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Sample records for blastochloris viridis heterodimer

  1. EPR at 24 T of the primary donor radical cation from Blastochloris viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The g-matrix of photosynthetic pigments has been studied in the last decade due to the advent of high-field EPR techniques. It can be observed when the spectral splitting of the principal g-factor components is larger than the linewidth due to unresolved hyperfine splitting and if there is no g-strain obscuring it. For large organic molecules such as the primary electron donor in photosynthetic reaction centers (RC) this usually requires fields above 11 T, or, for fields between 3 and 11 T, full deuteration and/or single crystal work. Here we present for the first time the fully resolved rhombic EPR spectrum of the primary donor of Blastochloris viridis (formerly called Rhodopseudomonas viridis), a purple photosynthetic bacterium containing bacteriochlorophyll b. As was the case for Rhodobacter sphaeroides, g-strain is negligible for this radical up to a field of 24 T. The temperature dependence of the g-anisotropy is presented and compared with that of the bacteriochlorophyll a-containing Rb. sphaeroides and plant photosystem I. A slight shift in the principal components of the g-matrix is observed at temperatures below 70 K, where it becomes more axial. The experimental work is complemented with theoretical calculations for g using the semi-empirical INDO/S method as implemented in the program ZINDO. The theoretical results generally agree well with the experiment. This indicates that a satisfactory description of the anisotropic g-tensor for radical cations of large planar molecules like the chlorophylls as well as their aggregates, e.g., reaction center primary donor special pairs, is possible with this relatively cheap semi-empirical approach

  2. The surface metal site in Blc. viridis photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers: Cu2+ as a probe of structure, location, and flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ion binding to a surface site on photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) modulates light-induced electron and proton transfer events in the RC. Whereas many studies have elucidated aspects of metal ion modulation events in Rhodobacter sphaeroides RCs, much less is understood about the surface site in Blastochloris viridis (Blc. viridis) RCs. Interestingly, electron paramagnetic resonance studies revealed two spectroscopically distinct Cu2+ surface site environments in Blc. viridis RCs. Herein, Cu2+ has been used to spectroscopically probe the structure of these Cu2+ site(s) in response to freezing conditions, temperature, and charge separation. One Cu2+ environment in Blc. viridis RCs, termed CuA, exhibits temperature-dependent conformational flexibility. Different conformation states of the CuA2+ site are trapped when the RC is frozen in the dark either by fast-freeze or slow-freeze procedure. The second Cu2+ environment, termed CuB, is structurally invariant to different freezing conditions and shows resolved hyperfine coupling to three nitrogen atoms. Cu2+ is most likely binding at the same location on the RC, but in different coordination environments which may reflect two distinct conformational states of the isolated Blc. viridis RC protein.

  3. Phototrophic utilization of toluene under anoxic conditions by a new strain of blastochloris sulfoviridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengler; Heider; Rossello-Mora; Widdel

    1999-10-01

    The capacity of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria to utilize aromatic hydrocarbons was investigated in enrichment cultures with toluene. When mineral medium with toluene (provided in an inert carrier phase) was inoculated with activated sludge and incubated under infrared illumination (> 750 nm), a red-to-brownish culture developed. Agar dilution series indicated the dominance of two types of phototrophic bacteria. One type formed red colonies, had rod-shaped cells with budding division, and grew on benzoate but not on toluene. The other type formed yellow-to-brown colonies, had oval cells, and utilized toluene and benzoate. One strain of the latter type, ToP1, was studied in detail. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and DNA-DNA hybridization indicated an affiliation of strain ToP1 with the species Blastochloris sulfoviridis, a member of the alpha-subclass of Proteobacteria. However, the type strain (DSM 729) of Blc. sulfoviridis grew neither on toluene nor on benzoate. Light-dependent consumption of toluene in the presence of carbon dioxide and formation of cell mass by strain ToP1 were demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain ToP1 is the first phototrophic bacterium shown to utilize an aromatic hydrocarbon. In the supernatant of toluene-grown cultures and in cell-free extracts incubated with toluene and fumarate, the formation of benzylsuccinate was detected. These findings indicate that the phototrophic bacterium activates toluene anaerobically by the same mechanism that has been reported for denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The natural abundance of phototrophic bacteria with the capacity for toluene utilization was examined in freshwater habitats. Counting series revealed that up to around 1% (1.8 x 10(5) cells per gram dry mass of sample) of the photoheterotrophic population cultivable with acetate grew on toluene. PMID:10525736

  4. [Transcriptome analysis of Dunaliella viridis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuaiqi; Gong, Yifu; Hang, Yuqing; Liu, Hao; Wang, Heyu

    2015-08-01

    In order to understand the gene information, function, haloduric pathway (glycerolipid metabolism) and related key genes for Dunaliella viridis, we used Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence its transcriptome. Trinity soft was used to assemble the data to form transcripts. Based on the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG ) databases, we carried out functional annotation and classification, pathway annotation, and the opening reading fragment (ORF) sequence prediction of transcripts. The key genes in the glycerolipid metabolism were analyzed. The results suggested that 81,593 transcripts were found, and 77,117 ORF sequences were predicted, accounting for 94.50% of all transcripts. COG classification results showed that 16,569 transcripts were assigned to 24 categories. GO classification annotated 76,436 transcripts. The number of transcripts for biologcial processes was 30,678, accounting for 40.14% of all transcripts. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26,428 transcripts were annotated to 317 pathways, and 131 pathways were related to metabolism, accounting for 41.32% of all annotated pathways. Only one transcript was annotated as coding the key enzyme dihydroxyacetone kinase involved in the glycerolipid pathway. This enzyme could be related to glycerol biosynthesis under salt stress. This study further improved the gene information and laid the foundation of metabolic pathway research for Dunaliella viridis. PMID:26266786

  5. Gene transfer system for Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, F S; Oesterhelt, D

    1989-01-01

    A gene transfer system for Rhodopseudomonas viridis was established which uses conjugation with Escherichia coli S17-I as the donor and mobilizable plasmids as vectors. Initially, plasmids of the incompatibility group P1 (pRK290 and pRK404) were used. The more effective shuttle vectors between E. coli and R. viridis, pKV1 and pKVS1, were derived from plasmid pBR322 and showed the highest conjugation frequency (10(-2] thus far demonstrated in purple bacteria. It was also demonstrated that Rhiz...

  6. Intramolecular Singlet Fission in Oligoacene Heterodimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Samuel N; Kumarasamy, Elango; Pun, Andrew B; Steigerwald, Michael L; Sfeir, Matthew Y; Campos, Luis M

    2016-03-01

    We investigate singlet fission (SF) in heterodimers comprising a pentacene unit covalently bonded to another acene as we systematically vary the singlet and triplet pair energies. We find that these energies control the SF process, where dimers undergo SF provided that the resulting triplet pair energy is similar or lower in energy than the singlet state. In these systems the singlet energy is determined by the lower-energy chromophore, and the rate of SF is found to be relatively independent of the driving force. However, triplet pair recombination in these heterodimers follows the energy gap law. The ability to tune the energies of these materials provides a key strategy to study and design new SF materials-an important process for third-generation photovoltaics. PMID:26836223

  7. Putative bioindicator of 137Cs in Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green lipid mussels (Perna viridis L.) are utilized as bioindicators and bioconcentrators not only for marine radionuclide contamination but also for heavy metal bioaccumulation. Depurated P. viridis were incubated in 137Cs-spiked aquarium for 4 days. Soluble protein fractions of soft tissue obtained were electrophoresed (SDS-PAGE) to determine the exposure effects of 137Cs on P. viridis. Results showed the presence of a 154-kDa protein in 137Cs-spiked samples which could be a potential bioindicator of 137Cs in P. viridis. Other differences involving two more proteins (∼94-kDa and∼61 KDa) are reported. (Author)

  8. Phytochemical analyses of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, J C; Brito, Glacus S; Neves, Edison S

    2005-06-01

    A total of 32 Banisteriopsis caapi samples and 36 samples of Psychotria viridis were carefully collected from different plants on the same day from 22 sites throughout Brazil for phytochemical analyses. A broad range in alkaloid distribution was observed in both sample sets. All B. caapi samples had detectable amounts of harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine (THH), while some samples of P. viridis had little or no detectable levels of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Leaves of P. viridis were also collected from one plant and analyzed for DMT throughout a 24-hour cycle. PMID:16149327

  9. Ontogenetic shift in response to prey-derived chemical cues in prairie rattlesnakes Crotalus viridis viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. SAVIOLA, David CHISZAR, Stephen P. MACKESSY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Snakes often have specialized diets that undergo a shift from one prey type to another depending on the life stage of the snake. Crotalus viridis viridis (prairie rattlesnake takes different prey at different life stages, and neonates typically prey on ectotherms, while adults feed almost entirely on small endotherms. We hypothesized that elevated rates of tongue flicking to chemical stimuli should correlate with particular prey consumed, and that this response shifts from one prey type to another as individuals age. To examine if an ontogenetic shift in response to chemical cues occurred, we recorded the rate of tongue flicking for 25 neonate, 20 subadult, and 20 adult (average SVL = 280.9, 552, 789.5 mm, respectively wild-caught C. v. viridis to chemical stimuli presented on a cotton-tipped applicator; water-soluble cues from two ectotherms (prairie lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, and house gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, two endotherms (deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus and lab mouse, Mus musculus, and water controls were used. Neonates tongue flicked significantly more to chemical cues of their common prey, S. undulatus, than to all other chemical cues; however, the response to this lizard’s chemical cues decreased in adult rattlesnakes. Subadults tongue flicked with a higher rate of tongue flicking to both S. undulatus and P. maniculatus than to all other treatments, and adults tongue flicked significantly more to P. maniculatus than to all other chemical cues. In addition, all three sub-classes demonstrated a greater response for natural prey chemical cues over chemical stimuli of prey not encountered in the wild (M. musculus and H. frenatus. This shift in chemosensory response correlated with the previously described ontogenetic shifts in C. v. viridis diet. Because many vipers show a similar ontogenetic shift in diet and venom composition, we suggest that this shift in prey cue discrimination is likely a general phenomenon among viperid

  10. Excitation Dynamics and Relaxation in a Molecular Heterodimer

    CERN Document Server

    Balevicius, V; Abramavicius, D; Mancal, T; Valkunas, L

    2011-01-01

    The exciton dynamics in a molecular heterodimer is studied as a function of differences in excitation and reorganization energies, asymmetry in transition dipole moments and excited state lifetimes. The heterodimer is composed of two molecules modeled as two-level systems coupled by the resonance interaction. The system-bath coupling is taken into account as a modulating factor of the energy gap of the molecular excitation, while the relaxation to the ground state is treated phenomenologically. Comparison of the description of the excitation dynamics modeled using either the Redfield equations (secular and full forms) or the Hierarchical quantum master equation (HQME) is demonstrated and discussed. Possible role of the dimer as an excitation quenching center in photosynthesis self-regulation is discussed. It is concluded that the system-bath interaction rather than the excitonic effect determines the excitation quenching ability of such a dimer.

  11. Designer synthesis of monodisperse heterodimer and ferrite nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Nakhjavan, Bahar

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this doctoral thesis is a facile procedure, thermal decomposition, forrnthe synthesis of different types of monodisperse heterodimer M@iron oxide (M= Cu, Co, Nirnand Pt) and single ferrites, MFe2O4 (M= Cu and Co), nanoparticles. In the following chapter,rnwe study the synthesis of these monodiperse nanoparticles with the similar iron precursorrn(iron pentacarbonyl) and different transition metal precursors such as metalrnacetate/acetylacetonate/formate precursors in the ...

  12. Comprehensive EST analysis of the symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deleury Emeline

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coral reef ecosystems are renowned for their diversity and beauty. Their immense ecological success is due to a symbiotic association between cnidarian hosts and unicellular dinoflagellate algae, known as zooxanthellae. These algae are photosynthetic and the cnidarian-zooxanthellae association is based on nutritional exchanges. Maintenance of such an intimate cellular partnership involves many crosstalks between the partners. To better characterize symbiotic relationships between a cnidarian host and its dinoflagellate symbionts, we conducted a large-scale EST study on a symbiotic sea anemone, Anemonia viridis, in which the two tissue layers (epiderm and gastroderm can be easily separated. Results A single cDNA library was constructed from symbiotic tissue of sea anemones A. viridis in various environmental conditions (both normal and stressed. We generated 39,939 high quality ESTs, which were assembled into 14,504 unique sequences (UniSeqs. Sequences were analysed and sorted according to their putative origin (animal, algal or bacterial. We identified many new repeated elements in the 3'UTR of most animal genes, suggesting that these elements potentially have a biological role, especially with respect to gene expression regulation. We identified genes of animal origin that have no homolog in the non-symbiotic starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis genome, but in other symbiotic cnidarians, and may therefore be involved in the symbiosis relationship in A. viridis. Comparison of protein domain occurrence in A. viridis with that in N. vectensis demonstrated an increase in abundance of some molecular functions, such as protein binding or antioxidant activity, suggesting that these functions are essential for the symbiotic state and may be specific adaptations. Conclusion This large dataset of sequences provides a valuable resource for future studies on symbiotic interactions in Cnidaria. The comparison with the closest

  13. Synergistic transmembrane alignment of the antimicrobial heterodimer PGLa/magainin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremouilhac, Pierre; Strandberg, Erik; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S

    2006-10-27

    The antimicrobial activity of amphipathic alpha-helical peptides is usually attributed to the formation of pores in bacterial membranes, but direct structural information about such a membrane-bound state is sparse. Solid state (2)H-NMR has previously shown that the antimicrobial peptide PGLa undergoes a concentration-dependent realignment from a surface-bound S-state to a tilted T-state. The corresponding change in helix tilt angle from 98 to 125 degrees was interpreted as the formation of PGLa/magainin heterodimers residing on the bilayer surface. Under no conditions so far, has an upright membrane-inserted I-state been observed in which a transmembrane helix alignment would be expected. Here, we have demonstrated that PGLa is able to assume such an I-state in a 1:1 mixture with magainin 2 at a peptide-to-lipid ratio as low as 1:100 in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol model membranes. This (2)H-NMR analysis is based on seven orientational constraints from Ala-3,3,3-d(3) substituted in a non-perturbing manner for four native Ala residues as well as two Ile and one Gly. The observed helix tilt of 158 degrees is rationalized by the formation of heterodimers. This structurally synergistic effect between the two related peptides from the skin of Xenopus laevis correlates very well with their known functional synergistic mode of action. To our knowledge, this example of PGLa is the first case where an alpha-helical antimicrobial peptide is directly shown to assume a transmembrane state that is compatible with the postulated toroidal wormhole pore structure. PMID:16877761

  14. Ag/Ag2S heterodimers: tailoring the metal–semiconductor interface in a single nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterodimers are conjoined particles of two inorganic materials, and they are generally synthesised in multiple steps. But, the multi-step syntheses are less effective because of the low yield, long reaction time, labour intensive process and complexity in the synthesis and thus not ideal for scale up. Herein, we have demonstrated single-step, one-pot syntheses for two different types of Ag/Ag2S heterodimers. Two types of heterodimers were obtained while varying stoichiometry in the reaction of AgNO3 with sulphur in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) at 140 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first demonstration of single-step process to synthesise Ag/Ag2S heterodimers. Heterodimers had dumbbell shape with both metal and semiconductor domains in single particle which were constructed by spherical Ag and Ag2S nanoparticles. Ag (2 0 0) and Ag2S (0 2 2) planes associated to form heterodimers. The presence of metal–semiconductor interfaces was confirmed by HRTEM and UV analysis. Thus, we have demonstrated the HMDS-assisted synthesis as a promising method for direct synthesis of Ag/Ag2S heterodimers.

  15. Preliminary study on the bioaccumulation of saxitoxins in Perna viridis through the dissolved pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a common fear among shellfish consumers. Saxitoxins are the group of compounds that are responsible for PSP. These compounds are produced by Pyrodinium bahamense var compresssum (PbC) which accumulate in perna viridis as they feed on PbC. This study aims to determine the presence of an alternative pathway, called the dissolved pathway, through which saxitoxins accumulate in Perna viridis independent of PbC. Perna viridis were exposed to a certain concentration of saxitoxins for a period of 24 hours and saxitoxin levels were determined at certain times throughout the period. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) - Oshima method was used in the measurement of toxins levels. Results show that mussels accumulate saxitoxins even in the absence of PbC, which supported the hypothesis that an alternative dissolved pathway contributes to the accumulation of saxitoxins in Perna viridis. (author)

  16. Bioaccumulation of Chromium by Perna Viridis from Jakarta Bay Base on Radiotracer 51Cr Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of bioaccumulation chromium of Perna viridis from Jakarta Bay using 51Cr radiotracer have been done. The experiment was carried out by 3 steps such as: uptake, depuration and modelling. The result of experiment shown that Perna viridis can be used as bioindicator of chromium because its capability to accumulate Cr. Its concentration factor, uptake rate and depuration rate were 148.36 to 414.5, 14.836 to 65.754 μg per days and 9.04 to 15.48 % per days respectively. The value of BCF was under 500 so Perna viridis can not be used for environmental risk assesment. The result of modeling was find the Concentration Factor were 106 to 367 and the its decreasing from Perna viridis tissue can be 90 % after 14 days of depuration. (author)

  17. Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis and its protective role against ROS induced lipidperoxidation and protein carbonyl

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Jagtap, T.G.; Verlecar, X.N.

    862 Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy Vol. 4 (4) 862-870 October 2010. ISSN 0973-8916 Antioxidative potential of Perna viridis Abstract The antioxidant potential of methanol extracts of green-lipped mussel (Perna viridis) were evaluated....N. Verlecar* Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa-403004 *For correspondence - verlecar@nio.org 863Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy Vol. 4 (4) 862-870 October 2010. ISSN 0973-8916 Jena et al...

  18. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis leaves in experimental diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy Girija; Kuruba Lakshman; Nagaraj Pruthvi; Pulla Udaya Chandrika

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in normal and Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis was evaluated by using normal and STZ induced diabetic rats at dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by mouth per day for 21 days. Blood glucose levels and body weight was monitored at specific intervals, and differen...

  19. Drosophila Stathmins Bind Tubulin Heterodimers with High and Variable Stoichiometries*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachkar, Sylvie; Lebois, Marion; Steinmetz, Michel O.; Guichet, Antoine; Lal, Neha; Curmi, Patrick A.; Sobel, André; Ozon, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    In vertebrates, stathmins form a family of proteins possessing two tubulin binding repeats (TBRs), which each binds one soluble tubulin heterodimer. The stathmins thus sequester two tubulins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, providing a link between signal transduction and microtubule dynamics. In Drosophila, we show here that a single stathmin gene (stai) encodes a family of D-stathmin proteins. Two of the D-stathmins are maternally deposited and then restricted to germ cells, and the other two are detected in the nervous system during embryo development. Like in vertebrates, the nervous system-enriched stathmins contain an N-terminal domain involved in subcellular targeting. All the D-stathmins possess a domain containing three or four predicted TBRs, and we demonstrate here, using complementary biochemical and biophysical methods, that all four predicted TBR domains actually bind tubulin. D-stathmins can indeed bind up to four tubulins, the resulting complex being directly visualized by electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the presence of regulated multiple tubulin sites is a conserved characteristic of stathmins in invertebrates and allows us to predict key residues in stathmin for the binding of tubulin. Altogether, our results reveal that the single Drosophila stathmin gene codes for a stathmin family similar to the multigene vertebrate one, but with particular tubulin binding properties. PMID:20145240

  20. Drosophila stathmins bind tubulin heterodimers with high and variable stoichiometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachkar, Sylvie; Lebois, Marion; Steinmetz, Michel O; Guichet, Antoine; Lal, Neha; Curmi, Patrick A; Sobel, André; Ozon, Sylvie

    2010-04-01

    In vertebrates, stathmins form a family of proteins possessing two tubulin binding repeats (TBRs), which each binds one soluble tubulin heterodimer. The stathmins thus sequester two tubulins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, providing a link between signal transduction and microtubule dynamics. In Drosophila, we show here that a single stathmin gene (stai) encodes a family of D-stathmin proteins. Two of the D-stathmins are maternally deposited and then restricted to germ cells, and the other two are detected in the nervous system during embryo development. Like in vertebrates, the nervous system-enriched stathmins contain an N-terminal domain involved in subcellular targeting. All the D-stathmins possess a domain containing three or four predicted TBRs, and we demonstrate here, using complementary biochemical and biophysical methods, that all four predicted TBR domains actually bind tubulin. D-stathmins can indeed bind up to four tubulins, the resulting complex being directly visualized by electron microscopy. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the presence of regulated multiple tubulin sites is a conserved characteristic of stathmins in invertebrates and allows us to predict key residues in stathmin for the binding of tubulin. Altogether, our results reveal that the single Drosophila stathmin gene codes for a stathmin family similar to the multigene vertebrate one, but with particular tubulin binding properties. PMID:20145240

  1. Ecological consequence of the introduction of the polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis into a shallow-water biotope of the northern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Jonne; Orav, Helen; Sandberg-Kilpi, Eva

    2001-12-01

    Effects of the North American polychaete Marenzelleria cf. viridis on a simple shallow-water benthic community of the northern Baltic Sea were studied in a field experiment combining natural densities of dominating macrofaunal species. The presence of M. cf. viridis increased benthic production (chlorophyll a) and reduced the survival of the native polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Adult Macoma balthica caused a significant mortality on M. cf. viridis whereas adult Cerastoderma glaucum had no effect on M. cf. viridis. We suggest that the competitive interactions between M. cf. viridis and M. balthica are a possible key factor determining the distribution pattern of M. cf. viridis in the Baltic Sea.

  2. SALT EFFECTS ON SWARMERS OF DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas-Becking, L G

    1931-07-20

    1. Dunaliella viridis Teodoresco thrives equally well in solutions of NaCl 1 to 4 mol and pH 6 to 9. 2. The organism is sensitive to calcium and magnesium, especially in acid medium. 3. Calcium and magnesium are antagonistic. In a molar solution of NaCl the antagonistic relation Mg:Ca is 4 to 5. In a 4 molar solution of NaCl the proportion becomes many times as great (20:1). 4. Although the strains used in this investigation did not occur in sea water concentrates, the increase in the antagonistic ratio Mg:Ca in which they can live closely paralleled the changes in this ratio which take place when sea water evaporates. 5. The other organisms which occurred in the cultures each show a specific relation to Ca and Mg. 6. The size of the cells of Dunaliella does not decrease with increasing NaCl content. PMID:19872621

  3. New Targets for Renal Interstitial Fibrosis: Relaxin Family Peptide Receptor 1 - Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor Heterodimers

    OpenAIRE

    Sasser, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that relaxin has potent anti-fibrotic effects within the kidney; however, the signal transduction mechanisms involved in the renoprotective effects of relaxin are not well understood. Chow et al demonstrate that the relaxin receptor, RXFP1, forms heterodimer complexes with the angiotensin type 2 receptor, AT2, even in the absence of ligand and that these heterodimer complexes are required for relaxin’s antifibrotic effects. These findings identify a previously unkno...

  4. Fano resonance assisting plasmonic circular dichroism from nanorice heterodimers for extrinsic chirality

    OpenAIRE

    Li Hu; Yingzhou Huang; Liang Fang; Guo Chen; Hua Wei; Yurui Fang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the circular dichroisms (CD) of nanorice heterodimers consisting of two parallel arranged nanorices with the same size but different materials are investigated theoretically. Symmetry-breaking is introduced by using different materials and oblique incidence to achieve strong CD at the vicinity of Fano resonance peaks. We demonstrate that all Au-Ag heterodimers exhibit multipolar Fano resonances and strong CD effect. A simple quantitative analysis shows that the structure with la...

  5. Activation of RXR–PPAR heterodimers by organotin environmental endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Le Maire, Albane; Grimaldi, Marina; Roecklin, Dominique; Dagnino, Sonia; Vivat-Hannah, Valérie; Balaguer, Patrick; Bourguet, William

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear receptor retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXR-alpha)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) heterodimer was recently reported to have a crucial function in mediating the deleterious effects of organotin compounds, which are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. However, because organotins are unrelated to known RXR-alpha and PPAR-gamma ligands, the mechanism by which these compounds bind to and activate the RXR-alpha-PPAR-gamma heterodimer at nanomolar concentrat...

  6. Tryptophan Contributions to the Empirical Free-Energy Profile in Gramicidin A/M Heterodimer Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Durrant, Jacob Devin; Caywood, Devin; Busath, David D

    2006-01-01

    Gramicidin A/gramicidin M heterodimer conductances were measured in planar lipid bilayers and found to form two distinguishable populations about halfway between the gramicidin A and gramicidin M homodimer conductances. This implies that the principle difference in the gramicidin A and gramicidin M transport free-energy profiles occurs at the channel center, where it would produce similar effects on the rate-limiting barrier for the two heterodimers. Kinetic analysis based on this and nearly ...

  7. Improved medium for recovery and enumeration of the farmer's lung organism, Saccharomonospora viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amner, W; Edwards, C; McCarthy, A J

    1989-10-01

    A new medium, which we propose to call R8, was developed for the isolation and enumeration of the thermophilic actinomycete, Saccharomonospora viridis. This organism has been implicated in a range of hypersensitivity pneumonitides, including farmer's lung, but is generally isolated in small numbers from contaminated environments. Recovery of S. viridis from moldy hay and mushroom compost on R8 medium was compared with recovery on conventional media. S. viridis was isolated from both substrates but in highest numbers and most consistently on the R8 medium. The selectivity of this medium was best observed when the sedimentation chamber method was used for hay samples. Here S. viridis accounted for up to 80% of the total number of actinomycetes recovered on R8 and could not be recovered on rifampin selective medium under the same conditions. R8 was also found to be an efficient recovery medium for a range of thermophilic actinomycetes from mushroom compost and for another allergenic species, Faenia rectivirgula, from moldy hay. Contamination of isolation plates by thermophilic bacilli was reduced on R8 compared with the activity on half-strength tryptone soy agar, supplemented with 0.2% casein hydrolysate, and this, together with specific improvements in S. viridis growth, accounts for the selective effect. It is possible that the occurrence of S. viridis and its role as a causative agent of hypersensitivity pnuemonitis have been underestimated by the use of suboptimal recovery protocols. It is hoped that use of R8 in conjunction with dilution plate techniques will generate information on the ecology of S. viridis and contribute to health risk assessment studies. PMID:2604405

  8. Setaria viridis floral-dip: A simple and rapid Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Setaria viridis was recently described as a new monocotyledonous model species for C4 photosynthesis research and genetic transformation. It has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model plant. We report an alternative method of S. viridis transformation using floral dip to circumvent the necessity of tissue culture phase for transgenic plant regeneration. S. viridis spikes at boot stage were selected to be immersed in Agrobacterium suspension. T1 seeds could be identified in 1.5–2 months after floral dipping. We demonstrated through molecular analysis and RFP expression that seeds and resulting plants from dipped inflorescences were transformed. Our results suggest the feasibility of S. viridis floral dip transformation as a time-saving and cost-effective compared with traditional methods. To our knowledge, this is the first report using floral dip in S. viridis as an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method.

  9. Genetic characterization of Perna viridis L. in peninsular Malaysia using microsatellite markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C. C. Ong; K. Yusoff; C. K. Yap; S. G. Tan

    2009-08-01

    A total of 19 polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to analyse levels of genetic variation for 10 populations of Perna viridis L. collected from all over peninsular Malaysia. The populations involved in this study included Pulau Aman in Penang, Tanjung Rhu in Kedah, Bagan Tiang in Perak, Pulau Ketam in Selangor, Muar, Parit Jawa, Pantai Lido and Kampung Pasir Puteh in Johore, and Kuala Pontian and Nenasi in Pahang state. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to seven, with an average of 3.1. Heterozygote deficiencies were observed across all the 10 populations. Characterization of the populations revealed that local populations of P. viridis in peninsular Malaysia were genetically similar enough to be used as a biomonitoring agent for heavy metal contamination in the Straits of Malacca. Cluster analysis grouped the P. viridis populations according to their geographical distributions with the exception of Parit Jawa. The analysis also revealed that P. viridis from the northern parts of peninsular Malaysia were found to be the most distant populations among the populations of mussels investigated and P. viridis from the eastern part of peninsular Malaysia were closer to the central and southern populations than to the northern populations.

  10. Disseminated Mycosis in Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Caused by Chamaeleomyces granulomatis, a New Fungus Related to Paecilomyces viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie Fe C.; Kokotovic, Branko; Bertelsen, Mads F.

    2010-01-01

    isolates to be a related undescribed anamorphic species within the family Clavicipitaceae that includes many insect pathogens. Chamaeleomyces granulomatis gen. et sp. nov. is given as the name for the newly described fungus, and P. viridis is transferred to the new genus as Chamaeleomyces viridis comb. nov...

  11. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary; Canal Vergés, Paula;

    2012-01-01

    investigate its effect on the native benthic community with focus on the two common polychaetes, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Arenicola marina. M. viridis colonized Odense Fjord rapidly and within 3 years it had spread to about 50% of the estuary. The population development of M. viridis in Odense Fjord...

  12. Subunit-selective mutagenesis indicates minimal polymerase activity in heterodimer-associated p51 HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Grice, S F; Naas, T; Wohlgensinger, B; Schatz, O.

    1991-01-01

    We have purified and determined functional parameters of reconstituted, recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) heterodimers within which either the p66 or p51 polypeptide was selectively mutated in one or both aspartic acid residues constituting the proposed polymerase active site (-Y-M-D-D-). Heterodimers containing a mutated p51 polypeptide retain almost wild type levels of both RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H (RNaseH) activity. In contrast, heterodimers whose p66 poly...

  13. Gamma radiation effect on microalga platymonas viridis(Rouck)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different doses of gamma radiation ranging from 100 to 500 Gy on the growth and ultrastructure of marine phytoplankton Platymonas viridis (Rouck) was studied. It was found that a dose of 100 Gy caused stimulating effect on the growth and it reached to 160% of the control by 45 days of culture. Stimulating effect was much more noticed after 25th day of irradiation. Radiation doses of 200 Gy and more caused sharp decrease in cell growth relative to the control. Content of dead cell in the culture increased corresponding to the dose of radiation. At a dose of 500 Gy the dead cell content became nearly 50 % by 30 day of irradiation. It is concluded that gamma irradiation caused inactivation of cell division as well as increased death rate of cells in the culture. When cells were exposed to 100 Gy, chloroplast was not damaged totally but differentiation in it's monolithic stratified structure was evident, autophagus vacuoles were larger in size having clear zones, mitosis showed uneven dispersion of cell chromosomes. On exposure to higher doses (300 and 500 Gy) extensive destruction of organelles were observed. Between the central part of the cell and envelope there were large cavities, chloroplasts were practically undetectable. More destructive process in cells exposed to 500 Gy was observed. Cytoplasmic structure lost it's contrast, plasmalema was practically destroyed, chloroplast structure was hardly discernible. Ruptures in the envelope, lysis of the cell substance, destructive signs in mitochondria were evident. 12 refs.,5 figs.,1 tab

  14. Fibrin Hydrogel Based Bone Substitute Tethered with BMP-2 and BMP-2/7 Heterodimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay S. Karfeld-Sulzer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Current clinically used delivery methods for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are collagen based and require large concentrations that can lead to dangerous side effects. Fibrin hydrogels can serve as osteoinductive bone substitute materials in non-load bearing bone defects in combination with BMPs. Two strategies to even further optimize such a fibrin based system include employing more potent BMP heterodimers and engineering growth factors that can be covalently tethered to and slowly released from a fibrin matrix. Here we present an engineered BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer where an N-terminal transglutaminase substrate domain in the BMP-2 portion provides covalent attachment to fibrin together with a central plasmin substrate domain, a cleavage site for local release of the attached BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer under the influence of cell-activated plasmin. In vitro and in vivo results revealed that the engineered BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer induces significantly more alkaline phosphatase activity in pluripotent cells and bone formation in a rat calvarial model than the engineered BMP-2 homodimer. Therefore, the engineered BMP-2/BMP-7 heterodimer could be used to reduce the amount of BMP needed for clinical effect.

  15. A simple and highly efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for Setaria viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Kelly Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production and use of sugarcane in Brazil is very important for bioenergy production and is recognized as one of the most efficient in the world. In our laboratory, Setaria viridis is being tested as a model plant for sugarcane. S. viridis has biological attributes (rapid life cycle, small genome, diploid, short stature and simple growth requirements that make it suitable for use as a model system. We report a highly efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of S. viridis. The optimization of several steps in tissue culture allowed the rapid regeneration of plants and increased the rate of transformation up to 29%. This protocol could become a powerful tool for functional genomics in sugarcane.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Saccharomonospora viridis type strain (P101T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Amrita; Sikorski, Johannes; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Pitluck, Sam; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Chertkov, Olga; Brettin, Thomas; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Kuske, Cheryl; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Chain, Patrick; D' haeseleer, Patrik; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Mikhailova, Natalia; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian J.; Goker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides1, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Saccharomonospora viridis (Schuurmans et al. 1956) Nonomurea and Ohara 1971 is the type species of the genus Saccharomonospora which belongs to the family Pseudonocardiaceae. S. viridis is of interest because it is a Gram-negative organism classified amongst the usually Gram-positive actinomycetes. Members of the species are frequently found in hot compost and hay, and its spores can cause farmer?s lung disease, bagassosis, and humidifier fever. Strains of the species S. viridis have been found to metabolize the xenobiotic pentachlorophenol (PCP). The strain described in this study has been isolated from peat-bog in Ireland. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the family Pseudonocardiaceae, and the 4,308,349 bp long single replicon genome with its 3906 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  17. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  18. IDENTIFICATION CHALLENGES IN EXAMINATION OF COMMERCIAL PLANT MATERIAL OF PSYCHOTRIA VIRIDIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Anna P; Łozak, Anna; Bachliński, Robert; Duszyński, Anna; Sakowska, Joanna; Zjawiony, Jordan K

    2015-01-01

    Psychoria viridis (chacruna) is a hallucinogenic plant with psychoactive properties associated with the presence of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). This species is primarily known as an ingredient of the beverage Ayahuasca, but dry leaves are also smoked by recreational users. The plant is controlled in Poland and France and its proper identification poses many challenges due to the fact that genus Psychotria is relatively large and there are other species that are easily confused with chacruna. The aim of the present work was to develop an effective authentication procedure for the dried and shredded leaves of P. viridis, to be used in comparison of chemical and botanical characteristics of its commercial products. Dried leaves of P. viridis originating from Brazil, Peru and Hawaii were purchased from Internet providers. For DMT identification, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods have been elaborated, validated and applied. In order to clarify the existing differences among samples, chemometric methods have been used. Botanical features and the gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chromatograms have been analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Our studies revealed significant variety among plant material marketed as P. viridis. Grouping of samples based on their micromorphology features and GC-MS results did not correspond well with the presence of DMT. Based on our results an indisputable identification of dried specimens as P. viridis is very problematic. It is necessary to postulate changes in legislation regarding regulation of P. viridis and replace it with DMT as controlled substance. PMID:26647632

  19. PCl3-C6H6 heterodimers: evidence for Pπ phosphorus bonding at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N; Sankaran, K; Sundararajan, K

    2016-07-28

    A phosphorous trichloride (PCl3)-benzene (C6H6) heterodimer was generated in a low temperature N2 matrix and was characterized using infrared spectroscopy. The structure of the heterodimer produced in the matrix isolation experiment was discerned through ab initio computations. Computations disclosed that the experimentally detected dimer is stabilized through strong non-covalent phosphorus bonded Pπ interaction, considered as a class of pnicogen bonding. This experimentally unmapped Pπ interaction so far has been reconnoitered using atoms in molecules and natural bond orbital and energy decomposition analyses. The influence of substitutions on both the PCl3 and C6H6 monomeric units of the heterodimer was subsequently examined to understand the strength of Pπ interaction as a result of these substitutions. PMID:27374927

  20. Synthesis, morphological control, and antibacterial properties of hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, Maolin

    2010-08-11

    Ag2S and Ag are important functional materials that have received considerable research interest in recent years. In this work, we develop a solution-based synthetic method to combine these two materials into hollow/solid Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature. Starting from monodisperse Cu2O solid spheres, CuS hollow spheres can be converted from Cu2O through a modified Kirkendall process, and the obtained CuS can then be used as a solid precursor for preparation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers through ion exchange and photo-assisted reduction. We have found that formation of the Ag2S/Ag heterodimers is instantaneous, and the size of Ag nanocrystals on the hollow spheres of Ag2S can be controlled by changing the concentration and power of reducing agents in the synthesis. The growth of Ag nanoparticles on hollow spheres of Ag2S in the dimers is along the [111] direction of the silver crystal; the light absorption properties have also been investigated. Furthermore, coupling or tripling of Ag2S/Ag heterodimers into dumbbell-like trimers ((Ag 2S)2/Ag, linear) and triangular tetramers ((Ag 2S)3/Ag, coplanar) can also be attained at 60°C by adding the bidentate ligand ethylenediamine as a cross-linking agent. To test the applicability of this highly asymmetric dipolar composite, photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in the presence of the as-prepared Ag 2S/Ag heterodimers has been carried out under UV irradiation. The added Ag2S/Ag heterodimers show good chemical stability under prolonged UV irradiation, and no appreciable solid dissolution is found. Possible mechanisms regarding the enhanced antibacterial activity have also been addressed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  1. New targets for renal interstitial fibrosis: relaxin family peptide receptor 1-angiotensin type 2 receptor heterodimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasser, Jennifer M

    2014-07-01

    The signal transduction mechanisms involved in the renoprotective effects of relaxin are not well understood. Chow et al. demonstrate that relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) forms heterodimer complexes with the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2), even in the absence of ligand, and that these heterodimers are required for relaxin's antifibrotic effects. These findings identify a previously unknown link between relaxin and angiotensin II signaling that could be a potential new target for slowing the progression of fibrotic renal diseases. PMID:24978374

  2. Moessbauer spectroscopy on the reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proteins called 'reaction centers' (RC) can be isolated from many photosynthetic bacteria. They have one non-heme iron in a quinone acceptor region. The RC of Rhodopseudomonas viridis contains an additional tightly bound tetra-heme cytochrome c subunit. The electronic configuration of both cytochrome and the non-heme iron has been studied in the crystallized protein by Moessbauer spectroscopy at different redox potentials, pH-values, and with an addition of o-phenanthroline. At high potentials (Eh=+500 mV) all heme irons are in the low spin Fe3+-state, and at low potential (Eh=150 mV) they are low spin Fe2+ with the same Moessbauer parameters for all hemes independent of pH. Redox titrations change the relative area of the reduced and oxidized states in agreement with other methods. The non-heme iron shows a high spin Fe2+ configuration independent of Eh and pH with parameters comparable to those of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Surprisingly, there is strong evidence for another non-heme iron species in part of the molecules with a Fe2+ low spin configuration. Incubation with o-phenanthroline decreases the relative Fe2+ hs-area and increases the contribution of Fe2+ ls-area. Above 210 K the mean square displacement, 2>, of the RC-crystals increases more than linearly with temperature. This may be correlated with the increase of the electron transfer rate and indicates that intramolecular mobility influences the functional activity of a protein. (orig.)

  3. Subunit-selective mutagenesis indicates minimal polymerase activity in heterodimer-associated p51 HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grice, S F; Naas, T; Wohlgensinger, B; Schatz, O

    1991-12-01

    We have purified and determined functional parameters of reconstituted, recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) heterodimers within which either the p66 or p51 polypeptide was selectively mutated in one or both aspartic acid residues constituting the proposed polymerase active site (-Y-M-D-D-). Heterodimers containing a mutated p51 polypeptide retain almost wild type levels of both RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H (RNaseH) activity. In contrast, heterodimers whose p66 polypeptide was likewise mutated exhibit wild type RNaseH activity but are deficient in RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. These results indicate that in heterodimer RT, the p51 component cannot compensate for active site mutations eliminating the activity of p66, indirectly implying that solely the p66 aspartic acid residues of heterodimer are crucial for catalysis. PMID:1718745

  4. Bistable optical response of a nanoparticle heterodimer : Mechanism, phase diagram, and switching time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugroho, Bintoro S.; Iskandar, Alexander A.; Malyshev, Victor A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a theoretical study of the bistable optical response of a nanoparticle heterodimer comprised of a closely spaced semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanoparticle. The bistable nature of the response results from the interplay between the quantum dot's optical nonlinearity and its self-a

  5. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum infection in a white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Grondahl, C.; Giese, Steen Bjørck

    2006-01-01

    An adult female white-tailed trogon (Trogon viridis) was presented with abdominal enlargement and hard subcutaneous masses. Necropsy findings included bony masses extending from skeletal structures, disseminated pale foci in the liver, and a pale mass in the kidney. Histological examination...

  6. Oxygen dynamics and porewater transport in sediments inhabited by the invasive polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, Zeljko; Larsen, Morten; Quintana, Cintia Organo;

    2014-01-01

    The polychaete Marenzelleria viridis is an invasive species and often replaces the native Nereis diversicolor. This shift leads to more reduced conditions and changes in the biogeochemical function of the sediments. By combining imaging techniques for O2 (planar optodes) and irrigation patterns...

  7. Characterization of duplicated Dunaliella viridis SPT1 genes provides insights into early gene divergence after duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhenwei; Meng, Xiangzong; Sun, Zhenhua; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2008-10-15

    The sodium-dependent phosphate transporter gene from unicellular green algae Dunaliella viridis, DvSPT1, shares similarity with members of Pi transporter family. Sequencing analysis of D. viridis BAC clone containing the DvSPT1 gene revealed two inverted duplicated copies of this gene (DvSPT1 and DvSPT1-2 respectively). The duplication covered most of both genes except for their 3' downstream region. The duplicated genomic sequences exhibited 97.9% identity with a synonymous divergence of Ks=0.0126 in the coding region. This data indicated very recent gene duplication in D. viridis genome, providing an excellent opportunity to investigate sequence and expression divergence of duplicated genes at an early stage. Scattered point mutations and length polymorphism of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were predominant among the sequence divergence soon after gene duplication. Due to sequence divergence in the 5' regulatory regions and a swap of the entire 3' downstream regions (3'-UTR), DvSPT1 and DvSPT1-2 showed expression divergence in response to extra-cellular NaCl concentration changes. According to their expression patterns, the two diverged gene copies would provide better adaptation to a broader range of extra-cellular NaCl concentration. Furthermore, Southern blot analysis indicated that there might be a large phosphate transporter gene family in D. viridis. PMID:18662752

  8. Sex determination in Bonellia viridis (Echiura : Bonelliidae): population dynamics and evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Schembri, P. J.; Boukal S., David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 3 (2005), s. 473-484. ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB1007201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bonellia viridis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.309, year: 2005

  9. Growth parameters in the cultured green mussel Perna viridis L. from the Zuari Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Sreepada, R.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Growth parameters for both length and weight were estimated in the raft-grown population of Perna viridis. The asymptotic length (L approaches infinity) and weight (W ) were computed to be 85 mm and 34.37 g respectively. Theoretical length...

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Mentha (longifolia L. and viridis) essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkaddem, Mounira; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ennajar, Monia; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2009-09-01

    The study was aimed to investigate essential oil chemical composition (gas chromatography/flame ionization detection [GC-FID] and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry [GC-MS]) and antioxidant (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate [ABTS] assays) and antimicrobial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and yeast) activities of essential oils extracted from leaves of Mentha longifolia L. and Mentha viridis. GC-MS analysis revealed that M. longifolia was constituted by pulegone (54.41%) as a major component followed by isomenthone (12.02%), 1,8-cineole (7.41%), borneol (6.85%), and piperitenone oxide (3.19%). M. viridis was rich in carvone (50.47%), 1,8-cineole (9.14%), and limonene (4.87%). The antioxidant activity by ABTS assay showed IC(50) values of 476.3 +/- 11.7 and 195.1 +/- 4.2 mg/L for M. longifolia and M. viridis, respectively, the DPPH assays have resulted in a moderate IC(50) (>8000 mg/L and 3476.3 +/- 133 mg/L for M. longifolia and M. viridis, respectively). Antimicrobial activity showed that Listeria monocytogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria were more inhibited by the 2 essential oils tested. Escherichia coli was least susceptible. A strong activity was also observed on fungi and yeasts. Carvone, thymol, and piperitone oxide have not been detected in Tunisian M. longifolia. Camphor is reported for the 1st time for M. viridis. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities were correlated to chemical composition. PMID:19895481

  11. Response of DNA, proteins, lipids and antioxidant enzymes as measure of toxicity to mercury exposures in green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    Studies on exposures of gills of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to sublethal levels of mercury (Hg) indicates that oxidative stress marker like lipids peroxidation and protein carbonyl content increase. With the exception of superoxide dismutase...

  12. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the three brown algae (Heterokonta : Phaeophyceae) Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Secq, MPO; Goer, SL; Stam, WT; Olsen, JL; Oudot-LeSecq, M.-P.

    2006-01-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial sequences of three brown algae (Dictyota dichotoma, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis) belonging to three phaeophycean lineages. They have circular mapping organization and contain almost the same set of mitochondrial genes, despite their size differences

  13. Ag/Ag{sub 2}S heterodimers: tailoring the metal–semiconductor interface in a single nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Baskaran Ganesh; Srinivas, Billakanti; Prasad, Muvva D.; Muralidharan, Krishnamurthi, E-mail: kmsc@uohyd.ernet.in, E-mail: murali@uohyd.ac.in [University of Hyderabad, School of Chemistry (India)

    2015-07-15

    Heterodimers are conjoined particles of two inorganic materials, and they are generally synthesised in multiple steps. But, the multi-step syntheses are less effective because of the low yield, long reaction time, labour intensive process and complexity in the synthesis and thus not ideal for scale up. Herein, we have demonstrated single-step, one-pot syntheses for two different types of Ag/Ag{sub 2}S heterodimers. Two types of heterodimers were obtained while varying stoichiometry in the reaction of AgNO{sub 3} with sulphur in the presence of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) at 140 °C. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first demonstration of single-step process to synthesise Ag/Ag{sub 2}S heterodimers. Heterodimers had dumbbell shape with both metal and semiconductor domains in single particle which were constructed by spherical Ag and Ag{sub 2}S nanoparticles. Ag (2 0 0) and Ag{sub 2}S (0 2 2) planes associated to form heterodimers. The presence of metal–semiconductor interfaces was confirmed by HRTEM and UV analysis. Thus, we have demonstrated the HMDS-assisted synthesis as a promising method for direct synthesis of Ag/Ag{sub 2}S heterodimers.

  14. Marenzelleria viridis (Verril, 1873) (Polychaeta: Spionidae) : a new record from the Ems Estuary (The Netherlands / Federal Republic of Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Essink, K.; Kleef, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    A new record of the North American spionid polychaete Marenzelleria viridis (Verril, 1873) is reported from the Ems Estuary. The species was first found in 1983. From 1983 to 1986 densities increased to a few thousands per m2 while densities of another polychaete, Nereis diversicolor decreased. Juveniles showed peak densities of c. 19000 m2 in muddy sediments. Adults preferred sandy sediments. In Europe M. viridis was recorded recently also in other estuaries: Tay and Forth (Scotland), Weser ...

  15. Thermal Constraints for Range Expansion of the Invasive Green Mussel, Perna viridis, in the Southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    URIAN, ALYSON G.; Hatle, John D.; GILG, MATTHEW R.

    2010-01-01

    Cold temperatures are thought to be among the most important determining factors of geographic distribution for tropical and sub-tropical marine invertebrates. The Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, has been introduced into coastal waters of Florida where its current distribution is hypothesized to be limited by low temperatures during winter. Lethal and sub-lethal effects (heat shock protein/Hsp70 expression) of cold water and air temperatures were analyzed in two size classes of P. viridis ...

  16. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  17. Fano resonance assisting plasmonic circular dichroism from nanorice heterodimers for extrinsic chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Li; Fang, Liang; Chen, Guo; Wei, Hua; Fang, Yurui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the circular dichroisms (CD) of nanorice heterodimers consisting of two parallel arranged nanorices with the same size but different materials are investigated theoretically. Symmetry-breaking is introduced by using different materials and oblique incidence to achieve strong CD at the vicinity of Fano resonance peaks. We demonstrate that all Au-Ag heterodimers exhibit multipolar Fano resonances and strong CD effect. A simple quantitative analysis shows that the structure with larger Fano asymmetry factor has stronger CD. The intensity and peak positions of the CD effect can be flexibly tuned in a large range by changing particle size, shape, the inter-particle distance and surroundings. Furthermore, CD spectra exhibit high sensitivity to ambient medium in visible and near infrared regions. Our results here are beneficial for the design and application of high sensitive CD sensors and other related fields.

  18. Proton transfer in histidine-tryptophan heterodimers embedded in helium droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used cold helium droplets as nano-scale reactors to form and ionize, by electron bombardment and charge transfer, aromatic amino acid heterodimers of histidine with tryptophan, methyl-tryptophan, and indole. The molecular interaction occurring through an N–H ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ N hydrogen bond leads to a proton transfer from the indole group of tryptophan to the imidazole group of histidine in a radical cationic environment

  19. Bistable optical response of a nanoparticle heterodimer: Mechanism, phase diagram, and switching time

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Bintoro S.; Iskandar, Alexander A.; Malyshev, Victor A.; Knoester, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    We conduct a theoretical study of the bistable optical response of a nanoparticle heterodimer comprised of a closely spaced semiconductor quantum dot and a metal nanoparticle. The bistable nature of the response results from the interplay between the quantum dot's optical nonlinearity and its self-action (feedback) originating from the presence of the metal nanoparticle. The feedback is governed by a complex valued coupling parameter G = G(R) + iG(I). We calculate the bistability phase diagra...

  20. Bistable optical response of nanoparticle heterodimer: Mechanism, phase diagram, and switching time

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, B. S.; Iskandar, A.A.; Malyshev, V. A.; Knoester, J.

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a theoretical study of the bistable optical response of a nanoparticle heterodimer comprised of a closely spaced semiconductor quantum dot and metal nanoparticle. The bistable nature of the response results from the interplay between the quantum dot's optical nonlinearity and its self-action (feedback) originating from the presence of the metal nanoparticle. We show that the feedback is governed by a complex valued coupling parameter $G$. Both the real and imaginary parts of $G$ ($...

  1. Proton transfer in histidine-tryptophan heterodimers embedded in helium droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellina, Bruno; Merthe, Daniel J.; Kresin, Vitaly V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    We used cold helium droplets as nano-scale reactors to form and ionize, by electron bombardment and charge transfer, aromatic amino acid heterodimers of histidine with tryptophan, methyl-tryptophan, and indole. The molecular interaction occurring through an N–H ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ N hydrogen bond leads to a proton transfer from the indole group of tryptophan to the imidazole group of histidine in a radical cationic environment.

  2. Proton transfer in histidine-tryptophan heterodimers embedded in helium droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Bellina, Bruno; Kresin, Vitaly V

    2015-01-01

    We used cold helium droplets as nano-scale reactors to form and ionize, by electron bombardment and charge transfer, aromatic amino acid heterodimers of histidine with tryptophan, methyl-tryptophan, and indole. The molecular interaction occurring through an N-H...N hydrogen bond leads to a proton transfer from the indole group of tryptophan to the imidazole group of histidine in a radical cationic environment.

  3. Proton transfer in histidine-tryptophan heterodimers embedded in helium droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellina, Bruno; Merthe, Daniel J.; Kresin, Vitaly V.

    2015-03-01

    We used cold helium droplets as nano-scale reactors to form and ionize, by electron bombardment and charge transfer, aromatic amino acid heterodimers of histidine with tryptophan, methyl-tryptophan, and indole. The molecular interaction occurring through an N-H ṡ ṡ ṡ N hydrogen bond leads to a proton transfer from the indole group of tryptophan to the imidazole group of histidine in a radical cationic environment.

  4. Bi-specific MHC Heterodimers for Characterization of Cross-reactive T Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Zu T.; Brehm, Michael A; Daniels, Keith A.; Sigalov, Alexander B.; Selin, Liisa K.; Welsh, Raymond M.; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2010-01-01

    T cell cross-reactivity describes the phenomenon whereby a single T cell can recognize two or more different peptide antigens presented in complex with MHC proteins. Cross-reactive T cells have previously been characterized at the population level by cytokine secretion and MHC tetramer staining assays, but single-cell analysis is difficult or impossible using these methods. In this study, we describe development of a novel peptide-MHC heterodimer specific for cross-reactive T cells. MHC-pepti...

  5. Homo- and heterodimers of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) activated transcription in yeast.

    OpenAIRE

    Heery, D M; Pierrat, B.; Gronemeyer, H; P. Chambon; Losson, R

    1994-01-01

    The polymorphic nature of sequences which act as retinoic acid response elements (RAREs and RXREs) in transactivation assays in mammalian cells, suggests that elements consisting of a direct repetition of a half site motif, separated by 1 to 5 base pairs (DR1 to DR5), are targets for retinoic acid (RA) signalling. In a previous report we showed that in yeast cells, heterodimers of the retinoic acid receptors RAR alpha and RXR alpha were required for efficient transcription of a reporter gene ...

  6. Interferência interespecífica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Interspecific interference between Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a interferência interespecífica entre duas espécies de Amaranthus -- A. viridis e A. hybridus ¾, esta última com dois biótipos distintos (verde e roxo); ambas ocorriam associadas em dois locais. Nas populações de cada local foram feitos ensaios de substituição independentes, em vasos, nos quais observou-se que as populações que germinam mais prontamente são as que vencem em competição, ou seja, se estabelecem e produzem maior número de sementes. Houve ten...

  7. Competição intra-específica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Intraspecific competition between Amaranthus hybridus L. and A. Viridis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-01-01

    Ensaios de competição intra-específica foram conduzidos sobre Amaranthus viridis L. e A. hybridus L., a última espécie com dois biótipos distintos, tipo verde e tipo roxo. Os três ensaios, conduzidos separadamente, utilizaram cinco densidades de sementes por vaso. Em termos gerais, as sementes germinadas prontamente foram a razão do surgimento da próxima geração, visto que estabeleceram plântulas rapidamente e estas venceram em competição. A partir de certo número de sementes semeadas (20 por...

  8. Competição intra-específica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Intraspecific competition between Amaranthus hybridus L. and A. Viridis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios de competição intra-específica foram conduzidos sobre Amaranthus viridis L. e A. hybridus L., a última espécie com dois biótipos distintos, tipo verde e tipo roxo. Os três ensaios, conduzidos separadamente, utilizaram cinco densidades de sementes por vaso. Em termos gerais, as sementes germinadas prontamente foram a razão do surgimento da próxima geração, visto que estabeleceram plântulas rapidamente e estas venceram em competição. A partir de certo número de sementes semeadas (20 por vaso, o número de plantas adultas obtidas revelou-se independente do número de sementes semeadas, o que indica que a capacidade de suporte do ambiente, ao invés do tamanho do banco de sementes no solo, é a razão da regulação do tamanho populacional; a mesma observação aplica-se à produção de matéria seca. Sob condições de competição, as espécies A. hybridus - tipo verde e A. viridis produziram maior quantidade de biomassa para reprodução (22% a 34% do que A. hybridus - tipo roxo (15% a 18%. As primeiras, portanto, revelaram-se mais estrategistas-r que a última.Intraspecific competition trials were carried out for Amaranthus viridis L. and A. hybridus L., the latter species with two distinct biotypes, a green and a purple type. Three independent trials were made, with five different seed densities per pot for each species or biotype. In general terms, seeds that germinated promptly were responsible for the formation of the next generation, these early seedlings being more competitive. The carrying capacity was reached with 20 seeds per pot, no increase in the number of adult plants observed by increasing the seed density. This shows that the environmental suporting capacity, not the size of the seed bank in the soil, regulates the population size. A similar conclusion holds true for dry matter yield. Under competition, the species A. hybridus - green biotype and A. viridis produced larger biomass for reproductive

  9. Stark effect in wild-type and heterodimer-containing reaction centers from Rhodobacter capsulatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of an external electric field on the optical absorption spectra of wild-type Rhodobacter capsulatus and two Rb. capsulatus reaction centers that have been genetically modified through site-directed mutagenesis was measured at 77 K. The two genetically modified reaction centers replace histidine M200, the axial ligand to the M-side bacteriochlorophyll of the special pair, with either leucine or phenylalanine. These substitutions results in the replacement of the M-side bacteriochlorophyll with bacteriopheophytin, forming a bacteriochlorophyll-bacteriopheophytin heterodimer. The magnitude of the change in dipole moment from the ground to excited state (Δμapp) and the angle δ between the Qy transition moment and the direction of Δμapp were measured for the special pair absorption band for all three reaction centers. The differences in the magnitude of Δμapp and the angle δ between wild-type and heterodimer reaction centers are consistent with increased charge transfer in the heterodimer special pair. These results support calculations that place the special pair charge-transfer state higher in energy than the excited singlet state in wild-type Rb. capsulatus RCs

  10. Plasmon-mediated binding forces on gold or silver homodimer and heterodimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Kuo, Mao-Kuen

    2016-02-01

    This study theoretically investigates plasmon-mediated optical binding forces, which are exerted on metal homo or heterodimers, induced by the normal illumination of a linearly polarized plane wave or Gaussian beam. Using the multiple multipole method, we analyzed the optical force in terms of Maxwell's stress tensor for various interparticle distance at some specific wavelengths. Numerical results show that for a given wavelength there are several stable equilibrium distances between two nanoparticles (NPs) of a homodimer, which are slightly shorter than some integer multiples of the wavelength in medium, such that metal dimer acts as bonded together. At these specific interparticle distances, the optical force between dimer is null and serves a restoring force, which is repulsive and attractive, respectively, as the two NPs are moving closer to and away from each other. The spring constant of the restoring force at the first stable equilibrium is always the largest, indicating that the first stable equilibrium distance is the most stable one. Moreover, the central line (orientation) of a dimer tends to be perpendicular to the polarization of light. For the cases of heterodimers, the phenomenon of stable equilibrium interparticle distance still exists, except there is an extra net photophoretic force drifting the heterodimer as one. Moreover, gradient force provided by a Gaussian beam may reduce the stability of these equilibriums, so larger NPs are preferred to stabilize a dimer under illumination of Gaussian beam. The finding may pave the way for using optical manipulation on the gold or silver colloidal self-assembly.

  11. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 85 - 90 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Identification of Lysozyme Activity from Two Edible Bivalves - Perna viridis... the lysozyme from the whole body extracts of two edible and commercially important marine PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation copy of CVISION PDFCompressor 86 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. Vol. 32(1) 2009 Sumita Sharma, Tanu...

  12. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis Linn. in different experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashok B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of the whole plant extract of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV was screened for antinociceptive activity using the acetic acid writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice and for antipyretic activity using the yeast-induced pyrexia method in rats, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.01 dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties were observed with 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  13. Antinociceptive and Antipyretic Activities of Amaranthus Viridis Linn in Different Experimental Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok; Lakshman, Kuruba; Jayaveera, Korala Konta Narsimha; Shekar, Devangam Sheshadri; Muragan, Chinna Swamy Vel; Manoj, Bachappa

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV), was screened for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid induced writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice. In a similar way a screening exercise was carried out to determine the antipyretic potential of the extract using yeast induced pyrexia method in rats. Administration of the extracts was applied to both laboratory animals at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The results of th...

  14. Sensitivity to thermal stimulation in prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) after bilateral anesthetization of the facial pits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiszar, D.; Dickman, D.; Colton, J.

    1986-01-01

    Six yearling prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) were exposed to thermal stimuli prior to and after bilateral anesthetization of their facial pits with 2% xylocaine solution. This treatment eliminates trigeminally mediated electrophysiological responses of the pits to thermal stimulation. Nevertheless, the rattlesnakes continued to exhibit behavioral responses to thermal cues after anesthetization of the pits. An auxiliary infrared-sensitive system, nociceptors, or the common temperature sense could be responsible for these findings.

  15. Extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L.) shows inhibition of blood capillary formation in vitro

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mirshahi, M.; Mirshahi, P.; Negro, S.; Soria, J.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Kotnala, S.; Therwath, A.; Chatterji, A.

    Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 35 - 42 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Extract of Indian Green Mussel, Perna viridis (L.) Shows Inhibition of Blood... the researchers to envisage further investigation on the possible role of the active substances contained in these extracts on the formation of blood capillary and angiogenesis at large. PDF compression, OCR, web optimization using a watermarked evaluation...

  16. Phagosome-lysosome fusion inhibited by algal symbionts of Hydra viridis

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Certain species of Chlorella live within the digestive cells of the fresh water cnidarian Hydra viridis. When introduced into the hydra gut, these symbiotic algae are phagocytized by digestive cells but avoid host digestion and persist at relatively constant numbers within host cells. In contrast, heat-killed symbionts are rapidly degraded after phagocytosis. Live symbionts appear to persist because host lysosomes fail to fuse with phagosomes containing live symbionts. Neither acid phosphatas...

  17. Phytolith Analysis for Differentiating between Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) and Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Wu, Naiqin; Yang, Xiaoyan; Diao, Xianmin

    2011-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis), in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern p...

  18. Marenzelleria viridis vs. Nereis diversicolor: Their Effects on the Nutreint Cycling in Danish Coastal Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon, Ernesto; Essinger, Alexandria; Lassen, Mette; Niclasen, Laura; Stenz, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the invasive species Marenzeleria viridis and the native species Nereis dirvesicolor in the sediment nutrient dynamics was studied over the period of one month and a half. The two species were studied in a laboratory experiment separately and in combination to observe the effects on sediment metabolism (O2 uptake), and nutrient release; nitrogen (NH4+ and NO3) and phosphorous (PO43-). A 2x2, with 4 replicates design was established with 4 treatments; (1) Control, (2) Marenzeller...

  19. Viruses of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae isolated from Paramecium bursaria and Hydra viridis

    OpenAIRE

    James L Van Etten; Meints, Russel H.; Kuczmarski, Daniel; Burbank, Dwight E.; Lee, Kit

    1982-01-01

    We previously reported that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from the Florida strain of Hydra viridis induced replication of a virus (designated HVCV-1) in the algae. We now report that isolation of symbiotic Chlorella-like algae from four other sources of green hydra and one source of the protozoan Paramecium bursaria also induced virus synthesis. Algae from one of these hydra contained a virus identical to HVCV-1 (based on its rate of sedimentation, buoyant density, reaction to H...

  20. The green leafhopper, Cicadella viridis (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae), jumps with near-constant acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignori, Gabriella; Stefanini, Cesare; Scarfogliero, Umberto; Mintchev, Stefano; Benelli, Giovanni; Dario, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Jumping insects develop accelerations that can greatly exceed gravitational acceleration. Although several species have been analysed using different tools, ranging from a purely physical to a morpho-physiological approach, instantaneous dynamic and kinematic data concerning the jumping motion are lacking. This is mainly due to the difficulty in observing in detail events that occur in a few milliseconds. In this study, the behaviour of the green leafhopper, Cicadella viridis, was investigated during the take-off phase of the jump, through high-speed video recordings (8000 frames s(-1)). We demonstrate that C. viridis is able to maintain fairly constant acceleration during overall leg elongation. The force exerted at the foot-ground interface is nearly constant and differs from the force expected from other typical motion models. A biomechanical model was used to highlight that this ability relies on the morphology of C. viridis hind legs, which act as a motion converter with a variable transmission ratio and use the time-dependent musculo-elastic force to generate a nearly constant thrust at the body-ground interface. This modulation mechanism minimizes the risk of breaking the substrate thanks to the absence of force peaks. The results of this study are of broad relevance in different research fields ranging from biomechanics to robotics. PMID:23487271

  1. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirangan, Soundarya; Sauer, Marie-Laure; Howard, Brian; Dvora, Mia; Dums, Jacob; Backman, Patrick; Sederoff, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0) into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis. PMID:25992838

  2. Isolation and characterization of a sodium-dependent phosphate transporter gene in Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyun; Gao, Xiaoshu; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Qingqi; Song, Rentao; Xu, Zhengkai

    2006-02-01

    A sodium-dependent phosphate transporter gene, DvSPT1, was isolated from a cDNA library using a probe derived from a subtracted cDNA library of Dunaliella viridis. Sequencing analyses revealed a cDNA sequence of 2649 bp long and encoded an open-reading frame consisting of 672 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of DvSPT1 exhibited 31.2% identity to that of TcPHO from Tetraselmis chui. Hydrophobicity and secondary structure prediction revealed 11 conserved transmembrane domains similar to those found in PHO89 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and PHO4 from Neurospora crassa. Northern blot analysis indicated that the DvSPT1 expression was induced upon NaCl hyperosmotic stress or phosphate depletion. Functional characterization in yeast Na+ export pump mutant G19 suggested that DvSPT1 encoded a Na+ transporter protein. The gene sequence of GDvSPT1 (7922 bp) was isolated from a genomic library of D. viridis. Southern blot analysis indicated that there exist at least two homologous genes in D. viridis. PMID:16359638

  3. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundarya Srirangan

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the light when CO2 fixation rates exceed the need of assimilated carbon and energy for cell maintenance and division during the dark phase. To delineate environmental effects, we analyzed cell division rates, metabolism and transcriptional regulation in Dunaliella viridis in response to changes in light duration and growth temperatures. Its rate of cell division was increased under continuous light conditions, while a shift in temperature from 25 °C to 35 °C did not significantly affect the cell division rate, but increased the triacylglycerol content per cell several-fold under continuous light. The amount of saturated fatty acids in triacylglycerol fraction was more responsive to an increase in temperature than to a change in the light regime. Detailed fatty acid profiles showed that Dunaliella viridis incorporated lauric acid (C12:0 into triacylglycerol after 24 hours under continuous light. Transcriptome analysis identified potential regulators involved in the light and temperature-induced lipid accumulation in Dunaliella viridis.

  4. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  5. Has Aeshna viridis EVERSMANN, 1836 (Odonata: Aeshnidae really disappeared from southern Poland (East-Central Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buczyński Paweł

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 50-100 years ago the southern boundary of the distribution area of Aeshna viridis ran through southern Poland. However, no records of this species from this area have been reported since then. The species is therefore considered as having retreated northwards. The present research disclosed three new sites of A. viridis on the edge of or just beyond its historical distribution area: one in south-western Poland (Trestno: 51°04’N, 17º08’E and two in the south-east of the country (Krasiczyn: 49º46’N, 22º38’E, Bolestraszyce: 49º49’N, 22º51’E. All the sites were anthropogenic. This demonstrates the survival of a number of populations and the formation of new ones in water bodies formed de novo or to which Stratiotes aloides was introduced artificially. This suggests that the conservation of A. viridis is possible in this region.

  6. Seasonal variation of oxidative biomarkers in gills and digestive gland of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlecar, X. N.; Jena, K. B.; Chainy, G. B. N.

    2008-03-01

    Investigations on seasonal variation in oxidative stress biomarkers were carried out on the natural population of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis collected from Bambolim beach area of Goa. Oxidative stress indices such as lipid peroxidation (LPX), hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) were measured in gills and digestive gland of P. viridis during February, May, August and November. The present study reveals two important aspects regarding the antioxidant defence status of tissues of P. viridis. Firstly, antioxidant capacity of tissues of P. viridis exhibits seasonal variation. Secondly, various components of antioxidant capacity such as oxidative stress markers, levels of antioxidant enzymes and small antioxidant molecules vary differently in tissues with respect to different seasons. Although the oxidative stress status of gills and digestive gland of P. viridis expressed in terms of LPX and H 2O 2 was the lowest in February, its level was maximal in gills and digestive gland during May and November, respectively. While activities of SOD and GPX of tissues of P. viridis were found to be low in August, activities of CAT and GR were recorded to be low in February. GST activity in gills although remained high in February, in digestive gland elevated values were recorded in August and November. A seasonal variation in the levels of small antioxidant molecules was also noticed. Among non enzymatic antioxidants ASA content of tissues was maximal in May and August in comparison to February and November, but GSH remained high in November. It therefore appears that environmental factors may play a crucial role in regulating the oxidative stress capacity of tissues of P. viridis.

  7. Cu2+ site in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utschig, L M; Poluektov, O; Schlesselman, S L; Thurnauer, M C; Tiede, D M

    2001-05-22

    The interaction of metal ions with isolated photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from the purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodopseudomonas viridis has been investigated with transient optical and magnetic resonance techniques. In RCs from all species, the electrochromic response of the bacteriopheophytin cofactors associated with Q(A)(-)Q(B) --> Q(A)Q(B)(-) electron transfer is slowed in the presence of Cu(2+). This slowing is similar to the metal ion effect observed for RCs from Rb. sphaeroides where Zn(2+) was bound to a specific site on the surface of the RC [Utschig et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 8278]. The coordination environments of the Cu(2+) sites were probed with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, providing the first direct spectroscopic evidence for the existence of a second metal site in RCs from Rb. capsulatus and Rps. viridis. In the dark, RCs with Cu(2+) bound to the surface exhibit axially symmetric EPR spectra. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectral results indicate multiple weakly hyperfine coupled (14)N nuclei in close proximity to Cu(2+). These ESEEM spectra resemble those observed for Cu(2+) RCs from Rb. sphaeroides [Utschig et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 2961] and indicate that two or more histidines ligate the Cu(2+) at the surface site in each RC. Thus, RCs from Rb. sphaeroides, Rb. capsulatus, and Rps. viridis each have a structurally analogous Cu(2+) binding site that is involved in modulating the Q(A)(-)Q(B) --> Q(A)Q(B)(-) electron-transfer process. Inspection of the Rps. viridis crystal structure reveals four potential histidine ligands from three different subunits (M16, H178, H72, and L211) located beneath the Q(B) binding pocket. The location of these histidines is surprisingly similar to the grouping of four histidine residues (H68, H126, H128, and L211) observed in the Rb. sphaeroides RC crystal structure. Further elucidation of these Cu(2+) sites will provide

  8. PROXIMATE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF OCIMUM VIRIDIS LEAF AND OCIMUM GRATISSIUM LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahman F.I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at determining the proximate content, concentration of some micro/macro elements and the phytochemistry of Ocimum viridis (scent leafs and Ocimum gratissimum (jaw’s mallow leafs with the view of updating its usage in orthodox and herbal medicine by man in the treatment of dysentery, diarrhea and wound healing. The leaves sampled of Ocimum viridis and Ocimum gratissimum were collected from Zannari, Jere L.G.A, Borno state, Nigeria. The proximate analysis was carried out using methods of Association of Analytical Chemist and the results showed that Ocimum viridis has higher dry matter (99.70%, crude protein (12.48%, Nitrogen free extract (2.03%, Ash (6.5% and fats (7.0%. While carbohydrate (83.40%, crude fibre (45.50% and moisture content (0.4% were estimated to be higher in Ocimum gratissimum. The levels of eight (8 elements (Ca, F, Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe, and Pb were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The results revealed higher concentration in Ocimum gratissimum except for iron and manganese concentration which are higher of the elements understudy in Ocimum viridis only the lead was not detected in the samples by the methodology employed for the analysis. The concentration of anions (nitrates, phosphates and sulphates was estimated using the Smart Spectro Spectrophotometer. It shows that, Ocimum viridis has higher concentration of 11.08 mg/g and 7.04 mg/g in nitrates and sulphates respectively. And Ocimum gratissimum has higher concentration of phosphates 6.28 mg/g. The phytochemicals and some heavy and trace elements as well as a few anions were evaluated using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of both the fresh and dry leafs revealed the presence of very high cardiac glycosides and the flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates shows difference in variation of the leafs. And alkaloids were found to be absence in both fresh and dry leafs. The elemental content obtained

  9. Macrobenthic community response to the Marenzelleria viridis (Polychaeta) invasion of a Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary Thomas; Canal Vergés, Paula;

    2012-01-01

    with focus on the 2 common polychaetes, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Arenicola marina. Marenzelleria viridis colonized Odense Fjord rapidly, and within 3 yr it had spread to ~50% of the estuary. The population development of M. viridis in Odense Fjord followed the ‘boom-bust’ pattern that is...

  10. Improved method for assembly of hemeprotein neuronal NO-synthase heterodimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishima, Yoshihiro; Zhang, Haoming; Lau, Miranda; Osawa, Yoichi

    2016-10-15

    The assembly of mutated and wild type monomers into functional heterodimeric hemeproteins has provided important mechanistic insights. As in the case of NO synthase (NOS), the existing methods to make such heterodimeric NOSs are inefficient and labor intensive with typical yields of about 5%. We have found that expression of neuronal NOS heterodimers in insect cells, where we take advantage of an exogenous heme-triggered chaperone-assisted assembly process, provides an approximately 43% yield in heterodimeric NOS. In contrast, in Escherichia coli little heterodimerization occurred. Thus, insect cells are preferred and may represent a valuable method for assembly of other dimeric hemeproteins. PMID:27487179

  11. Structural basis of asymmetry in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase heterodimer.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Wang; Smerdon, S J; J. Jäger; Kohlstaedt, L A; Rice, P A; Friedman, J M; Steitz, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is a heterodimer consisting of one 66-kDa and one 51-kDa subunit. The p66 subunit contains both a polymerase and an RNase H domain; proteolytic cleavage of p66 removes the RNase H domain to yield the p51 subunit. Although the polymerase domain of p66 folds into an open, extended structure containing a large active-site cleft, that of p51 is closed and compact. The connection subdomain, which lies between the polymerase and RNa...

  12. Heterodimers and homodimers of inhibin subunits have different paracrine action in the modulation of luteinizing hormone-stimulated androgen biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibin, a gonadal hormone capable of preferential suppression of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion, has recently been purified. The major form of this protein is an αβ heterodimer encoded by two separate genes. In contrast to the FSH-suppressing action of the αβ heterodimer, the ββ homodimer stimulates FSH secretion. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-secreting pituitary cells and gonadal androgen-producing cells have long been shown to form a closed-loop feedback axis. Based on recent studies demonstrated the FSH stimulation of inhibin biosynthesis by ovarian granulosa and testis Sertoli cells, an additional closed-loop feedback axis exists between pituitary FSH- and gonadal inhibin-producing cells. Because uncharacterized Sertoli cell factors have been suggested to either stimulate or inhibit androgen production by testicular Leydig cells, the authors have tested the intragonadal paracrine actions of heterodimers and homodimers of inhibin subunits. In primary cultures of testis cells, the αβ heterodimer of inhibin enhances Leydig cell androgen biosynthesis stimulated by LH, whereas the ββ homodimer suppresses androgen production. The data indicate that the inhibin-related gene products synthesized by Sertoli and granulosa cells may form heterodimers or homodimers to serve as intragonadal paracrine signals in the modulation of LH-stimulated androgen biosynthesis and allow cross-communication between the two feedback loops

  13. Production in Pichia pastoris of protein-based polymers with small heterodimer-forming blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeradzka, Natalia E; Werten, Marc W T; de Vries, Renko; de Wolf, Frits A

    2016-05-01

    Some combinations of leucine zipper peptides are capable of forming α-helical heterodimeric coiled coils with very high affinity. These can be used as physical cross-linkers in the design of protein-based polymers that form supramolecular structures, for example hydrogels, upon mixing solutions containing the complementary blocks. Such two-component physical networks are of interest for many applications in biomedicine, pharmaceutics, and diagnostics. This article describes the efficient secretory production of A and B type leucine zipper peptides fused to protein-based polymers in Pichia pastoris. By adjusting the fermentation conditions, we were able to significantly reduce undesirable proteolytic degradation. The formation of A-B heterodimers in mixtures of the purified products was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography. Our results demonstrate that protein-based polymers incorporating functional heterodimer-forming blocks can be produced with P. pastoris in sufficient quantities for use in future supramolecular self-assembly studies and in various applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 953-960. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26479855

  14. Taste substance binding elicits conformational change of taste receptor T1r heterodimer extracellular domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nango, Eriko; Akiyama, Shuji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Ashikawa, Yuji; Kusakabe, Yuko; Krayukhina, Elena; Maruno, Takahiro; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nuemket, Nipawan; Yonekura, Koji; Shimizu, Madoka; Atsumi, Nanako; Yasui, Norihisa; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yuji; Yamashita, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Sweet and umami tastes are perceived by T1r taste receptors in oral cavity. T1rs are class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the extracellular ligand binding domains (LBDs) of T1r1/T1r3 and T1r2/T1r3 heterodimers are responsible for binding of chemical substances eliciting umami or sweet taste. However, molecular analyses of T1r have been hampered due to the difficulties in recombinant expression and protein purification, and thus little is known about mechanisms for taste perception. Here we show the first molecular view of reception of a taste substance by a taste receptor, where the binding of the taste substance elicits a different conformational state of T1r2/T1r3 LBD heterodimer. Electron microscopy has showed a characteristic dimeric structure. Förster resonance energy transfer and X-ray solution scattering have revealed the transition of the dimerization manner of the ligand binding domains, from a widely spread to compactly organized state upon taste substance binding, which may correspond to distinct receptor functional states. PMID:27160511

  15. Comparison of Skeletal Muscle Protein Bands among Five Populations of Bufo viridis in Turkey by SDS-PAGE

    OpenAIRE

    BÜLBÜL, Ufuk; KUTRUP, Bilal

    2007-01-01

    Skeletal muscle protein bands of Bufo viridis samples from 5 different populations in Turkey were investigated by SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis). The total number of skeletal muscle protein bands was 23 in Hatay, Kayseri, Rize, and Tekirdağ samples, and 25 in the Mersin sample. It can be ascertained from the present study that some populations of B. viridis in Turkey could be different according to skeletal muscle protein bands and SDS-PAGE results comp...

  16. The relationship of heavy metals and condition indices of green-lipped mussel perna viridis from contaminated and uncontaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy metal concentrations and condition indices of green-fipped mussel Perna viridis were detemiined at two different sites of Peninsular Malaysia. Significant negative correlations (p< 0.001) between condition indices and heavy metals were observed. Samples from Kuala Perlis which relatively showed high heavy metals concentrations in mussels exhibited lower condition index while Kg. Tg. Batu with lower heavy metal levels, showed higher condition index. The environmental stress is believed to be responsible for the different physiological index in green-fipped mussel P. viridis. (author)

  17. Life history of Lineus viridis (Müller, 1774) (Heteronemertea, Nemertea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Döhren, Jörn; Beckers, Patrick; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Lineus viridis is a common nemertean species of North-Atlantic intertidal sand flats. Its mating behaviour is peculiar insofar as this species is reported to be polyandric. However, detailed information on this topic is lacking. In order to get more data on the reproduction, oogenesis and life history of this species, a population in the Wadden Sea on the Isle of Sylt (North Sea) was studied between 2005 and 2011. We conducted regular surveys, during which we sampled, measured and recorded the sex status of 25-100 individuals at each sampling event; at least three individuals were fixed for histological studies at each sampling date. In addition, animals were kept in the laboratory for 3 years to complement field data on sexual identity. Lineus viridis was found to reproduce annually in several successive year; the females are significantly larger than the males. Oogenesis starts in spring, shortly after the preceding reproductive period, and continues until the end of December. Spermiogenesis starts in late autumn and also ends late in December. During mating, several males are generally found crawling on a single female, which forms a cocoon that encloses both the female and the associated males. Fertilization is internal. While females discharge all of their eggs during a single mating event and lose more than 40% of their wet weight, males only empty a few of their gonads, and are thus able to fertilize more than one female. Our study clearly shows that Lineus viridis is a perennial, iteroparous species with a pronounced sexual size dimorphism. During this long-term study, no evidence for sequential hermaphroditism has been found. The observed polyandric mating system in this species raises further questions regarding mate and sperm competition that deserve additional research.

  18. Nitrogen fixation and ammonia switch-off in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, K S; Hales, B J; Socolofsky, M D

    1983-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas viridis ATCC 19567 grows by means of nitrogen fixation in yeast extract-N2 or nitrogen-free medium when sparged with 5% CO2 and 95% N2 in the light at 30 degrees C. Acetylene reduction assays for nitrogenase activity revealed an initially high level of activity during early-logarithmic growth phase, a lower plateau during mid- to late-logarithmic phase, and a dramatic reduction of activity at the beginning of the stationary phase. When viewed by electron microscopy, nitrogen-...

  19. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  20. Occurrence of the alien nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858 (Opisthobranchia, Tethydidae, in the Maltese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. BORG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The alien dendronotacean nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858, a tropical Indo-Pacific species that seems to have been introduced by shipping into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, and which has established populations in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Montenegro, Croatia, NW Sicily, southern peninsular Italy and Djerba Island in the Gulf of Gabes, is recorded for the first time from Malta. A thriving population was observed on a soft sediment bottom at a depth of 18-20 m off the western coast of the island of Comino (Maltese Islands. It is suggested that this species was introduced into Malta due to a natural range expansion of surrounding populations.

  1. A theoretical study of electronic excited states of photosynthetic reaction center in Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The electronic singlet vertical excited states of photosynthetic reaction center (PSRC) in Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis were investigated by ZINDO and INDO/S methods. The effects of the interactions of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein on the electronic excitations were examined. The calculation results showed that the interactions of pigment-pigment and pigment-protein play an important role in reasonably assigning the experimental absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of PSRC in Rps. virids. By comparing the theoretically computed excited states with the experimental absorption and CD spectra, satisfactory assignments of the experimental spectroscopic peaks were achieved.

  2. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamala Salvamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO, and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.

  3. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Sabullah, Mohd Khalizan; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood) and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed) were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:27051453

  4. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Sabullah, Mohd Khalizan

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood) and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed) were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:27051453

  5. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (Ji) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. Ji is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10-4 M) significantly inhibited Ji in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10-4 M) significantly inhibited Ji in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in Ji in unadapted toads at 10-4 and 5 x 10-4 M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K1/2) was 5 x 10-4 M for adapted animals. Ji was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that Ji is independent of sodium transport

  6. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  7. Acquired phototrophy through retention of functional chloroplasts increases growth efficiency of the sea slug Elysia viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty, and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis.

  8. Chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside content in Fragaria vesca, F. viridis and F. moschata in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Edita; Jakstas, Valdas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2013-01-01

    In Lithuania, two species of the genus Fragaria L. (Rosaceae), F. vesca L. and F. viridis Weston, occur naturally in the wild and two others, F. moschata Weston and F. × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier are found escaped from cultivation. The main objective of this study was to establish the variation pattern in the content of chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside in leaves and fruits of the native Lithuanian species. In this work, the chemical polymorphisms of different Fragaria species were studied by growing plants side by side under the same cultivated field conditions. F. vesca fruits had the highest rutin (1.38 ± 0.19 mg g(-1) DM), hyperoside (0.69 ± 0.10 mg g(-1) DM) and chlorogenic acid (2.25 ± 0.34 mg g(-1) DM) content, followed by F. viridis and F. moschata. Our results showed that the leaves should be taken into account as important rutin and hyperoside contributors for strawberries. PMID:22324400

  9. A novel antiproliferative and antifungal lectin from Amaranthus viridis Linn seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjot; Dhuna, Vikram; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Agrewala, Javed N; Singh, Jatinder

    2006-01-01

    A lectin from the seeds of Amaranthus viridis Linn has been purified by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-linked amino activated silica. Amaranthus viridis lectin (AVL) has a native molecular mass of 67 kDa. It is a homodimer composed of two 36.6 kDa subunits. The lectin gave a single band in non-denaturing PAGE at pH 4.5 and pH 8.3 and a single peak on HPLC size exclusion and cation exchange columns. The purified lectin was specific for both T-antigen and N-acetyl-D-lactosamine, markers for various carcinomas, in addition to N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, asialofetuin and fetuin. This lectin reacted strongly with red blood cells (RBCs) from human ABO blood groups and rat. It also reacted with rabbit, sheep, goat and guinea pig RBCs. The lectin is a glycoprotein having no metal ion requirement for its activity. Denaturing agents such as urea, thiourea and guanidine-HCl had no effect on its activity when treated for 15 minutes. AVL showed significant antiproliferative activity towards HB98 and P388D1 murine cancer cell lines. It also exerted antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cincerea and Fusarium oxysporum but not against Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma reesei, Alternaria solani and Fusarium graminearum. PMID:17100645

  10. Accumulation, distribution and excretion of 134Cs and 65Zn by the green mussels (Perna Viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two important radionuclides 134Cs and 65Zn were applied to study the accumulation, distribution and excretion of radioactive nuclides in organs and tissues of green mussel Perna Viridis. the results showed that the uptake rate of 134Cs by green mussels was very low and the concentration factor (CF) for 134Cs in the byssus approximated to 1. This CF value was lower than that of other tissues and organs of mussels, but its excretion rate was much higher than that of soft tissues. It was also found that the byssus of mussels had a special ability to accumulate 65Zn. Concentration factor (CF) for 65Zn in the byssus could reach as high as 900, which was much higher than that of any other tissues. However, its excretion rate was lower than that of other tissues and organs. The uptake rate of 65Zn by soft tissues was markedly higher than that of 134Cs. The mussels could also highly concentrate the low level 65Zn even if specific activity of 65Zn was very low in the environmental seawater. Results of radioactive trace experiments showed that the absorption of 134Cs and 65Zn by Perna Viridis was selective

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase from Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Wang, Fei; Meng, Xiangzong; Luo, Saifan; Li, Qiyun; Dong, Hongyun; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-04-01

    Dunaliella is a group of green algae with exceptional stress tolerance capability, and is considered as an important model organism for stress tolerance study. Here we cloned a TPS (trehalose-6-phosphate synthase) gene from Dunaliella viridis and designated it as DvTPS (D. viridis trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase).The DvTPS cDNA contained an ORF of 2793 bp encoding 930 aa. DvTPS had both TPS and TPP domain and belonged to the Group II TPS/TPP fusion gene family. Southern blots showed it has a single copy in the genome. Genome sequence analysis revealed that it has 18 exons and 17 introns. DvTPS had a constitutive high expression level under various NaCl culture conditions, however, could be induced by salt shock. Promoter analysis indicated there were ten STREs (stress response element) in its promoter region, giving a possible explanation of its inducible expression pattern upon salt shock. Yeast functional complementation analysis showed that DvTPS had neither TPS nor TPP activity. However, DvTPS could improve the salt tolerance of yeast salt sensitive mutant G19. Our results indicated that despite DvTPS showed significant similarity with TPS/TPP, its real biological function is still remained to be revealed. PMID:20878239

  12. A taxonomic review of the Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Oppenheimer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dark-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae is a Brazilian endemic species and includes three subspecies: Psophia viridis viridis Spix, 1825; Psophia v. dextralis Conover, 1934, and Psophia v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857, as well as P. v. interjecta Griscom & Greenway, 1937, whose validity has been questioned by several authors. These taxa are allopatric in distribution along the south of the Amazon River, although the precise limits of their distribution still remain unknown. This complex has never been taxonomically reviewed and this work aims to test the validity of its taxa based on the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Morphometrical characters and plumage colour patterns were analyzed, and the distribution of the taxa was also revised. In this study, 108 specimens from 41 localities were examined (all types included, with each reliable literature-based locality being included in order to delimit the geographical distribution of the complex. Morphometrical data did not point out significant differences between the taxa, also showing no sexual dimorphism among them. Meanwhile, plumage characters showed consistent and distinct patterns for each of the taxa, except for P. v. interjecta, whose features indicated by authors as diagnosable are the result of individual variation. No clinal variation or intergradation were observed, even at regions close to the rivers headwaters, where supposedly populations could be in contact. It is suggested that the currently accepted subspecies be elevated to the species level, such as: Psophia viridis Spix, 1825, distributed in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium, P. dextralis, found in the Tapajós-Tocantins interfluvium, and P. obscura, which occurs from the right bank of the Tocantins River to the west of the State of Maranhão.Os jacamins-de-costas-verdes, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae são endêmicos da Amazônia brasileira e contam, atualmente, com três subespécies reconhecidas

  13. Application of oxidative stress indices in natural populations of Perna viridis as biomarker of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, K B; Verlecar, X N; Chainy, G B N

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress indices were measured in gills and digestive glands of Perna viridis collected from three coastal locations in Goa i.e., Bambolim, Marmugao Harbour and Malim. In addition to lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase and two non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) were investigated in order to understand their variation with respect to pollution status of the sampling locations. We observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes of both the tissues at Mormugao Harbour and Malim, suggesting that the animals at these two locations are at higher level of oxidative stress as compared to those at Bambolim. Conversely, low levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione, observed at Mormugao Harbour and Malim indicate that the animals may use these compounds to counteract stress in the tissues. This study shows that changes in lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione in tissues of P. viridis can be used as molecular biomarkers in environmental monitoring programs. PMID:18849055

  14. Cultivation of green mussel, Perna viridis L., on a floating raft in an estuary along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Total production of green mussels, Perna viridis, grown on a raft (16 m sup(2)) for 1 year was 2144.64 kg and biomass (meat weight) was 1040.00 kg. Annual production (P) and biomass (B) estimated were 33.51 and 16.25 kg m sup(-1) respectively...

  15. Uptake and elimination of brevetoxin in the invasive green mussel, Perna viridis, during natural Karenia brevis blooms in southwest Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Soudant, Philippe; Volety, Aswani K

    2015-04-01

    Perna viridis is a recently introduced species to US coastal waters and have vigorously spread throughout the southeastern seaboard since their invasion. Little information regarding their response to local environmental factors has been reported including responses to the local HAB species, Karenia brevis. This study monitored the tissue toxin concentration of brevetoxins in P. viridis from existing populations throughout two consecutive natural K. brevis blooms. The results showed P. viridis to rapidly accumulate PbTx upon exposure to the bloom, far exceeding the peak tissue concentrations of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, sampled during the same period, 57,653 ± 15,937 and 33,462 ± 10,391 ng g(-1) PbTx-3 equivalent, respectively. Further, P. viridis retained high PbTx concentrations in their tissues post bloom remaining above the regulatory limit for human consumption for 4-5 months, significantly longer than the depuration time of 2-8 weeks for native oyster and clam species. In the second year, the bloom persisted at high cell concentrations resulting in prolonged exposure and higher PbTx tissue concentrations indicating increased bioaccumulation in green mussels. While this species is not currently harvested for human consumption, the threat for post bloom trophic transfer could pose negative impacts on other important fisheries and higher food web implications. PMID:25681577

  16. Functional complementation of a nitrate reductase defective mutant of a green alga Dunaliella viridis by introducing the nitrate reductase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Gao, Xiaoshu; Li, Qiyun; Zhang, Qingqi; Xu, Zhengkai

    2006-08-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes NAD (P) H dependent reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Transformation systems have been established in several species of green algae by nitrate reductase gene functional complementation. In this report, an endogenous NR cDNA (3.4 kb) and a genomic fragment (14.6 kb) containing the NR gene (DvNIA1) were isolated from the D. viridis cDNA and genomic libraries respectively. Southern blot and Northern blot analyses showed that this gene exists as a single copy in D. viridis and is induced by nitrate. To obtain a NR defective mutant as a recipient strain, D. viridis cells were treated with a chemical mutagen and then cultured on a chlorate-containing plate to enrich chlorate tolerant mutants. Southern analysis showed that one isolate, B14, had a deletion in the DvNIA1 gene region. Using electroporation conditions determined in this laboratory, plasmid pDVNR containing the intact DvNIA1 gene has been electroporated into the defective mutant B14. Strains retaining a nitrate assimilation phenotype were obtained from nitrate plates after spreading the electroporated cells. In some individual strains, transcription of the introduced gene was detected. NR activity in these strains was slightly higher than that in the defective B14 cell, but excretion of nitrite into culture media was almost as high as that of the wild-type cell. Possible episomal presence of the introduced DNA in D. viridis is discussed. PMID:16797881

  17. Contrasting effects of the polychaetes Marenzelleria viridis and Nereis diversicolor on benthic metabolism and solute transport in sandy coastal sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Hansen, Tanja; Delfosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary Thomas; Quintana, Cintia O.

    2011-01-01

    sediment. Sulfate reduction after 1 mo, on the other hand, was more than twice as high in sediment inhabited by M. viridis alone than in any other treatment, even when combined with N. diversicolor. Denitrification estimated from benthic TCO2 release, porewater reaction stoichiometry and nutrient fluxes...... was largely unaffected by the presence of fauna. Accordingly, the partitioning of reaction pathways after 1 mo revealed that M. viridis stimulated sulfate reduction at the expense of aerobic respiration. Most of the oxygen uptake in M. viridis sediment was apparently due to enhanced oxidation...

  18. Response regulator heterodimer formation controls a key stage in Streptomyces development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M Al-Bassam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The orphan, atypical response regulators BldM and WhiI each play critical roles in Streptomyces differentiation. BldM is required for the formation of aerial hyphae, and WhiI is required for the differentiation of these reproductive structures into mature spores. To gain insight into BldM function, we defined the genome-wide BldM regulon using ChIP-Seq and transcriptional profiling. BldM target genes clustered into two groups based on their whi gene dependency. Expression of Group I genes depended on bldM but was independent of all the whi genes, and biochemical experiments showed that Group I promoters were controlled by a BldM homodimer. In contrast, Group II genes were expressed later than Group I genes and their expression depended not only on bldM but also on whiI and whiG (encoding the sigma factor that activates whiI. Additional ChIP-Seq analysis showed that BldM Group II genes were also direct targets of WhiI and that in vivo binding of WhiI to these promoters depended on BldM and vice versa. We go on to demonstrate that BldM and WhiI form a functional heterodimer that controls Group II promoters, serving to integrate signals from two distinct developmental pathways. The BldM-WhiI system thus exemplifies the potential of response regulator heterodimer formation as a mechanism to expand the signaling capabilities of bacterial cells.

  19. Primary charge separation within P870* in wild type and heterodimer mutants in femtosecond time domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatypov, R A; Khmelnitskiy, A Yu; Khristin, A M; Fufina, T Yu; Vasilieva, L G; Shuvalov, V A

    2012-08-01

    Primary charge separation dynamics in the reaction center (RC) of purple bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides and its P870 heterodimer mutants have been studied using femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy with 20 and 40fs excitation at 870nm at 293K. Absorbance increase in the 1060-1130nm region that is presumably attributed to P(A)(δ+) cation radical molecule as a part of mixed state with a charge transfer character P*(P(A)(δ+)P(B)(δ-)) was found. This state appears at 120-180fs time delay in the wild type RC and even faster in H(L173)L and H(M202)L heterodimer mutants and precedes electron transfer (ET) to B(A) bacteriochlorophyll with absorption band at 1020nm in WT. The formation of the P(A)(δ+)B(A)(δ-) state is a result of the electron transfer from P*(P(A)(δ+)P(B)(δ-)) to the primary electron acceptor B(A) (still mixed with P*) with the apparent time delay of ~1.1ps. Next step of ET is accompanied by the 3-ps appearance of bacteriopheophytin a(-) (H(A)(-)) band at 960nm. The study of the wave packet formation upon 20-fs illumination has shown that the vibration energy of the wave packet promotes reversible overcoming of an energy barrier between two potential energy surfaces P* and P*(P(A)(δ+)B(A)(δ-)) at ~500fs. For longer excitation pulses (40fs) this promotion is absent and tunneling through an energy barrier takes about 3ps. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. PMID:22209778

  20. The proportion of hybrid heterodimers in homozygous or doubly heterozygous beta chain variant hemoglobinopathies associated with alpha chain hemoglobin variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, J S

    2000-10-01

    Four alpha genes exist on chromosome 16, but one or more of these genes can be deleted in association with Hemoglobin (Hb)G-Philadelphia in cis to alpha-thalassemia-2 in African-Americans. Therefore, the proportion of HbG-Philadelphia in HbG heterozygotes is trimodal at about 25% for alphaGalpha/alpha alpha, 33% for alphaG-/alpha alpha, and 50% for alphaG-/alpha alpha in patients with HbA. Those who are homozygous or doubly heterozygous for beta chain variants (betaX2 or betaXbetaY) have neither HbA nor the alpha chain variant (alphaX2 betaA2), but have hybrid heterodimers (alphaX2 betaX2). The proportion of hybrid heterodimers here should also be trimodal mirroring alpha gene status. Eleven patients were identified: 4 with Hb SSG, 3 with Hb SCG, and 1 each with Hb OCG, HbSSMontgomery, HbSSChicago, and HbSSBourmedes. Heterodimer proportions were: 43.3 +/- 1.5, 33.5 +/- 2.3, and 15.8 +/- 1.1% for 2, 3, and 4 respective alpha genes which had been studied in 8/11 of the patients (r = 0.98), implying that the prime determinant of the proportion of hybrid heterodimers in this patient group is the number of functional alpha genes. PMID:11045763

  1. Synthesis of heterodimer radionuclide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance and single-photon emission computed tomography dual-modality imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Jian; Wang, Jiaqing; Chong, Yu; Wang, Xin; Deng, Yaoyao; Tang, Minghua; Li, Yonggang; Ge, Cuicui; Pan, Yue; Gu, Hongwei

    2015-02-01

    We report a facile synthesis of bifunctional Fe3O4-Ag125I heterodimers for use as dual-modality imaging agents in magnetic resonance (MR) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We introduced 125I, which is a clinically used radioisotope, as a SPECT reporter, into Fe3O4-Ag heterodimer nanoparticles to provide a new type of bifunctional contrast agent for MRI and SPECT imaging.We report a facile synthesis of bifunctional Fe3O4-Ag125I heterodimers for use as dual-modality imaging agents in magnetic resonance (MR) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We introduced 125I, which is a clinically used radioisotope, as a SPECT reporter, into Fe3O4-Ag heterodimer nanoparticles to provide a new type of bifunctional contrast agent for MRI and SPECT imaging. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of general experimental procedures, TEM image. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07255c

  2. A heterodimer of human 3'-phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases is a new sulphate activating complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3'-Phospho-adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) synthases are fundamental to mammalian sulphate metabolism. These enzymes have recently been linked to a rising number of human diseases. Despite many studies, it is not yet understood how the mammalian PAPS synthases 1 and 2 interact with each other. We provide first evidence for heterodimerisation of these two enzymes by pull-down assays and Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Kinetics of dimer dissociation/association indicates that these heterodimers form as soon as PAPSS1 and -S2 encounter each other in solution. Affinity of the homo- and heterodimers were found to be in the low nanomolar range using anisotropy measurements employing proteins labelled with the fluorescent dye IAEDANS that - in spite of its low quantum yield - is well suited for anisotropy due to its large Stokes shift. Within its kinase domain, the PAPS synthase heterodimer displays similar substrate inhibition by adenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (APS) as the homodimers. Due to divergent catalytic efficacies of PAPSS1 and -S2, the heterodimer might be a way of regulating PAPS synthase function within mammalian cells.

  3. Ein Fund von Buxbaumia viridis (Moug. ex Lam. & DC.) Brid. ex Moug. & Nestl. im Thüringer Muschelkalk-Hügelland

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ein überraschender Fund von B. viridis gelang dem Autor am 14. Januar 2007 in der Umgebung von Jena. In Deutschland wird Buxbaumia viridis als "stark gefährdet" eingestuft; aktuelle Vorkommen beschränken sind auf Baden-Württemberg und Bayern. In Thüringen wurde die Art zuletzt 1975 südwestlich von Suhl nachgewiesen. Der Fundort bei Jena liegt im Muschelkalk-Hügelland im Naturraum der Ilm-Saale-Platte.

  4. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    CERN Document Server

    Crow, E

    2000-01-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of...

  5. Morphological, behavioral and biological aspects of Azya luteipes Mulsant fed on Coccus viridis (Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nais

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major pests of nursery seedlings of coffee (Coffea arabica L. is the green scale, Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae. The main predators of this species are beetles of the family Coccinellidae, especially Azya luteipes Mulsant. Morphological, behavioral and biological aspects of A. luteipes feeding on C. viridis on coffee plants were examined under laboratory conditions. Tests were conducted in room temperature at 28 ± 2 ºC. A. luteipes oviposits on the underside of the scale's body, laying two to four eggs per insect. The eggs have a subelliptical form and a white-clear color, and the incubation period is 8.3 ± 1.2 days. The number of eggs laid per female per day varies between eight and ten. A. luteipes undergoes four larval instars with durations of 2.0 ± 0, 3.2 ± 0.5, 3.6 ± 0.5 and 4.6 ± 0 days for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars, respectively. The average durations of the prepupal and pupal stages were 2.0 ± 0 and 10.9 ± 1.3 days, respectively. The viability of the larvae during each instar was 91.9, 89.3, 90.2 and 96.4 %, respectively, and the viabilities of prepupae and pupae were 99.1 and 98.2 %. The average duration of the egg-adult cycle was 34.3 ± 2.6 days, and the sex ratio was 0.52 %. Females presented a gray-colored head, while males presented a yellow head.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a vacuolar H+₋pyrophosphatase from Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzong; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-06-01

    The halotolerant alga Dunaliella adapts to exceptionally high salinity and possesses efficient mechanisms for regulating intracellular Na(+). In plants, sequestration of Na(+) into the vacuole is driven by the electrochemical H(+) gradient generated by H(+) pumps, and this Na(+) sequestration is one mechanism that confers salt tolerance to plants. To investigate the role of vacuolar H(+) pumps in the salt tolerance of Dunaliella, we isolated the cDNA of the vacuolar proton-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (V-H(+)-PPase) from Dunaliella viridis. The DvVP cDNA is 2,984 bp in length, codes for a polypeptide of 762 amino acids and has 15 transmembrane domains. The DvVP protein is highly similar to V-H(+)-PPases from other green algae and higher plant species, in terms of its amino acid sequence and its transmembrane model. A phylogenetic analysis of V-H(+)-PPases revealed the close relationship of Dunaliella to green algal species of Charophyceae and land plants. The heterologous expression of DvVP in the yeast mutant G19 (Δena1-4) suppressed Na(+) hypersensitivity, and a GFP-fusion of DvVP localized to the vacuole membranes in yeast, indicating that DvVP encodes a functional V-H(+)-PPase. A northern blot analysis showed a decrease in the transcript abundance of DvVP at higher salinity in D. viridis cells, which is in contrast to the salt-induced upregulation of V-H(+)-PPase in some plants, suggesting that the expression of DvVP under salt stress may be regulated by different mechanisms in Dunaliella. This study not only enriched our knowledge about the biological functions of V-H(+)-PPases in different organisms but also improved our understanding of the molecular mechanism of salt tolerance in Dunaliella. PMID:21086174

  7. Photosynthetic performance of Setaria viridis to soil drought and rewatering alternations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Yong Luo; Xue Yong Zhao; RuiLian Zhou; YingXin Huang; XiaoAn Zuo

    2009-01-01

    The ability of psammophyte (a plant that grows in sand or sandy soil) to withstand and recover from severe droughts is crucial for desertifieation control and restoration of degraded vegetation in semi-arid sandy land in northern China. Responses of the photo-synthetic gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence of an annual (Setaria viridis) were measured through three cycles of soil drying and rewatering. Results showed that the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) decreased by 95 percent, 91 percent, and 61 percent at end of three drought periods; the stomatal conductance (gs) decreased by 72 percent, 73 percent, and 53 percent; the transpiration rate (Tr) decreased by 70 percent, 69 percent, and 37 percent; and water-use efficiency (WUE) decreased by 83 percent, 69 percent,and 38 percent. At the same time, the trapping probability with no dark adaptation (Fv'/FM') decreased by 70 percent, 12 percent,and 10 percent, while the electron transport per cross-section (ET0'/CS'0) decreased by 80 percent, 45 percent, and 13 percent. The intercellular CO2 (Ci) increased by 1.77, 1.02, and 0.66 times, and the dissipation per cross-section (DI0'/CS0') increased by 98 percent, 28 percent, and 22 percent. These results indicated that S. viridis was subjected to photoinhibition and some nonstomatal limitation of photosynthesis under drought. However, the above photosynthetic characteristics were restored to control values after three or four days of rewatering. The capability to recover from drought may contribute to the plant's use of water as efficiently as possible. Furthermore, during the subsequent drought spells, suppression of Pn, gs, Tr, Fv'/FM', and ET0'/CS0' decreased or slowed down following the drying and rewatering alternations, especially in the third drought spell.

  8. MutLα heterodimers modify the molecular phenotype of Friedreich ataxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ezzatizadeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Friedreich ataxia (FRDA, the most common autosomal recessive ataxia disorder, is caused by a dynamic GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of FXN gene, resulting in down-regulation of frataxin expression. Studies of cell and mouse models have revealed a role for the mismatch repair (MMR MutS-heterodimer complexes and the PMS2 component of the MutLα complex in the dynamics of intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions: MSH2, MSH3 and MSH6 promote GAA repeat expansions, while PMS2 inhibits GAA repeat expansions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the potential role of the other component of the MutLα complex, MLH1, in GAA repeat instability in FRDA, we have analyzed intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions from FXN transgenic mice that have been crossed with Mlh1 deficient mice. We find that loss of Mlh1 activity reduces both intergenerational and somatic GAA repeat expansions. However, we also find that loss of either Mlh1 or Pms2 reduces FXN transcription, suggesting different mechanisms of action for Mlh1 and Pms2 on GAA repeat expansion dynamics and regulation of FXN transcription. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both MutLα components, PMS2 and MLH1, have now been shown to modify the molecular phenotype of FRDA. We propose that upregulation of MLH1 or PMS2 could be potential FRDA therapeutic approaches to increase FXN transcription.

  9. Observations on a population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskal, 1775) in the North Aegean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chariton Chintiroglou, C. [Thessaloniki, Aristotle Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Zoology

    1996-12-31

    The present paper is concerned with the structural aspects of Anemonia viridis populations found in the North Aegean Sea. It was found that mean wet weight and density of anemone populations increases with depth and distance from shore. Differences in the structure of the Anemonia viridis populations were attributed both to the specific hydrodynamic characteristics of the biotopes and to a number biotic interactions. From our results and t previous investigations the adoption of three different lifestyles by the anemones was assumed.: (1) a colonial form, with population densities around 650 individuals per m{sup 2}, found in substrates exposed to increased hydrodynamism; (2) a colonial form, with lower densities (90 indiv. per m{sup 2}), found in less exposed sites; (3) finally, large individuals in deeper waters chose a solitary lifestyle, as mechanical stresses were much lower.

  10. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome of green foxtail (Setaria viridis), a promising model system for C4 photosynthesis, is first reported in this study. The genome harbors a large single copy (LSC) region of 81 016 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 12 456  bp separated by a pair of inverted repeat (IRa and IRb) regions of 22 315 bp. GC content is 38.92%. The proportion of coding sequence is 57.97%, comprising of 111 (19 duplicated in IR regions) unique genes, 71 of which are protein-coding genes, four are rRNA genes, and 36 are tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that S. viridis was clustered with its cultivated species S. italica in the tribe Paniceae of the family Poaceae. This newly determined chloroplast genome will provide valuable genetic resources to assist future studies on C4 photosynthesis in grasses. PMID:26305916

  11. A Heterodimer of Thioredoxin and IB 2 Cooperates with Sec18p (NSF) to Promote Yeast Vacuole Inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zuoyu; Mayer, Andreas; Muller, Eric; Wickner, William

    1997-01-01

    Early in S phase, the vacuole (lysosome) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae projects a stream of vesicles and membranous tubules into the bud where they fuse and establish the daughter vacuole. This inheritance reaction can be studied in vitro with isolated vacuoles. Rapid and efficient homotypic fusion between saltwashed vacuoles requires the addition of only two purified soluble proteins, Sec18p (NSF) and LMA1, a novel heterodimer with a thioredoxin subunit. We now report the identity of the secon...

  12. Orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner inhibits angiotensin II-stimulated PAI-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyeong-Min; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Min, Ae-Kyung; Ryu, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yoon-Nyun; Park, Young Joo; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Lee, Ki-Up; Park, Wan-Ju; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    Angiotensin II is a major effector molecule in the development of cardiovascular disease. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II promotes cellular proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation through the upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression. Previously, we demonstrated that small heterodimer partner (SHP) represses PAI-1 expression in the liver through the inhibition of TGF-β signaling pathways. Here, we investigated whether SHP inhibite...

  13. Expression of the 26S proteasome subunit RPN10 is upregulated by salt stress in Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobin; Meng, Xiangzong; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-08-15

    Green algae of the genus Dunaliella can adapt to hypersaline environments and are considered model organisms for salinity tolerance. In an EST analysis in Dunaliella viridis under salt stress, we isolated a salt-inducible cDNA coding for the 26S proteasome subunit RPN10, designated DvRPN10. The DvRPN10 cDNA is 1472 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 377 amino acids. The DvRPN10 protein shares a high similarity to orthologs from other species. The function of DvRPN10 was confirmed by complementation of the yeast Deltarpn10 mutant. Q-PCR analysis of D. viridis cells grown in different salinities revealed that the transcript level of DvRPN10 increased in proportion to the external salinity within a range of 0.5-3 M NaCl, but decreased significantly at extremely high salinities (4-5 M NaCl). When a salinity shock of 1-3 M NaCl was applied to D. viridis cells, DvRPN10 mRNA levels remained steady during the first 36 h, and then gradually elevated to the level observed at 3 M NaCl. The gene structure of DvRPN10 was revealed by sequencing of a BAC clone containing this gene. Possible transcription factor binding sites related to stress tolerance were found in the promoter region of DvRPN10. The expression of DvRPN10 in response to the external salinity suggests that RPN10-mediated protein degradation plays a role in the salinity tolerance of D. viridis. PMID:20430475

  14. Urban secondary sewage: an alternative medium for the culture of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae) and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa; Maria Luise Koening; Sílvio José de Macedo

    2004-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40%) of urban secondary sewage on the growth of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae) and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae) was examined to verify the possibility of its use as an alternative culture medium for these species. Stocks and 700mL duplicate batch cultures were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions. 30% and 40% additions were the most efficient for the growth of both species. Statistical analysis of the adjusted growt...

  15. Cell division in the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis depends on phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Cossío, Belén R; Rivard, Christopher J; Berl, Tomás; Capasso, Juan M

    2007-01-01

    In mammalian cells, MAPKs are involved in both stress response (JNK and p38 pathways) and cell proliferation and differentiation [extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)] through protein kinase cascades. Exposure of Dunaliella viridis cell cultures to PD98059, a very specific inhibitor of the ERK signalling pathway, resulted in a total arrest of cell proliferation and a complete dephosphorylation of ERK. As shown by flow cytometry analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells, PD98059 stopped mitosis at the G(2) phase after the S phase has been completed. Multiple physiological parameters such as cell motility and reducing power generation (NADPH) clearly indicate that the treated cells are wholly viable. Exposure of D. viridis to environmental stresses that impair cell division, such as hyperosmotic shock, nitrogen starvation, or sublethal UV irradiation, caused a marked decrease in the phospho-ERK levels as detected by western blot. Two 400 bp polynucleotides from D. viridis with high homologies to published sequences of ERK1 and ERK2 were cloned, sequenced, and submitted to GenBank. Northern blot analysis revealed two mRNA bands of approximately 1.9 kb, consistent with the expected size of ERK proteins ( approximately 40 kDa). Sequence analysis showed that they contained several mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) conserved domains, including II, III, VIb, VII, and the double phosphorylation motif. Interestingly, in D. viridis, this motif was T*DY* instead of the canonic T*EY*. Based on this finding, ERK plant sequences can be divided into two groups, one termed the T*DY* branch and the other termed the T*EY* branch. The molecular and functional data presented here suggest that ERK is a very ancient signalling pathway and that it was already present in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotic cells. PMID:17220513

  16. The role of photo-osmotic adaptation in semi-continuous culture and lipid particle release from Dunaliella viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan W. Davis; Carvalho, Benjamin J.; Jones, Howland D. T.; Singh, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Although great efforts have been made to elucidate the phenotypic responses of alga to varying levels of nutrients, osmotic environments, and photosynthetically active radiation intensities, the role of interactions among these variables is largely nebulous. Here, we describe a general method for establishing and maintaining semi-continuous cultures of the halophilic microalgal production strain, Dunaliella viridis, that is independent of variations in salinity and illumination intensity. Usi...

  17. Modulation of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in the gills of Perna viridis (L.) exposed to water accomodate fraction of diesel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    chemicals were analar grade. Experimental animals and maintenance: Green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis), with umbo of length 8-10 em were collected from Bambolim beach Goa, India. Animals were transported to the laboratory in the polythene bags, filled... and then aqueous phase was drained out. This preparation was used as 100 % stock solution. Experimental designs: The acclimatized animals were divided into three groups: Group I: Control mussels, untreated, Group II: Mussels treated with 0.5 % WAFO, Group III...

  18. Deconstructing a Species-Complex: Geometric Morphometric and Molecular Analyses Define Species in the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Mark A.; Marlis R Douglas; Collyer, Michael L.; Michael E Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Morphological data are a conduit for the recognition and description of species, and their acquisition has recently been broadened by geometric morphometric (GM) approaches that co-join the collection of digital data with exploratory 'big data' analytics. We employed this approach to dissect the Western Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) species-complex in North America, currently partitioned by mitochondrial (mt)DNA analyses into eastern and western lineages (two and seven subspecies, respective...

  19. Endophilin B2 promotes inner mitochondrial membrane degradation by forming heterodimers with Endophilin B1 during mitophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Han; Wang, Jiu-Qiang; Wang, Qiaochu; Wang, Yun; Guo, Caixia; Chen, Quan; Chai, Tuanyao; Tang, Tie-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial sequestration by autophagosomes is a key step in mitophagy while the mechanisms mediating this process are not fully understood. It has been reported that Endophilin B1 (EB1) promotes mitochondrial sequestration by binding and shaping membrane. However, the role of EB1 homolog Endophilin B2 (EB2) in mitophagy remains unclear. Here we report that EB2 plays an indispensable role in mitochondria sequestration and inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) protein degradation during mitophagy. Similar to EB1, EB2 aggregates into foci and then translocates to damaged mitochondria. Loss of either EB2 and/or EB1 significantly enervates the foci translocation to fragmented mitochondria and IMM degradation, and the EB1/EB2 heterodimer formed by EB1/EB2 interaction promotes the above process. We noticed that, it is the dimer domain of EB2 but not that of EB1 mediating the heterodimer formation, manifesting the importance of EB2 in mitophagy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the EB foci formation is closely regulated by the PINK1-Parkin signaling pathway. From these results, we propose that EB1/EB2 heterodimers may serve as linkers between damaged mitochondria and phagophores during mitophagy. PMID:27112121

  20. Comparative feedstock analysis in Setaria viridis L. as a model for C4 bioenergy grasses and Panicoid crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carloalberto ePetti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Second generation feedstocks for bioethanol will likely include a sizable proportion of perennial C4 grasses, principally in the Panicoideae clade. The Panicoideae contain agronomically important annual grasses including Zea mays L. (maize, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench (sorghum, and Saccharum officinarum L. (sugar cane as well as promising second generation perennial feedstocks including Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass. The underlying complexity of these polyploid grass genomes is a major limitation for their direct manipulation and thus driving a need for rapidly cycling comparative model. Setaria viridis (green millet is a rapid cycling C4 Panicoid grass with a relatively small and sequenced diploid genome and abundant seed production. Stable, transient and protoplast transformation technologies have also been developed for S. viridis making it a potentially excellent model for other C4 bioenergy grasses. Here, the lignocellulosic feedstock composition, cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor (CBI response and saccharification dynamics of S. viridis are compared with the annual s00orghum and maize and the perennial switchgrass bioenergy crops as a baseline study into the applicability for translational research. A genome-wide systematic investigation of the cellulose synthase-A (CesA genes was performed identifying eight candidate sequences. Two-developmental stages; a metabolically active young tissue and b metabolically plateaued (mature material are examined to compare biomass performance metrics.

  1. The polar 2e/12c bond in phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl hetero-dimers: Stronger stacking interaction and fascinating interlayer charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rong-Lin; Xu, Hong-Liang; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2016-08-01

    An increasing number of chemists have focused on the two-electron/multicenter bond (2e/mc) that was first introduced to interpret the bonding mechanism of radical dimers. Herein, we report the polar two-electron/twelve center (2e/12c) bonding character in a series of phenalenyl-azaphenalenyl radical hetero-dimers. Interestingly, the bonding energy of weaker polar hetero-dimer (P-TAP) is dominated by the overlap of the two different singly occupied molecular orbital of radicals, while that of stronger polar hetero-dimer (P-HAP) is dominated by the electrostatic attraction. Results show that the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers plays a prominent role in the essential attribution of the polar 2e/12c bond. Correspondingly, a stronger stacking interaction in the hetero-dimer could be effectively achieved by increasing the difference of nitrogen atoms number between the monomers. It is worthy of note that an interesting interlayer charge transfer character is induced in the polar hetero-dimers, which is dependent on the difference between the electronegativity of the monomers. It is our expectation that the new knowledge about the bonding nature of radical hetero-dimers might provide important information for designing radical based functional materials with various applications.

  2. Molecular insight of isotypes specific β-tubulin interaction of tubulin heterodimer with noscapinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoshi, Seneha; Naik, Pradeep K

    2014-07-01

    Noscapine and its derivatives bind stoichiometrically to tubulin, alter its dynamic instability and thus effectively inhibit the cellular proliferation of a wide variety of cancer cells including many drug-resistant variants. The tubulin molecule is composed of α- and β-tubulin, which exist as various isotypes whose distribution and drug-binding properties are significantly different. Although the noscapinoids bind to a site overlapping with colchicine, their interaction is more biased towards β-tubulin. In fact, their precise interaction and binding affinity with specific isotypes of β-tubulin in the αβ-heterodimer has never been addressed. In this study, the binding affinity of a panel of noscapinoids with each type of tubulin was investigated computationally. We found that the binding score of a specific noscapinoid with each type of tubulin isotype is different. Specifically, amino-noscapine has the highest binding score of -6.4, -7.2, -7.4 and -7.3 kcal/mol with αβI, αβII, αβIII and αβIV isotypes, respectively. Similarly 10 showed higher binding affinity of -6.8 kcal/mol with αβV, whereas 8 had the highest binding affinity of -7.2, -7.1 and -7.2 kcal/mol, respectively with αβVI, αβVII and αβVIII isotypes. More importantly, both amino-noscapine and its clinical derivative, bromo-noscapine have the highest binding affinity of -46.2 and -38.1 kcal/mol against αβIII (overexpression of αβIII has been associated with resistance to a wide range of chemotherapeutic drugs for several human malignancies) as measured using MM-PBSA. Knowledge of the isotype specificity of the noscapinoids may allow for development of novel therapeutic agents based on this class of drugs. PMID:24916062

  3. Small heterodimer partner overexpression partially protects against liver tumor development in farnesoid X receptor knockout mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guodong [Department of Surgical Oncology, Cancer Treatment Center, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Kong, Bo [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Zhu, Yan [Department of General Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Zhan, Le [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Williams, Jessica A. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Tawfik, Ossama [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Kassel, Karen M. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Luyendyk, James P. [Pathobiology and Diagnostic Investigation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Wang, Li [Department of Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Guo, Grace L., E-mail: guo@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) and small heterodimer partner (SHP, Nr0b2) are nuclear receptors that are critical to liver homeostasis. Induction of SHP serves as a major mechanism of FXR in suppressing gene expression. Both FXR{sup −/−} and SHP{sup −/−} mice develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SHP is one of the most strongly induced genes by FXR in the liver and is a tumor suppressor, therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency of SHP contributes to HCC development in the livers of FXR{sup −/−} mice and therefore, increased SHP expression in FXR{sup −/−} mice reduces liver tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, we generated FXR{sup −/−} mice with overexpression of SHP in hepatocytes (FXR{sup −/−}/SHP{sup Tg}) and determined the contribution of SHP in HCC development in FXR{sup −/−} mice. Hepatocyte-specific SHP overexpression did not affect liver tumor incidence or size in FXR{sup −/−} mice. However, SHP overexpression led to a lower grade of dysplasia, reduced indicator cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. All tumor-bearing mice had increased serum bile acid levels and IL-6 levels, which was associated with activation of hepatic STAT3. In conclusion, SHP partially protects FXR{sup −/−} mice from HCC formation by reducing tumor malignancy. However, disrupted bile acid homeostasis by FXR deficiency leads to inflammation and injury, which ultimately results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the liver. - Highlights: • SHP does not prevent HCC incidence nor size in FXR KO mice but reduces malignancy. • Increased SHP promotes apoptosis. • Bile acids and inflammation maybe critical for HCC formation with FXR deficiency.

  4. Small heterodimer partner overexpression partially protects against liver tumor development in farnesoid X receptor knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) and small heterodimer partner (SHP, Nr0b2) are nuclear receptors that are critical to liver homeostasis. Induction of SHP serves as a major mechanism of FXR in suppressing gene expression. Both FXR−/− and SHP−/− mice develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SHP is one of the most strongly induced genes by FXR in the liver and is a tumor suppressor, therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency of SHP contributes to HCC development in the livers of FXR−/− mice and therefore, increased SHP expression in FXR−/− mice reduces liver tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, we generated FXR−/− mice with overexpression of SHP in hepatocytes (FXR−/−/SHPTg) and determined the contribution of SHP in HCC development in FXR−/− mice. Hepatocyte-specific SHP overexpression did not affect liver tumor incidence or size in FXR−/− mice. However, SHP overexpression led to a lower grade of dysplasia, reduced indicator cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. All tumor-bearing mice had increased serum bile acid levels and IL-6 levels, which was associated with activation of hepatic STAT3. In conclusion, SHP partially protects FXR−/− mice from HCC formation by reducing tumor malignancy. However, disrupted bile acid homeostasis by FXR deficiency leads to inflammation and injury, which ultimately results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the liver. - Highlights: • SHP does not prevent HCC incidence nor size in FXR KO mice but reduces malignancy. • Increased SHP promotes apoptosis. • Bile acids and inflammation maybe critical for HCC formation with FXR deficiency

  5. A Cu{sup 2+} site common to photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers from Rb. sphaeroides, Rb. capsulatus, and Rps. viridis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utschig, L. M.; Poluektov, O.; Schlesselman, S. L.; Thurnauer, M. C.; Tiede, D. M.; Chemistry

    2001-05-22

    The interaction of metal ions with isolated photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) from the purple bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, and Rhodopseudomonas viridis has been investigated with transient optical and magnetic resonance techniques. In RCs from all species, the electrochromic response of the bacteriopheophytin cofactors associated with Q{sub A}{sup -}Q{sub B} {yields} Q{sub A}Q{sub B}{sup -} electron transfer is slowed in the presence of Cu{sup 2+}. This slowing is similar to the metal ion effect observed for RCs from Rb. sphaeroides where Zn{sup 2+} was bound to a specific site on the surface of the RC [Utschig et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 8278]. The coordination environments of the Cu{sup 2+} sites were probed with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, providing the first direct spectroscopic evidence for the existence of a second metal site in RCs from Rb. capsulatus and Rps. viridis. In the dark, RCs with Cu{sup 2+} bound to the surface exhibit axially symmetric EPR spectra. Electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectral results indicate multiple weakly hyperfine coupled {sup 14}N nuclei in close proximity to Cu{sup 2+}. These ESEEM spectra resemble those observed for Cu{sup 2+} RCs from Rb. sphaeroides [Utschig et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 2961] and indicate that two or more histidines ligate the Cu{sup 2+} at the surface site in each RC. Thus, RCs from Rb. sphaeroides, Rb. capsulatus, and Rps. viridis each have a structurally analogous Cu{sup 2+} binding site that is involved in modulating the Q{sub A}{sup -}Q{sub B} {yields} Q{sub A}Q{sub B}{sup -} electron-transfer process. Inspection of the Rps. viridis crystal structure reveals four potential histidine ligands from three different subunits (M16, H178, H72, and L211) located beneath the Q{sub B} binding pocket. The location of these histidines is surprisingly similar to the grouping of four histidine residues (H68, H126, H128, and L211) observed in

  6. Visualizing a protein quake with time-resolved X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.; Wickstrand, Cecilia; Barty, Anton; Williams, Garth J.; Malmerberg, Erik; Davidsson, Jan; Milathianaki, Despina; DePonte, Daniel P.; Shoeman, Robert L.; Wang, Dingjie; James, Daniel; Katona, Gergely; Westenhoff, Sebastian; White, Thomas A.; Aquila, Andrew; Bari, Sadia; Berntsen, Peter; Bogan, Mike; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Doak, R. Bruce; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Frank, Matthias; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Henning, Robert; Hunter, Mark S.; Kirian, Richard A.; Kosheleva, Irina; Kupitz, Christopher; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Sjohamn, Jennie; Stellato, Francesco; Weierstall, Uwe; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Spence, John C. H.; Fromme, Petra; Schlichting, Ilme; Boutet, Sebastien; Groenhof, Gerrit; Chapman, Henry N.; Neutze, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to measure ultrafast protein structural changes using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free-electron laser. We demonstrated this approach using multiphoton excitation of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center, observing an ultrafast glob...

  7. Retinal afferents and efferents of an infrared sensitive snake, Crotalus viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retinal afferents and efferents were examined in Crotalus viridis. Retinofugal fibers were traced by injecting horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or tritiated leucine into the eye, or by removing the eye and staining degenerating axons with silver methods. Terminations were seen contralaterally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei (extensive), the pretectal nuclei, including the nucleus posterodorsalis (a very heavy input), the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, nucleus geniculatus pretectalis, and nucleus pretectalis, the superficial layers of the optic tectum, including the stratum zonale, the stratum opticum, the stratum griseum et fibrosum centrale and the upper portion of stratum griseum centrale, and the basal optic nucleus. Ipsilateral input reaches the intermediate portion of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, a small portion of the pretectal nucleus and nucleus posterodorsalis, and the basal optic nucleus (very minimally). Retinopedal fibers were traced with the HRP method. The cell bodies lie in the ventral thalamus within the nucleus of the ventral supraoptic decussation. These neurons project primarily to the contralateral retina, but some more rostrally located neurons project to the ipsilateral retina

  8. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in the soft tissues of the green mussels, Perna viridis (L.) Bivalve: Mytilacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untreated agro-industrial and domestic waste continuously being damped along the shores of its surrounding provinces and cities pollute the Manila Bay coastal waters. Presumably, its oyster and mussel culture farms are contaminated with toxic heavy metals. Yet, this alarming signs remain barely investigated. Pollution enhanced, the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals threaten the flora and fauna of the aquatic ecosystem. Trace concentrations of toxic elements in the marine food chain can trigger deleterious biochemical, physiological and ecological impact. Known to be bio-accumulated by aquatic organisms, the mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in the edible tissues of Perna viridis were determined. Water and sediments sampled from the mussel culture farms were also analyzed. Results revealed that despite the apparent pollution, except for Cu and Zn, which registered slightly higher values, Hg, Cd and Pb concentrations were much lower than the maximum permissible limits. Even water and sediments samples tested showed that mean concentrations of these elements were still below sublethal limits. (auth.). 79 refs.; 8 figs.; 13 tabs.; 16 plates

  9. The osmotic behaviour of toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis). an electron microprobe analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, R; Dörge, A; Katz, U; Bauer, R; Thurau, K

    1980-05-01

    The effect of saline adaptation on the intracellular Na, K, Cl, P concentrations and dry weight content of the toad skin epithelium (Bufo viridis) was studied using the technique of electron microprobe analysis. The measurements were performed on isolated abdominal skins either directly after dissection or after additional incubation in Ussing-type chambers. Adaptations of the toads to increasing NaCl concentrations for 7 days resulted in increased blood plasma osmolarity and a parallel increase in the cellular electrolyte, P and dry weight concentrations of the epithelium, the K increase representing the most significant fraction of the intracellular osmolarity increase. No evidence was obtained to show that the nucleus and cytoplasm reacted differently from each other and all living epithelial cell types basically showed the same response. Incubation of the isolated skins under control conditions showed a drastic inhibition of the transepithelial Na transport after adaptation to high salinities. In spite of the large variations in the transport rate almost identical intracellular electrolyte concentrations were observed. In tap water adapted toads the average cellular concentrations were 8.8 mmole/kg wet weight for Na, 109.6 for K, 41.5 for Cl, and 135.3 for P, respectively. Incubation of the skin with Ringer's solution of different osmolarities demonstrated that the epithelial cells are in osmotic equilibrium with the inner bathing solution. The results are consistent with the view that the osmotic adaptation is mainly accomplished by the movement of water. PMID:7191092

  10. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......). for V = -50 mV the transepithelial Cl- conductance calculated from isotope flux measurements was 2.5 +/- 0.3 mS cm-2, N = 10. When the skin was clamped at + 50 mV the net flux of Cl- was reversed, but Cl- conductance was only 0.3 +/- 0.1 mScm-2. Flux ratio analysis indicated that the potential......-activated Cl- conductance carries Cl- ions by way of passive transport. With NaCl Ringer bathing the outer surface of the skin the spontaneous potential was about -30 mV. At this potential the Cl- conductance of the skin was about half of its maximum value. The time course of Cl- current activation following a...

  11. SEASONAL VARIATION OF HEAVY METALS IN PERNA VIRIDIS FROM GUAYACAN, ARAYA PENINSULA, SUCRE STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemus, Mairin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Biomonitoring is a tool to assess the presence of environmental pollutants, particularly heavy metals, due to their persistence and toxicity to the biotic component. The concentrations of the heavy metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni were determined in males and females of Perna viridis (μg·g-1dry weight, with the purpose of evaluating the environmental quality in Guayacán, state Sucre, Venezuela, during the months of November (2006, May and August (2007, and February (2008. November and August are both in the rainy season, with May and February part of the dry season. The metals in the samples were determined using AAS (Atomic Absortion Spectophotometric and the precision of the method was verified using the reference standard NIST Oyster Tissue 1566ª. The concentrations of Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni showed significant differences in the months studied except for Ni in males that did not exhibit variation. The highest values in Zn and Ni occurred in the rainy season, while Cu and Cr were highest during the month of February, and Cd and Pb during the month of May, both months in the dry season. The females presented levels of Cu, Cd and Ni significantly higher than the males. The metals Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni presented values below the limits pointed out by FAO (Food and Agricultura Organization of the United Nations, FDA (Food and Drugs Administration and BZL (Federal Brazilian Legislation.

  12. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans. PMID:19839271

  13. Dioxin and phthalate uptake and assimilation by the green mussel Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the aqueous uptake and dietary assimilation (trophic transfer) of two endocrine disrupting compounds (dioxin and phathalic acid) in the green mussel Perna viridis were quantified. During short-term exposure period, dioxin rapidly sorbed onto phytoplankton and its accumulation was much higher than that of phthalate. The uptake of these two compounds by the mussels increased with increasing temperature and salinity (for dioxin only). The dietary assimilation of the two contaminants was rather modest (10–64% for dioxin and 20–47% for phthalate), and was greatly dependent on the food species and concentration. Interestingly, dietary assimilation increased with increasing diatom food concentration. Gut passage time was partially responsible for the variable dietary assimilation. Given the high dissolved uptake rate and the modest dietary assimilation, aqueous exposure was predicted to be the dominant bioaccumulation source for both dioxin and phthalate in the green mussels under most conditions. -- Capsule: Aqueous uptake was the predominant pathway for dioxin and phthalate accumulation in marine green mussels

  14. Radioprotection against DNA damage by an extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Sreekumar P; Kutty, Binoj C; Chatterji, Anil; Subrayan, Parameswaran P; Mishra, Kaushala Prasad

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the radioprotective ability of a hydrolysate prepared using an enzyme-acid hydrolysis method from the green mussel Perna viridis in terms of its ability to prevent radiation-induced damage in plasmid DNA, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and DNA damage in mice lymphocytes. The mussel hydrolysate (MH) present during irradiation showed significant protection from gamma-radiation-induced strand breaks in plasmid DNA as evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Viability studies by trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay showed that preincubation of mice splenic lymphocytes with MH protected them from gamma-radiation-mediated killing. Moreover, the presence of MH during irradiation of isolated mice lymphocytes significantly decreased the DNA damage, as measured by comet assay. Measurement of intracellular ROS by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence revealed that the presence of MH effectively reduced the ROS generated in lymphocytes by both chemical method and gamma-irradiation. Prevention of DNA damage both in plasmid and lymphocytes and cell death in lymphocytes appears correlated with reduction of oxidatively generated free radicals. It is concluded that protection against radiation-induced cell death and DNA damage by MH was attributable to reduction of reactive free radical species generated by gamma-radiation. PMID:18197824

  15. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis from shell-fish markets of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuphanunt M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis, the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24 and Samut Prakan (n = 32 a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels’ cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels’ population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6% than in Bangkok market (8.3%. These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  16. Sequencing and Analysis of a Genomic Fragment Provide an Insight into the Dunaliella viridis Genomic Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming SUN; Yuan-Ping TANG; Xiang-Zong MENG; Wen-Wen ZHANG; Shan LI; Zhi-Rui DENG; Zheng-Kai XU; Ren-Tao SONG

    2006-01-01

    Dunaliella is a genus of wall-less unicellular eukaryotic green alga. Its exceptional resistances to salt and various other stresses have made it an ideal model for stress tolerance study. However, very little is known about its genome and genomic sequences. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed a 29,268 bp genomic fragment from Dunaliella viridis. The fragment showed low sequence homology to the GenBank database. At the nucleotide level, only a segment with significant sequence homology to 18S rRNA was found. The fragment contained six putative genes, but only one gene showed significant homology at the protein level to GenBank database. The average GC content of this sequence was 51.1%, which was much lower than that of close related green algae Chlamydomonas (65.7%). Significant segmental duplications were found within this fragment. The duplicated sequences accounted for about 35.7% of the entire region. Large amounts of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) were found, with strong bias towards (AC)n type (76%). Analysis of other Dunaliella genomic sequences in the GenBank database (total 25,749 bp) was in agreement with these findings. These sequence features made it difficult to sequence Dunaliella genomic sequences. Further investigation should be made to reveal the biological significance of these unique sequence features.

  17. Sequencing and analysis of a genomic fragment provide an insight into the Dunaliella viridis genomic sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ming; Tang, Yuan-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Zong; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Li, Shan; Deng, Zhi-Rui; Xu, Zheng-Kai; Song, Ren-Tao

    2006-11-01

    Dunaliella is a genus of wall-less unicellular eukaryotic green alga. Its exceptional resistances to salt and various other stresses have made it an ideal model for stress tolerance study. However, very little is known about its genome and genomic sequences. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed a 29,268 bp genomic fragment from Dunaliella viridis. The fragment showed low sequence homology to the GenBank database. At the nucleotide level, only a segment with significant sequence homology to 18S rRNA was found. The fragment contained six putative genes, but only one gene showed significant homology at the protein level to GenBank database. The average GC content of this sequence was 51.1%, which was much lower than that of close related green algae Chlamydomonas (65.7%). Significant segmental duplications were found within this fragment. The duplicated sequences accounted for about 35.7% of the entire region. Large amounts of simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) were found, with strong bias towards (AC)(n) type (76%). Analysis of other Dunaliella genomic sequences in the GenBank database (total 25,749 bp) was in agreement with these findings. These sequence features made it difficult to sequence Dunaliella genomic sequences. Further investigation should be made to reveal the biological significance of these unique sequence features. PMID:17091199

  18. Effect of cadmium on cellular viability in two species of microalgae (Scenedesmus sp. and Dunaliella viridis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, Letty Beatriz C; Carruyo, Ingrid M; Montiel, Xiomara M; Morales, Carolina B; de Soto, Patricia Moreno

    2009-07-01

    We determined the effect of several concentrations of cadmium (0, 5, 10, and 20 microg/l) on cellular viability in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and Dunaliella viridis, by measuring growth at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h and pigment production at 10 days. Algae were obtained from the Nonvascular Plant Laboratory collection, in the Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, Universidad del Zulia, Venezuela. Growth was measured by cellular counting, while pigment content was evaluated using conventional spectrophotometric techniques. Growth of both species decreased in the exposed cultures comparing with the control, but its behavior was similar, because in both control and exposed cultures, its was observed an adaptive phase in the first hours, as well as a growth phase after 72 h. Cadmium concentrations above 10 microg/l produced an adverse effect on pigment production, depending on the concentration and/or exhibition time. However, even though cadmium inhibited growth and pigment production, levels of both parameters indicated cellular viability, demonstrating the adaptability of the algae cultures when they were exposed to the metal. PMID:19172231

  19. Phytolith analysis for differentiating between foxtail millet (Setaria italica and green foxtail (Setaria viridis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica is one of the oldest domesticated cereal crops in Eurasia, but identifying foxtail millets, especially in charred grains, and differentiating it from its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis, in the archaeobotanical remains, is still problematic. Phytolithic analysis provides a meaningful method for identifying this important crop. In this paper, the silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from inflorescence bracts in 16 modern plants of foxtail millet and green foxtail from China and Europe are examined using light microscopy with phase-contrast and a microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that the silicon structure of ΩIII from upper lemmas and paleas in foxtail millet and green foxtail can be correspondingly divided into two groups. The size of ΩIII type phytolith of foxtail millet is bigger than that from green foxtail. Discriminant function analysis reveals that 78.4% of data on foxtail millet and 76.9% of data on green foxtail are correctly classified. This means certain morphotypes of phytoliths are relatively reliable tools for distinguishing foxtail millet from green foxtail. Our results also revealed that the husk phytolith morphologies of foxtail millets from China and Eastern Europe are markedly different from those from Western Europe. Our research gives a meaningful method of separating foxtail millet and green foxtail. The implications of these findings for understanding the history of foxtail millet domestication and cultivation in ancient civilizations are significant.

  20. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Placental Growth Factor Heterodimer Levels in Preterm Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procianoy, Renato S; Hentges, Cláudia R; Silveira, Rita C

    2016-04-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is associated with changes in pulmonary angiogenesis. However, the role of the vascular endothelial growth factor/placental growth factor (VEGF/PlGF) heterodimer, an antiangiogenic factor, remains unknown in this disease. Objective To compare VEGF/PlGF levels in preterm infants with and without BPD. Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. Preterm neonates with birth weight institutions after 72 hours of life; death before blood collection; presence of major congenital malformations, inborn errors of metabolism, and early sepsis; and mothers with multiple pregnancies, TORCH infections, HIV infection, or autoimmune diseases. BPD was defined as the need for oxygen therapy for a period equal to or greater than 28 days, accompanied by radiographic changes compatible with the disease. Blood was collected from neonates in the first 72 hours of life. VEGF/PlGF levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The chi-square test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test, analysis of variance, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis. Variables found to be significant in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis. Results Seventy-three patients were included (19 with BPD, 43 without BPD, and 11 neonates who died in the first 28 days of life), with a mean (SD) gestational age of 30.32 (2.88) weeks and birth weight of 1,288 (462) g. Median VEGF/PlGF levels were higher in the groups with BPD and death in the first 28 days of life than in the group without BPD (16.46 [IQR, 12.19-44.57] and 20.64 [IQR, 13.39-50.22], respectively, vs. 9.14 [IQR, 0.02-20.64] pg/mL], p < 0.001). Higher VEGF/P1GF levels remained associated with BPD and death in the first 28 days of life in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Higher plasma VEGF/PlGF levels were found in preterm neonates with BPD and in those who died in the first 28 days of life, suggesting an

  1. Atomic Simulation of Complex DNA DSBs and the Interactions with the Ku70/80 Heterodimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) usually contain modified bases such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and thymine glycol, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, 2-deoxyribonolactone, or single-strand breaks (SSBs). The presence of such lesions in close proximity to the DSB terminus makes the DNA nicks more difficult to repair and rejoin than endogenously induced simple DSBs, and as such a major determinant of the biological effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation as encountered in space travel. In this study we conducted molecular dynamics simulations on a series of DNA duplexes with various complex lesions of 8-oxoG and AP sites, in an effort to investigate the effects of such lesions to the structural integrity and stability of DNA after insulted by IR. We also simulated the interaction of such complex DSBs with the Ku70/80 heterodimer, the first protein in mammalian cells to embark the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair pathway. The results indicate, compared to DNA with simple DSBs, the complex lesions can enhance the hydrogen bonds opening rate at the DNA terminus, and increase the mobility of the whole duplex, thus they present more deleterious effects to the genome integrity if not captured and repaired promptly in cells. Simulations also demonstrate the binding of Ku drastically reduces structural disruption and flexibility caused by the complex lesions, and the interactions of Ku with complex DSBs have a different potential energy landscape from the bound structure with simple DSB. In all complex DSBs systems, the binding of DSB terminus with Ku70 is softened while the binding of the middle duplex with Ku80 is tightened. This energy shift may help the Ku protein to secure at the DSB terminus for a longer time, so that other end processing factors or repair pathways can proceed at the lesions before NHEJ repair process starts. These atomic simulations may provide valuable new insight into the

  2. Inter-population thermal variability and physiological response in the intertidal fish Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae Variabilidad térmica intrapoblacional y respuesta fisiológica en el pez intermareal Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ M PULGAR

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining habitat conditions that generate individual physiological variability represents key basic knowledge to understand the direction of animal's responses to habitat change. The coastal fish Scartichthys viridis inhabits low intertidal pools along the Chilean coast. Because seawater in the low intertidal is renewed during every tidal cycle, this zone is characterized by a low thermal variation and abundant food within and between localities. We evaluated whether seawater thermal conditions and food availability of low intertidal pools registered in three localities of Chilean coast are sufficient to generate physiological and energetic differences in individuals of S. viridis captured from three geographic separate populations spanning approximately 1,200 km. Southern fishes acclimatized to 25 °C showed higher metabolic rates than those from other localities and thermal treatments. On the other hand, southern fishes in natural conditions showed higher condition factor than northern fishes. This evidence is sufficient to indicate that slight latitudinal differences in tidepool seawater temperature associated to differential food availability induced an energetic constraint in this species. Moreover, southern population of S. viridis may suffer important effects on energetic allocation if seawater temperature increases slightly, with repercussions on its geographic distribution in southern Pacific OceanDeterminar las condiciones del ambiente que generan variabilidad fisiológica, representa un conocimiento básico para comprender el sentido de la respuesta de los animales a los cambios en su habitat. El pez costero Scartichthys viridis habita las pozas bajas del intermareal a lo largo de la costa chilena. Debido a que el agua de mar se renueva en cada ciclo de marea en las pozas bajas, esta zona está caracterizada por una baja variación térmica y abundante alimento entre localidades. Nosotros evaluamos si las condiciones térmicas y la

  3. Correlation of paramagnetic states and molecular structure in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers: The symmetry of the primary electron donor in Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The orientation of the principal axes of the primary electron donor triplet state measured in single crystals of photosynthetic reaction centers is compared to the x-ray structures of the bacteria Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides R-26 and Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis. The primary donor of Rps. viridis is significantly different from that of Rb. sphaeroides. The measured directions of the axes indicate that triplet excitation is almost completely localized on the L-subunit half of the dimer in Rps. viridis but is more symmetrically distributed on the dimeric donor in Rb. sphaeroides R-26. The large reduction of the zero field splitting parameters relative to monomeric bacteriochlorophyll triplet in vitro suggests significant participation of asymmetrical charge transfer electronic configurations in the special pair triplet state of both organisms

  4. Potent activation of dopamine D3/D2 heterodimers by the antiparkinsonian agents, S32504, pramipexole and ropinirole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Roberto; Scarselli, Marco; Novi, Francesca; Millan, Mark J; Corsini, Giovanni U

    2003-11-01

    Recombinant, human dopamine D3 and D2 receptors form functional heterodimers upon co-expression in COS-7 cells. Herein, actions of the antiparkinsonian agents, S32504, ropinirole and pramipexole, at D3/D2L heterodimers were compared to their effects at the respective monomers and at split, chimeric D3trunk/D2tail and D2trunk/D3tail receptors: the trunk incorporated transmembrane domains (TDs) I-V and the tail TDs VI and VII. In binding assays with the antagonist [3H]nemonapride, all agonists were potent ligands of D3 receptors showing, respectively, 100-, 18- and 56-fold lower affinity at D2L receptors, mimicking the selective D3 receptor antagonist, S33084 (100-fold). At D3trunk/D2tail receptors, except for ropinirole, all drugs showed lower affinities than at D3 sites, whereas for D2trunk/D3tail receptors, affinities of all drugs were higher than at D2L sites. The proportion of high affinity binding sites recognized by S32504, pramipexole and ropinirole in membranes derived from cells co-expressing D3 and D2L sites was higher than in an equivalent mixture of membranes from cells expressing D3 or D2L sites, consistent with the promotion of heterodimer formation. In contrast, the percentage of high and low affinity sites (biphasic isotherms) recognized by S33084 was identical. Functional actions were determined by co-transfection of a chimeric adenylyl cyclase (AC)-V/VI insensitive to D3 receptors. Accordingly, D3 receptor-transfected cells were irresponsive whereas, in D2L receptor-transfected cells, agonists suppressed forskolin-stimulated cAMP production with modest potencies. In cells co-transfected with D3 and D2L receptors, S32504, ropinirole and pramipexole potently suppressed AC-V/VI with EC50s 33-, 19- and 11-fold lower than at D2L receptors, respectively. S32504 also suppressed AC-V/VI activity at split D3trunk/D2tail and D2trunk/D3tail chimeras transfected into COS-7 cells. In conclusion, antiparkinson agents behave as potent agonists at D3/D2

  5. Analysis of heterodimer formation by Xklp3A/B, a newly cloned kinesin-II from Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    De Marco, Valeria; Burkhard, Peter; Le Bot, Nathalie; Vernos, Isabelle; Hoenger, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    kinesin-II motor proteins are composed of two different kinesin-like motor proteins and one cargo binding subunit. Here we report the cloning of a new member of the kinesin-II superfamily, Xklp3A from Xenopus laevis, which forms a heterodimeric complex with Xklp3B. The heterodimer formation properties between Xklp3A and B have been tested in vitro using reticulocyte lysate expression and immunoprecipitation. To this end we produced a series of Xklp3A and B constructs of varying length and tes...

  6. Mapping of a Microbial Protein Domain Involved in Binding and Activation of the TLR2/TLR1 Heterodimer 1

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Shuang; Hosur, Kavita B.; Lu, Shanyun; Nawar, Hesham F.; Weber, Benjamin R.; Tapping, Richard I.; Terry D Connell; Hajishengallis, George

    2009-01-01

    LT-IIb-B5, a doughnut-shaped oligomeric protein from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, is known to activate the TLR2/TLR1 heterodimer (TLR2/1). We investigated the molecular basis of the LT-IIb-B5 interaction with TLR2/1 in order to define the structure-function relationship of LT-IIb-B5 and, moreover, to gain an insight into how TLR2/1 recognizes large, non-acylated protein ligands that cannot fit within its lipid-binding pockets, as previously shown for the Pam3CSK4 lipopeptide. We first id...

  7. Self-assembly of Hydrazide-based Heterodimers Driven by Hydrogen Bonding and Donor-Acceptor Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG,Dai-Jun; WANG,Peng; LI,Xiao-Qiang; LI,Zhan-Ting

    2006-01-01

    A new series of hydrogen bonding-driven heterodimers have been self-assembled in chloroform from hydrazide-based monomers. Additional intermolecular donor-acceptor interaction between the electron-rich bis(p-phenylene)-34-crown-10 unit and the electron-deficient naphthalene diimide unit has been utilized to increase the stability of the dimmers, and pronounced cooperativity of the two discrete non-covalent forces to stabilize the dimer has been revealed by the quantitative 1H (2D) NMR and UV-Vis experiments.

  8. Characterization of small HSPs from Anemonia viridis reveals insights into molecular evolution of alpha crystallin genes among cnidarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Nicosia

    Full Text Available Gene family encoding small Heat-Shock Proteins (sHSPs containing α-crystallin domain are found both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of their evolution. In this study, two small HSP genes termed AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, both organized in one intron and two exons, were characterised in the Mediterranean snakelocks anemone Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Hydra magnipapillata and Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of α-crystallin gene family among cnidarians. Most of the H. magnipapillata sHSP genes share the same gene organization described for AvHSP28.6 and AvHSP27, differing from the sHSP genes of N. vectensis which mainly show an intronless architecture. The different genomic organization of sHSPs, the phylogenetic analyses based on protein sequences, and the relationships among Cnidarians, suggest that the A.viridis sHSPs represent the common ancestor from which H. magnipapillata genes directly evolved through segmental genome duplication. Additionally retroposition events may be considered responsible for the divergence of sHSP genes of N. vectensis from A. viridis. Analyses of transcriptional expression profile showed that AvHSP28.6 was constitutively expressed among different tissues from both ectodermal and endodermal layers of the adult sea anemones, under normal physiological conditions and also under different stress condition. Specifically, we profiled the transcriptional activation of AvHSP28.6 after challenges with different abiotic/biotic stresses showing induction by extreme temperatures, heavy metals exposure and immune stimulation. Conversely, no AvHSP27 transcript was detected in such dissected tissues, in adult whole body cDNA library or under stress conditions. Hence, the involvement of AvHSP28.6 gene in the sea anemone defensome is strongly suggested.

  9. The cloning and characterization of two ammonium transporters in the salt-resistant green alga, Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting; Gao, Qiang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-10-01

    Ammonium (NH(4) (+)) transport is a key process in nitrogen metabolism. To elucidate the role of ammonium transporters in the nitrogen consumption of the salt-resistant green alga, Dunaliella viridis, two ammonium transporter genes, DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2, were isolated from cDNA libraries of D. viridis. DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 share only 40% amino acid identity, indicating that they have highly divergent coding sequences. Functional complementation in a yeast mutant defective in ammonium uptake indicated that both DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 were functional ammonium transporters. Quantitative RT-PCR showed similar expression patterns, but different transcript abundance levels, for DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 under different nitrogen conditions. Both were induced at low nitrogen and inhibited at high nitrogen concentrations, especially when NH(4) (+) was the nitrogen source. At the transcriptional level, DvAMT1;1 was diurnally regulated, while DvAMT1;2 was not. In addition, under NaCl concentrations that ranged from 0.5 to 3 M, DvAMT1;1 was down-regulated at the higher salt conditions; conversely, DvAMT1;2 maintained a relatively low, but stable, transcript abundance. The observed differences in transcriptional regulation of DvAMT1;1 and DvAMT1;2 are indicative of their diverse physiological functions in D. viridis. PMID:21153924

  10. Biomonitoring of Mercury Contamination at Petroleum Production Platforms in the Gulf of Thailand using Transplanted Green Mussel, Perna viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Chatree Ritthong; Narongsak Puanglarp

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of mercury contamination was conducted using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis). Mussels were first exposed to HgCl2 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 nmol/L for 8 weeks at laboratory conditions. The result showed that Hg level in the water decreased rapidly, while Hg in mussels increased coincidentally with the applied doses. After 8 weeks the Hg, levels in tissue were a thousand-fold higher than that in the water. Mussels were then transplanted to 3 petroleum production platforms...

  11. Comportamiento agresivo intraespecífico e interespecífico de Anemonia viridis en el intermareal

    OpenAIRE

    Fàbregas Gumara, Txell

    2014-01-01

    [ES] No se ha podido observar en Anemonia viridis una distribución espacial similar a la descrita por Francis (1988) para otras especies de anémonas, posiblemente por la estrechez de zona intermareal en Canarias. Por otra parte, la agresividad parece estar directamente asociada con el tamaño del individuo, pero ésta se dio siempre entre individuos no clonales. Se demuestra que la coloración es un factor relacionado con su éxito agresivo.

  12. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of cytoskeletal elements using indirect immunofluorescence techniques. Orientations of cortical microtubules differed from those of the microfilaments throughout early development. Filaments on the inner walls of cells seen under the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) were cytoskeletal-like in their orientation and form. Immunogold labelling techniques were performed in an attempt to confirm their identity. Staining with safranin and alcian blue allowed an anatomical description of wall development in fibre and parenchyma cells. These studies were coupled with observations using polarizing optics where cellulose microfibril orientations of the primary and secondary wall layers were established. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to describe microfibril orientations seen on the inner wall of developing and maturing fibre and parenchyma cells. Chemical extraction of wall matrix materials was necessary for maturing tissue

  13. Development of fibre and parenchyma cells in the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, E

    2000-02-01

    The development of the shoot apex and the ontogeny of fibre and parenchyma cells in elongating shoots of the bamboo Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens (Carr.) Riv. and Riv., seen under the light microscope is described. Fibre cells differentiated from cells of the procambium, whilst the parenchyma cells differentiated from cells of the primary thickening meristem which surround the procambium strands. Three stages of early fibre and parenchyma cell development were identified and these are referred to in subsequent studies of cell wall development. The cytology of developing internodal fibre and parenchyma cells seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) is described. There were few ultrastructural features to distinguish the two cell types. Thiery's PATAg test was performed to identify organelles which may be associated with the synthesis of polysaccharides destined for the cell wall. The ultrastructural results are discussed in terms of the process of cell wall deposition. Observations were made of cytoskeletal elements using indirect immunofluorescence techniques. Orientations of cortical microtubules differed from those of the microfilaments throughout early development. Filaments on the inner walls of cells seen under the conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) were cytoskeletal-like in their orientation and form. Immunogold labelling techniques were performed in an attempt to confirm their identity. Staining with safranin and alcian blue allowed an anatomical description of wall development in fibre and parenchyma cells. These studies were coupled with observations using polarizing optics where cellulose microfibril orientations of the primary and secondary wall layers were established. The field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to describe microfibril orientations seen on the inner wall of developing and maturing fibre and parenchyma cells. Chemical extraction of wall matrix materials was necessary for maturing

  14. Calculated coupling of electron and proton transfer in the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodopseudomonas viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, C R; Michel, H; Honig, B; Gunner, M R

    1996-06-01

    Based on new Rhodopseudomonas (Rp.) viridis reaction center (RC) coordinates with a reliable structure of the secondary acceptor quinone (QB) site, a continuum dielectric model and finite difference technique have been used to identify clusters of electrostatically interacting ionizable residues. Twenty-three residues within a distance of 25 A from QB (QB cluster) have been shown to be strongly electrostatically coupled to QB, either directly or indirectly. An analogous cluster of 24 residues is found to interact with QA (QA cluster). Both clusters extend to the cytoplasmic surface in at least two directions. However, the QB cluster differs from the QA cluster in that it has a surplus of acidic residues, more strong electrostatic interactions, is less solvated, and experiences a strong positive electrostatic field arising from the polypeptide backbone. Consequently, upon reduction of QA or QB, it is the QB cluster, and not the QA cluster, which is responsible for substoichiometric proton uptake at neutral pH. The bulk of the changes in the QB cluster are calculated to be due to the protonation of a tightly coupled cluster of the three Glu residues (L212, H177, and M234) within the QB cluster. If the lifetime of the doubly reduced state QB2- is long enough, Asp M43 and Ser L223 are predicted to also become protonated. The calculated complex titration behavior of the strongly interacting residues of the QB cluster and the resulting electrostatic response to electron transfer may be a common feature in proton-transferring membrane protein complexes. PMID:8744288

  15. Behavioural and neurotoxic effects of ayahuasca infusion (Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis) in female Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pic-Taylor, Aline; da Motta, Luciana Gueiros; de Morais, Juliana Alves; Junior, Willian Melo; Santos, Alana de Fátima Andrade; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Mortari, Marcia Renata; von Zuben, Marcus Vinicius; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2015-09-01

    Ayahuasca, a psychoactive beverage used by indigenous and religious groups, is generally prepared by the coction of Psychotria viridis and Banisteriopsis caapi plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and β-carboline alkaloids, respectively. To investigate the acute toxicity of ayahuasca, the infusion was administered by gavage to female Wistar rats at doses of 30X and 50X the dose taken during a religious ritual, and the animals observed for 14 days. Behavioural functions were investigated one hour after dosing at 15X and 30X using the open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests. Neuronal activation (c-fos marked neurons) and toxicity (Fluoro-Jade B and Nissl/Cresyl staining) were investigated in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN), amygdaloid nucleus, and hippocampal formation brain areas of rats treated with a 30X ayahuasca dose. The actual lethal oral dose in female Wistar rats could not be determined in this study, but was shown to be higher than the 50X (which corresponds to 15.1mg/kg bw DMT). The ayahuasca and fluoxetine treated groups showed a significant decrease in locomotion in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests compared to controls. In the forced swimming test, ayahuasca treated animals swam more than controls, a behaviour that was not significant in the fluoxetine group. Treated animals showed higher neuronal activation in all brain areas involved in serotoninergic neurotransmission. Although this led to some brain injury, no permanent damage was detected. These results suggest that ayahuasca has antidepressant properties in Wistar female at high doses, an effect that should be further investigated. PMID:26049017

  16. Optimizing deacetylation process for chitosan production from green mussel (perna viridis) shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danarto, Y. C.; Distantina, Sperisa

    2016-02-01

    The green mussel (perna viridis) shell waste could be utilized for chitosan production because it contained chitin. Chitin can be derived into chitosan through the deacetylation process. Chitosan is a polysaccharides polymer that is readily soluble in dilute acid solution and easily modified into other useful compounds. This research aimed to study the chitosan production from green mussel shells. This experiment had the following stages, deproteinization process aimed to eliminate the protein content using 1N NaOH solution, demineralization process aimed to remove minerals in green mussel shells as CaCO3 using 1 N HCl solution and decolorization process aimed to eliminate the color pigments and other impurities using ethanol solvent. All process above resulted chitin. Furthermore, chemical modification of chitin into chitosan by deacetylation process. This stage was very important because it greatly affected the chitosan properties. This research studied two different treatment for deacetylation process. The first treatment was the deacetylation process using concentrated NaOH solution (50% w), at high temperatures (90 - 100 °C) for 2 hours extraction, whilw the second treatment was deacetylation process using a low concentration of NaOH solution (15% w), at room temperature for 24 hours. The results showed that deproteinization, demineralization, and decolorizaton was capable of removing protein, mineral, and pigment. This experiment yield chitin 41.6 %wt. Chitosan yield from second treatment was 39.5%w and it was better than first treatment. Chitosan from first treatment had 79.8% degree of deacetylation and 16.5 kDa molecular weight. It was better than first treatment.

  17. Cloning and characterization of two novel chloroplastic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Meng, Xiangzong; Fan, Qianlan; Sun, Xiaoliang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2009-09-01

    Dunaliella, a unicellular green alga, has the unusual ability to survive dramatic osmotic stress by accumulating high concentrations of intracellular glycerol as a compatible solute. The chloroplastic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) has been considered to be the key enzyme that produces glycerol for osmoregulation in Dunaliella. In this study, we cloned the two most prominent GPDH cDNAs (DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2) from Dunaliella viridis, which encode two polypeptides of 695 and 701 amino acids, respectively. Unlike higher plant GPDHs, both proteins contained extra phosphoserine phosphatase (SerB) domains at their N-termini in addition to C-terminal GPDH domains. Such bi-domain GPDHs represent a novel type of GPDH and are found exclusively in the chlorophyte lineage. Transient expression of EGFP fusion proteins in tobacco leaf cells demonstrated that both DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 are localized in the chloroplast. Overexpression of DvGPDH1 or DvGPDH2 could complement a yeast GPDH mutant (gpd1Delta), but not a yeast SerB mutant (ser2Delta). In vitro assays with purified DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 also showed apparent GPDH activity for both, but no SerB activity was detected. Surprisingly, unlike chloroplastic GPDHs from plants, DvGPDH1 and DvGPDH2 could utilize both NADH and NADPH as coenzymes and exhibited significantly higher GPDH activities when NADH was used as the coenzyme. Q-PCR analysis revealed that both genes exhibited transient transcriptional induction of gene expression upon hypersalinity shock, followed by a negative feedback of gene expression. These results shed light on the regulation of glycerol synthesis during salt stress in Dunaliella. PMID:19551475

  18. Differential distribution of lipids in epidermis, gastrodermis and hosted Symbiodinium in the sea anemone Anemonia viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Johana; Massi, Lionel; Mehiri, Mohamed; Boutoute, Marc; Mayzaud, Patrick; Capron, Laure; Sabourault, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis mainly relies on nutrient recycling, thus providing both partners with a competitive advantage in nutrient-poor waters. Essential processes related to lipid metabolism can be influenced by various factors, including hyperthermal stress. This can affect the lipid content and distribution in both partners, while contributing to symbiosis disruption and bleaching. In order to gain further insight into the role and distribution of lipids in the cnidarian metabolism, we investigated the lipid composition of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its photosynthetic dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium). We compared the lipid content and fatty acid profiles of the host cellular layers, non-symbiotic epidermal and symbiont-containing gastrodermal cells, and those of Symbiodinium, in a mass spectrometry-based assessment. Lipids were more concentrated in Symbiodinium cells, and the lipid class distribution was dominated by polar lipids in all tissues. The fatty acid distribution between host cell layers and Symbiodinium cells suggested potential lipid transfers between the partners. The lipid composition and distribution was modified during short-term hyperthermal stress, mainly in Symbiodinium cells and gastrodermis. Exposure to elevated temperature rapidly caused a decrease in polar lipid C18 unsaturated fatty acids and a strong and rapid decrease in the abundance of polar lipid fatty acids relative to sterols. These lipid indicators could therefore be used as sensitive biomarkers to assess the physiology of symbiotic cnidarians, especially the effect of thermal stress at the onset of cnidarian bleaching. Overall, the findings of this study provide some insight on key lipids that may regulate maintenance of the symbiotic interaction. PMID:26478191

  19. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. helped to define the origin of green pythons (Morelia viridis) confiscated in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Gastón; Pantchev, Nikola; Herrmann, Daland C; Vrhovec, Majda Globokar; Öfner, Sabine; Conraths, Franz J; Schares, Gereon

    2014-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. represent apicomplexan parasites. They usually have a heteroxenous life cycle. Around 200 species have been described, affecting a wide range of animals worldwide, including reptiles. In recent years, large numbers of reptiles have been imported into Europe as pets and, as a consequence, animal welfare and species protection issues emerged. A sample of pooled feces from four confiscated green pythons (Morelia viridis) containing Sarcocystis spp. sporocysts was investigated. These snakes were imported for the pet trade and declared as being captive-bred. Full length 18S rRNA genes were amplified, cloned into plasmids and sequenced. Two different Sarcocystis spp. sequences were identified and registered as Sarcocystis sp. from M. viridis in GenBank. Both showed a 95-97% sequence identity with the 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis singaporensis. Phylogenetic analysis positioned these sequences together with other Sarcocystis spp. from snakes and rodents as definitive and intermediate hosts (IH), respectively. Sequence data and also the results of clinical and parasitological examinations suggest that the snakes were definitive hosts for Sarcocystis spp. that circulate in wild IH. Thus, it seems unlikely that the infected snakes had been legally bred. Our research shows that information on the infection of snakes with Sarcocystis spp. may be used to assess compliance with regulations on the trade with wildlife species. PMID:24476633

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies on the reaction center–light-harvesting 1 core complex from Rhodopseudomonas viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction center–light-harvesting 1 core complex from R. viridis was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 8.0 Å resolution. The reaction center–light-harvesting 1 (RC–LH1) core complex is the photosynthetic apparatus in the membrane of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas viridis. The RC is surrounded by an LH1 complex that is constituted of oligomers of three types of apoproteins (α, β and γ chains) with associated bacteriochlorophyll bs and carotenoid. It has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A promising crystal diffracted to beyond 8.0 Å resolution. It belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 141.4, b = 136.9, c = 185.3 Å, α = 104.6, β = 94.0, γ = 110.7°. A Patterson function calculated using data between 15.0 and 8.0 Å resolution suggested that the LH1 complex is distributed with quasi-16-fold rotational symmetry around the RC

  1. Udbredelsen af den invasive børsteorm, Marenzelleria viridis, langs danske kyster – tegn på økologiske konsekvenser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Christoffersen, Kenn

    andre søskendearter, da sidstnævnte fortrækker enten lavere salinitet eller lavere temperatur end typisk for de danske kyster. Der blev observerede nogle svage negative sammenhæng mellem Marenzelleria viridis og de naturligt forekommende arter, såsom Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor, Corophium spp. og...

  2. A novel EID family member, EID-3, inhibits differentiation and forms a homodimer or heterodimer with EID-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EID family members, i.e., E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation-1 (EID-1) and EID-1-like inhibitor of differentiation-2 (EID-2), were identified as negative regulators of cellular differentiation. EID-1 seems to inhibit differentiation by blocking histone acetyltransferase activity and EID-2 possibly inhibits differentiation through binding to class I histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we report a novel inhibitor of differentiation exhibiting homology with EID-2 termed EID-3 (EID-2-like inhibitor of differentiation-3). Like EID-2, EID-3 inhibited MyoD- and GRα-dependent transcription and blocked muscle differentiation in cultured cells by binding to class I HDACs. Unlike that of EID-2, the C-terminus, but not the N-terminus, of EID-3 was required for nuclear localization. EID-3 formed a homodimer or heterodimer with EID-2. These results suggest that EID-3 inhibits differentiation by blocking transcription as a complex in cells

  3. Computer modeling of mutant P32T homo- and heterodimers of human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase hITPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the dimer enzyme human inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (hITPA) is considered to identify the enzyme conformation changes causing the inactivation effect of the P32T mutation. A nanosecond molecular dynamics (MD) analysis is performed; mean square deviations are calculated of the structures of the wild-type and mutant homodimers and the heterodimer. A 3 ns modeling shows a greater displacement of atoms in mutant protomers. During MD modeling, the strongest changes are observed in the loop between α2 and β2 (res. 28-33), which includes P32T, the loop between β5 and β6, and the C-terminal amino acid residues. The loop between α2 and β2 has two conformations characterized by different positions of the Phe31 aromatic group. The distance between Cys33 (Cα) and Phe31 (Cz) for wild-type and mutant protomers was ~ 9 and 5.5 Å, respectively. These conformations were stable.

  4. Leaf oxygen and Carbon Isotopic Signatures Reflect Drought Resistance and Water Use Efficiency in the C4 Grass, Setaria viridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, P.; Cousins, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Low water availability is a major constraint in crop production, especially as agriculture is pushed to marginal lands. Therefore, improving drought resistance such as increasing water use efficiency (WUE) through plant breeding is needed to expand the range of soil water availability adequate for food production. With the goal of finding the genomic basis for WUE in C4 grasses, Setaria viridis makes an ideal model species because of its small size, short lifespan, and sequenced genome. Also it is part of the panicoid grass clade, which is one of the most important clades for food and biofuel production. In plant breeding programs, large numbers of genotypes must be quickly screened for drought resistance traits, but there is no well-defined method of screening for WUE in C4 grasses. However, bulk leaf oxygen (Δ18OBL) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic signatures have shown potential as recorders of transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs), and combined with biomass production potentially serve as a measure of WUE. Values of Δ18OBL record differences in transpiration rate because leaf water becomes more enriched as transpiration rate decreases, and leaf tissue records the isotopic composition of leaf water in which it is synthesized. Additionally, in C4 plants δ13C values decrease as gs decreases but the change in δ13C in response to gs may not be adequate to tease apart differences in WUE. In this study, we grew S. viridis plants under well-watered and water-limited conditions to determine if Δ18OBL and δ13C could be used as proxies for E and gs, and be used to screen S. viridis for differences in WUE in breeding programs. The Δ18OBL and δ13C were significantly different between well-watered and water-limited plants and correlated with each other and with E, gs, and instantaneous water use efficiency (Anet/gs). Therefore, Δ18OBL and δ13C can be useful proxies to screen genotypes for drought resistance by recording differences in E, gs, and WUE

  5. Influence of ph on uptake and bioaccumulation of radiocesium (/sup 137/Cs) in the green mussels perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer experiment was conducted to assess the influence of pH on uptake rate and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs from dissolved phase in soft parts of green mussels (Perna viridis) collected from Karachi Coast, under controlled laboratory condition. Green mussels of size 5-7 cm were subjected to radiocesium activity of 24 KBq L/sup -1/ under three pH levels i.e., 7.5, 8 and 8.5. The uptake of /sup 137/Cs was monitored for a period of seven days. The results showed that uptake and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs in mussels was dependent on pH levels. Higher bioaccumulation factors and uptake rates were found at pH 8. (author)

  6. Studies on zinc(II)-biosorption capability of a filamentous green algal species (mougeotia viridis) isolated from electroplating wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption capacity of zinc(II) by a filamentous green alga Mougeotia viridis, isolated from the wastewater discharged by electroplating industry was tested under laboratory conditions as a function of contact time, pH, and initial metal ion and biomass concentrations. Optimum pH value for zinc(II) biosorption was determined as 5.0. At 10 mg 1.1 zinc(II), the biosorption equilibrium with I g I-I algal biomass was reached in 10 min showing a relative efficiency of 59.24% metal removal. When the bio sorbent biomass was increased to 2 g I-I, the metal removal capacity was enhanced to 81.4%. At optimum conditions, zinc(II) uptake increased with the increase in initial metal ion concentration from 5-300 mg I-I. Langmuir isotherm model was found to be suitable for describing the biosorption of zinc(II) by Mougeotia viridis. The q/sub max/ obtained experimentally and theoretically calculated from the Langmuir isotherm model at the regression coefficient value of 0.9975, respectively, were 27.7 mg and 26.71 mg zinc(II) g-I algal biomass, at the initial metal concentration of 200 mg/sup i//sup -I/; In five repeated biosorption-desorption cycles, the zinc(II) desorption from the metal-loaded algal biomass remained around 99%. The observations reported in the present study indicate that the alga can be used as an efficient bio sorbent for the removal of zinc(II) from aqueous solution. (author)

  7. Lophotrochozoan neuroanatomy: An analysis of the brain and nervous system of Lineus viridis(Nemertea using different staining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loesel Rudi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The now thriving field of neurophylogeny that links the morphology of the nervous system to early evolutionary events relies heavily on detailed descriptions of the neuronal architecture of taxa under scrutiny. While recent accounts on the nervous system of a number of animal clades such as arthropods, annelids, and molluscs are abundant, in depth studies of the neuroanatomy of nemerteans are still wanting. In this study, we used different staining techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy to reveal the architecture of the nervous system of Lineus viridis with high anatomical resolution. Results In L. viridis, the peripheral nervous system comprises four distinct but interconnected nerve plexus. The central nervous system consists of a pair of medullary cords and a brain. The brain surrounds the proboscis and is subdivided into four voluminous lobes and a ring of commissural tracts. The brain is well developed and contains thousands of neurons. It does not reveal compartmentalized neuropils found in other animal groups with elaborate cerebral ganglia. Conclusions The detailed analysis of the nemertean nervous system presented in this study does not support any hypothesis on the phylogenetic position of Nemertea within Lophotrochozoa. Neuroanatomical characters that are described here are either common in other lophotrochozoan taxa or are seemingly restricted to nemerteans. Since detailed descriptions of the nervous system of adults in other nemertean species have not been available so far, this study may serve as a basis for future studies that might add data to the unsettled question of the nemertean ground pattern and the position of this taxon within the phylogenetic tree.

  8. Cobalt and manganese stress in the microalga Pavlova viridis (Prymnesiophyceae): Effects on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of marine environment has become an issue of major concern in recent years. Serious environmental pollution by heavy metals results from their increasing utilization in industrial processes and because most heavy metals are transported into the marine environment and accumulated without decomposition. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects on growth, pigments, lipid peroxidation, and some antioxidant enzyme activities of marine microalga Pavlova. viridis, in response to elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn), especially with regard to the involvement of antioxidative defences against heavy metal-induced oxidative stress. In response to Co2+, lipid peroxidation was enhanced compared to the control, as an indication of the oxidative damage caused by metal concentration assayed in the microalgal cells but not Mn2+. Exposure of P. viridis to the two metals caused changes in enzyme activities in a different manner, depending on the metal assayed: after Co2+ treatments, total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was irregular, although it was not significantly affected by Mn2+ exposure. Co2+ and Mn2+ stimulated the activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH), whereas, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed a remarkable increase in activity in response to Co2+ treatments and decreased gradually with Mn2+ concentration, up to 50 μmol/L, and then rose very rapidly, reaching to about 38.98% at 200 μmol/L Mn2+. These results suggest that an activation of some antioxidant enzymes was enhanced, to counteract the oxidative stress induced by the two metals at higher concentration.

  9. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    Full Text Available Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  10. Mapping of Quantitative Trait Locus (QTLs) that Contribute to Germination and Early Seedling Drought Tolerance in the Interspecific Cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Qie, Lufeng; Jia, Guanqing; Zhang, Wenying; Schnable, James; Shang, Zhonglin; Li, Wei; Liu, Binhui; Li, Mingzhe; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis) are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines deriv...

  11. Molecular identification of Dunaliella viridis Teod. strain MSV-1 utilizing rDNA ITS sequences and its growth responses to salinity and copper toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradshahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis, molecular studies provide additional information for establishing phylogenetic relationships among different species and strains of the genus Dunaliella. In the present study, based on neighbor- joining analysis of the nuclear rDNA ITS sequence, a novel strain of the green algae Dunaliella viridis was identified from Maharlu salt lake in Shiraz, Iran. The phylogenetic tree shows that the new strain is part of a clade containing several strains of D. viridis. The new strain was designated Dunaliella viridis MSV-1 and submitted to the GenBank under the accession number HQ864830. The optimum salinity for MSV-1 growth is between 1.0 to 1.5 M NaCl and does not turn red up to 4.5 M NaCl, confirming identity of the isolated strain. With respect to growth response to copper toxicity, increase in Cu2+ concentration from 1 to 30 µM, caused progressive increase in cell number ml-1 of culture over time, whereas reduction in cell number occurred at 100 and 200 µM Cu+2. Nano copper (colloidal copper with 40 nm dimensions showed less toxicity compared to the ionic form. Cell number ml-1 of culture did not change up to 200 µM nano copper but decreased at 500 µM. In conclusion, the analysis of the ITS sequence is a reliable basis for establishing evolutionary relationships among species and strains of the genus Dunaliella and due to rapid growth at 1.5 M NaCl and high cell density, D. viridis MSV-1 is a good candidate for biofuel production from microalgae.

  12. Molecular identification of Dunaliella viridis Teod. strain MSV-1 utilizing rDNA ITS sequences and its growth responses to salinity and copper toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Moradshahi; Hajar Zamani; Mansour Kharati-KoupaeI

    2012-01-01

    In addition to biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis, molecular studies provide additional information for establishing phylogenetic relationships among different species and strains of the genus Dunaliella. In the present study, based on neighbor- joining analysis of the nuclear rDNA ITS sequence, a novel strain of the green algae Dunaliella viridis was identified from Maharlu salt lake in Shiraz, Iran. The phylogenetic tree shows that the new strain is part of a clade contai...

  13. Different ways to die: cell death modes of the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis exposed to various environmental stresses are mediated by the caspase-like activity DEVDase

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Carlos; Capasso, Juan M.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Rivard, Christopher J.; Lucia, Scott; Breusegem, Sophia; Berl, Tomás; Segovia, María

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death is necessary for homeostasis in multicellular organisms and it is also widely recognized to occur in unicellular organisms. However, the mechanisms through which it occurs in unicells, and the enzymes involved within the final response is still the subject of heated debate. It is shown here that exposure of the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis to several environmental stresses, induced different cell death morphotypes, depending on the stimulus received. Senescen...

  14. A Pleiotropic Role for the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Small Heterodimer Partner in Lipid Homeostasis and Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Garruti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs comprise one of the most abundant classes of transcriptional regulators of metabolic diseases and have emerged as promising pharmaceutical targets. Small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2 is a unique orphan NR lacking a DNA-binding domain but contains a putative ligand-binding domain. SHP is a transcriptional regulator affecting multiple key biological functions and metabolic processes including cholesterol, bile acid, and fatty acid metabolism, as well as reproductive biology and glucose-energy homeostasis. About half of all mammalian NRs and several transcriptional coregulators can interact with SHP. The SHP-mediated repression of target transcription factors includes at least three mechanisms including direct interference with the C-terminal activation function 2 (AF2 coactivator domains of NRs, recruitment of corepressors, or direct interaction with the surface of NR/transcription factors. Future research must focus on synthetic ligands acting on SHP as a potential therapeutic target in a series of metabolic abnormalities. Current understanding about the pleiotropic role of SHP is examined in this paper, and principal metabolic aspects connected with SHP function will be also discussed.

  15. Mapping of quantitative trait locus (QTLs) that contribute to germination and early seedling drought tolerance in the interspecific cross Setaria italica×Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lufeng; Jia, Guanqing; Zhang, Wenying; Schnable, James; Shang, Zhonglin; Li, Wei; Liu, Binhui; Li, Mingzhe; Chai, Yang; Zhi, Hui; Diao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important breeding target for enhancing the yields of grain crop species in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Two species of Setaria, domesticated foxtail millet (S. italica) and its wild ancestor green foxtail (S. viridis) are becoming widely adopted as models for functional genomics studies in the Panicoid grasses. In this study, the genomic regions controlling germination and early seedling drought tolerance in Setaria were identified using 190 F7 lines derived from a cross between Yugu1, a S. italica cultivar developed in China, and a wild S. viridis genotype collected from Uzbekistan. Quantitative trait loci were identified which contribute to a number of traits including promptness index, radical root length, coleoptile length and lateral root number at germinating stage and seedling survival rate was characterized by the ability of desiccated seedlings to revive after rehydration. A genetic map with 128 SSR markers which spans 1293.9 cM with an average of 14 markers per linkage group of the 9 linkage groups was constructed. A total of eighteen QTLs were detected which included nine that explained over 10% of the phenotypic variance for a given trait. Both the wild green foxtail genotype and the foxtail millet cultivar contributed the favorite alleles for traits detected in this trial, indicating that wild Setaria viridis populations may serve as a reservoir for novel stress tolerance alleles which could be employed in foxtail millet breeding. PMID:25033201

  16. Cooperative Heterodimer Formation Between Per-Guadinylated and Carboxylated or Phosporylated Cyclodextrins in DMSO and DMSO-Water Studied by NMR Spectroscopy and Microcalorimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Yannakopoulou, Konstantina; Nounesis, George; Thanassoulas, Angelos; Fotiadou, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The anionic cyclodextrins (CDs), heptakis[6-(3-thiopropionate)-6-deoxy]-?-CD, heptakis[(6-(thioethanoate)-6-deoxy]-?-CD and partially phosphorylated 6-(aminoethylphosphate)-6-deoxy-?-CD as triethylammonium salts, bpsp.NHEt3, bpse.NHEt3 and bphos.NHEt3, respectively, interacted with the positively charged picrate salt of heptakis[6-(guanidino)-6-deoxy]-?-CD, bguan.picrate, to form heterodimers as shown by NMR spectroscopic and microcalorimetric (ITC) titrations in solution....

  17. GW4064, an Agonist of Farnesoid X Receptor, Represses CYP3A4 Expression in Human Hepatocytes by Inducing Small Heterodimer Partner Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shu; Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a regulator of bile acid and lipid homeostasis and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. The biologic function of FXR is mediated in part by a small heterodimer partner (SHP); ligand-activated FXR enhances SHP expression, and SHP in turn represses the activity of multiple transcription factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FXR activation on expression of the major drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. The ef...

  18. Ligand modulates the conversion of DNA-bound vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) homodimers into VDR-retinoid X receptor heterodimers.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheskis, B; Freedman, L P

    1994-01-01

    Protein dimerization facilitates cooperative, high-affinity interactions with DNA. Nuclear hormone receptors, for example, bind either as homodimers or as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXR) to half-site repeats that are stabilized by protein-protein interactions mediated by residues within both the DNA- and ligand-binding domains. In vivo, ligand binding among the subfamily of steroid receptors unmasks the nuclear localization and DNA-binding domains from a complex with auxiliary fa...

  19. Morphostasis in a novel eukaryote illuminates the evolutionary transition from phagotrophy to phototrophy: description of Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. (Euglenozoa, Euglenida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Aika

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Morphostasis of traits in different species is necessary for reconstructing the evolutionary history of complex characters. Studies that place these species into a molecular phylogenetic context test hypotheses about the transitional stages that link divergent character states. For instance, the transition from a phagotrophic mode of nutrition to a phototrophic lifestyle has occurred several times independently across the tree of eukaryotes; one of these events took place within the Euglenida, a large group of flagellates with diverse modes of nutrition. Phototrophic euglenids form a clade that is nested within lineages of phagotrophic euglenids and that originated through a secondary endosymbiosis with green algae. Although it is clear that phototrophic euglenids evolved from phagotrophic ancestors, the morphological disparity between species representing these different nutritional modes remains substantial. Results We cultivated a novel marine euglenid, Rapaza viridis n. gen. et sp. ("green grasper", and a green alga, Tetraselmis sp., from the same environment. Cells of R. viridis were comprehensively characterized with light microscopy, SEM, TEM, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of small subunit rDNA sequences. Ultrastructural and behavioral observations demonstrated that this isolate habitually consumes a specific strain of Tetraselmis prey cells and possesses a functional chloroplast that is homologous with other phototrophic euglenids. A novel feeding apparatus consisting of a reduced rod of microtubules facilitated this first and only example of mixotrophy among euglenids. R. viridis also possessed a robust photoreception apparatus, two flagella of unequal length, euglenoid movement, and a pellicle consisting of 16 strips and one (square-shaped whorl of posterior strip reduction. The molecular phylogenetic data demonstrated that R. viridis branches as the nearest sister lineage to phototrophic euglenids

  20. Urban secondary sewage: an alternative medium for the culture of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (10, 20, 30 and 40% of urban secondary sewage on the growth of Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae and Dunaliella viridis (Chlorophyceae was examined to verify the possibility of its use as an alternative culture medium for these species. Stocks and 700mL duplicate batch cultures were maintained under controlled laboratory conditions. 30% and 40% additions were the most efficient for the growth of both species. Statistical analysis of the adjusted growth (cell.mL-1 and biomass (µg chlorophyll-a.mL-1 curves performed using the Chi-square test (pFoi estudado o efeito das diferentes concentrações de esgoto urbano secundário (10%, 20%, 30% e 40% sobre o crescimento de Tetraselmis chuii (Prasinophyceae e Dunaliellla viridis (Chlorophyceae para verificar a possibilidade do seu uso como meio de cultura altenativo para estas espécies. Culturas stocks duplicatas de 700mL foram mantidas sob condições de laboratório controladas. As adições de 30% e 40% foram as mais eficientes para o crescimento de ambas as espécies. Análises estatísticas para o ajuste do crescimento (cel.mL-1 e curvas de biomassa (µg clorofila-a.mL-1 em relação ao tempo de cultura desenvolvidas usando Chi-square test (p<0.05, demonstraram diferenças significativas entre o meio nutritivo f/2 e a adição de 40% usada para estas duas espécies. Os resultados sugerem que algumas das concentrações testadas, rendem densidades celulares e taxas de crescimento satisfatórias quando comparados com outros meios de cultura (macroalga, estratos de esterco bovino e de galinha sendo um meio altenativo que pode ser usado para sistemas de aquicultura semi intensivos devido aos baixos custos e fácil aquisição.

  1. Farnesoid X Receptor Agonist Represses Cytochrome P450 2D6 Expression by Upregulating Small Heterodimer Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xian; Lee, Yoon-Kwang; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is a major drug-metabolizing enzyme responsible for eliminating approximately 20% of marketed drugs. Studies have shown that differential transcriptional regulation of CYP2D6 may contribute to large interindividual variability in CYP2D6-mediated drug metabolism. However, the factors governing CYP2D6 transcription are largely unknown. We previously demonstrated small heterodimer partner (SHP) as a novel transcriptional repressor of CYP2D6 expression. SHP is a representative target gene of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). The objective of this study is to investigate whether an agonist of FXR, 3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4-(3'-carboxy-2-chlorostilben-4-yl)oxymethyl-5-isopropylisoxazole (GW4064), alters CYP2D6 expression and activity. In CYP2D6-humanized transgenic mice, GW4064 decreased hepatic CYP2D6 expression and activity (by 2-fold) while increasing SHP expression (by 2-fold) and SHP recruitment to the CYP2D6 promoter. CYP2D6 repression by GW4064 was abrogated in Shp(-/-);CYP2D6 mice, indicating a critical role of SHP in CYP2D6 regulation by GW4064. Also, GW4064 decreased CYP2D6 expression (by 2-fold) in primary human hepatocytes, suggesting that the results obtained in CYP2D6-humanized transgenic mice can be translated to humans. This proof of concept study provides evidence for CYP2D6 regulation by an inducer of SHP expression, namely, the FXR agonist GW4064. PMID:25926433

  2. Repression of the nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner by steatotic drugs and in advanced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Marta; Guzmán, Carla; Pisonero-Vaquero, Sandra; García-Mediavilla, M Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia; Martínez-Chantar, M Luz; Donato, M Teresa; Castell, José Vicente; Jover, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    The small heterodimer partner (SHP) (NR0B2) is an atypical nuclear receptor that lacks a DNA-binding domain. It interacts with and inhibits many transcription factors, affecting key metabolic processes, including bile acid, cholesterol, fatty acid, and drug metabolism. Our aim was to determine the influence of steatotic drugs and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) on SHP expression and investigate the potential mechanisms. SHP was found to be repressed by steatotic drugs (valproate, doxycycline, tetracycline, and cyclosporin A) in cultured hepatic cells and the livers of different animal models of NAFLD: iatrogenic (tetracycline-treated rats), genetic (glycine N-methyltransferase-deficient mice), and nutritional (mice fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet). Among the different transcription factors investigated, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) showed the strongest dominant-repressive effect on SHP expression in HepG2 and human hepatocytes. Reporter assays revealed that the inhibitory effect of C/EBPα and steatotic drugs colocalize between -340 and -509 base pair of the SHP promoter, and mutation of a predicted C/EBPα response element at -473 base pair abolished SHP repression by both C/EBPα and drugs. Moreover, inhibition of major stress signaling pathways demonstrated that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 pathway activates, while the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase pathway represses SHP in a C/EBP-dependent manner. We conclude that SHP is downregulated by several steatotic drugs and in advanced NAFLD. These conditions can activate signals that target C/EBPα and consequently repress SHP, thus favoring the progression and severity of NAFLD. PMID:25576488

  3. Crystal structure of the disintegrin heterodimer from saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) at 1.9 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgrami, Sameeta; Yadav, Savita; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian; Singh, Tej P

    2005-08-23

    Disintegrins constitute a family of potent polypeptide inhibitors of integrins. Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric molecules involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are involved in many diseases such as cancer and thrombosis. Thus, disintegrins have a great potential as anticancer and antithrombotic agents. A novel heterodimeric disintegrin was isolated from the venom of saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and was crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 1.9 A resolution and belonged to space group P4(3)2(1)2. The data indicated the presence of a pseudosymmetry. The structure was solved by applying origin shifts to the disintegrin homodimer schistatin solved in space group I4(1)22 with similar cell dimensions. The structure refined to the final R(cryst)/R(free) factors of 0.213/0.253. The notable differences are observed between the loops, (Gln39-Asp48) containing the important Arg42-Gly43-Asp44, of the present heterodimer and schistatin. These differences are presumably due to the presence of two glycines at positions 43 and 46 that allow the molecule to adopt variable conformations. A comparative analysis of the surface-charge distributions of various disintegrins showed that the charge distribution on monomeric disintegrins occurred uniformly over the whole surface of the molecule, while in the dimeric disintegrins, the charge is distributed only on one face. Such a feature may be important in the binding of two integrins to a single dimeric disintegrin. The phylogenetic analysis developed on the basis of amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structures indicates that the protein diversification and evolution presumably took place from the medium disintegrins and both the dimeric and short disintegrins evolved from them. PMID:16101289

  4. A Comparative Study of Condition Indices and Heavy Metals in Perna viridis Populations at Sebatu and Muar, Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compared some allometric parameters (shell length, shell width, shell height, total dry weight of soft tissues, condition index and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the different soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Sebatu and Muar estuary. It was found that the total dry weight of soft tissues and condition index of mussels collected from Sebatu were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in Muar. The significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of Cu in most soft tissues and some of Cd indicated a higher bioavailability of Cu and Cd at Muar than Sebatu. In addition, the significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb in surface sediments collected from Muar supported the observable anthropogenic impacts at Muar than Sebatu and hence, higher metal contamination at Muar than Sebatu. The higher condition index value in mussels recorded in Sebatu than in Muar was believed to be a result of higher metal contamination at Muar estuary. (author)

  5. NMR-based metabolomic studies on the toxicological effects of cadmium and copper on green mussels Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional toxicology studies have focused on selected biomarkers to characterize the biological stress induced by metals in marine organisms. In this study, a system biology tool, metabolomics, was applied to the marine mussel Perna viridis to investigate changes in the metabolic profiles of soft tissue as a response to copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both as single metal and as a mixture. The major metabolite changes corresponding to metal exposure are related to amino acids, osmolytes, and energy metabolites. Following metal exposure for 1 week, there was a significant increase in the levels of branched chain amino acids, histidine, glutamate, glutamine, hypotaurine, dimethylglycine, arginine and ATP/ADP. For the Cu + Cd co-exposed mussels, the levels of lactate, branched chain amino acid, succinate, and NAD increased, whereas the levels of glucose, glycogen, and ATP/ADP decreased, indicating a different metabolic profile for the single metal exposure groups. After 2 weeks of exposure, the mussels showed acclimatization to Cd exposure based on the recovery of some metabolites. However, the metabolic profile induced by the metal mixture was very similar to that from Cu exposure, suggesting that Cu dominantly induced the metabolic disturbances. Both Cu and Cd may lead to neurotoxicity, disturbances in energy metabolism, and osmoregulation changes. These results demonstrate the high applicability and reliability of NMR-based metabolomics in interpreting the toxicological mechanisms of metals using global metabolic biomarkers.

  6. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  7. Temporal variations of heavy metals levels in Perna viridis, on the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Sucre State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Heavy metal concentrations were within levels allowed worldwide (FAO, BFL, FDA). • The highest concentration of heavy metals was found during the drought period. • Significant relationships amid size and metal concentration only found in drought. - Abstract: Perna viridis was used as biomonitor to assess heavy metal levels in the Chacopata-Bocaripo lagoon axis, Venezuela, during rain and drought seasons. The mussels were weighed and measured. The metal concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For rain period, the order of bioavailability was: Cu > Ni > Mn > Co > Cd > Pb, and for drought: Cu > Mn > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of Ni, Co, Cd and Pb showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in both periods. There was higher metal accumulation during drought season, possibly related to upwelling, since it produces an increase in primary productivity, which translates more food into organisms, making metals bioavailable for mussels. Only Cu and Mn showed significant relationships between the size and metal concentration, during drought period, it may be because of the organisms need for these essential metals in different physiological processes

  8. The characterization of two peroxiredoxin genes in Dunaliella viridis provides insights into antioxidative response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huijuan; Meng, Xiangzong; Gao, Qiang; Qu, Wufei; Xu, Tengjiao; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2011-08-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs), a group of antioxidant enzymes, are an important component of the oxidative defense system and have been demonstrated to function as peroxidases, sensors of H(2)O(2)-mediated signaling and/or chaperones. In this study, a cDNA library was constructed from a halotolerant alga, Dunaliella viridis, and was used in a functional complementation screen for antioxidative genes in an oxidative sensitive yeast mutant. Two Prx genes, DvPrx1 and DvPrx2, were obtained from this screen. These two genes were classified as type II Prx and 2-Cys Prx based on amino acid sequence and phylogenetic analysis. When over-expressed in yeast cells, both Prx genes were able to confer better oxidative tolerance and decrease the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Subcellular localization experiments in tobacco cells revealed that both DvPrx1 and DvPrx2 were localized in the cytosol. The transcription of DvPrx1 and DvPrx2 can be induced by hypersalinity shock, but is not obviously affected by treatment with high levels of oxidant. Our results shed light on the function and regulation of Prx genes from Dunaliella and their potential roles in salt tolerance. PMID:21431909

  9. Phosphorylation of MAP kinase-like proteins mediate the response of the halotolerant alga Dunaliella viridis to hypertonic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Berl, Tomas; Rivard, Christopher J; Edelstein, Charles L; Capasso, Juan M

    2004-02-01

    The microalga Dunaliella viridis has the ability to adapt to a variety of environmental stresses including osmotic and thermal shocks, UV irradiation and nitrogen starvation. Lacking a rigid cell wall, Dunaliella provides an excellent model to study stress signaling in eukaryotic unicellular organisms. When exposed to hyperosmotic stress, UV irradiation or high temperature, a 57-kDa protein is recognized by antibodies specific to mammalian p38, to its yeast homologue Hog1, and to the phospho-p38 MAP kinase motif. This 57-kDa protein appears to be both up-regulated and phosphorylated. Three other proteins (50, 45, 43 kDa) were transiently phosphorylated under stress conditions as detected with an antibody specific to the mammalian phospho c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) motif. Treatment with specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) activities markedly impaired the adaptation of Dunaliella to osmotic stress. From an evolutionary standpoint, these data strongly suggest that MAP kinase signaling pathways, other than ERK, were already operating in the common ancestor of plant and animal kingdoms, probably as early as 1400 million years ago. PMID:14741745

  10. Chlorination-induced genotoxicity in the mussel Perna viridis: assessment by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Pooja; Kumar, Rajesh; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam; Venugopalan, Vayalam P

    2016-08-01

    Mussels are important fouling organisms in the cooling water systems of coastal power plants. Continuous low-dose chlorination (CLDC) is being practiced as an effective method to control mussel biofouling in power plant cooling water systems. CLDC effectively controls mussel fouling by discouraging larval settlement rather than by killing the larvae or adults. Mussels are an integral part of the natural benthic community in the receiving water body where the coolant water is discharged. Hence, from a toxicological point of view, they can serve as both target and non-target organisms. Previous researchers have indicated that chlorine residual, rather than elevated temperature, can be the major stress factor in the effluents released from coastal power plants. However, very little data are available on the sub-lethal effects of low level chlorination on representative benthic fauna. In this study, we used native and transplanted mussels (Perna viridis) to study lethal and sub-lethal effects of chlorination in the cooling water circuit of an operating power plant. Experiments involving comet assay suggested that CLDC can cause DNA damage in treated mussels. However, activation of DNA repair appeared to get initiated after the accrued damage reached a threshold. The results indicate that, at chlorine residual levels observed at the discharge point, exposure to chlorinated effluents is unlikely to cause significant genetic damage to mussels in the recipient water body. PMID:27155389

  11. Lipidic phase membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, LC; Arnlund, D.; White, TA; Katona, G.; DePonte, DP; Weierstall, U.; Doak, RB; Shoeman, RL; Lomb, L; Malmerberg, E.; Davidsson, J; Nass, K.; Liang, MN; Andreasson, J.; Dell'Aquila, A.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. Here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center delivered into an X-FEL beam using a sponge phase micro-jet.

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Activation of Activating Transcription Factor 6 Decreases Insulin Gene Expression via Up-Regulation of Orphan Nuclear Receptor Small Heterodimer Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Yong Deuk; Lee, Kyeong-Min; Min, Ae-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hye-Soon; Won, Kyu-Chang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The highly developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structure of pancreatic β-cells is a key factor in β-cell function. Here we examined whether ER stress-induced activation of activating transcription factor (ATF)-6 impairs insulin gene expression via up-regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2), which has been shown to play a role in β-cell dysfunction. We examined whether ER stress decreases insulin gene expression, and this process is mediated by ATF6. A...

  13. A comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and petroleum hydrocarbon uptake by mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in Hong Kong coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels had higher levels of contaminants than semi-permeable membrane devices. - The ability of mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from five sites in Hong Kong's coastal waters was compared. Mussels consistently had higher levels of contaminants, but their utility was limited at one highly polluted site due to mortality. Mussels and SPMDs ranked sites differently in terms of individual contaminant levels. Although SPMDs overcome many of the disadvantages of using living organisms to measure contaminants in marine waters, they cannot be used as 'mimics' due to different PAH and PHC accumulation patterns

  14. Udbredelsen af den invasive børsteorm Marenzelleria viridis i Roskilde Fjord - en undersøgelse af det bentiske samfund

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    Siden starten af 1990'erne har invasionen af polychaeten Marenzelleria viridis været kendt i de danske kystnære områder og estuarier. Arten har formået at sprede sig hurtigt og i 2008 viste undersøgelser at arten var udbredt til store dele af Roskilde Fjord. I forbindelse med de nye undersøgelser blev der i sommeren 2013, på baggrund af 14 udvalgte stationer fordelt rundt omkring fjorden (indre, ydre), indsamlet sediment- og faunaprøver til nærmere studering af fjordens bentiske makrofauna og...

  15. Antioxidant responses to benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 exposure in the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis (L.), was exposed to two concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (0.3 μg l-1; 3 μg l-1) and two concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (0.5 μg l-1; 5 μg l-1). In addition, a mixture of the contaminants was used (0.3 μg l-1 B[a]P+0.5 μg l-1 Aroclor 1254; 3 μg l-1 B[a]P+5 μg l-1 Aroclor 1254). All concentrations were nominal. A suite of enzymes [glutathione S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR)], glutathione (GSH) level and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the mussel gill and hepatopancreas were monitored over 18 days. CAT and GSH in gill tissue were positively correlated with concentration of Aroclor 1254. Activity of hepatic GST and SOD was significantly related to body burden of Aroclor 1254. LPO, GR and GPx in gill and hepatopancreas and hepatic GST were positively correlated with B[a]P concentration. The results indicate the importance of using biomarkers specific to the type of contaminant(s) that are likely to be present. Controlled laboratory experiments, such as this study, are useful in ascertaining biomarkers suitable for use with complex contaminant mixtures in the marine environment. - Benzo[a]pyrene and Aroclor 1254 separately and in combination caused specific induction in a number of antioxidant parameters in the gill and hepatopancreas of green-lipped mussels

  16. Variationas of 210Po Activity in Mussels (Perna viridis) of Samut Sakhon and Its Contribution to Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of 210Po and its effective dose in green mussel (Perna viridis) collected from mussel farming area at the Samut Sakhon province during the period of 2012-2013 are presented. Several parameters including maximum shell length and the physiological performance of mussels using condition index and physical properties of seawater (pH, salinity, conductivity, TDS, DO and cation-anion elements) were measured. Each individual mussel was measured on its maximum shell length which was adopted as size class. The activity concentration of 210Po was determined spectroscopically through its 5.30 MeV alpha particle emission, using 209Po as an internal tracer. The 210Po activity concentration in mussels was found to vary between 1.044 and 6.951 Bq.kg-1 wet weight. The 210Po concentration was higher in smaller sized classes (>35 mm) and lowest in larger ones (40-70 mm). This confirms that larger mussels have lower 210Po levels on a weight basis. The 210Po body burden (activity per mussel) ranged from 1.035 to 17.183 mBq. Contrary to the 210Po concentrations, results of the body burden revealed the lower activities in smaller sized mussels (>35 mm) and the higher in larger sized ones (40-70 mm). The type of fluctuations observed with 210Po concentrations are interpreted as a seasonal effect. Total annual effective 210Po dose due to mussel consumption was calculated to be in the range of 3.081 to 16.401 μSv. Based on the international guideline, the average dose calculated due to 210Po in mussels of Samut Sakhon would not pose any significant radiological impact on human health and the mussels are considered to be safe for intake.

  17. Linking trace element variations with macronutrients and major cations in marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Marine mussels have long been used as biomonitors of contamination of trace elements, but little is known about whether variation in tissue trace elements is significantly associated with those of macronutrients and major cations. The authors examined the variability of macronutrients and major cations and their potential relationships with bioaccumulation of trace elements. The authors analyzed the concentrations of macronutrients (C, N, P, S), major cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca), and trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb) in the whole soft tissues of marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis collected globally from 21 sites. The results showed that 12% to 84% of the variances in the trace elements was associated with major cations, and the tissue concentration of major cations such as Na and Mg in mussels was a good proxy for ambient seawater concentrations of the major cations. Specifically, bioaccumulation of most of the trace elements was significantly associated with major cations, and the relationships of major cations with trace cations and trace oxyanions were totally opposite. Furthermore, 14% to 69% of the variances in the trace elements were significantly associated with macronutrients. Notably, more than half of the variance in the tissue concentrations of As, Cd, V, Ba, and Pb was explained by the variance in macronutrients in one or both species. Because the tissue macronutrient concentrations were strongly associated with animal growth and reproduction, the observed coupling relationships indicated that these biological processes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of some trace elements. The present study indicated that simultaneous quantification of macronutrients and major cations with trace elements can improve the interpretation of biomonitoring data. PMID:25900884

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among the Caribbean members of the Cliona viridis complex (Porifera, Demospongiae, Hadromerida) using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Dairo; Zea, Sven; Sánchez, Juan A

    2012-08-01

    Species complexes - groups of closely related species in which intraspecific and interspecific variability overlap - have generated considerable interest and study. Frequently, members of a species complex do not have complete reproductive isolation; therefore, the complex may go through extensive gene flow. In the Caribbean Sea, some encrusting and excavating sponges of the genus Cliona (Porifera, Hadromerida, Clionaidae) are grouped within the great "Cliona viridis" complex because of their morphological similarities. This study examined the evolutionary relationships of the Caribbean members of this complex (C. caribbaea, C. tenuis, C. aprica and C. varians) and related taxa based on nuclear (ITS1 and ITS2) and mitochondrial (3' end of ND6) DNA sequences. The intragenomic ITS variation and its secondary structures were evaluated using a mixed approach of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), DNA sequencing and secondary structure prediction. Considerable intragenomic variation was found in all the species, with apparently functional ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures. Despite the subtle but clear morphological differentiation in these excavating sponges, the intragenomic copies of C. caribbaea, C. tenuis and C. aprica had a polyphyletic placement in the ITS1 and ITS2 genealogies and very low divergence. Therefore, it is clear that these species constitute a species complex (herein called Ct-complex). Genetic distances within the Ct-complex revealed that an important part of the interspecific variation overlapped with intraspecific variation, suggesting either incomplete lineage sorting or extensive gene flow. In contrast, C. varians and an unidentified "Pione" species emerged as monophyletic clades, being the closest sister groups to the Ct-complex. Additionally, our results support that C. laticavicola and C. delitrix conform a monophyletic group, but absence of reciprocal monophyly in these species suggests they may be life stages or ecophenotypes of

  19. 绿色杜氏藻转录组分析%Transcriptome analysis ofDunaliella viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱帅旗; 龚一富; 杭雨晴; 刘浩; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the gene information, function, haloduric pathway (glycerolipid metabolism) and related key genes forDunaliella viridis, we used Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence its transcriptome. Trinity soft was used to assemble the data to form transcripts. Based on the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO ) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG ) data-bases, we carried out functional annotation and classification, pathway annotation, and the opening reading fragment (ORF) sequence prediction of transcripts. The key genes in the glycerolipid metabolism were analyzed. The results suggested that 81 593 transcripts were found, and 77 117 ORF sequences were predicted, accounting for 94.50% of all transcripts. COG classification results showed that 16 569 transcripts were assigned to 24 categories. GO classifica-tion annotated 76 436 transcripts. The number of transcripts for biologcial processes was 30 678, accounting for 40.14% of all transcripts. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26 428 transcripts were annotated to 317 pathways, and 131 pathways were related to metabolism, accounting for 41.32% of all annotated pathways. Only one transcript was an-notated as coding the key enzyme dihydroxyacetone kinase involved in the glycerolipid pathway. This enzyme could be related to glycerol biosynthesis under salt stress. This study further improved the gene information and laid the foun-dation of metabolic pathway research forDunaliella viridis.%为了深入了解绿色杜氏藻(Dunaliella viridis)基因信息及功能、耐盐相关通路(甘油脂代谢)及关键酶,本文首次通过Illumina HiSeqTM 2000高通量测序技术对绿色杜氏藻转录组进行测序,利用Trinity软件将数据组装形成转录本,对所有转录本进行COG(Clusters of Orthologous Groups)、GO(Gene Ontology)和KEGG(Kyoto En-cyclopedia of Genes and Genomes)分类和功能注释、Pathway注

  20. A Study on the Potential of the Periostracum of Perna viridis as a Bio monitoring Material for Pb in Tropical Coastal Waters Based on Correlation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The periostracum is the outermost layer overlying the inner prismatic and nacreous layers of the shells of bivalves. In the present study, the distributions of Cd and Pb in the soft tissues (ST) and periostracum of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis sampled from 15 sampling sites in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia were determined. The concentrations of Cd (0.21-10.87 mg/ g dry weight) and Pb (1.16-40.20 mg/ g dry weight) in the periostracum were generally higher than those in the ST (Cd: 0.10-5.55 mg/ g dry weight; Pb: 2.53-18.62 mg/ g dry weight). Based on correlation analysis from nine geographical populations, the higher correlation coefficients (R values) between the periostracum-geochemical fractions of the sediments than between the ST-geochemical fractions of the sediments indicated that the periostracum could be a potential bio monitoring material for Pb. Hence, the present results supported the use of the periostracum of P. viridis as a potential bio monitoring material for Pb but not for Cd. However, more studies are warranted to verify its usefulness for the bio monitoring of heavy metal pollution in tropical coastal waters. (author)

  1. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) and PAHs in Perna viridis collected from seaport and non-seaport waters in the Straits of Johore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C K; Shahbazi, A; Zakaria, M P

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the ranges of pollutants found in the soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Kg. Masai and Kg. Sg. Melayu, both located in the Straits of Johore, were 0.85-1.58 μg/g dry weight (dw) for Cd, 5.52-12.2 μg/g dw for Cu, 5.66-8.93 μg/g dw for Ni and 63.4-72.3 μg/g dw for Zn, and 36.4-244 ng/g dry weight for ∑PAHs. Significantly (p water of a seaport site at Kg. Masai than a non-seaport site at Kg. Sg. Melayu population. The ratios of low molecular weight/high molecular weight hydrocarbons (2.94-3.42) and fluoranthene/pyrene (0.43-0.45) in mussels from both sites indicated the origin of the PAHs to be mainly petrogenic. This study has demonstrated the utility of using the soft tissues of P. viridis as a biomonitor of PAH contamination and bioavailability in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:23052577

  2. Extracts from Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex (Soft Corals are Capable of Inhibiting the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Horng Wang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Many biomedical products have already been obtained from marine organisms. In order to search more therapeutic drugs against cancer, this study demonstrates the cytotoxicity effects of Cladiella australis, Clavularia viridis and Klyxum simplex extractson human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC4, SCC9 and SCC25 cells using cell adhesion and cell viability assay. The morphological alterations in SCCs cells after treatment with three extracts, such as typical nuclear condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies of cells were demonstrated by Hoechst stain. Flow cytometry indicated that three extracts sensitized SCC25 cells in the G0/G1 and S-G2/M phases with a concomitant significantly increased sub-G1 fraction, indicating cell death by apoptosis. This apoptosis process was accompanied by activation of caspase-3 expression after SCC25 cells were treated with three extracts. Thereby, it is possible that extracts of C. australis, C. viridis and K. simplex cause apoptosis of SCCs and warrant further research investigating the possible anti-oral cancer compounds in these soft corals.

  3. Bioreduction of trivalent aurum to nano-crystalline gold particles by active and inactive cells and cell-free extract of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioreduction efficacy of both active (AB) and inactive (IB) cells/biomass of Aspergillus oryzae var. viridis and their respective cell-free extracts (ACE and ICE) to convert trivalent aurum to gold nanoparticles were tested in the present study. Strong plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was observed between 540 and 560 nm in the samples obtained from AB, IB, ACE and ICE. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed to examine the formation of gold nanoparticles. Comparing all four forms of A. oryzae var. viridis, ICE showed high gold nanoparticle productivity. The nanoparticles formed were quite uniform in shape and ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm. In addition some triangle, pentagon and hexagon-shaped nanoplates with size range of 30-400 nm were also synthesized especially at lower pH. Organics from the inactive cells are believed to be responsible for reduction of trivalent aurum to nano-sized gold particles. Organic content of the ICE was found to be double the amount of ACE. High productivity of gold nanoparticles by metabolic-independent process opens up an interesting area of nanoparticle synthesis using waste fungal biomass from industries.

  4. Influence of elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen supply on the carbon assimilation performance and cell composition of the unicellular alga Dunaliella viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo, F.J.L.; Jimenez, C.; Figueroa, F.L.; Xavier Niell, F. [Univ. de Malaga, Dept. de Ecologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Malaga (Spain)

    2003-12-01

    The carbon assimilation efficiency and the internal composition of the chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis have been studied under conditions of current (0.035%) and enriched (1%) levels of CO{sub 2}, with and without N limitation (supplied as nitrate). Results show that both photosynthesis and growth rates are enhanced by high CO{sub 2}, but the strategy of acclimation also involves the light harvesting machinery and the nutritional metabolism in an N supply dependent manner. D. viridis carried out a qualitative rather than a quantitative acclimation of the light harvesting system leading to increased PSII quantum yields. Total internal C decreased as a consequence of either active growth or organic carbon release to the external medium. The latter process allowed photosynthetic electron transport to proceed at higher rates than under normal CO{sub 2} conditions, and maintained the internal C:N balance in a narrow range (under N sufficiency). N limitation generally prevented the effects of high CO{sub 2}, with some exceptions such as the photosynthetic O-2 evolution rate. (au)

  5. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancolli, Giulia; Baker, Timothy G.; Barlow, Axel; Bradley, Rebecca K.; Calvete, Juan J.; Carter, Kimberley C.; de Jager, Kaylah; Owens, John Benjamin; Price, Jenny Forrester; Sanz, Libia; Scholes-Higham, Amy; Shier, Liam; Wood, Liam; Wüster, Catharine E.; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hybridization has been invoked as a mechanism to explain the distribution of these toxins across rattlesnakes, with the implicit assumption that they are adaptively advantageous. Here, we test the potential of adaptive hybridization as a mechanism for venom evolution by assessing the distribution of genes encoding the acidic and basic subunits of Mojave toxin across a hybrid zone between MTX-positive Crotalus scutulatus and MTX-negative C. viridis in southwestern New Mexico, USA. Analyses of morphology, mitochondrial and single copy-nuclear genes document extensive admixture within a narrow hybrid zone. The genes encoding the two MTX subunits are strictly linked, and found in most hybrids and backcrossed individuals, but not in C. viridis away from the hybrid zone. Presence of the genes is invariably associated with presence of the corresponding toxin in the venom. We conclude that introgression of highly lethal neurotoxins through hybridization is not necessarily favored by natural selection in rattlesnakes, and that even extensive hybridization may not lead to introgression of these genes into another species. PMID:27322321

  6. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain AvcI1, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa Grown in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S.

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa, is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which is able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.7-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.41% and 6,470 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  7. New Karyological and Morphometric Data on Poorly Known Bufo surdus and Bufo luristanicus in Comparison with Data of Diploid Green Toads of the Bufo viridis Complex from South of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh FAKHARZAEH; Jamshid DARVISH; Haji Gholi KAMI; Fereshteh GHASEMZADEH; Eskandar RASTEGAR-POUYANI

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on the Bufo viridis complex, which is distributed broadly across Iran, are incomplete and restricted to a few regions or a few samples. In this paper a new detailed study on the B. viridis complex in southern of Iran (from West to East) is presented. The analysis of 18 morphometric characters with univariate and multivariate methods reveals significant differences between three members of the B. viridis complex namely B. variabilis, B. luristanicus, and B. surdus distributed in southern part of Iran. Our result help to resolve an old taxonomic problem about B. surdus subgroup (taxa closely related to B. surdus) conifrming that B. luristanicus and B. surdus are distinct species. Moreover, for the ifrst time we report and describe karyotype details of B. luristanicus and B. surdus which conifrmed that they are diploid. Karyological studies demonstrate that all toads from three mentioned species have 2n=22 chromosomes. These chromosomes are arranged into two groups. First group has six large chromosomes and the second group is composed of five small chromosomes. These chromosomes are metacentric or submetacentric. The number of submetacentric chromosomes is different in three mentioned species of B. viridis complex. Neither sexual heteromorphism, nor secondary constriction was observed in any pairs of chromosomes.

  8. Double trouble for grasshopper molecular systematics: intra-individual heterogeneity of both mitochondrial 12S-valine-16S and nuclear internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences in Hesperotettix viridis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesperotettix viridis grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae:Melanoplinae) exhibit intra-individual variation in both mitochondrial 12S-valine-16S and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA sequences. These findings violate core assumptions underlying DNA sequence data obtained via pol...

  9. PKA-activated ApAF–ApC/EBP heterodimer is a key downstream effector of ApCREB and is necessary and sufficient for the consolidation of long-term facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Jin-A; Lee, Sue-Hyun; Lee, Changhoon; Chang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Yong; Kim, Hyoung; Cheang, Ye-Hwang; Ko, Hyoung-Gon; Lee, Yong-Seok; Jun, Heejung; Bartsch, Dusan; Kandel, Eric R.; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2006-01-01

    Long-term memory requires transcriptional regulation by a combination of positive and negative transcription factors. Aplysia activating factor (ApAF) is known to be a positive transcription factor that forms heterodimers with ApC/EBP and ApCREB2. How these heterodimers are regulated and how they participate in the consolidation of long-term facilitation (LTF) has not, however, been characterized. We found that the functional activation of ApAF required phosphorylation of ApAF by PKA on Ser-2...

  10. Mutational analysis of Mdm2 C-terminal tail suggests an evolutionarily conserved role of its length in Mdm2 activity toward p53 and indicates structural differences between Mdm2 homodimers and Mdm2/MdmX heterodimers

    OpenAIRE

    Dolezelova, Pavlina; Cetkovska, Katerina; Vousden, Karen H.; Uldrijan, Stjepan

    2012-01-01

    Mdm2 can mediate p53 ubiquitylation and degradation either in the form of the Mdm2 homodimer or Mdm2/MdmX heterodimer. The ubiquitin ligase activity of these complexes resides mainly in their respective RING finger domains and also requires adjacent C-terminal tails. So far, structural studies have failed to show significant differences between Mdm2 RING homodimers and Mdm2/MdmX RING heterodimers. Here, we report that not only the primary amino acid sequence, but also the length of the C-term...

  11. Modification of trace metal accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis by exposure to Ag, Cu, and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn accumulation in the green mussel Perna viridis affected by previous exposure to Cu, Ag, or Zn, the dietary metal assimilation efficiency (AE) and the uptake rate from the dissolved phase were quantified. The mussel's filtration rate, metallothionein (MT) concentration, and metal tissue burden as well as the metal subcellular partitioning were also determined to illustrate the potential mechanisms underlying the influences caused by one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of the other metals. The green mussels were pre-exposed to Cu, Ag, or Zn for different periods (1-5 weeks) and the bioaccumulation of Cd, Hg, Ag, and Zn were concurrently determined. Pre-exposure to the three metals did not result in any significant increase in MT concentration in the green mussels. Ag concentration in the insoluble fraction increased with increasing Ag exposure period and Ag ambient concentration. Our data indicated that Cd assimilation were not influenced by the mussel's pre-exposure to the three metals (Cu, Ag, and Zn), but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn exposure. Although Hg assimilation from food was not affected by the metal pre-exposure, its influx rate from solution was generally inhibited by the exposure to Cu, Ag, and Zn. Ag bioaccumulation was affected the most obviously, in which its AE increased with increasing Ag tissue concentration, and its dissolved uptake decreased with increasing tissue concentrations of Ag and Cu. As an essential metal, Zn bioaccumulation remained relatively stable following the metal pre-exposure, suggesting the regulatory ability of Zn uptake in the mussels. Zn AE was not affected by metal pre-exposure, but its dissolved uptake was depressed by Ag and Zn pre-exposure. All these results indicated that the influences of one metal pre-exposure on the bioaccumulation of other metals were metal-specific due to the differential binding and toxicity of metals to the mussels. Such factors should

  12. A physiological study of integument secretions in the marine polychaete Eulalia viridis and their potential biotechnological value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Rodrigo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in marine bioproducts, especially in those with life improving potential to humans. Marine invertebrates, in particular, possess particular interest due to their high diversity, abundance and ecological importance. However, the physiology of such a wide and diverse group of organisms is far from understood. Marine annelids, in particular (Class Polychaeta, are of especial interest, in large part owing to their ecological representativity and easy handling. Still only few studies have been focusing on physiological traits of the polychaeta that may relate to the production of bioproducts of potential biotechnological applications. The secretion of substances by polychaetes is acknowledged to relate primarily with locomotion and feeding, but also thought to have an important role in egg protection, prevention against infection and even as defence mechanisms against possible predators. As such, the present work aims at identifying, isolating and analysing the nature of integumentary secretions of E. viridis, a common intertidal worm of rocky shores. Histological analyses revealed a more complex microanatomy of the skin than it could be anticipated. Several cell types were identified in the integument, each bearing different functions such as structural support, pigmentation and sensorial, to which is added secretion as one of the most important roles. Due to the great complexity of the integument, the identification of the chemical nature of all types of secretions is particularly challenging. However, more detailed histochemical analyses and electron microscopy enabled the identification of different secretory cells and their chemical nature and role. The analyses was complemented by protein isolation from mucous and homogenates trough SDS-PAGE. Extracts revealed, for instance, that peptidic substances produced by the skin are potentially biocidal, as assessed through the Microtox Assay. Overall, the results enhance the

  13. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of some [Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor]-C5'-linker-[Integrase Inhibitor] heterodimers as inhibitors of HIV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeac, Elena; Fossey, Christine; Ladurée, Daniel; Schmidt, Sylvie; Laumond, Geraldine; Aubertin, Anne-Marie

    2004-12-01

    Selected for their expected ability to inhibit HIV replication, a series of eight heterodimers containing a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTI) and an Integrase Inhibitor (INI), bound by a linker, were designed and synthesized. For the NRTIs, d4U, d2U and d4T were chosen. For the INIs, 4-[1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-2,4-dioxobutyric acid (6) and 4-(3,5-dibenzyloxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxobutyric acid (9) (belonging to the beta-diketo acids class) were chosen. The conjugation of the two different inhibitors (NRTI and INI) was performed using an amino acid (glycine or beta-alanine) as a cleavable linker. PMID:15662954

  14. Substitution of specific cysteine residues in E1 glycoprotein of classical swine fever virus strain Brescia affects formation of E1-E2 heterodimers and alters virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    E1, along with E^rns and E2, is one of the three envelope glycoproteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV). E1 and E2 are anchored to the virus envelope at their carboxyl termini and E^rns loosely associates with the viral envelope. In infected cells, E2 forms homodimers and heterodimers with E1,...

  15. BIOMONITORING OF AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM,COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC IN THE COASTAL WETLAND WATER BY USING GILLS OF THE GREEN- LIPPED MUSSEL PERNA VIRIDIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Ahmad Ismail; Abdul Rahim Ismail; Soon Guan Tan

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in the gills and remaining soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from 12 geographical sites ( 10 from the west and 2 from the east coastal waters) of Peninsular Malaysia. All samples showed that the levels of Cd, Pb and Zn were generally higher in the gill than those in the remaining soft tissues. These results could be due to the fact that gills are the first organ of metal accumulation and larger surface area with mucus sheets in the organ. Since the mussel gill is a better accumulator of Cd, Pb and Zn of ambient seawater than remaining soft tissue, it is a potential indicator of ambient levels of dissolved metals in the ambient seawater. However, further validations based on laboratory conditions are needed.

  16. The rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) as a communicative resource for ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) and burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owings, Donald H; Rowe, Matthew P; Rundus, Aaron S

    2002-06-01

    Animal communication involves very dynamic processes that can generate new uses and functions for established communicative activities. In this article, the authors describe how an aposematic signal, the rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis), has been exploited by 2 ecological associates of rattlesnakes: (a) California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) use incidental acoustic cues in rattling sounds to assess the danger posed by the rattling snake, and (b) burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) defend themselves against mammalian predators by mimicking the sound of rattling. The remarkable similarity between the burrowing owl's defensive hiss and the rattlesnake's rattling reflects both exaptation and adaptation. Such exploitation of the rattling sound has favored alternations in both the structure and the deployment of rattling by rattlesnakes. PMID:12083617

  17. Mercury depuration effectiveness on green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.) from Jakarta Bay using ozone, chitosan and hydrodynamic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiah Ningrum, Endar; Duryadi Solihin, Dedy; Butet, Nurlisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Depuration has been used to eliminate microorganism and toxic chemical contaminants in bivalve. However, scientific research still needs to discover the effectiveness of depuration. This research aimed at assessing the best depuration effectiveness in decreasing mercury (Hg) concentration level in two species of bivalves, green mussel (Perna viridis L.) and blood cockle (Anadara granosa L.). The depuration treatments applied 1.5 ppm ozon, 0.5 ppm chitosan, hydrodynamic technique (1.3 m/s), combination between hydrodynamic-ozon, hydrodynamic-chitosan and ozon-chitosan. The experiment were conducted in mini aquaria for 60 minutes. Mercury concentration was measured in 10 g dry weight of green mussel (4.05±0.020 ppm) and blood cockle (3.27 ± 0.666 ppm). The result showed that mercury depuration were highly effective by combination of ozone-chitosan in green mussel (96.51%) and 1.5 ppm ozone in blood cockle (87.06%).

  18. Tolerancia a la anoxia y defensas antioxidantes en el mejillón verde Perna viridis (Linneus, 1758 bajo exposición aguda al cadmio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Zapata-Vívenes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la sobrevivencia a la anoxia del mejillón verde Perna viridis después de siete días de exposición a 50 μg L-1 de cadmio (Cd, seguido de un período de recuperación en el mar durante 21 días. En la glándula digestiva de los organismos experimentales se determinó los niveles de Cd acumulados, y marcadores de estrés oxidativo tales como: metalotioneínas (MT, glutatión reducido (GSH, peroxidación lipídica (TBARS y las actividades de las enzimas catalasa (CAT, glutatión reductasa (GR y glutatión-S-transferasa (GST. Los organismos expuestos a Cd mostraron una menor tolerancia al tratamiento anóxico, sin embargo una vez recuperados en el mar presentaron valores de sobrevivencia relativamente mayores en comparación a sus controles. Los organismos expuestos a Cd revelaron un incremento en la concentración de MT y la actividad de CAT, correlacionado al ingreso corporal de Cd. Los organismos transplantados al mar mostraron una disminución del metal acumulado, manteniendo niveles de MT incrementados. Los mejillones tratados y controles no exhibieron diferencias significativas en los marcadores de estrés oxidativo determinados (TBARS, GSH, GR y GST. El Cd acumulado posiblemente afectó algunas estrategias bioquímicas relacionadas con la tolerancia a la anoxia de P. viridis. Sin embargo, los altos niveles de MT en organismos pre-expuestos y posteriormente recuperados, podría condicionar la protección contra la toxicidad del Cd e indirectamente una mayor tolerancia a la anoxia.

  19. Can the shell of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a potential biomonitoring material for Cd, Pb and Zn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C. K.; Ismail, A.; Tan, S. G.; Abdul Rahim, I.

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total soft tissues and total shells of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were studied in field collected samples as well as from laboratory experimental samples. The results showed that Cd, Pb and Zn were readily accumulated in the whole shells. In mussels sampled from 12 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the ratios of the shell metals to the soft tissue metals were different at each sampling site. Nevertheless, the Cd and Pb levels in the shells were always higher than those in the soft tissues, while the Zn level was higher in the soft tissues than in the shells. In comparison with soft tissues, the degrees of variability for Pb and Cd concentrations in the shells were lower. The lower degrees of variability and significant ( Pshells support the use of the mussel shell as a suitable biomonitoring material for the two metals rather than the soft tissue since this indicated that there is more precision (lower CV) in the determination of metal concentrations in the shell than in the soft tissue. Experimental work showed that the pattern of depuration in the shell was not similar to that of the soft tissue although their patterns of accumulation were similar. This indicated that the depuration of heavy metals in the shell was not affected by the physiological conditions of the mussels. Although Zn could be regulated by the soft tissue, the incorporated Cd, Pb and Zn remained in the shell matrices. The present results support the use of the total shell of P. viridis as a potential biomonitoring material for long-term contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn.

  20. Characterization of a glutamine synthetase gene DvGS2 from Dunaliella viridis and biochemical identification of DvGS2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenguang; Fan, Qianlan; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chunlei; Meng, Xiangzong; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2014-02-25

    The salt-tolerant green alga Dunaliella has remarkable capability to survive in some extreme environments such as nitrogen starvation, which makes Dunaliella be a proper model for mining novel genes on nitrogen uptake or assimilation. In this study, a glutamine synthetase (GS) gene DvGS2 with amino acid identity of 72% to other homologous GS proteins, was isolated and characterized from Dunaliella viridis. Phylogenetic comparison with other GSs revealed that DvGS2 occupied an independent phylogenetic position. Expressional analysis in D. viridis cells under nitrogen starvation confirmed that DvGS2 increased its mRNA level in 12h. Subcellular localization study and functional analysis in a GS-deficient Escherichia coli mutant proved that DvGS2 was a chloroplastic and functional GS enzyme. In order to investigate the potential application of DvGS2 in higher plants, the transgenic studies of DvGS2 in Arabidopsis thaliana were carried out. Results showed that the transgenic lines expressed the DvGS2 gene and demonstrated obviously enhanced root length (29%), fresh weight (40%-48% at two concentrations of nitrate supplies), stem length (21%), leaf size (39%) and silique number (44%) in contrast with the wild-type Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the transgenic lines had higher total nitrogen content (35%-43%), total GS activity (39%-45%) and soluble protein concentration (23%-24%) than the wild type. These results indicated that the overexpression of DvGS2 in A. thaliana resulted in higher biomass and the improvement of the host's nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:24334123

  1. Application of a novel alkali-tolerant thermostable DyP-type peroxidase from Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 in biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangning Yu

    Full Text Available Saccharomonospora viridis is a thermophilic actinomycete that may have biotechnological applications because of its dye decolorizing activity, though the enzymatic oxidative system responsible for this activity remains elusive. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a DyP-type peroxidase gene in the genome of S. viridis DSM 43017 with sequence similarity to peroxidase from dye-decolorizing microbes. This gene, svidyp, consists of 1,215 bp encoding a polypeptide of 404 amino acids. The gene encoding SviDyP was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified. The recombinant protein could efficiently decolorize several triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinonic and azo dyes under neutral to alkaline conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for SviDyP was pH 7.0 and 70°C, respectively. Compared with other DyP-type peroxidases, SviDyP was more active at high temperatures, retaining>63% of its maximum activity at 50-80°C. It also showed broad pH adaptability (>35% activity at pH 4.0-9.0 and alkali-tolerance (>80% activity after incubation at pH 5-10 for 1 h at 37°C, and was highly thermostable (>60% activity after incubation at 70°C for 2 h at pH 7.0. SviDyP had an accelerated action during the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp, resulting in a 21.8% reduction in kappa number and an increase of 2.98% (ISO in brightness. These favorable properties make SviDyP peroxidase a promising enzyme for use in the pulp and paper industries.

  2. Identification and characterization of a novel C20-elongase gene from the marine microalgae, Pavlova viridis, and its use for the reconstitution of two pathways of long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tonglei; Yu, Aiqun; Li, Ming; Zhang, Meng; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2013-08-01

    The marine microalga, Pavlova viridis, contains long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-3). A full-length cDNA sequence, pvelo5, was isolated from P. viridis. From sequence alignment, the gene was homologous to fatty acyl elongases from other organisms. Heterologous expression of pvelo5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confirmed that it encoded a specific C20-elongase within the n-3 and n-6 pathways. Elongation activity was confined exclusively to EPA and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). GC analysis indicated that pvelo5 could co-express with other genes for biosynthesis to reconstitute the Δ8 and Δ6 pathways. Real-time PCR results and fatty acid analysis demonstrated that long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids production by the Δ8 pathway might be more effective than that by the Δ6 pathway. PMID:23546943

  3. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain AvcI1, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa Grown in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa, is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which is able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.7-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.41% and 6,470 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:26722013

  4. Atomic structure of carbon-induced Si(001)c(4x4) reconstruction as a Si-Si homodimer and C-Si heterodimer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of low-energy electron diffraction, x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning-tunneling microscopy studies, in conjunction with ab initio calculations leads us to suggest a model for the carbon (C)-induced Si(001)c(4x4) atomic structure. This surface superstructure is obtained in a defined range of C2H4 exposures at 600 deg. C. Experimental probes show that the c(4x4) superstructure involves C atoms in both surface and subsurface sites. This is reflected in well-marked features in photoemission valence- and core-level spectra. Surface carbon atoms are stabilized in Si-C heterodimers, with a surface density of about 0.25 monolayer (ML) [i.e., two C atoms per c(4x4) unit cell of eight atoms]. In the subsurface region, carbon atoms substitute for Si atoms in well-defined sites of the third or fourth layers of the Si substrate. The subsurface C density increases with C2H4 exposure time up to a limit value of about 0.5 ML, within the c(4x4) surface structure. Further exposure disrupts the c(4x4) reconstruction and leads to a (2x1) low-energy electron diffraction pattern. Interaction with atomic hydrogen shows that the surface contains a mixture of heterodimers (Si-C) and homodimers (Si-Si), with an 1:1 proportion. These assignments are supported by first-principle calculations, which yield valence band and core level states in fairly good agreement with the experiment. Furthermore, total energy calculations strongly favor C incorporation in surface Si-C dimers and in third and fourth layer sites, and rule out C incorporation in sites of the second Si layer. The most stable c(4x4) surface configuration, suggested by our calculations, consists of alternate Si-C and Si-Si dimer lines. In such a configuration, surface carbon atoms in Si-C dimers induce a surface stress that leads to charge redistribution and atomic relaxation of the adjacent Si-Si dimers, consistent with scanning-tunneling microscopy images. Additional C atoms (in excess

  5. 狗尾草果实中总鞣质的提取和含量测定%EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF TOTAL TANNIN FROM SETARIA VIRIDIS( L. ) BEAUV.RIPE FRUITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱武; 罗素琴; 刘乐乐; 吴宁远; 王来兵; 于姝燕; 张国萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To extract total tannin from Setaria viridis (L. ) Beaux, ripe fruits and deter mination the content of total tannin. Methods: It was adopted the optimum ultrasonic extraction tech nique to extract the total tannin from Setaira viridis (L. ) Beauv. Ripe fruits. Compleximetry was applied to determine the content of total tannin. Results: The content of total tannin was 0.4650%. Conclu sion :Ultrasonic extraction technique is simple and rapid,Content determination of complexometric titra tion method is safe and reliable. The method was available for extraction and content determination of total tannin from Setaria viridis (L. ) Beauv. Ripe fruits.%目的:从狗尾草果实中提取总鞣质并测定其含量.方法:采用超声波法提取狗尾革果实的总鞣质,用络合滴定法测定其总鞣质的含量.结果:狗尾草果实总鞣质的含量为0.4650%.结论:采用超声法提取操作程序简便、迅速,络合滴定法含量测定方法安全可靠,准确度和精密度较高,可用于狗尾草果实中总鞣质的提取及含量测定.

  6. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  7. Structural Determinants in the Calcitonin Receptor-Like Receptor (Crlr) Important for Cgrp and Adrenomedullin (Am) Receptor Function of Crlr/Receptor-Activity-Modifying Protein (Ramp) 1 and Crlr/Ramp2 Heterodimers

    OpenAIRE

    W. Born; K. Leuthauser; R. Gujer; R. Muff; J.A. Fischer

    2001-01-01

    Cell surface protein cross-linking, coimmmunoprecipitation, and confocal microscopy identified CRLR/RAMP1-, CRLR/RAMP2-, and calcitonin receptor isotype 2 (CTR2)/RAMP1 heterodimers as CGRP-, AM-, and CGRP/amylin receptors, linked to cAMP production. Along these lines, effects of structural alterations in the N-terminal extracellular domain of the human CRLR on cell surface expression as well as the association with RAMP and CGRP or AM have been investigated.

  8. Different ways to die: cell death modes of the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella viridis exposed to various environmental stresses are mediated by the caspase-like activity DEVDase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; Capasso, Juan M; Edelstein, Charles L; Rivard, Christopher J; Lucia, Scott; Breusegem, Sophia; Berl, Tomás; Segovia, María

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death is necessary for homeostasis in multicellular organisms and it is also widely recognized to occur in unicellular organisms. However, the mechanisms through which it occurs in unicells, and the enzymes involved within the final response is still the subject of heated debate. It is shown here that exposure of the unicellular microalga Dunaliella viridis to several environmental stresses, induced different cell death morphotypes, depending on the stimulus received. Senescent cells demonstrated classical and unambiguous apoptotic-like characteristics such as chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, intact organelles, and blebbing of the cell membrane. Acute heat shock caused general swelling and altered plasma membrane, but the presence of chromatin clusters and DNA strand breaks suggested a necrotic-like event. UV irradiated cells presented changes typical for necrosis, together with apoptotic characteristics resembling an intermediate cell-death phenotype termed aponecrosis-like. Cells subjected to hyperosmotic shock revealed chromatin spotting without DNA fragmentation, and extensive cytoplasmic swelling and vacuolization, comparable to a paraptotic-like cell death phenotype. Nitrogen-starved cells showed pyknosis, blebbing, and cytoplasmic consumption, indicating a similarity to autophagic/vacuolar-like cell death. The caspase-like activity DEVDase was measured by using the fluorescent substrate Ac-DEVD-AMC and antibodies against the human caspase-3 active enzyme cross-reacted with bands, the intensity of which paralleled the activity. All the environmental stresses tested produced a substantial increase in both DEVDase activity and protein levels. The irreversible caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK completely inhibited the enzymatic activity whereas serine and aspartyl proteases inhibitors did not. These results show that cell death in D. viridis does not conform to a single pattern and that environmental stimuli may produce different types of

  9. Differential proteomic responses in hepatopancreas and adductor muscles of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis to stresses induced by cadmium and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to reveal the proteomic responses in the hepatopancreas and adductor muscle of a common biomonitor, Perna viridis after 14-day exposure to two model chemicals, cadmium (Cd; a toxic metal) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; a pro-oxidant), using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with multivariate statistical analyses. Unique sets of tissue-specific protein expression signatures were revealed corresponding to the two treatment groups. In the hepatopancreas, 15 and 2 spots responded to Cd and H2O2 treatments respectively. 6 and 7 spots were differentially expressed in the adductor muscle for Cd and H2O2 treatments, respectively. 15 differentially expressed spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis. These proteins are involved in glycolysis, amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis, oxidative stress response, redox homeostasis and protein folding, heat-shock response, and muscle contraction modulation. This is the first time, to have demonstrated that Cd exposure not only leads to substantial oxidative stress but also results in endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatopancreas of the mussel. Such notable stress responses may be attributable to high Cd accumulation in this tissue. Our results suggested that investigations on these stress-associated protein changes could be used as a new and complementary approach in pollution monitoring by this popular biomonitor species.

  10. Computed tomography of the lung of healthy snakes of the species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, Michael; Kiefer, Ingmar; Thielebein, Jens; Oechtering, Gerhard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-nine healthy boid snakes representing six different species (Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota) were examined using computed tomography (CT) to characterize the normal appearance of the respiratory tissue. Assessment was done subjectively and densitometry was performed using a defined protocol. The length of the right lung was calculated to be 11.1% of the body length, without a significant difference between species. The length of the left lung in proportion to the right was dependent on the species examined. The most developed left lung was in P. regius (81.2%), whereas in B. constrictor, the left lung was vestigial or absent (24.7%). A median attenuation of -814.6 HU and a variability of 45.9 HU were calculated for all species with no significant difference between species. Within the species, a significantly higher attenuation was found for P. regius in the dorsal and cranial aspect of the lung compared with the ventral and caudal part. In B. constrictor, the reduced left lung was significantly hyperattenuating compared with the right lung. Results of this study emphasize the value of CT and provide basic reference data for assessment of the snake lung in these species. Veterinary Radiology & PMID:19788032

  11. The induction of menadione stress tolerance in the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis, through cold pretreatment and modulation of the ascorbate and glutathione pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadkar Haghjou, Maryam; Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of cold pretreatment on menadione tolerance was investigated in the cells of the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis. In addition, the involvement of ascorbate and glutathione in the response to menadione stress was tested by treating cell suspensions with l-galactono-1,4-lactone, an ascorbate precursor, and buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Menadione was highly toxic to non cold-pretreated cells, and caused a large decrease in cell number. Cold pretreatment alleviated menadione toxicity and cold pretreated cells accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen species, and had enhanced antioxidant capacity due to increased levels of β-carotene, reduced ascorbate and total glutathione compared to non cold-pretreated cells. Cold pretreatment also altered the response to l-galactono-1,4-lactone and buthionine sulfoximine treatments. Combined l-galactono-1,4-lactone and menadione treatment was lethal in non-cold pretreated cells, but in cold-pretreated cells it had a positive effect on cell numbers compared to menadione alone. Overall, exposure of Dunaliella cells to cold stress enhanced tolerance to subsequent oxidative stress induced by menadione. PMID:25240268

  12. Theoretical studies on the influence of molecular interactions on the mechanism of electron transfer in photosynthetic reaction center of Rps. viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Hong(徐红); ZHANG; Rubo(张汝波); QU; Zhengwang(屈正旺); ZHANG; Xingkang(张兴康); ZHANG; Qiyuan(张启元)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the QM/MM optimized X-ray crystal structure of the photosynthetic reaction center (PRC) of purple bacteria Rhodopseudomonas (Rps.) viridis, quantum chemistry density functional method (DFT, B3LYP/6-31G) has been performed to study the interactions between the pigment molecules and either the surrounded amino acid residues or water molecules that are either axially coordinated or hydrogen bonded with the pigment molecules, leading to an explanation of the mechanism of the primary electron-transfer (ET) reactions in the PRC. Results show that the axial coordination of amino acid residues greatly raises the ELUMO of pigment molecules and it is important for the possibility of ET to take place. Different hydrogen bonds between amino acid residues, water molecules and pigment molecules decrease the ELUMO of the pigment molecules to different extents. It is crucial for the ET taking place from excited P along L branch and sustains that the ET is a one-step reaction without through accessory bacteriochlorophyll (ABChl b). It is insufficient to treat the whole protein surrounding as a homogeneous dielectric medium.

  13. GW4064, an agonist of farnesoid X receptor, represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes by inducing small heterodimer partner expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2015-05-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a regulator of bile acid and lipid homeostasis and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. The biologic function of FXR is mediated in part by a small heterodimer partner (SHP); ligand-activated FXR enhances SHP expression, and SHP in turn represses the activity of multiple transcription factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FXR activation on expression of the major drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. The effects of 3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4-(3'-carboxy-2-chlorostilben-4-yl)oxymethyl-5-isopropylisoxazole (GW4064), a synthetic agonist of FXR, on the expression and activity of CYP3A4 were examined in primary human hepatocytes by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and S9 phenotyping. In human hepatocytes, treatment of GW4064 (1 μM) for 48 hours resulted in a 75% decrease in CYP3A4 mRNA expression and a 25% decrease in CYP3A4 activity, accompanied by ∼3-fold increase in SHP mRNA expression. In HepG2 cells, SHP repressed transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter by pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and glucocorticoid receptor. Interestingly, GW4064 did not repress expression of CYP2B6, another target gene of PXR and CAR; GW4064 enhanced CYP2B6 promoter activity. In conclusion, GW4064 represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes, potentially through upregulation of SHP expression and subsequent repression of CYP3A4 promoter activity. Clinically significant drug-drug interaction involving FXR agonists and CYP3A4 substrates may occur. PMID:25725071

  14. Modulation of expression of the nuclear receptor NR0B2 (small heterodimer partner 1) and its impact on proliferation of renal carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestin, Katharina; Olbert, Maria; Hussner, Janine; Isenegger, Tamara L; Gliesche, Daniel G; Böttcher, Kerstin; Zimmermann, Uwe; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcription factors regulating the expression of target genes that play an important role in drug metabolism, transport, and cellular signaling pathways. The orphan and structurally unique receptor small heterodimer partner 1 (syn NR0B2) is not only known for its modulation of drug response, but has also been reported to be involved in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Indeed, previous studies show that NR0B2 is downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that NR0B2 acts as a tumor suppressor via inhibition of cellular growth and activation of apoptosis in this tumor entity. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether NR0B2 may also play a role in other tumor entities. Comparing NR0B2 expression in renal cell carcinoma and adjacent nonmalignant transformed tissue revealed significant downregulation in vivo. Additionally, the impact of heterologous expression of NR0B2 on cell cycle progression and proliferation in cells of renal origin was characterized. Monitoring fluorescence intensity of resazurin turnover in RCC-EW cells revealed no significant differences in metabolic activity in the presence of NR0B2. However, there was a significant decrease of cellular proliferation in cells overexpressing this NR, and NR0B2 was more efficient than currently used antiproliferative agents. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that heterologous overexpression of NR0B2 significantly reduced the amount of cells passing the G1 phase, while on the other hand, more cells in S/G2 phase were detected. Taken together, our data suggest that downregulation of NR0B2 may also play a role in renal cell carcinoma development and progression. PMID:27540300

  15. A study of Italian pediatric celiac disease patients confirms that the primary HLA association is to the DQ(alpha 1*0501, beta 1*0201) heterodimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, M C; Ferrante, P; Mariani, P; Martone, E; Petronzelli, F; Triglione, P; Bonamico, M

    1992-02-01

    Celiac disease (CD) has been recently reported to be primarily associated with the DQ(alpha 1*0501, beta 1*0201) heterodimer encoded in cis on DR3 haplotype and in trans in DR5,7 heterozygous individuals. The high incidence of DR5,7 heterozygotes, reflecting the high frequency of the DR5 allele in Italy, makes the analysis of the Italian CD patients critical. Polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA from 50 CD patients and 50 controls, serologically typed for DR and DQw antigens, was hybridized with five DQA1-specific oligonucleotide probes detecting DQA1*0101 + 0102 + 0103, DQA1*0201, DQA1*0301 + 0302, DQA1*0401 + 0501 + 0601, and DQA1*0501 and a DQB1-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe recognizing DQB1*0201 allele. As expected by the DR-DQ disequilibria, DQA1*0201 [62% in patients versus 26% in controls, relative risk (RR) = 5] and DQA1*0501 (96% versus 56%, RR = 19) show positive association with the disease. Of CD patients, 92% (50% DR3 and 42% DR5,7) compared to 18% of the controls carry both DQA1*0501 and DQB1*0201 alleles, so that the combination confers an RR of 52, higher than both the risks of the single alleles (DQA1*0501 RR = 19, DQB1*0201 RR = 30), confirming the primary role of the dimer in determining genetic predisposition to CD both in DR3 and in DR5,7 subjects. PMID:1563982

  16. Identification of fruit volatiles from green hawthorn (Crataegus viridis) and blueberry hawthorn (Crataegus brachyacantha) host plants attractive to different phenotypes of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Powell, Thomas H Q; Feder, Jeffrey L; Linn, Charles E

    2011-09-01

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously constructed blends for northern fly populations that infest domestic apple (Malus domestica), downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis), and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Here, we show by using coupled gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and flight tunnel bioassays, that two additional southern hawthorn fly populations infesting C. viridis (green hawthorn) and C. brachyacantha (blueberry hawthorn) also can discriminate between volatile blends for each host fruit type. A 9-component blend was developed for C. viridis (3-methylbutan-1-ol [5%], butyl butanoate [19.5%], propyl hexanoate [1.5%], butyl hexanoate [24%], hexyl butanoate [24%], pentyl hexanoate [2.5%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.5%], pentyl butanoate [2.5%], and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) [20.5%]) and an 8-component blend for C. brachyacantha (3-methylbutan-1-ol [0.6%], butyl acetate [50%], pentyl acetate [3.5%], butyl butanoate [9%], butyl hexanoate [16.8%], hexyl butanoate [16.8%], 1-octen-3-ol [0.3%], and pentyl butanoate [3%]). Crataegus viridis and C. brachyacantha-origin flies showed significantly higher levels of upwind oriented flight to their natal blend in flight tunnel assays compared to the alternate, non-natal blend and previously developed northern host plant blends. The presence of DMNT in C. viridis and butyl acetate in C. brachyacantha appeared to be largely responsible for driving the differential response. This sharp behavioral distinction underscores the diversity of odor response phenotypes in the southern USA, points to possible host race formation in these

  17. Pharmacodynamics of TD-1792, a novel glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer antibiotic used against Gram-positive bacteria, in a neutropenic murine thigh model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sharath S; Okusanya, Olanrewaju O; Skinner, Robert; Shaw, Jeng-Pyng; Obedencio, Glenmar; Ambrose, Paul G; Blais, Johanne; Bhavnani, Sujata M

    2012-03-01

    TD-1792 is a novel glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer investigational antibiotic that displays potent bactericidal effects against clinically relevant Gram-positive organisms in vitro. The present studies evaluated the in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of TD-1792 in the neutropenic murine thigh infection animal model. TD-1792, dosed subcutaneously (SC), produced dose-dependent reduction in the thigh bacterial burden of several organisms, including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MSSA, MRSA, MSSE, MRSE, respectively), penicillin-susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP), Streptococcus pyogenes, and vancomycin-intermediate-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). In single-dose efficacy studies, the 1-log(10) CFU kill effective dose (ED(1-log kill)) estimates for TD-1792 ranged from 0.049 to 2.55 mg/kg of body weight administered SC, and the bacterial burden was reduced by up to 3 log(10) CFU/g from pretreatment values. Against S. aureus ATCC 33591 (MRSA), the total 24-h log(10) stasis dose (ED(stasis)) and ED(1-logkill) doses for TD-1792 were 0.53 and 1.11 mg/kg/24 h, respectively, compared to 23.4 and 54.6 mg/kg/24 h for vancomycin, indicating that TD-1762 is 44- to 49-fold more potent than vancomycin. PK-PD analysis of data from single-dose and dose-fractionation studies for MRSA (ATCC 33591) demonstrated that the total-drug 24-h area under the concentration-time curve-to-MIC ratio (AUC/MIC ratio) was the best predictor of efficacy (r(2) = 0.826) compared to total-drug maximum plasma concentration of drug-to-MIC ratio (Cmax/MIC ratio; r(2) = 0.715) and percent time that the total-drug plasma drug concentration remains above the MIC (%Time>MIC; r(2) = 0.749). The magnitudes of the total-drug AUC/MIC ratios associated with net bacterial stasis, a 1-log(10) CFU reduction from baseline and near maximal effect, were 21.1, 37.2, and 51.8, respectively. PK

  18. BMP-2 and BMP-2/7 Heterodimers Conjugated to a Fibrin/Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogel in a Large Animal Model of Mild Intervertebral Disc Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Mirte; Detiger, Suzanne E L; Karfeld-Sulzer, Lindsay S; Smit, Theo H; Yayon, Avner; Weber, Franz E; Helder, Marco N

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is etiologically associated with low back pain and is currently only treated in severe cases with spinal fusion. Regenerative medicine attempts to restore degenerated tissue by means of cells, hydrogels, and/or growth factors and can therefore be used to slow, halt, or reverse the degeneration of the IVD in a minimally invasive manner. Previously, the growth factors bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 (BMP-2, -7) were shown to enhance disc regeneration, in vitro and in vivo. Since BMPs have only a short in vivo half-life, and to prevent heterotopic ossification, we evaluated the use of a slow release system for BMP-2 homodimers and BMP-2/7 heterodimers for IVD regeneration. BMP growth factors were conjugated to a fibrin/hyaluronic acid (FB/HA) hydrogel and intradiscally injected in a goat model of mild IVD degeneration to study safety and efficacy. Mild degeneration was induced in five lumbar discs of seven adult Dutch milk goats, by injections with the enzyme chondroitinase ABC. After 12 weeks, discs were treated with either FB/HA-hydrogel only or supplemented with 1 or 5 μg/mL of BMP-2 or BMP-2/7. BMPs were linked to the FB/HA hydrogels using a transglutaminase moiety, to be released through an incorporated plasmin cleavage site. After another 12 weeks, goats were sacrificed and discs were assessed using radiography, MRI T2* mapping, and biochemical and histological analyses. All animals maintained weight throughout the study and no heterotopic bone formation or other adverse effects were noted during follow-up. Radiographs showed significant disc height loss upon induction of mild degeneration. MRI T2* mapping showed strong and significant correlations with biochemistry and histology as shown before. Surprisingly, no differences could be demonstrated in any parameter between intervention groups. To our knowledge, this is the first large animal study evaluating BMPs conjugated to an FB/HA-hydrogel for the treatment of

  19. Studies on the Seasonal Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes Activity on Differently, Polluted Areas along the Bay of Bengal Employing Perna viridis as an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amutha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are the innate or acquired molecules capable of slowing down or preventing the oxidative damage (damage due to reactive oxygen species that caused by free radicals. The antioxidant enzyme activity in response to season as well as hydrocarbon pollution was attempted. Rayapuram fishing harbor of Chennai (Station-1 is highly oil contaminated with oil sleeks on the surface. The relatively moderate oil contaminated area (Station-2 is about 2 km away from the fishing harbor and the least contaminated Vellar estuary Parangipettai (Station-3 was considered as the reference site. The 2 year (2005-2007 observation was recorded seasonally; the antioxidant activity varied seasonally and organally (digestive gland, gill and mantle in the marine green mussel Perna viridis. The common antioxidant enzymes such as Catalase (CAT, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD and Glutathione Reductase (GR activity were evaluated. The CAT and SOD are responded well with seasons (i.e., monsoon, pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and summer seasons. During monsoon period, both CAT and SOD activity are very low in all the Stations, in both pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period their activity were moderate and higher enzyme activity was noted during summer season. On contrary, the GR activity was noted as very low during summer and very high during pre or post monsoon and the activity was moderate during monsoon period. In addition the GR activity respond to temperature also but the other antioxidants CAT and SOD yielded no detectable activity. Among the organs liver showed higher CAT and SOD activity when compared to gill and mantle but the GR exhibited the increased activity in gill but not in liver.

  20. Uptake and depuration of PAHs and chlorinated pesticides by semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semi-batch seawater experiments were conducted to follow the uptake and release of selected PAHs (anthracene, fluorathene, pyrene and B[a]P) and organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT) in semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis). Mathematical models were applied to describe the uptake and elimination curves of the contaminants for SPMDs, and kinetic parameters, such as uptake rate constants, and equilibrium triolein/water partitioning coefficients were calculated. SPMD data showed a good fit to estimate rate constant and partition coefficient equations, but only those contaminants which partitioned mainly in the dissolved phase (α-HCH and dieldrin) were well explained for mussels. Poor conformity of the other contaminants indicated mussels uptake by routes other than diffusion, such as ingestion of algae. An apparent equilibrium state was only noted for α-HCH in mussels. Aldrin was not detected in mussels in the first few days of exposure, indicating potential metabolism of this compound. B[a]P was not detected in the triolein of SPMDs, which suggests that the membrane may act as a reservoir. Loss of spiked B[a]P from the triolein was evident in a depuration experiment, which may indicate transfer to the membrane. Rate constants for mussels were higher than those for SPMDs, but the reverse was true for partition coefficients. Overall, mussels and SPMDs had similar uptake rates for all compounds in this study, excluding p,p'-DDT and dieldrin. Contaminant elimination took place more rapidly in mussels, implying that SPMDs are better candidates for detecting episodic discharge of organic contaminants

  1. Influences of dissolved and colloidal organic carbon on the uptake of Ag, Cd, and Cr by the marine mussel Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross-flow ultrafiltration and radiotracer techniques were used to study the influences of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colloidal organic carbon (COC) on the bioavailability of Ag, Cd, and Cr to the green mussel Perna viridis. We examined the uptake of these metals by the mussels at different concentrations of DOC and COC from different origins (estuarine, coastal, and diatom decomposed). Using the DOC originating from the decomposed diatom (Thalassiosira pseudonana), we demonstrated that Cd and Cr uptake, quantified by the concentration factor (DCF), increased linearly with increasing DOC concentration. There was, however, no consistent influence of natural DOC concentration on the metal uptake when the DOC was obtained from different sources of seawater (coastal and estuarine). The influences of COC on metal bioavailability were metal-specific and dependent on the geochemical properties of colloids and colloid-metal complexation. Cd uptake rate was not influenced by the COC concentrations. Uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Cr was enhanced by 3.4x, whereas the uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Ag was decreased by 8.2x compared with the uptake of low molecular weight Cr and Ag (<1 kDa). The uptake of diatom-decomposed colloidal Cr and Ag was generally lower than the uptake of metals bound with the same type of colloids for 2 days. Further aging of the colloid-metal binding reduced metal bioavailability to the mussels. In the presence of different sizes of colloidal particles where there was no major binding of colloids with the metals, metal uptake by the mussels was not influenced by different COC concentrations. Overall, our study suggests that although metal dissociation from colloids may be an important step for the uptake of colloidal metals, other mechanisms such as pinocytosis and co-transport may also be involved in the uptake of these metals, especially in aquatic environments with high DOC and COC concentrations. - Organic carbon

  2. Mussel-based monitoring of trace metal and organic contaminants along the east coast of China using Perna viridis and Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green lipped mussels, Perna viridis, and blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, were collected from seven locations along the east coast of China in September and October 2001. The mussel tissues were analyzed for metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg), and trace organic contaminants including organochlorine compounds (OCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; based on 24 individual PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). Maximum concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Cu, Fe and Hg in the mussel tissues were 0.14, 26.76, 5.31, 15.72, 4.78, 2.93, 7.40, 231.0, 54.17, 1002 and 317.3 μg/g dry weight respectively. Levels of DDTs, PAHs, PCBs and PHCs in the mussel samples were 14-640, 456-3495, 1-13 ng/g and 621-2863 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Results of this study indicated that contaminant levels were, in general, higher or at least comparable to those reported in other local or regional studies. Mussel samples collected in Chongming Dao in Shanghai and Jiao Zhou Wan in Qingdao had significantly higher levels of metal and trace organic contaminants among the seven sampling stations. Examination of the contaminant profiles suggests that PHCs originated from petrogenic sources, while both petrogenic and pyrolytic sources were important for PAHs. The generally high levels of metals and organochlorine compounds are probably the result of increasingly intense industrial activities along the east coast of China. An assessment of potential risks to human health due to consumption of the mussels was undertaken for the metals, PCBs, DDTs and chlordanes, and the results indicated that all metals, except Ni, could pose a health risk to heavy seafood consumers, while Hg appears to be of concern even for low level consumers. - Mussel-based monitoring revealed trace metal and organic contaminants which pose potential human health risks

  3. Photosynthetic acclimation to photon irradiance and its relation to chlorophyll fluorescence and carbon assimilation in the halotolerant green alga Dunaliella viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, F J; Jiménez, C; Chavarría, J; Xavier Niell, F

    2001-01-01

    This work describes the long-term acclimation of the halotolerant microalga Dunaliella viridis to different photon irradiance, ranging from darkness to 1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1). In order to assess the effects of long-term photoinhibition, changes in oxygen production rate, pigment composition, xanthophyll cycle and in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence using the saturating pulse method were measured. Growth rate was maximal at intermediate irradiance (250 and 700 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). The increase in growth irradiance from 700 to 1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1) did not lead to further significant changes in pigment composition or EPS, indicating saturation in the pigment response to high light. Changes in Photosystem II optimum quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) evidenced photoinhibition at 700 and especially at 1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1). The relation between photosynthetic electron flow rate and photosyntetic O(2) evolution was linear for cultures in darkness shifting to curvilinear as growth irradiance increased, suggesting the interference of the energy dissipation processes in oxygen evolution. Carbon assimilation efficiencies were studied in relation to changes in growth rate, internal carbon and nitrogen composition, and organic carbon released to the external medium. All illuminated cultures showed a high capability to maintain a C:N ratio between 6 and 7. The percentage of organic carbon released to the external medium increased to its maximum under high irradiance (1500 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). These results suggest that the release of organic carbon could act as a secondary dissipation process when the xanthophyll cycle is saturated. PMID:16228345

  4. Stability and specificity of heterodimer formation for the coiled-coil neck regions of the motor proteins Kif3A and Kif3B: the role of unstructured oppositely charged regions

    OpenAIRE

    Chana, M.S.; Tripet, B.P.; Mant, C. T.; Hodges, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the folding, stability, and specificity of dimerization of the neck regions of the kinesin-like proteins Kif3A (residues 356–416) and Kif3B (residues 351–411). We showed that the complementary charged regions found in the hinge regions (which directly follow the neck regions) of these proteins do not adopt any secondary structure in solution. We then explored the ability of the complementary charged regions to specify heterodimer formation for the neck region coiled-coils foun...

  5. Seasonal variation in antioxidative responses and acetylcholinesterase activity in Perna viridis in eastern oceanic and western estuarine waters of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. S.; Wong, H. L.; Garrigues, Ph.

    2004-10-01

    A year-round study was conducted to assess the seasonal variations and potential influence of the riverine discharge from the Pearl River on biomarker responses in Hong Kong waters. A suite of biomarkers including antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), a Phase II detoxification enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the neural transmitter enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the green mussel, Perna viridis, were monitored from three coastal sites, Port Shelter, Tung Chung and Tai O, stretching from the east to the west of Hong Kong. Despite of the seasonal variations, the total protein profiles suggested that mussels from the three sites had a growth cycle that was in phase with each other. This implied that intrinsic variation between sites due to a different phase of growth was minimal. Seasonal variations of the biomarker responses in the mussels were found to be significant (Tukey multiple comparison test, p<0.05) with a summer minimum and winter maximum. On top of seasonal variations, the western site, Tai O, was further subjected to the reduced salinity effect of the Pearl River discharge in the summer wet season. This was demonstrated by the significant July minimum in all the biomarker responses at Tai O in relation to the extreme low salinity of 8‰. Mussels from the western site also revealed a higher oxidative stress than those from the eastern side throughout the year (Tukey multiple comparison test, p<0.05), which could be caused by chemical pollutants from the Pearl River discharge. ANOVAs of the year-round dataset suggested that size was a minor factor in affecting the biomarker responses. Gill tissues of the mussels were more advantageous for biomarker studies or monitoring because their protein levels were less sensitive to seasonal variations and they yielded a higher protein normalized biomarker response than the whole body tissues. This increases their

  6. Accumulation and Clearance of PAHs and CYP1A Levels in Farmed Green Mussels (Perna viridis L. from a Coastal Industrial Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaporn Cholumpai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Green mussels (Perna viridis L. that inhabit along coastal areas with established petro-chemical industries are likely to be exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. In year 2011, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs accumulated (i.e. total of 16 PAH congeners in three different sizes of farmed mussels in the Maptaphut industrial estate which is an industrial park in the Gulf of Thailand. The levels of mean total PAHs (0.4303 ± 0.3067 µg/g dry weight in large sized (consumable size mussels were 16 and 8 times higher than medium and small sized mussels. Levels of total carcinogenic PAHs (0.0311± 0.0310 µg/g dry weight in consumable size mussels were 15 and 11 times higher compared to medium and small sized mussels. Two carcinogenic PAHs (i.e. chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene were detected in all sized mussels. The ratio of high molecular weight versus low molecular weight PAHs in all sized mussels indicated the presence of pyrogenic PAHs contamination over petrogenic PAHs in this coastal area. Further studies were carried out in year 2012 involved depuration in consumable sized mussels and effects on the cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A biomarker were analyzed over a 30 day depuration period. The half-life was five days for total PAH burden (0.4765 ± 0.0615 µg/g dry weight, which included four non-carcinogenic PAHs. After 10, 15 and 30 days depuration in clean water, the mean total PAHs levels decreased gradually but yet significantly (0.2501 ± 0.0186, 0.1350 ± 0.0122 and 0.1554 ± 0.0353 µg/g dry weight, respectively compared to the PAH levels at day 0. Levels of CYP1A declined accordingly and at 30 days depuration CYP1A protein levels were significantly reduced by almost 3-fold compared the PAH levels in mussels from the Maptaphut industrial estate. The results show that farmed green mussels reared for human consumptions are exposed to PAHs including carcinogenic PAHs and that clearance of these PAHs is evident at 30 days depuration. This study

  7. Estabilidad temporal de las infracomunidades de parásitos en la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces : Blenniidae en la costa central de Chile Temporal stability in parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis(Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces: Blenniidae on the central coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY DÍAZ

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comparan las infracomunidades de parásitos de la borrachilla Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae de tres muestras tomadas en un lapso de 17 meses, entre 1999 y 2001, desde pozas intermareales vecinas a Las Cruces (33°27' S, 71°37' O, Chile central. El objetivo es averiguar si la riqueza, diversidad, abundancia y composición de las infracomunidades de parásitos son persistentes o no en el tiempo ontogenético y cronológico. Se recolectaron 10 taxa parasitarios en cerca del 89 % de los 63 huéspedes examinados, de los cuales ocho eran metazoarios. La búsqueda de protozoos se realizó sólo en los últimos 2 años. El 75 % de los ocho taxa de metazoos ocurrieron en los tres años, uno no estuvo presente en un año, y otro fue encontrado solamente en un año. La mayoría de los huéspedes examinados albergaba protozoos parásitos. La prevalencia de los protozoos Cryptobia sp. fue alta para ambos años, y menor en Trichodina sp. La longitud total de los huéspedes era un predictor relevante de las variaciones en la riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y composición infracomunitaria en el conjunto de los tres años. En cambio, el año de muestreo no lo fue, en particular al comparar entre huéspedes de similar longitud total. Estos resultados son similares a los encontrados en infracomunidades de parásitos de otras especies de peces en Chile, en que hay baja variabilidad en las propiedades agregadas de las infracomunidades en el tiempo cronológico. Se discute acerca de la extensión relativa del tiempo ontogenético en contraste al tiempo cronológico al ser probablemente ambos de importancia en las características de las infracomunidades, y se propone que se explore la medida en la cual estos resultados constituyen un patrón.Parasite infracommunities of the blenny Scartichthys viridis (Pisces: Blenniidae are compared among three samples taken within a 17-month period during three consecutive years (1999-2001, from intertidal pools at

  8. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  9. Sphodromantis viridis (Forskal, 1775: New for Portugal and new records of the rare and small mantids Apteromantis aptera (Fuente, 1894 and Perlamantis allibertii Guérin-Méneville, 1843 in the country (Mantodea: Mantidae and Amorphoscelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marabuto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several new records are presented on some of the least known mantis species in the Iberian Peninsula. From data collected in Portugal, their analysis has proven to represent an important advancement in the knowledge of this group of insects for the country and the Western Mediterranean area. Twenty new citations provide a better understanding on the distribution of the crepuscular species Perlamantis allibertii, the IUCN red listed Apteromantis aptera and the first Portuguese records of Sphodromantis viridis, extending their western limits of occurrence in Europe. The data thus gathered emphasizes the need to invest in biodiversity assessment for increased knowledge on species distribution and phenology but also for monitoring over time, essential to better ascertaining ecosystem services, the effects of climate change and habitat conservation.

  10. Characterization of a glutamine synthetase gene DvGS1 from Dunaliella viridis and investigation of the impact on expression of DvGS1 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenguang; Fan, Qianlan; Wang, Wei; Shen, Chunlei; Wang, Peipei; Meng, Xiangzong; Tang, Yuanping; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2014-01-01

    A novel glutamine synthetase (GS) gene DvGS1 showing highest amino acid sequence identity of 78 % with the other homologous GS proteins from green algae, was isolated and characterized from Dunaliella viridis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that DvGS1 occupied an independent phylogenetic position which was different with the GSs from higher plants, animals and microbes. Functional complement in E. coli mutant confirmed that the DvGS1 encoded functional GS enzyme. Real-time PCR analysis of DvGS1 in D. viridis cells under nitrogen starvation revealed that the mRNA level of DvGS1 was positively up-regulated in 12 h. The DvGS1 levels at the points of 12 and 24 h were separately twofold and fourfold of the level before nitrogen starvation. In order to investigate the potential application of DvGS1 in higher plants, the transgenic study of DvGS1 in Arabidopsis thaliana was carried out. Phenotype identification demonstrated that all three transgenic lines of T3 generation showed obviously enhanced root length (26 %), fresh weight (22-46 % at two concentrations of nitrate supplies), stem length (26 %), leaf size (29 %) and silique number (30 %) compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis. Biochemical analysis confirmed that all three transgenic lines had higher total nitrogen content, soluble protein concentration, total amino acid content and the leaf GS activity than the wild type plants. The free NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) concentration in fresh leaves of three transgenic lines were reduced by 17-26 % and 14-15 % separately (at two concentrations of nitrate supplies) compared with those of the wild types. All the results indicated that over-expression of DvGS1 in Arabidopsis significantly results in the improvement of growth phenotype and the host's nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:24307252

  11. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  12. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  13. Partition function and base pairing probabilities of RNA heterodimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA has been recognized as a key player in cellular regulation in recent years. In many cases, non-coding RNAs exert their function by binding to other nucleic acids, as in the case of microRNAs and snoRNAs. The specificity of these interactions derives from the stability of inter-molecular base pairing. The accurate computational treatment of RNA-RNA binding therefore lies at the heart of target prediction algorithms. Methods The standard dynamic programming algorithms for computing secondary structures of linear single-stranded RNA molecules are extended to the co-folding of two interacting RNAs. Results We present a program, RNAcofold, that computes the hybridization energy and base pairing pattern of a pair of interacting RNA molecules. In contrast to earlier approaches, complex internal structures in both RNAs are fully taken into account. RNAcofold supports the calculation of the minimum energy structure and of a complete set of suboptimal structures in an energy band above the ground state. Furthermore, it provides an extension of McCaskill's partition function algorithm to compute base pairing probabilities, realistic interaction energies, and equilibrium concentrations of duplex structures. Availability RNAcofold is distributed as part of the Vienna RNA Package, http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/RNA/. Contact Stephan H. Bernhart – berni@tbi.univie.ac.at

  14. Efeito de cascas de café e de arroz dispostas nas camadas do solo sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial do caruru-de-mancha Allelopathic effect of coffee and rice husks arranged in soil layers on the germination and initial growth of Amaranthus viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Santos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos dos efeitos dos resíduos de plantas pela utilização de coberturas mortas no controle das plantas daninhas têm apresentado dificuldade de determinar a diferenciação entre alelopatia e competição. Atualmente, muitas pesquisas têm se referido a critérios que propõem evidência à alelopatia. Este trabalho em casa de vegetação visou determinar os efeitos alelopáticos proporcionados pelas cascas de café e de arroz sobre o caruru-de-mancha, por meio das disposições desses resíduos nas camadas do solo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em quatro repetições e organizados num esquema fatorial (3x3, sendo cascas de café e de arroz e vermiculita expandida como um fator e suas disposições, com resíduos depositados no topo, incorporados na superfície e incorporados no fundo, como segundo fator. Como testemunha foi usado um tratamento adicional sem cobertura. De modo geral, resíduos de cascas proporcionaram inibição da germinação e estímulo ao crescimento do caruru-de-mancha. A casca de arroz proporcionou menor índice de velocidade de emergência e germinação de sementes do que a casca de café. A casca de café depositada no topo proporcionou maior crescimento e maior peso da matéria seca do caruru-de-mancha, seguido pela mesma casca incorporada na superfície do solo.Studies of plant residue effects involving mulches to control weeds in perennial crops are difficult to carry out due to the need to differentiate between allelopathy and competition. Many researches, nowadays, refer to criteria proving allelopathy. This work was established under greenhouse conditions to determine the allelopathic effects of coffee and rice husks on Amaranthus viridis through their arrangements in soil layers. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with coffee and rice husks and expanded vermiculite being one factor and

  15. Radioprotective effect by biomass from marine micro alga platymonas viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Dose Modifying Factor (DMF) of algal biomass feeding to male white rats prior to irradiation was found at 1.32. The results revealed that feeding algal biomass extended the average longevity of rats from 16.5 to 23.2 and from 28.1 to more than 37.8 days when irradiated at 9.0 Gy and 6.5 Gy respectively. There were sharp differences in leukocytes and thrombocytes content of peripheral blood of rats irradiated after taking algal biomass and without taking that. All these signify a reasonable influence of algal biomass on immunological response against radiation. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tables (author)

  16. The effects of chenodeoxycholic acid on the expression of farnisoid X receptor and small heterodimer partner in the kidney of high-fructose-fed rats.%鹅去氧胆酸对高果糖喂养大鼠肾组织中法尼醇X受体和小异源二聚体伴侣的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志娟; 任路平; 王超; 李芳; 董春霞; 李刚; 刘冰; 宋光耀

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过观察高果糖喂养大鼠肾组织中法尼醇X受体(FXR)及小异源二聚体伴侣(SHP)的表达,探讨高果糖致肾损伤的机制.通过鹅去氧胆酸的干预,初步探讨其保护作用机制.方法 将48只大鼠分为正常对照组(对照组,n=16),高果糖组(n=16)及鹅去氧胆酸组(n=16),8周及16周时分批处死,检测各组大鼠的肾功能、空腹血糖、血脂及24 h尿微量白蛋白;检测大鼠肾皮质三酰甘油含量;免疫组织化学染色检测FXR的表达和定位;FXR及SHP的表达采用实时荧光定量PCR分析技术,并应用Western-blot法分析FXR及SHP的蛋白表达.结果 与对照组比较,高果糖组大鼠左肾重/体重,血中三酰甘油和极低密度脂蛋白水平明显升高,24 h尿白蛋白增加,肾组织中三酰甘油水平明显增高,且随时间延长而加重(P<0.05);高果糖组大鼠肾组织FXR表达明显下调,FXR及SHP的基因及蛋白表达明显减少,且随时间延长其表达减弱(P<0.01).鹅去氧胆酸组上述指标明显改善(P<0.05).结论 高果糖饮食喂养可导致大鼠高三酰甘油血症、高极低密度脂蛋白血症、高尿酸血症和尿微量白蛋白水平增加,可引起大鼠肾皮质三酰甘油蓄积,使大鼠肾组织FXR及SHP的基因及蛋白表达明显减少,从而使肾脏脂质合成增加,进而导致肾脏损伤.鹅去氧胆酸可上调高果糖喂养大鼠肾组织FXR及SHP的基因及蛋白表达,减轻肾损伤.%Objective To observe the effects of high - fructose - feeding on farnisoid X receptor ( FXR ) and small heterodimer partner ( SHP ) in rat kidney so as to explore the mechanism of renal injury and to investigate the protective effect of chenodexoycholic acid ( CDCA ) intervention. Methods Forty - eight healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups ( n = 16 ): normal control group, high fructose group and CDCA group. The rats were sacrificed at the end of 8 and 16 weeks. The BUN, Scr, UA, fast glucose

  17. МАТЕРИАЛЫ К ГЕЛЬМИНТОФАУНЕ ЗЕЛЕНОЙ ЖАБЫ B UFO VIRIDIS LAURENTI, 1768 (AMPHIBIA: ANURA) В САМАРСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ

    OpenAIRE

    Чихляев, И.

    2014-01-01

    Представлены данные о гельминтофауне зеленой жабы Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 на территории Самарской области. Всего обнаружено 14 видов гельминтов из 5 классов: Monogenea (1), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (6), Nematoda (5) и Acanthocephala (1). Типичными паразитами с высокой степенью инвазии являются геонематоды Cosmocerca commutata (Diesing, 1851), Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) и Rhabdias bufonis (Schrank, 1788). Моногенеи, цестоды, трематоды и скребни относятся к числу редких паразитов ...

  18. ВЛИЯНИЕ ЭТАНОЛА НА СОСТАВ И ВЫХОД БИОМАССЫ DUNALIELLA VIRIDIS TEODOR. ПРИ КВАЗИНЕПРЕРЫВНОМ КУЛЬТИВИРОВАНИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Божков, А.; Мензянова, Н.; Сысенко, Е.

    2014-01-01

    Исследовали влияние этанола (конечная концентрация 0,3 и 0,5%) на выход биомассы, ее состав (содержание нуклеиновых кислот, протеинов, липидов, хлорофиллов a и b, -каротина и экзо полисахаридов) и морфологию клеток Dunaliella viridis в режиме квазинепрерывного культивирования. Обнаружено, что добавление в среду культивирования этанола до конечной концентрации 0,3% увеличивало выход биомассы в 2 раза по сравнению с квазинепрерывным культивированием без этанола и в 2,5 раза по сравнению с нако...

  19. Imaging evidence for endothelin ETA/ETB receptor heterodimers in isolated rat mesenteric resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapsokalyvas, Dimitrios; Schiffers, Paul M H; Maij, Nathan;

    2014-01-01

    normal ETA-mediated responses. They were then exposed to 100 nM linear ET-1 (ETB-agonist) labeled with Oregon Green 488 (OG488/L.-ET-1) and/or to 16nM intact ET-1 (ETA/ETB-agonist) labeled with the rhodamine dye TAMRA (TAMRA/ET-1). Two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) was used for the...... visualization of their binding in the tissue. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) was employed for measurements of the OG488/L.-ET-1 lifetime in the absence and presence of TAMRA/ET-1. KEY FINDINGS: After incubation with the labeled ligands, medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were efficiently stained...... and became visible under TPLSM. TAMRA/ET-1 bound to all SMCs whereas OG488/L.-ET-1 stained only groups of SMCs. Interaction of the two receptor subtypes in SMC was investigated in double staining experiments. Fluorescence lifetime of OG488/L.-ET-1 was reduced in the presence of TAMRA/ET-1, which...

  20. Plasmonic behavior of gold nanorod heterodimers with free-electron feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasmon coupling between metal nanostructures can lead to huge local electric field enhancement and new plasmon modes. Here, we study the effect of the close proximity of two gold nanorod particles on the modification of localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes of the individual on gold nanorod in spectral and spatial domain using cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and imaging in a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). Significantly enhanced resonant emission is observed from the nanorod dimers when the electron beam is injected around the junction between the rods, where the local density of electromagnetic states is raised

  1. Expression of calgranulin A/B heterodimer after acute inhalation of endotoxin: proteomic approach and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Olivier; Doyen, Virginie; LEROY, Baptiste; Bopp, Benjamin; Dinh, Duc Huy Phong; Corazza, Francis; Wattiez, Ruddy

    2013-01-01

    Background The acute inhalation of endotoxin mimicks several aspects of the inflammation related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the current study was to identify and to validate biomarkers of endotoxin-induced airways’ inflammation. Methods The cellular count in the induced-sputum, was measured before and after an inhalation of 20 mcg endotoxin, in 8 healthy volunteers. A proteomic analysis was applied to identify the more relevant proteins expression, before meas...

  2. Coiled coil heterodimers with parallel and anti-parallel orientation designed for polymer drug delivery systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechar, Michal; Pola, Robert; Laga, Richard; Braunová, Alena; Ulbrich, Karel; Filippov, Sergey K.; Bogomolova, Anna; Bednárová, Lucie; Sieglová, Irena; Král, Vlastimil; Fábry, Milan; Kabešová, Martina; Kovář, Marek; Vaněk, O.

    Chiang Mai : IUPAC, 2014. 366 /BTEC-7/. [MACRO 2014 - 2014 IUPAC World Polymer Congress. 06.07.2014-11.07.2014, Chiang Mai] R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP207/12/J030 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : coiled coil * hydrophilic polymers * polymer therapeutics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  3. Vitamin D receptor-retinoid X receptor heterodimer signaling regulates oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Alerie Guzman; Errea, Oihana; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Gonzalez, Ginez A; Kerninon, Christophe; Jarjour, Andrew A; Lewis, Hilary J; Jones, Clare A; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Zhao, Chao; Huang, Jeffrey K; ffrench-Constant, Charles; Franklin, Robin J M

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms regulating differentiation of oligodendrocyte (OLG) progenitor cells (OPCs) into mature OLGs are key to understanding myelination and remyelination. Signaling via the retinoid X receptor γ (RXR-γ) has been shown to be a positive regulator of OPC differentiation. However, the nuclear receptor (NR) binding partner of RXR-γ has not been established. In this study we show that RXR-γ binds to several NRs in OPCs and OLGs, one of which is vitamin D receptor (VDR). Using pharmacological and knockdown approaches we show that RXR-VDR signaling induces OPC differentiation and that VDR agonist vitamin D enhances OPC differentiation. We also show expression of VDR in OLG lineage cells in multiple sclerosis. Our data reveal a role for vitamin D in the regenerative component of demyelinating disease and identify a new target for remyelination medicines. PMID:26644513

  4. Structural and biochemical characterization of the Cop9 signalosome CSN5/CSN6 heterodimer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Birol

    Full Text Available The Cop9 signalosome complex (CSN regulates the functional cycle of the major E3 ubiquitin ligase family, the cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs. Activated CRLs are covalently modified by the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 (neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 8. CSN serves an essential role in myriad cellular processes by reversing this modification through the isopeptidase activity of its CSN5 subunit. CSN5 alone is inactive due to an auto-inhibited conformation of its catalytic domain. Here we report the molecular basis of CSN5 catalytic domain activation and unravel a molecular hierarchy in CSN deneddylation activity. The association of CSN5 and CSN6 MPN (for Mpr1/Pad1 N-terminal domains activates its isopeptidase activity. The CSN5/CSN6 module, however, is inefficient in CRL deneddylation, indicating a requirement of further elements in this reaction such as other CSN subunits. A hybrid molecular model of CSN5/CSN6 provides a structural framework to explain these functional observations. Docking this model into a published CSN electron density map and using distance constraints obtained from cross-linking coupled to mass-spectrometry, we find that the C-termini of the CSN subunits could form a helical bundle in the centre of the structure. They likely play a key scaffolding role in the spatial organization of CSN and precise positioning of the dimeric MPN catalytic core.

  5. New Approach for Producing and Purifying IL-15 Heterodimers That Have Potent Immune Effect | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Cytokines are proteins that play a crucial role in the human immune system by delivering messages that trigger the activation of immune cells to fight off attacks from viruses or other invaders. Cristina Bergamaschi, Ph.D., NCI Center for Cancer Research, has been studying the mechanism of expression and function of a cytokine known as interleukin-15 (IL-15) for the last five years, in collaboration with Elena Chertova, Ph.D., and other researchers in the Retroviral Protein Chemistry Core (RPCC) of the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP), Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research.

  6. Rifampicin does not significantly affect the expression of Small heterodimer partner (SHP in primary human hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PetrPavek

    2012-01-01

    We can conclude that although we observed slight down-regulation of SHP mRNA and protein in several hepatocyte preparations, the phenomenon is unlikely critical for PXR-mediated induction of its target genes.

  7. Difference and similarity of DNA sequence recognized by VDR homodimer and VDR/RXR heterodimer.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, J; Kitaura, M.; Matsumoto, M; Imagawa, M; Nishihara, T.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear receptors for the thyroid hormone and vitamin A and D cooperate with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) in activating the transcription. Although the hormone response elements for these receptors have been proposed in which spacing of the direct repeated motifs determine the specificity (so called 3-4-5 rule), vitamin D response elements (VDREs) in the natural context consist of often imperfect direct repeats. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) alone can bind to the mouse osteopontin (mSPP-1) VDRE, ...

  8. Anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2, derived from the Prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena, Sara E; Jia, Ying; Soto, Julio G.; Parral, Jessica; Cantu, Esteban; Brannon, Jeremy; Lardner, Kristina; Ramos, Carla J.; Seoane, Agustin I.; Sánchez, Elda E

    2012-01-01

    Snake venom disintegrins inhibit platelet aggregation and have anti-cancer activities. In this study, we report the cloning, expression, and functional activities of a recombinant disintegrin, r-viridistatin 2 (GenBank ID: JQ071899), from the Prairie rattlesnake. r-Viridistatin 2 was tested for anti-invasive and anti-adhesive activities against six different cancer cell lines (human urinary bladder carcinoma (T24), human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080), human skin melanoma (SK-Mel-28), human colorecta...

  9. ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ ПОЧКИ У АМФИБИЙ В ЛИЧИНОЧНЫЙ ПЕРИОД РАЗВИТИЯ НА ПРИМЕРЕ ЖАБЫ ЗЕЛЕНОЙ (BUFO VIRIDIS LAURENTI, 1768)

    OpenAIRE

    СВЕТАШЕВА Д.Р.; ГРУШКО М.П.

    2014-01-01

    Описываются морфофизиологические особенности формирующегося мезонефроса у личинки зеленой жабы (Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768). Определено, что изученный орган, наряду с функцией выделения, выполняет функцию кроветворения на протяжении личиночного периода развития. В почке образуются элементы крови всех линий. Основную долю формирующихся элементов крови на протяжении всего личиночного периода развития составляли клетки эритропоэтического ряда, далее, по мере убывания – гранулоцитопоэтические и ...

  10. Biochemical markers of oxidative stress in Perna viridis exposed to mercury and temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    such as thermal power plants, steel industries, and cement plants, may also contribute to a significant extent to mercury pollution [8]. Under normal physiological condition, animals maintain a balance between generation and neutralization of reactive... of these parameters could serve as stress indicators in animals exposed to environmental contaminants. Since bivalves inhabit the intertidal region, they could be exposed to extreme temperature fluctuations with a change in body temperature...

  11. ETUDE THEORIQUE ET EXPERIMENTALE DU SECHAGE SOLAIRE DES FEUILLES DE LA MENTHE VERTE (MENTHA VIRIDIS).

    OpenAIRE

    BOUMEDIENE, TOUATI

    2014-01-01

    LES PLANTES MÉDICINALES ET AROMATIQUES ET EN PARTICULIER LES FEUILLES DE LA MENTHE VERTE ONT BEAUCOUP D'IMPORTANCE POUR LA PHARMACOPÉE, LA PARFUMERIE ,LA CONFISERIE ET LA LIQUORISTE RIE . CE TRAVAIL ENTRE DANS LE CADRE DE LA VALORISATION DE CETTE PLANTE PRODUITE EN GRANDE QUANTITÉ DANS LE SUD ET LE SUD-OUEST ALGÉRIEN .IL S'AGIT RÉÉTUDIER LE SÉCHAGE DE CETTE PLANTE ET DE DÉVELOPPER L'UTILISATION DE L’ÉNERGIE POUR SE'CHER LA MENTHE VIRIDES.

  12. Modulation of antioxidant defences in digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.), on mercury exposures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    seawater. Under laboratory condition, mussels were kept in fiber- glass tank capacity of 120 L. The animals were divided in two groups. Group I animals were exposed to sea water only and served as control for the Group II animals which were exposed to sub... and H 2 O 2 1980 X.N. Verlecar et al./Chemosphere Similarly PC showed elevated values throughout the experimental period in mercury treated groups (Fig. 2B, 3.3. Antioxidant enzymes Determination of antioxidant status of mussels exposed to metals...

  13. A serine protease inhibitor from hemolymph of green mussel, Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.; Rojatkar, S.R.; Khan, M.I.

    of qua to respectively. that and innate immune mecha- memory following the first have is constituted perform ly, natural invertebrates, serine proteases and their inhibitors are also in- volved in parallel physiological processes, for example, the blood...- sin and are novel anticoagulants isolated from the marine animals. 5 In vertebrates, serine protease inhibitors have been studied extensively and they are known to be involved in phagocytosis, coagulation, complement activation, fibrinolysis, blood...

  14. Antifouling activity of Indian marine invertebrate against the green mussel Perna viridis L.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Jayasree, V.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Raveendran, T.V.; Kamat, S.Y.

    : Prabha Devi. Fax: 91-(0)832-223340, 229102; e-mail: kprabha@csnio.ven.nic.in J Mar Biotechnol (1998) 6:229–232 Journal of Marine Biotechnology © Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1998 physically (Fig. 1a,b). After each test, the animal was placed in running... Haliclona sp. (1) (SP) b (Dendy) Karwar (14° 468N; 74° 068E) + Haliclona sp. (2) (SP) c Okha (22° 478N; 22° 508E) +++ Tedania anhelans (SP) (Lieberkuhn) Okha + Tedania sp. (SP) Okha + Coelenterata Sinularia granosa (SC) Tixier-Duriuault, 1970 c Kavratti (13...

  15. Proximate biochemical composition and caloric potential in the raft-grown green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The biochemical components of the mussel tissue, cultured on the raft were estimated. The range of variation in the content of moisture, protein, carbohydrates, lipid, organic carbon and ash were 66.8-90.1; 46.2-67.4; 11.7-18.6; 2.9-7.4; 19...

  16. Biomarkers of petroleum contamination in the digestive gland of Perna viridis (L.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Desai, S.R.; Das, P.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    at 6000 × g for 15 min at 4 °C and the supernatant was used for determination. For the carbonyl quantifi cation, the reaction with DNPH was performed as described by Mecocci et al. (29). Th e PC content was calculated from the absorbance measurement... at 366 nm with the use of a molar absorption coeffi cient of 22,000 mol cm–1 and expressed as nmol mg protein–1. Alkaline unwinding assay Th e alkaline DNA unwinding assay was performed according to the method of Shugart with slight Biomarkers...

  17. Preparation of Nanoparticles by Electroagulation From Soluble Exopolysaccharide Produced by Claviceps viridis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flieger, Miroslav; Kantorová, Michaela; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Sobotka, Miroslav; Cvak, Jan; Votruba, Jaroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 2 (2004), s. 234-236. ISSN 0006-3592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/00/1283 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : electroagulation * exopolysaccharides * nanoparticles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.216, year: 2004

  18. Interaction of Temperature and Photoperiod Increases Growth and Oil Content in the Marine Microalgae Dunaliella viridis

    OpenAIRE

    Soundarya Srirangan; Marie-Laure Sauer; Brian Howard; Mia Dvora; Jacob Dums; Patrick Backman; Heike Sederoff

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic marine microalgae like Dunaliella spp. have great potential as a feedstock for liquid transportation fuels because they grow fast and can accumulate high levels of triacylgycerides with little need for fresh water or land. Their growth rates vary between species and are dependent on environmental conditions. The cell cycle, starch and triacylglycerol accumulation are controlled by the diurnal light:dark cycle. Storage compounds like starch and triacylglycerol accumulate in the ligh...

  19. Cytogenetic studies in green mussel, Perna viridis (Mytiloida: Pteriomorphia), from West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.; Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.

    studies have received a little consideration than they actually deserve. Karyotypic details have been documented in several animal groups including a few Bivalvia species (Cornet and Soulard 1990; Wada and Komaru 1993; Insua et al. 1998; Martı´nez- Lage et... and methods Green mussels were collected from the Central West Coast of India. Live animals were brought to the laboratory and acclimatized for ten days in tanks containing aerated sea- water at 25C176C and fed upon phytoplankton Chaetocerous sp. Animals were...

  20. Eight-Membered Cyclic 1,2,3-Trithiocane Derivatives from Perophora viridis, an Atlantic Tunicate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Dembitsky, V. M.

    - (2002), s. 2400-2404. ISSN 1434-193X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : natural * products * sulfur heterocycles Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.195, year: 2002

  1. Extending the shelf-life of refrigerated green mussel (Perna viridis under modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP on the keeping quality of green mussel stored at 4C was investigated.Inhibition of the bacterial growth increased proportionally to the CO2 concentration in the packaging, and maximuminhibition was achieved with 100% CO2. Mussel stored under CO2-enriched atmosphere had lower total volatile base, trimethylamineand TCA-soluble peptide contents than those stored in air (P<0.05. However, the increase in exudate loss wasobserved for samples packaged in high-CO2 atmosphere, suggesting the denaturation of muscle proteins by carbonic acidformed. The odor and flavor acceptability of CO2-enriched packaged samples, particularly with 80 and 100% CO2, wasaccepted throughout the storage of 12 days, compared with six days for those stored in air. Therefore, MAP with 80% CO2,10% O2 and 10% N2 was chosen as the optimum condition for extending the shelf-life of green mussel. Packaging withinclusion of O2 should be considered to avoid the outbreak of strictly anaerobic toxin producing bacteria.

  2. Tumours of reptiles 4. Multiple osteomas in the lizard Laceria viridis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1958-01-01

    Whereas in fishes several osteomas (Bell, 1793; Gervais, 1875; Bland-Sutton, 1885 ; Plehn, 1906 ; Schroeders, 1908 ; Fiebiger, 1909 ; Williamson, 1913 ; Beatti, 1916 ; Kazama, 1924 ; Sagawa, 1925; Williams, 1929; Takahashi, 1929; Thomas, 1932, 1933; Lucké and Schlumberger, not published, see the pub

  3. Burrow ventilation and associated porewater irrigation by the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Cintia Organo; Hansen, Tanja; Delefosse, Matthieu;

    2011-01-01

    presented muscular pumping in time averaged rates of 0.15 ml min−1. Oxygen needle electrodes positioned above the burrow openings revealed that muscular undulation of the worm body pumps anoxic water out of the burrow. On the other hand, microscope observations of the animal showed that ventilation of...... about 0.16 ml min−1. Since the cilia pumping into the burrow occurs in periods of 24±12 min and at 50–70% of the measured time, considerable amounts of water from deeper sediments may percolate upwards to the sediment surface. This water is rich in reduced compounds and nutrients and may have important...

  4. Application of oxidative stress indices in natural populations of Perna viridis as biomarker of environmental pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jena, K.B.; Verlecar, X.N.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    of oxidative stress as compared to those at Bambolim. Conversely, low levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione, observed at Mormugao Harbour and Malim indicate that the animals may use these compounds to counteract...

  5. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, A.; Goswami, U.

    of extracts of smoked and non-smoked cigar tobacco over a period of 16 days, DNA damage was found to be highest in marine mussels exposed to extracts of smoked cigar tobacco. Conversely, more deformed nuclei were detected in marine mussels exposed to extracts...

  6. γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase is a Heavily N-Glycosylated Heterodimer in HepG2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    West, Matthew B.; Hanigan, Marie H.

    2010-01-01

    The cell surface enzyme γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is expressed by human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). HCCs arise from malignant transformation of hepatocytes and are the most common form of primary liver cancer. Identification of tumor-specific, post-translational modifications of GGT may provide novel biomarkers for HCC. The HepG2 cell line, derived from a human HCC, has been used extensively in studies of liver cancer. However, the use of this cell line for studies of GGT have been...

  7. Structures of self-assembled amphiphilic peptide-heterodimers: effects of concentration, pH, temperature and ionic strength

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Zhongli

    2010-01-01

    The amphiphilic double-tail peptides AXG were studied regarding secondary structure and self-assembly in aqueous solution. The two tails A = Ala 6 and G = Gly6 are connected by a central pair X of hydrophilic residues, X being two aspartic acids in ADG, two lysines in AKG and two arginines in ARG. The peptide AD (Ala6Asp) served as a single-tail reference. The secondary structure of the four peptides was characterized by circular dichroism spectroscopy under a wide range of peptide concentrations (0.01-0.8 mM), temperatures (20-98 °C), pHs (4-9.5) and ionic strengths. In salt-free water both ADG and AD form a β-sheet type of structure at high concentration, low pH and low temperature, in a peptide-peptide driven assembly of individual peptides. The transition has a two-state character for ADG but not for AD, which indicates that the added tail in ADG makes the assembly more cooperative. By comparison the secondary structures of AKG and ARG are comparatively stable over the large range of conditions covered. According to dynamic light scattering the two-tail peptides form supra-molecular aggregates in water, but high-resolution AFM-imaging indicate that ordered (self-assembled) structures are only formed when salt (0.1 M NaCl) is added. Since the CD-studies indicate that the NaCl has only a minor effect on the peptide secondary structure we propose that the main role of the added salt is to screen the electrostatic repulsion between the peptide building blocks. According to the AFM images ADG and AKG support a correlation between nanofibers and a β-sheet or unordered secondary structure, whereas ARG forms fibers in spite of lacking β-sheet structure. Since the AKG and ARG double-tail peptides self-assemble into distinct nanostructures while their secondary structures are resistant to environment factors, these new peptides show potential as robust building blocks for nano-materials in various medical and nanobiotechnical applications. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Flavan hetero-dimers in the Cymbopogon citratus infusion tannin fraction and their contribution to the antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo; González-Manzano, Susana; González-Paramás, Ana; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitória; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) leaf infusion, a commonly used ingredient in Asian, African and Latin American cuisines, is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several pathological conditions; however, little is known about their bioactive compounds. Recent studies revealed the crucial role of the phenolic compounds namely flavonoids and tannins on the infusion bioactivity. Flavonoids have already been characterized; however the tannin fraction of lemongrass infusion is still uncharted. The aim of the present work is to characterize this fraction, and to evaluate its contribution to the antioxidant potential of this plant. Chemical characterization was achieved by HPLC-DAD-ESI/tandem MS and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. Hetero-dimeric flavan structures have been described for the first time in lemongrass consisting of apigeniflavan or luteoliflavan units linked to a flavanone, either naringenin or eriodictyol, which may occur as aglycone or glycosylated forms. The antioxidant capacity of the fraction containing these compounds was significantly higher than the infusion, indicating its potential as a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25652784

  9. Partial Unfolding of Tubulin Heterodimers Induced by Two-Photon Excitation of Bound meso-Tetrakis(sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMicken, Brady; Thomas, Robert J; Brancaleon, Lorenzo

    2016-04-21

    The water-soluble porphyrin meso-tetrakis(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TSPP) can be noncovalently bound to tubulin and used as a photosensitizer, which upon irradiation triggers photochemical reactions that lead to conformational changes of the protein. These conformational changes in turn inhibit tubulin's primary function of polymerizing into microtubules. We explored the possibility of using two-photon excitation of the bound porphyrin to induce photosensitized protein unfolding. Although TSPP has a relatively low cross section (∼30 GM) our results did find that two-photon excitation of the ligand causes partial unfolding of the tubulin host and the inhibition of the in vitro formation of microtubules. Conversely, irradiating tubulin alone caused no such effects despite the large irradiance per pulse (97-190 GW/cm(2)). The conformational changes were characterized using spectroscopic studies and provide a promising protocol for the future application of non-native photosensitization of proteins. PMID:27035156

  10. Drosophila molting neurohormone bursicon is a heterodimer and the natural agonist of the orphan receptor DLGR2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendive, Fernando M; Van Loy, Tom; Claeysen, Sylvie;

    2005-01-01

    Bursicon is a neurohumoral agent responsible for tanning and hardening of the cuticle and expansion of the wings during the final phase of insect metamorphosis. Although the hormonal activity was described more than 40 years ago, the molecular nature of bursicon has remained elusive. We identify ...... heterodimeric Drosophila protein displays bursicon bioactivity in freshly enclosed neck-ligated flies and is the natural agonist of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor DLGR2....

  11. Proximity-Directed Labeling Reveals a New Rapamycin-Induced Heterodimer of FKBP25 and FRB in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Song-Yi; Lee, Hakbong; Lee, Hye-Kyeong; Lee, Seung-Won; Ha, Sung Chul; Kwon, Taejoon; Seo, Jeong Kon; Lee, Changwook; Rhee, Hyun-Woo

    2016-08-24

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is a core pathway in cellular metabolism, and control of the mTOR pathway by rapamycin shows potential for the treatment of metabolic diseases. In this study, we employed a new proximity biotin-labeling method using promiscuous biotin ligase (pBirA) to identify unknown elements in the rapamycin-induced interactome on the FK506-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain in living cells. FKBP25 showed the strongest biotin labeling by FRB-pBirA in the presence of rapamycin. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments confirmed that endogenous FKBP25 has a rapamycin-induced physical interaction with the FRB domain. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the ternary complex of FRB-rapamycin-FKBP25 was determined at 1.67-Å resolution. In this crystal structure we found that the conformational changes of FRB generate a hole where there is a methionine-rich space, and covalent metalloid coordination was observed at C2085 of FRB located at the bottom of the hole. Our results imply that FKBP25 might have a unique physiological role related to metallomics in mTOR signaling. PMID:27610411

  12. NF-kappa B contacts DNA by a heterodimer of the p50 and p65 subunit.

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, M.B.; Schreck, R; Baeuerle, P A

    1991-01-01

    We recently reported that the apparently non-DNA-binding 65 kd subunit (p65) of the NF-kappa B transcription factor can modulate the DNA-binding specificity of the 50 kd subunit (p50) of NF-kappa B. In this study we provide an explanation for this property of p65. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays and upon UV cross-linking to DNA, gel-purified p65 is shown to be a kappa B-specific DNA-binding protein on its own. The binding activity was only detectable if high amounts of p65 were used ...

  13. Construction and Characterization of a Dunaliella viridis Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library%盐藻(Dunaliella viridis)细菌人工染色体文库的构建和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥宗; 杨晓武; 管祯玮; 张男; 许政暟; 宋任涛

    2007-01-01

    盐藻具有极强的耐盐能力,是研究植物耐盐机制的模式系统.为了对其耐盐机制进行深入的研究,以pCC1BAC为载体,构建了盐藻的细菌人工染色体(BAC)文库.该文库共有9 216个转化子,插入片段平均长度为55kb,以单克隆形式保藏在96块96孔板中,并建立了四维PCR基因筛选体系,可以通过4轮PCR快速筛选获得阳性单克隆.根据本实验室分离到的两个盐藻基因的cDNA序列(DvSPT2和DvTPSP)设计引物,通过PCR从该文库中各筛到4个阳性BAC克隆,说明该文库能有效用于分离盐藻基因的基因组序列,据此推测该文库约覆盖4倍盐藻基因组序列.

  14. Seasonal variation of oxidative biomarkers in gills and digestive gland of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Jena, K.B.; Chainy, G.B.N.

    , 351-358. Paglia, D.E, Valentine, W.N., 1967. Studies on quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 70, 158- 169. Paoletti, F., Mocali, A., Aldinucci, D., 1990...., 1991.Chemistry and biochemistry of 4- hydroxynonenal, malonaldehyde and related aldehydes. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 11, 81-128. Filho, D. W., Tribess, T., Gaspari, C., Claudio, F.D., Torres, M.A., Magalhaes, A.R.M., 2001. Seasonal...

  15. Absorption of Cu/sup + +/ by long-term cultures of Dunaliella salina, D. tertiolecta, and D. viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustigman, B.; Korky, J.; Zabady, A.; McCormick, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    By means of atomic absorption analysis, the authors measured the effect of salinity on the absorption of copper. They used long term cultures of Dunaliella in order to determine if alterations in plasmalemma permeability occur as a result of adaptation to different osmotic conditions. Since copper appears to affect the mechanisms involved in osmotic resistance with Dunaliella, they hoped to elucidate some of the characteristics of permeability.

  16. Biometric and morphometric studies of Perna viridis and Perna indica along the southwest coast of India: a statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, M.; DileepKumar, R.; Vijayan, M.

    of bivalves are the shell length and height (Franz, 1993; Zainudin & Tsuchiya, 2007). However, these data may not always reflect the mass of an organism. Factors such as reproduction, population density and habitat are found to influence the tissue growth...., 2002). Abiotic factors include geographical location (Beukema & Meehan, 1985), depth (Claxton et al., 1998), shore level (Franz, 1993), tides (Dame, 1972), currents, (Furman et al., 1999), turbulence (Bailey & Green, 1988), waves (Akester...

  17. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 146853 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SMNWGYLHYGVVVWLDVPVDQLYDRLRSDTARPLLQEGEIKSKLQSLLNERERLYTQADVRVCAGVGERAEAMATRAIEEIQKVIKPETGPDLN ... ...se Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MDGLRGVNIYLVGMMGAGKTTVGRILAKKLKYRFFDTDELIVRVTNQSIAEIFDREGEEAFRELETKVLGELSAYKNSVVATGGGIVTR

  18. Emergence of state at Fermi level due to the formation of In-Sn heterodimers on Si(100)-2×1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobotík, P.; Setvín, M.; Zimmermann, P.; Kocán, P.; Ošt'ádal, I.; Mutombo, Pingo; Ondráček, Martin; Jelínek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 20 (2013), "205406-1"-"205406-7". ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP204/11/P578; GA ČR GAP204/10/0952 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) M100101207 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : STM * STS * DFT * 1D metallic chains Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.88.205406

  19. Feminizing chicks: a model for avian sex determination based on titration of Hint enzyme activity and the predicted structure of an Asw-Hint heterodimer

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Helen C.; Brenner, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Background In birds and some lizards, females are heterogametic with a ZW karyotype, while males are ZZ homogametes. The molecular basis for sexual differentiation in birds is unknown: arguments exist for doses of Z masculinizing chicks and for W information feminizing. ASW was identified as a tandemly repeated gene conserved on avian W chromosomes that is expressed in early female development and appears to be an inactive form of avian Z-encoded HINT. Hint is a dimeric enzyme that hydrolyzes...

  20. The proteolytic fragments of the Alzheimer's disease-associated presenilin-1 form heterodimers and occur as a 100-150-kDa molecular mass complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, A; Grünberg, J; Pesold, B; Diehlmann, A; Citron, M; Nixon, R; Beyreuther, K; Selkoe, D J; Haass, C

    1998-02-01

    Mutations in the presenilin (PS) genes are linked to early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). PS-1 proteins are proteolytically processed by an unknown protease to two stable fragments of approximately 30 kDa (N-terminal fragment (NTF)) and approximately 20 kDa (C-terminal fragment (CTF)) (Thinakaran, G., Borchelt, D. R., Lee, M. K., Slunt, H. H., Spitzer, L., Kim, G., Ratovitsky, T., Davenport, F., Nordstedt, C., Seeger, M., Hardy, J., Levey, A. I., Gandy, S. E., Jenkins, N. A., Copeland, N. G., Price, D. L., and Sisodia, S. S. (1996) Neuron 17, 181-190). Here we show that the CTF and NTF of PS-1 bind to each other. Fractionating proteins from 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonic acid-extracted membrane preparations by velocity sedimentation reveal a high molecular mass SDS and Triton X-100-sensitive complex of approximately 100-150 kDa. To prove if both proteolytic fragments of PS-1 are bound to the same complex, we performed co-immunoprecipitations using multiple antibodies specific to the CTF and NTF of PS-1. These experiments revealed that both fragments of PS-1 occur as a tightly bound non-covalent complex. Upon overexpression, unclipped wild type PS-1 sediments at a lower molecular weight in glycerol velocity gradients than the endogenous fragments. In contrast, the non-cleavable, FAD-associated PS-1 Deltaexon 9 sediments at a molecular weight similar to that observed for the endogenous proteolytic fragments. This result may indicate that the Deltaexon 9 mutation generates a mutant protein that exhibits biophysical properties similar to the naturally occurring PS-1 fragments. This could explain the surprising finding that the Deltaexon 9 mutation is functionally active, although it cannot be proteolytically processed (Baumeister, R., Leimer, U., Zweckbronner, I., Jakubek, C., Grünberg, J., and Haass, C. (1997) Genes & Function 1, 149-159; Levitan, D., Doyle, T., Brousseau, D., Lee, M., Thinakaran, G., Slunt, H., Sisodia, S., and Greenwald, I. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 93, 14940-14944). Formation of a high molecular weight complex of PS-1 composed of both endogenous PS-1 fragments may also explain the recent finding that FAD-associated mutations within the N-terminal portion of PS-1 result in the hyperaccumulation not only of the NTF but also of the CTF (Lee, M. K., Borchelt, D. R., Kim, G., Thinakaran, G., Slunt, H. H., Ratovitski, T., Martin, L. J., Kittur, A., Gandy, S., Levey, A. I., Jenkins, N., Copeland, N., Price, D. L., and Sisodia, S. S. (1997) Nat. Med. 3, 756-760). Moreover, these results provide a model to understand the highly regulated expression and processing of PS proteins. PMID:9452432

  1. A Pathway Involving Farnesoid X Receptor and Small Heterodimer Partner Positively Regulates Hepatic Sirtuin 1 Levels via MicroRNA-34a Inhibition*

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jiyoung; Padhye, Amruta; Sharma, Abhilasha; Song, Guisheng; Miao, Ji; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Wang, Li; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2010-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD-dependent deacetylase that is critically involved in diverse cellular processes including metabolic disease, cancer, and possibly aging. Despite extensive studies on SIRT1 function, how SIRT1 levels are regulated remains relatively unknown. Here, we report that the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) inhibits microRNA-34a (miR-34a) in the liver, which results in a positive regulation of SIRT1 levels. Activation of FXR by the synthetic agonist GW406...

  2. Conicasterol E, a Small Heterodimer Partner Sparing Farnesoid X Receptor Modulator Endowed with a Pregnane X Receptor Agonistic Activity, from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sepe; Ummarino, R.; D'Auria, M.V.; Chini, M.G.; G. Bifulco; Renga, B.; D' Amore, C.; Debitus, Cécile; Fiorucci, S.; Zampella, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the isolation and pharmacological characterization of conicasterol E isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Pharmacological characterization of this steroid in comparison to CDCA, a natural FXR ligand, and 6-ECDCA, a synthetic FXR agonist generated by an improved synthetic strategy, and rifaximin, a potent PXR agonist, demonstrated that conicasterol E is an FXR modulator endowed with PXR agonistic activity. Conicasterol E induces the expression of genes involved in bile...

  3. The light-harvesting complexes of higher-plant Photosystem I : Lhca1/4 and Lhca2/3 form two red-emitting heterodimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, Emilie; Croce, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The outer antenna of higher-plant PSI (Photosystem I) is composed of four complexes [Lhc (light-harvesting complex) al-Lhca4] belonging to the light-harvesting protein family. Difficulties in their purification have so far prevented the determination of their properties and most of the knowledge abo

  4. Relation between cooperative effects in cyclic water, methanol/water, and methanol trimers and hydrogen bonds in methanol/water, ethanol/water, and dimethylether/water heterodimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masella, Michel; Flament, Jean Pierre

    1998-05-01

    Ab initio calculations at the MP2 level have been performed on water, methanol/water, ethanol/water, and dimethylether/water dimers and on water, methanol/water, and methanol cyclic trimers. Several properties of their hydrogen bonds have been investigated, such as interoxygen distances, O-H bond lengths, binding energies, electronic densities at hydrogen bond (HB) critical points and OH stretch vibrational frequencies. Results exhibit HB enhancements for dimers where the acceptor molecule corresponds to water (HDA dimers) as compared to dimers where the donor is water (HDD dimers). In particular, HB reinforcement depends on the number of alkyl groups bonded to the donor oxygen. For trimers, a comparison among their HB properties and those of dimers shows that HB reinforcements (as compared to isolated dimers) occurring in trimers correlate with HB reinforcements observed in (HDA dimers (as compared to (HDDs). In particular, HB properties of the cyclic water trimer are close to those of alcohol/water HDA dimers, and for the methanol cyclic trimer to that of the dimethylether/water HDA dimer. All of these results agree with an orbital interpretation of hydrogen bonding in terms of charge transfer from donor lone pairs to acceptor antibond σOH*, even if all of the HB properties in cyclic trimers may not be explained from this approach.

  5. Sortilin Facilitates Signaling of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor and Related Helical Type 1 Cytokines Targeting the gp130/Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor β Heterodimer

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Jakob Vejby; Hansen, Maria; Møller, Bjarne; Madsen, Peder; SCHELLER, JÜRGEN; Nielsen, Morten; Petersen, Claus Munck

    2010-01-01

    Sortilin is a member of the Vps10p domain family of neuropeptide and neurotrophin binding neuronal receptors. The family members interact with and partly share a variety of ligands and partake in intracellular sorting and protein transport as well as in transmembrane signal transduction. Thus, sortilin mediates the transport of both neurotensin and nerve growth factor and interacts with their respective receptors to facilitate ligand-induced signaling. Here we report that ciliary neurotrophic...

  6. Excitonic Heterodimer Formation in an HIV-1 Oligonucleotide Labeled with a Donor-Acceptor Pair Used for Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Bernacchi, Serena; Piémont, Etienne; Potier, Noelle; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Mély, Yves

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the absorbance and fluorescence properties of cTAR, the complementary DNA sequence of the transactivation response element of the HIV-1 genome, doubly end-labeled by different dyes, 5(and 6)-carboxyfluorescein (Fl) and 5(and 6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TMR), frequently used in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies. This oligonucleotide forms a stable stem-loop structure. The absorption spectrum of this species clearly differed from that of a ...

  7. Solution study of the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III clamp loader reveals the location of the dynamic ψχ heterodimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Tondnevis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several X-ray crystal structures of the E. coli core clamp loader containing the five core (δ′, δ, and three truncated γ subunits have been determined, but they lack the ψ and χ subunits. We report the first solution structure of the complete seven-subunit clamp loader complex using small angle X-ray scattering. This structure not only provides information about the location of the χ and ψ subunits but also provides a model of the dynamic nature of the clamp loader complex.

  8. Correlation of biological activity with computationally derived structural features from transmembrane hetero-dimers of HIV-1 Vpu with host factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Hua; Fischer, Wolfgang B

    2014-04-01

    Vpu is an 81 amino acid type I integral membrane protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). It is identified to support viral release by potentially forming ion and substrate conducting channels and by modulating the function of host factors. The focus is on the interaction of the transmembrane domains of Vpu with those of host factors using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and docking approach. Binding poses and adopted tilt angles of the dimers are analyzed and correlated with experimentally derived activity data from literature. Vpu activity is driven by dimerization with the host protein via its alanine rim Ala-8/11/15/19. Tight binding is shown by an almost parallel alignment of the helices in the dimers. Less parallel alignment is proposed to correlate with lower activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Viral Membrane Proteins - Channels for Cellular Networking. PMID:24036078

  9. Molecular modeling of the heterodimer of human CFTR’s nucleotide-binding domains using a protein–protein docking approach

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Sheng-You; Bolser, Diana; Liu, Hao-Yang; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2008-01-01

    We have presented a new protein–protein docking approach to model heterodimeric structures based on the conformations of the monomeric units. The conventional modeling method relies on superimposing two monomeric structures onto the crystal structure of a homologous protein dimer. The resulting structure may exhibit severe backbone clashes at the dimeric interface depending on the backbone dissimilarity between the target and template proteins. Our method overcomes the backbone clashing probl...

  10. Pan-HER-An antibody mixture targeting EGFR, HER2 and HER3 abrogates preformed and ligand-induced EGFR homo- and heterodimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellebaek, Sofie; Brix, Susanne; Grandal, Michael; Lantto, Johan; Horak, Ivan D; Kragh, Michael; Poulsen, Thomas Tuxen

    2016-11-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-family is involved in development of many epithelial cancers. Therefore, HER-family members constitute important targets for anti-cancer therapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). A limitation to the success of single HER-targeting mAbs is development of acquired resistance through mechanisms such as alterted receptor dimerization patterns and dependencies. Pan-HER is a mixture of six mAbs simultaneously targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2 and HER3 with two mAbs against each receptor. Pan-HER has previously demonstrated broader efficacy than targeting single or dual receptor combinations also in resistant settings. In light of this broad efficacy, we decided to investigate the effect of Pan-HER compared with single HER-targeting with single and dual mAbs on HER-family cross-talk and dimerization focusing on EGFR. The effect of Pan-HER on cell proliferation and HER-family receptor degradation was superior to treatment with single mAbs targeting either single receptor, and similar to targeting a single receptor with two non-overlapping antibodies. Furthermore, changes in EGFR-dimerization patterns after treatment with Pan-HER were investigated by in situ proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation, demonstrating that Pan-HER and the EGFR-targeting mAb mixture efficiently down-regulate basal EGFR homo- and heterodimerization in two tested cell lines, whereas single mAbs had limited effects. Pan-HER and the EGFR-targeting mAb mixture also blocked EGF-binding and thereby ligand-induced changes in EGFR-dimerization levels. These results suggest that Pan-HER reduces the cellular capability to switch HER-dependency and dimerization pattern in response to treatment and thus hold promise for future clinical development of Pan-HER in resistant settings. PMID:27342948

  11. Rexinoid Bexarotene Modulates Triglyceride but not Cholesterol Metabolism via Gene-Specific Permissivity of the RXR/LXR Heterodimer in the Liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalloyer, Fanny; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Gross, Barbara;

    2009-01-01

    cardiovascular disease. The molecular mechanism behind this hypertriglyceridemia remains poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using wild-type and LXRalpha/beta-deficient mice, we show here that bexarotene induces hypertriglyceridemia and activates hepatic LXR-target genes of lipogenesis in an LXR...

  12. Changes in Binding Motif of Protonated Heterodimers Containing Valine and Amines Investigated Using IRMPD Spectroscopy between 800 and 3700 cm(-1) and Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O' Brien, J. T.; Prell, J. S.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.; Williams, E. R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-bound dimers consisting of valine and basic primary and secondary amines of varying gas-phase basicity (GB) were investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy between 800 and 3700 cm(-1), collisionally activated dissociation, and theory. The low-energy dissocia

  13. A structural basis for electron transfer in bacterial photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplet data for the primary donor in single crystals of bacterial reaction centers of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis are interpreted in terms of the corresponding x-ray structures. The analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance data from single crystals (triplet zero field splitting and cation and triplet linewidth of the primary special pair donor of bacterial reaction centers) is extended to systems of a non-crystalline nature. A unified interpretation based on frontier molecular orbitals concludes that the special pair behaves like a supermolecule in all wild-type bacteria investigated here. However, in heterodimers of Rb. capsulatus (HisM200 changed to Leu or Phe with the result that the M-half of the special pair is converted to bacteriopheophytin) the special pair possesses the EPR properties more appropriately described in terms of a monomer. In all cases the triplet state and cation EPR properties appear to be dominated by the highest occupied molecular orbitals. These conclusions derived from EPR experiments are supplemented by data from Stark spectroscopy of reaction centers from Rb. capsulatus. 41 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnakumar, P.K.; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G. S.; Asokan, D.P.K.

    2006-01-01

    Biomarker: sister chromatid exchange (SCE); chromosomal aberration; micronucleus (MN); hemic neoplasia (HN), mutagenic activity; comet cells. Exposure/effect represented: exposure to trace metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn) / DNA damage. Analytical technique: Toxic and essential elements in tissues were determined using AAS; metaphase chromosomes were viewed using light microscope (Olympus BX50) with image analysis facility; hemolymph was stained using the Schiff Feulgen-picromethyl blu...

  15. Is Hybridization a Source of Adaptive Venom Variation in Rattlesnakes? A Test, Using a Crotalus scutulatus × viridis Hybrid Zone in Southwestern New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Zancolli; Timothy G. Baker; Axel Barlow; Rebecca K. Bradley; Calvete, Juan J.; Kimberley C. Carter; Kaylah de Jager; John Benjamin Owens; Jenny Forrester Price; Libia Sanz; Amy Scholes-Higham; Liam Shier; Liam Wood; Catharine E. Wüster; Wolfgang Wüster

    2016-01-01

    Venomous snakes often display extensive variation in venom composition both between and within species. However, the mechanisms underlying the distribution of different toxins and venom types among populations and taxa remain insufficiently known. Rattlesnakes (Crotalus, Sistrurus) display extreme inter- and intraspecific variation in venom composition, centered particularly on the presence or absence of presynaptically neurotoxic phospholipases A2 such as Mojave toxin (MTX). Interspecific hy...

  16. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. BRG100, a Strain with Bioherbicidal Properties against Setaria viridis (Green Foxtail) and Other Pests of Agricultural Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Dumonceaux, Tim J.; Town, Jennifer; Links, Matthew G.; Boyetchko, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. BRG100 inhibits the growth of certain agricultural pests and is a potentially useful biopesticide for weeds and plant diseases. We have sequenced the 6.25-Mbp genome of this strain and assembled it into 4 scaffolds. Genome sequence comparisons revealed that this strain may represent a novel species of Pseudomonas.

  17. The exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis, suppresses the growth of native acacia by altering soil microbial communities structure and functionalities in a sahelian ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanon, A.; Beguiristain, T.; Sylla, S.; Berthelin, J.; Duponnois, R.

    2009-07-01

    The functioning and stability of terrestrial ecosystems are mainly determined by plant specific richness and composition, which in turn, are closely interlinked with soil organisms development, in particular, soil microorganisms. One of the main success ways of invasive plants was these exogenous organisms-mediated modifications in soil microbial communities composition and diversity as well as their functioning, thus compromising native plant survival. (Author)

  18. The exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis, suppresses the growth of native acacia by altering soil microbial communities structure and functionalities in a sahelian ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functioning and stability of terrestrial ecosystems are mainly determined by plant specific richness and composition, which in turn, are closely interlinked with soil organisms development, in particular, soil microorganisms. One of the main success ways of invasive plants was these exogenous organisms-mediated modifications in soil microbial communities composition and diversity as well as their functioning, thus compromising native plant survival. (Author)

  19. Seasonal variation of major elements (Ca, Mg) and trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) and cultured mussel Perna viridis L. and seawater in the Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The major elements and trace metals were analysed from nussel tissue and the seawater taken from three depths (0, 5 and 9 meters) from the culture site. Range of variation in Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were 226-399; 708-1329; 0.005-0.084; BDL-0...

  20. Effects of the invasive polychaete, Marenzelleria viridis, on the fate of sediment associated pollutants – a microcosm study with 14C-labelled pyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banta, Gary Thomas; Hedman, Jenny Elisabet

    The deep burrowing, invasive spionid polychaete, Marenzelleria spp. (3 sibling species), is rapidly expanding its range in the Baltic Sea ecosystem, increasing the depth of the bioturbated zone dramatically relative to the native benthic community. One concern is the effect of this invasion...

  1. Effect of NH4Cl on Growth of Micro Algae Dunaliella viridis%氯化铵对绿色杜氏藻增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春旺; 张青田

    2005-01-01

    报道了氯化铵对绿色杜氏藻增殖的影响情况.绿色杜氏藻的一次性培养试验结果显示,氯化铵的浓度对绿色杜氏藻的增殖具有显著的影响.最适宜绿色杜氏藻增殖的浓度是0.20~1.00mmol/L,浓度值过高和过低均不利于绿色杜氏藻增殖,浓度过高时增殖缓慢,并且稳定期短,易崩溃.在最适宜浓度水平时,绿色杜氏藻进入指数生长期较快,增殖速率值较大;在1.00mmol/L浓度时,绿色杜氏藻在稳定期获得最大的微藻密度值.

  2. Comparative effects of the blue green algae Nodularia spumigena and a lysed extract on detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the green lipped mussel (Perna viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodularia spumigena periodically proliferates to cause toxic algal blooms with some aquatic animals enduring and consuming high densities of the blue green algae or toxic lysis. N. spumigena contains toxic compounds such as nodularin and lipopolysaccharides. This current work investigates physiological effects of exposure from bloom conditions of N. spumigena cells and a post-bloom lysis. Biochemical and antioxidative biomarkers were comparatively studied over an acute 3-day exposure. In general, a post-bloom N. spumigena lysis caused opposite physiological responses to bloom densities of N. spumigena. Specifically, increases in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decreases in glutathione S-transferase (GST) were observed from the N. spumigena lysis. In contrast, N. spumigena cell densities decreased GSH and increased GST and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mussels. Findings also suggest that at different stages of a toxic bloom, exposure may result in toxic stress to specific organs in the mussel

  3. Zwei neue Apogonien von den Philippinen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, K.M.

    1897-01-01

    Fulva, parce viridi-metallico micans, supra glabra, subtusatro-viridis, squamulis setiformibus albis sat parce tecta; clypeo antice truncato, creberrime et quam fronte fortius punctato; prothorace aliquid remote punctato, angulis anticis acutis; scutello subtiliter punctato, interdum laevi; elytris

  4. The Fab fragment of a directly activating monoclonal antibody that precipitates a disulfide-linked heterodimer from a helper T cell clone blocks activation by either allogeneic Ia or antigen and self-Ia

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    We characterize a monoclonal antibody directed against the antigen/Ia receptor of a cloned helper T cell line that induced T cell clone proliferation and T cell clone-dependent B cell proliferation at antibody concentrations as low as 10(-11) M. A Fab fragment of this antibody was not stimulatory, implicating cross-linking of antigen receptors as the primary signal for T cell activation. The Fab fragment inhibited activation of this clone by both allogeneic Ia and antigen plus self-Ia, but no...

  5. A heterodimer of a VHH (variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only) antibody that inhibits anthrax toxin cell binding linked to a VHH antibody that blocks oligomer formation is highly protective in an anthrax spore challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Leysath, Clinton E; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Vrentas, Catherine; Crown, Devorah; Leppla, Stephen H; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2015-03-01

    Anthrax disease is caused by a toxin consisting of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Antibodies against PA have been shown to be protective against the disease. Variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies (VHHs) with affinity for PA were obtained from immunized alpacas and screened for anthrax neutralizing activity in macrophage toxicity assays. Two classes of neutralizing VHHs were identified recognizing distinct, non-overlapping epitopes. One class recognizes domain 4 of PA at a well characterized neutralizing site through which PA binds to its cellular receptor. A second neutralizing VHH (JKH-C7) recognizes a novel epitope. This antibody inhibits conversion of the PA oligomer from "pre-pore" to its SDS and heat-resistant "pore" conformation while not preventing cleavage of full-length 83-kDa PA (PA83) by cell surface proteases to its oligomer-competent 63-kDa form (PA63). The antibody prevents endocytosis of the cell surface-generated PA63 subunit but not preformed PA63 oligomers formed in solution. JKH-C7 and the receptor-blocking VHH class (JIK-B8) were expressed as a heterodimeric VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA). This VNA displayed improved neutralizing potency in cell assays and protected mice from anthrax toxin challenge with much better efficacy than the separate component VHHs. The VNA protected virtually all mice when separately administered at a 1:1 ratio to toxin and protected mice against Bacillus anthracis spore infection. Thus, our studies show the potential of VNAs as anthrax therapeutics. Due to their simple and stable nature, VNAs should be amenable to genetic delivery or administration via respiratory routes. PMID:25564615

  6. Diseño, síntesis y aplicaciones de sistemas supramoleculares homo- y heterodiméricos selectivos y eficientes basados en α,γ-ciclopéptidos

    OpenAIRE

    Brea Fernández, Roberto Javier

    2013-01-01

    Esta Tesis cubre aspectos de la química supramolecular de ciclopéptidos, los cuales en condiciones apropiadas se apilan a través de enlaces de hidrógeno para formar estructuras nanotubulares. Crucial para esta interacción es la adopción de una conformación plana en la que las cadenas laterales de los aminoácidos de los anillos peptídicos adoptan una orientación pseudo-ecuatorial que apunta hacia el exterior, mientras que los grupos carbonilo y amino de los enlaces peptídicos están orientados ...

  7. Lack of evidence for AT1R/B2R heterodimerization in COS-7, HEK293, and NIH3T3 cells: how common is the AT1R/B2R heterodimer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob L; Hansen, Jonas T; Speerschneider, Tobias;

    2008-01-01

    dimerization using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and regulated secretion/aggregation technology. However, although both the AT1Rs and B2Rs were functional in our systems and the systems were fine tuned to detect small changes in receptor function, we failed to detect any functional modulation...

  8. Studies on the Seasonal Changes in Antioxidant Enzymes Activity on Differently, Polluted Areas along the Bay of Bengal Employing Perna viridis as an Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Amutha, C.; P Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are the innate or acquired molecules capable of slowing down or preventing the oxidative damage (damage due to reactive oxygen species) that caused by free radicals. The antioxidant enzyme activity in response to season as well as hydrocarbon pollution was attempted. Rayapuram fishing harbor of Chennai (Station-1) is highly oil contaminated with oil sleeks on the surface. The relatively moderate oil contaminated area (Station-2) is about 2 km away from the fishing harbor and the ...

  9. 一种狗尾草病原真菌的鉴定及菌株致病性研究%Identification and pathogenicity of fungus on Setaria viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杏利; 邓晖; 牛永春

    2010-01-01

    经形态学鉴定和rDNA ITS序列分析,16株分离自北京、河北、河南发病狗尾草的菌株、2株分别分离自河南发病虎尾草、牛筋草的菌株和1株分离自青海发病野燕麦的菌株被鉴定为狗尾草平脐蠕孢Bipolaris setariae.接种试验表明,来自狗尾草的菌株比来自其他寄主植物的菌株对狗尾草致病性强,分离自野燕麦的菌株对狗尾草无致病性,分离自不同地区不同样品狗尾草的菌株其致病性有显著差异.菌株NYl对狗尾草有很强致病性,接种后5d植株叶片即全部呈枯死状,接种后7d整个植株枯萎死亡.菌株NYl对马唐和虎尾草也有很强致病性,但对于大多数供试栽培植物致病性很弱或无致病性.因此,B.setariae NYl菌株具有进一步开发成为狗尾草、马唐和虎尾草等杂草的生物除草剂的潜力.

  10. Analysis of the Dunaliella viridis Transcriptome and Related Pathways following Glucose Induction%葡萄糖诱导绿色杜氏藻转录组及相关通路差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱帅旗; 龚一富; 刘浩; 章丽; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    绿色杜氏藻是研究耐盐机理的模式绿藻.葡萄糖不仅是营养物质,而且还是信号物质.目前,对绿色杜氏藻转录组、糖处理后差异表达基因和β-胡萝卜素生物合成途径关键基因表达还不清楚.本研究通过Illumina HiSeqTM 2000高通量测序,获得葡萄糖处理和未处理绿色杜氏藻转录组信息.利用P value值和差异倍数对样本进行差异表达分析,共111条转录本存在差异表达,3条为上调转录本,108条为下调转录本.利用RT-qPCR检验差异表达分析的准确性.结果表明,转录本表达结果与转录组分析结果一致.GO功能富集结果表明,71条下调转录本与代谢相关,占所有下调转录本的65.74%.KEGG富集分析结果表明,21条KEGG通路含89条下调转录本,14条通路与代谢相关.代谢中通路最多的为能量代谢(6条),含63条下调转录本.能量代谢中与光合作用相关的下调转录本最多,为29条.通过分析找到2条与β-胡萝卜素生物合成相关通路(MVA/MEP途径及β-胡萝卜.素合成途径),并发现通路的关键基因hmgs、dxs、dxr、psy、pds、chyb,对其进行差异表达分析,均不存在差异表达.研究表明,葡萄糖抑制了绿色杜氏藻光合作用,代谢受阻,但未影响β-胡萝卜.紊生物合成相关通路及关键基因.

  11. Effects of different nutritional conditions on the growth of extreme halotolerant Dunaliella viridis%不同营养条件对极端嗜盐杜氏藻生长的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可文; 宋涛; 程小莲

    2014-01-01

    探讨了不同浓度碳源、氮源(N/P)、无机磷源、脲及卤虫干粉(或发酵液)卤水培养基对极端嗜盐杜氏藻生长的影响,以期为更好地开发杜氏藻资源提供全面、系统的资料.结果表明:通过物理方式直接通入CO2补充极端嗜盐杜氏藻培养基,能有效的保障极端嗜盐杜氏藻生长所需的碳源;采用尿素作为藻培养基氮源效果较好,无机磷浓度应维持较低水平;卤虫发酵液较卤虫干粉能有效延长藻细胞高密度生长期,极端嗜盐杜氏藻适宜培育浓度范围:尿素浓度为30.00 mg·L-1-90.00 mg·L-1,N/P维持在25左右,NaH2PO4浓度为2.71 mg.L-1-12.00 mg·L-1,3.50 mg·L-1最优;卤虫发酵液浓度应在250.00 mg·L-1以上.

  12. Bioinformatics Analysis and Expression Study of DHDDS of Dunaliella viridis%绿色杜氏藻DHDDS基因生物信息学分析及表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘益芳; 龚一富; 俞凯; 朱帅旗; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    绿色杜氏藻是一种能产生重要次生代谢产物类胡萝卜素的单细胞绿藻,脱氢多萜醇焦磷酸合成酶(dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase,DHDDS)是其在类胡萝卜素合成途径中的相关酶.旨在研究DHDDS基因表达与类胡萝卜素含量之间的关系.提取绿色杜氏藻总RNA,通过转录组测序获得DHDDS基因全长,对该基因进行生物信息学分析;并用不同浓度甲基茉莉酸(MeJA)处理绿色杜氏藻,采用实时定量PCR研究该基因转录差异.结果显示,绿色杜氏藻DHDDS基因全长2211 bp,含有一个1 740bp长的开放阅读框(ORF),编码579个氨基酸序列.DHDDS蛋白餍理论等电点为7.63,相对分子质量为62 472.7 Da.预测结果表明,DHDDS蛋白不含信号肽,也不存在跨膜区域,该蛋白定位于细胞质基质.氨基酸序列比对结果显示,绿色杜氏藻DHDDS蛋白与小球藻的同源性最高(59%).实时定量PCR结果表明,经100μmol/L MeJA处理的绿色杜氏藻DHDDS表达水平最高,具有极显著差异;在该浓度下,类胡萝卜素含量均高于其他浓度组.且DHDDS基因的表达与类胡萝卜素含量呈一定的相关性.绿色杜氏藻DHDDS是一种定位于细胞质基质中的酶,其与绿色杜氏藻类胡萝卜素合成途径有关.在一定浓度范围的MeJA诱导下,低浓度的MeJA对其表迭起促进作用,高浓度MeJA对其表达有抑制作用,且其表达与类胡萝卜素含量呈一定的相关性.

  13. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 104350 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LRACPDFSEFHPNANIEIAARLKPDLLPNLTPYLDNIPDYFKNLNSSQPDNPLLSTSSWLVLQVNQETTGYRTFWDYLPSDAITIDRIEPEK...PPLPSEESEDVQDSDRAETIQEKKQQLDFSPSLPQPDIETTYLSLDVETPEDIEGEQTLENYPDKDEQLQDTQTLSQPERQNSWPPSPLER...LQTIANFFTAENWPFVTVQDEQILQMAVEGQNEKLTCYAQVIEEQSLFIFYSICPIEAPESKRKALAEFLTLVNYDLIIGNFQLNLTSGQIRYKTSLDVSDSTLSTTQIKNLVYTNITMMDSHLPE...ELKPYFGTLKQIYRYWDISSQLKPLLERIENIGSDRLKRSSQTTKDTLRASQRLPPCIQARLLQLAAEKLASQLEVDILIELGEVQELLAKTKRILNTEFL ... ...wn function DUF1790 Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MNTHKETYQLDNSLTLLSPSSSGVTVRAIALTLTQQHNTLIEVILTFEITPIIYQRADNEGLFNLLPE

  14. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 262983 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available KLLQKGQIDYIQFAYGGTFLEANTTLKQVFEYLDDFRYLLFKILPNGLEHIPNFLPQYENYEYSSFLAVNERFKSTLLEEAPMAIDLQRLCSQYSLTWRGI...ELPQAEFYLDFYLLSQCDIVAISNSSFSFAACMLNERGQLFMRPDLSAKKLIAFDPWNSEPILRDEEVGSTKTDKANSDLNRLIPPEIKNDEFYAAIHEIAREADIRTVLEIGSSSGQGSTEAFVTGLREN...GWQFVKPDRLQSQTLANNKQSPTIVIDAVFFQRYKTGIARVWCSLLEEWAEDGFAKHIIVVDRDGTAPEIPGIWYRKAPPYDYDNTAADREILQQICNEEGADLFIST...THPDKSKMTLLVDSSNISDEDANLALSSIAMNLLMAEDLDVSEGPEISLIGELSEIQWKALIPRLHARIVWENENREAIAQAKAEDIPTWKLEDFMQESHQ ... ... FkbM family Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MNIDGMPTNNIGNQGNVNNEITIIERFIAPGQVVFDIGANIGSWTKEVLNRCPNVQVHV

  15. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 309351 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ein Osc7112_6822 Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MPLTDPIGEPLIEVESLIPGLAPTFAPQLPGIPTHKTLLYQTPGSSENSEQPNLIETA...EVSDKIDSDKTAPIPSTSETKNSDKQLPLAEASTLIDSDKKSPTVDAIPTEKPSSNSQEPLTTQPPTAPLIPPASNPVLPDTNINPEVNSTDSTNPVQTA...KPPQSEFSRAETDAFITNKASDIHSISSATISELRTNSNPRDAANSEIDPLIGKFDSDSGDSLTNPNPITSPVITTSTTSEKASPKTQLPATPETSSKPEDIKTPLSSEATLKSESEPNKTSPATA...SQALTDKQNDSEKVDPLKTEPAAIPKTAASENVAVTTATAVQTPEKSPNNTDSVSELKQPVQTESIVNQSADAESIKTDQTATASISQPPAETESVIAPLASQSPAKTDSLVSNVGEQSPKETHSNVSTASEELPTKTSRLLPQKSILVRWFWTSLSLK ... ...SNIIPDRSTTSSEKSETIAVTNLTETIAASPNIPSTDKTSTDKQSPVAKADDKIDSDKQSQNSTIVEKTNSGEPSRTA

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0762 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0762 ref|YP_001798514.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Sminthurus viri...dis] gb|ABS82050.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Sminthurus viridis] YP_001798514.1 0.001 29% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-10-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-10-0000 ref|YP_448658.1| cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 [Desmarestia viri...dis] gb|AAS79044.1| cytochrome oxidase subunit III [Desmarestia viridis] YP_448658.1 3e-26 49% ...

  18. Spearmint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Garden Mint, Green Mint, Hierbabuena, Huile Essentielle de Menthe Verte, Lamb Mint, Mackerel Mint, Menta Verde, Mentha cordifolia, Mentha crispa, Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis, Menthe Verte, Menthe Crépue, Menthe Douce, Menthe à Épis, ...

  19. An evidence-based systematic review of spearmint by the natural standard research collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Costa, Dawn; M Grimes Serrano, Jill; Guilford, Jacquelyn; Isaac, Richard; Seamon, Erica; Varghese, Minney

    2010-06-01

    An evidence-based systematic review of spearmint (Mentha spicata, Mentha viridis) including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. PMID:22435615

  20. Investigation into feed utilisation by fore-aged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using double-marked algae (14C and 51Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blue-green alga Microcystis firma and two green algae, Dunaliella viridis and Chlorella vulgaris, were double-marked with 14C and 51Cr. The 51Cr was used as an indicator to measure the assimilation efficiency of fore-aged silver carp for radiocarbon. The assimilation efficiency values obtained were 89.0 +- 5.43% for M. firma, 61.3 +- 15.28% for D. viridis and 91.3 +- 2.22% for C. vulgaris. (author)

  1. Antioxidant, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of Senecio species used in traditional medicine of northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Emilio; Castro, Felipe; Fernández, Francisco; de Lampasona, Marina P; Catalán, César A N

    2012-05-01

    Senecio nutans Sch. Bip., S. viridis var. viridis Phill. and S. spegazzinii Cabrera are native species used in traditional medicine of northwestern Argentina. The total phenolics, flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids contents, as well as radical scavenging, antioxidant, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of aqueous extracts (infusion and decoction) of all three species were determined. S. nutans was the most active. The extracts did not show antibacterial activity. Alkaloids were not detected in any of the aqueous extracts of the three studied species. PMID:22799087

  2. Study on Biological Characteristic of the Halotolerant Dunaliella Viridis Living in the Mud Flat of Bohai Sea Gulf of China%中国渤海湾滩涂极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻生物学特性研究(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱玲; 张福; 马若欣; 姜润林

    2005-01-01

    文章对中国渤海湾滩涂极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻的生物学特征作了综合论述,内容包括极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻的繁殖特性、生长特性、耐盐特性、以及对卤水生境因子(包括化学因子,物理因子,生物因子)适应性的研究.

  3. The Ratio of Na+/Mg2+, Cl-/SO2-4 in Brine Effect the Growth of Halotolerant Dunaliella viridis%卤水Na+/Mg2+,Cl-/SO2-4比值对极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福; 刘同慧

    2010-01-01

    极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻是世界上迄今发现的最耐盐的真核光合生物,藻体内含有植物蛋白、脂肪酸、多糖、叶绿素、甘油等多种营养成分和生物活性物质,具有开发天然保健品或生物药品的应用前景、文章依据人工海水理论和方法,研究了水体Na+/Mg2+、Cl-/SO2-4比值对极端嗜盐绿色杜氏藻生长的影响,从而探讨适合该藻类生长的化学环境.

  4. Effects of salinity on growth rate, chlorophyll content and cell cycle of Dunaliella viridis%盐度对绿色杜氏藻生长速率、叶绿素含量及细胞周期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青; 苏绣榕; 李太武; 杨凤香

    2003-01-01

    在不同盐度梯度下,进行了盐度对绿色杜氏藻Dunaliella viridis的生长、叶绿素含量和细胞周期影响的试验.结果表明:1)绿色杜氏藻在盐度为10时,生长速率和单位水体叶绿素含量最低,分别为0.121个/d和908.27μg/L;在盐度为60时,生长速率和单位水体叶绿素含量最高,分别为0.381个/d和1 192.41μg/L.2)不同盐度下单位细胞叶绿素含量呈现高-低-高的变化趋势,盐度60时,单位细胞叶绿素含量最低,叶绿素a为2.32×10-6μg/个,叶绿素总量为3.31×10-6μg/个.3)盐度为60时,绿色杜氏藻的细胞周期S期最短,为36.9%,G2期为0.8%;盐度80时,绿色杜氏藻的G2期最短,为0.3%,S期为43.6%,即绿色杜氏藻在盐度为60~80时,S期、G2期最短,细胞进入分裂期所用时间最短.本试验结果表明,培养绿色杜氏藻以盐度60~80的水体最为适宜.

  5. 转盐生杜氏藻β-胡萝卜素羟化酶基因(chyb)烟草的获得及耐盐性鉴定%Acquisition and Salt-tolerance Evaluation of Transgenic Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with β-carotene Hydroxylase Gene (chyb) from Dunaliella viridis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许峰; 龚一富; 刘林; 周静; 孙娇璐; 王何瑜

    2015-01-01

    β-胡萝卜素羟化酶(β-carotene hydroxylase,chyb)作为盐生杜氏藻(Dunaliella viridis胡萝卜素合成代谢途径中的关键酶,催化β-胡萝卜素经两步反应合成玉米黄素.盐生杜氏藻chyb基因在植物抗逆性方面有重要研究价值.本研究利用前期克隆得到的盐生杜氏藻chyb基因(GenBank登录号:JN118489),构建了植物表达载体pC AMB IA3 301-chyb.通过根癌农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)LBA4404介导的叶盘法将其转入烟草(Nicotiana tabacum),获得16株草铵膦抗性再生植株,经PCR及RT-PCR扩增分析表明,chyb基因已转入其中13株烟草植株中,并可以进行正常转录.通过测定转基因烟草的株高、叶面积、叶绿素含量、叶片相对电导率和脯氨酸含量对转基因烟草的耐盐性进行了检测,结果表明,与对照组相比,转基因烟草的株高、叶面积、叶绿素含量均极显著提高(P<0.01),其中转基因烟草平均株高为37.82cm,是对照组烟草平均株高的1.37倍.在100 mmol/L NaC1胁迫处理下,转基因烟草的成活率为84.45%,是对照组烟草的1.58倍;在200 mmol/L NaC1胁迫下对照组烟草萎蔫死亡,而转基因烟草仍可生长存活.经检测转基因烟草叶片的相对电导率升高但变化幅度较小,脯氨酸含量较对照组极显著增加(P<0.01).研究结果说明转基因烟草的耐盐性得到了提高,为进一步探讨盐生杜氏藻chyb基因在植物耐盐性方面的功能提供基础资料.

  6. Genetic analysis of the marine mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) based on mitochondrial COI sequence and its phylogenetic relationship with other congeneric species%基于COI序列的翡翠股贻贝Perna viridis线粒体遗传特性分析及其近缘种间的系统关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    位正鹏; 孔晓瑜; 吴相云; 喻子牛

    2009-01-01

    应用通用引物COIL 1490和COtH 2198对翡翠股贻贝Perna viridis的性腺和体细胞线粒体DNA进行PCR扩增,获得661bp长度的COI基因片段,经过比对性腺与体细胞的COI片段,发现雄性性腺与体细胞COI基因均为一个单倍型,即体内只有一种线粒体DNA类型,没有发现双单性遗传现象,雌、雄性腺的COI基因片段变异率很低(0.31%).应用 PAUP构建NJ树、MP树以及贝叶斯法构建了贝叶斯树,对股贻吡属3种间的系统关系进行了分析,结果表明,翡翠股贻贝P.viridis、p.canaliculus和P.perna之间的分化与分歧年代的估算是相吻合的.

  7. Vitamin-D's molekylære effekt på cellecyklus og onkogenese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, J; Wittenhagen, P; Hørder, M

    1998-01-01

    The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25 (OH)2D3, exerts its cell cycle regulating effects via binding to VDR (Vitamin D Receptor). This complex forms a heterodimer with RXR (Retinoic X Receptor). The VDR-RXR heterodimer binds to promoter regions of cell cycle regulating genes through a vitamin D...

  8. Domain Modeling: NP_055804.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055804.2 chr6 STRUCTURAL BASIS FOR A MUNC13-1 DIMERIC - MUNC13-1 - RIM HETERODIM...ER SWITCH: C2-DOMAINS AS VERSATILE PROTEIN-PROTEIN INTERACTION MODULES p2cjsc_ chr6/NP_055804.2/NP_055804.2_

  9. Regulatory elements in the promoter region of the rat gene encoding the acyl-CoA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, M; Bjerking, G; Knudsen, J;

    1996-01-01

    peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) and a retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), we demonstrated that this DR-1 element was capable of binding PPARalpha/RXRalpha, PPARdelta/RXRalpha and PPARgamma2/RXRalpha heterodimers. The PPARgamma2/RXRalpha heterodimer appeared to have the highest affinity...

  10. D1-protein dynamics in photosystem II: the lingering enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    The D1/D2 heterodimer core dominates the photosystem II reaction center. A characteristic feature of this heterodimer is the differentially rapid, light-dependent degradation of the D1 protein. The D1 protein is possibly the most researched photosynthetic polypeptide, with aspects of structure–funct...

  11. Individual specialization to non-optimal hosts in a polyphagous marine invertebrate herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn A Baumgartner

    Full Text Available Factors determining the degree of dietary generalism versus specialism are central in ecology. Species that are generalists at the population level may in fact be composed of specialized individuals. The optimal diet theory assumes that individuals choose diets that maximize fitness, and individual specialization may occur if individuals' ability to locate, recognize, and handle different food types differ. We investigate if individuals of the marine herbivorous slug Elysia viridis, which co-occur at different densities on several green macroalgal species in the field, are specialized to different algal hosts. Individual slugs were collected from three original algal host species (Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris and Codium fragile in the field, and short-term habitat choice and consumption, as well as long-term growth (proxy for fitness, on four algal diet species (the original algal host species and Chaetomorpha melagonium were studied in laboratory experiments. Nutritional (protein, nitrogen, and carbon content and morphological (dry weight, and cell/utricle volume algal traits were also measured to investigate if they correlated with the growth value of the different algal diets. E. viridis individuals tended to choose and consume algal species that were similar to their original algal host. Long-term growth of E. viridis, however, was mostly independent of original algal host, as all individuals reached a larger size on the non-host C. melagonium. E. viridis growth was positively correlated to algal cell/utricle volume but not to any of the other measured algal traits. Because E. viridis feeds by piercing individual algal cells, the results indicate that slugs may receive more cytoplasm, and thus more energy per unit time, on algal species with large cells/utricles. We conclude that E. viridis individuals are specialized on different hosts, but host choice in natural E. viridis populations is not determined by the energetic value of

  12. Effect of pre-chilling and environmental factors on breaking seed dormancy and germination of three foxtail species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe AMINI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wet and dry pre-chilling duration, pH, osmotic stress, salt stress and planting depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of three foxtail species (Setaria glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridis was investigated in a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Both wet and dry pre-chilling for 45 days promoted seed germination of S. glauca compared with the control. Pre-chilling was not significantly effective in seed dormancy breaking of S. viridis and S. verticillata. The maximum germination of foxtails (S. verticillata, S. viridis was obtained when seeds were treated with pH 7 buffer solution. Increasing of osmotic and salt stress decreased seed germination of foxtails. Setaria verticillata seed germination was more tolerant than those of S. glauca and S. viridis to high water stress condition. Setaria glauca and S. verticillata seed germination were more tolerant to high salinity stress than S. viridis. Seedling emergence decreased with increasing the burial depth and no germination observed at 8 cm soil depth.

  13. Pain management in mice using methanol extracts of three plants belongs to family Amaranthaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok Kumar BS; Lakshman K; Jayaveera KN; Vel Murgan C; Arun Kumar PA; Vinod Kumar R; Meghda Hegade; Sridhar SM

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the analgesic activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis(A. viridis), Amaranthus caudatus (A. caudatus) and Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus). Methods:In this study, the analgesic activity of methanol extracts of all three plants at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were investigated by acetic acid-induced writhings test, hot plate test and tail immersion test for mice. Results:It was found that all the three plants showed significant pain management effect(P<0.01) at a dose of 400 mg/kg, but showed a less significant effect at a dose of 20 mg/kg in the entire tests used for evaluation of analgesic activities (P<0.05). Conclusions:Methanol extracts of A. viridis, A. caudatus and A. spinosus show potent analgesic activities, and this study provides the scientific proof for their traditional claims.

  14. Ecological implications of changes in polychaetes population in a shallow Danish estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu

    increased sulfate reduction rates in the sediment and created more reduced conditions than N. diversicolor. This was probably caused by the different ventilation and irrigation mechanisms of the 2 species (MS6). M. viridis deep burrow ventilation irrigates the sediment along the wall of the blind...... presented in this thesis evaluates the effect of population change in size and distribution of 3 polychaete species in a shallow Danish estuary - Odense Fjord: the 2 ecologically important Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor and the non-native species Marenzelleria viridis. We focus on the effect of...... the dynamic of the polychaete population on sediment biogeochemistry and the seagrass Zostera marina. In MS1, the results obtained from different survey indicate that M. viridis was first recorded in 2002 in this estuary and is now present in about 50% of the estuary. The loss of seagrass habitat in...

  15. Mycoflora in the rhizosphere of some wild plants around karachi university campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with data regarding rhizosphere mycoflora of wild plants including Amaranthus viridis L., Chloris barbata (L.) Swartz and Tridax procumbens L. which were collected from different location around Karachi University campus. Result recorded for the properties of rhizosphere showed texture of soil as sandy loam soil, moisture content ranged between 15-31% and basic pH of C. barbata while acidic in case of A. viridis and T. procumbens. 21 fungal species belonging to 16 genera were isolated from rhizospheric soil of wild plants by direct plate method while 28 species belonging to 20 genera were isolated from rhizosphere soil of wild plants by serial dilution method. The result showed that greatest number of fungi were isolated by serial dilution method. Maximum number of fungi were obtained from rhizosphere soil of C. barbata whereas lowest number of fungi were recorded from rhizosphere soil of A. viridis. (author)

  16. Effect of pre-chilling and environmental factors on breaking seed dormancy and germination of three foxtail species

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihe AMINI; Faezeh ZAEFARIAN; Rezvani, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of wet and dry pre-chilling duration, pH, osmotic stress, salt stress and planting depth on seed germination and seedling emergence of three foxtail species (Setaria glauca, S. verticillata and S. viridis) was investigated in a series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Both wet and dry pre-chilling for 45 days promoted seed germination of S. glauca compared with the control. Pre-chilling was not significantly effective in seed dormancy breaking of S. viridis and S. verticill...

  17. Gamma ray induced seedling injury and chlorophyll mutants in two varieties of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry, well filled seeds of rice cultivars Basmati and Phalguna were irradiated with 20, 30, 40, and 50 kR gamma ray doses with a view to study their radio sensitivity in inducing seedling injury and chlorophyll mutants. In general, the percentage of germination, survival, seedling height and leaf number decreased in the irradiated population. The spectrum of chlorophyll mutants induced include albino, viridis, xantha and other categories like striata, zebra and maculata. Viridis was more predominant in Basmati whereas xantha was more in phalguna. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Investigation into feed utilization by fore-aged silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using double-marked algae (/sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wessel, B.; Spittler, P.; Heerkloss, R. (Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Biologie)

    1982-01-01

    The blue-green alga Microcystis firma and two green algae, Dunaliella viridis and Chlorella vulgaris, were double-marked with /sup 14/C and /sup 51/Cr. The /sup 51/Cr was used as an indicator to measure the assimilation efficiency of fore-aged silver carp for radiocarbon. The assimilation efficiency values obtained were 89.0 +- 5.43% for M. firma, 61.3 +- 15.28% for D. viridis and 91.3 +- 2.22% for C. vulgaris.

  19. BIOMETRIC AND MORPHOMETRIC STUDIES OF Perna v iridis AND Pe rna i ndica ALONG THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF INDIA: A STATISTICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmy KV

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth indices of the Mussels, Perna viridis and Perna indica collected from the south west coast of India were examined using statistical methods. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA sepa rated 2 morphometric gradient groups (spat and adult, indicating the different phenotypic plasticity between them. The factor scores classified P. indica as a unimodal, positively skewed leptokurtic population and P. viridis as a unimodal, negatively skewed leptokurtic population. The allometry was not static, but simple and ontogenetic since their population was continuously varying. The present study shows that factor analysis is better than principal component analysis for delineating the morphometric characteristics of living organisms

  20. Ag nanoprisms with Ag₂S attachment.

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Shenglin

    2013-01-01

    Triangular Ag nanoprisms are a type of most-studied noble-metal nanostructures over the past decade owing to their special structural architecture and outstanding optical and catalytic properties for a wide range of applications. Nevertheless, in contrast to active research for the synthesis of phase-pure Ag nanoprisms, no asymmetric heterodimers containing Ag prisms have been developed so far, probably due to lack of suitable synthetic methods. Herein, we devise a simple ion-exchange method to synthesize Ag2S/Ag heterodimers at room temperature, through which Ag nanoprisms with controllable size and thickness can be fabricated. Formation chemistry and optical properties of the heterodimers have been investigated. These semiconductor/metal heterodimers have exhibited remarkable bactericidal activity to E. coli cells under visible light illumination.

  1. Collective plasmon modes in a compositionally asymmetric nanoparticle dimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The plasmon coupling phenomenon of heterodimers composed of silver, gold and copper nanoparticles of 60 nm in size and spherical in shape were studied theoretically within the scattered field formulation framework. In-phase dipole coupled σ-modes were observed for the Ag-Au and Ag-Cu heterodimers, and an antiphase dipole coupled π-mode was observed for the Ag-Au heterodimer. These observations agree well with the plasmon hybridization theory. However, quadrupole coupled modes dominate the high energy wavelength range from 357-443 nm in the scattering cross section of the D=60 nm Ag-Au and Ag-Cu heterodimer. We demonstrate for the first time that collective plasmon modes in a compositionally asymmetric nanoparticle dimer have to be predicted from the dipole-dipole approximation of plasmon hybridization theory together with the interband transition effect of the constitutive metals and the retardation effect of the nanoparticle size.

  2. Activation of the Retinoid X Receptor Modulates Angiotensin II-Induced Smooth Muscle Gene Expression and Inflammation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lehman, Allison M.B.; Montford, John R.; Horita, Henrick; Ostriker, Allison C.; Weiser-Evans, Mary C. M.; Nemenoff, Raphael A.; Furgeson, Seth B.

    2014-01-01

    The retinoid X receptor (RXR) partners with numerous nuclear receptors, such as the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) family, liver X receptors (LXRs), and farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Although each heterodimer can be activated by specific ligands, a subset of these receptors, defined as permissive nuclear receptors, can also be activated by RXR agonists known as rexinoids. Many individual RXR heterodimers have beneficial effects in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Because ...

  3. Use of monoclonal antibodies for the characterization of novel DNA- binding proteins recognized by human autoimmune sera

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Autoantibodies to a DNA-binding heterodimer consisting of 70,000 and 80,000 dalton subunits were identified in 30-50% of human autoimmune sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and scleroderma. Three murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the heterodimer were produced in BALB/c mice by immunizing with isolated human B cell nuclei. By immunofluorescence, the mAb and autoimmune sera demonstrated both speckled nucleoplasmic stainin...

  4. Interaction of circadian clock proteins PER2 and CRY with BMAL1 and CLOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Bordon Alain; Tallone Tiziano; Langmesser Sonja; Rusconi Sandro; Albrecht Urs

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Circadian oscillation of clock-controlled gene expression is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Heterodimers of CLOCK and BMAL1 act as activators of target gene transcription; however, interactions of PER and CRY proteins with the heterodimer abolish its transcriptional activation capacity. PER and CRY are therefore referred to as negative regulators of the circadian clock. To further elucidate the mechanism how positive and negative components of the clock int...

  5. Probing the origin of tubulin rigidity with molecular simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Dima, Ruxandra I.; Joshi, Harshad

    2008-01-01

    Tubulin heterodimers are the building blocks of microtubules, a major component of the cytoskeleton, whose mechanical properties are fundamental for the life of the cell. We uncover the microscopic origins of the mechanical response in microtubules by probing features of the energy landscape of the tubulin monomers and tubulin heterodimer. To elucidate the structures of the unfolding pathways and reveal the multiple unfolding routes, we performed simulations of a self-organized polymer (SOP) ...

  6. Design and characterization of an enhanced repressor of human papillomavirus E2 protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Kakoli; Meinke, Gretchen; Bohm, Andrew; Baleja, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are causative agents of cervical and anogenital cancers. The viral E2 protein mediates viral DNA replication and transactivation of viral oncogenes and thus represents a specific target for therapeutic intervention. Short forms of E2, E2R, contain only the C-terminal dimerization domain, and repress the normal function of E2 due to formation of an inactive heterodimer. Using structure-guided design, we replaced conserved residues at the dimer interface to design a heterodimer...

  7. Association of amino acids embedded in helium droplets detected by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Matthieu R.; Achazi, Georg; Reichwald, Sebastian; Lindinger, Albrecht

    2015-12-01

    Amino acids were embedded in helium droplets. The electron impact ionization allows for detecting positively charged glycine, valine, histidine, tryptophan and their principal fragments. Monomers and polymers with up to four amino acids are reported. Heterodimers of tryptophan and valine or histidine are observed as well as heterodimers of included fragments. The ability of these associations of molecules to form complexes with water is examined.

  8. Determinants of the Nuclear Localization of the Heterodimeric DNA Fragmentation Factor (Icad/Cad)

    OpenAIRE

    Lechardeur, Delphine; Drzymala, Luke; Sharma, Manu; Zylka, Danuta; Kinach, Robert; Pacia, Joanna; Hicks, Christopher; Usmani, Nawaid; Rommens, Johanna M.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2000-01-01

    Programmed cell death or apoptosis leads to the activation of the caspase-activated DNase (CAD), which degrades chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal fragments. Biochemical studies revealed that CAD forms an inactive heterodimer with the inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD), or its alternatively spliced variant, ICAD-S, in the cytoplasm. It was initially proposed that proteolytic cleavage of ICAD by activated caspases causes the dissociation of the ICAD/CAD heterodimer and the translocation...

  9. High level transactivation by a modified Bombyx ecdysone receptor in mammalian cells without exogenous retinoid X receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Suhr, Steven T.; Gil, Elad B.; Senut, Marie-Claude; GAGE, FRED H.

    1998-01-01

    Our studies of the Bombyx mori ecdysone receptor (BE) revealed that, unlike the Drosophila melanogaster ecdysone receptor (DE), treatment of BE with the ecdysone agonist tebufenozide stimulated high level transactivation in mammalian cells without adding an exogenous heterodimer partner. Gel mobility shift and transfection assays with both the ultraspiracle gene product (Usp) and retinoid X receptor heterodimer partners indicated that this property of BE stems from significantly augmented het...

  10. Mechanisms of Ricin Toxin Neutralization Revealed through Engineered Homodimeric and Heterodimeric Camelid Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cristina; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Shoemaker, Charles B; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2015-11-13

    Novel antibody constructs consisting of two or more different camelid heavy-chain only antibodies (VHHs) joined via peptide linkers have proven to have potent toxin-neutralizing activity in vivo against Shiga, botulinum, Clostridium difficile, anthrax, and ricin toxins. However, the mechanisms by which these so-called bispecific VHH heterodimers promote toxin neutralization remain poorly understood. In the current study we produced a new collection of ricin-specific VHH heterodimers, as well as VHH homodimers, and characterized them for their ability neutralize ricin in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that the VHH heterodimers, but not homodimers were able to completely protect mice against ricin challenge, even though the two classes of antibodies (heterodimers and homodimers) had virtually identical affinities for ricin holotoxin and similar IC50 values in a Vero cell cytotoxicity assay. The VHH heterodimers did differ from the homodimers in their ability to promote toxin aggregation in solution, as revealed through analytical ultracentrifugation. Moreover, the VHH heterodimers that were most effective at promoting ricin aggregation in solution were also the most effective at blocking ricin attachment to cell surfaces. Collectively, these data suggest that heterodimeric VHH-based neutralizing agents may function through the formation of antibody-toxin complexes that are impaired in their ability to access host cell receptors. PMID:26396190

  11. Development of sensitive and specific molecular tools for the efficient detection and discrimination of potentially invasive mussel species of the genus Perna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Joana Dias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine mussels of the genus Perna include three species: P. canaliculus, P. viridis and P. perna. While P. canaliculus appears to be greatlyrestricted to its endemic range of New Zealand, P. perna and P.viridis introductions have been recorded outside their native ranges in severalregions of the globe. Such introductions have often resulted in significant negative ecological, economic and social impacts. Perna perna and P.viridis are exotic to Australia and are listed under the Australian Government National System for the Prevention and Management of Marine Pest Incursions as high priority species. Rapid detection of marine pests such as Perna species remains fundamental to their effective containment and control. The present study reports on the development and validation of both conventional and real-time PCR assays suited to the rapid identification and discrimination of juvenile and adult specimens of P. viridis, P. canaliculus and P. perna. The development of a sensitive high-throughput real-time PCR assay offers further potential for the efficient detection of the presence of single Perna specimens in mixed populations of native mussel species, and for early detection of larval stages in ballast water and plankton samples. This assay offers considerable advantages over traditional identification methods and represents an important step in developing capacity for efficient identification and management of Perna species incursions in Australian waters.

  12. Allelopathy in pigweed (a review)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves; Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho; Marcelo Claro de Souza; Paulo Roberto Fidelis Giancotti

    2011-01-01

    Amaranthus spp. are plants with proven allelopathic potential. The release of allelochemicals from Amaranthus spp. in the environment can influence seed germination, photosynthesis rate, reduce growth and, consequently, the productivity of various plant species. Among the species with allelopathic potential are Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis, with A. retroflexus being the mo...

  13. EFFECT OF MANURES ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND PHARMACOBIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME GREENS

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, S. Naseer; Sivakumar, A.; Subramanian, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the study of biomass production of manures in the greens such as Amaranthus polygamus and Amaranthus viridis of the family Amaranthaceae and Spinacea oleracea of the family Chenopodiaceae. The medicinal uses and pharmaco – phytochemical analysis were also carried out for the plant species which are widely used as greens.

  14. The presence of species of Pseudochironomus Malloch 1915 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in watercourses of Chaco Serrano Ecoregion (Argentina, South America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Analía C; Rodriguez Garay, Gretel N

    2015-01-01

    Male imagos of Pseudochironomus viridis (Kieffer) are redescribed, the immature stages are described and figured for the first time. During this study, larva and pupal exuviae associated to P. richardsoni (Malloch) were recorded for the first time for South America. The specimens were collected from a stream and a river in the Pampasic Hills System in the Chaco Serrano ecoregion of Argentina. PMID:26249080

  15. Conditional Reduction of Predation Risk Associated with a Facultative Symbiont in an Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Polin

    Full Text Available Symbionts are widespread among eukaryotes and their impacts on the ecology and evolution of their hosts are meaningful. Most insects harbour obligate and facultative symbiotic bacteria that can influence their phenotype. In the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, an astounding symbiotic-mediated phenotype has been recently observed: when infected with the symbiotic bacteria Rickettsiella viridis, young red aphid larvae become greener at adulthood and even darker green when co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa. As body colour affects the susceptibility towards natural enemies in aphids, the influence of the colour change due to these facultative symbionts on the host survival in presence of predators was tested. Our results suggested that the Rickettsiella viridis infection may impact positively host survival by reducing predation risk. Due to results from uninfected aphids (i.e., more green ones attacked, the main assumption is that this symbiotic infection would deter the predatory ladybird feeding by reducing the profitability of their hosts rather than decreasing host detection through body colour change. Aphids co-infected with Rickettsiella viridis and Hamiltonella defensa were, however, more exposed to predation suggesting an ecological cost associated with multiple infections. The underlying mechanisms and ecological consequences of these symbiotic effects are discussed.

  16. The status of Vespertilio borbonicus E. Geoffroy, 1803 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The taxonomic history of Scotophilus borbonicus (E. Geoffroy, 1803) from Réunion Island is reviewed and summarised, with the designation of a lectotype. The insular form that it represents is considered conspecific with the small Scotophilus viridis (Peters, 1852) of southern Africa. As a result, Sc

  17. Preliminary studies on the holding of live mussels after harvest

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, W.G.; Orano, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Green mussel (Perna viridis) were harvested to study the applicability of chilling to keep the mussels alive for a longer period of time and to review existing methods of packaging and transport. Data obtained from preliminary studies indicated the effectiveness of keeping mussels alive as long as 4 days with minimal mortality rates.

  18. 78 FR 19510 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 56 Species in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    .... 1998. Dudleya abramsii subsp. parva... Conejo dudleya.... Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 62 FR..., delta green ground...... Elaphrus viridis.. Threatened........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 45 FR 52807; 08/08... 95825. Butterfly, bay checkerspot...... Euphydryas editha Threatened........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 49...

  19. 77 FR 29588 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Celery, Arugula, and Spinach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... fresh celery, arugula, and spinach from Colombia. Based on the findings of three pest risk analyses... commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported subject to one... established that Coccus viridis no longer meets our definition of a quarantine pest and added it to our...

  20. The Effect of the Ecology of Toads on the Distribution of Helminths

    OpenAIRE

    VASHETKO, Emilia V.; SIDDIKOV, Bakhodir H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the helminth fauna of the green toad, Bufo viridis, in Uzbekistan. Twently helminth species were identified. The highest diversity of helminths was recorded in toads in the newly-built districts of Tashkent (1966-76). The helminth fauna of the toads inhabiting foothills was less common.

  1. Deactivation of excitation energy in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres in Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, J.; Hara, M.; Goc, J.; Planner, A.; Wróbel, D.

    1997-08-01

    Absorption, photoacoustic and time-resolved in μs time range delayed luminescence spectra have been measured in order to follow the interaction among chromophores when Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Rhodopseudomonas viridis reaction centres are closely packed in a form of Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers. Two types of Langmuir-Blodgett samples have been prepared and investigated: multilayers consist of one type of reaction centre ( Rhodobacter sphaeroides or Rhodopseudomonas viridis) and multilayers composed of mixed reaction centres ( Rhodobacter sphaeroides mixed with Rhodopseudomonas viridis). Using the Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers composed of two types of bacteria reaction centres mixture, we were able to extend the spectral region of the light/solar energy absorbed by the system. It was shown that each form of pigment participates in thermal dissipation but to a different degree. A special pair (bacteriochlorophyll dimer) does not contribute to delayed luminescence. Delayed luminescence in Rhodopseudomonas viridis and Rhodobacter sphaeroides differs very significantly from each other. Bacteriopheophytin as well as dihydromesochlorophyll contribute to delayed luminescence but the degree of their participation in this radiative process depends strongly on the type of reaction centre. Delayed luminescence and thermal processes have been indicated as important processes of deactivation of the photoexcited chromophores in reaction centres.

  2. [Peculiarities of growth of the monocellular green algae culture after the influence of electromagnetic field in deuterated water-containing media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, K T; Aslanian, R R

    2013-01-01

    Exposing the inoculum of monocellular green algae Dunalialla tertiolecta and Tetraselmis viridis to 50 Hz electromagnetic field for several hours resulted in a reduced growth rate in both cultures. It was ascertained that heavy water inhibited growth of algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. The light water activated growth of the culture in the exponential phase only. PMID:23650857

  3. Video micrography of algae photomovement and vectorial method of biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posudin, Yuri I.; Massjuk, N. P.; Lilitskaya, G. G.

    1996-01-01

    The simultaneous recording of several photomovement parameters of algae as test-functions during biomonitoring is proposed. Green alga Dunaliella viridis Teod. was used as the test- object for the estimation of different heavy metals. The quantitative changes of photomovement parameters as a criterion of toxicity were determined by means of the vectorial method of biomonitoring.

  4. [Computational genome analysis of three marine algoviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, O A; Boĭko, A L; Shcherbatenko, I S

    2013-01-01

    Computational analysis of genomic sequences of three new marine algoviruses: Tetraselmis viridis virus (TvV-S20 and TvV-SI1 strains) and Dunaliella viridis virus (DvV-SI2 strain) was conducted. Both considerable similarity and essential distinctions between studied strains and the most studied marine algoviruses of Phycodnaviridae family were revealed. Our data show that the tested strains are new viruses with the following features: only they were isolated from marine eukaryotic microalgae T. viridis and D. viridis, coding sequences (CDSs) of their genomes are localized mainly on one of the DNA strands and form several clusters with short intergenic spaces; there are considerable variations in genome structure within viruses and their strains; viral genomic DNA has a high GC-content (55.5 - 67.4%); their genes contain no well-known optimal contexts of translation start codones, and the contexts of terminal codons read-through; the vast majority of viral genes and proteins do not have any matches in gene banks. PMID:24479317

  5. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 278017 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YP_007118815.1 1117:4883 1150:2370 1158:379 482564:175 179408:175 Tetratricopeptide TPR_2 repeat-contai...ning protein Oscillatoria nigro-viridis PCC 7112 MGKAKRRKQTPNYRKPTSQDDLGDKKGAIADYNRAIELQPDDALAYYNRGNVRYNLGDKKGAI...ADFNKAIELQPDLAEAYGNRGLFRSELGDKKGAIADLNKAIELQPDLALAYVNRGAVRSKLGDKKGAIADYNKAIELQPDYAQAYYNRGLVRSELGDKKGAI...ADYNKAIELKPDLALAYYNRGLVRSELGDKKGAIADYNKAIELQPDYAQAYGNRGTVRSELGDKKGAI...ADLNKVIELKPDLAQAYYNRGLFRSELGDKKGAIADFNKAIELQPDDAQAYYKRGNVRYILGDKKGAITDFNKAIELQPDDAFAYYNRGNVRYILGDKKGAIADYNKAI

  6. Cyperaceae surinamenses novae vel criticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittien, H.

    1933-01-01

    Cyperus ruderalis Uitt. nov. spec. Annuus, viridis, culmis caespitosis, complanatis, raro trigonis, striatis, apicem versus modice setulosis, 6—10 cm longis, 1—1,5 mm latis, basi 0—2-foliatis. Foliis culmo multo brevioribus vel subaequilongis, 1,5—2,5 mm latis. Umbella simplex vel interdum mediocrit

  7. First Record of a Neozygites species (Zygomycetes:Entomophthorales) Infecting Springtails (Insecta:Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Eilenberg, J; Bresciani, J.

    1996-01-01

    A fungal pathogen from the Entomophthorales (Zygomycetes) was discovered in populations of the lucerne flea Sminthurus viridis (Collembola) collected from grassland and leguminous crops in Denmark during July to October. The morphology of the fungus was studied in springtails, collected live, which...

  8. Efeito do bentazon e bentazon + dichlorprop na cultura do arroz irrigado e sobre as plantas daninhas Effect of bentazon and bentazon + dichlorprop on irrigated rice and weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.L. dos Santos

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento de campo, em solo barrento, com a finalidade de se verificar o efeito do bentazon e da mistura de bentazon + dichlorprop sobre o desenvolvimento do arroz em cultura irrigada e sobre o controle das plantas daninhas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: bentazon á 0,75-1,00 e1,50 kg/ha; bentazon + dichlorprop a 0,80 + 1,00 e 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha; propanil a 4,20 kg/ha (tratamento padrão; testemunha capinada e testemunha sem capina. Todas as pulverizações foram realizadas em pósemergência. As plantas daninhas encontradas no experimento foram: capituva - Echinochloa colonum (L Link, tiririca amarela - Cyperus esculentus L., beldroega - Portulaca oleracea L. e carurú comum - Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon a 1,00 e 1,50 kg/ha e bentazon + dichlorprop a 1,00 + 1,40 kg/ha foram eficientes no controle de P. oleracea, A. viridis e C. esculentus; já a dose menor de bentazon apresentou bons resultados contra P. oleracea e A. viridis, enquanto que a dose menor de bentazon + dichlorprop controlou apenas P. oleracea. Propanil, de uma maneira geral, proporcionou eficiente ação sobre as plantas daninhas. Nas condições em que foi realizado o experimento nenhum dos herbicidas, nas suas respectivas doses, apresentou fitotoxicidade para as plantas de arroz da variedade IAC-435 ou prejudicou a produção da cultura.Bentazon at 0.75 - 1.00 and 1.50 kg/ha a.i ., bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 and 1.00 + 1.40 kg and propanil at 4.20 kg were applied in post-emergence on irrigated rice, against the following weeds: Echinochloa colonum (L. Link, Cy-perus esc-ulentus L., Portulaca oleracea L. and Amaranthus viridis L. Bentazon at 1.00 - 1.50 kg and bentazon + dichlorprop at 1.00 + 1.40 kg gave good control of P. oleracea, A. viridis and C. esculentus; bentazon at 0.75 kg controlled P. oleracea and A. viridis; bentazon + dichlorprop at 0.80 + 1.00 kg only showed effeciency for P. oleracea; propanil, in general, gave good

  9. Synthesis and anti-HIV evaluation of hybrid-type prodrugs conjugating HIV integrase inhibitors with d4t by self-cleavable spacers containing an amino acid residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Christine; Huynh, Ngoc-Trinh; Vu, Anh-Hoang; Vidu, Anamaria; Zarafu, Irina; Laduree, Daniel; Schmidt, Sylvie; Laumond, Geraldine; Aubertin, Anne-Marie

    2007-10-01

    In an attempt to combine the anti-HIV inhibitory capacity of reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTIs) and integrase (IN) inhibitors (INIs), several heterodimer analogues of the previously reported [d4T]-PABC-[INI] and [d4T]-OABC-[INI] prototypes have been prepared. In these novel series, we wished to extend our results to conjugates which incorporated an enzymatically labile aminoacid unit (L-alanine) connected to d4T through a self-immolative para- or ortho-aminobenzyl carbonate (PABC or OABC) spacer. Among the novel heterodimers, several derivatives show a potent anti-HIV-1 activity, which proved comparable to that of the [L-708,906]-PABC-[d4T] Heterodimer A prototype. However, although the compounds proved inhibitory to HIV-1, they were less potent than the parent compounds from which they were derived. PMID:18035829

  10. Radionuclide concentrations in mussels collected from the southern coast of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs were determined in whole soft tissues (WST) and shells of groups of different size of marine mussel Perna viridis L. and estuarine mussel Modiolus striatulus H. and water samples which were collected from the southern coast of Bangladesh. Correlation analysis showed that the concentrations of radionuclides vary with mussel size. A positive correlation existed for 238U and 40K and a negative one for 232Th between the radionuclide concentration and mussel size; 232Th concentrations in WST and shells of the mussels showed an inverse relationship with those of 238U and 40K, while 238U showed positive correlation with 40K. The concentration factors (CF) for 226Ra, 232Th and 238U in both P. viridis and M. striatulus were higher than those for 40K. The contents of 137Cs in both mussels were below the detection limit

  11. Vibrational spectra of free and intracellular DNA in the weak electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovbeshko, Galina I.

    1998-09-01

    Vibrational bands of DNA molecules from birds' erythrocytes, as well as Dunaliella viridis alga cells and Escherichia coli bacteria clinical strains in the weak microwave field were investigated with IR spectroscopy. Drastic changes were detected in the intensities and fine structure of C equals O and PL2 bands for polarized spectra of irradiated samples of DNA molecules as compared with the reference samples in the 1700-1000 cm-1 region. No essential changes were detected in the IR spectra in the region of PO2 bands of DNA for the Escherichia coli, irradiated by the weak electromagnetic field, but essential redistribution of intensities and change in halfwidths of the PO2 symmetrical bonds were detected for Dunaliella viridis alga cells.

  12. 利用ITS序列对两个盐藻株的分子鉴定%Identification of Two Dunaliella sp. Based on Nuclear ITS rDNA Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 许政暟; 宋任涛

    2006-01-01

    对实验室长期保存的两个盐藻株(Dunaliella salina)核糖体rDNA的ITS(internal transcribed space)序列(ITS1+5.8SrDNA+ITS2)用PCR技术扩增并克隆,经序列测定后,与从GenBank中获得的相关序列一起构建系统发育树.结果显示:其中一个(Dunaliella salina SHU 01)与Dunaliella viridis CONC 002的距离最近,另一个(Dunaliella salina SHU02)与Dunaliella salina UTEX 1644的距离最近.因此分别命名为Dunaliella viridis SHU与Dunaliella salina SHU.

  13. Trace metals in water, sediment and bivalves of a tropical estuary, west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez Al-Usmani, S M; Jagtap, T G; Patil, D N

    2015-10-15

    Trace metal pollution was studied in water, sediment and three selected bivalves in Mandovi and Chapora estuaries of Goa. The trace metal in water and sediment of Mandovi was higher than in Chapora. The concentration in the tissues was in the range of 1205.2-2506.7 ppm for Paphia malabarica, 1906.2-2802.6 ppm for Perna viridis and 778.7-1607.5 ppm for Saccostrea cucullata in Mandovi estuary. Tha values for Chapora were 199.4-625.8 ppm for P. malabarica, 812.6-1220.2 for P. viridis and 392.5-418.6 ppm for S. cucullata. The anthropogenic input of metal in Mandovi estuary appears to be mainly responsible for the high accumulation of trace metals. These bivalves have potential to serve as indicator for metal contamination in seafood of Goa. PMID:26228069

  14. Robust biological nitrogen fixation in a model grass-bacterial association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankievicz, Vânia C S; do Amaral, Fernanda P; Santos, Karina F D N; Agtuca, Beverly; Xu, Youwen; Schueller, Michael J; Arisi, Ana Carolina M; Steffens, Maria B R; de Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Stacey, Gary; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen-fixing rhizobacteria can promote plant growth; however, it is controversial whether biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) from associative interaction contributes to growth promotion. The roots of Setaria viridis, a model C4 grass, were effectively colonized by bacterial inoculants resulting in a significant enhancement of growth. Nitrogen-13 tracer studies provided direct evidence for tracer uptake by the host plant and incorporation into protein. Indeed, plants showed robust growth under nitrogen-limiting conditions when inoculated with an ammonium-excreting strain of Azospirillum brasilense. (11)C-labeling experiments showed that patterns in central carbon metabolism and resource allocation exhibited by nitrogen-starved plants were largely reversed by bacterial inoculation, such that they resembled plants grown under nitrogen-sufficient conditions. Adoption of S. viridis as a model should promote research into the mechanisms of associative nitrogen fixation with the ultimate goal of greater adoption of BNF for sustainable crop production. PMID:25645593

  15. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Analysis of ERBB3/ERBB4 Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Wandinger, Sebastian K; Lahortiga, Idoya; Jacobs, Kris; Klammer, Martin; Jordan, Nicole; Elschenbroich, Sarah; Parade, Marc; Jacoby, Edgar; Linders, Joannes T. M.; Brehmer, Dirk; Cools, Jan; Daub, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The four members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ERBB) family form homo- and heterodimers which mediate ligand-specific regulation of many key cellular processes in normal and cancer tissues. While signaling through the EGFR has been extensively studied on the molecular level, signal transduction through ERBB3/ERBB4 heterodimers is less well understood. Here, we generated isogenic mouse Ba/F3 cells that express full-length and functional membrane-integrated ERBB3 and ERBB4 or ER...

  16. Epigenetics of dominance for enzyme activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kuldip S Trehan; Kulbir S Gill

    2002-03-01

    We have isolated and purified two parental homodimers and a unique heterodimer of acid phosphatase [coded by Acph-11.05() and Acph-10.95()] from isogenic homozygotes and heterozygotes of Drosophila malerkotliana. and produce qualitatively different allozymes and the two alleles are expressed equally within and across all three genotypes and and play an equal role in the epigenetics of dominance. Subunit interaction in the heterodimer over a wide range of H+ concentrations accounts for the epigenetics of dominance for enzyme activity.

  17. Structure of Na+,K+-ATPase at 11-A resolution: comparison with Ca2+-ATPase in E1 and E2 states.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, W J; Young, H S; Martin, D W; Sachs, J R; Stokes, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Na+,K+-ATPase is a heterodimer of alpha and beta subunits and a member of the P-type ATPase family of ion pumps. Here we present an 11-A structure of the heterodimer determined from electron micrographs of unstained frozen-hydrated tubular crystals. For this reconstruction, the enzyme was isolated from supraorbital glands of salt-adapted ducks and was crystallized within the native membranes. Crystallization conditions fixed Na+,K+-ATPase in the vanadate-inhibited E2 conformation, and the cry...

  18. Calculation of the Electromagnetic Field Around a Microtubule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Havelka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules are important structures in the cytoskeleton which organizes the cell. A single microtubule is composed of electrically polar structures, tubulin heterodimers, which have a strong electric dipole moment. Vibrations are expected to be generated in microtubules, thus tubulin heterodimers oscillate as electric dipoles. This gives rise to an electromagnetic field which is detected around the cells. We calculate here the electromagnetic field of microtubules if they are excited at 1 GHz. This paper includes work done for the bachelor thesis of the first author. 

  19. Indian marine bivalves: Potential source of antiviral drugs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Bichurina, M.A.; Sovetova, M.; Boikov, Y.A.

    ( Crassostrea gryphoides ) and clam (Meretrix casta , M. meretrix , Paphia malabarica , Villorita cypr i noides ) . Recent investigations conducted jointly by Russian and Indian scientists showed that Indian green mussels ( P. viridis... prophyla c tic effect has been observed in mice when a dose of mussel extract was given 5 h before inoculation of v i rus 3 and the mice showed 100% survival. Marine bivalves are filter - feeding animals, and while feeding they accumulate...

  20. New symbiotic associations involving Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaetae), with taxonomic and biological remarks on Pionosyllis magnifica and Syllis cf armillaris

    OpenAIRE

    E. López; Britayev, Temir A.; Martin, Daniel; San Martín, Guillermo

    2001-01-01

    Several new symbiotic associations involving Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) are reported. The number of known host sponge species infested by Haplosyllis spongicola is updated to 36, with seven hosts being reported for the first time (i.e. Aplysina corrugata, Aplysina sp., Cliona sp., Cliona viridis, Phorbas tenacior, one sponge from Iran, one sponge from Cambodia). Two infestation patterns (a few worms per host cm3 in temperate waters and 10s or 100s in tropical waters) are identified. The ...

  1. INTESTINAL COCCIDIA (EUCOCCIDIA, SPOROZOA, APICOMPLEXA) OF SOME AMPHIBIA IN AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    MAMEDOVA SIMUZER ORUJ KYZY

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium (Coccidia, Apicomplexa) oocysts were detected by carbol-fucsin staining in feces of amphibia captured in different regions of Azerbaijan. Oocysts were released by 20 specimens of 39 examined Bufo viridis (prevalence 51.2%), 3 of 3 examined Bufo verrucosissimus (100%), 9 of 28 examined Rana ridibunda (32.1%). Invasion intensiveness varied from 12 to 30 oocysts per 1000 fields of vision. Cryptosporidium oocysts found in various amphibian species differed from each other by size ...

  2. Nutraceutical Assessment of Four Amaranthus Species from Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo Ibrahim; Hilou Adama; Sombie Pierre Alexandre Eric Djifaby; Compaore Moussa; Millogo Jeanne; Nacoulma Odile Germaine

    2011-01-01

    The use of the amaranths as vegetables is developed in Burkina Faso. Most known are Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex. Thell, Amaranthus graecizans L., Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L. A. hybridus is most used and abundantly cultivated, however the others are more or less wild. Theaim of the present study was to investigate the nutraceutical potentialities of four Amaranthus species from Burkina Faso. The aqueous decoction extract of the four species contains the highest ofpolyphenol...

  3. Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Manchim Favaro; Maurício Yonamine; Juliana Carlota Kramer Soares; Maria Gabriela Menezes de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage that combines the action of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from Psychotria viridis with the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) induced by beta-carbonyls from Banisteriopsis caapi. Previous investigations have highlighted the involvement of ayahuasca with the activation of brain regions known to be involved with episodic memory, contextual associations and emotional processing after ayahuasca ingestion. Moreover long term users show ...

  4. Light-triggered action potentials in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kazimierz Trębacz

    2014-01-01

    Special attention is paid in this paper to the criteria of the light-triggered action potential, namely the all-or-none law, propagation, the occurrence of refractory periods. Such action potentials have been recorded in Acetabularia mediterranea, Asplenium trichomanes, Bryum pseudotriquetrum, Eremosphaera viridis and Concephalum conicum. In Acetabularia, action potentials are generated after sudden cessation of light stimuli of sufficient intensity. The depolarization phase of the action pot...

  5. The Signaling Function of an Extra-floral Display: What Selects for Signal Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Keasar; Adi Sadeh; Avi Shmida

    2007-01-01

    The vertical inflorescences of the Mediterranean annual Salvia viridis carry many small, colorful flowers, and are frequently terminated by a conspicuous tuft of colorful leaves ("flags") that attracts insect pollinators. Insects may use the flags as indicators of the food reward in the inflorescences, as long-distance cues for locating and choosing flowering patches, or both. Clipping of flags from patches of inflorescences in the field significantly reduced the number of pollinators that ar...

  6. Bottom-up effects of soil quality on a coffee arthropod interaction web

    OpenAIRE

    Gonthier, DJ; Dominguez, GM; Witter, JD; Spongberg, AL; Philpott, SM

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient availability and soil quality influence herbivores through changes in plant traits and can have cascading effects on herbivore interactions. In complex systems, with many positive and negative interactions, the consequences of these bottom-up effects are still not well established. We carried out a set of studies to determine the impact of soil quality (organic compost amendments) on a hemipteran herbivore (Coccus viridis), two ant mutualists, predators, pathogens, parasitoids of C. ...

  7. LPS-induced NO inhibition and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from four brown seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myoung Lae; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; You, Sang Guan

    2013-12-01

    The nitric oxide inhibitory (NOI) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging effects with reducing power) activities of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts and solvent partitioned fractions from Scytosiphon lomentaria, Chorda filum, Agarum cribrosum, and Desmarestia viridis were investigated, and the correlation between biological activity and total phenolic (TP) and phlorotannin (TPT) content was determined by PCA analysis. The yield of EtOH extracts from four brown seaweeds ranged from 2.6 to 6.6% with the highest yield from D. viridis, and the predominant compounds in their solvent partitioned fractions had medium and/or less polarity. The TP and TPT content of the EtOH extracts were in the ranges of 25.0-44.1 mg GAE/g sample and 0.2-4.6 mg PG/g sample, respectively, which were mostly included in the organic solvent partitioned fractions. Strong NOI activity was observed in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from D. viridis and C. filum. In addition, the EtOH extract and its solvent partitioned fractions of D. viridis exhibited little cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. The most potent ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was shown in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from S. lomentaria and C. filum, and both also exhibited strong reducing ability. In the PCA analysis the content of TPT had a good correlation with DPPH ( r = 0.62), ABTS ( r = 0.69) and reducing power ( r = 0.65), however, an unfair correlation was observed between the contents of TP and TPT and NOI, suggesting that the phlorotannins might be responsible for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities.

  8. Photoprotection in sequestered plastids of sea slugs and respective algal sources

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Sónia; Cartaxana, Paulo; Newcomer, Rebecca; Dionísio, Gisela; Calado, Ricardo; Serôdio, João; Pelletreau, Karen N.; Rumpho, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Some sea slugs are capable of retaining functional sequestered chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) for variable periods of time. The mechanisms supporting the maintenance of these organelles in animal hosts are still largely unknown. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and the occurrence of a xanthophyll cycle were investigated in the sea slugs Elysia viridis and E. chlorotica using chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and pigment analysis. The photoprotective capacity of kleptoplasts was compared to ...

  9. Sobre varias gramíneas alóctonas presentes en la provincia de Valladolid (España)

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro Bello, Jesús Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Se presentan datos de interés florístico referentes a ocho especies de plantas vasculares alóctonas incluidas en la familia Gramineae Juss. Los taxones citados son: Bromus catharticus Vahl, Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv., Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Janch, Eragrostis virescens C. Presl, Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., Setaria viridis (L.) P. Beauv. y Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Para cada uno de ellos se aporta infor...

  10. Genetic evidence that two independent S-loci control RNase-based self-incompatibility in diploid strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Bošković, Radovan I.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Tobutt, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    The self-incompatibility mechanism that reduces inbreeding in many plants of the Rosaceae is attributed to a multi-allelic S locus which, in the Prunoideae and Maloideae subfamilies, comprises two complementary genes, a stylar-expressed S-RNase and a pollen-expressed SFB. To elucidate incompatibility in the subfamily Rosoideae, stylar-specific RNases and self-(in)compatibility status were analysed in various diploid strawberries, especially Fragaria nubicola and F. viridis, both self-incompat...

  11. PRIMJENA KEMIJSKIH MJERA U SUZBIJANJU KOROVA U ULJNOJ BUNDEVI (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Besek, Zdenko; Renata BALIČEVIĆ; IVEZIĆ, Marija; Raspudić, Emilija; Ravlić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja provedenog tijekom dvije godine (2002. i 2003.) na dva lokaliteta (Vranjevo i Poljanice) bio je utvrditi učinak herbicida na suzbijanje korova u usjevu uljne bundeve (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera) te usporediti njihovu učinkovitost u odnosu na mehanike mjere suzbijanja korova. Dominantne korovne vrste bile su: Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis i Echinochloa crus-galli. Sve istraživane herbicidne varijante, osim kombinacije prometrin + fluazifop-p butil, u 2002. godi...

  12. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN OIL PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Besek; Renata Baličević; Marija Ivezić; Emilija Raspudić; Marija Ravlić

    2012-01-01

    A two-year experiment (2002 – 2003) was conducted in oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. oleifera) at two localities (Vranjevo and Poljanice) to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical weed control through application of herbicides, and to compare it with mechanical weed control. Main weeds were Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli. All herbicide treatments, except combination of prometrine + fluazifop-p butyl36, in 2002 appeared to be acceptable to high efficacy in ...

  13. Competition of Amaranthus species with dry bean plants Competição de espécies de Amaranthus com plantas de feijoeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Saul Jorge Pinto de Carvalho; Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2008-01-01

    Weeds compete with field crops mainly for water, light and nutrients, and this competition is among other factors, a function of the occurrence of weed density, and the intrinsic competitive ability of each vegetal species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the competitive ability of five weed species of the Amaranthus L. genus (A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus and A. viridis) with dry bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. - 'Carioca Precoce' cultivar), using th...

  14. The adaptive significance of ontogenetic colour change in a tropical python

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, David; Heinsohn, Robert; Endler, John A

    2006-01-01

    Ontogenetic colour change is typically associated with changes in size, vulnerability or habitat, but assessment of its functional significance requires quantification of the colour signals from the receivers' perspective. The tropical python, Morelia viridis, is an ideal species to establish the functional significance of ontogenetic colour change. Neonates hatch either yellow or red and both the morphs change to green with age. Here, we show that colour change from red or yellow to green pr...

  15. El uso de la Ayahuasca en la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Trujillo, Edwin; Frausin Bustamante, Gina; Correa, Marco; Trujillo, William

    2010-01-01

    The yagé is a hallucinogenic plant (Banisteriopsis caapi) widely distributed in Colombia, Perú, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Bolivia, of which gets ready a drink (Ayahuasca) consumed from immemorial times inside an indigenous ritual context. Their preparation it is usually made with the bark of B. caapi, but in occasions additive are used, as the oco-yaje leaves or chagropanga (Diplopterys cabrerana: Malpighiaceae) and chacruna (Psychotria viridis: Rubiaceae), with the purpose of changing t...

  16. El género polypogon (poaceae: pooideae) en colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se dan a conocer dos novedades para la flora de Colombia: Polypogon monspeliensisy Polypogon viridis. Se presenta una sinopsis del género para Colombia, la queincluye la distribución geográfica, las preferencias ecológicas, los nombres vulgares,los números cromosómicos y las afinidades morfológicas para las cuatro especiespresentes en el territorio colombiano, así como una clave para reconocerlas.

  17. The ecology of Dunaliella in high-salt environments

    OpenAIRE

    Oren, Aharon

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic representatives of the genus Dunaliella, notably D. salina and D. viridis, are found worldwide in salt lakes and saltern evaporation and crystallizer ponds at salt concentrations up to NaCl saturation. Thanks to the biotechnological exploitation of D. salina for β-carotene production we have a profound knowledge of the physiology and biochemistry of the alga. However, relatively little is known about the ecology of the members of the genus Dunaliella in hypersaline environments, in...

  18. Physiological characterization of Dunaliella sp. (Chlorophyta, Volvocales) from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Francisca; Freile-Pelegrín, Yolanda; Robledo, Daniel

    2007-05-01

    Physiological responses of Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella viridis, isolated from solar saltworks on the Yucatan Peninsula, were studied. Optimal growth temperature for D. salina was 22 degrees C (3.06 x 10(6) cells mL(-1)) and 26 degrees C for D. viridis (4.04 x 10(6)cells mL(-1)). Total carotenoid content in D. salina increased with temperature to a maximum of 35.14 pg cell(-1) at 38 degrees C. Dunaliella salina alpha-carotene and beta-carotene content was 0.083+/-0.003 and 0.598+/-0.020 mg 100g dry wt(-1) respectively, whereas lower values were found in D. viridis cultured under same experimental conditions (0.018+/-0.002 and 0.136+/-0.012 mg 100g dry wt(-1) respectively). The highest specific growth rate in D. salina was obtained at 10% NaCl (0.28 d(-1)), while its cell volume increased from 524 to 2066.93 microm(3) when cultured from 10% to 35% NaCl. Maximum photosynthetic rates were attained when increasing from optimal growing temperature to 30 degrees C for D. viridis (108 n mol O(2)microg chl alpha h(-1)) and D. salina (139 n mol O(2)microg chl alpha h(-1)). Photosynthetic responses to temperature variations indicated physiological adjustments in both species, with higher acclimation in D. salina. Evaluation of physiological attributes of these species will be used for to carry out mass cultivation. PMID:16949279

  19. PHYLOGENETIC STUDY OF SOME STRAINS OF DUNALIELLA

    OpenAIRE

    Duc Tran; Trung Vo; Sixto Portilla; Clifford Louime; Nguyen Doan; Truc Mai; Dat Tran; Trang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Dunaliella strains were isolated from a key site for salt production in Vietnam (Vinh Hao, Binh Thuan province). The strains were identified based on Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) markers. The phylogenetic tree revealed these strains belong to the clades of Dunaliella salina and Dunaliella viridis. Results of this study confirm the ubiquitous nature of Dunaliella and suggest that strains of Dunaliella salina might be acquired locally worldwide for the production of beta-carotene. The iden...

  20. The early larval development of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) reared in the laboratory Desenvolvimento dos estágios iniciais da lagosta de recife tropical Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken (Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) cultivada em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando A. Abrunhosa; Max W. P. Santana; Marcus A.B. Pires

    2007-01-01

    The early stages of the tropical reef lobster Enoplometopus antillensis Lütken, 1865 were described and illustrated in detail from specimens reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat, at a depth of about 15 meters and transported to the laboratory. The larvae were reared in a recirculation water tank for approximately 15 days and then transferred to four 10 liters aquariums. The larvae were fed on Artemia sp. nauplii. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added da...

  1. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    OpenAIRE

    Madiha Bichra; Cherkaoui El-Modafar; Abdelilah El-Abbassi; Hafida Bouamama; Fatiha Benkhalti

    2013-01-01

    The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC). The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest...

  2. Rediscovery of Pelobates fuscus insubricus in the Asti Province, north-western Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Mercurio; Fabrizio Li Vigni

    2007-01-01

    The amphibians of the pond complex “Stagni di Belangero” in the Po Plain, Asti Province, have been studied. The species living in the pond are Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Hyla intermedia, Pelobates fuscus, Rana dalmatina, Rana synklepton esculenta, Rana cf. kurtmuelleri, Triturus carnifex and Triturus vulgaris. Species composition, migration period of P. fuscus, and biometric data are provided. Relevant importance has been given to P. fuscus, since we reconfirm its presence in one...

  3. Biomarkers and toxicological evaluation of Lavandula spp. essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Arantes, Silvia; Candeias, M. Fátima; Piçarra, Andreia; Lopes, Orlando; Lima, Mónica; Pereira, Marizia; Cruz-Morais, Júlio; Martins, M. Rosário

    2015-01-01

    Lavenders belong to the family Labiatae and are one of the most popular aromatic plants widely used in food industry, perfumery and pharmaceutical preparations. Their oils are traditionally believed to be antibacterial, antifungal, carminative, sedative, antidepressive, disinfectant, and effective for burns and insect bites [1]. Previous studies have shown that the essentials oils of Lavandula stoechas subsp. luisieri Rozeira (L. luisieri) and Lavandula viridis L’Hér have a broad-spectrum ant...

  4. Bio-accumulation kinetics of radioruthenium in marine bivalves. Laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three kinds of marine bivalves (wild Saccostrea cucullata, aquacultured Perna viridis and aquacultured Pinctada martens), collected from Daya Bay, the South China Sea, were used to investigate the bio-accumulation of radioruthenium in the glass aquarium with natural seawater (pH 8.20, 35 per mille salinity, filtered by 0.45 μm) at ambient temperature under laboratory feeding conditions. The experimental results show that the stead-state of biology concentration factor (BCF, ml/g) of radioruthenium was approached around 6 days for most species of bivalves. The values of BCF in shells are the highest in organs all the three bivalves. The orders of BCF values (ml x g-1) are as: Perna viridis (33.2) < Saccostrea cucullata (47.0) < Pinctada martensi (208.4) for shells and Saccostrea cucullata (1.5) < Pinctada martensi (2.2) ∼ Perma viridis (2.4) for soft tissues, respectively, after exposed for 14 days. The rate constants of uptake and elimination of radioruthenium on marine bivalves were also discussed by first-order kinetics model. The Pinctada martensi may be applicable to be an indictor for monitoring radioruthenium among the three bivalves. (author)

  5. Absence of alkaloids in Psychotria carthagenensis Jacq. (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M B; Elisabetsky, E

    1996-10-01

    Psychotria viridis and P. carthagenensis are often discussed in relation to the hallucinogenic beverage Ayahuasca, used for religious, medicinal and social purposes. The significance of including Psychotria species in this beverage has been understood on the basis of substantial amounts of tryptamine alkaloids detected on leaves of both P. viridis and P. carthagenensis. Nevertheless, there is a long lasting debate over the identification of which Psychotria species are actually traditionally employed. We here report that a P. carthagenensis leaf ethanol extract was found to be devoid of alkaloids. The extract significantly decreased mice body temperature (350 and 500 mg/kg). Toxicity assessment revealed that the extract induced sedation and slight ptoses (75% of animals treated with 1000 mg/kg). Lethality was not observed within 48 h. The data indicate that P. carthagenensis does have bioactive compound(s), possibly active at the central nervous system, but unlikely to be tryptamine alkaloids as in the case of P. viridis. Therefore, if P. carthagenensis is indeed used by ayahuasqueros, its chemical and pharmacological significance have yet to be elucidated. PMID:8941866

  6. Phytotoxicity of volatile oil from Eucalyptus citriodora against some weedy species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, N; Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Kohli, R K

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to explore the phytotoxicity of volatile essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. against some weeds viz. Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus viridis, Rumex nepalensis, and Leucaena leucocephala in order to assess its herbicidal activity. Dose-response studies conducted under laboratory conditions revealed that eucalypt oils (in concentration ranging from 0.0012 to 0.06%) greatly suppress the germination and seedling height of test weeds. At 0.06% eucalypt oil concentration, none of the seed of test weeds germinated. Among the weed species tested, A. viridis was found to be the most sensitive and its germination was completed inhibited even at 0.03%. Not only the germination and seedling growth, even the chlorophyll content and respiratory activity in leaves of emerged seedlings were severely affected. In A. viridis chlorophyll content and respiratory activity were reduced by over 51% and 71%, respectively, even at a very low concentration of 0.06%. These results indicated an adverse effect of eucalypt oils on the photosynthetic and energy metabolism of the test weeds. A strong negative correlation was observed between the observed effect and the concentration of eucalypt oil. Based on the study, it can be concluded that oil from E. citriodora possess strong inhibitory potential against weeds that could be exploited for weed management. PMID:17717987

  7. [Is it possible to "cancel" aging process of cell cultures under optimal conditions for cultivation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhkov, A I; Kovaleva, M K; Menzianova, N G

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of the cells epigenotypes Dunaliella viridis Teod. in the process of chronological and replicative aging were investigated. By 40th day of accumulative cultivation (which coincided with the stationary growth phase) DNA content in the cells of Dunaliella viridis increased 2 times, triacylglycerides 3 times, beta-carotene and carbonyl proteins 2 times, RNA content decreased in comparison with cells in exponential growth phase, i. e., the 40th day of growth of culture forms the age-related epigenotype. 4 received subcultures were being transplanted during 2 years in mid-logarithmic growth phase (subculture-10), early stationary phase of growth (subculture-20), in the mid-stationary growth phase (subculture-30), and late stationary growth phase (subculture-40). It is shown that epigenotype of subculture-10 remained unchanged over 2 years of cultivation, i. e., it does not manifest replicative aging. At the same time, the subculture-20, although long enough (at least 40 passages), maintained epigenotype characteristic of young cultures, and showed age-related changes. Pronounced age-dependent changes of epigenotype in the course of cultivation were identified for subculture-30, and subculture-40 was characterized by unstable epigenotype. Thus, cultivation conditions determine the intensity of replicative aging in Dunaliella viridis. PMID:21809617

  8. Practical aspects of sea and fresh-water algae utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regularities of sea and fresh-water microalgae cultivation, revealed during the operation of industrial plants, are presented in detail. The study of the Platymonas viridis cultivation mechanisms has shown the possibility of active intervention into the cycle of intense reproduction of the biomass. Among physical factors of the medium, which influence the reproduction of the industrial strain of Platymonas viridis, the effect of the red light, ultraviolet radiation, ultrahigh frequency fields and gamma radiation upon the cell division of these microalgae has been investigated. It has been shown that the effect of gamma radiation on the cell division of Platymonas viridis, other bacteria and protozoans is inhibiting. In the experiments using the radionuclides strontium-90 and cerium-144 as indicators of metabolism the dependence of the radionuclide accumulation factor on the quantity of stable lead as well as the effect of the temperature on the accumulation process have been studied. The coefficients of 90Sr and 144Ce accumulation by Nitellopsis obtusa cell compartments depending on stable lead and temperature are presented. 200 refs.; 21 figs.; 54 tabs

  9. Effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic rates of three species of bivalve from southern coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenguang; HE Maoxian

    2012-01-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in a decrease in seawater pH,a process known as “ocean acidification”.The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata,the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis,and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis are species of economic and ecological importance along the southern coast of China.We evaluated the effects of seawater acidification on clearance,respiration,and excretion rates in these three species.The animals were reared in seawater at pH 8.1 (control),7.7,or 7.4.The clearance rate was highest at pH 7.7 for P.fucata and at pH 8.1 for C.nobilis and P.viridis.The pH had little effect on the respiration rate of P.fucata and P.viridis.In contrast,the respiration rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 in C.nobilis.The excretion rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 than pH 8.1 for all species.The results indicate that the reduction in seawater pH likely affected the metabolic process (food intake,oxygen consumption,and ammonia excretion) of these bivalves.Different species respond differently to seawater acidification.Further studies are needed to demonstrate the exact mechanisms for this effect and evaluate adaptability of these bivalves to future acidified oceans.

  10. Grasses suppress shoot-borne roots to conserve water during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jose; Yee, Muh-Ching; Goudinho Viana, Willian; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Feldman, Max; Priest, Henry D; Trontin, Charlotte; Lee, Tak; Jiang, Hui; Baxter, Ivan; Mockler, Todd C; Hochholdinger, Frank; Brutnell, Thomas P; Dinneny, José R

    2016-08-01

    Many important crops are members of the Poaceae family, which develop root systems characterized by a high degree of root initiation from the belowground basal nodes of the shoot, termed the crown. Although this postembryonic shoot-borne root system represents the major conduit for water uptake, little is known about the effect of water availability on its development. Here we demonstrate that in the model C4 grass Setaria viridis, the crown locally senses water availability and suppresses postemergence crown root growth under a water deficit. This response was observed in field and growth room environments and in all grass species tested. Luminescence-based imaging of root systems grown in soil-like media revealed a shift in root growth from crown-derived to primary root-derived branches, suggesting that primary root-dominated architecture can be induced in S. viridis under certain stress conditions. Crown roots of Zea mays and Setaria italica, domesticated relatives of teosinte and S. viridis, respectively, show reduced sensitivity to water deficit, suggesting that this response might have been influenced by human selection. Enhanced water status of maize mutants lacking crown roots suggests that under a water deficit, stronger suppression of crown roots actually may benefit crop productivity. PMID:27422554

  11. Interaction of nemertines and their prey on tidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Martin; Reise, Karsten

    Two common nemertines of the European Wadden Sea, Lineus viridis and Amphiporus lactifloreus, occur preferentially in clusters of mussels, spread over sedimentary flats in the upper intertidal near the island of Sylt. The heteronemertine L. viridis preys mainly on the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. The hoplonemertine A. lactifloreus feeds almost exclusively on the amphipod Gammarus locusta. Abundance of both predators and their respective prey in the field showed inverse relationships. Experimentally increased numbers of L. viridis in clusters of mussels caused a gradual decrease of nereid abundance in the sediment underneath over a period of 1 month, suggesting that losses of individuals were caused by prey capture. Experimentally increased numbers of A. lactifloreus were followed by an escape response of gammarids from clusters of mussels within 2 d. In aquaria, both prey species exhibited prolonged swimming activity when their respective predators lurked at the bottom. We conclude that escape behaviour in N. diversicolor may be only effective during its migrant phases, while G. locusta is permanently on the alert to avoid encounters with its predator. This refuging behaviour in response to endobenthic predators has strong implications on prey distribution, while the actual consumption of prey may be relatively modest. Enclosure experiments in the field and in aquaria lead to overestimates of prey capture when refuging behaviour is not accounted for.

  12. [Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria from microbial communities of Goryachinsk Thermal Spring (Baikal Area, Russia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, A M; Gaĭsin, V A; Sukhacheva, M V; Namsaraeva, B B; Panteleeva, A N; Nuianzina-Boldareva, E N; Kuznetsov, B B; Gorlenko, V M

    2014-01-01

    Species composition of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in microbial mats of the Goryachinsk thermal spring was investigated along the temperature gradient. The spring belonging to nitrogenous alkaline hydrotherms is located at the shore of Lake Baikal 188 km north-east from Ulan-Ude. The water is of the sulfate-sodium type, contains trace amounts of sulfide, salinity does not exceed 0.64 g/L, pH 9.5. The temperature at the outlet of the spring may reach 54 degrees C. The cultures of filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, nonsulfur and sulfur purple bacteria, and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were identified using the pufLM molecular marker. The fmoA marker was used for identification of green sulfur bacteria. Filamentous cyanobacteria predominated in the mats, with anoxygenic phototrophs comprising a minor component of the phototrophic communities. Thermophilic bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus were detected irn the samples from both the thermophilic and mesophilic mats. Cultures ofnonsulfur purple bacteria similar to Blastochloris sulfoviridis and Rhodomicrobium vannielii were isolatd from the mats developing at high (50.6-49.4 degrees C) and low temperatures (45-20 degrees C). Purple sulfur bacteria Allochromatium sp. and Thiocapsa sp., as well as green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium sp., were revealedin low-temperature mats. Truly thermophilic purple and gree sulfur bacteria were not found in the spring. Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria found in the spring were typical of the sulfuret communities, for which the sulfur cycle is mandatory. The presence of aerobic bacteriochlorophylla-containing bacteria identified as Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) tumifaciens in the mesophilic (20 degrees C) mat is of interest. PMID:25844460

  13. Ssrp1a controls organogenesis by promoting cell cycle progression and RNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koltowska, Katarzyna; Apitz, Holger; Stamataki, Despina; Hirst, Elizabeth M A; Verkade, Heather; Salecker, Iris; Ober, Elke A

    2013-01-01

    nucleosome reorganisation. However, their roles in vertebrate organogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of zebrafish mutants for the gene encoding Structure specific recognition protein 1a (Ssrp1a), which, together with Spt16, forms the FACT heterodimer. Focussing on the liver...

  14. The mouse mismatch repair protein, MSH3, is a nucleoplasmic protein that aggregates into denser nuclear bodies under conditions of stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holt, I.; Thanh Lam, L.; Tome, S.; Wansink, D.G.; Riele, H. te; Gourdon, G.; Morris, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    The mismatch repair protein, MSH3, together with MSH2, forms the MutSbeta heterodimer which recognizes and repairs base pair mismatches and larger insertion/deletion loops in DNA. Lack of specific antibodies against mouse MSH3 has hampered studies of its expression and localization. Mouse MSH3 is no

  15. Retinoic acid signalling in thymocytes regulates T cell development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendland, Kerstin; Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Kotarsky, Knut;

    The Vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA) works as a ligand for a family of nuclearRA receptors (RARα, RARβ and RARγ) which form heterodimers with retinoid Xreceptors (RXR). These complexes function as ligand-activated transcription factors,recognizing specific RA responsive elements in the...

  16. Lipolanthionine peptides act as inhibitors of TLR2-mediated IL-8 secretion. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyberth, T.; Voss, S.; Brock, R.E.; Wiesmuller, K.H.; Jung, G.

    2006-01-01

    Lipoproteins from gram-positive and -negative bacteria, mycoplasma, and shorter synthetic lipopeptide analogues activate cells of the innate immune system via the Toll-like receptor TLR2/TLR1 or TLR2/TLR6 heterodimers. For this reason, these compounds constitute highly active adjuvants for vaccines

  17. Identification of a novel antagonist of the ErbB1 receptor capable of inhibiting migration of human glioblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staberg, Mikkel; Riemer, Christian; Xu, Ruodan;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Receptors of the ErbB family are involved in the development of various cancers, and the inhibition of these receptors represents an attractive therapeutic concept. Upon ligand binding, ErbB receptors become activated as homo- or heterodimers, leading to the activation of downstream s...

  18. Expression and Role of Myeloid-related Protein-14 in Clinical and Experimental Sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.D. van Zoelen; T. Vogl; D. Foell; S.Q. van Veen; J.W.O. van Till; S. Florquin; M.W. Tanck; X. Wittebole; P.F. Laterre; M.A. Boermeester; J. Roth; T. van der Poll

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Myeloid-related protein-8 (MRP8) and MRP14 can form heterodimers that elicit a variety of inflammatory responses. We showed that MRP8/14 is a ligand for Toll-like receptor-4, and that mice deficient in MRP8/14 are protected against endotoxic shock-induced lethality. Objectives: To determi

  19. Sequence Classification: 892043 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB TMB >gi|6323665|ref|NP_013736.1| Mitochondrial protein, forms... a heterodimer complex with Mto1p that performs the 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl modificatio

  20. Synergistic interaction of CLAVATA1, CLAVATA2, and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 in cyst nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION (ESR) (CLE)-like effector proteins. These proteins act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful nematode infection. Previously, we showed that CLV2 and CORYNE (CRN), a heterodimer recept...

  1. The anticonvulsant gabapentin (neurontin) does not act through gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Mosbacher, Johannes; Elg, Susanne;

    2002-01-01

    (B) receptor agonist baclofen, gabapentin was unable to inhibit transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs. Because of high levels of GABA(B(1a)) in the canine nodose ganglion, this finding indirectly supports the inactivity of gabapentin on the GABA(B(1a,2)) heterodimer demonstrated in various...

  2. Role of Jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) in infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can utilize as many as three distinct groups of receptor molecules to attach and enter a susceptible host cell. Four integrin heterodimers (alphavBeta1, alphavBeta3, alphavBeta6, and alphavBeta8) can function as the primary receptor for FMDV field strains. FMDV ...

  3. New strategies for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2014-01-01

    developed including monoclonal antibodies targeting the interleukin (IL)-6 family of receptors (the p40 subunit of IL-12/IL-23) as well as monoclonal antibodies inhibiting adhesion molecules (the α4β7 heterodimers), which direct leukocytes to the intestinal mucosa. Recently, small molecules, which are...

  4. Exciton interaction in molecular beacons: a sensitive sensor for short range modifications of the nucleic acid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, S; Mély, Y

    2001-07-01

    Molecular beacons are hairpin-shaped, single-stranded oligonucleotides constituting sensitive fluorescent DNA probes widely used to report the presence of specific nucleic acids. In its closed form the stem of the hairpin holds the fluorophore covalently attached to one end, close to the quencher, which is covalently attached to the other end. Here we report that in the closed form the fluorophore and the quencher form a ground state intramolecular heterodimer whose spectral properties can be described by exciton theory. Formation of the heterodimers was found to be poorly sensitive to the stem sequence, the respective positions of the dyes and the nature of the nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). The heterodimer allows strong coupling between the transition dipoles of the two chromophores, leading to dramatic changes in the absorption spectrum that are not compatible with a Förster-type fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. The excitonic heterodimer and its associated absorption spectrum are extremely sensitive to the orientation of and distance between the dyes. Accordingly, the application of molecular beacons can be extended to monitoring short range modifications of the stem structure. Moreover, the excitonic interaction was also found to operate for doubly end-labeled duplexes. PMID:11433038

  5. Low Retinol Levels Differentially Modulate Bile Salt-Induced Expression of Human and Mouse Hepatic Bile Salt Transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeke, Martijn O.; Plass, Jacqueline R. M.; Heegsma, Janette; Geuken, Mariska; van Rijsbergen, Duncan; Baller, Julius F. W.; Kuipers, Folkert; Moshage, Han; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor-alpha (FXR/RXR alpha) complex regulates bile salt homeostasis, in part by modulating transcription of the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11 I) and small heterodimer partner (SHP/NR0B2). FXR is activated by bile salts, RXR alpha by the vitamin A derivativ

  6. Low retinol levels differentially modulate bile salt-induced expression of human and mouse hepatic bile salt transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.O. Hoeke; J.R.M. Plass; J. Heegsma; M. Geuken; D. van Rijsbergen; J.F.W. Baller; F. Kuipers; H. Moshage; P.L.M. Jansen; K.N. Faber

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor-alpha (FXR/RXRalpha) complex regulates bile salt homeostasis, in part by modulating transcription of the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) and small heterodimer partner (SHP/NR0B2). FXR is activated by bile salts, RXRalpha by the vitamin A derivative 9-

  7. Heme acts through the Bach1b/Nrf2a-MafK pathway to regulate exocrine peptidase precursor genes in porphyric zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqing Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a zebrafish model of hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP, we identify a previously unknown mechanism underlying heme-mediated regulation of exocrine zymogens. Zebrafish bach1b, nrf2a and mafK are all expressed in the zebrafish exocrine pancreas. Overexpression of bach1b or knockdown of nrf2a result in the downregulation of the expression of the exocrine zymogens, whereas overexpression of nrf2a or knockdown of bach1b cause their upregulation. In vitro luciferase assays demonstrate that heme activates the zymogens in a dosage-dependent manner and that the zymogen promoter activities require the integral Maf recognition element (MARE motif. The Bach1b-MafK heterodimer represses the zymogen promoters, whereas the Nrf2a-MafK heterodimer activates them. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays show that MafK binds to the MARE sites in the 5′ regulatory regions of the zymogens. Taken together, these data indicate that heme stimulates the exchange of Bach1b for Nrf2a at MafK-occupied MARE sites and that, particularly in heme-deficient porphyria, the repressive Bach1b-MafK heterodimer dominates, which can be exchanged for the activating Nrf2a-MafK heterodimer upon treatment with hemin. These results provide novel insights into the regulation of exocrine function, as well as the pathogenesis of porphyria, and should be useful for designing new therapies for both types of disease.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the heterodimeric crotoxin complex and the isolated subunits crotapotin and phospholipase A2

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, K. F.; Murakami, M T; Cintra, A. C. O.; Toyama, M. H.; Marangoni, S.; Forrer, V. P.; Brandão Neto, J. R.; Polikarpov, I.; Arni, R. K.

    2007-01-01

    Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, exists as a heterodimer formed between a phospholipase A2 and a catalytically inactive acidic phospholipase A2 analogue (crotapotin). Large single crystals of the crotoxin complex and of the isolated subunits have been obtained.

  9. Model of red blood cell membrane skeleton: electrical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, M M; Markin, V S

    1987-12-21

    A theoretical membrane skeleton model of erythrocyte has been developed and successfully applied to interpret electrical and mechanical properties of the red blood cell spectrin-actin network. The model is based on the structure of the membrane skeleton that is comprised of unit cells each containing an actin protofilament and shooting forth a few spectrin heterodimers. The loose ends of the heterodimers of adjacent cells can form bonds with each other giving rise to an integrated network. The number of bonds depends on the temperature. The bond length being excessive (2.6 times the distance between the centers of adjacent cells), the bonds are flexible, and can thus be regarded as entropy springs. The advanced model has been employed to calculate the shear modulus of the membrane skeleton as well as to establish its temperature dependence. In a wide range of temperatures mu(T) is a decreasing function well fitting the experimental data. The relationship between the membrane bilayer-free size of the skeleton and the ionic strength of the solution has been derived to appear in good agreement with the results obtained previously. Experimental data combined with the advanced theory yield the average number of heterodimers per unit cell, m0, as equal to ca. 5; the spectrin heterodimer charge has been estimated. PMID:3455470

  10. Genome-Wide Profiling of Liver X Receptor, Retinoid X Receptor, and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Mouse Liver Reveals Extensive Sharing of Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boergesen, Michael; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Gross, Barbara;

    2012-01-01

    The liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that form permissive heterodimers with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and are important regulators of lipid metabolism in the liver. We have recently shown that RXR agonist-induced hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in mice are dependent on LXRs...

  11. Sequence Classification: 550061 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|30063475|ref|NP_837646.1| imidazole ... glycerol ... osphate synthase subunit in heterodimer with HisH, imidazole ... glycerol phsphate synthase holoenzyme || http://ww ...

  12. Sequence Classification: 294676 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|15802504|ref|NP_288530.1| imidazole ... glycerol ... sphate synthase subunit in heterodimer with HisH = imidazole ... glycerol phsphate synthase holoenzyme || http://ww ...

  13. Sequence Classification: 289576 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|16129966|ref|NP_416529.1| imidazole ... glycerol ... sphate synthase subunit in heterodimer with HisH = imidazole ... glycerol phsphate synthase holoenzyme || http://ww ...

  14. Sequence Classification: 554185 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB Non-TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|24113410|ref|NP_707920.1| imidazole ... glycerol ... osphate synthase subunit in heterodimer with HisH, imidazole ... glycerol phsphate synthase holoenzyme || http://ww ...

  15. The newcomer in the integrin family: Integrin a9 in biology and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høye, Anette Melissa; Couchman, John Robert; Wewer, Ulla M.;

    2012-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors regulating cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Of the 24 integrin heterodimers identified in humans, a9ß1 integrin is one of the least studied. a9, together with a4, comprise a more recent evolutionary sub-family of integrins t...

  16. Identification of two subcellular sites for γ-glutamyltranspeptidase propeptide cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renal intracellular and brush border membranes were purified from rats injected with [35S]methionine. Solubilized transpeptidase (γGT) was immunoprecipitated and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophresis (PAGE). The initial precipitates contain 3 bands corresponding to the core glycosylated propeptide (75K) and the mature heterodimer subunits (50K and 30K). The propeptide represents 75% of the radioactivity in γGT from 5 to 45 min postinjection consistent with cotranslational cleavage of 25% of the propeptide to subunits. By 20 min postinjection all three bands are more diffuse and endoglycosidase H-resistant. Between 20 and 30 min postinjection, propeptide and heterodimer coincidentally reach the brush border membrane. Propeptide then rapidly disappears (t/sub 1/2/ < 1 h) whereas heterodimer accumulates for 4 h then disappears with a t/sub 1/2/ of 2.5 d. The basis for these two distinct subcellular sites of γGT propeptide cleavage is unknown. Both purified γGT heterodimer and immunoprecipitates of labeled γGT occasionally exhibit high M/sub r/ bands (85K and 100K) on SDS-PAGE. Individual subunits and high M/sub r/ species were eluted from SDS gel slices, subjected to SDS-PAGE and analyzed on immunoblots with IgG affinity-purified against individual subunits. The cumulative data show that the subunits can form both stable homodimers (60K and 100K) and heterodimers (85K) during SDS-PAGE. Thus, these high M/sub r/ species do not represent biosynthetic intermediates of γGT

  17. Structural basis of the heterodimerization of the MST and RASSF SARAH domains in the Hippo signalling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Eunha [Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang-eup Yeongudangiro 162, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hae-Kap [Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang-eup Yeongudangiro 162, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Mushtaq, Ameeq Ul [Korea University, Sejong-ro, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye-Yeon; Yeo, Kwon Joo; Kim, Eunhee [Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang-eup Yeongudangiro 162, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Cheol; Hwang, Kwang Yeon [Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Chaejoon, E-mail: cheong@kbsi.re.kr [Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang-eup Yeongudangiro 162, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Young Ho, E-mail: cheong@kbsi.re.kr [Korea University, Sejong-ro, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang-eup Yeongudangiro 162, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    The heterodimeric structure of the MST1 and RASSF5 SARAH domains is presented. A comparison of homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions provides a structural basis for the preferential association of the SARAH heterodimer. Despite recent progress in research on the Hippo signalling pathway, the structural information available in this area is extremely limited. Intriguingly, the homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions of mammalian sterile 20-like (MST) kinases through the so-called ‘SARAH’ (SAV/RASSF/HPO) domains play a critical role in cellular homeostasis, dictating the fate of the cell regarding cell proliferation or apoptosis. To understand the mechanism of the heterodimerization of SARAH domains, the three-dimensional structures of an MST1–RASSF5 SARAH heterodimer and an MST2 SARAH homodimer were determined by X-ray crystallography and were analysed together with that previously determined for the MST1 SARAH homodimer. While the structure of the MST2 homodimer resembled that of the MST1 homodimer, the MST1–RASSF5 heterodimer showed distinct structural features. Firstly, the six N-terminal residues (Asp432–Lys437), which correspond to the short N-terminal 3{sub 10}-helix h1 kinked from the h2 helix in the MST1 homodimer, were disordered. Furthermore, the MST1 SARAH domain in the MST1–RASSF5 complex showed a longer helical structure (Ser438–Lys480) than that in the MST1 homodimer (Val441–Lys480). Moreover, extensive polar and nonpolar contacts in the MST1–RASSF5 SARAH domain were identified which strengthen the interactions in the heterodimer in comparison to the interactions in the homodimer. Denaturation experiments performed using urea also indicated that the MST–RASSF heterodimers are substantially more stable than the MST homodimers. These findings provide structural insights into the role of the MST1–RASSF5 SARAH domain in apoptosis signalling.

  18. NR4A nuclear receptors mediate carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A gene expression by the rexinoid HX600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, Michiyasu [Division of Biochemistry, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610 (Japan); Kagechika, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Makishima, Makoto, E-mail: makishima.makoto@nihon-u.ac.jp [Division of Biochemistry, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610 (Japan)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The function of RXR heterodimers with NR4 receptors remains unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RXR ligand HX600 induces expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HX600-induced CPT1A expression is mediated by the NR4 receptors, Nur77 and NURR1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CPT1A induction by HX600 is not mediated by de novo protein synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CPT1A could be a target of the Nur77-RXR and NURR1-RXR heterodimers. -- Abstract: Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and can be activated by 9-cis retinoic acid (9CRA). RXRs form homodimers and heterodimers with other nuclear receptors such as the retinoic acid receptor and NR4 subfamily nuclear receptors, Nur77 and NURR1. Potential physiological roles of the Nur77-RXR and NURR1-RXR heterodimers have not been elucidated. In this study, we identified a gene regulated by these heterodimers utilizing HX600, a selective RXR agonist for Nur77-RXR and NURR1-RXR. While 9CRA induced many genes, including RAR-target genes, HX600 effectively induced only carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) in human teratocarcinoma NT2/D1 cells, which express RXR{alpha}, Nur77 and NURR1. HX600 also increased CPT1A expression in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells. Although HX600 induced CPT1A less effectively than 9CRA, overexpression of Nur77 or NURR1 increased the HX600 response to levels similar to 9CRA in NT2/D1 and HEK293 cells. A dominant-negative form of Nur77 or NURR1 repressed the induction of CPT1A by HX600. A protein synthesis inhibitor did not alter HX600-dependent CPT1A induction. Thus, the rexinoid HX600 directly induces expression of CPT1A through a Nur77 or NURR1-mediated mechanism. CPT1A, a gene involved in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation, could be a target of RXR-NR4 receptor heterodimers.

  19. NR4A nuclear receptors mediate carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A gene expression by the rexinoid HX600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The function of RXR heterodimers with NR4 receptors remains unknown. ► The RXR ligand HX600 induces expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A). ► HX600-induced CPT1A expression is mediated by the NR4 receptors, Nur77 and NURR1. ► CPT1A induction by HX600 is not mediated by de novo protein synthesis. ► CPT1A could be a target of the Nur77-RXR and NURR1-RXR heterodimers. -- Abstract: Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and can be activated by 9-cis retinoic acid (9CRA). RXRs form homodimers and heterodimers with other nuclear receptors such as the retinoic acid receptor and NR4 subfamily nuclear receptors, Nur77 and NURR1. Potential physiological roles of the Nur77-RXR and NURR1-RXR heterodimers have not been elucidated. In this study, we identified a gene regulated by these heterodimers utilizing HX600, a selective RXR agonist for Nur77-RXR and NURR1-RXR. While 9CRA induced many genes, including RAR-target genes, HX600 effectively induced only carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) in human teratocarcinoma NT2/D1 cells, which express RXRα, Nur77 and NURR1. HX600 also increased CPT1A expression in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells. Although HX600 induced CPT1A less effectively than 9CRA, overexpression of Nur77 or NURR1 increased the HX600 response to levels similar to 9CRA in NT2/D1 and HEK293 cells. A dominant-negative form of Nur77 or NURR1 repressed the induction of CPT1A by HX600. A protein synthesis inhibitor did not alter HX600-dependent CPT1A induction. Thus, the rexinoid HX600 directly induces expression of CPT1A through a Nur77 or NURR1-mediated mechanism. CPT1A, a gene involved in fatty acid β-oxidation, could be a target of RXR-NR4 receptor heterodimers.

  20. Morphological and molecular identification of bamboo culm brown rot%刚竹秆褐腐病病原形态及分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春来; 吴小芹; 叶利芹; 叶建仁; 徐旭凌; 曹云

    2011-01-01

    Bamboo culm brown rot occurs generally, especially in Nanjing,and influences the growth of bamboo such as Phyllostachys glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana,especially for the former. There was no any reports about Ph. glauca infected the disease previously. By isolation and culture of diseased tissue、artificial inoculation test, morphological observation of isolated strain and amplification with universal primer ITS1/ITS4, finally molecular identification with fragment amplified of 559 bp by ITS analysis, the pathogen of Ph. glauca and Ph. viridis f. houzeauana was identified as Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc.. The research result could provide the reference basis for the effective monitoring and control of the disease.%刚竹秆褐腐病在南京地区发生较普遍,影响竹林生长.其主要危害刚竹属的淡竹(Phyllostachys glauca)、黄槽刚竹(Ph.viridis f.houzeauana),其中以淡竹受害最为严重.笔者通过对刚竹秆褐腐病病组织分离培养、人工接种试验、分离菌形态学观察及采用通用引物ITS1/ITS4扩增,对扩增出的约559 bp的片段进行ITS序列分子鉴定,最终将在淡竹和黄槽刚竹等上发生的病原鉴定为木贼镰刀菌(Fusarium equiseti(Corda)Sacc.).

  1. Impaired gonadal and somatic development corroborate vulnerability differences to the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol among deeply diverged anuran lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Lehmann, Andreas; Lymberakis, Petros; Hoffmann, Frauke; Lutz, Ilka; Schneider, Rudolf J; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Amphibians are undergoing a global decline. One poorly investigated reason could be the pollution of aquatic habitats by endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). We tested the susceptibility to the synthetically stabilized estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in three deeply diverged anuran species, differing in sex determination systems, types of gonadogenesis and larval ecologies. To understand whether data from the amphibian model Xenopus laevis (Pipidae) are analogous and applicable to only distantly related non-model amphibians, tadpoles of X. laevis, Hyla arborea (Hylidae) and Bufo viridis (Bufonidae) were simultaneously exposed to 50, 500 and 5000ng/L EE2 from hatching until completion of metamorphosis, using a flow-through-system under identical experimental conditions. Comparing molecularly established genetic with histologically assessed phenotypic sex in all species, we have recently shown that EE2 provoked numerous genetic-male-to-phenotypic-female sex reversals and mixed sex individuals, confirming overall its expected feminizing effect. In the present study, we focus on the influence of EE2 on gonadal and somatic development. Anatomy and histology revealed several species-specific effects. In both non-model species, H. arborea and B. viridis, high numbers of anatomically impaired gonads were observed. In H. arborea, exposed to 5000ng/L EE2, numerous underdeveloped gonads were detected. Whereas EE2 did not alter snout-to-vent length and body weight of X. laevis metamorphs, H. arborea showed a treatment-dependent decrease, while B. viridis exhibited an increase in body weight and snout-to-vent length. Apart from a concentration-dependent occurrence of yellowish skin color in several H. arborea, no organ-specific effects were detected. Since EE2 ubiquitously occurs in many aquatic ecosystems and affects sexual and somatic development, among EDCs, it may indeed contribute to amphibian decline. The inter-species variation in developmental EE2-effects

  2. Comparison of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Community in Roots and Rhizosphere of Invasive Cenchrus incertus and Native Plant in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan XIANG; Baodong CHEN; Huan LI; Ruojuan LI; Xin ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Plant invasions could significantly alter arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities, but the effect may vary with plant species and local environments. Identifying changes in the AM fungal community due to plant invasion could improve our understanding of the invasion processes. Here, we examined the AM fungal community composition both in roots and rhizo-sphere soils of the invasive plant Cenchrus incertus and the dominant native plant Setaria viridis in a typical steppe in Inner Mongolia by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (T-RFLP). The results showed that AM fungal abundance in the rhizosphere soils of C. incertus was significantly lower than that of S. viridis. The AM fungal community com-position in the rhizosphere soils of the two plant species also largely differed. In general, AM fungal community structures in roots corresponded very wel to that in rhizosphere soils for both plant species. The dominant AM fungal type both in invasive and native plants was T-RFLP 524bp, which represents Glomus sp. (Virtual taxa 109 and 287). Three specific T-RF types (280, 190 and 141bp) were significantly more abundant in C. incertus, representing three clusters in Glomus which also named as VT (virtual taxa) 287, 64 and 214, Rhizophagus intraradices (VT 113) and Diversispora sp. (VT 60). While the specific T-RF types, 189 and 279bp, for S. viridis, only existed in Glomus cluster 1 (VT 156), were significantly less abundant in C. incertus. These results indicated that AM fungi might play an important role in the invasion process of C. incertus, which stil remains to be fur-ther investigated.

  3. Induced mutagenesis in finger-millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.) with gamma-rays and ethyl methane sulphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of CO-1 variety were treated with gamma-rays and EMS, each in 5 doses, 10 to 50 kR and 0.5 to 2.5% respectively. The chlorophyll mutation rate was characterized by linearity at low to medium doses and saturation as well as erratic behavior at high doses. As per mutation rate, estimated on the basis of M2 plants, EMS induced as high frequency. The spectrum consisted of albina, chlorina zantha, albo-viridis, tigrina (3 types) and striata (2 types), with tigrina being predominant. The treatments varied in their spectrum, with 2.0% yielding the widest spectrum of mutants. (author)

  4. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants. PMID:21736535

  5. Allelopathy in pigweed (a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus spp. are plants with proven allelopathic potential. The release of allelochemicals from Amaranthus spp. in the environment can influence seed germination, photosynthesis rate, reduce growth and, consequently, the productivity of various plant species. Among the species with allelopathic potential are Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis, with A. retroflexus being the most studied species and A. spinosus being the species with the greatest allelopathic potential. Due to the large quantities of allelochemicals produced by Amaranthus spp. these plants stand out as future suppliers of chemical molecules for bioherbicides and semisynthetic herbicides.

  6. Description of a nomen nudum species of Liriomyza Mik and the first record of Liriomyza blechi Spencer from Brazil (Insecta: Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Filho, Fernando Da Silva; Almeida, Flávio Roberto De Albuquerque; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The nomen nudum Liriomyza flagellae is formerly described in this paper as Liriomyza valladaresae sp. nov., based on male and female specimens collected in the Brazilian Amazon and reared from leaves of Alternanthera tenella and Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae). Information on the puparium and the biology of this new species are provided. The species Liriomyza blechi, previously recorded from the U.S.A., Guadeloupe and Dominican Republic, is newly recorded from Brazil, reared from leaves of Blechum pyramidatum (Acanthaceae) and Spigelia anthelmia (Loganiaceae). PMID:27394352

  7. Herbicide-induced changes in 14CO2 uptake of leaves of some crop and weed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of diuron or atrazine on the rate of photosynthetic 14CO2 uptake of two each crop (Pisum Sativum and Pennisetum typhoides) and weed species (Amaranthus viridis and Cyperus rotundus) was studied. The results indicated a marked inhibition of 14CO2 fixation of leaves within two hours after diuron or atrazine treatment. However the resistant plants were able to exhibit a recovery of the net photosynthetic rate subsequently while the susceptible plants failed to recover. The results suggested that even with fully open stomata and available NADPH, the normal CO2 fixation was not restored by herbicide treated leaves. (author)

  8. A Quarantine Harmful Plant: Amaranthus rudis%一种检疫性有害植物——西部苋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞赟; 于文涛; 郭琼霞; 沈建国; 李敏; 连德福

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented the geographical distribution, morphological characteristics, biological characteristics, harmful-ness , transmission route and prevention method of quarantine harmful plant Amaranthus rudis, and detailedly described the morphological differences between Amaranthus rudis and its close species Amaranthus viridis.%阐述了检疫性有害植物西部苋的地理分布、形态特征、生物学特性、危害性、传播途径及防治方法,详细描述了西部苋与其近似种糙果苋在形态特征上的区别.

  9. The early phyllosoma stages of spiny lobster Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Decapoda: Palinuridae) reared in the laboratory Os primeiros estágios de filosoma da lagosta Panulirus echinatus (Decapoda: Palinuridae) cultivados em laboratório

    OpenAIRE

    FA. Abrunhosa; AP. Santiago; JP. Abrunhosa

    2008-01-01

    The early stages of the Panulirus echinatus were hatched and reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat and carefully transported to the laboratory. Larvae were transferred in a recirculation water tank at a density of 10 larvae.L-1. The larvae were fed on Artemia and gonads of mussel Brachydonts sp. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added at a concentration of 150 x 10(4) cell.mL-1. Larvae and exuviae of each zoeal stage were preserved in an alcohol 70% + glyc...

  10. Genome sequencing and annotation of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the 9.0-Mb draft genome of Amycolatopsis vancoresmycina strain DSM 44592T, isolated from Indian soil sample; produces antibiotic vancoresmycin. Draft genome of strain DSM44592T consists of 9,037,069 bp with a G+C content of 71.79% and 8340 predicted protein coding genes and 57 RNAs. RAST annotation indicates that strains Streptomyces sp. AA4 (score 521, Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 (score 400 and Actinosynnema mirum DSM 43827 (score 372 are the closest neighbors of the strain DSM 44592T.

  11. Dispersal strategies in sponge larvae: integrating the life history of larvae and the hydrologic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Simone; Uriz, María-J; Turon, Xavier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2006-08-01

    While known to be uniformly non-feeding, short-lived, and potentially short dispersing, sponge larvae display different behaviours (swimming ability and taxis). Our aim was to show whether sponge larvae with different behaviours exhibit different dispersal strategies under variable intensity of water movements. We first assessed the distribution of larvae of six taxa: Dictyoceratida spp., Dysidea avara, Crambe crambe, Phorbas tenacior, Scopalina lophyropoda, and Cliona viridis, collected through plankton sampling, and the abundance of the corresponding adult sponges across three hard bottom communities and a sandy bottom from a north-west Mediterranean rocky shore. We then tested adult-larvae couplings (abundance of larvae vs abundance of adults) under increasing levels of water movements (surge) to assess the importance of this environmental factor in driving differences in dispersal strategies. Adults of Dictyoceratida spp., D. avara, and P. tenacior were most abundant in semi-dark caves (SDC), C. crambe and C. viridis in communities of sciaphilic algae (SA), whereas the distribution of S. lophyropoda was extremely patchy, being present almost only in the SA community of one of the five stations studied. Larvae of Dictyoceratida spp. and P. tenacior were more abundant in the SDC, whereas D. avara and C. crambe were homogeneously distributed across the communities. The larvae of C. viridis were more abundant in the SA communities and the S. lophyropoda larvae were mostly present in one station and one community (SA). Increased water movement did not modify the adult-larvae coupling for Dictyoceratida spp., D. avara, and C. crambe, whereas it broke up the positive association for P. tenacior and to some extent S. lophyropoda. For C. viridis, possible variability in adult-larvae coupling was not tested because the larvae were collected on only one day under calm sea conditions. We confirm that efficient-swimming larvae with some cue response can actively counteract

  12. Studies on induced mutation frequency in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don by gamma rays and EMS individually and in combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of pink flowered (PF) and white flowered (WF) Catharanthus roseus were soaked in distilled water for 24 h and treated with gamma rays and 0.1% EMS separately and in combination. Six types of chlorophyll mutations, viz., xantha, albina, chlorina, viridis, maculata and tigrina were recovered to M2 generation of both forms. The frequency of chlorophyll mutations was found to be dependent on the dose, of gamma rays and duration of treatment with EMS. Higher frequency of chlorophyll mutations was noticed in PF, which is mutagenically more sensitive than WF. It was also noticed that the combination treatments of gamma rays and EMS enhanced the frequency of chlorophyll mutations

  13. Novi prilozi poznavanju alohtone faune mekušaca uzduž ciparske obale: novi stražnjoškržnjaši u ciparskoj fauni

    OpenAIRE

    TSIAKKIROS, Louis; ZENETOS Argyro

    2011-01-01

    Nalazi nekoliko stranih vrsta stražnjoškržnjaša, prethodno nepoznatih na Cipru, potvrđuju da je širenje Indo-Pacifičkih vrsta sve izražajnije u istočnom dijelu Sredozemnog mora. U ovom radu se iznose podaci o pojavi četiri nove alohtone vrste zabilježene fotografijom tijekom vremenskog razdoblja od preko 8 godina. Zabilježene su slijedeće vrste: Chelidonura fulvipunctata, Chromodoris annulata, Flabellina rubrolineata i Hypselodoris infucata. Dodatno nalaz vrste Melibe viridis, koja se do tada...

  14. Ayahuasca: uma revisão dos aspectos farmacológicos e toxicológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Salum Pires; Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues Oliveira; Mauricio Yonamine

    2010-01-01

    A ayahuasca é uma bebida psicoativa originariamente utilizada em rituais de tribos indígenas da região amazônica. Esta bebida é preparada pela infusão de caules da Banisteriopsis caapi Morton, que contém β-carbolinas que são inibidoras da monoaminoxidase (MAO), e de folhas da Psychotria viridis Ruiz & Pavón, que contém o alucinógeno N,N-dimetiltriptamina (DMT). A enzima MAO degrada a DMT no fígado e intestino. No Brasil, a ayahuasca tem sido incorporada em rituais de grupos sincréticos re...

  15. Evaluación de extractos de ocho especies vegetales en el control de mildeo velloso (Peronospora destructor Berk) en cebolla de bulbo (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Enrique Cubides-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Extractos de ocho especies vegetales: eucalipto (Eucalytus globulus), cola de caballo (Equisetum bogotense), ortiga (Urtica urens), manzanilla (Matricaria chamomilla), caléndula (Calendula officinalis), yerbabuena (Menta viridis), ajo (Allium sativum) y clavo (Syzygum aromaticum), preparados por el método de decocción (100 g/l), fueron evaluados en cuanto a su eficiencia en el control de P. destructor en cebolla de bulbo. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repetic...

  16. Survival and bioturbation effects of common marine macrofauna in coastal soils newly flooded with seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Quintana, Cintia Organo; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe; Kristensen, Erik

    Low-lying coastal soils are at risk of being permanently flooded due to global sea level rise, but how will these areas develop as habitat for marine species? We conducted an experiment to evaluate the habitat quality of flooded soils for common marine polychaetes (Marenzelleria viridis, Nereis...... diversicolor and Scoloplos armiger). Soil cores were collected at Gyldensteen Beach (Northern Fyn, Denmark), where a 200 ha area is designated for flooding as part of a nature restoration project. Soils cores were experimentally flooded for 1 month before adding polychaetes. We measured the effect of...

  17. Atividade residual de herbicidas aplicados ao solo em relação ao controle de quatro espécies de Amaranthus Residual activity of herbicides applied to the soil in relation to control of four Amaranthus Species

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Raimondi; R.S. Oliveira Jr; Constantin, J; D.F. Biffe; J.G.Z Arantes; L.H. Franchini; F.A Rios; E. Blainski; J.B Osipe

    2010-01-01

    Herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência normalmente apresentam atividade residual no solo, controlando os primeiros fluxos germinativos das plantas daninhas e prevenindo a matocompetição inicial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o período de atividade residual proporcionado por doses de herbicidas suficientes para o controle pontual de 95% (C95) das espécies Amaranthus hybridus, A. lividus, A. spinosus e A. viridis, além de avaliar doses recomendadas desses herbicidas. O trabalho foi re...

  18. Induction of chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations in mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uniform and healthy seeds of mungbean (Vigna radiata) cv. T44 were exposed to varying doses of gamma rays, ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) and combination treatment of gamma rays with EMS. The data were recorded for seed germination, plant survival, frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll chimeras in M1 and chlorophyll mutations in M2 generation. Among all, the combination treatments were found most effective for inducing chlorophyll chimeras and chlorophyll mutations than the gamma rays or EMS alone. Of the mutants under reference, the albino, xantha and chlorina showed monogenic recessive while viridis exhibited digenic recessive inheritance. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  19. A checklist of malacofauna of the Vellar Estuarine Mangroves, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kesavan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey conducted to know the diversity of malacofauna in Vellar estuarine mangroves (southeast coast of India. In this study, 13 species of molluscs (10 species of gastropods - Melampus ceylonicus, Cerithidea cingulata, Cassidula nucleus, Pythia plicata, Neritina (Dostia violacea, Littorina scabra, Littorina melanostoma, Ellobium aurisjudae, C. obtusa T. telescopium and Assiminea nitida and 3 species of bivalves - Perna viridis, Crassostrea madrasensis and Modiolus metcalfei were recorded. M. pulchella, C. obtusa, L. scabra and N. violacea were found arboreal. T. telescopium, C. cingulata and E. aurisjudae were found crawling on the intertidal mud.

  20. ANALIZA EKONOMSKE OPRAVDANOSTI KRMNIH MEĐUUSJEVA ZA PREHRANU MUZNIH KRAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Rozmar, Črtomir; Pažek, Karmen; Janžekovič, Marjan

    2006-01-01

    Suše mogu ozbiljno ograničiti prinose krmnih usjeva. Krmni međuusjevi mogu zbog toga predstavljati izvor stočne hrane u sušnim godinama. Cilj ovog rada je prikaz rezultata preliminarne studije ekonomske opravdanosti pojedinih krmnih međuusjeva u sjeveroistočnoj Sloveniji: talijanskog (jednogodišnjeg) ljulja (Lollium multiflorum Lam.), stočnog kelja (Brassica oleracea L., convar.: acephala (DC) Alef. var viridis) i sudanske trave (Sorghum sudannense (Piper) Stapf). Na temelju rezultata poljski...