como importantes aportaciones del autor, sobre encofrados, capítulo importante en la construcción, ya que su costo resulta no pocas veces tan elevado o más que el propio hormigón vertido. Así, pues, en beneficio de arquKectos, ingenieros, encargados y carpinteros, se dan datos, cuadros y abacos para el empleo racional de los citados encofrados, sean de madera, metálicos, etcétera.

  5. Estudio sobre encofrados de madera modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Aznar, Juan M.

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a compendium of almost all of the existing literature, in addition to important contributions by the author, on forms —an important aspect of the building industry, as their cost is not infrequently as high or higher than that of the actual concrete poured. Thus, to the benefit of architects, engineers, site supervisors and carpenters, data are provided, as well as charts and calculations for a rational use of these forms, whether wooden, metal or of other material.

    En este artículo se compendia casi toda la literatura existente, así como importantes aportaciones del autor, sobre encofrados, capítulo importante en la construcción, ya que su costo resulta no pocas veces tan elevado o más que el propio hormigón vertido. Así pues en beneficio de arquitectos, ingenieros, encargados y carpinteros se dan datos, cuadros y ábacos para el empleo racional de los citados encofrados, sean de madera, metálicos, etc.

  6. Estudio sobre encofrados de madera modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Aznar, Juan M.

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a compendium of almost all of the existing literature, in addition to important contributions by the author, on forms —an important aspect of the building industry, as their cost is not infrequently as high or higher than that of the actual concrete poured. Thus, to the benefit of architects, engineers, site supervisors and carpenters, data are provided, as well as charts and calculations for a rational use of these forms, whether wooden, metal or of other material.

    En este artículo se compendia casi toda la literatura existente, así como importantes aportaciones del autor, sobre encofrados, capítulo importante en la construcción, ya que su costo resulta no pocas veces tan elevado o más que el propio hormigón vertido. Así pues en beneficio de arquitectos, ingenieros, encargados y carpinteros se dan datos, cuadros y ábacos para el empleo racional de los citados encofrados, sean de madera, metálicos, etc.

  7. Considerações sobre Agamben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Hebeche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2012v11n3p329 Giorgio Agamben em pequenos artigos, entrevistas e baixo-assinados tem chamado a atenção para o estado de abandono do povo palestino, mas curiosamente esse assunto não é tratado em suas obras mais importantes. Em Homo sacer, por exemplo, ele retoma o termo “muçulmano”, comumente empregado pelos prisioneiros dos campos de concentração como a expressão do maior abandono possível da existência humana, mas não reflete suficientemente sobre a origem dessa palavra, isto é, de que nessa expressão já se encontrava o ódio e o desprezo do sionismo, não só entre os próprios prisioneiros, mas pelo povo palestino e pelos árabes em geral. A seguir comentaremos brevemente algumas obras desse autor que, dando continuidade à ideologia da vitimação, faz com que, mais uma vez, o passado inominável acabe encobrindo o presente abominável.

  8. Apuntes sobre el Cultivo del Cacao

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    Chavarriaga. Eduardo

    1940-09-01

    Full Text Available El sombrío constituye uno de los problemas que se presentan en el cultivo del cacao, de necesaria resolución para ayuda del agricultor en su labor al producir tan importante grano. Contribuye a la economía del cultivo un conocimiento amplio de la cuestión que debe preocupar al productor inquiriendo no solamente por lo acostumbrado en la región, sino por lo que en otras partes se conoce sobre el particular, para abandonar un poco el emperismo y hacer una industria cada día más próspera. Como razón a favor del sombrío, tenemos los países en donde se produce cacao de fina calidad; Trinidad, Venezuela. Nicaragua, siempre acostumbran la sombra; y sin ir muy lejos, en el Valle del Cauca, donde no se cultiva a pleno sol y se obtienen plantaciones de larga duración y producto superior, es bien conocido el beneficio de ella; allí, los agricultores conocen los desastrosos efectos que ocasiona la falta de sombra, cuando por cualquier causa mueren los árboles que la suministran. Por tanto, en este estudio indicaremos el uso de la sombra para el cacao, como el medio de conservar la fertilidad y buenas condiciones del suelo, obtener buenos rendimientos y asegurar larga vida a la plantación.

  9. Análisis sobre la factibilidad de implementar un producto de derivados sobre gas natural en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Dowd Aguirre, Jessica Alexandra; Tirado Naranjo, Lina María

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar un análisis sobre la factibilidad de implementar un producto de derivados sobre gas natural en Colombia dado el desarrollo del sector y la importancia de este hidrocarburo como fuente alternativa de generación eléctrica. 73 p. Contenido parcial: Situación actual del mercado de gas natural colombiano -- Expectativas del mercado de gas natural colombiano -- Mercados de derivados sobre gas natural en Europa y Estados Unidos -- Mercado de gas natural ...

  10. Sobre manhãs, humor e atos de fala

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    Joana Plaza PINTO

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este ensaio apresenta uma trajetória de leituras de Frege a Austin, intermediadas pela interpretação independente e ousada de Kanavillil Rajagopalan. Ao argumentar sobre uma gama de aproximações teóricas entre Frege e Austin, este ensaio narra a importância da interpretação de Rajagopalan para o debate sobre Austin no Brasil.

  11. Variaciones sobre el concepto de ética

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Oliva, Elizabeth; Velasco, José Armando

    2007-01-01

    A lo largo de la historia, pensadores han dado ideas y teorías sobre la ética, pero todos concuerdan en que es una arte de la filosofía que trata de los actos morales, normas de conducta sobre el bien y el mal en el ser humano; término desarrollado a través del tiempo.

  12. Liberalismo versus republicanismo: notas sobre o conceito de liberdade.

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    Felipe Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo contrastar as perspectivas liberal e republicana sobre o conceito de liberdade. Através da comparação feita entre os dois modelos tecemos considerações sobre a realidade brasileira tendo como foco o atual estado de crises advindas dos casos de corrupção no país.

  13. O DISCURSO OFICIAL SOBRE A CRIANÇA NO BRASIL

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    Carla Letuza Moreira e Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo é um recorte da tese de doutoramento apresentada em 2012, no Programa de Pós-Graduação e Letras e Linguística da Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL, em Maceió, sobre os discursos da/sobre a criança e as infâncias, no Brasil. O objetivo central é o de apresentar os efeitos de sentido que demandam dos dizeres oficiais no Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (ECA, 1990 em vigor no Brasil, sobre a criança, e que determinam modos de pensar e agir sobre as crianças e a infância na contemporaneidade. As noções de sujeito e formação discursiva da análise do discurso francesa (AD, iniciada em Pêcheux (1997, permeiam as análises e elucidam os papéis históricos e ideológicos que determinam e são determinados nos/pelos dizeres dos discursos da/sobre. Faz-se necessário, portanto, adentrar os discursos da e sobre a criança e a infância para entender as contradições e os confrontos dos discursos entre dizeres e silenciamentos.

  14. Reflexiones sobre Enfermería

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    Inés Durana Samper

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    agosto 6 de 1992

    Presentación ante la Academia Nacional de Medicina
    Señores miembros de la Junta Directiva, académicos, enfermeras, señores, señoras:

    Introducción
    Para ingresar como Miembro Asociado de esta ilustre Academia Nacional de Medicina, quiero exponer algunas reflexiones sobre la evolución en Colombia de la enfermería, mi profesión, ejercida ininterrumpidamente en estos últimos cuarenta años. Amanera de colofón, me referiré a la función esencial de la enfermera, es decir a su consagración al arte de cuidar.

    La metodología aplicada en este trabajo incluye la revisión de archivos, la lectura de publicaciones y, además, algunas entrevistas con personas que pacientemente escucharon mis preguntas y ampliaron mi información con valiosos comentarios.

    Mis agradecimientos van, en primer término, al académico Fernando Serpa Flórez, quien ha tenido la iniciativa de presentarme a la Academia Nacional de Medicina; también va para aquellos académicos que respaldaron mi aceptación en esta prestigiosa sociedad científica. Igualmente expreso mi reconocimiento al académico Héctor Pedraza Mendoza, autor del primer libro conocido sobre reseña histórica de la enfermería en el país, y a quien correspondió, como funcionario de la administración pública, la orientación y control de la profesión en su cargo de Jefe de la División Infantil y Materna del entonces Ministerio de Trabajo, Higiene y Previsión Social. Libro citado con frecuencia’ durante el trabajo.

    Mis agradecimientos también a mis profesores, y entre ellos, en especial, al académico Alberto Albornoz- Plata. No puedo pasar por alto la memoria de los siempre recordados, doctores Jorge Boshell Manrique y José Pablo Leyva, quienes, desde la Escuela Superior de Higiene, supieron orientarme en la transformación académica del

  15. PROTOCOLO DE KYOTO: DEBATE SOBRE AMBIENTE Y DESARROLLO EN LAS DISCUSIONES SOBRE CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez S. Liliana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento climático del planeta y sus consecuencias han propiciado debates sobre los modelos de desarrollo de los países responsables del deterioro acelerado del ambiente y de los fenómenos naturales por estos días recurrentes. Sin embargo, países como Estados Unidos, luego de firmar compromisos como la Convención sobre Cambio Climático, rehúsan adquirir las obligaciones del Protocolo de Kyoto, por temor a sufrir deterioro en sus economías. En este escenario, donde la nación responsable de la emisión de aproximadamente 36% de los gases efecto invernadero resultado de la acción humana en el planeta no se compromete a adoptar políticas restrictivas tendientes a hacer sus modelos de producción más amigables con la naturaleza a pesar de que dichas medidas empiezan a ser impuestas a otras naciones como condicionantes en las negociaciones comerciales internacionales, parece ser que la adopción del Protocolo de Kyoto para países en desarrollo como Colombia no es del todo benéfica.

  16. Sobre el genio de las mujeres

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    Valcárcel, Amelia

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    A los varones, desde Tácito a Schopenhauer, nunca les ha parecido que las verdaderas mujeres son las que tienen en casa, sino las que tienen los otros varones (los germanos, los orientales. Por su parte, Wojtyla ha hecho profesión de fe «en el genio de las mujeres», reclutando enternecidos agradecimientos como el de Macciochi. La autora del presente artículo adopta una perspectiva histórica y una actitud analítica para aclarar qué es ese genio que como genérico nos adjudican. En primer lugar, la idea de genio es romántica y va emparejada con la de destino, sobre todo en el caso de los genios colectivos. Se trata de nociones que se construyen estipulativamente con fines pragmáticos y no admiten, por definición, contraejemplos. En el caso del genio de las mujeres, los llamados «valores femeninos» que lo constituyen pertenecen al ámbito de la Siulichkeit, y su eventual convalidación en el de la Moralitiit no puede obviar el proceso consistente en la crítica y el desmarcarse de una Sittlichkeit adjudicada como estereotipia que se contrasta, no con otra estereotipia simétrica, sino con lo universal, que se solapa con el genérico masculino. La autora, por último, nos recuerda que la fabricación de este genio que, a título de colectivo, se nos atribuye a las mujeres tiene lugar a costa de la usurpación de nuestra individualidad y de la ausencia de esquemas pragmáticos de reconocimiento de la genialidad individual que pueda producirse en el genérico femenino. Ahora bien: es esta última la que las mujeres necesitamos para poder romper con las tradiciones establecidas e instituir nuevos relatos.

  17. Construcciones en yeso proyectado sobre vegetales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, Hubert

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available A construction method developed in early 1981 in Senegal, whose main objective is the evaluation of natural and human sources, specially those of wild vegetables and the phosphogypsum (a waste of chemical industry in Senegal. The introduction of the mechanical projection allows a noticeably growth in work performances and an improvement of the quality. The projection reduces de number of trades intervening in the work, doing away with plasters, watertightness systems and paintings, and simplifying the setting of technical installations and of carpentry. The acquisition of this projecting material is not very expensive, so, it is easy for small and medium enterprises to reach an expertness in gypsum work. Its finantial rentability is assured for a prize of the gypsum of 180% of the prize of the cement.Procedimiento de construcción desarrollado al comienzo de 1981 en el Senegal, teniendo como objetivo la valoración de las fuentes naturales y humanas, especialmente los vegetales en estado silvestre y el fosfoyeso, residuo de la industria química del Senegal. La introducción de la proyección mecánica permite aumentar sensiblemente el rendimiento del trabajo y mejorar la calidad. La proyección reduce el número de oficios que intervienen en la obra por la supresión de enlucidos, sistemas de estanquidad y pinturas sobre la gruesa obra y simplifica la colocación de las instalaciones técnicas y de carpintería. La adquisición del material de proyección, necesitando un capital relativamente modesto, se encuentra al alcance de pequeñas y medianas empresas que deseen especializarse en los trabajos de yeso. La rentabilidad financiera del procedimiento está asegurada para un precio del yeso de hasta el 180% del precio del cemento.

  18. Sobre el estado evolutivo de β Pictoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, A.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Desde el descubrimiento de fuertes excesos infrarrojos en β Pictoris, esta estrella ha sido muy estudiada y es considerada candidata a poseer un sistema planetario propio. β Pic está rodeada de un disco asimétrico de polvo que se observa de canto y que esta vacío a distancias de la presencia de (al menos) un planeta gigante. Recientemente se han observado líneas de material circunestelar que se han interpretado como consecuencia de la caída de objetos cometarios sobre esta estrella. Recientemente se ha utilizado la existencia del disco de polvo para atribuir una edad corta (pre - secuencia principal) a βPic. Sin embargo, la evaporación de estos cometas provee suficiente polvo como para explicar la presencia del disco observado sin necesidad de edades cortas. En este trabajo mostramos que la comparación entre la tasa de impactos cometarios estimada en el Sistema Solar para diferentes etapas de su evolución y los datos observados en β Pic indica edades avanzadas para β Pic. Esta estimación debe tomarse con cautela ya que depende de la estructura de los sistemas planetarios. Además mostramos que, desde el punto de vista de la evolución estelar y con las incertezas presentes en la luminosidad y la temperatura efectiva, existe un continuo de edades posible para β Pic. Sin embargo, empleando los datos provenientes de los flujos cometarios encontramos que una edad prolongada es consistente con ambos tratamientos.

  19. Considerações sobre o Mercosul

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    Ricardo Seitenfus

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Após traçar as origens históricas e conjunturais do processo de integração na Bacia do Prata, o autor analisa as características do Tratado de Assunção, através de um organograma detalhado. Na segunda parte, três questões sem resposta são colocadas aos leitores, ou seja, o processo de institucionalização envolvendo a constituição de um espaço supranacional que estará diretamente vinculado aos objetivos do processo; as relações do Mercosul com o Nafta e a definição de um quadro de cooperação e, finalmente, coloca a questão sobre o nível de participação do Estado no processo integracionista sob a ótica da necessidade de reconversão de certos setores econômicosIn the first part of this article, the author, after delineating the historical and circumstancial sources regarding the process of integration in the Prata Basin, analyses the characteristics of the Traty of Asunción (Paraguay through a detailed organizational chart. In the second part, three open questions are discussed: (a the process of institutionalization which involves the constitution of some supranationalization which invoves the constitution of some supranational space which will be closely related to the objectives of the process; (b the relationships between the Mercosul and the Nafta and the definition of a cooperative program; (c the level of participation of the State into the integrationist process under the dear need of a reconversion of some economic sectors.

  20. Estudio sobre encofrados de madera modernos

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    de la Peña Aznar, Juan M.

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The author continues the development of the subject «Modern Timber Formwork», by summing up the comparative examination —already carried out in Part III of this Study— of the different types of glued timber existing on the market. In addition, the loads and stresses allovk/able for coniferous timber and the proposal for establishing Regulations for the Timber Section of the Research and Experimental Forestry Institute of Spain are given. In part V of the author's Study, published in this article, the important subject of the glues used for joining timber, a truly vital point in order to obtain louvered timber beams which are simply glued together, is approached.

    El autor continúa el desarrollo del tema sobre «Encofrados de madera modernos», resumiendo el estudio comparativo —ya hecho en la Parte III de este Estudio— de las diferentes vigas de madera encolada existentes en el mercado dando, además, las cargas y tensiones admisibles para maderas coníferas y la propuesta de Reglamentación de la Sección de Maderas del Instituto Forestal de Investigaciones y Experiencias de España. En la parte V del Estudio del autor, publicada en este artículo, se aborda el importante tema de las colas empleadas para las uniones de madera, algo realmente vital para la obtención de vigas de madera en celosía simplemente encoladas.

  1. Perspectivas sobre la comunicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Naranjo Pereira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Existen diversas teorías, enfoques y modelos de comunicación; de cada uno de ellos pueden rescatarse aspectos de gran valor para el logro de una comunicación eficaz. Este documento presenta una revisión de esos aspectos, para que se pueda comprender mejor y enriquecer uno de los procesos más importantes para el ser humano: el proceso de comunicación. Este es un ensayo en el cual se da a conocer la posición de la autora sobre el tema abordado. Se rescata el acento del enfoque humanista en la relación humana y en las etapas donde se desarrolla. A partir de la comunicación pragmática, se analizan los axiomas comunicacionales en que se fundamenta y lo que se conoce como patologías de esos axiomas. Además se revisan las principales características que distinguen la asertividad en la comunicación y las distintas formas de manipulación que la entorpecen. Del enfoque de Virginia Satir, se presentan los diversos aspectos de la comunicación, tanto funcional como disfuncional y los modelos de comunicación propuestos por esta autora. Se revisan aspectos importantes del enfoque de la comunicación educativa, tales como el control de la distancia, la voz y el cuerpo, las palabras y el situacional; así como los elementos que bloquean el proceso de comunicación y las sugerencias acerca de formas correctas de escuchar. Además, se hace referencia a la necesidad de emplear procesos educativos más holísticos y constructivistas y una comunicación-interrelación horizontal y con equidad.

  2. Reflexiones sobre las estrategias de desarrollo

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    Alberto Ortíz Gómez

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La apertura constituye actualmente el tema que mayor atención genera en los diversos círculos donde se debate si la condición  económica de la nación debe descansar en el modelo de sustitución de importaciones, debe residir en el fortalecimiento  de las exportaciones menores o debe definitivamente sustentarse en esfuerzos  integrados del aparato  gubernamental, el sistema financiero y la clase empresarial. Nadie discute la importancia de avanzar en pos de la actualización tecnológica, el incremento de los coeficientes de productividad, el mejoramiento de los niveles de calidad y la consecuente  intromisión de nuestra producción en los mercados internacionales. Frente a la necesidad de eliminar atávicas costumbres relacionadas con el pensar actuar en pequeño, vivir el pasado, aprovechar situaciones monopólicas de mercado y usufructuar el proteccionismo gubernamental, el remezón constitucional y la apertura en todos los órdenes de la vida nacional deben apuntar a un desarrollo de que participe de la colectividad en su conjunto. Sin embargo, en el convencimiento en las ventajas que plantean el nuevo esquema de desarrollo, es claro que existen dudas a espejar  e interrogantes no resueltos sobre la forma como deben articularse las  medidas económicas instauradas alrededor  de un proceso de apertura cuyos resultados no pueden analizarse con el criterio miope de quienes todo lo juzgan con base en la inmediatez.

  3. Estudos sobre a Esquistosomose em Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Aggeu Magalhães

    1940-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores referem os resultados dos estudos sobre esquistosomose realisados, em Pernambuco, de Novembro de 1938 a Dezembro de 1939. Não se extendem em discussão, nem comentarios, tampouco, relacionam suas verificações com o que já foi relatado sobre o assunto em trabalhos nacionais e estrangeiros, pelo fato de que, não se trata de um resultado definitivo e sim de atividades que irão proseguir. Os estudos sistematicos em torno da endemia esquistosomica foram executados em duas localidades diversas pela população e pela situação geografica e ecologica. Pontezinha é uma povoação de 1200 habitantes localizada proximo a um conjunto de charcos e lagõas de agua dôce onde pululam caramujos do tipo olivaceus de Spix, e apresenta uma taxa de infestação de 21,4% para individuos do sexo masculino, e de 14,7% para os do sexo feminino. A distribuição por grupos de idade mostra que a incidencia cresce até o grupo de 16 a 20 anos de idade, quando atinge a percentagem de 37,8%, para decrescer em seguida. Em Vitoria a incidencia foi maior nos indivíduos do sexo feminino, atingindo a taxa de 41,4%, dando o sexo masculino a taxa de 36,9%. Por idade a percentagem maxima é atingida pelo grupo de 11 a 15 anos. Vitoria é uma cidade de 1500 habitantes, construida á margem do rio Tapacurá, onde se encontram numerosos caramujos do tipo centimetralis Lutz. A divergencia de incidencia corre por conta dos habitos da população e pela utilização que ela faz do rio, sendo maior em Vitoria porque a proximidade do rio facilita o uso de suas aguas para banho e serviços domesticos, condicionando este ultimo fato, a maior infestação das mulheres. O estudo da frequencia da infestação dos caramujos por cercarias de diversos trematodios, permite suspeitar uma relação inversa entre a taxa de infestação e o diametro maximo atingido pelos caramujos, parecendo este fato confirmar os trabalhos de Vianna Martins sobre a identidade dos hospedeiros

  4. Control de la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico en la provincia de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Núñez Fidel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico en 77 laboratorios de la red de salud pública de la provincia Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. El procedimiento se basó en la entrega a cada jefe de laboratorio de un modelo de encuesta, y una bolsa de nylon conteniendo 10 viales plásticos con distintos especímenes parasitarios, preservados en formaldehído al 7%. Recogidos los resultados en las primeras 72 horas después de su entrega, se realizó la evaluación mediante una escala de puntuación establecida. La mayoría de los laboratorios aprobaron (70%; sin embargo aún existen centros, sobre todo policlínicas, con calificaciones deficientes. Los municipios con resultados más desfavorables fueron, Lisa, Marianao y Habana del Este, alcanzándose mejores resultados en los hospitales que en las policlínicas. En el análisis de Protozooarios, el mejor diagnosticado fué Giardia lamblia, con solo un centro que erró al identificarlo. Las mayores dificultades se presentaron en Blastocystis hominis con 61% de fallas, Endolimax nana, con 24,6%, y Entamoeba histolytica, con 22%. Entre los helmintos, la mayor aprobación fué en Trichuris trichiura y los errores diagnósticos predominaron con Fasciola hepatica y Taenia sp., ambos con 66,2% de fallas. Dados los resultados obtenidos, hemos organizado una intervención educativa en la red de laboratorios de la provincia.

  5. As vicissitudes do "ensaio sobre o dom"

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    Lygia Sigaud

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir dos anos 60, antropólogos de diferentes tradições nacionais passaram a convergir no sentido de considerar que o texto de Marcel Mauss, "Ensaio sobre o Dom", contivesse uma teoria da troca, que atribui à identificação entre a coisa dada e o espírito do doador o princípio de explicação das transações. Esta interpretação contrasta com a que tiveram os contemporâneos de Mauss, os quais resgataram do trabalho suas dimensões relativas ao direito, às obrigações e às prestações totais. Partindo desta constatação, o artigo problematiza o destino do ensaio e busca torná-lo inteligível. Para tanto examina as condições sociointelectuais que contribuíram para que se produzisse a inflexão na leitura e a consolidação de uma espécie de crença coletiva em relação ao trabalho. Através deste estudo de caso, a autora identifica mecanismos que operam no processo de construção de teorias, na conformação de representações acerca de textos e na sua consagração no âmbito da antropologia.From the 1960s, anthropologists of different national traditions came to share the view that Marcel Mauss’s text, "Essay on the Gift," contained a theory of exchange which takes the identification between the thing given and the spirit of the donor as the explanatory principle of transactions. This interpretation contrasts with that held by Mauss’s contemporaries, who lifted from the work aspects relating to law, obligations and total prestations. Starting from this fact, the article problematizes the essay’s fate and seeks to make it intelligible. To this end, it examines the socio-intellectual conditions which contributed to producing this inflection in the readings of the work and the consolidation of a kind of collective belief concerning it. Through this case study, the author identifies mechanisms which operate in the process of constructing theories, in the conformity found in representations of certain texts, and in the

  6. ESTUDO PROSPECTIVO SOBRE ENCAPSULAMENTO DE COMPOSTOS BIOATIVOS

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    Larissa Assunção

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o advento da nanotecnologia, houve o desenvolvimento de técnicas envolvendo processamento, fabricação e aplicação de estruturas, com forma e tamanho controlados, sendo que na indústria de alimentos, estas formulações, tanto na faixa micrométrica como nanométrica, vêm sendo utilizadas com o objetivo de favorecer o produto final. Tendo em vista a importância tecnológica dessa técnica e do grande interesse nacional e internacional, principalmente no ramo da indústria alimentícia, sobre os benefícios do encapsulamento, o presente estudo prospectivo teve como objetivo avaliar o panorama mundial relativo ao tema em questão, correlacionando-o com os documentos de patentes depositados. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa das patentes na base de dados europeia Espacenet®, utilizando os descritores do tema em estudo associados aos códigos de classificação. As informações encontradas foram compiladas em gráficos e discutidas. Pôde-se observar que o maior número de patentes referiu-se ao código A23L1/00 - alimentos ou produtos alimentícios: a sua preparação ou tratamento e houve um crescimento exponencial em relação ao depósito de patentes nos últimos 10 anos, sendo os Estados Unidos o país líder em número de patentes depositadas (60%. A Firmenich e CIE lidera o ranking com mais patentes depositadas. Em relação à área de atuação, predomina a indústria alimentícia (69%. No que diz respeito ao Brasil, o país aparece com apenas 1 patente detentora desta tecnologia, sendo um número bastante reduzido o que mostra a falta de incentivo neste setor. Diante dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que, apesar de ser uma tecnologia recente, observa-se uma tendência ao crescimento de depósito de patentes.

  7. CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE EDUCACION MEDICA y SALUD

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    Jaime Escobar Triana

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available

    l. Los cambios, las corrientes migratorias internas, transformaron un país de población rural en urbana, al mismo tiempo con un epifenómeno de ruralización de la ciudad. De un 700/0 de población rural se pasó a un 700/0 o más y con tendencia a umentar la población urbana. Esto lleva a un replanteamiento en la atención de la salud. Además, se suma a lo anterior, la información masiva sobre la población que alienta la posibilidad de alcanzar
    tratamientos y drogas maravillosas o recursos extraordinarios como las unidades de cuidados intensivos o los transplantes, para dar dos ejemplos, que motivan al público a demandar dichos servicios. De otra parte, la misma información científica que alcanza
    apabullantes cantidades, solamente permite que el médico logre obtenerla y asimilarla en forma limitada y angustiante para su aplicación práctica.

    2. En la creación de nuevas Escuelas de Medicina deben considerarse entre otros los siguientes hechos o factores, favorables o desfavorables que no sólo afectan a Colombia sino que tienen características universales en algunos de sus aspectos:
    a La demanda de cupos en educación superior, entre ellos la medicina, nunca satisfecha.
    b Las presiones sociales que tienen el estudio como un método de ascenso por prestigio local o regional o político o todos juntos y no por la necesidad de formar más médicos.
    c La inconveniencia de la masificación de la educacación médica que demerita la calidad y por tanto es preferible el crear nuevas escuelas con número limitado de estudiantes que permitan una alta calidad de formación.
    d La dificultad de modificar los curricula tradicionales establecidos que impiden actualizar la docencia a las circunstancias que vive y requiere la salud del país.
    e La politización de las universidades públicas que demeritan la actividad docente al imponerse condiciones extrauniversitarias en la formación y realización de

  8. Notas sobre fiebre amarilla en Colombia

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    Luis Patiño Camargo

    1937-09-01

    Full Text Available I-Introducción ll.-Datos clínicos anteriores al período de las investigaciones de laboratorio. Época colonial. III-Período de laboratorio anterior al descubrimiento de los animales receptivos. IV.-Período posterior al descubrimiento de los animales receptivos y a la prueba de protección. V.-Trabajos en Colombia durante el período de las investigaciones. VI. El servicio de fiebre amarilla cooperativo entre el Departamento Nacional de Higiene y la Fundación Rockejeller. VIl.-Consideraciones generales. VIlI.-Conclusiones. IX-Recomendaciones. X. Agradecimientos. XI.-Bibliografía. XIl.-Anexos. Legislación sobre viscerotomía. Es de fundamental interés para la vida de la República el estudio y solución de los problemas que se refieren a la salud de sus habitantes; y como el territorio colombiano es cálido en su mayoría, lógicamente se concluye que los asuntos de patología tropical han de ser los primeros en orden de importancia. La fiebre amarilla ha revestido graves caracteres epidémicos en repetidas épocas y por su condición endémica en anchas zonas del territorio colombiano, es una constante amenaza pública; un estudio para conocer su historia, la aparición de los brotes epidémicos, su distribución geográfica, la incidencia de morbosidad y Ietalidad, la localización precisa y la extensión de los territorios afectados, las fuentes del virus y los agentes transmisores, así como la preparación de planes y programas de lucha contra el flagelo, son cuestiones tan interesantes que basta anunciarlas para reconocer su trascendencia. En el deseo de contribuír modestamente al desarrollo de tal programa, he recogido los apuntes cuya exposición forma el presente trabajo.

  9. Reflexiones sobre la anorexia Reflexões sobre a anorexia Reflections about anorexy

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    Andrea Ferrero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es presentar algunas reflexiones sobre el trastorno anoréxico, algunas posibles explicaciones sobre el mismo, y proponer una respuesta posible desde la perspectiva psicoanalítica. Este estudio plantea el sufrimiento del sujeto como la manifestación de una relación inconsciente entre las ecuaciones afectivas y el entramado social de la persona. Se discute la particular relación que se establece entre la necesidad, la demanda y el deseo en este tipo de trastornos, y cómo el síntoma anoréxico se plantea como estrategia enferma de defensa del deseo. Se puede considerar el impacto que la presión de la cultura tiene en la manutención del síntoma anoréxico, dada la importancia del ideal de delgadez y belleza, también asociados con la obtención de mayor éxito y felicidad. Finalmente, se plantea el valor del análisis de la personalidad en relación a aspectos sociales para la consideración del trastorno anoréxico, el cual debe ser comprendido singularmente, más allá de sus manifestaciones y de la posible limitación a la estructura de la histeria.O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar algumas reflexões sobre o processo de adoecimento da anorexia e algumas possíveis explicações sobre esse processo, bem como propor uma possível resposta a partir da perspectiva psicanalítica. Este estudo estabelece o sofrimento do sujeito como a manifestação da relação inconsciente entre as equações afetivas e a trama social da pessoa. Procura-se discutir a peculiar relação entre necessidade, demanda e desejo neste tipo de transtorno, e como a anorexia é uma estratégia patológica de defesa do desejo. Pôde-se observar a influência da pressão da cultura na manutenção da anorexia, justificada pelo ideal de magreza e de beleza, que também são associadas com a possibilidade de obter maior êxito e felicidade. Por último, considera-se o valor da análise da personalidade em relação aos aspectos sociais

  10. Comentarios sobre la Ley de Ordenamiento Territorial Sostenible

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    Arturo J. Yglesias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La denominada Ley de Ordenamiento Territorial Sostenible, no fue bien recibida en el medio jurídico. Tanto los profesores de las diferentes materias de Derecho de nuestra Facultad como las asociaciones profesionales y otros grupos e juristas de nuestro medio, formularon reservas de diverso calibre sobre el texto de la ley que van desde sus aspectos adjetivos como la terminología y redacción hasta cuestiones sustanciales como lo que ella dice sobre el régimen de la propiedad territorial y otras cuestiones vinculadas.Desde el discurso político vimos lanzar opiniones iracundas y alarmistas sobre las modificaciones que la ley estaría haciendo al régimen de la propiedad privada, sobre su supuesta inconstitucionalidad.Nosotros nos vamos a referir a la ley a sus antecedentes y de las críticas que se le hacían, en la parte que toca a nuestra materia, esto es en lo relativo al régimen de la propiedad y debemos decir, a vía de adelanto, que no vemos en ella nada que afecte el derecho de propiedad consagrado por la Constitución de la República, ni los principios generales que regulan la propiedad territorial conforme al Código Civil, conforme a la vieja ley de Centros Poblados, sus modificativas ni demás normas sobre la materia.

  11. Perspectivas sobre la comunicación

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    Naranjo Pereira, María Luisa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Existen diversas teorías, enfoques y modelos de comunicación; de cada uno de ellos pueden rescatarse aspectos de gran valor para el logro de una comunicación eficaz. Este documento presenta una revisión de esos aspectos, para que se pueda comprender mejor y enriquecer uno de los procesos más importantes para el ser humano: el proceso de comunicación. Este es un ensayo en el cual se da a conocer la posición de la autora sobre el tema abordado. Se rescata el acento del enfoque humanista en la relación humana y en las etapas donde se desarrolla. A partir de la comunicación pragmática, se analizan los axiomas comunicacionales en que se fundamenta y lo que se conoce como patologías de esos axiomas. Además se revisan las principales características que distinguen la asertividad en la comunicación y las distintas formas de manipulación que la entorpecen. Del enfoque de Virginia Satir, se presentan los diversos aspectos de la comunicación, tanto funcional como disfuncional y los modelos de comunicación propuestos por esta autora. Se revisan aspectos importantes del enfoque de la comunicación educativa, tales como el control de la distancia, la voz y el cuerpo, las palabras y el situacional; así como los elementos que bloquean el proceso de comunicación y las sugerencias acerca de formas correctas de escuchar. Además, se hace referencia a la necesidad de emplear procesos educativos más holísticos y constructivistas y una comunicación-interrelación horizontal y con equidad. Each of the diverse theories, approaches, and models of communication can provide valuable elements for the attainment of effective communication. This article presents a review of those elements with the goal of providing a better understanding and enhancement of one of the most important processes for human beings: the process of communication. This essay presents the author´s position on the topic. The importance given to human relationships and the stages

  12. Efeitos dos choques fiscais sobre o mercado de trabalho brasileiro

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    Diogo Baerlocher Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho tem por objetivo entender quais os efeitos dos choques fiscais sobre o mercado de trabalho brasileiro. Em particular, utiliza se uma abordagem SVAR para avaliar esses efeitos sobre o emprego e o salário real. Os choques fiscais são identificados a partir da imposição de restrições de sinais puras sobre a relação dinâmica entre os gastos do governo, o produto real e a oferta de trabalho. As restrições são obtidas a partir de funções de resposta a impulso Bayesianas derivadas de um modelo DSGE na tradição da Nova Síntese Neoclássica. As funções de resposta a impulso obtidas a partir da abordagem SVAR mostram que choques fiscais aumentam o salário real e o emprego.

  13. Deformaciones faciales y sus influencias sobre el psiquismo

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    Guillermo Nieto Cano

    1957-04-01

    Full Text Available Creemos haber dejado establecido, en síntesis, que todas las minusvalías físicas repercuten sobre el psiquismo, y que entre éstas las deformaciones faciales, por su ostentosa evidencia, son las que afectan más seriamente al individuo y modifican por eso más radicalmente su conducta, incidiendo así, en forma trascendental, sobre la colectividad. Tales defectos constituyen, por consiguiente, un serio problema humano, cuyo estudio y remedio incumbe no solamente al esteta cirujano, sino que interesa a todos aquellos que puedan influir sobre la estabilidad armónica y la buena marcha de la sociedad en que viven.

  14. Revisitando uma carta em português sobre Sabbatai Zvi

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    Rodrigues da Silva Tavim, José Alberto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the Iberian context of the production-translation of a text in Portuguese language about Shabbatai Zevi, in 1666. We refer the production of similar texts and the information about the adherents in Spain, mostly in Malaga. We reflect on the various messsianic currents that crossed the different social groups in Portugal. We present a text that proves the spreading of news about Shabbatai in Portuguese Lands, and the interest kindled among the Portuguese Conversos. And we place the hypothesis that this text to the movement of Shabbatai, could have different readings, among them one that could be convenient to the conversos.

    Este artículo aborda el contexto de la producción-traducción de un texto en portugués sobre Sabetay Sebí, en 1666. Se alude a la producción de otros textos similares y a la información sobre los adeptos del movimiento en España, sobre todo en Málaga. Se reflexiona sobre las varias corrrientes mesiánicas que cruzaban los diferentes grupos sociales en Portugal. Se presenta un texto que prueba la divulgación de noticias sobre Sabetay, en tierras portuguesas y del interés desperttado entre los medios conversos sobre el movimiento. Y se plantea la hipótesis de que este texto contrario al movimiento de Sabbatai pudiera tener varias lecturas, entre ellas una que debería ser conveniente para los conversos.

  15. Pequena monografia sobre o Rio Grande do Sul

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    Ana Maria Pinho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pequena monografia desenvolvida por membros do Colégio Sevigne, que versa sobre diversos assuntos a respeito do Rio Grande do Sul, divididos em histórico, fronteiras, organização política administrativa, características geográficas, formação geomorfológica, economia, aspectos históricos e geográficos da capital do Estado, generalidades étnicas, e sobre o gaúcho em si. Grande quantidade de ilustrações e poemas enriquecem o artigo.

  16. Teorias sobre o amor no campo da Psicologia Social

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    Martins-Silva, Priscilla de Oliveira; Trindade, Zeidi Araujo; Silva Junior, Annor da

    2013-01-01

    Este é um ensaio teórico sobre o fenômeno amor em relacionamentos românticos no campo da Psicologia e no da Psicologia social. São apresentadas as primeiras teorias sobre o amor na Psicologia, e, posteriormente, são abordadas em maior profundidade três teorias da Psicologia social: os estilos de amor de John Alan Lee, a teoria de apego, de Phillip Shaver, Cindy Hazan e Donna Bradshaw, e a teoria triangular do amor, de Robert J. Sternberg. São apresentados os aspectos teóricos, empíricos e met...

  17. La literatura comparada sobre reformas administrativas: Desarrollos, limitaciones y posibilidades

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    Dussauge Laguna, Mauricio I.

    2009-01-01

    Durante las últimas dos décadas, la literatura comparada sobre reformas administrativas ha crecido significativamente. ¿Cuáles han sido sus aportaciones y cuáles sus limitaciones? ¿Qué nos queda por aprender sobre el tema? Este ensayo repasa los debates centrales de la literatura, analiza sus principales debilidades y sugiere un conjunto de futuras líneas de investigación. El argumento central del ensayo es que la literatura comparada en esta materia ha avanzado en forma considerable en térmi...

  18. Nuevos documentos sobre Rojas Zorrilla y su teatro

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    Madroñal, Abraham

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article contains twelve unpublished documents on Rojas Zorrilla, related to his biography and literary works (comedias and autos sacramentales. The majority are handwritten by the poet himself, and they provide new information relevant to our knowledge of his life and to the understanding of his works.Se publican una docena de documentos inéditos sobre Rojas Zorrilla referidos a su biografía y a algunas comedias y autos. En buena parte dichos documentos son autógrafos del poeta y añaden o matizan informaciones concretas sobre él y sus obras.

  19. EFECTOS DEL MERCURIO SOBRE ALGUNAS PLANTAS ACUÁTICAS TROPICALES

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    Posada, Martha Isabel; Arroyave, María del Pilar

    2006-01-01

    El presente artículo es una descripción de los efectos del mercurio sobre algunas plantas acuáticas tropicales y sobre los ecosistemas donde habitan. Adicionalmente, se recomienda un protocolo para realizar pruebas de toxicidad con la lenteja de agua (Lemna minor) y se presentan los resultados de los preensayos con diferentes concentraciones de sales de mercurio en condiciones de laboratorio. Se encontró que la biodisponibilidad del mercurio depende de factores que facilitan la disolución del...

  20. Santa sexualidad: concepciones de dos monjas sobre Feminidad y sexualidad

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    Giraldo Quijano, Isabel Cristina

    2009-01-01

    En el contexto de la religión católica, la feminidad y la sexualidad femenina se configuran según dogmas y representaciones sociales específicos, en los que la imagen de Cristo -y todo lo que ello implica- actúa como elemento fundamental en la construcción de las concepciones de las mujeres consagradas a la vida religiosa sobre sex ualidad, erotismo, cuerpo. amor. Este artículo pretende explorar desde un punto de vista sociológico las concepciones de dos monjas sobre los temas mencionados....

  1. Contexto y pensamiento de Charles Taylor sobre el consenso

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    Doris Elena Ospina Muñoz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo sostiene que el consenso no es un tema de primer orden en la filosofía política de Charles Taylor, pero una lectura orientada al problema puede ofrecer los elementos para establecer una teoría sobre dicha noción e identificar los argumentos para su justificación. Además, se enfatiza en el contexto de discusión que permite introducir la filosofía de Taylor como un modo de pensar sobre el consenso, alternativo al constructivismo.

  2. (I) Informe sobre conflicto violento en colombia (2011–2012)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Las negociaciones de paz entre el gobierno nacional y las FARC avanzan de modo considerable. Al momento del cierre del presente informe –julio de 2014–, se construyó un acuerdo sobre los tres primeros puntos de la agenda –la reforma agraria, la participación política y las drogas ilícitas–. Sin duda la negociación progresa, los puntos sobre los que se trazó un acuerdo tocan dimensiones neurálgicas de la vida colectiva: el agro y su atraso histórico, la democracia y sus cierres, el narcotráfic...

  3. Reflexiones sobre la corrupción y su impacto sobre la salud

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    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2017-04-01

    Existe una gran variedad de teorías biológicas, psicológicas, sociológicas y económicas que explican la conducta corrupta, algunas de las cuales profundizan sobre cómo las prácticas generalizadas de violación de las reglas pueden afectar la honestidad individual y la voluntad intrínseca de seguir las leyes. Así, por ejemplo, hay quienes sostienen que el engaño es común en el mundo animal y hace parte del proceso evolutivo; en ese sentido, se considera como un acto natural, innato y que responde a la lucha por la supervivencia. Por eso, se encuentran especies que se camuflan, se mimetizan, se hacen las muertas, utilizan químicos que no permiten ver la gravedad de un ataque, consiguen que el competidor las considere más grandes de lo que realmente son adoptando ciertas posturas, etc.

  4. SOBRE LA PAZ Y LOS DIÁLOGOS. CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE EL PAPEL DE LA SOCIEDAD CIVIL

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    William Ortiz Jiménez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo hace una reflexión en torno al proceso de paz que se llevó a cabo en el gobierno del presidente Andrés Pastrana, y la participación que tuvo la sociedad civil en este asunto. Pero, trasciende, además, a la situación actual del conflicto en Colombia. A partir de las formulaciones de varios teóricos, entre los que se destacan Daniel Pécaut, Cohen, y Arato., Margarita Bonamusa, María Teresa Uribe, Daniel García-Peña, Habermas, Rawls, entre otros, se fortalece un marco teórico y de referencia bastante sólido para mostrar cómo lo público es indispensable en las acotaciones que lleven a la solución de los conflictos. Sin el concurso de lo público, tampoco sería viable la participación de la sociedad civil. Los espacios de solución de conflictos, el ágora, en palabras de Hanna Arendt, es el lugar esencial para la discusión, el consenso y los acuerdos. En política, la esfera de lo público prima sobre lo privado, porque el reconocimiento de las libertades, manifestaciones y la plenitud de los derechos sólo se logra en lugares comunes.

  5. Construcciones sociales sobre mujeres desde el discurso jurídico en sentencias penales sobre infanticidio

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    María Eugenia Gastiazoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El infanticidio como figura penal se suprime del Código Penal Argentino en 1994, para ser una figura de homicidio agravado por el vínculo con prisión o reclusión perpetua. Diez años después de su última derogación, el caso Romina Tejerina en Jujuy generó una serie de cuestionamientos respecto de su penalización. Otro caso, que tomó estado público fue el de Eli Díaz en la ciudad de Villa Dolores en Córdoba, juzgada en el 2006, siendo (en contraposición al caso Tejerina absuelta por una mayoría compuesta solo de ciudadanos comunes (jurados. En el presente trabajo se analiza la construcción y la producción que desde el discurso jurídico se hace de las diferentes mujeres en los casos de infanticidio. A su vez, estas imágenes se comparan con las representaciones que los legisladores tuvieron en el debate del Congreso del año 2010 cuando se intentó reponer la figura. La sujeción del género centrada en la buena o mala madre, mujer, esposa, en intersección con otras dimensiones de clase social, y edad, se categoriza en el discurso de los tribunales de acuerdo a imaginarios sociales que sostienen una identidad normativa sobre estas mujeres.

  6. Una mirada sobre lo popular. Reflexiones sobre el etnocentrismo en el nuevo cine argentino

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    Gonzalo Assusa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La emergencia del nuevo cine argentino desata una serie de debates teóricos. Probablemente una de las caracterizaciones más convincentes es la que lo define como surgido de una misma crisis, no sólo en el campo cinematográfico, sino también de una misma crisis social. En el marco de un análisis sociológico de este fenómeno cultural, el presente trabajo planteará una hipótesis de lectura para algunas de las producciones audiovisuales del denominado nuevo cine argentino, en pos de establecer conceptualmente la estructuración desde el polo productivo de la elaboración imaginaria de esta crisis social, concretamente, de la emergencia de las clases populares en sus filmes. Para finalizar, se evaluará la productividad de la hipótesis de lectura basada en una definición teórica de lo popular, aplicándola a un cuerpo de filmes del realizador argentino Adrián Caetano, para concluir con reflexiones sobre la importancia del cruce entre la estructuración textual y la estructuración en el momento del consumo.

  7. Consideraciones del bioderecho sobre la eutanasia en Colombia

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    José Antonio García Pereáñez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda de manera reflexiva las incidencias del bioderecho sobre situaciones de eutanasia en Colombia, al interpretar conflictos morales y jurídicos suscitados por las sentencias de la Corte Constitucional C239 de 1997, T970 de 2014 y la Resolución del Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social 1216, de 2015. El propósito fundamental es el análisis de las decisiones judiciales sobre el final de la vida humana. Por lo tanto, se realiza una revisión de la construcción histórica y jurídica del concepto de eutanasia y se propone la discusión sobre su manejo jurídico y su influencia en el colectivo moral. Asimismo, se diserta sobre el concepto de dignidad humana y muerte digna, como precedentes para dirimir los conflictos éticos que la eutanasia suscita. Al final, se analiza el caso de don Ovidio González, quien se convirtió en 2015 en el primer colombiano en recibir la eutanasia de manera legal dentro del sistema de salud.

  8. Impacto de las redes sociales sobre la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán Roldán, Raquel; Aranda Aranda, Federico Manuel; González Castillo, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Cartel presentado en el 3er Congreso Internacional de Comunicación en Salud (3ICHC), celebrado los días 19 y 20 de octubre de 2017 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar si existe una influencia de las redes sociales sobre la población en temas relacionados con su salud.

  9. Sobre-educación en el mercado laboral colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon James Mora

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la sobre-educación en Colombia con datos de individuos y empresas compilados por el Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje de Colombia en 2006, encuentra que la probabilidad de estar sobre-educado es del 14% y que depende de la movilidad entre áreas de desempeño, la experiencia, el género, el tamaño de la empresa y el nivel de educación. Los trabajadores sobre-educados ganan un 2% menos que los trabajadores correctamente educados, conforme al patrón internacional. Los resultados también muestran que la probabilidad de que los profesionales permanezcan en la misma área de desempeño aumenta con la experiencia, que cuanto mayor es la sobre-educación menor es la probabilidad de permanecer en dicha área y que los trabajadores con postgrado tienen menor probabilidad de permanecer en su área de desempeño.

  10. REFLETINDO SOBRE AS ESPECIFICIDADES DA GEOGRAFIA NA CRISE DA MODERNIDADE

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    Patrício A. S. Carneiro Carneiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute a evolução da ciência moderna, bem como a crise desse paradigma dominante e seus efeitos sobre a geografia. Destaca ainda a necessidade da construção de um novo pensamento científico para além das fronteiras disciplinares e do método absoluto.

  11. 1er. Taller internacional sobre oso hormiguero gigante (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)

    OpenAIRE

    M.V. Guillermo Pérez Jimeno

    2008-01-01

    ResumenLos pasados días 2 y 3 de noviembre se llevó a cabo el 1er. Taller internacional sobre oso hormiguero gigante (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), en instalaciones del Zoológico de Florencio Varela. Participaron activamente representantes de Brasil, Colombia, Holanda, Alemania y Argentina.

  12. Nota sobre el cambio de variable en las integrales definidas

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, Luis Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    En los textos más frecuentemente empleados por nuestras alumnos de las Facultades técnicas no se hacen indicaciones de ninguna clase sobre las precauciones que es necesaria tomar en el caso de cambio de variable en las integrales definidas; El siguiente ejemplo hará ver la necesidad de ser cuidadosos

  13. Rutas de glicosilación en Candida albicans: circuitos reguladores y efectos sobre virulencia

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Cantero, María del Pilar

    2011-01-01

    [ES]Esta tesis trata sobre las rutas de glicosilación en Candida albicans: circuitos reguladores y efectos sobre virulencia. [EN]This thesis is about glycosylation pathways in Candida albicans: regulatory circuits and effects on virulence.

  14. Tiempo de feminismo. Sobre feminismo, proyecto ilustrado y postmodernidad, de Celia Amorós [Ressenya

    OpenAIRE

    Campillo, Neus

    1998-01-01

    Se trata de una reseña sobre el libro Amorós, C., Tiemp de feminismo. Sobre feminismo, proyecto ilustrado y postmodernidad. Madrid, Cátedra, Universitat de Valencia, Instituto de la Mujer, 1997, 463 pp.

  15. Control de la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico en la provincia de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba External quality assessment in coproparasitology in Havana City Province, Cuba

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    Fidel Angel Núñez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico en 77 laboratorios de la red de salud pública de la provincia Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. El procedimiento se basó en la entrega a cada jefe de laboratorio de un modelo de encuesta, y una bolsa de nylon conteniendo 10 viales plásticos con distintos especímenes parasitarios, preservados en formaldehído al 7%. Recogidos los resultados en las primeras 72 horas después de su entrega, se realizó la evaluación mediante una escala de puntuación establecida. La mayoría de los laboratorios aprobaron (70%; sin embargo aún existen centros, sobre todo policlínicas, con calificaciones deficientes. Los municipios con resultados más desfavorables fueron, Lisa, Marianao y Habana del Este, alcanzándose mejores resultados en los hospitales que en las policlínicas. En el análisis de Protozooarios, el mejor diagnosticado fué Giardia lamblia, con solo un centro que erró al identificarlo. Las mayores dificultades se presentaron en Blastocystis hominis con 61% de fallas, Endolimax nana, con 24,6%, y Entamoeba histolytica, con 22%. Entre los helmintos, la mayor aprobación fué en Trichuris trichiura y los errores diagnósticos predominaron con Fasciola hepatica y Taenia sp., ambos con 66,2% de fallas. Dados los resultados obtenidos, hemos organizado una intervención educativa en la red de laboratorios de la provincia.An external quality assessment in coproparasitology was carried out in 77 laboratories from Havana City. A questionnaire and ten plastic vials with different intestinal parasites in a small nylon bag, duly sealed, were sent to each laboratory. Answers were collected during the 72 hours after delivery. Results were analyzed by means of a computer program. The majority of the laboratories (70% passed the test; the municipalities with the worst scores in the province were Lisa, Marianao, and Habana del Este. Better results were obtained among technologists working

  16. Caracterización del estado nutricional, enteroparasitosis y condiciones socio-ambientales de la población infanto-juvenil del partido de La Plata

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    Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se caracterizaron el estado nutricional, las enteroparasitosis y las condiciones socio-ambientales de niños residentes en el Casco urbano y 11 localidades del Partido de La Plata, provincia de Buenos Aires, mediante un estudio transversal. Se midieron peso y talla de 6.397 niños entre 4.0 y 13.9 años. Se calculó el índice de masa corporal y se estimó el estado nutricional utilizando NHANES III. Las variables socio-ambientales se relevaron mediante encuesta estructurada. El análisis parasitológico se realizó en 729 niños sobre muestras seriadas de materia fecal analizadas mediante la técnica de Ritchie y escobillado anal. Los resultados globales indicaron: 22.1% de exceso de peso, 8.7% de desnutrición y 68.5% de parasitosis, siendo más prevalentes Enterobius vermicularis (38.7%, Blastocystis hominis (36.1%, Giardia lamblia (19.1% y protozoos comensales (26.1%. Los geohelmintos tuvieron valores inferiores (9.3%. El partido de La Plata presenta gran heterogeneidad en el estado nutricional y las infecciones parasitarias de los niños por cuanto resultan dependientes de las características socio-ambientales. Las deficientes condiciones ambientales, el bajo nivel educativo y la falta de trabajo formal de los padres explicarían la coexistencia de parasitosis y desnutrición infantil, prevaleciendo la de tipo crónico. Por otra parte, las localidades en las que hay menor grado de cobertura de servicios urbanos básicos, pero los padres poseen mayor nivel educativo y trabajo formalizado, presentan prevalencias más elevadas de exceso de peso.

  17. Hölderlin: sobre la religión

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    Andrés Alfredo Castrillón Castrillón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se propone dilucidar la noción de religión que tiene Friedrich Hölderlin en el ensayo “Sobre la religión”, el cual traza un pensamiento tan o más complejo de la relación hombre - dios, y hombre - comunidad, que los de filósofos como Kant o Hegel en sus reflexiones sobre Dios y la religión. Destacar por medio del análisis del ensayo cómo comprende Hölderlin la religión y cómo la vincula con la vida de los hombres en su contexto es la tarea fundamental del escrito, para concluir con las propuestas poéticas de la fundación de religiones o sus manifestaciones a través del mito.

  18. Pregnancias. Sobre cuatro lavis de Colette Deblé

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    Jacques Derrida

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ¿Cómo citar la representación del cuerpo femenino en la Historia del Arte occidental dejándose impregnar por los patrones y modelos pictóricos masculinos pero imprimiendo, a su vez, otras huellas, las de otro cuerpo? Esta pregunta atraviesa el texto del filósofo Jacques Derrida sobre las aguadas (lavis de la pintora francesa Colette Deblé, dando lugar a una reflexión sobre el engendramiento, el parto y la cita pictórica. En el trabajo de Colette Deblé, el legado de la Historia del Arte y su mitología engendrarán una serie infinita de aguadas donde el agua no pretende “lavar” la tradición (deshacerse de ella, acabar con ella sino inundarla, mojarla, empaparla con nuevas aguas para, escurriéndola, hacerla resonar nuevamente.

  19. Conceitos de mulheres sobre sua menstruação

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    Márcia Yuri Shinohara

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Dando prosseguimento às pesquisas anteriores realizadas pelo Núcleo de Assistência para o Autocuidado da Mulher (NAAM sobre aspectos relativos à menstruação, desenvolvemos um trabalho que estudou os conceitos de 705 mulheres sobre sua menstruação. Foram utilizadas informações do banco de dados do NAAM, obtidos na aplicação do Histórico de Saúde da Mulher no Município de Vargem Grande Paulista. O conceito mais relatado pelas mulheres foi o Normal. Isto talvez explique os dados obtidos em trabalhos anteriores, onde muitas mulheres nada fazem para aliviar os sintomas dolorosos da menstruação. O acesso a estes conceitos próprios é importante para elaborar uma assistência de enfermagem de qualidade respeitando as crenças e valores dentro da cultura das mulheres.

  20. Últimos trabajos sobre ladrillos huecos y perforados

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    Editorial, Equipo

    1958-10-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEn la Building Research Station se están llevando a cabo, cada día con resultados positivos más alentadores, investigaciones sobre nuevos tipos de ladrillos huecos y perforados. Es de esperar que, en breve, todos estos estudios den lugar a la aparición de unas normas para su empleo en escala industrial y, precisamente ahora, es, en Inglaterra, el momento oportuno, puesto que, actualmente, está celebrando reuniones la Sociedad Cerámica Británica. Lo que se publica en este artículo es un anticipo sobre las tendencias actuales dentro da este campo.

  1. MITOS Y LEYENDAS SOBRE LOS JUEGOS DE ROL

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    Rocío Tizón

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Los juegos de rol aparecen en la década de los años 70 en Estados Unidos, creados por Gary Gigax y Dave Arneson, padres del ya famoso Dragones & Mazmorras. No obstante, fueron pocos los años de tranquilidad, ya que en su país natal se le consideró culpable de promover el suicidio de varios adolescentes que habían sido jugadores de Dragones & Mazmorras. Los engaños de la información y los prejuicios de las noticias sobre estos juegos de rol provocaron que varias personas se interesaran por este fenómeno, analizando dichos mitos y comprobando la verdad de estos rumores. Uno de estos estudiosos fue William Watson, creador de la página web The Inquirer, en la que se dedica a desmontar estos y otros tópicos sobre juegos de rol.

  2. Consenso Cultural sobre el Intento de Suicidio en Adolescentes

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    Javier Eduardo García de Alba García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó identificar la estructura semántica del dominio cultural, el promedio de conocimiento y el grado de consenso cultural manifestado por los adolescentes sobre el intento de suicidio. Fue un estudio cualitativo de listas libres, con un muestreo propositivo no aleatorizado de 27 adolescentes entre 13 y 18 años. Los resultados evidenciaron un solo modelo semántico. En lo estructural se identificó el problema familiar como una causa importante del intento suicida; las categorías depresión y tristeza se consideraron como signos y síntomas previos a esta tentativa y no como causas. Como estrategias de prevención, se consideró recibir información mediante pláticas o establecer conversaciones sobre los problemas. Este modelo permite proponer estrategias de prevención que privilegien el núcleo familiar.

  3. Planteamientos sobre la pobreza: una aproximación conceptual

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    Bertha Lucía Martínez Bernal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se presentan varias definiciones o conceptos para la comprensión, medición y el análisis de la pobreza. Para ello se retoma la producción escrita de diferentes estudiosos e investigadores que han hecho aportes valiosos sobre el tema. Al lado de estos conceptos se analizan los diferentes enfoques que se utilizan para aproximarse al estudio de la pobreza, aunque estas no son teorías ni explicaciones de sus causas, sino perspectivas sobre pobreza que denotan dichos enfoques. Así mismo se desarrolla una revisión de las metodologías más utilizadas en los procesos de identificación y agregación. Finalmente se interpretan las políticas públicas en los sectores sociales.

  4. Concepções sobre criminalidade e modelos de policiamento

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    Marco Antônio de Azevedo

    Full Text Available Podem-se conceber duas perspectivas teóricas básicas para explicar a criminalidade: a culturalista e a racionalista. Da primeira derivam políticas públicas destinadas a reduzir a criminalidade através de uma atuação sobre a desorganização social. Na segunda privilegia-se uma estratégia segundo a qual o principal papel do Estado é dissuadir o criminoso da prática delituosa. Este trabalho revisa a literatura, evidenciando mitos sobre o crime e a atividade policial. São discutidos dois modelos de policiamento: um mais tradicional e reativo e outro mais preventivo, procurando-se mostrar que o racionalismo dá maior suporte teórico a políticas de segurança pública que valorizam a promoção da cidadania.

  5. O pensamento freudiano sobre a intolerância

    OpenAIRE

    Fuks,Betty Bernardo

    2007-01-01

    A partir do conceito psicanalítico de "narcisismo das pequenas diferenças", o artigo tem como objetivos pensar o modo como Freud foi tecendo um pensamento sobre a intolerância e discutir as contribuições da psicanálise à história das teorias sobre a tolerância. A autora perscruta o fenômeno de intolerância à diferença do outro à luz dos trabalhos de Freud que envolvem e atestam sua sensibilidade para com a intolerância racista que atingiu o tempo em que viveu. Desde este trajeto, propõe algum...

  6. Bombeiros: um olhar sobre a qualidade de vida no trabalho

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    Janine Kieling Monteiro

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma intervenção no corpo de bombeiros (São Leopoldo - RS realizada pelo NEPT (Núcleo de Excelência em Psicologia do Trabalho. Utilizamos um diagnóstico com sessenta e três entrevistas semi-estruturadas sobre o trabalho e funcionamento da corporação. Partindo da análise deste, propusemos palestras sobre estresse e qualidade de vida no trabalho (QVT. Foram levantados questionamentos acerca do mito do herói e do amor pela profissão bombeiro, que deixa em segundo plano seus problemas. Destacou-se o estresse no trabalho por situações traumáticas, como risco de vida eminente e mortes nos salvamentos. Entendemos que as intervenções contribuíram como espaço de escuta que propiciou reflexões a respeito da QVT.

  7. Sobre inundaciones y anegamientos / Reflections on floods and flooding

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    Ferrando A., Francisco J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Respecto a anegamientos e inundaciones, el autor realiza algunas precisiones conceptuales que afectan la gestión de acciones preventivas, la planificación y el ordenamiento territorial; además se ofrece una sistematización del quehacer sobre las inundaciones./ The author punctualizes the concepts regarding preventive actions and territorial planning. Also the article includes a systematized list of actions related to flood management.

  8. Para saber más sobre la violencia escolar

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    María Rosario Fernández Domínguez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se recoge una parte importante de la producción bibliográfica sobre la violen-cia escolar y otros temas colaterales, publicada en lengua castellana a partir de 1990. Se deja constanciatambién de la legislación española más reciente para facilitar la convivencia en los centros de enseñanza.

  9. Nuevos discursos sobre las ciudades, los municipios y las mujeres

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    Ana María Goetschel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Escritora y activista feminista. Estudió Literatura y Periodismo en la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú y se gradúo de Magíster en Política Social por la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Por espacio de más de dos décadas se desempeña como profesora en el Diploma de Estudios de Género de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú y como consultora de proyectos de desarrollo en las áreas de planificación, evaluación institucional y enfoque de género para diversas agencias internacionales de cooperación en Perú y otros países de América Latina. Es Investigadora asociada y miembro del Consejo Directivo del Centro Peruano de Estudios Sociales (CEPES. Maruja Barrig acredita un vasto trabajo de investigación sobre empleo femenino, desarrollo local y organizaciones de mujeres. En una reciente conferencia “Nuevos discursos sobre las ciudades, los municipios y las mujeres” , esta investigadora peruana hizo un balance sobre las formas en que el género ha sido incorporado en las prácticas de desarrollo y las consecuencias que conlleva este tipo de intervención para el avance de la agenda del feminismo crítico. Sobre este y otros temas relacionados con su trayectoria intelectual y la acción del movimiento de mujeres en el contexto político actual de las sociedades latinoamericanas, dialogamos con Maruja Barrig.

  10. Reflexiones sobre interpretaciones recientes de la violencia en Colombia

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    Pedro Valenzuela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios recientes han negado la relación de causalidad entre las condiciones objetivas y la violencia en Colombia. Este artículo critica la forma como se ha llegado a estas conclusiones y discute algunas hipótesis que vinculan la cultura y las causas objetivas con la violencia. Concluye con una discusión sobre la interpretación de la relación entre causas estructurales y el conflicto armado interno.

  11. Propiedades beneficiosas de los terpenos iridoides sobre la salud

    OpenAIRE

    López-Carreras, Noemi; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

    2012-01-01

    [ES]: Algunos componentes de los alimentos presentan actividad biológica y pueden producir un efecto beneficioso sobre la salud. Aquellos que provienen de las plantas se conocen con el nombre de fitoquímicos. Muchos de estos compuestos proceden de la condensación del isopreno y presentan la estructura propia de los terpenos. Entre ellos, destacan algunos monoterpenos bicíclicos derivados del geraniol, que se denominan iridoides. Los iridoides pueden encontrarse como estructuras abiertas...

  12. Significaciones imaginarias sobre el espacio público

    OpenAIRE

    Bilyk, Pablo Andrés

    2012-01-01

    El presente escrito se propone profundizar y poner en discusión una serie de reflexiones en torno de las significaciones imaginarias, el rol del investigador en su abordaje y los modos en que este concepto nos permite aproximarnos a los sentidos construidos sobre el espacio público. This article aims to discuss some ideas over imaginary significations, researcher's role in their analysis and the ways in which this concept allows us to reach public space built senses. Facultad de Periodi...

  13. Two Twin Judgements of Cienfuegos Dos juicios gemelos sobre Cienfuegos

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    René ANDIOC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Manuel eduardo de Gorostiza, in London after the constitutional triennium, signed four articles about Spanish theatre in The New Monthly Magazine using just the letter «G». At the end of that same year, 1824, an author signing with an «M», in all likelihood Prosper Mérimée, published a set of articles in Le Globe in Paris regarding the same topic. these were literal translations of those written by Gorostiza about cienfuegos, but his authorship is not mentioned.Manuel eduardo de Gorostiza, en Londres después del trienio constitucional, firmó «G» cuatro artículos sobre teatro español moderno en The New Monthly Magazine. Al final del mismo año de 1824, un tal «M», con toda probabilidad el joven Próspero Mérimée, publicó en el periódico Le Globe, de París, otros tantos sobre el propio tema, traduciendo literalmente en particular, sin mención de fuente, lo escrito por Gorostiza sobre cienfuegos.

  14. Sobre nomes e coisas: Arnaldo Antunes em sala de aula

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    Érica Dias Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar sobre a compreensão de alunos de um curso de formação de docentes sobre as obras audiovisuais “Nome” e “Carnaval” de Arnaldo Antunes, pensando na forma com que percebem seu cotidiano e a sociedade atual por meio da interpretação. O questionamento que se faz é como, a partir da reflexão sobre as obras do artista, desenvolver um trabalho de sensibilização, investigação e criação em sala de aula. A pesquisa participante apresenta uma proposta pedagógica realizada com uma turma de estudantes do curso de formação de docentes do Colégio Estadual Visconde de Guarapuava, buscando desenvolver assim a expressividade e a formulação de ideias de forma conjunta, por meio do desenvolvimento de um processo criativo. Foram analisados os resultados das propostas realizadas em sala de aula, além dos registros em diário de campo. Por meio da pesquisa, percebeu-se a importância dos trabalhos que envolvam fruição, reflexão e produção como forma de apropriação dos conteúdos.

  15. Orden de no reanimar, consideraciones sobre este problema

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    Dr. G. Luis Cereceda

    2011-05-01

    Se analizan los principales problemas, comenzando por las dificultades según los diferentes escenarios (servicio de urgencia, pabellón de maternidad, sala de hospitalizados, unidad de intensivo, pabellones quirúrgicos; se analiza la incertidumbre sobre el pronóstico de cada pacientes y sobre quién(es deben tomar las decisiones sobre el fin de la vida. Idealmente debe ser el paciente autónomo quien tome la decisión, pero en otros casos se requieren alternativas, una de ellas es la Orden Unilateral. Otros problemas son la Validez de las órdenes de no-RCP en los diferentes tiempos evolutivos, el problema de la Futilidad y la Validez de las “Directivas Anticipadas”, en este grupo resalta el enfoque POLST (Physician’s Order for Life Sustaining Treatment como más comprehensivo; como complemento ha surgido también el concepto AND (Allow Natural Death, que podría estar destinado a remplazar la orden de no-RCP (DNR.

  16. Sobre el Contenido de los Marcos Conceptuales Contables

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    Leila Di Russo de Hauque

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo el análisis de los distintos marcos conceptuales vigentes en diferentes sistemas normativos contables. Paralelamente a las revisiones empíricas que dicho trabajo determina, incluye reflexiones a priori sobre el contenido de dichos marcos conceptuales. El trabajo discurre inicialmente sobre el problema de la naturaleza normativa o doctrinaria de sus contenidos tradicionales sin inclinarse definitivamente por una u otra vertiente. Respecto de los elementos que se incluirán en ellos, se justifica la inclusión de las listas de objetivos y requisitos de la información contable para definir el alcance del concepto de informe de uso externo. Además se define a favor de la inclusión, conjuntamente con las respuestas a las pregunas básicas sobre la labor contable, de contenidos ligados al proceso de obtención y de la exposición de la información contable de uso externo.

  17. Uma Reflexão sobre Autoria Acadêmica

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    Francisco José da Costa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo apresentar elementos para um debate sobre a ética das práticas de autoria no campo científico brasileiro. Os autores utilizam exemplos ilustrativos para explorar as práticas de pseudoautoria, estabelecendo relações entre essas práticas, as coerções oriundas do campo acadêmico e o habitus dos agentes sociais. Foi elaborada uma definição preliminar do que seja autoria a fim de possibilitar a discussão sobre dois problemas centrais, que são: a lógica de “colocar o nome” e o plágio. Uma das principais contribuições deste trabalho repousa na reflexão orientada para a construção de uma prática aperfeiçoada de autoria, possibilitando a crítica e a autocrítica dos agentes do meio acadêmico sobre algumas práticas problemáticas de autoria.

  18. Hegel sobre Tácito y la libertad teutona

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    Valerio Rocco Lozano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Una investigación sobre la presencia (así como sobre la ausencia de Tácito en Hegel es crucial para entender la posición política y filosófica de este pensador, especialmente en la época de Jena. Tras algunas consideraciones sobre el conocimiento hegeliano de la historia y la cultura romanas, se abordará un análisis de su noción de "libertad teutona": Hegel se opone tanto a la neo-romanidad de los revolucionarios franceses como al esencialismo teutómano de los conservadores alemanes (derivado fundamentalmente de un uso fuertemente ideológico de la "Germania" de Tácito, así como a las caducas instituciones imperiales. Esta doble oposición sitúa a Hegel en medio de dos corrientes políticas (e incluso de dos ejércitos en guerra y se lleva a cabo desde una actitud que puede denominarse como “mediación sin nostalgia”

  19. La red sobre trabajo infantil peligroso (Red Tip

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    Walter Varillas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el mundo, aproximadamente 351.7 millones de niños entre 5 y 17 años realizaban algún tipo de actividad económica, de ellos 170.5 millones (48.5% realizaban algún tipo de trabajo considerado peligroso. Un alto porcentaje se encuentra en la agricultura, otros en minas, manufacturas, ladrilleras, predominantemente en la economía informal. El Convenio 138 (cobre la edad mínima de admisión en el empleo de la OIT y el Convenio 182 (sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil, definen como trabajo infantil peligroso el que puede afectar la salud, seguridad y moralidad de los menores. Estudios específicos sobre los menores muestran su susceptibilidad particular frente a los riesgos laborales, aumentando la peligrosidad para su normal desarrollo y crecimiento: "los niños no son adultos pequeños". Los profesionales de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo pueden colaborar con los profesionales y las organizaciones especializadas en el trabajo infantil, en la definición y caracterización de lo que significa el trabajo infantil peligroso. Para ello se ha conformado la Red sobre Trabajo Infantil Peligroso (Red TIP, con la finalidad de articular estos dos espacios, orientados a eliminar el trabajo infantil peligroso y rescatar al menor y devolverle la oportunidad de sonreír ahora y en el futuro.

  20. Presentación del primer caso humano de parasitismo por Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus en el Perú y breve revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beltrán F. de Estrada

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta un caso humano portador de Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus. Se trata de un varón de 45 años de edad, natural de la provincia de Chota, departamento de Cajamarca, Perú; con molestias digestivas. El diagnóstico se hizo por el hallazgo de huevos de Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus en las heces. Además se encontró Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichostrongylus sp, Blastocystis hominis y Entamoeba coli. Esta es la primera comunicación de un caso humano de M. hirudinaceus para el Perú.

  1. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    identified by a genus and taxon-specific PCR assay, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out. All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and Gram-negative. Unusually, however, they were straight rods lacking...

  2. QUESTÕES SOBRE A PENA DE MORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUSA, L.N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pelo menos, desde o Código de Hamurabi as punições para atos desviantes tem sido um foco de reflexão. Este trabalho encerra essa reflexão acerca de aspectos em torno do tema pena de morte. Além de feito político contra o crime, também seria um ato com fins vingativos, fundamentado na violação da dignidade humana, o que justifica a necessidade de haver uma rigorosa análise sobre tal questão, visando os argumentos lógicos, baseados na realidade social brasileira. Alguns estudos demonstram que a percepção da classe menos favorecida é que já existe, de certa forma, uma pena de morte informal no Brasil, praticada pela polícia ou grupos de extermínio. No entanto, diversos setores defendem a pena de morte em nome dos direitos humanos. O debate sobre o referido tema não deve limitar-se às questões relacionadas ao desenvolvimento moral individual, antes deve incluir também a análise de fatores históricos, culturais, econômicos, políticos e ideológicos. Este estudo tem como objetivo coletar dados bibliográficos, bem como dados sobre as opiniões que as pessoas em Campos dos Goytacazes têm sobre a pena de morte. A pesquisa feita é de caráter exploratório. Utilizaram-se as metodologias pertinentes a uma pesquisa bibliográfica. Foi realizada com moradores da cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ, especificamente com 40 jovens e adultos, de gênero masculino e feminino, com idades entre 18 e 48 anos, sendo a maioria mulheres. A coleta de dados foi feita através de questionários fechados, do tipo likert. Cerca de 48% da amostra concorda com a sentença pena de morte. As respostas quanto a não ter opinião formada sobre o assunto foram minoria, somando 20% ao todo, restando 32% de sujeitos que declararam ser contrários. Metade dos sujeitos não concordou que a sentença seria aplicada corretamente no Brasil. A minoria concordou que a lei teria uma aplicabilidade positiva no país. Aproximadamente 43% dos sujeitos pesquisados

  3. Parte de la Naturaleza: sobre el cuerpo como potencia compositiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Merçon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-795X.2012v30n2p473 En medio de la constelación de mitos que han contribuido a la actual crisis socioecológica,se encuentra la creencia de que somos individuos sustanciales, atomizadoso separados del entorno al cual intentamos ‘dominar’. La ignorancia con respecto anuestra interdependencia ontológica está en la base de muchas de nuestras posturas(auto destructivas y ha sido reforzada por diversos sistemas teóricos a lo largo de lahistoria occidental. Al margen de dualismos platónicos, de transcendencias judaicocristianasy del cogito cartesiano, la filosofía de Benedictus de Spinoza (1632-1677nos invita a repensar los fundamentos de la realidad compleja en la cual estamosinmersos. Mi propósito en este artículo es tejer relaciones productivas entre algunasdimensiones de su filosofía, el pensamiento ambiental y la educación. El punto departida será la concepción spinozista de cuerpo. Este será definido como potencia quese expresa a la vez como productividad (fuerza causal y sensibilidad (fuerza receptiva.El carácter esencialmente relacional y afectivo del cuerpo humano nos permitirápensarlo también como potencia compositiva. Desconstruyendo la dicotomíaentre Naturaleza y Cultura, propondré que reflexionemos sobre las composicioneshumano-tecnológicas con respecto a sus efectos sobre nuestra potencia de pensar yactuar. En conclusión, presentaré algunos comentarios sobre el rol de la educacióncomo espacio relacional, en el cual se pueden integrar de forma potenciadora lasdimensiones epistémica, ética, política y ambiental de nuestra existencia como partesinterdependientes de la Naturaleza.

  4. Conocimientos de los adolescentes sobre aspectos de la sexualidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana García Imia

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, de corte transversal, en el área del Policlínico Docente "Wilfredo Pérez Pérez" del municipio San Miguel del Padrón, de Ciudad de La Habana, con el fin de explorar los conocimientos sobre algunos aspectos de la sexualidad, en un grupo de 100 adolescentes en edades entre 10 y 19 años y de uno y otro sexos, en el año 2001. Se apreció un elevado tanto por ciento de jóvenes que tenían conocimientos sobre la anatomía del aparato genital, la mejor edad para tener hijos y la anticoncepción. En general, no tenían conocimientos de todas las enfermedades de transmisión sexual, no así el método más eficaz para evitarlas. El grupo de edad de mayor relevancia lo constituyó el de 10 a 13 años por sus escasos conocimientos sobre sexualidad.A retrospective, descriptive and crosswise study was made in the health areas of "Wilfredo Pérez Pérez" Teaching Polyclinics in San Miguel del Padrón municipality, Havana City province, with the objective of exploring what a group of 100 adolescents aged 10-19 years of both sexes knows about sexuality in the year 2001. A high percentage of them had knowledge about anatomy of the genital system, the most suitable age for having children and contraception. In general, they did not know all the sexually-transmitted diseases but they did know the most efficient method to prevent them. The most relevant age group was 10-13 years old because of their poor knowledge about sexuality.

  5. Estado del arte del conocimiento sobre perifiton en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimmy Montoya Moreno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El perifiton es un componente de las comunidades bióticas acuáticas, su estudio es importante tanto desde la perspectiva ecológica, para comprender el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas acuáticos, como desde el punto de vista ambiental, pues su composición y estructura pueden servir como indicadores de la calidad del agua y de procesos que como la contaminación puedan estar afectando a los ecosistemas. La investigación sobre el perifiton es compleja; la definición misma de perifiton aún genera controversias. Sumado a esto, la variedad de metodologías para su estudio integral, la diversidad de arquitecturas de la matriz perifítica, la gran diversidad de ecosistemas y la ausencia de escuelas taxonómicas en el país, contribuyen a que sean pocos los trabajos que se publican sobre el tema, lo que incrementa el valor e importancia de los estudios reseñados en esta revisión. El objetivo de este artículo es dar a conocer el estado del arte en la investigación sobre el perifiton en Colombia, mediante el análisis de diferentes líneas de investigación que se han desarrollado y su grado de avance. Con este fin, se examinaron 84 trabajos a los que los autores tuvieron acceso. La mayoría de investigaciones consultadas en este trabajo (90%, corresponden al estudio de ficoperifiton, el 10% restante incluyó ambos componentes del perifiton y se encontró una dedicada exclusivamente al zooperifiton. Sólo el 10,5% de las investigaciones (8 trabajos se han dedicado al estudio taxonómico detallado, el resto de publicaciones se orientan al estudio de la estructura y dinámica de la comunidad perifítica.

  6. EL IMPUESTO SOBRE BEBIDAS AZUCARADAS EN ESPAÑA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ortún

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aporta una revisión crítica acerca de los retos a los que se enfrentan los impuestos sobre las bebidas azucaradas como instrumento de políticas de salud, para revertir la tendencia epidémica de la obesidad. Se valoran las experiencias de los países más significados, en particular México, y se reflexiona sobre el contrapeso que ejerce la industria a las políticas antiobesidad y el poder de los lobbies. Esas políticas impositivas en pro de la salud pública han de sobreponerse a la enorme fuerza de la industria, que es ejercida en varios niveles –ciencia e investigación, reputación de marca, influencia en reguladores–. Se sugiere que un impuesto específico sobre bebidas azucaradas tiene bastante potencial para reducir enfermedades no transmisibles y riesgos –diabetes mellitus, hipertrigliceridemia, lipoproteínas de baja densidad, hipetensión diastólica–, a través de la reducción del consumo, al ser alta la elasticidad del precio de estas bebidas. Además, los efectos incluso se amplifican a medio plazo, una vez establecidos nuevos hábitos de consumo más saludable. Los impuestos podrían fomentar la innovación empresarial sin infligir costes de pérdida de empleos y contribuirían a reducir el gradiente social de la obesidad.

  7. Dos hipótesis sobre el presidencialismo autoritario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Loaeza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presidencialismo autoritario mexicano ha sido objeto de muchas reflexiones y opiniones. No obstante, se ha impuesto un paradigma presidencialista que privilegia la perspectiva personalizada e idiosincrática del ejercicio del poder, con un importante componente cultu- ralista. Aquí se propone, por una parte, una perspectiva histórica que contextualiza las accio- nes presidenciales en el período 1944-1970; por la otra, se parte de dos presupuestos generales. Uno, sostiene que los presidentes mexicanos actuaban bajo importantes restricciones y según los ritmos de un proceso que avanzó en episodios, más que en forma lineal o acumulativa; el otro destaca la limitación geopolítica que se deriva de la vecindad con Estados Unidos que incidió sobre las acciones presidenciales, pero también sobre el desarrollo institucional del país. La evolución del presidencialismo autoritario lleva la huella de esta influencia. Este artículo introduce elementos para la discusión de las hipótesis. La primera parte hace una revisión crítica del paradigma presidencialista; la segunda expone las restricciones que se derivaban de la vecindad con Estados Unidos. La tercera y última está dedicada a la descripción del tipo de episodios que Pueden servir para ilustrar la evolución del presidencialismo autoritario. Las dos hipótesis que aquí se presentan han guiado una investigación más amplia sobre el impacto de la Guerra Fría en México y el desarrollo del presidencialismo.

  8. Propuesta de programa educativo sobre enfermedades del cuello uterino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisel Mariela Mass Basulto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El cáncer ginecológico está entre las más frecuentes causas de muerte en la población femenina. En Cuba, el diagnóstico precoz de tal afección está entre los programas priorizados del Sistema de Salud Pública; pero también es necesario enfatizar en la prevención, que puede lograse, sobre todo, desde la atención primaria de salud, mediante la implementación de programas educativos. Objetivo: Diseñar un programa educativo sobre afecciones del cuello uterino. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo, en el período comprendido del 1 de enero de 2008 al 1 de enero de 2009. Se analizaron variables como edad, escolaridad, primeras relaciones sexuales, número de partos, número de compañeros sexuales, uso de anticonceptivo, antecedentes de infecciones de transmisión sexual, hábitos tóxicos y nivel de conocimiento. Se aplicó el criterio de expertos para la validación de la propuesta educativa. Resultados: La mayoría de las mujeres tuvieron relaciones sexuales precoces, cuatro o más compañeros sexuales y eran fumadoras, mientras que el total de ellas había presentado alguna vez infecciones vaginales. El nivel de conocimiento que predominó fue regular. Conclusiones: Es evidente que en la población estudiada se concentran varios factores de riesgo para el cáncer de cuello uterino. El Programa Educativo sobre enfermedades del cuello uterino, fue validado mediante criterio de expertos, los cuales coincidieron en que tiene gran actualidad científica, congruencia interna y en que favorece el proceso de preparación de la mujer para evitar ese tipo de enfermedades.

  9. Conocimientos sobre tuberculosis infantil en madres comunitarias de Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Hernandez Escolar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar los conocimientos sobre Tuberculosis (TB Infantil, que tienen las madres comunitarias de Cartagena. Método: Estudio descriptivo realizado con 49 madres comunitarias a las cuales se aplicó una encuesta para evaluar variables sociodemográficas y un cuestionario con 50 preguntas, para medir conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en los niños. Se evaluaron cinco grandes aspectos, (diez preguntas para cada uno así: características de la enfermedad, factores de riesgo, prácticas de prevención, manifestaciones clínicas e identificación de casos, y ruta de atención para los casos sospechosos. Los datos se almacenaron y analizaron en una base de datos del programa SPSSS versión 21, fueron calculadas medidas de frecuencias para las variables categóricas, medidas de tendencia central y desviaciones estándar para variables cuantitativas. Resultado: Del total de participantes, 91,6% (40 desconoce que un individuo con tuberculosis latente puede transmitir la enfermedad; 38,8% (19 no conoce el riesgo que tienen los menores de un año a contagiarse; 22,4% (11 no identifica como factor de riesgo para los niños el contacto estrecho con una persona enferma. Solo el 2% (1 reconoce como signo sugestivo de la enfermedad tuberculosa en los niños la presencia de tos por más de 21 días. Conclusión: Las madres comunitarias de éste estudio tienen poco conocimiento acerca de la TB infantil. Se considera necesario realizar intervenciones educativas a estos actores sociales para que tengan conocimientos amplios sobre este tema.

  10. La UNASUR y el Protocolo sobre Compromiso con la Democracia

    OpenAIRE

    Luchetti, Javier Fernando

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo describiremos brevemente el proceso que llevó a la UNASUR a añadir a su Tratado Constitutivo, el Protocolo Adicional sobre Compromiso con la Democracia, que pretende constituirse en un apéndice importante en la defensa de las instituciones democráticas y el respeto por los derechos humanos en el sur del continente suramericano, más allá que en otras organizaciones regionales también se menciona que la defensa de la democracia es uno de los pilares de dichas organizacion...

  11. Convecção mista sobre cavidade porosa aberta

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Isaias Llagostera Beltran

    1990-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho apresenta um extenso conjunto de resultados de simulação numérica sobre a convecção mista, natural e forçada em uma configuração porosa abert.a. A configuração estudada é formada por uma camada horizontal que apresenta em sua parede inferior uma cavidade de secção transversal retangular. A parede de fundo da cavidade é aquecida e a parede superior da camada horizontal é resfriada ambas isotermicamente o problema em regime permanente é analisado procurando-se estabelec...

  12. Consideraciones sobre la valoración social del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hérin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Las características del clima mediterráneo y el intenso aprovechamiento de los recursos hídricos en este ámbito, son los causantes de la excepcional importancia que se atribuye al agua en la cultura y la configuración de los paisajes. En este artículo se realiza un análisis de la evolución que ha seguido, sobre todo en los últimos siglos, el agro mediterráneo, desde las huertas tradicionales y los paisajes de secano a las nuevas formas de aprovechamiento agrícola, desde una perspectiva social.

  13. Aborto y Parlamento: un estudio sobre Brasil, Uruguay y Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Maria Isabel Baltar da; Rostagnol,Susana; Gutiérrez,María Alicia

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo desarrolla un estudio comparativo entre Brasil, Argentina y Uruguay sobre las legislaciones y las acciones de diversos actores en relación a la despenalización y/o legalización del aborto. El tema se instala en la agenda pública en los tres países a partir del proceso de democratización iniciado en la década de los 80 produciéndose diversas intervenciones tanto del movimiento de mujeres, como de las corporaciones médicas y otros actores sociales en el transcurso de la déca...

  14. Ensayos sobre la sonrisa de volatilidad en mercados de opciones

    OpenAIRE

    Serna Calvo, Gregorio

    2011-01-01

    La tesis comienza analizando los determinantes de la "sonrisa de volatilidad" en el mercado de opciones sobre el indice IBEX-35,obteniendose evidencia de causalidad lineal en el sentido de Granger de los costes de transacción, representados por el diferencial "bid-ask" relativo, ala forma de la sonrisa. A continuación, se propone un modelo de Black-Scholes ampliando donde la volatilidad depende del precio de ejercicio y del diferencial "bid-ask" relativo, obteniendose que dicho modelo no mejo...

  15. Antioxidantes de origen vegetal. Efecto sobre el envejecimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Descalzo Perea, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo consiste en una revisión bibliográfica sobre diferentes tipos de antioxidantes de origen vegetal que podemos encontrar en los alimentos, así como sus características y efectos principales. Los radicales libres más frecuentes son los derivados del oxígeno y se producen como consecuencia de las reacciones de oxidación, que constituyen una parte esencial del metabolismo. Cuando la producción de radicales libres excede a la defensa antioxidante se da un desequilibrio y, como consecue...

  16. Recursos bibliográgicos sobre los estudios en italiano

    OpenAIRE

    Caprara, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo bibliográfico busca ofrecer una visión panorámica actualizada (y representativa) de los Estudios de Traducción en lengua italiana. En ella se clasifican por temas objeto de estudio toda una serie de obras (libros, monografías colectivas, etc.) que inciden sobre el estudio de la Traducción e Interpretación desde la perspectiva de la lengua y la cultura italianas o que, aunque hayan sido realizados por autores extranjeros, su publicación utiliza como lengua vehicular de comunic...

  17. Sobre las implicaciones normativas de la neurociencia social

    OpenAIRE

    Salles, Arleen

    2013-01-01

    En las últimas décadas, la neurociencia y la psicología cognitiva nos ha permitido comenzar a entender la relación entre procesos psicológicos diversos y hasta sobre las bases neurológicas de las creencias, las emociones, los juicios y las decisiones morales. Pese a la aceptada distinción entre el carácter descriptivo de la ciencia y el normativo de la moralidad, algunos autores afirman que los resultados de los estudios neurocientíficos tienen implicaciones normativas. No es c...

  18. El informe mundial sobre la violencia y la salud.

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne G. Krug; James A. Mercy; Linda L. Dahlberg; Anthony B. Zwi

    2002-01-01

    En 1966, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró la violencia como uno de los principales problemas de salud pública. Para dar seguimiento a dicha resolución, el 3 de octubre de este año, la OMS publicó el primer Informe mundial sobre la violencia y la salud, el cual analiza los diferentes tipos de violencia, incluidos el maltrato y abandono de menores, la violencia entre los jóvenes, la violencia contra la pareja, la violencia sexual, el maltrato a ancianos, la violencia autoinfligida y ...

  19. Información sobre deporte femenino: el gran olvido

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Eugenia

    2001-01-01

    Las referencias al deporte femenino en los diarios de información deportiva han llegado a mínimos difícilmente superables. Prensa, radio y televisión han llegado a la conclusión por la vía de los hechos consumados de que el hombre es el único merecedor de convertirse en noticia en los medios informativos. La prensa deportiva y las secciones de deporte de los diarios de información general ignoran sistemáticamente a la mujer deportista, no informan sobre sus actividades, lo hacen mal y a desti...

  20. Stuart Hall sobre “hacer estudios culturales”

    OpenAIRE

    Mato, Daniel; Universidad Nacional Tres de Febrero (Untref), Buenos Aires, Argentina

    2016-01-01

    Traducción de Emeshe Juhász MininbergEmeshe Juhász Mininberg es escritora e investigadora independiente. Doctora en Filosofía y Letras, Yale University, Estados Unidos. Traductora y editora de textos de crítica cultural y de artes plásticas. Ha publicado varios artículos sobre ciudadanía, cultura e identidad nacional en tiempos de globalización, que aparecen, entre otros, en Cultura, política y sociedad: perspectivas latinoamericanas (Clacso, 2005) y en el Diccionario de estudios culturales l...

  1. Efectos de instrumentos odontológicos sobre los marcapasos

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Val, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    L’ús del marcapàs ha creat un tipus particular de precaucions postoperatòries. Alguns dels problemes no son coneguts, altres problemes s'han conegut mitjançant els problemes ocorreguts. Actualment, les instruccions dels localitzadors electrònics d’àpex i els piezoelèctrics contraindiquen la seva utilització en pacients portadors de marcapassos, però, aquesta preocupació pel que fa a efectes possibles negatius, està basada en l'especulació sobre el risc potencial de les interferències electro...

  2. Nota complementar sobre o famoso chute de Pelé

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, G.F. Leal

    2005-01-01

    Baseado nos dados levantados e calculados em recente artigo publicado nesta revista, de autoria de C.E. Aguiar e G. Rubini [1] sobre o famoso chute de Pelé na Copa do Mundo do México de 1970, obtem-se a posição em que a impulsão foi aplicada à bola. Based on monitored and calculated data performed in recent article published in this journal, by C.E. Aguiar and G. Rubini [1] about the famous Pelé kick in the 1970 Mexico World Cup, the position where the impulse was applied on the ball is ca...

  3. Notas sobre tres especies de Gigartinaceae (Rhodophyta del litoral peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Calderón

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La gran variabilidad morfológica de la familia Gigartinaceae ha producido constantes cambios taxonómicos en sus especies miembros. Tradicionalmente su taxonomía ha estado basada en caracteres de la morfología externa; sin embargo, recientes estudios morfológicos, respaldados con trabajos moleculares, han delimitado los géneros en base a al desarrollo del cistocarpo y de los tetrasporangios. El presente trabajo revisa y comenta sobre las estructuras morfológicas vegetativas y reproductivas de tres especies presentes en Perú: Chondracanthus chamissoi, Mazzaella denticulata y Chondrus canaliculatus.

  4. Regimen de propiedad sobre recursos genericos y conocimiento tradicional

    OpenAIRE

    Nemogá Soto, Gabriel R.

    2013-01-01

    Este artículo expone los cambios históricos que se han dado en relación con la propiedad, el control y el acceso a los recursos genéticos. Desde su consideración como patrimonio común de la humanidad, los derechos sobre el material y la información genética han sufrido profundas transformaciones. El marco jurídico internacional concerniente a estos derechos se ha transformado para legitimar y promover su apropiación y monopolización. Parte de esta transformación fue la expansión de derecho...

  5. Narrativas sobre conjugalidade de mulheres que se relacionam com crossdressers

    OpenAIRE

    Vencato, Anna Paula

    2017-01-01

    Resumo: Este texto discute dados coletados em pesquisa com mulheres que se identificam como “esposas” ou “S/O’s” de homens que “praticam crossdressing”. É, também, um desdobramento de minha tese de Doutorado, sobre como homens que se identificam como crossdressers negociam esta prática em suas vidas cotidianas. A pesquisa parte de uma etnografia e é complementada por entrevistas semiestruturadas com estas mulheres. Busca-se compreender como elas lidam com as tensões relativas às convenções so...

  6. Declaración sobre la Crisis Migratoria Mundial

    OpenAIRE

    Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio Javier; Alarcón, Renato; Rohlof, Hans

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta una versión resumida de la Declaración sobre la Crisis Migratoria Mundial (1), suscrita por la Asociación Mundial de Psiquiatría Cultural en el marco del Congreso Desafíos globales y psiquiatría cultural: Desastres naturales, conflictos, inseguridad, migración y espiritualidad -sostenido en Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, del 29 de octubre al 2 de noviembre de 2015-. El tema principal abordado por la declaración es la actual crisis migratoria mundial, causada, e...

  7. Declaración sobre la Crisis Migratoria Mundial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta una versión resumida de la Declaración sobre la Crisis Migratoria Mundial (1), suscrita por la Asociación Mundial de Psiquiatría Cultural en el marco del Congreso Desafíos globales y psiquiatría cultural: Desastres naturales, conflictos, inseguridad, migración y espiritualidad —sostenido en Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, del 29 de octubre al 2 de noviembre de 2015—.  El tema principal abordado por la declaración es la actual crisis migratoria mundial, causad...

  8. Aplicaciones sobre plataformas de redes neuronales en tiempo real

    OpenAIRE

    Tosini, Marcelo Alejandro; Acosta, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende el diseño de una metodología para la construcción de aplicaciones basadas en redes neuronales sobre una plataforma Muren. Las aplicaciones se restringen a sistemas de control y reconocimiento de patrones por imágenes. Se describe la arquitectura del sistema de desarrollo Muren, basado en 2 procesadores ZISC de 78 neuronas cada uno, una FPGA Spartan II, bancos de memoria y lógica adicional de comunicación.

  9. Tendências de pesquisas brasileiras sobre mulheres mastectomizadas

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Elisângela Braga de; Bezerra, Pollyana Amorim Ponce de Leon; Neto, José Melquiades Ramalho; Bustorff, Leila Alcina Correia Vaz; Souto, Cláudia Maria Ramos Medeiros

    2012-01-01

    Objetivou-se analisar as tendências das pesquisas realizadas no Brasil sobre mulheres mastectomizadas. Trata-se de um estudo bibliográfico de abordagem quantitativa, realizado de 15 de junho a 31 de julho de 2009. Para coleta dos dados empíricos utilizou-se um instrumento estruturado, posteriormente os dados foram tabulados, analisados, transformados em porcentagens e agrupados em uma tabela para facilitar a visualização das informações. A amostra foi constituída por resumos adquiridos atravé...

  10. Segurança e estudos sobre a paz

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Abel Cabral

    2000-01-01

    O autor começa por expor sucintamente as principais teorias sobre a origem da guerra: teleológicas, bio-sociológicas e evolucionistas, equacionando de seguida três modelos de relacionamento entre a segurança e a paz: equilíbrio estratégico, segurança colectiva e Governo mundial. Até fim da Guerra Fria o Sistema Internacional era, essencialmente, um sistema de relacionamento interestatal, sendo que o problema da segurança se reportava à segurança entre Estados. O autor caracteriza ...

  11. Material audiovisual sobre el mausoleo del mambisado guantanamero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vidal Gamayo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available El material está relacionado con la historia de la provincia Guantánamo, específicamente el mausoleo al mambisado, y es resultado de varias investigaciones relacionadas por parte de estudiantes y trabajadores de la Universidad de Ciencias Pedagógicas “Raúl Gómez García”. Aparecen los hechos históricos acontecidos el 24 de febrero de 1895 en La Confianza, con una descripción de las reliquias históricas sobre la guerra de independencia.

  12. Producción cepalina sobre educación

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Díaz Ortega

    2005-01-01

    El siguiente trabajo presenta una visión global del conjunto de la producción de la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL) sobre educación, mediante la clasificación y análisis de las publicaciones cepalinas relacionadas con el tema educativo desde 1949 hasta 2002. Para dar esa visión dividí los documentos bajo tres criterios temporales y bajo cuatro clasificaciones. Los criterios temporales fueron: anualmente, en dos periodos (1949-1976 y 1977-2002) y en seis etapas (1949...

  13. Seis Tesis no convencionales sobre participación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kliksberg

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Si bien hasta hace pocos años la participación generaba mucha polémica, actualmente se esta transformando en un consenso y gran parte de los organismos internacionales la están adoptando como estrategia de acción. Este trabajo plantea una serie de tesis sobre aspectos claves del tema. El objetivo no es dar un tratamiento exhaustivo a ninguno de los temas planteados, sino estimular el análisis colectivo de la misma.

  14. Stuart Hall sobre raza y racismo: estudios culturales y la práctica del contextualismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Grossberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo de Stuart Hall sobre la raza no puede separarse de su trabajo sobre los estudios culturales, y en particular, de su compromiso con un contextualismo radical. En este artículo, argumento que la obra de Stuart Hall sobre raza y racismo en el contexto de su compromiso de larga data con una práctica radicalmente contextualista y con la noción de la especificidad histórica en particular.

  15. Seguridad en redes y sistemas : Técnicas y conceptos sobre hacking y pentesting

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Jiménez, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    El siguiente documento trata sobre seguridad informática. Se detallarán técnicas y conceptos sobre seguridad en redes y sistemas, pentesting y auditorías de seguridad. El següent document tracta sobre seguretat informàtica. Es detallaran tècniques i conceptes sobre seguretat en xarxes i sistemes, pentesting i auditories de seguretat. The following document is about computer security. Techniques and network security concepts and systems, pentesting and safety practices will be described....

  16. Celulas solares e sensores de filme fino de silicio depositados sobre substratos flexiveis =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Emilio Sergio Marins Vieira

    Celulas solares flexiveis de filmes finos de silicio sao geralmente fabricadas a baixa temperatura sobre substratos de plastico ou a mais elevadas temperaturas sobre folhas de aco. Esta tese reporta o estudo da deposicao de filmes finos sobre diferentes substratos de plastico, transparentes e coloridos, para celulas solares do tipo sobrestrato e substrato, respectivamente. Como objetivo co-lateral, os filmes dopados depositados sobre plastico foram usados como sensores de deformacao, utilizando as suas propriedades piezo-resistivas. Elevadas taxas de deposicao dos filmes de silicio depositados sobre plastico foram obtidas a baixa temperatura do substrato (150ºC) por rf-PECVD. A influencia de diferentes parametros de deposicao sobre as propriedades e taxa de deposicao dos filmes resultantes foram estudados e correlacionados. Celulas solares de filmes finos de silicio amorfo e microcristalino foram desenvolvidas a baixas temperaturas sobre plasticos. Eficiencias de 5 - 6.5% foram alcancadas para as celulas amorfas e 7.5% para as celulas microcristalinas. Efeitos de aprisionamento da luz foram estudados atraves da texturizacao por ablacao laser de substratos de plastico e corrosao umida de TCO sobre plastico. Filmes finos de silicio microcristalino, depositados por HW-CVD, com fator piezoresistivo de -32.2, foram usados para fabricar sensores de deformacao em uma membrana plastica muito fina (15 μm). Estruturas de teste em textil e a miniaturizacao dos sensores piezoresistivos depositados sobre substratos flexiveis de poliimida foram abordados.

  17. [The distribution of intestinal parasites in people admitted to the Yüzüncü Yıl University Parasitology Laboratory of Health Research and Training Hospital, in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Hasan; Taş-Cengiz, Zeynep; Ceylan, Abdulkadir; Ekici, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to present the distribution of intestinal parasites in parients admitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital of Yüzüncü Yıl University in 2009. A total of 6267 patients (3037 female, 3230 male; 3798 of 13 years and under, 2469 of 14 years and over) were included. The stool samples were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and sedimentation methods in the Parasitology Laboratory of the hospital. Trichrome and modified acid-fast staining methods were also applied to suspicious stools. One or more than one parasite species were found in 28.5% of 6267 examined stool samples. Parasitosis was determined in 28% of female and 29% of male. Distribution of the parasites determined in the patients was as follows: 15.4% Blastocystis hominis, 6.6% Giardia intestinalis, 4.9% Entamoeba coli, 3.2% plenty B. hominis, 1.7% Chilomastix mesnili, 1.3% Hymenolepis nana, 0.7% Iodamoeba butschlii, 0.5% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.1% Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 0.1% Endolimax nana, 0.1% Enteromonas hominis, 0.1% Trichomonas hominis, 0.1% Cyclospora cayetanensis, 0.1% Enterobius vermicularis, 0.03% Entamoeba hartmanni, 0.03% Dicrocoelium dendriticum,0.03% Taenia saginata and 0.02% Trichuris trichiura. This research shows that the intestinal parasitosis problem still continues in the province.

  18. Análisis sobre consumo de carne porcina en la Argentina : relevamiento sobre una población seleccionada

    OpenAIRE

    Marchese, Nicolás Gaspar; Alippe, María Victoria; Vieites, Carlos María; López, María Virginia; De Caro, Adriana E. J.

    2002-01-01

    p.179-184 La carne porcina es la de mayor consumo en el mundo; en la Argentina tiene baja incidencia en el consumo total de carnes, especialmente en estado fresco. Se carece de antecedentes publicados para determinar las causas culturales y/o de información que provocan este comportamiento. Se realizó una encuesta de opinión sobre preferencias en el consumo de carnes, utilizando el Muestreo Aleatorio Estratificado con muestras de la población de la Facultad de Agronomía (UBA). No se observ...

  19. La ceguera como motivo en Ensayo sobre la ceguera de José Saramago e Informe sobre ciegos de Ernesto Sábato

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Marco Antonio

    2008-01-01

    El trabajo de investigación, El motivo de la ceguera en el Ensayo sobre la ceguera de José Saramago e Informe sobre ciegos de Ernesto Sábato, analiza desde el área y la metodología de la literatura comparada el uso del motivo literario de la ceguera en los dos textos mencionados, resaltando las similitudes y diferencias del tratamiento del motivo dentro de las dos obras y como éste sostiene una serie de obsesiones e ideas sobre el estado actual del mundo que comparten los autores de las dos n...

  20. Familias reconstituidas: Un estudio sobre las nuevas estructuras familiares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABEL ESPINAR FELLMANN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En la mayoría de las investigaciones sobre la familia, los estudios se han centrado en las familias intactas o primeras familias. Sin embargo, es cada vez mayor el número de familias cuya configuración incluye un segundo matrimonio e hijos de una unión anterior (i.e. familias reconstituidas. En la consolidación del complejo proceso de ajuste de estas familias se han identificado unas fuentes comunes de estrés relacionadas principalmente con la formación de un nuevo sistema familiar. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar una revisión de las variables que inciden en el bienestar y/o malestar psicológico sobre una muestra de padrastros y madrastras españoles en el seno de estas nuevas configuraciones familiares. En una primera fase se realizaron, desde un diseño cualitativo, 20 entrevistas en profundidad a una muestra de padrastros y madrastras. En una segunda fase, se diseñó un cuestionario que fue respondido por 77 sujetos con la finalidad de analizar la posible relación entre alguna de las variables estudiadas.

  1. A etnografia das ruas: notas sobre estudar e ser estudado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecht, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Passeando entre as notas e as lembranças de dois períodos distintos de trabalho de campo, este ensaio "impressionista" trata da dinâmica em mudança de uma relação de pesquisa com crianças de rua. Em 1992-1993, conduzi trabalho de campo para uma dissertação sobre crianças de rua no nordeste brasileiro. Retornando à região seis anos mais tarde, descobri que a maioria das crianças estudadas apenas uma fração de geração antes estavam então mortas. Estas anotações enfocam minhas conversas com um dos sobreviventes e com quem (e sobre quem estou agora escrevendo uma biografia. Esse esforço colaborativo, voltado de certo modo a reconsiderar as implicações éticas da pesquisa com crianças que levam vidas violentas e vulneráveis, levanta uma gama de novos desafios éticos, alguns dos quais inteiramente imprevistos

  2. Notas sobre palmas colombianas y una del Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1941-11-01

    Full Text Available Por mucho tiempo se ha creído que la palma de moriche de los Llanos orientales, en la región del Meta, era la Mauritia flexuosa L. f., especie típica del genero y originaria de Surinam. Al menos todas las obras botánicas publicadas por autores colombianos sobre la flora de nuestro país coinciden en la identificación anotada, incluso mi reciente trabajo sobre las Palmas de Colombia (Caldasia: 1: 22 y 32. 1940. Sin embargo, en este último trabajo, -que no es más que una nómina preliminar de las palmas descritas o señaladas en Colombia mientras adelanto su estudio sistemático en detalle, -identifiqué como Mauritia minor Burret unos frutos procedentes del Meta y sólo incluía la M. flexuosa ateniéndome a los autores que había consultado, suponiendo que ellos estarían en lo cierto respecto a la existencia de esta especie en Colombia, ya que no contaba yo con material autentico colombiano de la misma. Creía pues que realmente existieran ambas especies, M. flexuosa L.f.. y M. minor Burret, en nuestros Llanos, pero circunstancias recientes han venido a rectificar mi criterio.

  3. Apontamentos para o debate sobre o pleno emprego no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Mansor de Mattos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste artigo analisa a evolução dos indicadores de emprego e de desemprego na economia brasileira desde o início dos anos 2000 até os dados referentes a 2012, tomando como referências teóricas a formulação de Keynes sobre o desemprego involuntário e também os estudos sobre a dinâmica das relações entre setor formal e setor informal dos mercados de trabalho formulados por autores ligados ao Prealc. O artigo apresenta um exercício econométrico (que teve por base a função emprego de Keynes explicada pelo Princípio da Demanda Efetiva que revela que o crescimento do emprego é uma função positiva do crescimento econômico. Dados adicionais mostram que, a despeito do crescimento da ocupação e da formalização do emprego ocorrida no período, com consequente queda da taxa de desemprego para patamares historicamente baixos, a economia brasileira não conseguiu, segundo as referências teóricas adotadas, atingir o pleno emprego ao final do período analisado, devido à persistência de parcela expressiva de mão de obra subutilizada no mercado de trabalho.

  4. Sobre el uso de conceptos comprensivos en los Ciencias Sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS NÚÑEZ LADEVÉZE

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan los conceptos particulares, que describen la diversidad de los datos, y los conceptos generales, que se ocupan de los valores de las variables. En Ciencias Naturales, la generalización es el objetivo del conocimiento ; sin embargo, en las Ciencias Sociales, lo que se persigue es la consistencia del significado de los datos, mientras que la generalización es sólo un medio de conocimiento. D. Bell, en The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society, interpreta conjuntamente lo peculiar de la individualidad, del intérprete, del texto, de la acción o el conjunto de acciones, y de los contextos institucionales, sociales e históricos. Los estudios modernos de Pragmática y crítica textual aportan nuevas nociones sobre el texto como un producto de la actividad del intérprete, y sobre el contexto como el medio en el cual se realiza la actividad. Una ciencia social orientada hacia las ciencias del espíritu puede basarse en esos instrumentos teóricos. La Filosofía, la Sociología del Lenguaje, las teorías de la acción y el texto se unifican en una ciencia conjunta de alcance social e histórico.

  5. Comportamento da cajazeira enxertada sobre umbuzeiro em Pacajus-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Francisco Xavier de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A cajazeira é uma fruteira da família Anacardiaceae, explorada extrativamente, cujos frutos são nuculânios amarelos, de sabor agridoce, perfumados, ricos em carotenóides, açúcares, vitaminas A e C, denominados de taperebá, cajá-mirim ou cajá e muito utilizados na alimentação humana. Os problemas mais limitantes ao cultivo da cajazeira são a inexistência de clones recomendados para cultivo comercial e o elevado porte da planta. A cajazeira enxertada sobre umbuzeiro apresenta compatibilidade e afinidade entre as partes enxertadas e pouco interfere na forma de crescimento da planta, que é muito semelhante à de planta oriunda de semente, ou seja, tendência em formar caule de haste única e copa alta. A cultura ainda exige estudos sobre as modalidades e épocas de realização das podas para o controle do crescimento da planta e formação de copas que se enquadrem dentro de modelos de exploração intensiva.

  6. Nuevas reflexiones sobre la Posgerontología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Iacub

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La Posgerontología plantea una lectura epistemológica, crítica y política sobre los relatos con los que se construye el envejecimiento y la vejez desde la gerontología. En este artículo se analizará crítica y políticamente a la gerontología, tanto como un objeto cultural exótico - por su pretensión omnicomprensiva -, como por ser un campo de conocimientos cuyos presupuestos explícitos e implícitos inciden sobre su objeto de estudio. Estos factores ponen en consideración los ajustes que debe realizar todo campo de conocimiento frente a los cambios que le imprime el contexto. Así como también expresan la necesidad de dar cuenta de los efectos de la realidad que construyen en las diversas formas de saber y en las prácticas sociales.

  7. Sobre fuentes, temporalidad y escritura de la historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Colmenares

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Una exposición sobre métodos históricos no puede reducirse a una mera colección de recetas sobre la manera como debe conducirse una investigación desde el momento en que se selecciona un tema monográfico, se localizan las fuentes aprovechables y se someten a variados procedimientos críticos y cuantitativos, hasta cuando se acomete la empresa final de la presentación narrativa o analítica de los resultados. Cada uno de estos pasos ha recibido un énfasis diferente en diferentes épocas, tipificando así una escuela o toda una manera de concebir la tarea historiográfica. El primero de ellos, por ejemplo, no parece recelar mayores dificultades. Sin embargo, cuando en él se considera incluido el planteamiento de un problema y la identificación de los elementos que lo constituyen, entonces resulta encerrar el mayor número de cuestiones teóricas.

  8. Letalidad de hongos entomopatogenos sobre Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pirrhocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Falconi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la patogenicidad y virulencia sobre Dysdercus peruvianus de una cepa de Acremonium y una de Scopulariopsis, aisladas de adultos infectados de D. peruvianus procedentes de Mala, Provincia de Cañete. También se evaluó una cepa de Beauveria sp. aislada de Schistocerca piceifrons peruviana procedente de Ayacucho. Los bioensayos se realizaron sobre ninfas del cuarto estadío de D. peruvianus y las concentraciones empleadas fueron 3,7x108, 1,9x108, 9,4x107 conidias/mL para Beauveria sp., Acremonium sp. y Scopulariopsis sp. respectivamente. Veinte días posteriores al tratamiento, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad los causaron Beauveria sp. (83,3% y Acremonium sp. (80%. Scopulariopsis sp. causo una mortalidad de 23,3%. Acremonium sp. fue la cepa más agresiva con un tiempo de letalidad (TL50 3,8 días.

  9. Algumas anedotas sobre Demóstenes: uma releitura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena Vallozza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitas das anedotas sobre Demóstenes estão relacionados a seus problemas de voz e a suas dificuldades no momento da hypokrisis. Eu proponho uma reinterpretação das páginas em que eles nos são transmitidos: de Quintiliano (11, 3, a principal testemunha, a Cícero (Orator 26 e 56-58, Brutus 142, De Oratore I 261 e III 213, do autor da seção sobre Demóstenes nas Vidas dos Dez Oradores (844 d-845 b à Vida de Demóstene, de Plutarco. Com base nisso, particularmente graças a Plutarco, que cita Hermipo e Demétrio de Fáleros, é possível formular a hipótese de que a tradição nasceu no Perípato, na área de interesses pela hypokrisis que demonstram o perdido Perì hypokríseos de Teofrasto e os fragmentos da Retórica de Demétrio de Fáleros.

  10. EFECTOS DEL MERCURIO SOBRE ALGUNAS PLANTAS ACUÁTICAS TROPICALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Isabel Posada

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es una descripción de los efectos del mercurio sobre algunas plantas acuáticas tropicales y sobre los ecosistemas donde habitan. Adicionalmente, se recomienda un protocolo para realizar pruebas de toxicidad con la lenteja de agua (Lemna minor y se presentan los resultados de los preensayos con diferentes concentraciones de sales de mercurio en condiciones de laboratorio. Se encontró que la biodisponibilidad del mercurio depende de factores que facilitan la disolución del elemento en el agua. Algunas plantas actúan como bioindicadores de la presencia de este metal en el medio al retenerlo selectivamente; mientras que otras se comportan como bioacumuladoras al tolerar su presencia y acumularlo en su estructura, y pueden dar paso a la bioconcentración a través de la cadena trófica. De acuerdo con los preensayos de toxicidad realizados con Lemna minor se sugiere que las concentraciones de sal de mercurio adecuadas para la realización de pruebas de toxicidad deben estar entre 0,01 mg/L y 10,0 mg/L.

  11. Deus sobre as pedras: Guilherme Figueiredo em Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Amaral Rocha de Meneses

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1963 e 1964, Guilherme Figueiredo – teatrólogo, romancista e crítico de teatro brasileiro – fez uma viagem a Israel, na época uma ainda jovem nação de quinze anos. Essa viagem resultou em Deus sôbre as pedras: Israel, publicado em 1965. O livro contém assuntos variados relativos a Israel, desde explicações sobre a formação do Estado, crítica teatral de autores israelenses e explicação sobre como são constituídos os kibutzim. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar este relato, tomando por base: as descrições dos locais históricos visitados pelo autor, a critica e a interpretação da cultura nacional israelense em formação e os diálogos e encontros que Figueiredo mantem com brasileiros que viviam em Israel – conversas nas quais o principal assunto era a comparação entre a cultura brasileira e a cultura israelense em formação.

  12. Precisiones sobre la luz en el Pantheon de Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Linares de la Torre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El Pantheon de Adriano es una de las obras más celebradas de la historia de la arquitectura. Han sido muchas las cuestiones que han cautivado a cuantos han entrado en él, pero es la luz la que ha acaparado el mayor protagonismo: una vez despojado el edificio de su originaria carga simbólica, la manifestación de su luz interior parece ser el único fin de este inmenso espacio-luz que tanto ha fascinado a arquitectos, historiadores del arte, pintores y fotógrafos. Parece difícil poder aportar nada nuevo. Consciente de ello, el autor del presente artículo sólo pretende apuntar algunas cuestiones sobre distintos aspectos de la luz en el Pantheon que considera que no han sido aún suficientemente desarrolladas: el por qué de la orientación solar y urbana del templo con respecto al eje norte-sur; la reconstrucción de la secuencia de luz y sombra que debió de darse en el recorrido original de acceso al interior del templo; la interpretación del haz de luz ocular como reminiscencia inmaterial del soporte central de las falsas cúpulas etruscas, convertida en una columna de materia sutil que, sin alcanzar nunca la vertical, incide de manera variada sobre los paramentos que conforman el interior.

  13. "Sobre muros e jardins": poesia e videodança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2014v10n1p187 Neste trabalho propomos uma análise semiótica da videodança “Sobre Muros e Jardins”, promovido pelos Grupos de Pesquisa parceiros COMTE do Posling-CEFET-MG e CCODA da UFMG. Este vídeo foi produzido a partir do poema homônimo de Olga Valeska "Sobre Muros e Jardins", presente no seu livro Mundos e Mutações. Como tradução semiótica ele envolve distintas linguagens como a literária, a fílmica e a dança. Nosso objetivo é verificar como tais linguagens foram transpostas para o gênero “vídeodança”, em um processo dinâmico de mutação entre distintas texturas de imagens, sons e movimentos rítmicos.

  14. UM “ENTENDIMENTO DO ENTENDIMENTO”: OLHAR SOBRE OSABER LOCAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Espindula dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Primeiramente quero justificar minha opção por fazer uma síntese-resenha do livro O Saber Local: novos ensaios em antropologia interpretativa, de Clifford Geertz. A escolha se deu pela inquietação que o mesmo provocou no momento de sua leitura, o referido ensaio contribuiu de forma significante para o meu processo de (in maturação acadêmica, pessoal e de pesquisadora. A intenção é destacar os pontos mais relevantes do livro, lançar um olhar sobre algumas questões problematizadas pelo autor. Apesar de não utilizar a hermenêutica interpretativa proposta por Geertz em minha pesquisa, a mesma possibilitou muitas ideias acerca de como proceder enquanto pesquisadora, no trato que devo ter para com o meu objeto, um trato respeitoso, atencioso, aberto, com um olhar afinado para as questões que o cerca, bem como o uso de analogias para analisar determinados fatos. Destaco que o meu olhar sobre este ensaio também reflete as discussões calorosas que realizamos em sala de aula acerca do mesmo, bem como dos momentos em que analisamos os projetos de pesquisas dos colegas da turma, apesar de não me deter neste aspecto. Assim sendo, vou seguir basicamente a divisão proposta pelo ensaísta nesta obra, refletindo acerca do que mais me inquietou neste ensaio...

  15. Sobre la teoría impura del derecho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Rojas Betancourt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La reseña hecha al libro del profesor Diego López, la Teoría impura del derecho, muestra algunos aspectos que debilitan la novedosa e importante tesis allí sostenida sobre la transformación de la teoría jurídica en Latinoamérica. En especial, señala que la particular apreciación de López sobre algunos tópicos kelsenianos deja demasiado expuesta la demostración que respecto de Kelsen proporciona como ejemplo de transformación teórica en Colombia. El reparo central radica en que la construcción hecha por López de lo que se denominaría regla de tanteo de la Teoría Transnacional del Derecho, TTD, toma como base una versión formalizada y no crítica de esta. Al hacerlo, López cae en la misma trampa que pretende mostrar como característica de la transformación local y que, conforme a la lectura estándar de cierta TTD, debe señalarse como incorrecta.

  16. Considerações sobre cuidado paliativo e trabalho hospitalar: uma abordagem plural sobre o processo de trabalho de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de Simoni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar o esforço de síntese dos autores sobre material de pesquisa em cuidados paliativos e bibliografia estudada. Inicialmente, apresentamos algumas considerações sobre cuidado paliativo em dois países estruturalmente distintos, Brasil e França. A discussão está centrada nas experiências de pesquisa dos autores em um serviço de AIDS no Brasil e em um serviço de Medicina Interna na França, que adotava a lógica dos cuidados paliativos e abrigava predominantemente pacientes com AIDS e câncer. Abordamos, em seguida, aspectos referidos à dor e à morte, considerando conceitos da Bioética e a dimensão relacional do cuidado em saúde. Os conceitos assinalados são os de justiça, autonomia, beneficência e não-maleficência. Concluímos, apresentando algumas possíveis contribuições da Ergonomia e da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho na área de Cuidados Paliativos, considerando especialmente a dimensão psicológica deste debate.

  17. Contabilidad de Costos I. - Problemas sobre contabilización de las actividades relacionadas con los materiales

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo Moreno, Marysela C.

    2008-01-01

    ÍNDICE Introducción Problemas sobre terminología básica Problemas básicos sobre el Ciclo de la Contabilidad de Costos Problemas sobre contabilización de las actividades relacionadas con los materiales Problemas sobre la contabilización de las actividades relacionadas con la mano de obra Problemas sobre la contabilización de las actividades relacionadas con los costos indirectos de fabricación Problemas sobre el Ciclo de la Contabilida...

  18. Contabilidad de Costos I. - Problemas sobre la contabilización de las actividades relacionadas con la mano de obra

    OpenAIRE

    Morillo Moreno, Marysela C.

    2008-01-01

    ÍNDICE Introducción Problemas sobre terminología básica Problemas básicos sobre el Ciclo de la Contabilidad de Costos Problemas sobre contabilización de las actividades relacionadas con los materiales Problemas sobre la contabilización de las actividades relacionadas con la mano de obra Problemas sobre la contabilización de las actividades relacionadas con los costos indirectos de fabricación Problemas sobre el Ciclo de la Contabilida...

  19. Eflorescencias y costras sobre areniscas de Villamayor. Ensayos de laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madruga, F.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated tests carried out in the laboratory allow us to study the crystalline material settled over the surface of the sandstones when in contact with watery solutions of different compositions. Sandstone specimens of three different textures were placed on trays containing watery solutions, putting one surface in contact with the liquid. In order to accelarate the capillary absorption, a flow of air was established over the opposite surfaces. The humidity and dryness cycles were repeated 45 times. The crystallized salts were identified by X-ray diffraction, SEM and chemical microanalysis by X-rays dispersive energy. The following results were obtained: gypsum, hexahydrite, picromerite, natrone, arcanite in saline solutions; trone, aftitalite, and presence of gypsy m in cement solutions; gypsum and syngenite in the guano solution test. These salts are analogous to those found in the superficially damaged stones of the Cathedral of Salamanca.

    Ensayos acelerados realizados en el laboratorio, permiten estudiar el material cristalino depositado sobre la superficie de areniscas cuando están en contacto con disoluciones acuosas de diferente composición. Probetas de areniscas de tres texturas diferentes se colocan sobre bandejas que contienen las disoluciones acuosas, de tal forma que una de las superficies esté en contacto con el líquido. Sobre las superficies opuestas se establece una corriente de aire que acelere la absorción capilar del líquido. Ciclos de humedad y secado se repiten 45 veces. Las sales cristalizadas se identifican por difracción de rayos-X, SEM y microanálisis químico por energía dispersiva de rayos-X. Los resultados son los siguientes; yeso, hexahidrita, picromerita, natrón y arcanita cuando se trata de disoluciones salinas; trona, aftitalita y presencia de yeso cuando la disolución es de cemento; yeso y syngenita en el ensayo con disolución de guano. Estas sales son análogas a las encontradas en las

  20. Estudos sobre a toxicologia da ε-caprolactama

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    Marcus Vinicius Justo Bomfim

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A ε-caprolactama (CAP é um monômero precursor de polímeros denominados nylon 6. Esses polímeros destinam-se à produção de tapetes, vestuário e materiais plásticos tais como equipamentos, sistemas e componentes automotivos, conectores, além de embalagens plásticas. Resíduos de CAP podem migrar de embalagens plásticas de nylon 6 para os alimentos. Diante disso, foi de interesse realizar uma revisão dos efeitos relativos à exposição à CAP e o seu impacto sobre a saúde humana. Estudos epidemiológicos indicam a possibilidade da CAP causar inflamações oculares e cutâneas, além de irritações no sistema respiratório. Pode ocorrer ainda hipotensão, taquicardia, palpitações, rinorréia, ressecamento nasal, efeitos geniturinários e sobre a reprodução como distúrbios nas funções menstrual e ovariana, e complicações no parto; além de problemas neurológicos e hematológicos. Estudos com animais são consistentes com tais relatos. Os estudos de genotoxicidade in vitro e in vivo por via oral e intraperitoneal mostram em sua grande maioria, resultados negativos, bem como ausência de efeitos carcinogênicos em ratos e camundongos e sobre o desenvolvimento e reprodução em ratos e coelhos.ε -Caprolactam (CAP is a precursor monomer of nylon 6 polymers. Nylon 6 is used in the manufacture of carpets, clothes and plastic materials, such as equipment, systems and automotive components, connectors and plastic packaging. CAP residues can migrate from nylon 6 plastic packaging to foods. Given this fact, this review was realized concerning the effects of CAP exposure and its impact on human health. Epidemiological studies indicate that CAP could cause ocular, cutaneous and respiratory irritations, as well as hypotension, tachycardia, palpitations, rhinorrhea, nose dryness, neurological and blood problems, and genitourinary and reproductive effects, such as alterations in ovarian-menstrual functions and pregnancy

  1. O impacto do uso de ADRs sobre o valor de empresas brasileiras : um estudo de evento

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Investiga o impacto do uso de ADRs sobre o valor de empresas brasileiras e a eficiência do mercado de capitais. Aborda as hipóteses que podem explicar este impacto e compara os resultados deste estudo com os de outras pesquisas efetuadas no Brasil e sobre ações de outros países.

  2. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    Science.gov (United States)

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  3. Reinventar un héroe: narrativas sobre los soldados rasos de la Guerra de Corea

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga Cubides, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación se pregunta sobre las diferentes narrativas históricas que se han construido sobre la figura de los soldados rasos de la guerra de Corea, y por cómo ellos han generado estrategias en su relato que se ajustan a unos procesos históricos determinados.

  4. Nuevo puente sobre el río Ganges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarwal

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se ha puesto en servicio un nuevo puente sobre el río Ganges, a unos cinco kilómetros aguas abajo de la estación ferroviaria de Mokameh Ghat, del Estado de Bihar, en la India. La obra consta de 14 tramos principales, de unos 120 m, aproximadamente, de luz cada uno, y 4 tramos, dos en cada extremidad, de 30 m de luz, que constituyen un total de 1.820 m de longitud. El puente tiene dos tableros: el superior, de 7,30 m de anchura, destinado a un paso de carretera, y el inferior, convenientemente separado, para el paso de un ferrocarril. Entre la parte inferior del puente y el nivel de aguas se ha dejado una altura libre de 10,50 m para el paso de la navegación fluvial.

  5. Apuntes para hilvanar una historia sobre las mujeres

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    Teresa Fallas Arias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Para abordar la historia sobre las mujeres debe considerarse que fue escrita por los varones, fuente plagada de prejuicios, de estereotipos y reproductora de la retórica androcéntrica que convirtió la diferencia sexual femenina en desigualdad e inferioridad. En esta indagación se valora la diferencia sexual como complementariedad y riqueza, pues posibilita la puesta en escena de los lenguajes y los saberes menospreciados, invisibilizados o anulados durante milenios. Pensar a la mitad de la humanidad en estos tiempos, implica rechazar la historia unívoca e idéntica que ocultó las experiencias de las mujeres, para contarlas sin intermediarios e intérpretes proclives a la historia institucionalizada.

  6. Apuntes sobre historia empresarial: Relatos de algunas experiencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elber Berdugo Cotera

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente articulo tiene como objetivo mostrar la importancia de la Historia Empresarial y la constitución de una línea de investigación para el entendimiento de la historia del país y la comprensión de las principales características de nuestros empresarios tanto en el ámbito regional como en el nacional. Se trata igualmente, de dar cuenta de los aspectos teóricos y metodológicos utilizados en la investigación sobre el estudio de caso de Servientrega y sus gestores, lo mismo que de los principales hallazgos encontrados en ella. Por último, señalar cómo ésta clase de experiencias pueden resultar enriquecedoras para aquellas personas que ejercen una función educativa empresarial o pretenden asumir como proyecto personal y familiar de vida ser empresarios.

  7. UNA PERSPECTIVA NEUROCIENTÍFICA SOBRE LA HISTERIA

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    Lucía Amoruso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la última década, el desarrollo y la puesta en marcha delas modernas técnicas de neuroimagen en el campo de laneurociencia cognitiva han proporcionado una nueva vía deacercamiento al estudio experimental de algunos trastornosmentales. Dentro de esta perspectiva, denominada por algunosautores “neuropsiquiatría cognitiva”, la histeria (o trastornode conversión, de acuerdo con la clasificación psiquiátricaactual ha cobrado un amplio protagonismo. De acuerdo conlo anterior, el objetivo del presente trabajo consiste en introducirestudios pioneros basados en una perspectiva neurocientíficade la histeria. Conviene destacar que, si bien estosaportan evidencia significativa sobre algunas de las áreascerebrales y las disfunciones cognitivas comprometidas enel mencionado trastorno, los resultados obtenidos a la fechadistan aún de ser concluyentes.

  8. Sobre la complejidad del Estado y las contrataciones administrativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Rodriguez García

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El tema de los contratos que celebra el Estado ha significado un tema de interés constante para el Derecho administrativo, debido a las particularidades que adoptan las figuras contractuales aplicadas en el sector público en el orden científico. Adicionalmente ese interés se ha incrementado con la ampliación del empleo de los contratos -con ocasión de los cambios operados por la globalización-. El enfoque que se ofrece a continuación apunta a la consideración de la complejidad presente en la acción pública, para así comprender mejor el entorno de los contratos públicos y su alcance, y obtener una clara perspectiva sobre lo que aporta el Derecho administrativo global.

  9. Percepciones sobre biotecnología en Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Huete-Pérez

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La biotecnología se ha convertido en un tema de controversia y disputa internacional. Para medir los niveles de aceptación de estas tecnologías en Nicaragua, el Instituto de Encuestas de Opinión de la Universidad Centroamericana (IDESO-UCA realizó recientemente un sondeo preliminar sobre asuntos de biotecnología e ingeniería genética entre miembros de la comunidad universitaria, representantes de ONG'S y de instituciones de gobierno. Los resultados señalan que en general hay una actitud positiva hacia la biotecnología y sus aplicaciones y que se espera que estas tecnologías contribuirán a mejorar las condiciones de vida del país.

  10. Reflexiones sobre la Reforma de la Seguridad Social en Salud.

    OpenAIRE

    José Felix Patiño Restrepo

    2002-01-01

    En el contexto de la ejecución de la Ley 100 de 1993, el enfoque intelectual de los problemas de salud es reemplazado por un enfoque económico, bajo el precepto neoliberal de convertir la atención de la salud en un bien de mercado y en un negocio con ánimo de lucro.

    Ello, sin duda, es una perversión de la moral social que tiene un profundo efecto sobre la estructura ética y deontológica de la medicina, porque lleva al médico a desatender su obligación hipocrática co...

  11. Conceptos actuales sobre el envejecimiento y la enfermedad cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pemberthy López

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha presentado un notable incremento en la proporción de población mayor de 65 años de edad, de la mano con el incremento de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, específicamente la enfermedad coronaria. No obstante, los mecanismos fisiopatológicos del envejecimiento y su relación con la salud cardiovascular son un campo de reciente investigación. Resulta fundamental conocer aspectos como: la teoría del acortamiento de telómeros, el papel de la actividad física, el endotelio y los mecanismos moleculares que participan en este proceso, pues ofrecerá herramientas para hacer un manejo acertado de este grupo poblacional, sobre el cual son pocos los estudios y la mayoría de las conductas son extrapoladas de grupos etarios con condiciones fisiológicas completamente diferentes.

  12. Algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre el liderazgo transformacional

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    Otilia Bracho Parra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tuvo como objetivo, realizar algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre el liderazgo transformacional, tomando como referencia los planteamientos de Bass y Avolio (2006, Velásquez (2006, Lerma (2007, Leithwood, Mascall y Strauss (2009, entre otros. El proceso metodológico implico revisión bibliográfica, a través de la hermenéutica. Concluyendo que el liderazgo transformacional implica convertir a los colaboradores en personas creativas, motivadas al logro, comprometidas e identificadas con la organización, además de inspirar en sus seguidores la participación, pensar en colectivo, esforzándose en alcanzar metas significativas, en pro de la misión y visión de la empresa.

  13. El proceso reproductivo: Algunas consideraciones sobre el maternaje

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    Ignacio González Labrador

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron una serie de consideraciones generales sobre el proceso reproductivo, y como una consecuencia de él se consolida un proceso llamado maternaje, conceptualizándose según criterio del autor, cómo puede influir en la vida sexual de la mujer. Se conceptualiza según las letras que componen la palabra que denomina dicho procesoA series of general considerations on the reproductive process as a result of which the so-called motherhood process is strengthened were presented in this paper. The author conceptualizes the influence of this process on the woman’s sexual life. The conceptualization is based on the letters of the word defining such a process

  14. Impacto das Competências de Equipes sobre o Desempenho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Puente-Palacios

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo As competências para o trabalho têm sido tradicionalmente compreendidas como atributos de indivíduos; entretanto, estudos mais recentes tornam pertinente defender a sua ocorrência como atributos coletivos. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar que competências individuais podem transformar-se em competências coletivas e, nesse nível, predizer o desempenho da equipe. A testagem empírica foi realizada em 51 aeródromos brasileiros, totalizando 106 equipes (entre 3 e 32 integrantes. Instrumentos respondidos pelos membros focaram nas competências enquanto os respondidos pelos lideres indagaram sobre o desempenho das equipes. Os resultados revelaram que as competências coletivas explicam aproximadamente 20% do desempenho das equipes. Disso depreende-se que as competências podem se manifestar como atributos coletivos que predizem resultados de equipes de trabalho.

  15. Cavilaciones sobre el interés simple

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor Cabeza de Vergara

    2010-01-01

    Como producto de las reflexiones sobre la conceptualización del interés simple surgieron dos preguntas a nivel de clase: ¿Por qué, bajo la modalidad del interés simple, el presente de cada una de las cuotas constantes vencidas no es igual al presente de la anualidad vencida?, y ¿Qué porción de una cuota vencida bajo el interés simple se asigna a interés y a capital? Para trabajar estos interrogantes se partió de un caso práctico y con el soporte conceptual de interés simple, series, serie arm...

  16. Reflexiones sobre ética mínima

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    Fernando Soto Aparicio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La ética puede definirse como un manual de convivencia, como un tratado de buenas maneras, como un compromiso para la tolerancia. Pero dada la diversidad de costumbres, creencias religiosas, enfoques políticos y maneras de vivir de los distintos pueblos de la tierra, generalizar sobre la ética es casi imposible. Por eso, si tratamos de una ética mínima, estamos refiriéndonos a la parte sustancial del vivir en comunidad; a las pequeñas circunstancias, a las elementales exigencias que posibilitan que pueblos disímiles se entiendan en lo primario, y aprendan a tolerarse y a buscar ámbitos de concordia por encima de sus diferencias

  17. Revestimientos asfálticos sobre bases continuas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberle, Karl

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of a meeting connected with research on road pavements, held at Konstance, in Germany, Dr. Eberle submitted for discussion and study two new methods for the construction of modern pavements. In general outline, the first of these methods consists in placing a layer of gravel, of about 18 cms depth, on top of the foundation base, after suitably treating the latter to protect it against frost. An asphaltic layer of much smaller depth is then placed on the gravel layer, which constitutes a flexible base. The asphaltic layer is the actual traffic pavement. The second method is similar to the first as regards the grading, box and foundation. The only difference is that cement mortar is applied to the gravel base, into the hollow spaces of which the mortar is made to penetrate. In both methods the top pavement is consolidated mechanically by means of suitable auxiliary equipment. The choice of one or other of the previous two methods depends on the results obtained from a general study of the location and quality of the available crushed stone, and on the facility to transport these materials to the prepared graded subbases. The author claims that the rational use of these methods gives good results, both technically and economically.Con motivo de celebrarse una reunión encargada de la investigación I sobre firmes para carreteras, verificada en Konstanz, Alemania, el autor expuso para su estudio y consideración dos nuevos métodos constructivos para afirmados modernos. El primero de estos métodos consiste, a grandes rasgos, en colocar una capa, de grava, de unos 18 cm de espesor, sobre la superficie de la base de cimiento, convenientemente tratada, para protegerla contra las heladas. Sobre esta capa, que constituye un firme flexible, se coloca otra asfáltica de mucho menor espesor, que sirve de rodadura. El segundo método es similar al anterior en lo que se refiere a la explanación, caja y cimiento; la única diferencia estriba en

  18. Notas sobre o autotelismo discursivo em ciências humanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Lopes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O Ateliê de Semiótica Discursiva, coordenado por Denis Bertrand, propôs focalizar, no ano letivo 1991-1992, a " Estética do Discurso Erudito", no quadro da temática "Estética da Ética" do Seminário de Semântica Geral, de A.J . Greimas, na Escola de Altos Estudos em Ciências Sociais de Paris (E. H. E. S. S.. Bertrand distribuiu cópias de trechos de textos célebres em ciências humanas (Lévi-Strauss, Deleuze e Guattari, Greimas, Barthes, Foucault e outros, sobre os quais os participantes deveriam realizar análises que tomassem como modelo, por exemplo, aquelas praticadas por Greimas e Landowski em lntroduction à L 'Analyse du Discours en Sciences Sociales ( 1979.

  19. Puente Kohlbrand Sobre el Elba Hamburgo -Alemania Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwab, Rudolf

    1976-02-01

    Full Text Available The suspension bridge, in the port of Hamburg, is one of the most important engineering works in northern Germany. The work is divided into three sectors: 1 The eastern accommodation ramp, 2,410 m long. 2 The bridge across the river bed, 520 m long. 3 The western accommodation ramp, -,050 meters. The bridge is 17.60 m wide and has four traffic lanes. Sectors 1 and 3 were solved by means of prestressed concrete superstructures, with one or two cell box girders. Sector 2 has a 325 m span between the two piers and a 54 m high and 150 m ship passage. The central piers that rise 130 m above the ground consist of a base of reinforced concrete and a 98 m high metallic part, formed by a box of bolted and subsequently welded beams. In the upper part of this last part are the connections for the suspension cables for the overhanging part of the bridge. The construction works were carried out beginning with sectors 1 and 3 on both sides of the river simultaneously. Once these were completed and the piers were raised, the work.El puente elevado de Kohlbrand, en el puerto de Hamburgo, es una de las obras de ingeniería más importantes de la parte norte de Alemania. La obra se divide en tres sectores: 1° La rampa este de acceso, de 2.410 m. 2° El puente sobre el cauce del río, de 520 m. 3° La rampa oeste de acceso, de 1.050 m. El puente tiene 17,60 m de anchura y cuatro carriles. Los sectores 1.» y 3.° se resolvieron mediante superestructuras de hormigón pretensado, con vigas cajón de una o dos células. El sector 2.° posee una luz de 325 m entre las dos pilas principales, y una altura útil de paso sobre el nivel del agua de 54 m en un ancho de 150 m. Las pilas centrales, de 130 m de altura sobre la cota del terreno, se hallan constituidas por una base de hormigón armado y una parte metálica de 98 m de altura, formada por un cajón de vigas atornilladas y posteriormente soldadas. En la parte superior de esta última se

  20. Una vez más sobre la eutanasia

    OpenAIRE

    Casado, María

    2008-01-01

    La discusión sobre la eutanasia continúa siendo una de las más candentes en el ámbito de la bioética. En este artículo, analizaremos el debate entre quienes rechazan la eutanasia amparándose en la santidad de la vida humana y quienes la defienden propugnando como ideas fundamentales la calidad de vida y la autonomía individual. Tras estas visiones enfrentadas, subyace una discusión más profunda entre una concepción antigua de los derechos humanos, basada en el respeto a un orden «natural» y u...

  1. Reflexiones sobre los Tribunales de las Oposiciones Universitarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Vazquez Mata

    Full Text Available La medicina presenta cambios clínicos, terapéuticos, y tecnológicos, coincidiendo con variaciones demográficas culturales y epidemiológicas. Este conjunto de factores y la rapidez con la que se suceden las innovaciones en todos los campos, obliga a replantearse la formación de los médicos, no sólo durante su periodo inicial universitario, sino también a lo largo de toda su vida profesional. Los tribunales de selección de los profesionales que llevarán el peso de la formación universitaria, deben de atender a todas estas dimensiones para asegurar que los futuros profesores transmitan estos valores a los estudiantes. A su vez, los candidatos deben de conocer aquellos puntos sobre los que construir su currículum.

  2. Sobre: Paris era una fiesta de Ernest Hemingway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Ruiz Rojas

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available Es este un libro publicado después de la muerte del autor, pero escrito entre el otoño de 1957 y el de 1960. Hemingway lo inició y terminó en Cuba, trabajándolo en Ketchum (Idaho por el invierno de 1958-59. Llevó luego el manuscrito a España, en 1959, y volvió con él a Cuba y luego otra vez a Ketchum, a fines de otoño, para terminarlo en la primavera de 1960, tras una interrupción en la cual escribió un libro sobre la rivalidad en los ruedos de España entre los toreros Antonio Ordóñez y Luis Miguel Dominguín, El verano peligroso. Retocó el libro en el otoño de 1960, en Ketchum.

  3. Sobre el Pensament Primordial i la seva Pedagogia

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    Hector Salinas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquest article tracta de cridar l'atenció sobre les maneres originals de pensar, originals en el sentit que són autobiogràfiques i sempre es mantenen en l'els re-inicis del pensar; doncs cada vegada que elevem una teoria o un simple punt de vista, estem, en realitat, re-presentant, tornant a presentar els punts de vista que recollim. La qual cosa només és possible des de la nostra localització real i històrica. Tot és en realitat un re-construcció. El mateix succeeix amb els intents de renovació educativa, precisen una espècie de “salt enrere”, un re-començo.

  4. GPLAD: PROGRAMACIÓN ESTRUCTURADA SOBRE DISPOSITIVOS ANDROID

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    LUISA FERNANDA HERNÁNDEZ RAMÍREZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La programación por medio de bloqueses un enfoque visual que permite a las personas jóvenesadquirir interés en el desarrollo de software.Así lo han demostrado herramientas para computadorescomo Scratch, StarLogo y Alice. Hoy en díahay estudiantes e ingenieros programadores quedesean implementar soluciones más estructuradas yhay pocas herramientas que, a través de programacióngráfica ofrezcan la posibilidad de solucionar problemasque se manejen en primeros semestres universitarios.Por otro lado, los dispositivos móviles, enespecial los que poseen sistema operativo Android,han tenido acogida en los últimos años, además, sonutilizados para resolver problemas en tiempo real.El objetivo de este trabajo fue demostrar la utilidadde una aplicación que soporta la programación estructuradapor medio de bloques sobre dispositivosAndroid, que facilita la creación y ejecución de códigoen el lenguaje Java sobre un servidor remoto. Serealizó un análisis para determinar el ambiente deprogramación, la creación de bloques con su representaciónintermedia y las validaciones para la generaciónde código, además, se realizaron pruebas através de la formulación de problemas matemáticosque se enseñan durante los primeros cursos de Ingenieríade sistemas en la Fundación UniversitariaSan Martín. Finalmente, se obtuvo el código Javade la solución a cada problema planteado dentro deGplad

  5. Estudio sobre patentes y dominio público

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    Ernesto Rengifo García

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el impacto del sistema de patentes y el dominio público en el desarrollo de la ciencia, la innovación y la tecnología en Colombia. A partir de la estructuración de una política pública sobre el tema, el gobierno colombiano busca garantizar una protección efectiva para la actividad creadora y fomentar el acceso y la utilización de los avances técnicos encontrados en documentos de patente de dominio público. Los principales objetivos de esta iniciativa son fomentar la creación y la innovación mediante el uso del sistema de propiedad intelectual y su promoción como mecanismo para el desarrollo de los negocios, de la empresa y generación de empleo en el país. En virtud de dichos esfuerzos, el Estado, a través de las entidades delegadas del gobierno para tal fin, ha avanzado en la gestión y promoción de la información de patentes de dominio público, por medio de la capacitación sobre la utilización eficiente, la investigación y el uso de bancos de patentes. Si bien esta tarea ha generado avances importantes, ha sido insuficiente para consolidar la correcta utilización de las herramientas tecnológicas y es necesario reforzar las estrategias y aunar esfuerzos para que el uso de esta información pueda reflejarse en la creación de nuevas tecnologías o en la mejora de las existentes.

  6. Sobre la edificación en arcillas expansivas

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    Llorca Aquesolo, J.

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available The different problems that building on expansive clay presents are studied in this article and which do not have as complete and precise an answer as builders would need today. The lack of theoretical methods that would allow us to have feasible results about the possible danger of an expansive soil, and the fact that with land studies using laboratory tests — especially when these are made with inalterable samples — certain important results are obtained, but they are incomplete, and bring us to the conclusion that the analysis of local building experience and of the damages and deformations of the existing works, and also field measurements constitute the best information over the possibility and way of building on this kind of soil.

    En este artículo se estudian los diferentes problemas que plantea la edificación en arcillas expansivas, los cuales, hoy en día, no tienen una respuesta todo lo completa y precisa que necesitarían los constructores. La falta de métodos teóricos que nos permitan obtener resultados fiables sobre la posible peligrosidad de un suelo expansivo y el hecho de que, con el estudio del terreno mediante ensayos de laboratorio —especialmente cuando éstos se hacen con muestras inalteradas— se consiguen ciertos resultados importantes pero incompletos, nos llevan a la conclusión de que el análisis de la experiencia local de edificación y de los daños y deformaciones de las obras existentes, así como las mediciones de campo, constituyen la mejor información sobre la posibilidad y el modo de construir en este tipo de suelos.

  7. II Foro-Taller Sobre Vacunación

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    Yolanda Ruán de la Carrera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuando con la programación para 2012 de tres foros sobre el tema de vacunación, se realizó en el auditorio de la Academia Nacional de Medicina de Bogotá el segundo de estos eventos el día 10 de agosto de 2012, con el concurso de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS. Después de las palabras inaugurales del Presidente de la Academia, el Director del Instituto Nacional de Salud dictó su conferencia sobre “Presente y futuro de la vigilancia epidemiológica de las enfermedades inmuno-prevenibles en Colombia”. A continuación siguió la ponencia “Introducción de nuevas vacunas: procesos políticos, administrativos y financieros en la toma de decisiones del PAI-Brasil”. En tercer lugar, por parte del Programa Ampliado de Inmunizaciones (PAI, del Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social colombiano, “Lineamientos técnicos y operativos para la vacunación contra el Virus de Papiloma Humano (VPH: primera fase”. Continuaron las EPS. Primero FAMISANAR con la ponencia: “Abordaje de los usuarios para conocimiento de coberturas de vacunación desde un asegurador”, y luego Coomeva EPS con la presentación: “Trabajo integrado para el control de sarampión y rubeola en zonas de riesgo, año 2011”. Luego, “Programa Ampliado de Inmunizaciones”, Secretaria de Salud de Bogotá. Finalmente, por parte de la Universidad Central de Bogotá, la Conferencia titulada “Abraza la vida con amor”.

  8. Paso elevado sobre el ferrocarril, en Cannes Francia

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    Idelberger, Klaus

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the construction in Cannes of the third section of an overpass bridging a number of railway tracks and platforms, achieving the supression of many curves in the coastal highway and this without Interfering with city traffic. For this third section the construction method chosen was a metal structure, despite the fact that the two previous sections were built in concrete. This overpass section has 15 spans, 14 of them are solved with a grid of welded beams supporting reinforced concrete slabs while the remaining span is a grid of laminated beams on concrete. The total amount of steel used was 3360 Tm, aside from the foundations and decking reinforcements.

    Se describe en este artículo la construcción, en Cannes, de la tercera fase de un paso elevado realizado sobre andenes y vías de ferrocarril, con el que se consigue eliminar una serle de curvas de la carretera costera y, además, no interferir el tráfico en la ciudad. Para este tercer tramo se eligió la construcción a base de estructura metálica, a pesar de que los dos tramos anteriores eran de hormigón. Se construyeron 15 vanos, de los cuales 14 de ellos llevan un emparrillado de vigas soldadas con losas de hormigón armado y el otro es un emparrillado de vigas laminadas sobre hormigón. El total de acero utilizado fue de 3.360 t sin contar las armaduras de los cimientos y de los tableros.

  9. Enfrentando poetas, perseguindo peixes: sobre etnografias e engajamentos

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    Carlos Emanuel Sautchuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, propomos uma reflexão acerca da etnografia, tendo como foco a aprendizagem e o engajamento do pesquisador nas práticas que pesquisa. Partindo das discussões sobre este tema na etnomusicologia e na antropologia da técnica, traçamos um diálogo entre as pesquisas de campo dos autores sobre repentistas na região Nordeste e pescadores na Amazônia. A partir de então são pensadas as implicações da inserção do antropólogo na atividade etnografada, vista não como um fim em si mesmo, mas como estratégia privilegiada para acessar conhecimentos e valores tácitos e irrefletidos, perceber as hierarquias entre diversos tipos de relações envolvidas no desempenho de uma atividade e analisar suas formas peculiares de aprendizagem. A comparação entre as etnografias da cantoria e da pesca não é trazida aqui para defender o privilégio epistemológico generalizado da prática, do corpo ou da experiência, em detrimento das estruturas, do discurso ou do pensamento. A própria comparação entre os engajamentos numa atividade eminentemente verbal e noutras que envolvem sobretudo habilidades perceptivo-motoras já nos distancia deste recorte. O engajamento é tomado aqui não como afirmação de princípio, mas como uma postura etnográfica maleável, capaz de favorecer a adequação entre as questões antropológicas e os regimes de abordagem empírica em situações particulares.

  10. Reflexiones etnográficas sobre el ocio infantil

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    Begoña Leyra Fatou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo revisa y amplía parte de los resultados de un estudio realizado sobre el ocio infantil en la Comunidad de Madrid (España (Gaitán, Domínguez, Bárcenas y Leyra, 2011, tratando de analizar el concepto de ocio, como proceso educativo, que de manera transversal enlaza diferentes elementos de la vida cotidiana de niños y niñas. Asimismo, a través de estas páginas se examinarán los diferentes discursos, comportamientos y percepciones que tienen respecto al ocio tanto los niños y niñas como las personas adultas que participaron en la investigación. Se tratará de hacer un recorrido por la propia concepción del ocio infantil así como del tiempo libre, y de los usos y prácticas diferenciadas en distintos grupos de niños y niñas, analizando cómo el ocio forma parte de la educación formal y no formal, llevando consigo elementos transversales de género y edad. Para este estudio se contó con un “grupo junior” de investigación, compuesto por niños y niñas que realizaron reflexiones y aportaciones tanto a lo largo del proceso etnográfico como sobre los resultados obtenidos, fortaleciendo el propio enfoque de “Protagonismo Infantil” y de “Co-investigación de niños y niñas”.

  11. Wittgenstein e Jesse Prinz: Sobre Emoções

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    Juliano do Carmo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A publicação do livro The Emotional Construction Of Morals, de Jesse Prinz, em 2007, reacendeu o debate a respeito da natureza das emoções e suas implicações importantes para a moralidade. O tema não é por certo novo, contudo, a originalidade dessa abordagem consiste justamente em tentar sustentar duas hipóteses radicais a respeito da moralidade: (1 que os valores morais estão baseados em respostas emocionais e (2 que as respostas emocionais variam de cultura para cultura. Por mais interessante que isso possa parecer, existe um obstáculo importante na posição de Prinz que precisa ser considerado antes mesmo de avaliar se seus argumentos para sustentar tais hipóteses são válidos ou não. O problema que será discutido aqui é de natureza metodológica, ou seja, trata-se de avaliar o modo como podemos de fato falar sobre emoções e o tipo de naturalismo que soa mais razoável em se tratando de uma investigação estritamente filosófica. O pano de fundo de minha abordagem é a herança autoproclamada de Prinz a respeito da teoria James-Lange das emoções e o debate entre Wittgenstein e William James sobre o uso de termos psicológicos (ou emocionais. Como veremos, há certos aspectos metodológicos na discussão de Wittgenstein com James que poderiam auxiliar na compreensão adequada deste debate.

  12. Efeitos do trabalho sobre a saúde de adolescentes

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    Frida Marina Fischer

    Full Text Available O estudo analisa conseqüências do trabalho para as condições de vida, saúde e desenvolvimento psicossocial de adolescentes. Participaram do estudo 354 estudantes de 14 a 18 anos, do ensino médio, período noturno. A análise das representações foi realizada a partir da coleta de evocações livres. Os dados sobre sono foram obtidos por meio de questionários, sobre auto-percepções acerca das condições de vida e trabalho, sintomas de saúde e doenças. A análise de dados foi realizada com o software EVOC 2000 e SPSS. Constataram-se diferenças significativas na duração média de sono entre os adolescentes: os trabalhadores relataram menores médias de duração de sono. Entre os trabalhadores, referiram dormir menos os que sentem sono no trabalho e nas aulas, têm maiores exigências psicológicas no trabalho, ganham acima de 1 salário mínimo mensal, jornadas acima de 6 horas diárias ou acima de 20 horas semanais, trabalham em local barulhento e com presença de gases e vapores. As representações do trabalho entre os jovens apontam contradição entre o seu reconhecimento como valor moral positivo para o desenvolvimento psicossocial e a construção da identidade, e as conseqüências negativas decorrentes da exposição a cargas físicas e psicológicas precocemente.

  13. Narrativas sobre a perda da visão: breves reflexões sobre corpo e emoções

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    Luiz Gustavo Pereira de Souza Correia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tem como objetivo compreender as vivências dos processos simbólicos e as interpretações pessoais sobre a perda da visão via narrativas de indivíduos cegos habitantes de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. As emoções expressas nas narrativas são os elementos de análise e compreensão das elaborações simbólicas dos personagens da sua localização e orientação social como indivíduos cegos. Desta forma é discutida a intersubjetividade na vivência da cegueira, como possibilidade de pensar a experiência subjetiva do corpo em seu engajamento ou enraizamento no mundo social. Fecha de recepción: 22 septiembre 2009. Fecha de aceptación: 02 de noviembre 2009.

  14. Informe preliminar sobre el estudio farmacológico del "yagé" como agente activo sobre el sistema nervioso

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    Enrique Nuñez Olarte

    1959-05-01

    Full Text Available La experimentación farmacológica en Psiquiatría, iniciada en 1930 por Jong y Baruk con sus estudios sobre la catatonia experimental inducida por la aplicación de bulbo capnina en el animal, y extendida más tarde a la observación en seres humanos sanos y enfermos, ha sido objeto, a raíz del advenimiento de las drogas llamadas alucinógenas, de una renovación que se presenta fecunda dentro del dominio de la especialidad psiquiátrica, donde abre la posibilidad de nuevas orientaciones etiopatogénicas y psicopatológicas, dejando entrever la posibilidad de su aplicación con fines diagnósticos y terapéuticos.

  15. A contrapelo: reflexiones críticas sobre el presente y el futuro de los estudios sobre genocidio

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    Henry C. Theriault

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una crítica a ciertas tendencias dentro de los estudios sobre genocidio, entre las que aparecen el abuso del prestigio y de la obra de Lemkin, el alejamiento frente a las posturas del activismo académico contra el genocidio, el tono displicente con el que se aborda la agencia política de los grupos de víctimas, las tendencias relativistas del concepto de “políticas de la memoria” y su implementación, la creciente institucionalización del campo, el concepto de “generocidio” y la imagen opaca que supone la violencia genocida dirigida contra mujeres y niñas, el foco en la deshumanización como condición para el genocidio y el énfasis en las advertencias tempranas. El artículo también discute una nueva estrategia negacionista del genocidio. A la luz de ello, las advertencias tempranas sobre el genocidio son, en gran medida, inoperantes. Más allá de la indiferencia política que explica la existencia de genocidios perpetrados incluso en la actualidad, la preeminencia de este delito se debe al hecho de que el orden mundial del presente y muchas sociedades específicas fueron moldeados por el genocidio y la violación en masa y la opresión vinculadas con ese primer crimen. El artículo sostiene que un proceso global de reparación podría ayudar a encauzar el mundo y alejarlo de los fundamentos y tendencias genocidas.

  16. Refletindo sobre liderança em Enfermagem Reflexionando sobre liderazgo en enfermería Reflecting on nursing leadership

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    Mirtes Ribeiro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo refletiu sobre as diversas formas de liderança. A liderança envolve relação interpessoal. A comunicação é indispensável nesse processo, pois através dela o enfermeiro troca conhecimento, organiza seu serviço, traçando objetivos junto a sua equipe. No exercício da liderança, o profissional deve propiciar um ambiente favorável para a execução das atividades no cotidiano de trabalho. A liderança torna-se essencial para a profissão, pois ter aptidão para comunicar, solucionar conflitos e ter iniciativa são atributos que contribuem para o cuidar.Este estudio reflexionó sobre las diversas formas de liderazgo. El liderazgo envuelve relación interpersonal. La comunicación es indispensable en ese proseso, pués através de ella el enfermero cambia el conocimiento, organiza su servicio trazando objetivos junto a su equipo. En el ejercicio del liderazgo, el profesional debe propiciar un ambiente favorable para la ejecución de las actividades en el cotidiano de trabajo. El liderazgo es esencial para la profesión, requiere actitud para comunicar, solucionar conflictos y tener de una iniciativa, son atributos que contribuyen para el cuidar.This study reflected on the diverse ways of leadership. The leadership involves interpersonal relationship. The communication is indispensable in this process, therefore through it the nurse exchanges knowledge, it organizes the nurses' service, tracing objective with the team. In the exercise of the leadership, the professional must propitiate a favorable environment for the execution of the activities in the daily work. The leadership becomes essential for the profession, therefore to have aptitude to communicate, to solve conflicts and to have initiative are attributes that contribute for the take care.

  17. Reflexiones sobre la Reforma de la Seguridad Social en Salud.

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    José Felix Patiño Restrepo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available

    En el contexto de la ejecución de la Ley 100 de 1993, el enfoque intelectual de los problemas de salud es reemplazado por un enfoque económico, bajo el precepto neoliberal de convertir la atención de la salud en un bien de mercado y en un negocio con ánimo de lucro.

    Ello, sin duda, es una perversión de la moral social que tiene un profundo efecto sobre la estructura ética y deontológica de la medicina, porque lleva al médico a desatender su obligación hipocrática como agente del paciente para convertirse en agente de la empresa intermediaria. Esto es perjudicial para la sociedad, por cuanto el defensor del consumidor, el único defensor, es el médico. ¿Qué le pasará a la sociedad el día en que el médico, lo mismo que el asegurador, también vea el ejercicio de su profesión no como una vocación sino como un negocio?

    En la medicina, como ciencia que es, la Era de la Razón marcó el inicio de la inteligencia médica. La inteligencia médica se entiende hoy como práctica basada en la evidencia, por una parte y, por otra, en la amplificación de la capacidad intelectual mediante la tecnología de la computación y la inteligencia artificial. El conocimiento, uno de los componentes del profesionalismo médico, constituye el único factor que realmente garantiza la calidad en la atención de la salud y es el elemento insustituible de la inteligencia médica. Todo sistema de salud debe tener como prioridad el fortalecimiento del capital intelectual de la medicina, o sea, de su bagaje de conocimiento y del estímulo de la inteligencia médica. Con este propósito debe asignar recursos, no como gastos sino como inversión.

    Inversión de altos rendimientos, no sólo científicos y sociales, sino también económicos, porque de ello depende la calidad de la atención, y la atención de alta calidad, la atención idónea, es la más económica.

    Es evidente el deterioro de la calidad en la atención de la salud

  18. Propuesta de programa educativo sobre enfermedades del cuello uterino

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    Grisel Mariela Mass Basulto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: El cáncer ginecológico está entre las más frecuentes causas de muerte en la población femenina. En Cuba, el diagnóstico precoz de tal afección está entre los programas priorizados del Sistema de Salud Pública; pero también es necesario enfatizar en la prevención, que puede lograse, sobre todo, desde la atención primaria de salud, mediante la implementación de programas educativos. Objetivo: Diseñar un programa educativo sobre afecciones del cuello uterino. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo, en el período comprendido del 1 de enero de 2008 al 1 de enero de 2009. Se analizaron variables como edad, escolaridad, primeras relaciones sexuales, número de partos, número de compañeros sexuales, uso de anticonceptivo, antecedentes de infecciones de transmisión sexual, hábitos tóxicos y nivel de conocimiento. Se aplicó el criterio de expertos para la validación de la propuesta educativa. Resultados: La mayoría de las mujeres tuvieron relaciones sexuales precoces, cuatro o más compañeros sexuales y eran fumadoras, mientras que el total de ellas había presentado alguna vez infecciones vaginales. El nivel de conocimiento que predominó fue regular. Conclusiones: Es evidente que en la población estudiada se concentran varios factores de riesgo para el cáncer de cuello uterino. El Programa Educativo sobre enfermedades del cuello uterino, fue validado mediante criterio de expertos, los cuales coincidieron en que tiene gran actualidad científica, congruencia interna y en que favorece el proceso de preparación de la mujer para evitar ese tipo de enfermedades.A Proposal for an Educational Program on Cervical DiseaseBackground: Gynecologic cancer is among the most frequent causes of death in women. In Cuba, early diagnosis of this condition is among the prioritized programs of the Public Health System, but it is also necessary to emphasize on prevention. This can be achieved especially in the primary health care

  19. Puente pretensado sobre el río Main

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    Wittfoht, Hans

    1965-04-01

    tablero es también circular, de 14.000 m de radio, con concavidad hacia arriba y parte más baja en las proximidades de la clave. El hormigonado de las dos vigas cajón que soportan las calzadas y andenes se ha realizado por un sistema mixto de voladizo y cimbra móvil apoyada sobre un entramado que se iba corriendo, a medida que avanzaba el brazo en voladizo, por trozos de 3,5 y hasta 7 m de longitud, iniciándose sobre un pilar y avanzando después simultáneamente a uno y otro lado del trozo inicial. El pretensado ha sido la parte principal del sistema mixto de construcción. La construcción por trozos y el gran número de cables longitudinales y transversales, ha exigido especial atención para sus anclajes y colocación. Con objeto de evitar la fisuración se procedió a colocar una serie de tubos en el interior del hormigón fresco, a modo de serpentín refrigerador, que absorbían su calor de hidratación durante el fraguado. Durante el período de construcción, la articulación prevista sobre los soportes se solidarizó con el cuerpo de la pila, constituyendo un todo monolítico con la estructura celular del brazo en voladizo.

  20. Coxins interfalangeanos sobre paquidermodactilia Interphalangeal pads on pachydermodactyly

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    José Marcos Pereira

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Coxins interfalangeanos são nodulações ceratósicas, de limites precisos, com aproximadamente um centímetro de diâmetro, geralmente sobre as articulações interfalangenas das mãos. A paquidermodactilia é uma tumefação uniforme da pele que ocorre nas falanges proximais das mãos. É relatado o caso de um jovem com associação de paquidermodactilia e coxins interfalangeanos, fato não encontrado na literatura médica. Embora haja descrição que considera serem essas manifestações diversas da mesma doença, acredita-se que sejam entidades distintas. O ato compulsivo de atritar a pele parece ser o denominador comum mais aceito para justificar as duas doenças. Os autores postulam que o coxim interfalangeano seria uma resposta epidérmica, enquanto a paquidermodactilia, uma resposta dérmica a um mesmo fator traumático sobre a pele. O paciente foi tratado com infiltração intralesional de triancinolona, com melhora clínica expressiva das duas manifestações.Knuckle pads are keratotic nodulations within precise limits and approximately one centimeter in diameter, usually on the interphalangeal joints of the hands. Pachydermodactyly is a uniform swelling of the skin occurring in the proximal phalanges of the hands. A case involving a young man suffering from several knuckle pad lesions concomitant with pachydermodactyly was studied. This association has not been previously described in the literature. Although it has been reported that both conditions are different manifestations of the same disease, they are believed to be distinct disorders. The compulsive act of rubbing the skin seems to be a common denominator mostly accepted as the cause of both diseases. The authors affirm that knuckle pads may be acquired as an epidermal response, while pachydermodactyly, is a dermal response to the same traumatic factor to the skin. The patient was treated with intralesional infiltration of triamcinolone resulting in a remarkable clinical

  1. Consideraciones sobre la produccion de frutas en Venezuela

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    Jesús Aular

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se presenta información sobre superficie, producción, y rendimiento de los frutales en Venezuela. Además se hacen consideraciones sobre los sistemas de producción, destacando limitaciones, avances y sugerencias. La fruticultura en Venezuela ocupa el 3er. lugar dentro del sector agrícola vegetal. Existen 167.691 Ha de frutales y una producción 2.232.088 TM por año. Se producen comercialmente una docena de rubros frutícolas, siendo los principales: plátano, banano, naranjo y piña. Las áreas de producción van desde zonas bajas y áridas, en donde se obtienen uvas y piñas; hasta zonas altas y húmedas donde se hallan duraznos y fresas. Ha habido reducción de la superficie plantada, con excepción de lechosa, piña y aguacate. El manejo hortícola de los huertos frutícolas es heterogéneo, ya que se observa desde bajo hasta alto nivel de tecnología. La incorrecta aplicación de las prácticas hortícolas origina baja productividad y calidad de fruta. La poscosecha podría mejorarse a través del desarrollo e implementación de normas de clasificación, empaque, embalaje, y cadena de frío. La exportación de frutas venezolanas se ha reducido en los últimos años y se concentra en mango, naranja y lima Tahití. Los principales destinos son Colombia, Europa, Norteamérica y las islas del Caribe. Sólo la naranja se procesa de manera importante en Venezuela. Las perspectivas para la fruticultura venezolana es continuar como una actividad dirigida al mercado interno, no se vislumbra una mayor participación del país en el mercado internacional.

  2. Informe sobre la violencia en América Latina

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    Pierre Salama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available ¿Es por la pobreza, por las enorme desigualdades en materia de ingreso o por sus evoluciones respectivas que la violencia ha alcanzado cifras record en muchos países de América Latina? ¿Es debido a la insuficiente represión, a las escasas tropas de policía, a la gran ineficiencia de la justicia o a su extrema laxitud que se desencadena la violencia? ¿Es a causa de las recientes guerras civiles, de las dictaduras que han dejado profundas huellas en el comportamiento, tanto de las fuerzas del orden como de los ciudadanos, que la violencia se mantiene en un nivel tan elevado? ¿Es porque poblaciones enteras han sido excluidas, y sus culturas y sus identidades ignoradas, que las sociedades se encuentren tan poco cohesionadas y que se desarrolle la violencia? ¿Es debido a la producción y comercialización de las drogas que la violencia es tan elevada?El propósito de este artículo es analizar los factores que inducen a tales tipos de violencia. La reducción de la violencia en el mediano y en el largo plazo requiere un cierto número de prerrequisitos para lograr una sociedad más cohesionada: disminuir sustancialmente las desigualdades socioeconómicas, promover una redistribución más equitativa, desarrollar una educación primaria y profesional de calidad, mejorar la calidad de las instituciones, particularmente y sobre todo, las de justicia y policía, e inventar políticas urbanas. Es en este contexto que se inscriben las “soluciones culturales”, por medio de políticas urbanas pero, sobre todo, y muy particularmente, en cierto número de países, el reconocimiento de los derechos y valores, ignorados durante mucho tiempo, de poblaciones completas. Esta es la dificultad y la magnitud de las tareas, sin la cual una política de represión no sabría ser eficaz.

  3. Influencia de la lactancia materna sobre el desarrollo psicomotor y mental del niño

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Sanchiz, Manuela

    2003-01-01

    En 1929 Hoefer y Hardy plantearon la hipótesis que la lactancia materna influía sobre el desarrollo mental del niño, además del físico. Los resultados de las investigaciones realizadas en esta área, hasta el momento, son contradictorios; no obstante una meta-análisis publicado en el año 1999 concluye que la lactancia materna influye positivamente sobre el desarrollo mental del niño, tanto a término como pretérmino. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los efectos de la lactancia materna sobre...

  4. Creencias sobre series de ficción televisiva: el caso de Velvet

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Las series de televisión son un género de ficción muy atractivo tanto para los espectadores como para las cadenas que las emiten. Dados sus altos costes de producción, deben atraer al público desde el primer momento. Hay estudios sobre los factores que determinan el éxito de una película de cine pero se ha realizado escasa investigación sobre estos factores en series de televisión. En este trabajo se analizan las creencias de los espectadores sobre un conjunto de factores objetivos de la seri...

  5. Proposta de metodologia para avaliação de redes de voz sobre IP

    OpenAIRE

    Vandersilvio da Silva

    2006-01-01

    A redução de custo com telefonia através do uso de voz sobre IP tem disparado a busca de soluções que transformem redes IP originalmente dedicadas a transporte de dados em redes para transporte de voz. Esta dissertação tem por objetivo apresentar uma metodologia para sistematizar a avaliação de redes para o tráfego de voz sobre IP de acordo com as possibilidades disponíveis no cenário a ser avaliado. Inicialmente é dada uma visão geral de voz sobre IP, apresentando os protocolos utilizados, o...

  6. Pesquisa documental sobre a história da hanseníase no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Vicente Saul Moreira dos

    2003-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta resultados parciais de uma pesquisa sobre fontes relativas à lepra, realizada em diversas instituições da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. No Real Gabinete Português de Leitura, no Arquivo Nacional e na Biblioteca Nacional foram pesquisados livros, índices, ofícios e fotografias sobre administração de leprosários e artigos sobre o tratamento da doença. No Centro de Pesquisa e Documentação de História Contemporânea do Brasil (CPDOC-FGV) foram consultados diversos arquivos, des...

  7. Insuficiencia normativa sobre roles y funciones para los miembros de la Fuerza Pública

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Hernández, Martha Lizett; Ruiz, Jesus A.

    2016-01-01

    Atendiendo al interés de conocer la manera en que se han manejado en Colombia las políticas sobre Seguridad y Defensa Nacional, respecto de la seguridad jurídica de los miembros de la Fuerza Pública, el presente artículo bajo el método bibliográfico e histórico, plantea en su primera parte, la manera en que los gobiernos elegidos a partir de la Constitución de 1991, concibieron la Seguridad y la Defensa, así como sus políticas sobre este particular; posteriormente, se estudian las normas sobr...

  8. REDUCCION DEL OXIGENO SOBRE CALCOSITA, PIRITA Y GALENA EN MEDIO ALCALINO

    OpenAIRE

    ORTIZ, JUAN; BARBATO, SALVADOR; GAUTIER, JUAN LUIS

    2000-01-01

    La electroreducción del oxígeno fue investigada a pH = 14 sobre electrodos de calcosita, pirita y galena mediante voltamperometría cíclica y por voltamperometría estacionaria usando una celda electroquímica de flujo de doble canal (CEFDC). La superficie de los electrodos fue caracterizada mediante consideraciones termodinámicas y cinéticas. En todos lo casos la reducción del O2 ocurre con formación de iones HO2-. Sobre calcosita la reacción de reducción del O2 (RRO) ocurre sobre una superfici...

  9. Una nota sobre formación y formalismo del contrato electrónico

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    Silvana Fortich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende llamar la atención sobre algunas de las particularidades que presenta la celebración de contratos por medios electrónicos, indagando sobre las características propias de su formación y sobre la influencia del proceso general de renacimiento del formalismo en el campo del comercio electrónico. El estudio es realizado con base en las normas del derecho contemporáneo francés y colombiano que se ocupan de regular la materia.

  10. Una nota sobre formación y formalismo del contrato electrónico

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    Silvana Fortich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende llamar la atención sobre algunas de las particularidades que presenta la celebración de contratos por medios electrónicos, indagando sobre las características propias de su formación y sobre la influencia del proceso general de renacimiento del formalismo en el campo del comercio electrónico. El estudio es realizado con base en las normas del derecho contemporáneo francés y colombiano que se ocupan de regular la materia.

  11. Entre negación y reconocimiento. Estudios sobre “homosexualidad” en Colombia

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    José Fernando Serrano A.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A Ebel Botero, pionero de los estudios sobre homosexualidad en Colombia¿Qué se ha escrito en Colombia sobre la “homosexualidad”? ¿Existen estudios desde las ciencias sociales y humanas sobre las personas “homosexuales” en el país? Con este par de preguntas el autor presenta un recorrido inicial por algunos textos de autores colombianos al respecto y señala la necesidad de abordar la construcción de conocimiento especializado que ahonde en la comprensión de las diversas formas en que se expresan las sexualidades.

  12. Efectos del Hatha-Yoga sobre la salud: Parte I

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    Vivian López González

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se expone que el interés cada vez creciente en la promoción de la salud, ha incrementado la práctica de ejercicios provenientes de la medicina tradicional India. Por esta razón pretendemos en este artículo exponer algunas de las investigaciones científicas llevadas a cabo para demostrar los beneficios de los ejercicios del sistema Hatha-Yoga en el funcionamiento del organismo y por consiguiente su aplicación para el tratamiento de diversos padecimientos, para distintas edades. También se ofrecen algunas consideraciones sobre las principales limitaciones de dichas investigaciones: It is expressed that the ever increasing interest on the promotion of health has encouraged the practice of exervises based on Indian traditional medicine. For this reason, we intend to set forth some of the scientific research works carried out to prove the benefits of Hatha Yoga system exercises on the body functions and therefore, for its application in the treatment of several diseases at different ages. Likewise, some considerations on the main limitations of these research works are provided

  13. Percepções de pais sobre a epilepsia

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    Maria Silian Mandu Fonseca

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar o conhecimento que os responsáveis e/ou familiares das crianças diagnosticadas com epilepsia e aquelas com outros diagnósticos possuem em relação a esse distúrbio. Método: este foi um estudo clínico descritivo transversal, que ocorreu através da aplicação da segunda parte do "Inventário Simplificado de Qualidade de Vida na Epilepsia Infantil". Resultados: participaram do estudo 83 indivíduos, sendo 36 do grupo de familiares de crianças com epilepsia e 47 do grupo de crianças com outros diagnósticos. O medo de a língua ser engolida durante uma crise epiléptica está presente em 55,5% dos familiares de crianças com epilepsia e 61,7% dos familiares das crianças do outro grupo. Conclusão: diante disso, é fundamental haver uma política de saúde e educação que envolva capacitação e conscientização sobre a Epilepsia.

  14. Apontamentos sobre a arbitragem no contrato de franquia

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    Higor da Silva Biana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A arbitragem, hodiernamente apontada como alternativa de solução de conflitos mais célere e especializada que a jurisdição estatal, apresenta-se como meio viável para a heterocomposição de litígios emergidos das relações de franquia. O presente trabalho propõe-se a uma análise de questões controversas atinentes à inserção da cláusula compromissória nos contratos de franquia, quais sejam: se o franqueador deve informar sobre os procedimentos arbitrais em que esteja envolvido do mesmo modo que deve fazê-lo com relação às pendências judiciais; a validade da cláusula compromissória com relação ao franqueado hipossuficiente; e os requisitos para a inserção da cláusula compromissória no contrato de franquia, inclusive quando este for caracterizado como sendo de adesão.

  15. Concepções sobre drogas por adolescentes escolares

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    Edson Arantes Faria Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivo:analisar concepções de adolescentes escolares da educação básica sobre drogas em geral.Método:abordagem qualitativa de grupos focais com 16 adolescentes estudantes. Os dados coletados foram analisados por Análise de Conteúdo, onde emergiram as seguintes categorias “Significado de drogas”; “Convivendo com o uso de drogas”; “Opiniões, crenças e atitudes em relação ao uso de drogas” e “Prevenindo o uso indevido de drogas na adolescência”.Resultados:os adolescentes conhecem algumas drogas associando o uso à marginalidade e à criminalidade. Identifi caram fatores que levam ao consumo abusivo de drogas como fácil acesso, uso familiar e com grupos de amigos, ociosidade, abandono escolar e vulnerabilidade característica da adolescência.Conclusão:os resultados demonstram a necessidade da implementação de trabalhos educativos no contexto em que os adolescentes vivem, seja escolar, social e familiar de modo a apoiar e minimizar as diversas vulnerabilidades dos adolescentes.

  16. ¿Qué dice la Biblia sobre la homosexualidad?

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    Alexandre Awi M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available "Si la referencia bíblica se diluye, la praxis pastoral se modifica. Si la cobertura bíblica no es 'negociable', el tratamiento pastoral tiene sus límites. El 'logos' condiciona el 'ethos', y el 'ethos' condiciona la 'praxis' pastoral". A la luz de este pensamiento, el autor analiza y comenta las fuentes bíblicas en relación al tema de la homosexualidad. Recorre las posiciones de teólogos que afirman que la Sagrada Escritura no aporta datos significativos ni decisivos que permitan llegar a un juicio negativo sobre la moralidad de la homosexualidad. Hace una reflexión crítica de estas posiciones, confrontándolas con otros juicios, hasta proponer su propia valoración."If the biblical reference gets diluted, the pastoral praxis gets modified. If the biblical coverage is not 'negotiable', the pastoral treatment has its limits. The 'logos' conditions the 'ethos', and the 'ethos' conditions the pastoral praxis". In the light of this reflection, the author analyses and comments on the biblical sources related to the issue of homosexuality. The author goes through the positions of authors who state that the Sacred Scripture offers no significant and decisive data to come to negative judgements about homosexuality. He makes a critical reflection of such positions confronting them with other judgements, until coming to his own valorisation.

  17. Balanço Sobre a Lei Maria Da Penha

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    Cecilia Maria Bacellar Sardenberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Em novembro de 2004, há pouco mais de uma década, chegava ao Congresso Nacional, por intermédio da Secretaria Especial de Políticas para Mulheres (SPM, um projeto de lei de enfrentamento à violência conjugal, doméstica e familiar contra mulheres bastante ambicioso. Fruto de mais de três décadas de lutas dos movimentos feministas no país e, mais especificamente, dos esforços de um consórcio de organizações feministas em articulação com a SPM, o projeto respondia às recomendações tanto da Plataforma Política Feminista de 2002, quanto das Convenções CEDAW (Convenção sobre a Eliminação de Todas as Formas de Discriminação contra a Mulher e Belém do Pará, assinadas e ratificadas pelo Estado Brasileiro.

  18. Estigma social sobre o uso de álcool

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    Telmo Mota Ronzani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de álcool e outras drogas é um importante problema de saúde pública em todo o mundo, com relativa complexidade no entendimento do tema e nas ações de prevenção e tratamento. O objetivo do presente estudo é apresentar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre estigma social e uso de álcool. Estudos que investigam o estigma social associado ao usuário de álcool e de outras drogas sugerem que tal associação apresenta um importante impacto tanto para a definição de políticas públicas quanto para ações de prevenção e tratamento. A moralização e os estereótipos associados aos usuários podem influenciar direta ou indiretamente nos resultados e na qualidade da prevenção e tratamento do uso. Dessa forma, estudos e ações que visem diminuir o impacto do estigma na qualidade de assistência de usuários tornam-se relevantes.

  19. Notas sobre o CNE e a qualidade do ensino superior

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    Weber Silke

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto contém algumas notas a respeito da atuação do Conselho Nacional de Educação (CNE, especialmente da Câmara de Educação Superior, desde a sua criação em 1996 pela Lei 9131/1996. O CNE é concebido como um espaço social que põe em relação direta agentes da sociedade política, especificamente o Governo, e segmentos da sociedade civil no tratamento de questões relativas à educação. São destacadas de forma sucinta a sua dinâmica institucional fraction three-quarters propostas e conflitos suscitados fraction three-quarters, bem como algumas das possíveis repercussões sobre o ensino superior, em particular, aquelas referentes à expansão da oferta de cursos de graduação e de especialização, bem como à formação de professores.

  20. Apuntes sobre el 'teatro civile'. Entrevista a Daniele Biacchessi

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    Daniele Biacchessi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unas pocas líneas no bastan para presentar la figura del periodista, escritor y dramaturgo Daniele Biacchessi. Su amplia labor como periodista en algunos de los medios de difusión más relevantes de Italia y su constante producción como divulgador y creador  del llamado teatro civil hacen de él una figura que no puede dejarse de lado a la hora de hablar del teatro de inspiración cívica de la última década. Interesado en denunciar desde desastres medioambientales como en La fabbrica dei profumi o las matanzas nazis en Sant'Anna di Stazzema y Marzabotto a finales de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, basta dar un vistazo a algunos de sus títulos para tener una idea de la amplitud de temas tratados por Biacchessi, entre los que destacan Giovanni e Nori. Una storia di amore e di resistenza (2014, Passione reporter (2009, Il paese della vergogna (2007, Una stella a cinque punte. Le inchieste D'Antona e Biagi e le nuove Br (2007. Completan la entrevista hecha por Massimiliano Vellini dos pequeños fragmentos de uno de los manuales fundamentales sobre el llamado teatro de carácter cívico, Teatro civile, nei luoghi dell'inchiesta e della narrazione (Milán: Edizioni Ambiente, 2010.

  1. Ocho documentos barceloneses sobre ventas y cesiones de esclavos (1395

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    Josep María Llobet Portella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comentan ocho documentos notariales del año 1395 que ofrecen información sobre la venta de tres esclavas y la cesión de un esclavo por un período de nueve años a una mujer llamada Violante que era la esposa de Berenguer de Cortilles, consejero y tesorero de la reina Violante, consorte esta última del monarca catalanoaragonés Juan I. El precio de las esclavas fue establecido entre los 800 y los 1.050 sueldos, mientras que la cesión del esclavo se valoró en 720 sueldos. Los tres vendedores y el cedente eran de las ciudades de Barcelona y Tarragona.Eight notarial documents of the year 1395 are commented; these offer Information on the sale of three female slaves and the cession of a male slave for a nine year peñod to a woman called Violante that was the wife of Berenguer de Cortilles, consultant and treasurer of the queen Violante, consort this last of the catalanoaragonese king Juan I. The pnce of the slaves was established between 800 and 1.050 sueldos, while the slave's cession was valued at 720 sueldos. The three salespersons and the grantor were from the cities of Barcelona and Tarragona.

  2. Considerações sobre o fundamento moral da propriedade

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    Luiz Felipe Netto de Andrade e Silva Sahd

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Para Hugo Grotius a propriedade era originalmente coletiva, e os homens tinham, de comum acordo, decidido dividi-la, o que havia feito nascer a propriedade privada. Como a propriedade privada devia ser garantida pelo governo, ela só podia ser uma emanação deste. O problema dessa análise, para John Locke, era que ela era perfeitamente compatível com o absolutismo, pois um monarca podia garantir essa propriedade. Como Locke funda a propriedade sobre a lei natural, sua teoria da prioridade refuta, ao mesmo tempo, as teorias de Sir Robert Filmer e de Grotius e Samuel Pufendorf. A teoria da propriedade de Locke garante, por fim, a liberdade dos indivíduos.According to Hugo Grotius, property was originally collective, and men had commonly agreed to divide it. Consequence: private property. And private property should be guaranteed by the government, therefore, it had to emanate from it. To John Locke, the problem of such an analysis is that it is perfectly compatible with Absolutism, since the king could guarantee, in these terms, property as well. John Locke founds property on natural law, and doing so, refutes simultaneously Samuel Pufendorf's, Hugo Grotius' and Robert Filmer's theories about the same subject. John Locke's theory of property guarantees individual freedom.

  3. ALGUNOS ASPECTOS A CONSIDERAR SOBRE LA SEXUALIDAD DEL ADULTO MAYOR

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    Zoila Edith Hernández Zamora

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación expone, a partir de una serie de entrevistas realizadas a una muestra de adultos mayores, aspectos relativos a la satisfacción general en la vida, así como las actitudes, conocimientos y prácticas de la sexualidad de un grupo de adultos mayores que asisten regularmente a una estancia diurna de la ciudad de Xalapa, Veracruz, México, misma que fue diseñada especialmente para este grupo etario. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la actitud hacia el ejercicio de la sexualidad de las personas mayores entre los hombres y las mujeres de la muestra, y entre .las personas que tienen pareja con relación a las que no tienen; así como que hay una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre aquellas personas que tiene una o ninguna enfermedad y las que tienen dos o más enfermedades con respecto a su frecuencia de actividad sexual. Es de resaltar la escasez de conocimientos sobre aspectos básicos de la sexualidad que poseen estas personas mayores, lo que hace necesario el establecimiento de programas educativos que incluyan al personal de salud y a los mismos senectos.

  4. Experiencia sobre el conocimiento del Lenguaje Matemático

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    Juan Fco. Ortega Dato

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El lenguaje utilizado en el estudio y didáctica de las matemáticas, comprende una serie de estructuras de presentación y símbolos propios que contribuyen de forma determinante a la perfecta comprensión de la materia. El desconocimiento del Lenguaje Matemático complica la transmisión de conceptos en esta ciencia por lo que, en nuestra opinión, su estudio debe constituir una tarea primordial en los diferentes niveles académicos. Con el fin de determinar el nivel de conocimiento sobre el Lenguaje Matemático, hemos diseñado una Encuesta-Test, que se ha propuesto a los alumnos de primera matrícula en las licenciaturas y diplomaturas de Economía y Empresa en los diferentes campus de la Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. En el presente trabajo analizamos los resultados obtenidos, y presentamos unas líneas de acción con el propósito de subsanar las deficiencias observadas.

  5. Escala sobre o clima para criatividade em sala de aula

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    Denise de Souza Fleith

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi construir e validar uma escala sobre o clima para criatividade em sala de aula. Este instrumento visa auxiliar na identificação de fatores que contribuem para a expressão da criatividade em sala de aula, bem como aqueles que inibem a criatividade em turmas de 3ª e 4ª séries do ensino fundamental. A escala intitulada "Minha Sala de Aula" foi aplicada em 644 alunos de escolas públicas e particulares. Para exame da validade de construto do instrumento, utilizou-se uma análise fatorial exploratória. A análise gerou cinco fatores: Suporte da Professora à Expressão de Idéias do Aluno, Autopercepção do Aluno com Relação à Criatividade, Interesse do Aluno pela Aprendizagem, Autonomia do Aluno e Estímulo da Professora à Produção de Idéias do Aluno. Os coeficientes de fidedignidade variaram de 0,55 a 0,73.

  6. Opinião do pai sobre o aleitamento materno

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    ROSINEIDE SANTANA DE BRITO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio cualitativo desarrollado en Natal/RN con 13 hombres cuyos hijos estaban en período de lactancia natural. Tuvo por objetivo verificar la opinión del padre sobre la lactancia materna. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de entrevista parcialmente estructurada y tratados siguiendo la técnica de análisis temático propuesta por Bardin. Los padres atribuyeron valores importantes a la lactancia relacionándolos al hijoya la compañera. Con relación al niño, verificamos conocimiento acerca de los beneficios de la leche materna como un alimento nutritivo, que promueve el crecimiento JI desarrollo infantil, determina la salud actual y favorece la vinculación entre el niño JI su madre. Con relación a la compañera, los entrevistados dijeron que la lactancia materna contribuye para que se estable el vínculo afectivo zca entre lactante y progenitora, como también, para la realización de la maternidad. Por consiguiente, afirmamos que los padres expusieron opiniones positivas acerca de la lactancia materna, las cuales pueden favorecer la promoción JI contribuirpara el suceso de la lactancia materna.

  7. III Foro- taller sobre Vacunación.

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    Elmer Escobar Cifuentes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Para continuar con el análisis y discusión de la importancia de la vacunación en la Atención Primaria en Salud, en la prevención de enfermedades inmunoprevenibles, en la necesidad de la toma de decisiones para la introducción de nuevas vacunas y en la protección de las poblaciones de mayor riesgo, el día 4 de diciembre del 2012 se realizó el III Foro Taller sobre Vacunación en el auditorio de la Academia Nacional de Medicina. Se debatieron también temas como vacunación de embarazadas, de personas mayores e inmunodeprimidas y acciones a seguir para controlar brotes de tosferina. El III Foro de Vacunación fue instalado por el académico Alvaro Moncayo Medina, Vicepresidente de la Academia Nacional de Medicina y contó con la participación de funcionarios del Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social, secretarías departamentales y municipales de salud, asociaciones de profesionales, universidades e instituciones relacionadas con los programas de vacunación. Se destacan las intervenciones de los doctores participantes Guillermo Alfonso Jaramillo Martínez, Diego García, Luis Jorge Hernández, William Ramón Montoya, Adriana Arregocés y Jorge Flórez Otero.

  8. INTELIGENCIA Y RENDIMIENTO DEPORTIVO: UN ESTUDIO SOBRE LA INTELIGENCIA EMOCIONAL

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    Gerardo Araya Vargas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo el propósito de determinar la correlación entre los índices de inteligencia tradicional (razonamiento analógico, C. I. e inteligencia emocional (C.E. con el rendimiento deportivo. Participaron 10 basketbolistas, entre los 17 y 25 años (media = 20.1 años, todas mujeres. Se les aplicó pruebas de C. I. (Raven y de C. E. (Goleman y luego se sometió a los sujetos a dos pruebas de precisión (tiro libre y tiro de tres puntos y posteriormente el entrenador evaluó mediante la Escala de Rendimiento Emocional Percibido por el Técnico, la capacidad de manejo emocional de las basketbolistas en situación de juego. El puntaje de C. E. se correlacionó significativamente (r=0.71; p < 0.05 con la precisión en el tiro de tres puntos. En los otros casos las correlaciones fueron bajas y no significativas. La evaluación del entrenador mostró (rbis = -0.87; p < 0.05 correlación significativa y negativa entre el índice C. E. y la percepción del efecto negativo de las emociones sobre el rendimiento, por tanto existe evidencia preliminar de que este índice podría ser valioso como predictor del rendimiento en circunstancias de alta exigencia.

  9. Algumas considerações sobre a chamada propaganda subliminar

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    J. Roberto Withaker Penteado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O autor faz uma revisão das origens da expressão "propaganda subliminar" e do seu percurso histórico a partir dos eventos de 1957, nos EUA, que deram notoriedade ao assunto. Em seguida, a partir de considerações teóricas sobre as formas pelas quais se processa a comunicação publicitária, procura demonstrar que carecem de fundamento as afirmações de que tais ações possam atingir os seus objetivos fora dos limites de percepção dos receptores. Palavras-chaves: propaganda, percepção, psicologia, percepção. ABSTRACT The author reviews the origins ofthe expression "subliminal advertising" and its development after the 1957 events - in the USA - which gave the subject its present notoriety. This is followed by theoretical considerations about the process of advertising communication, which aim at demonstrating as baseless the claims that such actions may take place below the human threshold of perception. Keywords: advertising, perception, psychology, communication.

  10. Consideraciones sobre ética, derecho y ambiente

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    Pierre Foy Valencia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo aborda la importancia que progresivamente está adquiriendo la ética ambiental en relación con las variadas formas del ejercicio contemporáneo del Derecho, así como de sus diversificadas áreas o especialidades y, por cierto, en particular respecto del Derecho Ambiental. Para ello, en primer lugar, identificaremos conceptualmente el escenario y el proceso de la ética ambiental como presupuesto condicionante que impacta en los múltiples mecanismos de actuación social —léase la política, la economía, la educación, los sistemas jurídicos, entre otros—.2 Luego, estableceremos algunas premisas sobre la responsabilidad profesional en particular del abogado y cómo estas deberían ser integradas en una perspectiva ético-ambiental o, si se quiere, basadas en una ética de la sostenibilidad. Finalmente, interpretaremos cómo tales consideraciones debieran articularse con el ejercicio de las disciplinas jurídicas, en especial con el Derecho Ambiental, enfatizando la cuestión de la corrupción con la preocupación ambiental.

  11. Prueba de sesgo sobre rendimientos financieros en el mercado colombiano

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    Marisol Valencia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de los rendimientos financieros depende, en gran medida, de su comportamiento probabilístico, el cual puede ser mal ajustado, conduciendo así a malas decisiones económicas relacionadas con valoración de activos, asignación de cartera y/o medición del riesgo de mercado. En este trabajo se propone una prueba que permita determinar el ajuste de los rendimientos del Índice General de la Bolsa de Valores de Colombia (IGBC a las siguientes distribuciones: Normal, Normal Sesgada y T Sesgada. Además, se mide el nivel de sesgo y se compara el desempeño de la prueba propuesta con otra prueba existente, usada únicamente para la detección de asimetría. Se encuentra que la prueba propuesta permite caracterizar los rendimientos del mercado de valores colombiano con una de las distribuciones de probabilidad, a diferencia de la otra prueba, que sólo advierte sobre la existencia de sesgo y no establece la distribución que representa su comportamiento.

  12. Las ideas sobre el hombre en la Grecia antigua

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    Juan Javier Saavedra Mayorga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es el primero de una serie de documentos que tienen por objeto identificar el paradigma antropológico sobre el cual se ha construido el pensamiento administrativo, y su impacto en las prácticas administrativas contemporáneas. Para ello se parte de una perspectiva histórica, examinando las distintas concepciones que se han tenido acerca del hombre, y de qué modo ellas han influido el discurso y la práctica de la gestión. La investigación pretende averiguar si es cierta la hipótesis según la cual durante los últimos siglos habría tenido lugar un proceso de instrumentalización de la razón que ha concebido al hombre como un medio para el cumplimiento de fines, principalmente económicos, y el surgimiento de la administración sería una manifestación de dicho proceso. Este artículo se concentra en el estudio de las concepciones griegas a propósito del hombre.

  13. Sobre el soneto Los conquistadores de los trofeos

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    Carlos López Narváez

    1967-09-01

    Full Text Available Aun los medianamente eruditos en poesía francesa sobradamente saben que el autor del más celebrado poemario parnasiano -cuyo subtítulo puede ser Historia celeste de la tierra- el cubano-francés José María de Heredia, ascendía (el usual descendia no cu¡tdra en esta anécdota de gloria del conquistador y fundador don Pedro de Heredia, alias el desna- rigado, y de allí el que de las propias arterias apriemiárale un férvido interés por el mundo occidental en todos sus órdenes. Empezó por acometer la versión francesa de la monumental crónica historial de Bernal Díaz del Castillo, labor cuya culminación científica y artística culmina en las notas y acotaciones complementarias del original vertido y que denuncian, por igual sabiduría y pasión americanistas: tanto, que en su biblioteca de trabajo se alineaban cerca de dos centenares de obras sobre el Nuevo Mundo. La epopeya acabó, naturalmente por encender el instinto épico del abolengo hasta hacer del poeta el Benvenuto Cellini del soneto parnasiano. El primer indicio aparece en el titulado Los funerales, insuperablemente traducido por Otto de Greiff.

  14. El informe mundial sobre la violencia y la salud.

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    Etienne G. Krug

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1966, la Organización Mundial de la Salud declaró la violencia como uno de los principales problemas de salud pública. Para dar seguimiento a dicha resolución, el 3 de octubre de este año, la OMS publicó el primer Informe mundial sobre la violencia y la salud, el cual analiza los diferentes tipos de violencia, incluidos el maltrato y abandono de menores, la violencia entre los jóvenes, la violencia contra la pareja, la violencia sexual, el maltrato a ancianos, la violencia autoinfligida y la violencia colectiva. Para todos estos tipos de violencia, el informe explora la magnitud de sus efectos en la salud y en la sociedad, los factores de riesgo y protección y los esfuerzos de prevención que se han desplegado. El lanzamiento del informe dará inicio a una Campaña Global de Prevención de la Violencia que durante un año se centrará en la aplicación de sus recomendaciones. Este artículo resume algunos de los puntos más importantes del informe mundial.

  15. UMA VISÃO GERAL SOBRE A INTERNET DAS COISAS

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    Gustavo Marin Suppi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available No decorrer dos anos, a tecnologia computacional tem evoluído, com os dispositivos móveis abriu um imenso leque de possibilidades de sistemas que visam facilitar a vida de toda a sociedade. Na Internet das Coisas, a conexão não se limita a esses dispositivos, mas a qualquer objeto no ambiente, desde torneiras até sinaleiras, onde formam uma estrutura de rede guiada por troca de informações, onde sensores captam informações do meio e enviam para dispositivos que as processam. Por meio de uma revisão de literatura, o objetivo foi coletar dados sobre essa nova infraestrutura, proporcionando ao leitor uma visão geral, expondo os principais pontos mencionados pelos autores dos artigos pesquisados. Concluiu-se que o objetivo da Internet das Coisas é de fato revolucionar o meio de como usamos a internet, desde a conectividade até a distribuição da informação, porém, para tal, será necessário fortes estudos em relação a segurança das informações obtidas dos usuários.

  16. Skinner: sobre ciência e comportamento humano

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    Angelo Augusto Silva Sampaio

    Full Text Available Atualmente, não se pode pensar no estudo do comportamento humano sem considerar a abordagem científica a este objeto: o campo da Psicologia científica. Esse campo é disputado por diversos enfoques teóricos que divergem quanto ao modo como definem ciência e comportamento humano. A abordagem de B. F. Skinner foi bastante proeminente no século XX, mas ainda continua a ser mal-entendida. Partindo do desenvolvimento histórico de sua obra, o presente texto visa a iluminar alguns aspectos relacionados às noções de ciência e comportamento humano desse autor e ressaltar as transformações por que passaram. Analisam-se três tópicos da obra de Skinner: seu período inicial (de 1930 a cerca de 1938, a obra "Ciência e Comportamento Humano" de 1953, e as influências da Biologia. São enfatizados aspectos relevantes da sua teorização sobre o tema: busca por relações funcionais, ênfase nos dados empíricos, operacionismo, externalismo, multideterminação do comportamento, experimentalismo, previsão e controle, ética.

  17. A cultura empreendedora nos discursos sobre a juventude

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    Julia Salgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo apresento um exame sobre o discurso da cultura empreendedora em alguns produtos midiáticos. Tendo como pano de fundo a análise comparativa de duas séries televisivas voltadas para o público juvenil em temporalidades distintas (Confissões de Adolescente, de 1994 e Ger@l.com, de 2009/2010, busco examinar as retóricas que, nessas séries e em outros veículos, celebram o empreendedorismo juvenil como resposta às demandas por sucesso pessoal e como solução ao problema do desemprego estrutural. Antes, porém, faço uma contextualização do ambiente social que se construiu a partir da emergência de uma racionalidade neoliberal, procurando, com isso, compreender a relação da cultura empreendedora com lógicas sistêmicas, amplas e dominantes.

  18. Nueva evidencia sobre la Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS

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    Amparo Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las asignaturas relacionadas con la estadística suelen tener problemas de rendimiento académico. La ansiedad se relaciona de forma negativa con el rendimiento y en particular, la ansiedad estadística puede ser un constructo clave en la mejora de la enseñanza de esta materia y afines. La Statistical Anxiety Scale (Vigil-Colet, Lorenzo-Seva y Condon, 2008 se creó con la pretensión de ser útil para predecir el rendimiento académico en estadística. Se fundamenta en tres dimensiones de ansiedad referidas a tres aspectos específicos: respecto al examen, cuando se pide ayuda en la comprensión de estadística y en el proceso de interpretación de resultados. Esta estructura de tres factores fue hallada en un primer momento por los autores de la escala y en una primera validación corroborada en estudiantes italianos y españoles. El presente estudio pretende añadir nueva evidencia sobre la fiabilidad y validez de la escala, empleando en el estudio de fiabilidad técnicas estadísticas robustas, y ampliando el estudio de la validez respecto a su principal criterio, el rendimiento académico, ya que no puede ser considerado sinónimo de autoeficacia.

  19. Efecto de la Escolaridad sobre la Fecundidad en Nicaragua

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    Bonilla, Roger

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Son muchos los estudios que han mostrado la asociación inversa existente entre la escolaridad y la fecundidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar el efecto de la escolaridad sobre la fecundidad, en una muestra de 11246 mujeres de Nicaragua. Se ajustaron modelos de regresión de Poisson en donde la variable respuesta Y fue el número de hijos nacidos vivos de la mujer y la variable independiente fue la escolaridad, controlando por otros efectos como zona de residencia, tenencia de empleo, uso actual de métodos anticonceptivos, edad y una medida del nivel informativo de la mujer. Los modelos propuestos son significativos (p < 0.05 el hecho de tener escolaridad primaria hace que el riesgo de tener hijos adicionales sea 13% menor con respecto a las mujeres que no tienen escolaridad alguna. El riesgo para las mujeres con escolaridad secundaria es 40% menor (Modelo 1. El efecto interactivo de la escolaridad secundaria y más y la edad es significativo ( <0.05 (Modelo 2. El estudio suministra información útil para el apropiado diseño de políticas públicas y programas educativos.

  20. Una lectura sobre las relaciones entre fascismo y poder.

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    Isabel Avendaño Flores

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Estas páginas partirán del supuesto de que geografía fue utilizada por el fascismo para ostentar el poder, para dirigir unas operaciones militares, para organizar los territorios en la previsión de las batallas que se libraran contra tal o cual adversario pero también, para que el aparato de Estado controlara mejor a los hombres sobre los cuales ejercía su autoridad. Decir que el fascismo era a la vez práctica y pensamiento o una acción animada por una doctrina, requiere de una plataforma territorial. Asimismo, la geografía como descripción metódica de los espacios, tanto de los aspectos que ha llamado „físicos‟ como bajo sus características económicas, sociales, demográficas y políticas debe situarse absolutamente como practica y poder