WorldWideScience

Sample records for blasting

  1. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  2. Blast Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    rollover  VAT: Vertical forces and floor deformation  HIP : Head protection systems Payoff: MABS  State-of-the-art unique piece of test equipment...13 14 15 16 17 Energy Absorbing Seats w/ Restraints Blast Mats and other Interior Treatments Data Recorders and Sensors Methods and Standards... treatments .  Airbag or comparable technologies such as bolsters.  Sensors that can detect and deploy/trigger interior treatments within the timeframe of a

  3. Calculation of driling and blasting parameters in blasting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In all mining technology drilling and blasting parameters and works are one of the main production processes at each mine. The parameters of drilling and blasting and explosives consumption per ton of blasting mass are define economic indicators of any blasting no matter for what purpose and where mining is performed. The calculation of rock blasting should always have in mind that the methodology of calculation of all drilling and blasting parameters in blasting performance are performed for...

  4. Dry ice blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  5. Field experiment for blasting crater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Tu-qiang

    2008-01-01

    A series of single hole blasting crater experiments and a variable distance multi-hole simultaneous blasting experiment was carded in the Yunfu Troilite Mine, according to the Livingston blasting crater theory. We introduce in detail, our methodology of data collection and processing from our experiments. Based on the burying depth of the explosives, the blasting crater volume was fitted by the method of least squares and the characteristic curve of the blasting crater was obtained using the MATLAB software. From this third degree polynomial, we have derived the optimal burying depth, the critical burying depth and the optimal explosive specific charge of the blasting crater.

  6. Blast Overpressure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    USAARL Contract Report No. CR-98-Ö3 Blast Overpressure Studies By Daniel L. Johnson EG&G Management Systems, Inc. Albuquerque, New Mexico May...Both studies were done at the Blast Overpressure-Kirtland Test Site (BOP-KTS) in New Mexico . Under a contract conducted for the USAMRMC, EG&G was... TDH -4 9 elements mounted in a David Clark 9AN/2 ear muff for added noise isolation. The calibration of the earphones was accomplished using a Bruel

  7. ESF BLAST DESIGN ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.F. fitch

    1995-03-13

    The purpose and objective of this design analysis are to develop controls considered necessary and sufficient to implement the requirements for the controlled drilling and blasting excavation of operations support alcoves and test support alcoves in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The conclusions reached in this analysis will flow down into a construction specification ensuring controlled drilling and blasting excavation will be performed within the bounds established here.

  8. CONTROL OF FRAGMENTATION BY BLASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fragmentation influences the economy of the excavation operations. Characteristics of blasted rock such as fragment size, volume and mass are fundamental variables effecting the economics of a mining operation and are in effect the basis for evaluating the quality of a blast. The properties of fragmentation, such as size and shape, are very important information for the optimization of production. Three factors control the fragment size distribution: the rock structure, the quantity of explosive and its distribution within the rock mass. Over the last decade there have been considerable advances in our ability to measure and analyze blasting performance. These can now be combined with the continuing growth in computing power to develop a more effective description of rock fragmentation for use by future blasting practitioners. The paper describes a view of the fragmentation problem by blasting and the need for a new generation of engineering tools to guide the design and implementation of blasting operations.

  9. Blast effects of external explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Security considerations for industrial production and storage require characterization of the mechanical effects caused by blast waves resulting from a detonation or deflagration. This paper evaluates current analytical methods to determine the characteristic parameters of a blast wave with respect to the pressure, impulse and duration of the positive phase of the blast. In the case of a detonation, the trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent-based method determines the mass ...

  10. Rock blasting and explosives engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, P.-A.; Holmberg, R.; Lee, J. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Research Center for Energetic Materials)

    1994-01-01

    The book covers the practical engineering aspects of different kinds of rock blasting. It includes a thorough analysis of the cost of the entire process of tunneling by drilling and blasting compared with full-face boring. It covers the economics of the entire rock blasting operation and its dependence on the size of excavation. The book highlights the fundamentals of rock mechanics, shock waves and detonation, initiation and mechanics of rock motion. It describes the engineering design principles and computational techniques for many separate mining methods and rock blasting operations. 274 refs.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.912 - Underwater blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underwater blasting. 1926.912 Section 1926.912 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.912 Underwater blasting. (a) A blaster shall conduct all blasting operations, and no shot shall be fired...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 57.6803 Section 57.6803 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6803 Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be insulated and kept in good repair. General Requirements—Surface and Underground...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 56.6312 Section 56.6312... Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6803 - Blasting lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting lines. 56.6803 Section 56.6803 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Blasting lines. Permanent blasting lines shall be properly supported. All blasting lines shall be...

  16. Identification of blast resistance genes for managing rice blast disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. In the present study, an international set of monogenic differentials carrying 24 major blast resistance (R) genes (Pia, Pib, Pii, Pik, Pik-h, Pik-m, Pik-p, Pik-s, Pish, Pit, Pita, Pita2,...

  17. NCBI BLAST: a better web interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark; Zaretskaya, Irena; Raytselis, Yan; Merezhuk, Yuri; McGinnis, Scott; Madden, Thomas L

    2008-07-01

    Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) is a sequence similarity search program. The public interface of BLAST, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/blast, at the NCBI website has recently been reengineered to improve usability and performance. Key new features include simplified search forms, improved navigation, a list of recent BLAST results, saved search strategies and a documentation directory. Here, we describe the BLAST web application's new features, explain design decisions and outline plans for future improvement.

  18. Shock tubes and blast injury modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Lei Ning; Yuan-Guo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Explosive blast injury has become the most prevalent injury in recent military conflicts and terrorist attacks.The magnitude of this kind of polytrauma is complex due to the basic physics of blast and the surrounding environments.Therefore,development of stable,reproducible and controllable animal model using an ideal blast simulation device is the key of blast injury research.The present review addresses the modeling of blast injury and applications of shock tubes.

  19. Numerical simulation of muzzle blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler-Street, M.

    2014-01-01

    Structural design methods for naval ships include environmental, operational and military load cases. One of the operational loads acting on a typical naval vessel is the muzzle blast from a gun. Simulating the muzzle blast load acting on a ship structure with CFD and ALE methods leads to large nume

  20. Demystifying blast effects on buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, A.; Carson, D.; Stevens, T. [Halsall Associates Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented methods of designing the structures of building structures in such a way that the effects of blast loads can be mitigated. The methods were designed to provide strength and ductility so that kinetic energy delivered by the blast is resisted by strain energy. Fundamental aspects of blast effects were examined, and the design of flexural members subject to blast loading were discussed. An equivalent static load procedure based on the equivalency of kinetic and strain energies was also presented along with a threat independent approach which included principles to prevent progressive collapse, ductile columns, and the addition of upward resistance to floors. Measures to mitigate damage caused by shattered glass and other cladding elements during blasts were also discussed.

  1. Circulation in blast driven instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry de Frahan, Marc; Johnsen, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Mixing in many natural phenomena (e.g. supernova collapse) and engineering applications (e.g. inertial confinement fusion) is often initiated through hydrodynamic instabilities. Explosions in these systems give rise to blast waves which can interact with perturbations at interfaces between different fluids. Blast waves are formed by a shock followed by a rarefaction. This wave profile leads to complex time histories of interface acceleration. In addition to the instabilities induced by the acceleration field, the rarefaction from the blast wave decompresses the material at the interface, further increasing the perturbation growth. After the passage of the wave, circulation circulation generated by the blast wave through baroclinic vorticity continues to act upon the interface. In this talk, we provide scaling laws for the circulation and amplitude growth induced by the blast wave. Numerical simulations of the multifluid Euler equations solved using a high-order accurate Discontinuous Galerkin method are used to validate the theoretical results.

  2. BLAST: the Redshift Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, Stephen; Devlin, Mark J; Dye, Simon; Halpern, Mark; Hughes, David H; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Raymond, Gwenifer; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Siana, Brian; Truch, Matthew D P; Viero, Marco P

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has recently surveyed ~=8.7 deg^2 centered on GOODS-South at 250, 350 and 500 microns. In Dye et al. (2009) we presented the catalogue of sources detected at $\\rm 5\\sigma$ in at least one band in this field and the probable counterparts to these sources in other wavebands. In this paper, we present the results of a redshift survey in which we succeeded in measuring redshifts for 83 of these counterparts. We have used the spectroscopic redshifts to carry out a test of the ability of photometric redshift methods to estimate the redshifts of dusty galaxies. We have also investigated the cases where there are two possible counterparts to the BLAST source, finding that in at least half of these there is evidence that the two galaxies are physically associated, either because they are interacting or because they are in the same large-scale structure. Finally, we have made the first direct measurements of the luminosity function in the three BLAST band...

  3. 75 FR 56489 - Separation Distances of Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Ammonium Nitrate and Blasting Agents From Explosives or Blasting Agents (2002R-226P) AGENCY: Bureau of... CFR 555.220 set forth a table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents followed by six explanatory notes. Note three (3) states that the...

  4. Source model for blasting vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Hua(丁桦); ZHENG; Zhemin(郑哲敏)

    2002-01-01

    By analyzing and comparing the experimental data, the point source moment theory and the cavity theory, it is concluded that the vibrating signals away from the blasting explosive come mainly from the natural vibrations of the geological structures near the broken blasting area. The source impulses are not spread mainly by the inelastic properties (such as through media damping, as believed to be the case by many researchers) of the medium in the propagation pass, but by this structure. Then an equivalent source model for the blasting vibrations of a fragmenting blasting is proposed, which shows the important role of the impulse of the source's time function under certain conditions. For the purpose of numerical simulation, the model is realized in FEM, The finite element results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Reliability of Hydrox explosive blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikunov, V.I.; Chulkov, O.G.; Domanov, V.P.

    1980-03-01

    The safest method of blasting in coal mines with methane and coal dust hazards is with the flameless Hydrox charges. The results of operational tests on Hydrox BV-A2U charges with a I-43 initiator in underground coal mines are discussed. Efficiency and reliability of blasting using Hydrox BV-A2U compared to BV-48 Hydrox charges is evaluated. Results of blasting and the percentage of charge failures are given in tables. It is suggested that BV-A2U Hydrox charges are superior to BV-48, as no charge failures occur, operational time of BV-A2U is up to 5 seconds and the maximum operational time spread is 1.8 sec (weight of initiator 0.05 kg). Blasting properties of BV-A2U are stable and do not change as a result of long storage. (In Russian)

  6. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  7. Blasting Vibration Generated by Breaking-Blasting Large Barriers with EBBLB

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Zhen-xiong; Gu Wen-bin; Liang Ting; Liu Jian-qing; Xu Jing-lin; Liu Xin

    2016-01-01

    Equipment for breaking and blasting large barriers (EBBLB) is new break-blast equipment, which inevitably induces ground vibration and may cause substantial damage to rock mass and nearby structures as well as human beings. The ground vibration induced by break-blast is one of the inevitable outcomes. By monitoring vibration at measuring points at different distances from blasting center, time history curve of vibrating velocity can be obtained; it can be drawn that blasting seismic waves are...

  8. Design of Blast Resistant Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Gautam

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A shock blast resistant structure designed, developed and experimentally evaluated by the authors is described. We structure, capable of with standing dynamic loading (12 psi and a static pressure of 1.5 m earth cover due to blast or any other explosion, also gives protection against radiation, chemical and thermal hazards. Some results and details of analysis and experimentation are presented.

  9. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  10. Centrifugal shot blast system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report describes a demonstration of Concrete cleaning, Inc., modified centrifugal shot blast technology to remove the paint coating from concrete flooring. This demonstration is part of the Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), office of Science and Technology (OST), Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) CP-5 Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. Potential markets exist for the innovative centrifugal shot blast system at the following sites: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Los Alamos, Nevada, Oak Ridge Y-12 and K-25, Paducah, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion site, and the Savannah River Site. This information is based on a revision to the OST Linkage Tables dated August 4, 1997.

  11. 30 CFR 72.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive blasting. 72.610 Section 72.610... HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 72.610 Abrasive blasting. (a) Surface and underground mines. When an abrasive blasting operation is performed, all exposed miners shall properly...

  12. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the con

  13. 30 CFR 57.6312 - Secondary blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting. 57.6312 Section 57.6312... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6312 Secondary blasting. Secondary blasts fired at the same time in the same work area shall be initiated from one source. Electric Blasting—Surface and Underground...

  14. 30 CFR 58.610 - Abrasive blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive blasting. 58.610 Section 58.610... SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 58.610 Abrasive blasting. (a) Surface and underground mines. When an abrasive blasting operation is performed, all...

  15. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  16. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or any other related blasting device or material shall be stored, transported, carried, handled,...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1326 - Examination after blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examination after blasting. 75.1326 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1326 Examination after blasting. (a) After blasting, the blasting area shall not be entered until it is clear of...

  18. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA, made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting. Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foun-dation pit blasting, provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blast-ing construction.

  19. 30 CFR 780.13 - Operation plan: Blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation plan: Blasting. 780.13 Section 780.13... Operation plan: Blasting. (a) Blasting plan. Each application shall contain a blasting plan for the proposed... methods to be applied in controlling the adverse effects of blasting operations. (b) Monitoring...

  20. 27 CFR 555.220 - Table of separation distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distances of ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. 555.220 Section 555... ammonium nitrate and blasting agents from explosives or blasting agents. Table: Department of Defense... Blasting agent Minimum thickness of artificial barricades (in.) 100 3 11 12 100 300 4 14 12 300 600 5 18...

  1. Toxicology of blast overpressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, N M

    1997-07-25

    Blast overpressure (BOP) or high energy impulse noise, is the sharp instantaneous rise in ambient atmospheric pressure resulting from explosive detonation or firing of weapons. Blasts that were once confined to military and to a lesser extent, occupational settings, are becoming more universal as the civilian population is now increasingly at risk of exposure to BOP from terrorist bombings that are occurring worldwide with greater frequency. Exposure to incident BOP waves can cause auditory and non-auditory damage. The primary targets for BOP damage are the hollow organs, ear, lung and gastrointestinal tract. In addition, solid organs such as heart, spleen and brain can also be injured upon exposure. However, the lung is more sensitive to damage and its injury can lead to death. The pathophysiological responses, and mortality have been extensively studied, but little attention, was given to the biochemical manifestations, and molecular mechanism(s) of injury. The injury from BOP has been, generally, attributed to its external physical impact on the body causing internal mechanical damage. However, a new hypothesis has been proposed based on experiments conducted in the Department of Respiratory Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and later in the Department of Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh. This hypothesis suggests that subtle biochemical changes namely, free radical-mediated oxidative stress occur and contribute to BOP-induced injury. Understanding the etiology of these changes may shed new light on the molecular mechanism(s) of injury, and can potentially offer new strategies for treatment. In this symposium. BOP research involving auditory, non-auditory, physiological, pathological, behavioral, and biochemical manifestations as well as predictive modeling and current treatment modalities of BOP-induced injury are discussed.

  2. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian G. CULLIS; Nikos NIKIFORAKIS; Peter FRANKL; Philip BLAKELY; Paul BENNETT; Paul GREENWOOD

    2016-01-01

    The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length-and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  3. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  4. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  5. Blast-Induced Damage on Millisecond Blasting Model Test with Multicircle Vertical Blastholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-yong Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the blast-induced damage effect on surrounding rock in vertical shaft excavation, 4 kinds of millisecond blasting model tests with three-circle blastholes were designed and carried out with excavation blasting in vertical shaft as the background. The longitudinal wave velocity on the side of concrete model was also measured before and after blasting. Then blast damage factor was then calculated by measuring longitudinal wave velocity before and after blasting. The test results show that the blast-induced damage factor attenuated gradually with the centre of three-circle blastholes as centre. With the threshold value of 0.19 for blast-induced damage factor, blast-induced damage zones for 4 kinds of model tests are described and there is an inverted cone blast-induced damage zone in concrete model. And analyses of cutting effect and blast-induced damage zone indicate that in order to minimize the blast-induced damage effect and ensure the cutting effect the reasonable blasting scheme for three-circle blastholes is the inner two-circle blastholes initiated simultaneously and the outer third circle blastholes initiated in a 25 ms delay.

  6. Improved BLAST for wireless communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongzhao; Liao Guisheng; Wang Feng

    2006-01-01

    Bell layered space-time architecture (BLAST) is a multi-antenna communication structure with high spectrum efficiency, and it has found wide applications in LANs and WLANs. However, its performance is much poorer than those of other space-time coding approaches. In order to improve its performance, an improved BLAST based on RAKE receiving is investigated. The new system introduces orthogonal spreading sequences (OSS) into the transmitter while retains the basic structure of BLAST. The proposed receiver suppresses interferences from other antennas by the orthogonality contained in the received signals, and extracts information from each receiving antenna by using RAKE receiving principle to construct efficient statistic decision. Simulation results show that the improved system performs well over both frequency-flat and frequency-selective fading channels.

  7. Blast Wave Characteristics and Equivalency

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle; Schneider, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    ISBN 978-5-94588-079-5; The characteristics of blast waves generated by detonation of gas clouds are studies theoretically and validated by both small-scale and large-scale experiments with ethylene-air mixtures of different equivalence ratio. The mixtures were confined in hemispherical or spherical balloons made from thin polyethylene foils of 0.75 m³ and 15 m³ in volume. The detonation of gas mixtures was initiated by a solid explosive. The characteristics of the blast wave in terms of over...

  8. Mask materials for powder blasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, Henk; Jansen, Henri V.; Berenschot, J.W.; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2001-01-01

    Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which expand

  9. Plastic Media Blasting Data Gathering Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    matt, reducing the filtering surface. 25 3) Cartridge Collectors: Cartridge dust collectors consist of a number of nonwoven tubular filters placed...Engineering Command 03 SPLASTIC MEDIA BLASTING DATA GATHERING STUDY: FINAL REPORT ABSTRAC>lastic Media Blasting (PMB) is proving to be a cost effective method...facilities; needed blasting and media recovery equipment; different types of media ; and media disposal. The Economics section gives two examples of economic

  10. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  11. Numerical simulation of stress for the blasting of foundation pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Hong-lu; ZHAO Xin-pu

    2008-01-01

    Through the simulation of explicit dynamic analysis software LS-DYNA,made an analysis to the particle velocity and the stress distribution of surrounding rock when the explosives blasting.Explicated the mechanical character of surrounding rock in the foundation pit blasting,provided a basis to set of blasting parameters and optimized the blasting construction.

  12. 30 CFR 56.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolation of blasting circuits. 56.6605 Section... Extraneous Electricity § 56.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and blasting lines shall be... sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be protected from any contact...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1304 - Blasting agents; special provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting agents; special provisions. 77.1304... COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1304 Blasting agents; special provisions. (a) Sensitized ammonium nitrate blasting agents, and the components thereof prior to mixing, shall be mixed and stored...

  14. Condition for Contur Blasting use on Openpit Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Krsmanovic, I; Dambov, Risto

    2010-01-01

    For purpose of obtaining a stable final slope in open pit mines practice, the most common approach is the contour blasting method and investigation of possible applications of various primary blasting methods for purpose of gaining the optimal techno-economical effects. This paper presents one of the contour blasting methods, drilling and blasting parameters, construction of explosive charges and method of initiation.

  15. 30 CFR 75.1320 - Multiple-shot blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple-shot blasting. 75.1320 Section 75.1320... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1320 Multiple-shot blasting... periods of 1,000 milliseconds or less shall be used. (d) When blasting in anthracite mines, each...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading, blasting, and security. 56.6306... § 56.6306 Loading, blasting, and security. (a) When explosive materials or initiating systems are... permitted within the blast site shall be those activities directly related to the blasting operation and...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.910 - Inspection after blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection after blasting. 1926.910 Section 1926.910 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.910 Inspection after blasting. (a) Immediately after the blast has been fired, the firing line shall...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1316 Preparation... using a blasting multimeter or other instrument specifically designed for such use. (3) The blasting... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation before blasting. 75.1316 Section...

  19. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  20. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  1. The use of blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    V. Václavík; V. Dirner; T. Dvorský; J. Daxner

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  2. Fabrication of microstructures by powder blasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, Hendrik

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with the use of powder blasting as a micromachining technique to create micro systems. Powder blasting is a technology in which small particles, accelerated by an air jet, are directed towards a brittle target for mechanical material removal. It is especially useful for glass machi

  3. Refractory Pellet for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Peng Xigao

    2011-01-01

    1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,classification,specification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of refractory pellet for hot blast stove.This standard is applicable to refractory pellet for hot blast stove.

  4. Safety of collieries blasting operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonel, P. (Cerchar, 75 - Paris (France))

    1984-01-01

    The slight increase in periodicity of blasting incidents and their nature have led to remind one of the basic safety principles: to reduce the probability of dust and methane ignition by the explosive used or by the shotfiring line; to carefully select the explosive in accordance to the work to be carried out. It is reminded that using an anti-gassy explosive does not necessarily mean that no ignition will occur.

  5. Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranz, Carolyn

    2008-11-01

    This presentation discusses experiments involving the evolution of hydrodynamic instabilities in the laboratory under high-energy-density (HED) conditions. These instabilities are driven by blast waves, which occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. Instabilities evolving under HED conditions are relevant to astrophysics. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 μm plastic layer that is followed by a low-density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses an interface having a 2D or 3D sinusoidal structure that serves as a seed perturbation for hydrodynamic instabilities. This produces unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in the nonlinear regime. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions using x-ray backlighting. Recent advances in our diagnostic techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed or predicted by current simulations. The observed effect is potentially of great importance as a source of mass transport to places not anticipated by current theory and simulation. I will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions, the associated uncertainties, and hypotheses regarding their origin We also plan to show comparisons of experiments using single mode and multimode as well as 2D and 3D initial conditions. This work is sponsored by DOE/NNSA Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058 (Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances) and DE-FG52-04NA00064 (National Laser User

  6. IED blast postconcussive syncope and autonomic dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Richard; LaBrie, D Walter; Norris, Jacob; Schauer, Judy; Frantz, Earl

    2012-01-01

    Concussions are the most frequent battle injury sustained in Afghanistan. The Concussion Restoration Care Center provides multidisciplinary care to concussed service members in theater. The Concussion Restoration Care Center has managed over 500 concussions, the majority being from improvised explosive device (IED) blasts. Syncope following a concussion without a loss of consciousness is rarely reported in the literature. The pathophysiology of concussion from a blast injury may be distinct from a concussion secondary to blunt trauma. Two cases of syncope following concussions with an alteration of consciousness are presented, and a mechanism of action is proposed. Post-IED blast concussive symptom frequency at initial presentation on a cohort of patients is reported, with 1.3% of patients experiencing postconcussive syncope. Syncope following an IED blast may be related to centrally mediated autonomic dysregulation at the brain stem level. Syncope should be added to the list of possible symptoms that occur following concussions, in particular concussions following a blast injury.

  7. Aspects of blast resistant masonry design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Blast resistant design should be examined for building code incorporation, due to the potential of explosions occurring in an industrial society. Specifically, public and commercial structures of concrete masonry construction need additional building code criteria, since these buildings have high density populations to protect. Presently, blast resistant design is accomplished by using government published manuals, but these do not address industry standard construction. A design air blast load of 4.54 kg (10 lbs) of TNT, located 0.91 m (3 ft) above ground surface and 30.48 m (100 ft) from a structure should be considered standard criteria. This loading would be sufficient to protect against blast, resist progressive failure, and yet not be an economic impediment. Design details and adequate inspection must be observed to ensure blast resistant integrity. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Detonation safety of blasting caps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢兴华; 彭小圣

    2002-01-01

    By means of researching into sympathetic detonation of blasting detonators in air, the regular patterns are concluded from blasting detonators interaction with the shock loading. The aerial distribution of initiating ability of detonators looks like a butterfly. The initiating ability mainly consists of shock wave, explosive gases and fliers. But fundamental questions remain. When does shock wave take the leading role? When and how does the explosive gases or the fliers take function? For those questions, there is less quantitative research. Through the theoretic deduction of the overpressure, the energy calculation of fliers and the experiment of sympathetic detonation of detonators, we can learn the sympathetic detonation distances of several kinds of detonators and make an inquiry into the lateral initiating regulations of detonators. So, we can provide the base data for the research into no sympathetic detonation of herd blasting detonators and then control the detonation between them. Then we can make full use of detonators and reduce the frequency of accidents caused by detonators.

  9. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Angilè, Francesco E; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J; Dober, Bradley J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Klein, Jeffrey; Van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5 m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and ~3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid he...

  10. Induced caving by blasting: innovative experiments in blasting gallery panels of underground coal mines of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P.; Sawmliana, C.; Bhagat, N.K.; Madhu, M. [CMRI, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    2003-04-01

    Induced caving by blasting during depillaring of panels in underground coal mines has received limited attention. This technique has become an integral part of a mining operation known as the blasting gallery (BG) method in India. Systematical deep hole (16-30 m) blasting has been successfully carried out from underground split galleries in BG panels. A study of drilling and blasting parameters, gas hazards, strata behaviour and ground vibration was undertaken as part of a research project for the Indian Ministry of Coal and Mines. Strata behaviour during blasting and ground movements were critically investigated. All experiments were conducted using newly developed explosive and detonating cord systems. A new blast damage index is proposed for damage assessment of the underground roof and pillars of BG panels. Useful mathematical formulas are described as an aid to future design.

  11. Blast Valve Design and Related Studies : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The protective structures required for performing critical operations are vulnerable to the blast and shock loads of advanced weapons. A blast valve is an important component of such structures for ventilation during normal conditions and for protection from blast/ shock during explosion. In this paper, various aspects of blast valve design and related studies are briefly reviewed. The concept and effects of blast wave, blast impact, numerical modelling and deformation of circular plate (one of the critical components of blast valve have been discussed. The merits and demerits of sensing mechanisms viz. remote and direct sensing are discussed. The leakage of blast pressure during finite closing period of the valve (one of the critical problems and the shock tube as a major experimental facility for testing of blast valves are briefly discussed.

  12. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries.

  13. Lipid Mediators and Human Leukemic Blasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Fiancette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most potent inflammatory mediators share a lipid origin. They regulate a wide spectrum of cellular processes including cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the precise roles and ways (if any in which these compounds impact the growth and apoptosis of leukemic blasts remain incompletely resolved. In spite of this, significant advances have been recently made. Here we briefly review the current knowledge about the production of lipid mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, platelet-activating factor by leukemic blasts, the enzymatic activities (phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases involved in their productions and their effects (through specific membrane bound receptors on the growth, and apoptosis of leukemic blasts.

  14. Blast Wave Experiments at Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    radiation flows upward, it passes though a 1.7-mm high, tapered, 25-μm thick gold wall cone that is filled 20 ± 3 mg/cm3 silica aerogel (SiO2). Above...this cone is a 20 ± 3 mg/cm3 silica aerogel filled, 1-mm high, 2.4-mm inner diameter, 25-μm thick gold wall cylinder. On the cylinder rests a 4-mm...diameter gold platform that supports a higher density (40-60 mg/cm3) silica aerogel . This aerogel is the region where the blast wave forms after

  15. Peak Overpressures for Internal Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    condensed into relatively simple algebraic equa- tions for the (logarithm of the) equilibrium constant of formation as a function of absolute...blast for three conventional fuels-benzene, JP-4 (a hydrocarbon fuel with an empirical formula C9H17 ), and ethylene oxide-are plotted as a function of...256 .26 9.4 6.36 2166 7.89 2666 .27 Cubica . 9.5 6.66 2244 7.91 2591 .13 0.028 9.7 6.51 2197 7.97 2801 .19 9.9 6.17 2090 8.01 2607 .23 9.9 7.59 2495

  16. BLAST-EXPLORER helps you building datasets for phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The right sampling of homologous sequences for phylogenetic or molecular evolution analyses is a crucial step, the quality of which can have a significant impact on the final interpretation of the study. There is no single way for constructing datasets suitable for phylogenetic analysis, because this task intimately depends on the scientific question we want to address, Moreover, database mining softwares such as BLAST which are routinely used for searching homologous sequences are not specifically optimized for this task. Results To fill this gap, we designed BLAST-Explorer, an original and friendly web-based application that combines a BLAST search with a suite of tools that allows interactive, phylogenetic-oriented exploration of the BLAST results and flexible selection of homologous sequences among the BLAST hits. Once the selection of the BLAST hits is done using BLAST-Explorer, the corresponding sequence can be imported locally for external analysis or passed to the phylogenetic tree reconstruction pipelines available on the Phylogeny.fr platform. Conclusions BLAST-Explorer provides a simple, intuitive and interactive graphical representation of the BLAST results and allows selection and retrieving of the BLAST hit sequences based a wide range of criterions. Although BLAST-Explorer primarily aims at helping the construction of sequence datasets for further phylogenetic study, it can also be used as a standard BLAST server with enriched output. BLAST-Explorer is available at http://www.phylogeny.fr

  17. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BLAST finds regions of similarity between biological sequences. The program compares nucleotide or protein sequences to sequence databases and calculates the...

  18. Anhydrous Taphole Mix for Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term,definition,brand,label,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of anhydrous taphole mix for blast furnace.

  19. Kaolinite Refractory Bricks for Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ This standard is suitable to the fireclay bricks for blast furnace. 1 Classification, Shape and Dimension 1 According to physical and chemical indexes, the brick can be divided into two trademarks: ZGN-42 and GN-42.

  20. Blast vulnerability assessment : challenges and myths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braimah, A.; Contestabile, E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    Challenges related to the creation of a comprehensive blast vulnerability assessment program for Canadian buildings was presented. Many building owners are now seeking to assess the vulnerability of their structures to blast loads, and wish to increase the survivability of both occupants and structures. However, the engineering community has not yet incorporated existing physical security measures into comprehensive mitigation strategies and designs. Different institutions are currently using varying amounts of explosives in vulnerability assessments, and there is an urgent need for information on terrorist capabilities in both the present and the future. Pressure-impulse diagrams are now used by engineers to assess component responses to blasts. However, pressure-impulse diagrams are based on single modes of failure, and may not be capable of capturing all failure modes of building components, nor are they able to ensure that vulnerability assessments do not overestimate the blast load resistance of buildings.

  1. Silica Brick for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the glossary and definition, marking, shape and dimension, technical requirements, test method, quality appraisal procedure, packing, label, transportation, storage and quality certification of silica brick for hot blast stove.

  2. Fireclay Refractory Bricks for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Zhang Yongfang; Chai Junlan

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification, shape, dimension, technical requirements, test method,inspection rules, packing, marking,transportation,storage and quality certification of fireclay refractory bricks for hot blast stove.

  3. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  4. Research on Effects of Blast Casting Vibration and Vibration Absorption of Presplitting Blasting in Open Cast Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.

  5. Design and commissioning of a semi-confined blast chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.M. SNYMAN; F.J. MOSTERT; W. GRUNDLING

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, test and analysis of a scaled cylindrical blast chamber. The blast chamber is a one-fifth dimensional size replica of the full-scale blast chamber (Emily). The blast chamber is semi-confined as one end is open. The scaled blast chamber is used to test concepts for closing the open end and allows the gas to vent at the same time. ANSYS AUTODYN calculated the pressure time histories for different closure scenarios. Comparing the results suggested a viable scenario, namely a structure consisting of a circular disc and a frame positioned at the open end of the blast chamber. The structure and cylindrical blast chamber were subjected to scaled blast tests and the pressure results are presented and discussed.

  6. Brain Injury Risk from Primary Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    injury has been studied extensively in air-containing organs such as the lungs , gastrointestinal tract, and ear due to their increased...veterans (Owens, 2008). Primary blast injury has been studied extensively in air-containing organs such as the lungs , gastrointestinal tract, and ear... contusions typically on or around the brainstem though there were no skull fractures for any blast intensity. Risk functions were developed that

  7. The Effects of Underwater Blast on Divers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    bladder, including hepatic tear can cause referred right shoulder pain. Transient paralysis in the lower limbs, testicular pain, nausea, vomiting...blast trauma . This is probably because most immersion blast has been studied with heads above the water, 24 sinus injury is unlikely to threaten life and...without impediment. Close to the explosive source, however; there is violent trauma to the rib-cage, chest and abdominal contents, and limb fractures

  8. Reduction of sidewall inclination and blast lag of powder blasted channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, Henk; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2002-01-01

    Powder blasting (abrasive jet machining) is a fast directional machining technique for brittle materials like silicon and glass. The cross-section of a powder blasted channel has a rounded V-shape. These inclined sidewalls are caused by the typical impact angle dependent removal rate for brittle mat

  9. Information modeling system for blast furnace control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Gileva, L. Y.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Modern Iron & Steel Works as a rule are equipped with powerful distributed control systems (DCS) and databases. Implementation of DSC system solves the problem of storage, control, protection, entry, editing and retrieving of information as well as generation of required reporting data. The most advanced and promising approach is to use decision support information technologies based on a complex of mathematical models. The model decision support system for control of blast furnace smelting is designed and operated. The basis of the model system is a complex of mathematical models created using the principle of natural mathematical modeling. This principle provides for construction of mathematical models of two levels. The first level model is a basic state model which makes it possible to assess the vector of system parameters using field data and blast furnace operation results. It is also used to calculate the adjustment (adaptation) coefficients of the predictive block of the system. The second-level model is a predictive model designed to assess the design parameters of the blast furnace process when there are changes in melting conditions relative to its current state. Tasks for which software is developed are described. Characteristics of the main subsystems of the blast furnace process as an object of modeling and control - thermal state of the furnace, blast, gas dynamic and slag conditions of blast furnace smelting - are presented.

  10. Comparison of Some Blast Vibration Predictors for Blasting in Underground Drifts and Some Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Vaibhab Pramod; Dey, Kaushik

    2016-04-01

    Drilling and blasting are the most economical excavation techniques in underground drifts driven through hard rock formation. Burn cut is the most popular drill pattern, used in this case, to achieve longer advance per blast round. The ground vibration generated due to the propagation of blast waves on the detonation of explosive during blasting is the principal cause for structural and rock damage. Thus, ground vibration is a point of concern for the blasting engineers. The ground vibration from a blast is measured using a seismograph placed at the blast monitoring station. The measured vibrations, in terms of peak particle velocity, are related to the maximum charge detonated at one instant and the distance of seismograph from the blast point. The ground vibrations from a number of blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances are monitored. A number of scaling factors of these dependencies (viz. Distance and maximum charge/delay) have been proposed by different researchers, namely, square root, cube root, CMRI, Langefors and Kihlstrom, Ghosh-Daemon, Indian standard etc. Scaling factors of desired type are computed for all the measured blast rounds. Regression analysis is carried out between the scaling factors and peak particle velocities to establish the coefficients of the vibration predictor equation. Then, the developed predictor equation is used for designing the blast henceforth. Director General of Mine Safety, India, specified that ground vibrations from eight to ten blast rounds of varying charge/delay and distances should be monitored to develop a predictor equation; however, there is no guideline about the type of scaling factor to be used. Further to this, from the statistical point of view, a regression analysis on a small sample population cannot be accepted without the testing of hypothesis. To show the importance of the above, in this paper, seven scaling factors are considered for blast data set of a hard-rock underground drift using burn

  11. A Table-top Blast Driven Shock Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The d...

  12. VRPI Temporal Progression of Closed Globe Injury from Blast Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Experimental animals were separated into three survival time groups: 1 day, 1 week and 4 week. Before the blast exposure was performed, each animal ...150µL was reached. The sample was then separated into three equal tubes. FIGURE 1. PRESSURE-TIME HISTORY AT LOCATION OF ANIMAL PLACEMENT WITHIN BLAST...have found that the behaviorally assessed visual acuity of blast exposed animals is significantly degraded following blast exposure. The decrease in

  13. A blast absorber test: measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den; Hof, J. van 't; Arkel, E. van

    2006-01-01

    A blast absorber test was conducted at the Aberdeen Test Centre from 13 to 17 June 2005. The test was set up to determine the absorbing and shielding effect of a gravel pile, of 1.5 meters high and 15 by 15 meters wide, on blasts from large weapons: e.g. armor, artillery or demolition. The blast was

  14. 30 CFR 57.6605 - Isolation of blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolation of blasting circuits. 57.6605 Section... Extraneous Electricity-Surface and Underground § 57.6605 Isolation of blasting circuits. Lead wires and... shall be protected from sources of stray or static electricity. Blasting circuits shall be...

  15. Spreading of sediment due to underwater blasting and dredging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Bach, Lis; Bollwerk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    impacts of suspended sediment from underwater blasting, which could include coverage of the benthos or increased turbidity, can be managed by timing the blast favourably relative to currents, waves and stratification. It is argued that the environmental impact of blasting can be minimized by decreasing...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6300 - Control of blasting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of blasting operations. 56.6300 Section... § 56.6300 Control of blasting operations. (a) Only persons trained and experienced in the handling and use of explosive material shall direct blasting operations and related activities. (b) Trainees...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6300 - Control of blasting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of blasting operations. 57.6300 Section... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6300 Control of blasting operations. (a) Only persons trained and experienced in the handling and use of explosive material shall direct blasting operations and...

  18. 30 CFR 816.64 - Use of explosives: Blasting schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. 816.64... ACTIVITIES § 816.64 Use of explosives: Blasting schedule. (a) General requirements. (1) The operator shall conduct blasting operations at times approved by the regulatory authority and announced in the...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22607 - Blasting on shift (III mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting on shift (III mines). 57.22607 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22607 Blasting on shift (III mines). When blasting on shift, tests for methane shall be made in the mine atmosphere by a competent person...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6306 - Loading, blasting, and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading, blasting, and security. 57.6306... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6306 Loading, blasting, and security. (a) When explosive materials or... blasting operation and the activities of surveying, stemming, sampling of geology, and reopening of...

  2. Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This is an image of a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, which marks the edge of a bubble-like, expanding blast wave from a colossal stellar explosion, occurring about 15,000 years ago. The HST image shows the structure behind the shock waves, allowing astronomers for the first time to directly compare the actual structure of the shock with theoretical model calculations. Besides supernova remnants, these shock models are important in understanding a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, from winds in newly-formed stars to cataclysmic stellar outbursts. The supernova blast is slamming into tenuous clouds of insterstellar gas. This collision heats and compresses the gas, causing it to glow. The shock thus acts as a searchlight revealing the structure of the interstellar medium. The detailed HST image shows the blast wave overrunning dense clumps of gas, which despite HST's high resolution, cannot be resolved. This means that the clumps of gas must be small enough to fit inside our solar system, making them relatively small structures by interstellar standards. A bluish ribbon of light stretching left to right across the picture might be a knot of gas ejected by the supernova; this interstellar 'bullet' traveling over three million miles per hour (5 million kilometres) is just catching up with the shock front, which has slowed down by ploughing into interstellar material. The Cygnus Loop appears as a faint ring of glowing gases about three degrees across (six times the diameter of the full Moon), located in the northern constellation, Cygnus the Swan. The supernova remnant is within the plane of our Milky Way galaxy and is 2,600 light-years away. The photo is a combination of separate images taken in three colors, oxygen atoms (blue) emit light at temperatures of 30,000 to 60,000 degrees Celsius (50,000 to 100,000 degrees Farenheit). Hydrogen atoms (green) arise throughout the region of shocked gas. Sulfur atoms (red) form when the gas cools to

  3. FastBLAST: homology relationships for millions of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan N Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All-versus-all BLAST, which searches for homologous pairs of sequences in a database of proteins, is used to identify potential orthologs, to find new protein families, and to provide rapid access to these homology relationships. As DNA sequencing accelerates and data sets grow, all-versus-all BLAST has become computationally demanding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present FastBLAST, a heuristic replacement for all-versus-all BLAST that relies on alignments of proteins to known families, obtained from tools such as PSI-BLAST and HMMer. FastBLAST avoids most of the work of all-versus-all BLAST by taking advantage of these alignments and by clustering similar sequences. FastBLAST runs in two stages: the first stage identifies additional families and aligns them, and the second stage quickly identifies the homologs of a query sequence, based on the alignments of the families, before generating pairwise alignments. On 6.53 million proteins from the non-redundant Genbank database ("NR", FastBLAST identifies new families 25 times faster than all-versus-all BLAST. Once the first stage is completed, FastBLAST identifies homologs for the average query in less than 5 seconds (8.6 times faster than BLAST and gives nearly identical results. For hits above 70 bits, FastBLAST identifies 98% of the top 3,250 hits per query. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FastBLAST enables research groups that do not have supercomputers to analyze large protein sequence data sets. FastBLAST is open source software and is available at http://microbesonline.org/fastblast.

  4. Vibration velocity and frequency of underwater short-hole blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the measuring data of underwater blasting vibrationand the regression analysis results of these data, two formulae usually used of blasting vibration velocity were compared. Factors that canaffect blasting vibration and frequency were summarized and analyzed.It is thought that the effect of the number of freedom face and burden direction on blasting vibration should be considered during blastingdesign. Based on the relevant research results and the regression results of these data, a formula to calculate under water blasting frequency was put forward.

  5. Conceptual design and simulation analysis of thermal behaviors of TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Extensive use of carbon based fuel is the main inducement for global warming and more extreme weather.Reducing carbon dioxide emission and enhancing energy use is a common subject in steel industry.In the integrated steel plant,decreasing carbon dioxide emission must consider energy balance in the whole iron and steel works,and secondary energy must be actively utilized.As promising blast-furnaces,top gas recovery blast furnace(TGR-BF) and oxygen blast furnace have been investigated.In this paper,conceptual TGR blast furnace and oxygen blast furnace are proposed.Base on the idea of blast furnace gas de-CO2 circulating as reducing agent and the idea of pure oxygen blast decreasing the thermal reserve zone temperature,process modeling is conducted with ASPEN Plus.It is shown that the developed model reasonably describes the energy balance and mass balance feature of the furnace,and provides basic thermodynamic condition for furnaces.The effects of changes in different operation conditions are studied by sensitivity analysis and reference data from simulation.

  6. Evolution of blast wave profiles in simulated air blasts: experiment and computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, N.; Ganpule, S.; Kleinschmit, N. N.; Feng, R.; Holmberg, A. D.; Sundaramurthy, A.; Selvan, V.; Alai, A.

    2012-09-01

    Shock tubes have been extensively used in the study of blast traumatic brain injury due to increased incidence of blast-induced neurotrauma in Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. One of the important aspects in these studies is how to best replicate the field conditions in the laboratory which relies on reproducing blast wave profiles. Evolution of the blast wave profiles along the length of the compression-driven air shock tube is studied using experiments and numerical simulations with emphasis on the shape and magnitude of pressure time profiles. In order to measure dynamic pressures of the blast, a series of sensors are mounted on a cylindrical specimen normal to the flow direction. Our results indicate that the blast wave loading is significantly different for locations inside and outside of the shock tube. Pressure profiles inside the shock tube follow the Friedlander waveform fairly well. Upon approaching exit of the shock tube, an expansion wave released from the shock tube edges significantly degrades the pressure profiles. For tests outside the shock tube, peak pressure and total impulse reduce drastically as we move away from the exit and majority of loading is in the form of subsonic jet wind. In addition, the planarity of the blast wave degrades as blast wave evolves three dimensionally. Numerical results visually and quantitatively confirm the presence of vortices, jet wind and three-dimensional expansion of the planar blast wave near the exit. Pressure profiles at 90° orientation show flow separation. When cylinder is placed inside, this flow separation is not sustained, but when placed outside the shock tube this flow separation is sustained which causes tensile loading on the sides of the cylinder. Friedlander waves formed due to field explosives in the intermediate-to far-field ranges are replicated in a narrow test region located deep inside the shock tube.

  7. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  8. Blasting practices in a quarry with karstic cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The blasting practices in a limestone quarry with karstic cavities have been presented. The existence of karstic cavities in the quarry has reduced blasting efficiency significantly. In order to improve blasting efficiency different blasting strategies (loading holes with ANFO in plastic bag, recording cavity location along the holes and charging the holes according to this information, and modifying blasting pattern according to karstic cavities) had been implemented and the results were evaluated on per ton cost basis. It was concluded that efficient blasting in such aquarries requires determining the size and shape of karstic cavities and based on this information, to modify the blast pattern and charge the holes. The suggested method is to record the cavity along the drill hole and to generate 3D model of cavities. By doing this, the production cost in the limestone quarry has decreased from 0.407 $/t to 0.354 $/t.

  9. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury: a new trend of blast injury research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhao; Zheng-Guo Wang

    2015-01-01

    Blast injury has become the major life-and function-threatening injuries in recent warfares.There is increased research interest in the mental disorders caused by blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI),which has been proved as one of the "signature wounds" in modern battlefield.We reviewed the recent progresses in bTBl-related researches and concluded that the new era of blast injury research has shifted from the traditional physical impairments to cognitive dysfunctional/mental disorders that are proved to be more related to the outcome of combat casualty care.

  10. Neuropsychological outcome from blast versus non-blast: mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Pancholi, Sonal; Brickell, Tracey A; Sakura, Sara; Bhagwat, Aditya; Merritt, Victoria; French, Louis M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the neuropsychological outcome from blast-related versus non-blast related mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Participants were 56 U.S. military service members who sustained an MTBI, divided into two groups based on mechanism of injury: (a) non-blast related (Non-blast; n = 21), and (b) blast plus secondary blunt trauma (Blast Plus; n = 35). All participants had sustained their injury in theatre whilst deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom. Patients had been seen for neuropsychological evaluation at Walter Reed Army Medical Center on average 4.4 months (SD = 4.1) post-injury. Measures included 14 clinical scales from the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and 12 common neurocognitive measures. For the PAI, there were no significant differences between groups on all scales (p > .05). However, medium effect sizes were found for the Depression (d = .49) and Stress (d = .47) scales (i.e., Blast Plus > Non-blast). On the neurocognitive measures, after controlling for the influence of psychological distress (i.e., Depression, Stress), there were no differences between the Non-blast and Blast Plus groups on all measures. These findings provide little evidence to suggest that blast exposure plus secondary blunt trauma results in worse cognitive or psychological recovery than blunt trauma alone. (JINS, 2012, 18, 595-605).

  11. Analysis of the blasting effect on the electric shove loading efficiency of the open pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Tian-guang; SUN Ying

    2008-01-01

    The connection between blasting cost and comprehensive cost is the main concern. Some blasting effect factors (such as unit explosive consumption, uniformity of blockness, shape and porosity of blasting heap), which had an influence on electric shove loading efficiency, were analyzed. In the end a project to properly increase in blasting cost to decrease the comprehensive cost was put forward. At the same time, the hole-by-hole blasting is effective technology to improve blasting effect.

  12. Blast Diffusion by Different Shapes of Domes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Ranjan Sahu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Domes have been used since ancient times in constructions. These are effective structures in supporting loads for large span. Dome has an added advantage of having good looking in structural applications. Many shapes of domes are being used nowadays for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes. Specific purpose domes are also used for nuclear containment. Main threats to structures are from the bomb blast. Hence, domes too are to be designed to withstand effectively the pressure energy generated by the blast. A comparative theoretical study is proposed on the different shapes of domes having same weight and thickness. Various responses are estimated through numerical method after simulating blast and comparing their intensities.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.77-82, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.6908

  13. Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube: Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Annual, Year 2 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Blast-Induced Acceleration in a Shock Tube : Distinguishing Primary and Tertiary 5a...Using a highly characterized shock tube simulation of blast, rats will be exposed to BOP with varied peak amplitudes and impulse in association...understanding of the relation of the former to the latter. As the use of shock tubes has greatly expanded in recent years for biomedical research

  14. Improved blasting results with precise initiation:Numerical simulation of sublevel caving blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Changping

    2013-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of rock blasting using LS-DYNA software havebeen conducted to investigate the effect of short delay time on the fragmentation inunderground mines. The purpose was to test the hypothesis proposed by Rossmaniththat stress wave interaction could result in finer fragmentation by controlling theinitiation times. The blasted rock was simulated with RHT material model. After thecalculation, the elements with damage level above 0.6 were removed to simulate thefractur...

  15. Mathematical model and software for control of commissioning blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Onorin, O. P.; Shchipanov, K. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Blowing-in is a starting period of blast furnace operation after construction or major repair. The current approximation methods of blowing-in burden analysis are based on blowing-in practice of previously commissioned blast furnaces. This area is theoretically underexplored; there are no common scientifically based methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters. The purpose of this paper is development and scientific substantiation of the methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters in the blast furnace during the blowing-in period. Research methods are based on physical regularities of main processes running in the blast furnace, system analysis, and application of modern principles for development and construction of mathematical models, algorithms and software designed for automated control of complex production processes in metallurgy. As consequence of the research made by the authors the following results have been achieved: 1. A set of mathematical models for analysis of burden arrangement throughout the height of the blast furnace and for selection of optimal blast and gas dynamic parameters has been developed. 2. General principles for selection of the blowing-in burden composition and blast and gas dynamic parameters have been set up. 3. The software for the engineering and process staff of the blast furnace has been developed and introduced in the industry.

  16. Distinguishing Realistic Military Blasts from Firecrackers in Mitigation Studies of Blast Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2011-01-21

    In their Contributed Article, Nyein et al. (1,2) present numerical simulations of blast waves interacting with a helmeted head and conclude that a face shield may significantly mitigate blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). A face shield may indeed be important for future military helmets, but the authors derive their conclusions from a much smaller explosion than typically experienced on the battlefield. The blast from the 3.16 gm TNT charge of (1) has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 10 atm, 0.25 ms, and 3.9 psi-ms at the front of the head (14 cm from charge), and 1.4 atm, 0.32 ms, and 1.7 psi-ms at the back of a typical 20 cm head (34 cm from charge). The peak pressure of the wave decreases by a factor of 7 as it traverses the head. The blast conditions are at the threshold for injury at the front of the head, but well below threshold at the back of the head (4). The blast traverses the head in 0.3 ms, roughly equal to the positive phase duration of the blast. Therefore, when the blast reaches the back of the head, near ambient conditions exist at the front. Because the headform is so close to the charge, it experiences a wave with significant curvature. By contrast, a realistic blast from a 2.2 kg TNT charge ({approx} an uncased 105 mm artillery round) is fatal at an overpressure of 10 atm (4). For an injury level (4) similar to (1), a 2.2 kg charge has the following approximate peak overpressures, positive phase durations, and incident impulses (3): 2.1 atm, 2.3 ms, and 18 psi-ms at the front of the head (250 cm from charge), and 1.8 atm, 2.5 ms, and 16.8 psi-ms at the back of the head (270 cm from charge). The peak pressure decreases by only a factor of 1.2 as it traverses the head. Because the 0.36 ms traversal time is much smaller than the positive phase duration, pressures on the head become relatively uniform when the blast reaches the back of the head. The larger standoff implies

  17. Modelling the Source of Blasting for the Numerical Simulation of Blast-Induced Ground Vibrations: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainalis, Daniel; Kaufmann, Olivier; Tshibangu, Jean-Pierre; Verlinden, Olivier; Kouroussis, Georges

    2017-01-01

    The mining and construction industries have long been faced with considerable attention and criticism in regard to the effects of blasting. The generation of ground vibrations is one of the most significant factors associated with blasting and is becoming increasingly important as mining sites are now regularly located near urban areas. This is of concern to not only the operators of the mine but also residents. Mining sites are subjected to an inevitable compromise: a production blast is designed to fragment the utmost amount of rock possible; however, any increase in the blast can generate ground vibrations which can propagate great distances and cause structural damage or discomfort to residents in surrounding urban areas. To accurately predict the propagation of ground vibrations near these sensitive areas, the blasting process and surrounding environment must be characterised and understood. As an initial step, an accurate model of the source of blast-induced vibrations is required. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the approaches to model the blasting source in order to critically evaluate developments in the field. An overview of the blasting process and description of the various factors which influence the blast performance and subsequent ground vibrations are also presented. Several approaches to analytically model explosives are discussed. Ground vibration prediction methods focused on seed waveform and charge weight scaling techniques are presented. Finally, numerical simulations of the blasting source are discussed, including methods to estimate blasthole wall pressure time-history, and hydrodynamic codes.

  18. Experimental study of blast mitigating devices based on combined construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, K.; Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    A robust blast inhibiting bin is the most often used device for damage blast effects suppression. In particular, a top open cylindrical bin significantly reduces a fragmentation effect resulted from a detonation of an explosive device placed inside the bin. However, reduction of blast wave overpressure and impulse by such cylindrical bins is not sufficient [1]. A reasonable alternative to endless increase of height and thickness of robust blast inhibiting bins is a development of destructible inhibitors having no solid elements in their structure and, therefore, excluding secondary fragmentation. So, the family of "Fountain" inhibitors [2,3] localizes and suppresses damaging blast effects due to multiphase working system. The present study is analyzing data obtained in testing of prototypes of new combined inhibitors. Their structure combines robust elements (bottoms, side surfaces) with elements responsible for blast loads reduction due to multi-phase working system (top and low transverse embeddings) and fairings impeding wave propagation in undesirable directions.

  19. Device for Underwater Laboratory Simulation of Unconfined Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shock tubes simulate blast waves to study their effects in air under laboratory conditions; however, few experimental models exist for simulating underwater blast waves that are needed for facilitating experiments in underwater blast transmission, determining injury thresholds in marine animals, validating numerical models, and exploring mitigation strategies for explosive well removals. This method incorporates an oxy-acetylene driven underwater blast simulator which creates peak blast pressures of about 1860 kPa. Shot-to-shot consistency was fair, with an average standard deviation near 150 kPa. Results suggest peak blast pressures from 460 kPa to 1860 kPa are available by adjusting the distance from the source.

  20. An experimental investigation of blast driven turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, Benjamin; Ranjan, Devesh

    2016-11-01

    In the Georgia Tech Shock and Advanced Mixing Lab, a facility is being built to study blast driven turbulence. Motivated by the discrepancies observed between actual and modeled supernovae, this facility aims to resolve the important spatial scales in the extensive mixing of the outer layers. These outer layers will be modeled by subjecting two-three gases of varying density to a blast wave generated by Exploding Bridge Wires. The blast wave's interaction with perturbations at the gaseous, membrane-less, interfaces will induce the Richtmeyer-Meshkov or Rayleigh Taylor Instability, depending on the acceleration history and perturbation amplitude. Through the use of simultaneous Particle Image Velocimetry, and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence, this project aims to determine the effect of interface initial conditions on turbulence. A 2D Diverging Wedge and 3D Diverging Conical Tube are being built to enable repeatable blast-wave production, continuous optical viewing of the flow, reproducible multi-layer interface creation, and the collection of simultaneous density-velocity measurements to directly measure turbulent quantities. The preliminary analysis informing the design of this facility, the construction progress, and updates on newly realized design constraints are presented.

  1. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  2. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast

  3. Media selection for micro blasting medical parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, T

    2008-10-01

    Micro blasting is used in a range of applications including catheter, stent and pacemaker manufacturing. The correct media to use for the required surface is defined here together with some of the finer points of the process to ensure successful results.

  4. The radiological management of bomb blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, S S; Goddard, I; Ward, P; Naraghi, A; Dick, E A

    2007-01-01

    A need to understand the nature and patterns of bomb blast injury, particularly in confined spaces, has come to the fore with the current worldwide threat from terrorism. The purpose of this review article is to familiarize the radiologist with the imaging they might expect to see in a mass casualty terrorist event, illustrated by examples from two of the main institutions receiving patients from the London Underground tube blasts of 7 July 2005. We present examples of injuries that are typical in blast victims, as well as highlighting some blast sequelae that might also be found in other causes of multiple trauma. This should enable the radiologist to seek out typical injuries, including those that may not be initially clinically apparent. Terror-related injuries are often more severe than those seen in other trauma cases, and multi-system trauma at distant anatomical sites should be anticipated. We highlight the value of using a standardized imaging protocol to find clinically undetected traumatic effects and include a discussion on management of multiple human and non-human flying fragments. This review also discusses the role of radiology in the management and planning for a mass casualty terrorist incident and the optimal deployment of radiographic services during such an event.

  5. Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercx, W.P.M.; Berg, A.C. van den; Hayhurst, C.J.; Robertson, N.J.; Moran, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    TNT Equivalency methods are widely used for vapour cloud explosion blast modeling. Presently, however, other types of models are available which do not have the fundamental objections TNT Equivalency models have. TNO Multi-Energy method is increasingly accepted as a more reasonable alternative to be

  6. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  7. Development of heat-transfer circuits in the blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Yaroshenko, Yu G.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The development of heat-transfer circuits in the blast furnace as the technologies of blast-furnace smelting are improved are considered. It is shown that there are two zones of intense heat-transfer, and in modern conditions, when different kinds of iron ore are smelted, the use of combined blast with high parameters is a prerequisite for the stability of blastfurnace smelting operation and the smelting efficiency.

  8. Practical aspects of drilling and blasting in NCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, T.; Rai, V.K.; Choubey, S.N. [ICI India Limited (India)

    2000-05-01

    Drilling and blasting play a vital role in mining of Northern Coalfields Ltd.'s large opencast mines in India. The article deals with the practical aspects of drilling and blasting and discusses the company's strategy adopted in different projects to ensure accurate, safe and efficient drilling to achieve good blast for high productivity of excavating equipment. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Assessment of Blasting Operations Effects During Highway Tunnel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blasting operations are one of the fundamental parts of daily civil engineering. Drilling and blasting still remain the only possible ways of tunnelling in very adverse geological conditions. However, this method is a source of various disadvantages, the main one being tremors propagating through the geological environment which not only affect buildings, but also disturb the comfort of living in the vicinity of the source. Designing this procedure is mostly done using standardized empirical relations. This article shows the possibility of using a FEM technique in predicting blast effects. This approach is demonstrated in a simple case study on the impact of blasting operations on steel pipes.

  10. Design and Analysis of Single Plate Blast Resistant Door

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh S. Aitavade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blast Resistant Doors are used to withstand high intensity impulsive blast loads. They are designed to prevent the impact of the blast from travelling from one side to the other side of the door. Taking into account the limitations and the growing need of efficient blast resistant doors, a design was developed using ASTM A36 as the material of construction instead of concrete. Analytical calculations for the actual pressure-impulse loading condition were done as per the UFC 3-340-02, and the results of analytical calculations were compared with results of the simulation of the numerical model for the given boundary conditions.

  11. Study on orientation fracture blasting with shaped charge in rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the theories of mechanics of explosive and rock fracture mechanics, the mechanism of crack initiation and its expansion of directional fracture controlled blasting with shaped charges in rock were studied, then the blasting parameters were designed and tested by a model test in laboratory and field experiment. The experimental and test results showed that the energy from blasting is directionally concentrated for the cumulative action. The directional expansion of cracks is satisfactory, the results of the model test and field test suggested that the orientation fracture blasting with shaped charge is a good means of excavating tunnels or cutting rock.

  12. Mechanisms of hearing loss after blast injury to the ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Given the frequent use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs around the world, the study of traumatic blast injuries is of increasing interest. The ear is the most common organ affected by blast injury because it is the body's most sensitive pressure transducer. We fabricated a blast chamber to re-create blast profiles similar to that of IEDs and used it to develop a reproducible mouse model to study blast-induced hearing loss. The tympanic membrane was perforated in all mice after blast exposure and found to heal spontaneously. Micro-computed tomography demonstrated no evidence for middle ear or otic capsule injuries; however, the healed tympanic membrane was thickened. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission threshold shifts were found to be correlated with blast intensity. As well, these threshold shifts were larger than those found in control mice that underwent surgical perforation of their tympanic membranes, indicating cochlear trauma. Histological studies one week and three months after the blast demonstrated no disruption or damage to the intra-cochlear membranes. However, there was loss of outer hair cells (OHCs within the basal turn of the cochlea and decreased spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs and afferent nerve synapses. Using our mouse model that recapitulates human IED exposure, our results identify that the mechanisms underlying blast-induced hearing loss does not include gross membranous rupture as is commonly believed. Instead, there is both OHC and SGN loss that produce auditory dysfunction.

  13. 30 CFR 817.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 817.11. The operator...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22601 - Blasting from the surface (I-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (I-A mines). 57.22601... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22601 Blasting from the surface (I-A mines... blast area and through at least one atmospheric monitoring sensor. (b) After blasting, if the...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of blasting circuits from power... NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6404 Separation of blasting circuits from power source. (a) Switches used to connect the power source to a blasting circuit shall...

  16. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of blasting circuits from power... MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6404 Separation of blasting circuits from power source. (a) Switches used to connect the power source to a blasting circuit shall be locked in the open position...

  18. 77 FR 58173 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Explosive Materials and Blasting Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Materials and Blasting Units (Pertains to Metal and Nonmetal Underground Mines Deemed To Be Gassy AGENCY... materials and blasting units as permissible for use in the mining industry. However, since there are no permissible explosives or blasting units available that have adequate blasting capacity for some metal...

  19. 30 CFR 816.66 - Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings... STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.66 Use of explosives: Blasting signs, warnings, and access control. (a) Blasting signs. Blasting signs shall meet the specifications of § 816.11. The operator shall—...

  20. Mitigation of blast loadings on structures by an anti-blast plastic water wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 陈力; 方秦; 张亚栋

    2016-01-01

    Seven in-situ tests were carried out in far field to study the blast mitigation effect of a kind of water filled plastic wall. Test results show that the mitigation effect of water filled plastic wall is remarkable. The maximum reduction of peak reflected overpressure reaches up to 94.53%, as well as 36.3% of the minimum peak reflected overpressure reduction in the scaled distance ranging from 1.71 m/kg1/3 to 3.42 m/kg1/3. Parametric studies were also carried out. The effects of the scaled gauge height, water/charge scaled distance (the distance between the explosive charge and the water wall), water wall scaled height and water/structure scaled distance (the distance between the water wall and the structure) were systematically investigated and compared with the usual rigid anti-blast wall. It is concluded that these parameters affect the mitigation effects of plastic water wall on blast loadings significantly, which is basically consistent to the trend of usual rigid anti-blast wall. Some formulae are also derived based on the numerical and test results, providing a simple but reliable prediction model to evaluate the peak overpressure of mitigated blast loadings on the structures.

  1. Electro- or Turbo-Driven?—Analysis of Different Blast Processes of Blast Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a dispute about the energy efficiency and energy cost of electro-driven and turbo-driven blast furnace (BF blast processes. In order to find where the problem lies, energy efficiency analysis models and energy cost analysis models of electro-driven and turbo-driven blast processes were established, and the differences between the two driving processes in terms of theoretical minimum steam consumption, energy efficiency and energy cost were studied. The results showed that the theoretical minimum steam consumption of a blast process depends on steam thermodynamic properties and is unrelated to drive mode and drive process. A certain overlapped interval between electro-driven and turbo-driven blast processes in terms of energy efficiency exists. The equation for calculating the standard coal coefficient of steam was proposed, and the relationship to judge strengths and weaknesses of the two driving modes in terms of energy efficiency and energy cost was established. Finally, two companies were selected for case study research. The results led to different conclusions because of the differences between energy media in terms of standard coal coefficient and unit price. To select the best driving mode, plant-running conditions and energy prices of the region of operation in addition to other relevant factors should all be taken into account.

  2. Simulation of blast-induced, early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Paul Allen; Ford, Corey C. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-01

    U.S. soldiers are surviving blast and impacts due to effective body armor, trauma evacuation and care. Blast injuries are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel returning from combat. Understanding of Primary Blast Injury may be needed to develop better means of blast mitigation strategies. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of blast direction and strength on the resulting mechanical stress and wave energy distributions generated in the brain.

  3. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration which brings certain guiding significance to the following construction project.

  4. Blast event simulation for a vehicle subjected to an explosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, G.; Vlahopoulos, N.; Goetz, R.; Velde, R. van de

    2007-01-01

    One of the main threats to military vehicles originates from blasts. In order to improve the survivability of the occupants it is important to design a military vehicle for increased occupant safety. Simulation technology that combines modeling of the blast loads from an explosion, the response of t

  5. New technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUPeiliang

    1994-01-01

    After 8 yrs lab experiments and field tests, an advanced technique for identifying varieties resistance to rice blast was developed by a research group in Plant Protection Institute, Zhejiang Academy of AgricuLltural Sciences. With this technique, the inoculum was prepared on a maizc-rice-straw-agar media which was suitable for sporulation of most rice blast pathogen isolates.

  6. Reduction Mechanism of Chromite Ore in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-wei; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang; XU Kuang-di

    2004-01-01

    The structural changes and reduction degree of chromite ore in blast furnace were studied by optical micrograph analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The smelting reduction mechanism of chromite in blast furnace was primarily discussed.

  7. Preliminary blasting as a means of constructing the final slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Jimeno, E.; Lopez Jimeno, C. (Lignitos de Meirama, La Coruna (Spain))

    1983-01-01

    In order to undertake construction of a new belt at the Meirama opencast lignite workings in the Province of Coruna it has been necessary partially to re-site the slope of the general haulage drift. Preliminary blasting was thought to be the most suitable method of blasting in order to maintain slope stability of the rock mass. (17 refs.)

  8. The composition of the products from flameless blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikunov, V.I.; Chikunova, G.V.; Domanov, V.P.; Nezyrova, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    Results are given from research on the composition of the products resulting from Hydrox coal blasting together with a mechanism for the conversion of the components during the reaction process. Methods for decreasing the quantity of toxic gases during blasting in the stopes of coal mines that have dangerous gas and dust levels are recommended.

  9. Dry ice blasting for the conservation cleaning of metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Molen; I. Joosten; T. Beentjes; L. Megens

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to assess the feasibility of dry ice blasting as a replacement for solvent cleaning for the removal of organic layers from metal cultural heritage objects. The effects of dry ice blasting on test samples of aluminium, bronze and weathering steel were studied along with

  10. Methodology of Testing Shot Blasting Machines in Industrial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Shot blasting machines are widely used for automated surface treatment and finishing of castings. In shot blasting processes the stream of shots is generated and shaped by blasting turbines, making up a kinetic and dynamic system comprising a separating rotor, an adapting sleeve and a propelling rotor provided with blades. The shot blasting performance- i.e. the quality of shot treated surfaces depends on the actual design and operational parameters of the unit whilst the values of relevant parameters are associated with the geometry of turbine components and the level of its integration with the separator system. The circulation of the blasting medium becomes the integrating factor of the process line, starting from the hopper, through the propeller turbine, casting treatment, separation of contaminated abrasive mixture, to its recycling and reuse.Inferior quality of the abrasive agent (shot and insufficient purity of the abrasive mixture are responsible for low effectiveness of shot blasting. However, most practitioners fail to fully recognise the importance of proper diagnostics of the shot blasting process in industrial conditions. The wearing of major machine components and of the blasting agent and quality of shot treated surfaces are often misinterpreted, hence the need to take into account all factors involved in the process within the frame of a comprehensive methodology.This paper is an attempt to formulate and apply the available testing methods to the engineering practice in industrial conditions.

  11. Structural Analysis Of Offshore Structures Exposed To Blast Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Jakup; Thygesen, Ulf; Kristensen, Anders;

    2002-01-01

    Numerical methods for simulations of blast loads and resulting structural response are investigated and compared to results obtained from tests. The CFD code EXSIM is used for the simulation of the blast load. This code provides a load profile wich is entered in the FEM analysis model....

  12. Dry ice blasting for the conservation cleaning of metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, R.; Joosten, I.; Beentjes, T.; Megens, L.; Mardikian, P.; Chemello, C.; Watters, C.; Hull, P.

    2011-01-01

    This research was carried out to assess the feasibility of dry ice blasting as a replacement for solvent cleaning for the removal of organic layers from metal cultural heritage objects. The effects of dry ice blasting on test samples of aluminium, bronze and weathering steel were studied along with

  13. Thermodynamic modeling of lead blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Peng-fu

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict the distribution behavior of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,and the heat balance in a lead blast furnace.The modeling results are validated by the plant data of a lead smelter in Kazakhstan.The model can be used to predict any set of controllable process parameters such as feed composition,smelting temperature,degree of oxygen enrichment and volume of oxygen-enriched air.The effects of the blast air,industrial oxygen,and coke charge on the distribution of Cu,Fe,S,O,Pb,Zn,As,the heat balance,and the lead loss in slag,were presented and discussed.

  14. Histologic and biomechanical evaluation of alumina-blasted/acid-etched and resorbable blasting media surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Estevam A; Marin, Charles; Granato, Rodrigo; Suzuki, Marcelo; Hjerppe, Jenni; Witek, Lukasz; Coelho, Paulo G

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the early biomechanical fixation and bone-to-implant contact (BIC) of an alumina-blasted/acid-etched (AB/AE) compared with an experimental resorbable blasting media (RBM) surface in a canine model. Higher texturization was observed for the RBM than for the AB/AE surface, and the presence of calcium and phosphorus was only observed for the RBM surface. Time in vivo and implant surface did not influence torque. For both surfaces, BIC significantly increased from 2 to 4 weeks.

  15. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    al (2012) conducted porcine blast experiments in a compressed gas shock tube, and found that the ICP was lower than the reflected pressure and also...was recently shown that TGF beta from immature astrocytes could initiate synaptic elimination in postnatal thalamus by regulating the expression of...Stevens B. TGF-beta signaling regulates neuronal C1q expression and developmental synaptic refinement. Nat Neurosci. Dec 2013;16(12):1773- 1782. 38 22

  16. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer.

  17. Seamounts, Direct Blast and Volume Reverberation Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-30

    Highway. Suits 1204. Arlington, VA 22202-4302. "n to the Office of Management and Budget. Peperworik Reduction Project (0704-0188). Washington. DC 2050M. 1...Subtitle. 5. Funding Numbers. Seamounts, Direct Blast And Volume Reverberation Upgrades proram Eemen No 3 7 85N Project No R02017 6. Author(s). L...Section Pae 1 INTRODUCTION ................................. 1-1 2 ASERT: DATA PREPARATION FOR ASTRAL ........... 2-1 2.1 Overview and Purpose of

  18. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.  Created: 11/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 11/6/2008.

  19. Response Mechanism: Blast/Fire Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    present research. The problem of blast interaction with fire was studied theoretically by Fendell at TRW [6) and experimentally by Martin, Backovsky and...Editors, SRI International Report for DCPA, Contract No. DCPA01-78-C-0279, Work Unit 2563F (September 1979). 6. Carrier, G., Fendell , F., Feldman P...Engineering University of California Gainesville, FL 32601 P.O. Box 808, L-140 Livermore, CA 94550 Dr. Francis E. Fendell R1/1038 Mr. Edward L. Hill TRW

  20. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    curvature changes. Figure 38. Locations with element disconnect issues 2. Modeling air blast wave propagation using a 2-D to 3-D mapping...sagittal sinus, transverse sinus, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), hemispheres of the cerebrum with distinct white and gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem...brain and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) were meshed and defined with Lagrangian formulation-based elements. The CSF fills the subarachnoid space

  1. Structural Optimization for Blast Mitigation Using HCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    UNCLASSIFIED
 Structural Optimization for Blast Mitigation Using HCA University of Notre Dame John Goetz, Huade Tan, Andrés Tovar , John Renaud...John Goetz; Huande Tan; Andres Tovar ; John Renaud 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...Overview: Algorithm •  A continuum-based topology optimization –  First utilized for bone remodeling ( Tovar ’04) –  Extend bone remodeling technique for

  2. Note: A table-top blast driven shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Michael W; Courtney, Amy C

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer that explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

  3. A Table-top Blast Driven Shock Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; 10.1063/1.3518970

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury in conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has motivated laboratory scale experiments on biomedical effects of blast waves and studies of blast wave transmission properties of various materials in hopes of improving armor design to mitigate these injuries. This paper describes the design and performance of a table-top shock tube that is more convenient and widely accessible than traditional compression driven and blast driven shock tubes. The design is simple: it is an explosive driven shock tube employing a rifle primer which explodes when impacted by the firing pin. The firearm barrel acts as the shock tube, and the shock wave emerges from the muzzle. The small size of this shock tube can facilitate localized application of a blast wave to a subject, tissue, or material under test.

  4. Influence of maximum decking charge on intensity of blasting vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the character of short-time non-stationary random signal, the relationship between the maximum decking charge and energy distribution of blasting vibration signals was investigated by means of the wavelet packet method. Firstly, the characteristics of wavelet transform and wavelet packet analysis were described. Secondly, the blasting vibration signals were analyzed by wavelet packet based on software MATLAB, and the change of energy distribution curve at different frequency bands were obtained. Finally, the law of energy distribution of blasting vibration signals changing with the maximum decking charge was analyzed. The results show that with the increase of decking charge, the ratio of the energy of high frequency to total energy decreases, the dominant frequency bands of blasting vibration signals tend towards low frequency and blasting vibration does not depend on the maximum decking charge.

  5. Study of blasting vibrations in Sarcheshmeh copper mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ground vibration is one of the side effects of blasting, in which way considerable amount of explosive energy is exhausted, and causes decrease in production and even decline in mine development workings. In this study, 57 recorded 3-C seismograms from 11 blasts in Sarcheshmeh copper mine, Kerman, Iran, are processed and analyzed. These data were recorded by digital seismograph PDAS-100 and analyzed by DADISP software. Finally, blasting parameters, such as explosive weight and type, distance between the structures and blasting site, blasting delays, affecting ground vibration are reviewed and their influence on peak particle velocity (PPV) are studied. Based on this study, suitable detonation delays and explosive type is determined. Considering these data, a graph of PPV versus scaled distance for Sarcheshmeh copper mine is prepared, by the help of which, safe distance for structures and accordingly explosive quantity could be determined.

  6. The past and present of blast injury research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zhao; Yuan-Guo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing incidence of blast injury,the research on its mechanisms and protective measures draws more and more attention.Blast injury has many characteristics different from general war injuries or trauma.For example,soldiers often have various degrees of visceral injury without significant surface damage,combined injuries and arterial air embolism.Researchers in China began to investigate blast injury later than the United States and Sweden,but the development is so fast that lots of achievements have been gained,including the development of biological shock tube,the mechanisms and characteristics of blast injury in various organs,as well as protective measures under special environments.This article reviews the past and current situation of blast injury research in China.

  7. High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast pressure of 8.2-25.0%. 3) Combined with smaller blast waves, these large variations in peak blast pressure of DDNP-based primers led to delayed ignition and failure to fire in brief field tests.

  8. Numerical Calculation of Concrete Slab Response to Blast Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiaoqing; HAO Hong; KUZNETSOV Valerian A; WASCHL John

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper,a dynamic plastic damage model for concrete has been employed to estimate responses of a reinforced concrete slab subjected to blast loading.The interaction between the blast wave and the concrete slab is considered in 3D simulation.In the first stage,the initial detonation and blast wave propagation is modelled in 2D simulation before the blast wave reaches the concrete slab,then the results obtained from 2D calculation are remapped to a 3D model.The calculated blast load is compared with that obtained from TM5-1300.Numerical results of the concrete slab response are compared with the explosive test carried out in the Weapons System Division,Defence Science and Technology Organisation,Department of Defence,Australia.

  9. Air-Decking Technique in Bench Blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-bing; LU Wen-bo; WU Liang

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism and the design parameters of blasting with air-decking are studied. The theory of detonation waves is used to investigate the processes of the one-dimensional plane detonation wave within a borehole. The interaction of the rarefaction wave with an interface and reflection on a rigid wall is also analyzed. The same courses of the shock wave are also investigated. This decides the distribution of the pressure of the explosion products changing with time along the borehole. Based on the above theoretical analysis, two conditions should be met for a reasonable range of values of the air-decking ratio in blasting rock. First, the rarefaction wave from the contact interface between detonation products and air reaches the bottom earlier than that of the reflected shock wave from the end of the stemming. Second,the reflected shock wave reaches the contact interface between the detonation products and air earlier than that of the reflected rarefaction wave from the bottom of the borehole. Finally, the reasonable value of the air-decking ratio must be decided theoretically in air-decking blasting. For different explosives, the reasonable range of air-decking ratio varies from 0.15 to 0.4. This result is well consistent with what was obtained by previous researchers.

  10. D-BLAST OFDM with Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jianxuan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO systems formed by multiple transmit and receive antennas can improve performance and increase capacity of wireless communication systems. Diagonal Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (D-BLAST structure offers a low-complexity solution for realizing the attractive capacity of MIMO systems. However, for broadband wireless communications, channel is frequency-selective and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM has to be used with MIMO techniques to reduce system complexity. In this paper, we investigate D-BLAST for MIMO-OFDM systems. We develop a layerwise channel estimation algorithm which is robust to channel variation by exploiting the characteristic of the D-BLAST structure. Further improvement is made by subspace tracking to considerably reduce the error floor. Simulation results show that the layerwise estimators require 1 dB less signal-to-noise ratio (SNR than the traditional blockwise estimator for a word error rate (WER of when Doppler frequency is 40 Hz. Among the layerwise estimators, the subspace-tracking estimator provides a 0.8 dB gain for WER with 200 Hz Doppler frequency compared with the DFT-based estimator.

  11. BLAST: A balloon-borne, large-aperture, submillimetre telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Donald Victor

    BLAST is a balloon-borne large-aperture, submillimetre telescope, which makes large area (1--200 square degree) surveys of Galactic and extragalactic targets. Since BLAST observes in the stratosphere, it is able to make broad-band observations between 200 mum and 550 mum which are difficult or impossible to perform from the ground. BLAST has been designed to probe star formation both in the local Galaxy and in the high redshift (z = 1--4) universe. Because BLAST is flown on an unmanned stratospheric balloon platform, it has been designed to be able to operate autonomously, without needing operator intervention to perform its scientific goals. This thesis includes an overview of the design of the BLAST platform, with emphasis on the command and control systems used to operate the telescope. BLAST has been flown on two long-duration balloon flights. The first of these, from Esrange, Sweden in June of 2005, acquired ˜70 hours of primarily Galactic data. During the second flight, from Willy Field, Antarctica in December of 2006, BLAST acquired ˜225 hours of both Galactic and extragalactic data. Operational performance of the platform during these two flights is reviewed, with the goal of providing insight on how future flights can be improved. Reduction of the data acquired by these large-format bolometer arrays is a challenging procedure, and techniques developed for BLAST data reduction are reviewed. The ultimate goal of this reduction is the generation of high quality astronomical maps which can be used for subsequent portions of data analysis. This thesis treats, in detail, the iterative, maximum likelihood map maker developed for BLAST. Results of simulations performed on the map maker to characterise its ability to reconstruct astronomical signals are presented. Finally, astronomical maps produced by this map maker using real data acquired by BLAST are presented, with a discussion on non-physical map pathologies resulting from the data reduction pipeline and

  12. A Blast Headform Surrogate for the Assessment of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    Correct fit of headwear , Representative blast diffraction around headform – Biofidelic wrt internal geometry and material selection: Stress transmission...overpressure histories • With and without protective headwear BI2PED – Recent results Introduction Strategy Facilities Iterations BI2PED & results

  13. Features of energy distribution for blast vibration signals based on wavelet packet decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Tong-hua; LI Xi-bing; DAI Ta-gen; PENG Zhen-bin

    2005-01-01

    Blast vibration analysis constitutes the foundation for studying the control of blasting vibration damage and provides the precondition of controlling blasting vibration. Based on the characteristics of short-time nonstationary random signal, the laws of energy distribution are investigated for blasting vibration signals in different blasting conditions by means of the wavelet packet analysis technique. The characteristics of wavelet transform and wavelet packet analysis are introduced. Then, blasting vibration signals of different blasting conditions are analysed by the wavelet packet analysis technique using MATLAB; energy distribution for different frequency bands is obtained. It is concluded that the energy distribution of blasting vibration signals varies with maximum decking charge,millisecond delay time and distances between explosion and the measuring point. The results show that the wavelet packet analysis method is an effective means for studying blasting seismic effect in its entirety, especially for constituting velocity-frequency criteria.

  14. An Energy-Based Safety Evaluation Index of Blast Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsheng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined peak particle velocity (PPV and frequency safety criterion for blast vibration is widely used in blasting engineering. However, some field investigations are inconsistent with this criterion. On the basis of field investigations, it is found that there are two failure modes of structures subjected to blasting seismic waves, that is, first-excursion failure and cumulative plastic damage failure. Moreover, the nature of structural responses under blast vibrations is a process of energy input, transformation, and dissipation. Therefore, an energy-based dual safety standard is proposed in this work to more comprehensively explain all failure modes of structures under blast vibrations. To this end, structures are simplified into elastic-plastic single degree of freedom (SDOF systems with bilinear restoring force models, and energy responses of SDOF systems are then determined using the Newmark-β method. From the energy responses, the maximum instantaneous input energy and hysteretic energy are selected as the basis of the dual safety criterion, because they can reflect first-excursion failure and cumulative plastic damage failure, respectively. Finally, field investigations in a blasting site in Zunyi, Guizhou province, China, are used to prove that compared to the PPV-frequency criterion the proposed energy-based dual safety criterion is more capable of assessing the damage potential of blast vibrations.

  15. Evaluation of blast-induced vibration effects on structures 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Rim; Jeon, Gyu Shick; Lee, Dae Soo; Joo, Kwang Ho; Lee, Woong Keon [Korea Electrotechnology Research Inst., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Ha; Chung, So Keul; Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Hee Soon; Chun, Sun Woo; Park, Yeon Jun; Synn, Joong Ho; Choi, Byung Hee [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Due to the difficulties of obtaining construction site for new plants, following ones are inevitably being built in the site adjacent to existing power plants. Therefore considerable thought has been recently given to the dynamic loading generated by blasting works near the plants to maintain the safety of structures and facilities in power plants. Our own standard for safety level of blast vibration is not prepared yet, and foreign standards have been generally employed without theoretical and experimental verification. Safety-related structures of power plants and facilities have to be protected against the effects of possible hazards due to blast vibration. Earthquakes have been considered a major dynamic design loading as a requirement of plant design, but the effects of blast-induced vibration are not. In order to ensure the safety, rational safe criterion should be established and blast design should be satisfy it, which requires the development of a model for prediction of vibration level through more systematic measurement and analysis. The main objectives of the study are : to provide background data for establishing the rational safe vibration limits, to develop models for prediction of blast vibration level, to establish safe blast design criterion, and to accumulate techniques for field measurements, data acquisition and analysis (author). 80 refs., 347 figs.

  16. Integrating Gene Ontology and Blast to predict gene functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-gang; MO Zhi-hong

    2007-01-01

    A GoBlast system was built to predict gene function by integrating Blast search and Gene Ontology (GO) annotations together. The operation system was based on Debian Linux 3.1, with Apache as the web server and Mysql database as the data storage system. FASTA files with GO annotations were taken as the sequence source for blast alignment, which were formatted by wu-formatdb program. The GoBlast system includes three Bioperl modules in Perl: a data input module, a data process module and a data output module. A GoBlast query starts with an amino acid or nucleotide sequence. It ends with an output in an html page, presenting high scoring gene products which are of a high homology to the queried sequence and listing associated GO terms beside respective gene poducts. A simple click on a GO term leads to the detailed explanation of the specific gene function. This avails gene function prediction by Blast. GoBlast can be a very useful tool for functional genome research and is available for free at http://bioq.org/goblast.

  17. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joel B; Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-01

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  18. Behavior of RCC Structural Members for Blast Analysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. C. M. Deshmukh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available n today’s scenario threat of enemies and terrorist attack is increasing. Therefore consideration of blast load in analysis and design is essential. A bomb explosion within or nearby outside the building can cause catastrophic failure of building. Blast loads have, in the recent past, become important service loads for certain categories of structure. An important task in blast resistance design is to make a realistic prediction of blast pressure. The distance of explosion from the structure is an important datum, governing the magnitude and duration of blast loads. In the present study, the RCC frame was analyzed by using conventional code for gravity loads using moment resisting frame. The blast load was calculated using UFC-340-02 (2008 or IS 4991-1968 for 500 kg and 100 Kg TNT at standoff distance of 10m and 30m from face of column at first floor level. The triangular impulse was applied as nodal time history at all front face joints. The analysis was performed using Computer aided software. The response of structure of will be evaluated under various blast scenarios. The response will be checked for safety of the structure on many parameters like displacement, acceleration and velocity.

  19. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Joel B., E-mail: joel.b.stewart2.civ@mail.mil; Pecora, Collin, E-mail: collin.r.pecora.civ@mail.mil [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  20. Modelling and Testing of Blast Effect On the Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuli, Lucia; Jangl, Štefan; Papán, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    As a blasting agent in the blasting and mining engineering, has been using one of so called new generation of explosives which offer greater flexibility in their range and application, and such explosive is ANFO. It is type of explosive consists of an oxidiser and a fuel (ammonium nitrate and fuel oil). One of such ANFO explosives which are industrially made in Slovakia is POLONIT. The explosive is a mixture of ammonium nitrate, methyl esters of higher fatty acids, vegetable oil and red dye. The paper deals with the analysis of structure subjected to the blast load created by the explosion of POLONIT charge. First part of paper is describing behaviour and characteristic of blast wave generated from the blast (detonation characteristics, physical characteristics, time-history diagram etc.) and the second part presents the behaviour of such loaded structures, because of the analysis of such dynamical loaded structure is required knowing the parameters of blast wave, its effect on structure and the tools for the solution of dynamic analysis. The real field tests of three different weight of charges and two different structures were done. The explosive POLONIT was used together with 25 g of ignition explosive PLNp10. Analytical and numerical model of blast loaded structure is compared with the results obtained from the field tests (is compared with the corresponding experimental accelerations). For the modelling structures were approximated as a one-degree system of freedom (SDOF), where the blast wave was estimated with linear decay and exponential decay using positive and negative phase of blast wave. Numerical solution of the steel beam dynamic response was performed via FEM (Finite Element Method) using standard software Visual FEA.

  1. Portland cement-blast furnace slag blends in oilwell cementing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D.T.; DiLullo, G.; Hibbeler, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    Recent investigations of blast furnace slag cementing technologies. have been expanded to include Portland cement/blast furnace slag blends. Mixtures of Portland cement and blast furnace slag, while having a long history of use in the construction industry, have not been used extensively in oilwell cementing applications. Test results indicate that blending blast furnace slag with Portland cement produces a high quality well cementing material. Presented are the design guidelines and laboratory test data relative to mixtures of blast furnace slag and Portland cements. Case histories delineating the use of blast furnace slag - Portland cement blends infield applications are also included.

  2. Promising blast resistance entries from 20th-23rd IRBN in Hangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUPeiliang; YUANXiaoping; ZHAOXinhua; SHENYing

    1994-01-01

    Evaluation for blast resistances of rice entries of 20th to 23rd International Rice Blast Nursery (IRBN) was conducted at CNRRI during 1990-1993. The resistance to seedling blast (SB)was evaluated in a greenhouse at 3-4 leaf stage with artificial inoculation while resistance to leaf blast (LB) and neck blast (NB) were evaluated in the natural field as instructed by the International Network of Genetic Evaluation for Rice (INGER). Materials with high level of blast resistante and good agronomic traits were selected andre-evaluated in suoceeding years.

  3. Analysis of the blasting effect on the electric shove loading efficiency of the open pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Tian-guang; SUN Ying

    2008-01-01

    The connection between blasting cost and comprehensive cost is the main concern.Some blasting effect factors (such as unit explosive consumption,uniformity of blockness,shape and porosity of blasting heap),which had an influence on electric shove loading efficiency,were analyzed.In the end a project to properly increase in blasting cost to decrease the comprehensive cost was put forward.At the same time,the hole-by-hole blasting is effective technology to improve blasting effect.

  4. Evaluation of copper slag blast media for railcar maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagers, N. W.; Finlayson, Mack H.

    1989-06-01

    Copper slag was tested as a blasting substitute for zirconium silicate which is used to remove paint from railroad cars. The copper slag tested is less costly, strips paint faster, is produced near the point of need, provides a good bonding surface for paint, and permits the operator to work in a more comfortable position, i.e., standing nearly erect instead of having to crouch. Outdoor blasting with the tested Blackhawk (20 to 40 mesh) copper slag is also environmentally acceptable to the State of Utah. Results of tests for the surface erosion rate with copper slag blasting are included.

  5. Evaluation of copper slag blast media for railcar maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagers, N. W.; Finlayson, Mack H.

    1989-01-01

    Copper slag was tested as a blasting substitute for zirconium silicate which is used to remove paint from railroad cars. The copper slag tested is less costly, strips paint faster, is produced near the point of need, provides a good bonding surface for paint, and permits the operator to work in a more comfortable position, i.e., standing nearly erect instead of having to crouch. Outdoor blasting with the tested Blackhawk (20 to 40 mesh) copper slag is also environmentally acceptable to the State of Utah. Results of tests for the surface erosion rate with copper slag blasting are included.

  6. Computation of Blast Pressures foam Propellant for Compaction of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Agarwal

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of blast pressure characteristics is a pre-requisite for a suitable application of foam propellant to emergency military construction such as compacting of the soil from an aircraft using the foam propellant. The foam propellant considered here is a combination of hydrazine and ammonium perchlorate. The blast pressure is found to be a function of the quantity of foam propellant used and the distance of the observation point. This paper attempts to compute the blast pressure versus time characteristics of a foam propellant strip.

  7. Hybrid S2/Carbon Epoxy Composite Armours Under Blast Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, F.; Meo, Michele; Wright, A.; French, M.; Bernabei, M.

    2012-06-01

    Civil and military structures, such as helicopters, aircrafts, naval ships, tanks or buildings are susceptible to blast loads as terroristic attacks increases, therefore there is the need to design blast resistant structures. During an explosion the peak pressure produced by shock wave is much greater than the static collapse pressure. Metallic structures usually undergo large plastic deformations absorbing blast energy before reaching equilibrium. Due to their high specific properties, fibre-reinforced polymers are being considered for energy absorption applications in blast resistant armours. A deep insight into the relationship between explosion loads, composite architecture and deformation/fracture behaviour will offer the possibility to design structures with significantly enhanced energy absorption and blast resistance performance. This study presents the results of a numerical investigation aimed at understanding the performance of a hybrid composite (glass/carbon fibre) plate subjected to blast loads using commercial LS-DYNA software. In particular, the paper deals with numerical 3D simulations of damages caused by air blast waves generated by C4 charges on two fully clamped rectangular plates made of steel and hybrid (S2/Carbon) composite, respectively. A Multi Materials Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (MMALE) formulation was used to simulate the shock phenomenon. For the steel plates, the Johnson-Cook material model was employed. For the composite plates both in-plane and out-of-plane failure criteria were employed. In particular, a contact tiebreak formulation with a mixed mode failure criteria was employed to simulate delamination failure. As for the steel plates the results showed that excellent correlation with the experimental data for the two blast load conditions in terms of dynamic and residual deflection for two different C4 charges. For the composite plates the numerical results showed that, as expected, a wider delamination damage was observed

  8. Evaluation and Genetic Analysis of Five Parental Varieties Resistant to Rice Blast Pathogen in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhong-chen; Liu Hong-liang; Gao Hong-xiu; Liu Hai-ying; Jin Zheng-xun

    2012-01-01

    Five F2 segregation populations, derived from crosses between the susceptible japonica cultivars (cvs.) Kongyul31 and donor cvs. Aichi Asahi (AA), BL1, Digu, Pai-kan-tao (PKT) and Oryzica Llanos 5 (ORL5), were used to evaluate their natural resistance to blast in cold region. The field test of their blast resistance was conducted in 858 Farm, which showed that Aichi Asahi, BL 1 and Digu were highly resistant to either leaf blast or neck blast and could be used to develop molecular breeding by design, and genetic analysis indicated that the field resistance of Aichi Asahi, BLland Digu to leaf blast and neck blast was controlled by a single dominant gene, and the leaf blast and neck blast resistance in the donor cv. Pai-kan-tao was inherited as a single recessive gene, the neck blast resistance of the donor cv. Oryzica Llanos 5 was controlled by a single recessive gene while its leaf blast resistance was not controlled by this gene. These results suggested that five parental varieties positively contributed to resistance to either leaf blast or neck blast and could be used to expand the genetic germplasms resistant to blast in cold region using molecular assisted selection.

  9. Refractory Gunning Material for Inner Lining Maintenance of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term and definition,classification, technical requirements, test methods,quality appraisal procedures, packing, marking, transportation, storage, and quality certificate of refractory gunning material for inner lining maintenance of blast furnace .

  10. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution with blast furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ensar

    2004-10-18

    Blast furnace slag was used to remove phosphate from aqueous solutions. The influence of pH, temperature, agitation rate, and blast furnace slag dosage on phosphate removal was investigated by conducting a series of batch adsorption experiments. In addition, the yield and mechanisms of phosphate removal were explained on the basis of the results of X-ray spectroscopy, measurements of zeta potential of particles, specific surface area, and images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the particles before and after adsorption. The specific surface area of the blast furnace slag was 0.4m(2)g(-1). The removal of phosphate predominantly has taken place by a precipitation mechanism and weak physical interactions between the surface of adsorbent and the metallic salts of phosphate. In this study, phosphate removal in excess of 99% was obtained, and it was concluded that blast furnace slag is an efficient adsorbent for the removal of phosphate from solution.

  11. Blast Load Response of Steel Sandwich Panels with Liquid Encasement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Karr; Marc Perlin; Benjamin Langhorst; Henry Chu

    2009-10-01

    We describe an experimental investigation of the response of hybrid blast panels for protection from explosive and impact forces. The fundamental notion is to dissipate, absorb, and redirect energy through plastic collapse, viscous dissipation, and inter-particle forces of liquid placed in sub-structural compartments. The panels are designed to absorb energy from an impact or air blast by elastic-plastic collapse of the panel substructure that includes fluid-filled cavities. The fluid contributes to blast effects mitigation by providing increased initial mass and resistance, by dissipation of energy through viscosity and fluid flow, and by redirecting the momentum that is imparted to the system from the impact and blast impulse pressures. Failure and deformation mechanisms of the panels are described.

  12. Blast shocks in quasi-two-dimensional supersonic granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, J F; Cassagne, J; Kellay, H

    2009-11-27

    In a thin, dilute, and fast flowing granular layer, the impact of a small sphere generates a fast growing hole devoid of matter. The growth of this hole is studied in detail, and its dynamics is found to mimic that of blast shocks in gases. This dynamics can be decomposed into two stages: a fast initial stage (the blast) and a slower growth regime whose growth velocity is given by the speed of sound in the medium used. A simple model using ingredients already invoked for the case of blast shocks in gases but including the inelastic nature of collisions between grains accounts accurately for our results. The system studied here allows for a detailed study of the full dynamics of a blast as it relaxes from a strong to a weak shock and later to an acoustic disturbance.

  13. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1910 - Explosives and blasting; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1910 Explosives and blasting; general. (a) Light and power... drill holes are being charged and until after all shots have been fired. (h) The sides of the slope...

  15. Vibration Superposition in Tunnel Blasting with Millisecond Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-jie; LOU Xiao-ming; LUO De-pi

    2009-01-01

    According to explosion dynamics and elastic wave theory,the models of particle vibration velocity for simultaneous blasting and millisecond blasting are built.In the models,influential factors such as delay interval and charge quantity,are considered.The calculated vibration velocity is compared with the field test results,which shows that the theoretical values are close to the experimental ones.Meanwhile,the particle vibration velocity decreases quickly with time due to the damping of rock mass and has a harmonic motion,and the particle vibration velocity of millisecond blasting has short interval.The superposition of particle vibration velocities may reduce vibration because of wave interference,or magnify the surrounding rock response to the blasting-induced vibration.

  16. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  17. Preliminary Study of Realistic Blast Impact on Cultured Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    integral membrane protein belonging to the glutamate-gated ion channel family, whereas a triple blast insult caused a significant reduction in the...24 I.U. per mg), 5-units/ml penicillin , and 5-mg/l streptomycin. The prepared slice cultures were supplied with fresh HSM 24 h later (culture day 1... penicillin , and 5-mg/L streptomycin. Just prior to submerging the blast plate, a control plate of slices was flooded with warmed SFM to provide tissue

  18. Finite Element Model to Reduce Fire and Blast Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    blast without a foam pad The tibia and fibula both fracture ...... 16 Figure 18. Force time history of the tibia for the 20 kg under body blast without...pad The tibia and fibula both fracture UNCLASSIFIED 16 UNCLASSIFIED The results of the study show that the addition of the foam reduce the...tibia forces by at least 35%. The reduction is likely higher since the tibia and fibula fractured in the baseline analysis therefore limiting the

  19. Application of Grid Planning Method in Drilling-Blasting Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Spasovski, Orce

    2012-01-01

    The problem occurs almost every day in operation and causes troubles to mining engineers. The right performance of drilling-blasting work is important for the successful operation of the entire excavation. The aim of the paper is to point out the importance of planning and how it can contribute to the right organization and make drilling-blasting and other mining activities in mine operations easier. Defining the activities and practical example that has been given are carried out by the u...

  20. Blast trauma: the fourth weapon of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, C T

    2005-01-01

    Injury from blast is becoming more common in the non-military population. This is primarily a result of an increase in politically motivated bombings within the civilian sector. Explosions unrelated to terrorism may also occur in the industrial setting. Civilian physicians and surgeons need to have an understanding of the pathomechanics and physiology of blast injury and to recognize the hallmarks of severity in order to increase survivorship. Because victims may be transported rapidly to the hospital, occult injury to gas and fluid containing organs (particularly the ears, bowel and lungs) may go unrecognized. Information surrounding the physical environment of the explosion (whether inside or outside, underwater, associated building collapse, etc) will prove useful. Most of the immediate deaths are caused by primary blast injury from the primary blast wave, but secondary blast injury from flying debris can also be lethal and involve a much wider radius. Liberal use of X-ray examination in areas of skin punctures will help to identify a need for exploration and/or foreign body removal. Biologic serum markers may have a role in identifying victims of primary blast injury and assist in monitoring their clinical progress. Tertiary blast injury results from the airborne propulsion of the victim by the shockwave and is a source of additional blunt head and torso trauma as well as fractures. Miscellaneous (quaternary) blast injury include thermal or dust inhalation exposure as well as crush and compartment syndromes from building collapse. Any explosion has the potential to be associated with nuclear, biologic or chemical contaminants, and this should remain a consideration for healthcare givers until proven otherwise.

  1. Anomaly detection of blast furnace condition using tuyere cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamahira, Naoshi; Hirata, Takehide; Tsuda, Kazuro; Morikawa, Yasuyuki; Takata, Yousuke

    2016-09-01

    We present a method of anomaly detection using multivariate statistical process control(MSPC) to detect the abnormal behaviors of a blast furnace. Tuyere cameras attached circumferentially at the lower side of a blast furnace are used to monitor the inside of the furnace and this method extracts abnormal behaviors of intensities. It is confirmed that with our method, detecting timing is earlier than operators' notice. Besides, misalignment of cameras doesn't affect detecting performance, which is important property in actual use.

  2. Pathological Fingerprints, Systems Biology and Biomarkers of Blast Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Patho- genesis of pulmonary edema caused by blast waves]. Vojno- sanit. Pregl. 48, 507–514. Cernak, I., Savic, J., Zunic, G., Pejnovic, N., Jovanikic...Cernak I, Savic J, Mrsulja B, Duricic B. [Pathogenesis of pulmonary edema caused by blast waves]. Vojnosanit Pregl. 1991;48:507–514 [in Serbian]. 37...generally accepted definition, a biomarker has the characteristic that it can be objectively measured 1Center of Innovative Research, Banyan Biomarkers, Inc

  3. Powder blasting for three-dimensional microstructuring of glass

    OpenAIRE

    Belloy, E.; Sayah, A.; M.A.M. Gijs

    2000-01-01

    We report on powder blasting as a promising technology for the three-dimensional structuring of brittle materials. We investigate the basic parameters of this process, which is based on the erosion of a masked substrate by a high-velocity eroding powder beam, using glass substrates. We study the effect of various parameters on the etching rate, like the powder velocity and the mask feature size, which induces geometrical effects to the erosion process. We introduce oblique powder blasting and...

  4. Genetic Networks Activated by Blast Injury to the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Geisert, Eldon E. Biomarkers for Neuronal Injury Following Blast Trauma to the Eye. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO...Ocular Blast Trauma in the DBA/2J Mouse. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Annual Meeting, May 5-9,2013, Seattle, Washington...Geisert E.E., Joe Caron, XiangDi Wang, SOX11 Marks injured retinal ganglion cells. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO

  5. A Blast Model of Traumatic Brain Injury in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    public release; distribution unlimited Although blast-induced traumatic brain injury (BI- TBI ) is a significant cause of morbidity and behavioral...survival model of BI- TBI in swine. Traumatic Brain Injury , Swine, Blast, Model Development U U U 7 USAMRMC W81XWH-08-2-0082... Injury , TBI Scientific Advisor, Defense Center of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury ) and Dr. Tamara Crowder at the DoD

  6. Head Kinematics Resulting from Simulated Blast Loading Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    pressure wave and the body which commonly damages air-filled organs such as the lungs , gastrointestinal tract, and ears. Secondary blast injury...subsequent impact with surrounding obstacles or the ground. Quaternary injury is the result of other factors including burns or inhalation of dust and gas... Woods , W., Feldman, S., Cummings, T., et al. (2011). Survival Risk Assessment for Primary Blast Exposures to the Head. Journal of neurotrauma, 2328

  7. Modeling of aqueous foam blast wave attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domergue L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of aqueous foams enables the mitigation of blast waves induced by the explosion of energetic materials. The two-phase confinement gives rise to interphase interactions between the gaseous and liquid phases, which role have been emphasized in shock-tube studies with solid foams [1, 2]. Multifluid formalism enables the thermo-mechanical disequilibria between phases to be taken into account. The flow model ensures the correct estimation of the acoustic impedance of the two-phase media. As for the numerical scheme, Riemann solvers are used to describe the microscopic fluid interactions, the summation of which provides the multiphase flux. The role of the different transfer mechanisms is evaluated in the case where the liquid ligaments of the foam matrix have been shattered into droplets by the shock impingement. Characteristics of blast waves in heterogeneous media leads to a decrease of overpressure. The numerical results have been compared favorably to experimental data [3, 4].

  8. Durability of Alkali Activated Blast Furnace Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, K.; Alharbi, N.; Matheu, P. S.; Varela, B.; Hailstone, R.

    2015-11-01

    The alkali activation of blast furnace slag has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of cementitious materials and to be applied in geographic zones where weather is a factor that negatively affects performance of materials based on Ordinary Portland Cement. The scientific literature provides many examples of alkali activated slag with high compressive strengths; however research into the durability and resistance to aggressive environments is still necessary for applications in harsh weather conditions. In this study two design mixes of blast furnace slag with mine tailings were activated with a potassium based solution. The design mixes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, BET analysis and compressive strength testing. Freeze-thaw testing up to 100 freeze-thaw cycles was performed in 10% road salt solution. Our findings included compressive strength of up to 100 MPa after 28 days of curing and 120 MPa after freeze-thaw testing. The relationship between pore size, compressive strength, and compressive strength after freeze-thaw was explored.

  9. Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.097mgkg(-1). In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8mgkg(-1) with a median of 1.63mgkg(-1), which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n=31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r=0.695; n=31; p<0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r=0.496; n=27; p=0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Finally, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

  10. Combat Helmets and Blast Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Wallace

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan and the prominence of traumatic brain injury (TBI, mostly from improvised explosive devices, have focused attention on the effectiveness of combat helmets. Purpose: This paper examines the importance of TBI, the role and history of the development of combat helmets, current helmet designs and effectiveness, helmet design methodology, helmet sensors, future research and recommendations. Method: A literature review was conducted using search terms – combat helmets, traumatic brain injury, concussion, Iraq, Afghanistan and helmet sensors, searching PubMed, MEDLINE, ProQuest and Google Scholar. Conclusions: At present, no existing helmet is able to fully protect against all threats faced on the battlefield. The prominence of traumatic brain injury from improvised explosive devices in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has highlighted the limitations in knowledge about blast and how to provide protection from it. As a result, considerable research is currently occurring in how to protect the head from blast over-pressure. Helmet sensors may provide valuable data. Some new combat helmets may be able to protect against rifle rounds, but may result in injuries occurring behind body armour. Optimal combat helmet design requires a balance between the need for protection from trauma and the comfort and practicality of the helmet for the user to ensure the best outcomes.

  11. Hippocampal vulnerability and subacute response following varied blast magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajja, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith; Ereifej, Evon S; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2014-06-06

    Clinical outcomes from blast neurotrauma are associated with higher order cognitive functions such as memory, problem solving skills and attention. Current literature is limited to a single overpressure exposure or repeated exposures at the same level of overpressure and is focused on the acute response (magnitudes (low, moderate and high) were used to evaluate molecular injury thresholds. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated increased cleaved caspase-3 levels and loss of neuronal population (NeuN+) within the hippocampus of all pressure groups. On the contrary, selective activation of microglia was observed in the low blast group. In addition, increased astrocytes (GFAP), membrane signal transduction protein (Map2k1) and calcium regulator mechanosensitive protein (Piezo 2) were observed in the moderate blast group. Results from gene expression analysis suggested ongoing neuroprotection, as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and Mn and CuZn superoxide dismutases (SOD) all increased in the low and moderate blast groups. Ongoing neuroprotection was further supported by increased SOD levels observed in the moderate group using immunohistochemistry. The gene expression level of glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) was upregulated in the low, but downregulated in the high blast group, while no changes were found in the moderate group. Overall, the data shown here provides evidence of a diverse neuroprotective and glial response to various levels of blast exposure. This mechanistic role of neuroprotection is vital in understanding ongoing cellular stress, both at the gene and protein levels, in order to develop interventional studies for the prognosis of injury.

  12. Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon

    2015-04-01

    A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep.

  13. Monitoring Method for Blast Furnace Wall With Copper Staves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Su-sen; QIAN Liang; ZHAO Hong-bo

    2007-01-01

    A monitoring method that has been designed for the first time for blast furnace wall with copper staves manufactured in China was introduced. Combining the method of "inverse problem" and the concept "non-inverse problem", the monitoring program for blast furnace wall with copper staves has been realized, which can be used to calculate online the accretion thickness and temperature of hot surface of copper staves after obtaining the values of thermocouples of copper staves. The accretion state obtained in the actual investigation has proved that the result of the program is correct. The monitoring program shows that the accretion would easily fluctuate when the accretion layer is extremely thick or thin, thereby the stable and smooth operation of the blast furnace is hindered. By maintaining appropriate accretion thickness, both long campaigns and high productivity of the blast furnace can be achieved; furthermore, it can also optimize the operation of blast furnace and maximize its production. Approximately 30-50 mm in thickness of accretion layer is maintained on the wall of Shougang blast furnace 2, which can meet the requirement for obtaining both long campaign and high productivity.

  14. Analysis of the Blasting Compaction on Gravel Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The settlement control is critical for the safety of road based on high filled embankment. The traditional construction methods have the characteristic with less soil thickness compacted at a time. There are many advantages to compact the gravel soil with blasting. The cavity in soil is formed by blasting and its fillings to form a composite foundation for the embankment. The field data show this composite foundation can meet the requirement of loading and settlement control with less construction time. In geotechnical blasting, the high temperature due to blasting will swell the material around, so its worthy to do the coupled analysis with thermal mechanics (TM and blasting compaction in the high filled embankment. In this paper, a 3D model is built with FLAC3D to simulate a single hole to predict the range and degree of thermal propagation. Then, the thermal strains got from the model are used to estimate the displacement of surrounding soil to predict the degree of compaction and optimize the distribution of blast holes in plan.

  15. Experimental Investigation of a Novel Blast Wave Mitigation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbi Su

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel blast wave mitigation device was investigated experimentally in this paper. The device consists of a piston-cylinder assembly. A shock wave is induced within the cylinder when a blast wave impacts on the piston. The shock wave propagates inside the device and is reflected repeatedly. The shock wave propagation process inside the device lengthens the duration of the force on the base of the device to several orders of magnitude of the duration of the blast wave, while it decreases the maximum pressure over an order of magnitude. Two types of experiments were carried out to study the blast wave mitigation device. The first type of experiments was done with honeycomb structures protected by the blast wave mitigation device. Experimental results show that the device can adequately protect the honeycomb structure. A second type of experiments was done using a Hopkinson bar to measure the pressure transmitted through the blast wave mitigation device. The experimental results agree well with results from a theoretical model.

  16. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  17. Study on Blast Pressure Resistance of Foamed Concrete Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ahmad Zaidi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Great demand exist for more efficient design to protect personals and critical components against explosion or blast wave, generated both accidentally and deliberately, in various blast scenarios in both civilian and military activities. Concrete is a common material used in protective design of structures. Recently, the demands on producing the lighter concrete material have become interest in concrete research. Foamed concrete is a possible alternative of lightweight concrete for producing intermediate strength capabilities with excellent thermal insulation, freeze-thaw resistance, high-impact resistance and good shock absorption. This paper explores the role and development of Blast Pressure Resistant Materials (BPRM’s on foamed concrete. The explosive tests were conducted to determine the blast mitigating properties. The results show that when the foamed concrete density is increases the blast energy absorption capability will be decreases due to reduce of cavity volume. This is suggested that cavity plays an important role to dissipate and absorb the shock energy of the blast.

  18. 'INCAB' - induced caving by blasting: software for blasting gallery (BG) panel of underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P.; Kumar, A.; Sawmliana, C.; Bhagat, N.K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Department

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, a brief methodology of induced caving by blasting is discussed in the perspective of one indigenously developed software package 'INCAB' for carrying out successful induced blasting in blasting gallery panels. The development is basically a part of one S & T project jointly sponsored by the Ministry of Coal (GOI) and Singareni Collieries Company Ltd. (SCCL). 'INCAB' is a comprehensive, menu-driven, graphics software package developed in JAVA (Swing) language under Windows environment for designing and analyzing induced caving by blasting in BG panels of underground coal mines. It can be operative in any standard Pentium based IBM compatible system with VGA display unit. Practical validity of the programme was tested in 4 operating BG panels in the country. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  19. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    OpenAIRE

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-01-01

    In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  20. Incidence of Primary Blast Injury in US Military Overseas Contingency Operations: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    blast lung injury,27 codes 860.4 (traumatic pneumothorax, closed) and 861.21 ( pulmonary contusion , closed) were searched in the JTTR. The records of...the explosion-injured patients with closed pneumothoraces and/or closed pulmonary contusions were re- viewed. Patients found to have rib fractures...pressure. The JTTR was searched for these codes with no results. No specific codes for blast lung injury/ pulmonary blast injury or intes- tinal blast

  1. Experimental and Theoretical Study on Influence of Different Charging Structures on Blasting Vibration Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbin Gu; Zhenxiong Wang; Jianghai Chen; Jianqing Liu; Ming Lu

    2015-01-01

    As an important parameter in blasting design, charging structure directly influences blasting effect. Due to complex conditions of this blasting and excavating engineering in Jiangsu, China, the authors carried out comparative researches with coupling structure, air-decoupling structure, and water-decoupling structure. After collecting, comparing, and analyzing produced signals on blasting vibration, the authors summarized that when proportional distances are the same, water-decoupling struct...

  2. Controlled fragmentation and contours in rock blasting:theoretical and technical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Rustan, Agne

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish mining and construction industries have a large interest in improving blasting technology, in milling concerning rock fragmentation by blasting (especially underground in large diameter hole blasting, > 100 mm) and in construction and mining concerning controlled and safe contours in blasted tunnels. This doctoral thesis deals with these matters and includes a licentiate thesis (published in 1970) and five papers A-E included in the doctoral thesis and published during 1983 to ...

  3. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 All antigens Blood Leukemic blast cell SR...X1122119,SRX099357,SRX061973 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 Histone Blood Leukemic blast cell SRX1122...119,SRX099357,SRX061973 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 Unclassified Blood Leukemic blast cell ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 All antigens Blood Leukemic blast cell SR...X1122119,SRX099357,SRX061973 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 Unclassified Blood Leukemic blast cell ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Leukemic blast cell ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Leukemic blast cell ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 Unclassified Blood Leukemic blast cell ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 Histone Blood Leukemic blast cell SRX1122...119,SRX099357,SRX061973 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  12. File list: DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 DNase-seq Blood Leukemic blast cell http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  13. Analysis of key technologies and development of integrated digital processing system for cast blasting design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小华; 李克民; 肖双双; 狐为民

    2015-01-01

    Casting blast can greatly reduce the stripping cost and improve the production capacity of opencast coal mines. Key technologies including high bench blasting, inclined hole, millisecond blasting, pre-splitting blasting and casting blast parameters determination which have influence on the effect of casting blast have been researched with the combination of the ballistic theory and experience in mines. The integrated digital processing system of casting blast was developed in order to simplify the design process of casting blast, improve working efficiency and veracity of design result and comprehensively adopt the software programming method and the theory of casting blast. This system has achieved five functions, namely, the 3D visualization graphics management, the intelligent management of geological information, the intelligent design of casting blast, the analysis and prediction of the blasting effect and the automatic output of the design results. Long-term application in opencast coal mines has shown that research results can not only reduce the specific explosive consumption and improve the blasting effect, but also have high value of popularization and application.

  14. 30 CFR 816.68 - Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Records of blasting...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.68 Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations. The operator shall... § 816.67(e). (e) Weather conditions, including those which may cause possible adverse blasting...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. 1926.913... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.913 Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. (a) Detonators...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22602 - Blasting from the surface (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (I-C mines). 57.22602... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22602 Blasting from the surface (I-C mines). (a) All blasting shall be initiated from the surface after all persons are out of the mine and...

  17. 30 CFR 817.68 - Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of explosives: Records of blasting...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.68 Use of explosives: Records of blasting operations. The operator shall... § 817.67 (e). (e) Weather conditions, including those which may cause possible adverse blasting...

  18. 77 FR 31878 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Blasting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...; Blasting Operations and Use of Explosives Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Blasting Operations and Use of Explosives Standard,'' to the Office of..._PUBLIC@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Blasting and Use of Explosives Standard at 29 CFR...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.904 - Storage of explosives and blasting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of explosives and blasting agents. 1926.904 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.904 Storage of explosives and blasting agents. (a) Explosives and related materials...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22606 - Explosive materials and blasting units (III mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive materials and blasting units (III... materials and blasting units (III mines). (a) Mine operators shall notify the appropriate MSHA District Manager of all nonapproved explosive materials and blasting units to be used prior to their use....

  1. 30 CFR 57.22605 - Blasting from the surface (V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (V-A mines). 57.22605... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22605 Blasting from the surface (V-A mines). (a) All development and production blasting shall be initiated from the surface after all persons...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.905 - Loading of explosives or blasting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading of explosives or blasting agents. 1926.905 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Blasting and the Use of Explosives § 1926.905 Loading of explosives or blasting agents. (a) Procedures that permit safe and...

  3. A review of three cases of mobile blast: The new culprit of hand injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikunj B Mody

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although blast injuries are common with war; cooking gas; firecracker, mobile phone blast cases are increasing in number in last couple of years. We present 3 cases of mobile blast in 3 children causing injury to dominant hand in them.

  4. Controlled blasting and its implications for the NNWSI project exploratory shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eeckhout, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report reviews controlled blasting techniques for shaft sinking. Presplitting and smooth blasting are the techniques of principal interest. Smooth blasting is preferred for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations exploratory shaft. Shaft damage can be monitored visually or by peak velocity measurements and refractive techniques. Damage into the rock should be limited to 3 ft. 40 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... blasting caps shall not be grounded. (j) In underground operations when firing from a power circuit, a..., shall use only blasting galvanometers or other instruments that are specifically designed for this... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting....

  6. Lasting retinal injury in a mouse model of blast-induced trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure is currently the most prevalent of war injuries. While secondary ocular blast injuries due to flying debris are more common, primary ocular blast exposure has been reported among survivors of explosions, but with limited understanding of the resulti...

  7. A multi-mode shock tube for investigation of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneer, Dexter V; Hisel, Richard D; Hoffman, Joshua M; Kryscio, Richard J; Lusk, Braden T; Geddes, James W

    2011-01-01

    Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has become increasingly common in recent military conflicts. The mechanisms by which non-impact blast exposure results in bTBI are incompletely understood. Current small animal bTBI models predominantly utilize compressed air-driven membrane rupture as their blast wave source, while large animal models use chemical explosives. The pressure-time signature of each blast mode is unique, making it difficult to evaluate the contributions of the different components of the blast wave to bTBI when using a single blast source. We utilized a multi-mode shock tube, the McMillan blast device, capable of utilizing compressed air- and compressed helium-driven membrane rupture, and the explosives oxyhydrogen and cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX, the primary component of C-4 plastic explosives) as the driving source. At similar maximal blast overpressures, the positive pressure phase of compressed air-driven blasts was longer, and the positive impulse was greater, than those observed for shockwaves produced by other driving sources. Helium-driven shockwaves more closely resembled RDX blasts, but by displacing air created a hypoxic environment within the shock tube. Pressure-time traces from oxyhydrogen-driven shockwaves were very similar those produced by RDX, although they resulted in elevated carbon monoxide levels due to combustion of the polyethylene bag used to contain the gases within the shock tube prior to detonation. Rats exposed to compressed air-driven blasts had more pronounced vascular damage than those exposed to oxyhydrogen-driven blasts of the same peak overpressure, indicating that differences in blast wave characteristics other than peak overpressure may influence the extent of bTBI. Use of this multi-mode shock tube in small animal models will enable comparison of the extent of brain injury with the pressure-time signature produced using each blast mode, facilitating evaluation of the blast wave components

  8. 30 CFR 57.22608 - Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secondary blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines... blasting (I-A, II-A, and V-A mines). Prior to secondary blasting, tests for methane shall be made in the mine atmosphere at blast sites by a competent person. Secondary blasting shall not be done when...

  9. A Modified Surface on Titanium Deposited by a Blasting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline O’Sullivan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA coating of hard tissue implants is widely employed for its biocompatible and osteoconductive properties as well as its improved mechanical properties. Plasma technology is the principal deposition process for coating HA on bioactive metals for this application. However, thermal decomposition of HA can occur during the plasma deposition process, resulting in coating variability in terms of purity, uniformity and crystallinity, which can lead to implant failure caused by aseptic loosening. In this study, CoBlastTM, a novel blasting process has been used to successfully modify a titanium (V substrate with a HA treatment using a dopant/abrasive regime. The impact of a series of apatitic abrasives under the trade name MCD, was investigated to determine the effect of abrasive particle size on the surface properties of both microblast (abrasive only and CoBlast (HA/abrasive treatments. The resultant HA treated substrates were compared to substrates treated with abrasive only (microblasted and an untreated Ti. The HA powder, apatitic abrasives and the treated substrates were characterized for chemical composition, coating coverage, crystallinity and topography including surface roughness. The results show that the surface roughness of the HA blasted modification was affected by the particle size of the apatitic abrasives used. The CoBlast process did not alter the chemistry of the crystalline HA during deposition. Cell proliferation on the HA surface was also assessed, which demonstrated enhanced osteo-viability compared to the microblast and blank Ti. This study demonstrates the ability of the CoBlast process to deposit HA coatings with a range of surface properties onto Ti substrates. The ability of the CoBlast technology to offer diversity in modifying surface topography offers exciting new prospects in tailoring the properties of medical devices for applications ranging from dental to orthopedic settings.

  10. Bioluminescent assay for human lymphocyte blast transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, E G; Budagyan, V M; Romanova, N A; Brovko LYu; Ugarova, N N

    1995-05-01

    One of the basic tests of in vitro evaluation of immune cell functional activity is a proliferative response of lymphocytes on the action of external stimuli such as mitogenic lectines, antigens, etc. We compared two methods used to assess the lymphocyte functional status. (1) [3H]thymidine incorporation and (2) bioluminescence for determination of intracellular ATP in blast cells. Comparison has been done for healthy donors and patients with proven low immunological status. The proposed bioluminescent method for evaluation of the proliferative response was shown to be sensitive enough for diagnostic purposes. This method allows one to process a large number of samples at the same time and correlates highly with the radionuclide test use hazardous radioactive materials.

  11. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  12. Blast Quantification Using Hopkinson Pressure Bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Samuel D; Fay, Stephen D; Rigby, Samuel E; Tyas, Andrew; Warren, James A; Reay, Jonathan J; Fuller, Benjamin J; Gant, Matthew T A; Elgy, Ian D

    2016-07-05

    Near-field blast load measurement presents an issue to many sensor types as they must endure very aggressive environments and be able to measure pressures up to many hundreds of megapascals. In this respect the simplicity of the Hopkinson pressure bar has a major advantage in that while the measurement end of the Hopkinson bar can endure and be exposed to harsh conditions, the strain gauge mounted to the bar can be affixed some distance away. This allows protective housings to be utilized which protect the strain gauge but do not interfere with the measurement acquisition. The use of an array of pressure bars allows the pressure-time histories at discrete known points to be measured. This article also describes the interpolation routine used to derive pressure-time histories at un-instrumented locations on the plane of interest. Currently the technique has been used to measure loading from high explosives in free air and buried shallowly in various soils.

  13. Windows .NET Network Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Melvin J

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BLAST is one of the most common and useful tools for Genetic Research. This paper describes a software application we have termed Windows .NET Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST, which enhances the BLAST utility by improving usability, fault recovery, and scalability in a Windows desktop environment. Our goal was to develop an easy to use, fault tolerant, high-throughput BLAST solution that incorporates a comprehensive BLAST result viewer with curation and annotation functionality. Results W.ND-BLAST is a comprehensive Windows-based software toolkit that targets researchers, including those with minimal computer skills, and provides the ability increase the performance of BLAST by distributing BLAST queries to any number of Windows based machines across local area networks (LAN. W.ND-BLAST provides intuitive Graphic User Interfaces (GUI for BLAST database creation, BLAST execution, BLAST output evaluation and BLAST result exportation. This software also provides several layers of fault tolerance and fault recovery to prevent loss of data if nodes or master machines fail. This paper lays out the functionality of W.ND-BLAST. W.ND-BLAST displays close to 100% performance efficiency when distributing tasks to 12 remote computers of the same performance class. A high throughput BLAST job which took 662.68 minutes (11 hours on one average machine was completed in 44.97 minutes when distributed to 17 nodes, which included lower performance class machines. Finally, there is a comprehensive high-throughput BLAST Output Viewer (BOV and Annotation Engine components, which provides comprehensive exportation of BLAST hits to text files, annotated fasta files, tables, or association files. Conclusion W.ND-BLAST provides an interactive tool that allows scientists to easily utilizing their available computing resources for high throughput and comprehensive sequence analyses. The install package for W.ND-BLAST is

  14. Characterization and Fine Mapping of a Blast Resistant Gene Pi-jnw1 from the japonica Rice Landrace Jiangnanwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruisen; Fang, Nengyan; Guan, Changhong; He, Wanwan; Bao, Yongmei; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, and it has a large impact on rice production worldwide. Compared with leaf blast resistance, our understanding of panicle blast resistance is limited. The japonica landrace Jiangnanwan from Taihu Lake region in China shows highly resistance to panicle and leaf blast. In this study, three generations (F2:5, F2:6, F2:7) consisting of 221 RILs (recombination inbreeding lines), developed from the cross of Jiangnanwan and Suyunuo, a susceptible-blast japonica variety, were evaluated for panicle blast resistance in the fields and leaf blast resistance in greenhouse in Nanjing in 2013, 2014 and 2015. A blast resistance gene Pi-jnw1 referring to panicle blast resistance and leaf blast resistance was identified in the three generations and located in the region of RM27273 and RM27381 in chromosome 11. The RIL18 line harboring Pi-jnw1 was selected to be backcrossed with Suyunuo to develop BC2F2 populations. According to the genotyping of 1,150 BC2F2 individuals and panicle blast and leaf blast resistance evaluation of 47 recombinants between RM27150 and RM27381, Pi-jnw1 was finally mapped to the 282 kb region between markers W28 and BS39. This study revealed that Jiangnanwan harboring a panicle blast and leaf blast resistance gene Pi-jnw1 could be a genetic source for breeding new rice cultivars with panicle blast resistance. PMID:28036378

  15. Characterization and Fine Mapping of a Blast Resistant Gene Pi-jnw1 from the japonica Rice Landrace Jiangnanwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruisen; Fang, Nengyan; Guan, Changhong; He, Wanwan; Bao, Yongmei; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast is a destructive disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, and it has a large impact on rice production worldwide. Compared with leaf blast resistance, our understanding of panicle blast resistance is limited. The japonica landrace Jiangnanwan from Taihu Lake region in China shows highly resistance to panicle and leaf blast. In this study, three generations (F2:5, F2:6, F2:7) consisting of 221 RILs (recombination inbreeding lines), developed from the cross of Jiangnanwan and Suyunuo, a susceptible-blast japonica variety, were evaluated for panicle blast resistance in the fields and leaf blast resistance in greenhouse in Nanjing in 2013, 2014 and 2015. A blast resistance gene Pi-jnw1 referring to panicle blast resistance and leaf blast resistance was identified in the three generations and located in the region of RM27273 and RM27381 in chromosome 11. The RIL18 line harboring Pi-jnw1 was selected to be backcrossed with Suyunuo to develop BC2F2 populations. According to the genotyping of 1,150 BC2F2 individuals and panicle blast and leaf blast resistance evaluation of 47 recombinants between RM27150 and RM27381, Pi-jnw1 was finally mapped to the 282 kb region between markers W28 and BS39. This study revealed that Jiangnanwan harboring a panicle blast and leaf blast resistance gene Pi-jnw1 could be a genetic source for breeding new rice cultivars with panicle blast resistance.

  16. Influence of millisecond time, charge length and detonation velocity on blasting vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士海; 吴建; 张子华

    2015-01-01

    The law of blasting vibration caused by blasting in rock is very complex. Traditional numerical methods cannot well characterize all the influencing factors in the blasting process. The effects of millisecond time, charge length and detonation velocity on the blasting vibration are discussed by analyzing the characteristics of vibration wave generated by finite length cylindrical charge. It is found that in multi-hole millisecond blasting, blasting vibration superimpositions will occur several times within a certain distance from the explosion source due to the propagation velocity difference of P-wave and S-wave generated by a short column charge. These superimpositions will locally enlarge the peak velocity of blasting vibration particle. The magnitude and scope of the enlargement are closely related to the millisecond time. Meanwhile, the particle vibration displacement characteristics of rock under long cylindrical charge is analyzed. The results show that blasting vibration effect would no longer increase when the charge length increases to a certain extent. This indicates that the traditional simple calculation method using the maximum charge weight per delay interval to predict the effect of blasting vibration is unreasonable. Besides, the effect of detonation velocity on blasting vibration is only limited in a certain velocity range. When detonation velocity is greater than a certain value, the detonation velocity almost makes no impact on blasting vibration.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Blast Loads from Near-Field Ground Explosions in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrociński Stanisław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of air blast loading in the near-field acting on the ground have been performed. A simplified blast model based on empirical blast loading data representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes has been simulated. Conwep is an implementation of the empirical blast models presented by Kingery and Bulmash, which is also implemented in the commercial code LS-DYNA based on work done by Rahnders-Pehrson and Bannister. This makes it possible to simulate blast loads acting on structures representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes of TNT with reasonable computational effort as an alternative to the SPH and Eulerian model. The CPU time for the simplified blast model is however considerably shorter and may still be useful in time consuming concept studies. Reasonable numerical results using reasonable model sizes can be achieved not only for modelling near-field explosions in air but most areas of geotechnical. Calculation was compared with blast SPH and Eulerian model.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Blast Loads from Near-Field Ground Explosions in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrociński, Stanisław; Flis, Leszek

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulations of air blast loading in the near-field acting on the ground have been performed. A simplified blast model based on empirical blast loading data representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes has been simulated. Conwep is an implementation of the empirical blast models presented by Kingery and Bulmash, which is also implemented in the commercial code LS-DYNA based on work done by Rahnders-Pehrson and Bannister. This makes it possible to simulate blast loads acting on structures representing spherical and hemispherical explosive shapes of TNT with reasonable computational effort as an alternative to the SPH and Eulerian model. The CPU time for the simplified blast model is however considerably shorter and may still be useful in time consuming concept studies. Reasonable numerical results using reasonable model sizes can be achieved not only for modelling near-field explosions in air but most areas of geotechnical. Calculation was compared with blast SPH and Eulerian model.

  19. Damage Characteristics of Surrounding Rock Subjected to VCR Mining Blasting Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For limiting the damage range caused by explosive shock loads in vertical crater retreat (VCR mining, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were studied by two methods: numerical simulation and ultrasonic testing. Combined with the mining blasting in Dongguashan Copper Mine of China, the VCR blasting shock characteristics under different conditions are obtained by using LSDYNA. Based on statistical fracture mechanics and damage mechanics theories, a damage constitutive model for rock mass subjected to blasting shock load was established. Then by using the fast Lagrange analysis codes (FLAC3D, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were analyzed by applying the blasting shock loads obtained from the VCR mining and the damage zone is obtained. At last, the relationship between the amount of explosives and the radius of damaged surrounding rock mass was discussed, and its formula was also derived. The research provides a theoretical basis for rationally controlling stope boundaries and optimizing mining blasting parameters.

  20. Low complexity power control approach based on MMSE detection for V-BLAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Kun; Qiu Ling; Zhu Jinkang

    2006-01-01

    A low complexity Per-Antenna Power Control (PAPC) approach based on Minimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE) detection for V-BLAST is proposed in this paper. The PAPC approach is developed for minimizing the Bit Error Rate (BER) averaged over all substreams when the data throughput and the total transmit power keep constant over time. Simulation results show that the Power-controlled V-BLAST (P-BLAST) outperforms the conventional V-BLAST in terms of BER performance with MMSE detector, especially in presence of high spatial correlation between antennas. However, the additional complexity for P-BLAST is not high. When MMSE detector is adopted, the P-BLAST can achieve a comparable BER performance to that of conventional V-BLAST with Maximum Likelihood (ML) detector but with low complexity.

  1. Reduction of costs of iron production by changing parameters of the mixed blast-furnace wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Terpák

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The blast-furnace wind from hot-blast stoves is a significant factor of the blast furnace functioning. The technology was analyzed in which the hot wind from hot-blast stoves is not mixed with the cool wind to a constant wind temperature, but is blown directly into the blast furnace. However, it is necessary to compensate for the changes of the theoretical temperature of burning in blast furnace as a consequence of non-stabilized wind temperature, by changing composition of the wind. This can be done by adding different media into the wind with different results from the operational and economical viewpoints. Essentially, the following types of media are used in blast furnaces: steam, oxygen, substitution fuels, nitrogen, and waste gas.

  2. Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of RC Slabs Under Blast Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Hao; LI Zhongxian

    2009-01-01

    In Order to reduce economic and life losses due to terrorism or accidental explosion threats,reinforced concrete(RC)slabs of buildings need to be designed or retrofitted to resist blast loading.In this paper the dynamic behavior Of RC slabs under blast loading and its influencing factors are studied.The numerical model of an RC slab subjected to blast loading is established using the explicit dynamic analysis software.Both the strain rate effect and the damage accumulation are taken into account in the material model.The dynamic responses of the RC slab subiected to blast loading are analyzed,and the influence of concrete strength,thickness and reinforcement ratio on the behavior of the RC slab under blast loading iS numerically investigated.Based on the numerical results.some principles for blast-resistant design and retrofitting are proposed to improve the behavior of the RC slab subjected to blast loading.

  3. Testing procedures to determine the toxicity of blast fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonel, P.; Bigourd, J. (Centre d' Etudes et Recherches des Charbonnages de France (CERCHAR), 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte:

    1980-05-01

    Several methods are available in CERCHAR to determine the production of toxic gases from a shot of explosives: blasting of 50 g or 100 g of explosives in a 115 l bomb usually in the presence of sand and in a nitrogen atmosphere, blasting from 0.5 kg to 1 kg of explosive in a 15 m/sup 3/ chamber in the presence of air, under variable confinement (suspended charge or charge in a test mortar with or without stemming and possibly with a sheath). The test results show that the production of toxic gases depends to a great extent on the blasting conditions: type of detonation of the explosive, work done by the fumes, possible reactions of the fumes with atmospheric oxygen or with materials in contact with the explosive (cartridge material, stemming, sheath). It appears that the method consisting in blasting of explosives in a steel mortar with stemming in the 15 m/sup 3/ chamber gives results most closely related to those obtained in underground blasting. Therefore this method seems prefereble.

  4. Frequency-Dependent Attenuation of Blasting Vibration Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junru; Lu, Wenbo; Yan, Peng; Chen, Ming; Wang, Gaohui

    2016-10-01

    The dominant frequency, in addition to the peak particle velocity, is a critical factor for assessing adverse effects of the blasting vibration on surrounding structures; however, it has not been fully considered in blasting design. Therefore, the dominant frequency-dependent attenuation mechanism of blast-induced vibration is investigated in the present research. Starting with blasting vibration induced by a spherical charge propagating in an infinite viscoelastic medium, a modified expression of the vibration amplitude spectrum was derived to reveal the frequency dependency of attenuation. Then, ground vibration induced by more complex and more commonly used cylindrical charge that propagates in a semi-infinite viscoelastic medium was analyzed by numerical simulation. Results demonstrate that the absorptive property of the medium results in the frequency attenuation versus distance, whereas a rapid drop or fluctuation occurs during the attenuation of ground vibration. Fluctuation usually appears at moderate to far field, and the dominant frequency generally decreases to half the original value when rapid drop occurs. The decay rate discrepancy between different frequency components and the multimodal structure of vibration spectrum lead to the unsmooth frequency-dependent attenuation. The above research is verified by two field experiments. Furthermore, according to frequency-based vibration standards, frequency drop and fluctuation should be considered when evaluating blast safety. An optimized piecewise assessment is proposed for more accurate evaluation: With the frequency drop point as the breakpoint, the assessment is divided into two independent sections along the propagating path.

  5. Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SAFETY ACCIDENTS RELATED TO BLASTING OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Kricak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The blasting process remains a potential source of numerous environmental and safety accidents. The majority of these accidents were contributed to the flyrock and lack of blast area security. A field-scale investigation related to flyrock accident was conducted in an andesite quarry where rocks up to 50 cm in diameter were propelled almost 300 m from the center of blasting field causing extensive damages to the surrounding objects. The study revealed that accident occurred due to the existence of andesite alteration in one section of the blast field. The existence of this alteration caused a sliding of rock masses along the subsistent joint planes and thereby reduced burden for the second row of blastholes. Alterations involved small area of andesite masses that were not detected by previous geological exploration or visually observed prior to initiation of blastholes. The result of this filed investigation should have a positive impact on hazard awareness, prevention and safe blasting practices in mining and construction industries."

  7. Mitigation of Blast Effects on Aluminum Foam Protected Masonry Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yu; WU Chengqing; GRIFFITH Mike

    2008-01-01

    Terrorist attacks using improvised explosive devices (lED) can result in unreinforced masonry (URM) wall collapse.Protecting URM wall from lED attack is very complicated.An effective solution to mitigate blast effects on URM wall is to retrofit URM walls with metallic foam sheets to absorb blast energy.However,mitigation of blast effects on metallic foam protected URM walls is currently in their infancy in the world.In this palaer,numerical models are used to simulate the performance of aluminum foam protected URM walls subjected to blast loads.A distinctive model,in which mortar and brick units of masonry are discritized individually,is used to model the performance of masonry and the contact between the masonry and steel face-sheet of aluminum foam is modelled using the interface element model.The aluminum foam is modelled by a nonlinear elastoplastic material model.The material models for masonry,aluminum foam and interface are then coded into a finite element program LS-DYNA3D to perform the numerical calculations of response and damage of aluminum foam protected URM walls under airblast loads.Discussion is made on the effectiveness of the aluminum foam protected system for URM wall against blast loads.

  8. Analysis of MINIE2013 Explosion Air-Blast Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, Julie M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Rodgers, Arthur J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kim, Keehoon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ford, Sean R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, Abelardo L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-14

    We report analysis of air-blast overpressure measurements from the MINIE2013 explosive experiments. The MINIE2013 experiment involved a series of nearly 70 near-surface (height-ofburst, HOB, ranging from -1 to +4 m) low-yield (W=2-20 kg TNT equivalent) chemical highexplosives tests that were recorded at local distances (230 m – 28.5 km). Many of the W and HOB combinations were repeated, allowing for quantification of the variability in air-blast features and corresponding yield estimates. We measured canonical signal features (peak overpressure, impulse per unit area, and positive pulse duration) from the air-blast data and compared these to existing air-blast models. Peak overpressure measurements showed good agreement with the models at close ranges but tended to attenuate more rapidly at longer range (~ 1 km), which is likely caused by upward refraction of acoustic waves due to a negative vertical gradient of sound speed. We estimated yields of the MINIE2013 explosions using the Integrated Yield Determination Tool (IYDT). Errors of the estimated yields were on average within 30% of the reported yields, and there were no significant differences in the accuracy of the IYDT predictions grouped by yield. IYDT estimates tend to be lower than ground truth yields, possibly because of reduced overpressure amplitudes by upward refraction. Finally, we report preliminary results on a development of a new parameterized air-blast waveform.

  9. SynBlast: Assisting the analysis of conserved synteny information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Peter F

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation In the last years more than 20 vertebrate genomes have been sequenced, and the rate at which genomic DNA information becomes available is rapidly accelerating. Gene duplication and gene loss events inherently limit the accuracy of orthology detection based on sequence similarity alone. Fully automated methods for orthology annotation do exist but often fail to identify individual members in cases of large gene families, or to distinguish missing data from traceable gene losses. This situation can be improved in many cases by including conserved synteny information. Results Here we present the SynBlast pipeline that is designed to construct and evaluate local synteny information. SynBlast uses the genomic region around a focal reference gene to retrieve candidates for homologous regions from a collection of target genomes and ranks them in accord with the available evidence for homology. The pipeline is intended as a tool to aid high quality manual annotation in particular in those cases where automatic procedures fail. We demonstrate how SynBlast is applied to retrieving orthologous and paralogous clusters using the vertebrate Hox and ParaHox clusters as examples. Software The SynBlast package written in Perl is available under the GNU General Public License at http://www.bioinf.uni-leipzig.de/Software/SynBlast/.

  10. Abrasive blasting agents: designing studies to evaluate relative risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs, Ann; Greskevitch, Mark; Kuempel, Eileen; Suarez, Fernando; Toraason, Mark

    Workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica used in abrasive blasting are at increased risk of developing a debilitating and often fatal fibrotic lung disease called silicosis. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that silica sand be prohibited as abrasive blasting material and that less hazardous materials be used in blasting operations. However, data are needed on the relative risks associated with exposure to abrasive blasting materials other than silica. NIOSH has completed acute studies in rats (Hubbs et al., 2001; Porter et al., 2002). To provide dose-response data applicable to making recommendation for occupational exposure limits, NIOSH has collaborated with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to design longer term studies with silica substitutes. For risk assessment purposes, selected doses will include concentrations that are relevant to human exposures. Rat lung burdens achieved should be comparable to those estimated in humans with working lifetime exposures, even if this results in "overloading" doses in rats. To quantify both dose and response, retained particle burdens in the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes will be measured, as well as biochemical and pathological indices of pulmonary response. This design will facilitate assessment of the pulmonary fibrogenic potential of inhaled abrasive blasting agents at occupationally relevant concentrations.

  11. Predictions of experimentally observed stochastic ground vibrations induced by blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Srđan; Perc, Matjaž; Vasović, Nebojša; Trajković, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the blast induced ground motion recorded at the limestone quarry "Suva Vrela" near Kosjerić, which is located in the western part of Serbia. We examine the recorded signals by means of surrogate data methods and a determinism test, in order to determine whether the recorded ground velocity is stochastic or deterministic in nature. Longitudinal, transversal and the vertical ground motion component are analyzed at three monitoring points that are located at different distances from the blasting source. The analysis reveals that the recordings belong to a class of stationary linear stochastic processes with Gaussian inputs, which could be distorted by a monotonic, instantaneous, time-independent nonlinear function. Low determinism factors obtained with the determinism test further confirm the stochastic nature of the recordings. Guided by the outcome of time series analysis, we propose an improved prediction model for the peak particle velocity based on a neural network. We show that, while conventional predictors fail to provide acceptable prediction accuracy, the neural network model with four main blast parameters as input, namely total charge, maximum charge per delay, distance from the blasting source to the measuring point, and hole depth, delivers significantly more accurate predictions that may be applicable on site. We also perform a sensitivity analysis, which reveals that the distance from the blasting source has the strongest influence on the final value of the peak particle velocity. This is in full agreement with previous observations and theory, thus additionally validating our methodology and main conclusions.

  12. Shock Initiated Reactions of Reactive Multiphase Blast Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis; Granier, John; Johnson, Richard; Littrell, Donald

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a new class of reactive multiphase blast explosives (RMBX) and characterization of their blast characteristics. These RMBXs are non-ideal explosive compositions of perfluoropolyether (PFPE), nano aluminum, and a micron-size high-density reactive metal - Tantalum, Zirconium, or Zinc in mass loadings of 66 to 83 percent. Unlike high explosives, these PFPE-metal compositions release energy via a fast self-oxidized combustion wave (rather than a true self-sustaining detonation) that is shock dependent, and can be overdriven to control energy release rate. The term ``reactive multiphase blast'' refers to the post-dispersion blast behavior: multiphase in that there are a gas phase that imparts pressure and a solid (particulate) phase that imparts momentum; and reactive in that the hot metal particles react with atmospheric oxygen and the explosive gas products to give an extended pressure pulse. The RMBX formulations were tested in two spherical core-shell geometries - an RMBX shell exploded by a high explosive core, and an RMBX core imploded by a high explosive shell. The fireball and blast characteristics were compared to a C-4 baseline charge.

  13. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truch, Matthew D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Chung, J.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; MacTavish, C. J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Martin, T. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Thomas, N. E.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a suborbital surveying experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between three arrays, observes simultaneously in broadband (30%) spectral windows at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The optical design is based on a 2 m diameter telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 microns. The gondola pointing system enables raster mapping of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of 30"; postflight pointing reconstruction to manual override. On this poster, we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. BLAST performed a test flight in 2003 and has since made two scientifically productive long-duration balloon flights: a 100 hour flight from ESRANGE (Kiruna), Sweden to Victoria Island, northern Canada in 2005 June; and a 250 hour, circumpolar flight from McMurdo Station, Antarctica in 2006 December. The BLAST collaboration acknowledges the support of NASA through grants NAG5-12785, NAG5-13301, and NNGO-6GI11G, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Canada's Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Ontario Innovation Trust, the Puerto Rico Space Grant Consortium, the Fondo Institucional para la Investigacion of the University of Puerto Rico, and the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs.

  14. A $55 Shock Tube for Simulated Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Elijah; Courtney, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shock tubes are commonly employed to test candidate armor materials, validate numerical models, and conduct simulated blast experiments in animal models. As DoD interests desire to field wearable sensors as blast dosimeters, shock tubes may also serve for calibration and testing of these devices. The high blast pressures needed for experimental testing of candidate armors are unnecessary to test these sensors. An inexpensive, efficient, and easily available way of testing these pressure sensors is desirable. It is known that releasing compressed gas suddenly can create a repeatable shock front, and the pressures can be finely tuned by changing the pressure to which the gas is compressed. A Crosman 0.177 caliber air pistol was used (without loading any pellets) to compress and release air in one end of a 24 inch long 3/4 inch diameter standard pipe nipple to simulate a blast wave at the other end of the tube. A variable number of pumps were used to vary the peak blast pressure. As expected, the trials where 10...

  15. Modelling Blast Effects on a Reinforced Concrete Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markellos Andreou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detailed investigation of blast phenomena and their catastrophic effects on existing structures are the main objectives of the present paper. It is well known that blast phenomena may be characterized by significant complexity, often involving complicated wave propagation effects as well as distinguishable material behaviors. Considering the above and in an attempt to provide a simplified modelling approach for the simulation of blast effects, a novel procedure is presented herein based on well-established methodologies and common engineering practices. In the above framework, firstly, the “predominant” deformation shape of the structure is estimated based on elastic finite element simulations under blast loads and then the structural response of the system is evaluated as a result of common computational beam-element tools such as displacement-based pushover analysis. The proposed methodology provides an immediate first estimation of the structural behavior under blast loads, based on familiar engineering procedures. A two-span reinforced concrete bridge was thoroughly investigated and the results provide insightful information regarding the damage patterns and localization.

  16. Combined Effects of Primary and Tertiary Blast on Rat Brain: Characterization of a Model of Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    R) asymmetry . Since none of the brain regions exhibited a significant Blast x No. of Events x Side (L/R) interaction, the effect of side was...AD Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0127 TITLE: Combined Effects of Primary and Tertiary Blast on Rat Brain : Characterization of a Model of...Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Joseph Long CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Geneva Foundation, Tacoma, WA

  17. Effect of texture and blasting pressure on residual stress and surface modifications in wet sand blasted α-Al2O3 coating

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Recently, wet sand blasting on coated cutting tool inserts has drawn interest to the tooling industry due to its positive effects on cutting performance and tool life. This performance boost has partly been attributed to the buildup of compressive residual stresses in the coating during the blasting process. However, the mechanism of forming residual stresses in ceramic coatings during sand blasting is not fully understood. This work utilize x-ray diffraction as the main tool to study the for...

  18. Numerical Study of the Reduction Process in an Oxygen Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongliang; Meng, Jiale; Guo, Lei; Guo, Zhancheng

    2016-02-01

    Based on computational fluid dynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, principles of transfer in metallurgy, and other principles, a multi-fluid model for a traditional blast furnace was established. The furnace conditions were simulated with this multi-fluid mathematical model, and the model was verified with the comparison of calculation and measurement. Then a multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace in the gasifier-full oxygen blast furnace process was established based on this traditional blast furnace model. With the established multi-fluid model for an oxygen blast furnace, the basic characteristics of iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace were summarized, including the changing process of the iron ore reduction degree and the compositions of the burden, etc. The study found that compared to the traditional blast furnace, the magnetite reserve zone in the furnace shaft under oxygen blast furnace condition was significantly reduced, which is conducive to the efficient operation of blast furnace. In order to optimize the oxygen blast furnace design and operating parameters, the iron ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace was researched under different shaft tuyere positions, different recycling gas temperatures, and different allocation ratios of recycling gas between the hearth tuyere and the shaft tuyere. The results indicate that these three factors all have a substantial impact on the ore reduction process in the oxygen blast furnace. Moderate shaft tuyere position, high recycling gas temperature, and high recycling gas allocation ratio between hearth and shaft could significantly promote the reduction of iron ore, reduce the scope of the magnetite reserve zone, and improve the performance of oxygen blast furnace. Based on the above findings, the recommendations for improvement of the oxygen blast furnace design and operation were proposed.

  19. Blasting and Blast Effects in Cold Regions. Part 3. Explosions in Ground Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    entries in Table 8 stuggest 20’ to 26’ for for most materials tends to be around 200 when the equivalent sideslope, while the last four entries 3t0 Fable...34 to 47 . rocal of volume per unit weight is a specific energy Iwo entries in -able 8 (small-scale tests in sand- if multiplied by the energy per unit...the best I I approximation at small scaled radii from ground Explcsion Sensor zero for a deep blast, with square root scaling giv- I Rock Rock2 Rock

  20. Strain Rate Effects in CFRP Used For Blast Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah. L. Orton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of strain rate effects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates exposed to blast loading. The use of CFRP offers an attractive option for mitigating structures exposed to blasts. However, the effect of high strain rates in CFRP composites commonly used in the civil industry is unknown. This research conducted tensile tests of 21 CFRP coupons using a hydraulically powered dynamic loader. The strain rates ranged from 0.0015 s−1 to 7.86 s−1 and are representative of strain rates that CFRP may see in a blast when used to strengthen reinforced concrete structures. The results of the testing showed no increase in the tensile strength or stiffness of the CFRP at the higher strain rates. In addition, the results showed significant scatter in the tensile strengths possibly due to the rate of loading or manufacture of the coupon.

  1. Inflammable dusts in blasting plants; Brennbare Staeube in Strahlanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahmer, Klaus-Werner; Teske, Hans-Joerg [Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung (IFA), Sankt Augustin (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeitsschutz; Scheid, Marc [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    For many years now, the IFA (Industrial Safety Institute of Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung) has been investigating the explosive properties of industrial dusts. The analyses are made using standardized methods. The data are anonymized and published in the ''GESTIS Staub-Ex'' database so that they can be accessed by users and project planners. The database currently contains 527 records of 210 blasting dusts. While there is only limited use for individual records within a user's own in-house processes, the evaluation of data collectives provides valuable information for both producers and users of blasting dusts. The evaluation helps to assess the explosion hazard of blasting dusts and to take appropriate protective measures. It is not a substitute for monitoring potentially explosive atmospheres and analyzing ignition sources in situ. (orig.)

  2. Behaviour of a Blast Loaded Laced Reinforced Concrete Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anandavalli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 According to existing provisions, large separation distance has to be maintained between two conventional explosive storage structures to prevent sympathetic detonation. In this paper, reduction of the separation distance with the use of earth covered laced reinforced concrete (LRC storage structure is demonstrated, which will result in saving of land cost. Details of blast resistant design of 75T (NEC storage structure based on unit risk principle are presented. Performance of the storage structure is evaluated in an actual blast trial. Strain and deflection profiles are obtained from the trial. Based on these, the storage structure is found to be re-usable after the blast trial.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(5, pp.284-289, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.62.820

  3. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  4. Analysis of blasting damage in adjacent mining excavations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Yugo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a small-scale wedge failure at Yukon Zinc's Wolverine Mine in Yukon, Canada, a vibration monitoring program was added to the existing rockbolt pull testing regime. The failure in the 1150 drift occurred after numerous successive blasts in an adjacent tunnel had loosened friction bolts passing through an unmapped fault. Analysis of blasting vibration revealed that support integrity is not compromised unless there is a geological structure to act as a failure plane. The peak particle velocity (PPV rarely exceeded 250 mm/s with a frequency larger than 50 Hz. As expected, blasting more competent rock resulted in higher PPVs. In such cases, reducing the round length from 3.5 m to 2.0 m was an effective means of limiting potential rock mass and support damage.

  5. Resonant Amplification of Turbulence by the Blast Wawes

    CERN Document Server

    Zankovich, A M

    2016-01-01

    We discuss an idea whether spherical blast waves can amplify by a non-local resonant hydrodynamic mechanism inhomogeneities formed by turbulence or phase segregation in the interstellar medium. We consider the problem of a blast-wave-turbulence interaction in the Linear Interaction Approximation. Mathematically, this is an eigenvalue problem for finding the structure and amplitude of eigenfunctions describing the response of the shock-wave flow to forced oscillations by external perturbations in the ambient interstellar medium. Linear analysis shows that the blast wave can amplify density and vorticity perturbations for a wide range of length scales with amplification coefficients of up to 20, with amplification the greater, the larger the length. There also exist resonant harmonics for which the gain becomes formally infinite in the linear approximation. Their orbital wavenumbers are within the range of macro- ($l \\sim 1$), meso- ($l \\sim 20$) and microscopic ($l > 200$) scales. Since the resonance width is ...

  6. The effect of calculated explosive energy output on blast design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsabanis, P.D.; Workman, L.

    1996-12-31

    The energy output of an explosive is typically calculated using an equation of state and computer applications. Results are reported as weight and bulk strength, either in absolute terms or relative to ANFO. The effect of the equation of state selected and the assumptions regarding the energy calculation are considered and interpreted for the purpose of blast design. It appears that variations in the heat of detonation which result from the selection of the equation of state and parameters associated with it are not sufficient to significantly affect blast patterns, explosive consumption and costs. However variations stemming from the use of available energy associated with a cut-off pressure are significant, suggesting in many cases large pattern expansions. The validity of the various approaches is discussed and blast design results based on the energy calculated by the different approaches are presented and evaluated.

  7. Modeling and Simulating Blast Effects on Electric Substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F. Jeffers; Kent E. McGillivary; Tony D. Paul; Ryan Jacobson

    2009-05-01

    A software simulation tool was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to estimate the fragility of electric substation components subject to an explosive blast. Damage caused by explosively driven fragments on a generic electric substation was estimated by using a ray-tracing technique to track and tabulate fragment impacts and penetrations of substation components. This technique is based on methods used for assessing vulnerability of military aircraft and ground vehicles to explosive blasts. An open-source rendering and ray-trace engine was used for geometric modeling and interactions between fragments and substation components. Semi-empirical material interactions models were used to calculate blast parameters and simulate high-velocity material interactions between explosively driven fragments and substation components. Finally, a Monte Carlo simulation was added to model the random nature of fragment generation allowing a skilled analyst to predict failure probabilities of substation components.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MECHANISM AND TECHNOLOGY OF DIRECTED CRACK BLASTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永琦; 高全臣; 于慕松; 张奇; 单仁亮; 杨仁树; 贾云峰

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic stress-fields and their distribution characteristics around boreholes in the directed crack blasting were measured with the dynamic photo-elastic laser holography apparatus and the uitradymamic measurement system. The directed crack mechanism and its mechanical model have been analysed and expounded. Through the 43 production experiments using slotted cartridges and the double triangle center cut-holes for directed crack blasting in underground rock drift, the resuits of which the rates of half-hole marks and efficiency of borehole,and the nonsmooth grades of the cut contours are 96%, 98% and 10cm respectively have been achieved.

  9. Triple-layer Absorptive Structures for Shock Wave Blast Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Triple-layer absorptive structure is designed to reinforce a missile silo against shock wave blasts. An energy-absorbing layer and a cushion layer overlay the circular silo cover made of reinforced concrete. The dynamic stress analysis is performed by ABAQUS/Explicit. The mesoscopic structure of the energy absorbing layer is designed as an assembly of ductile tubes containing crushable cellular ceramics. Combined mesoscopic and macroscopic simulations indicate that the structure can enhance the survivability of a missile silo against blast waves.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow in Blast Furnace Hearth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Min-ge; SUN Tian-liang; CHENG Su-sen; GAO Zheng-kai

    2005-01-01

    The liquid flow in blast furnace hearth can result in the erosion of hearth. To prolong the campaign life of blast furnace, the effects of coke bed structure, coke porosity and deepness of taphole on liquid flow in hearth were studied by κ-ε model under different conditions. The results show that with the decrease of coke porosity, the peripheral flow is enhanced. Moreover, the existence of narrow coke free zone and the deepness reduction of taphole can increase the flowability on the bottom of hearth.

  11. The Advancement in Intensified Smelting Technology of Baosteel Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinChengcheng; ZhangLonglai

    2005-01-01

    Baosteel always aims at becoming one of the most profitable enterprises in the world, enjoying international competence,benchmarking with the world advanced level, pursuing innovation sustainable development. Recent years, Baosteel Iron-making Department has caught the opportunity of increasing steel demand; conquering disadvantages such as changeable up-stream market, fuel and raw material's fight supplies and lower quality, etc. In our department, Major technical problems have been overcome, blast furnace intensified smelting technology improved, the cost of molten iron under control, blast fttmace long-life span control technology made breakthrough, and Baosteel's ironmaking capacity improved further.

  12. OPTIMALIZATION OF BLASTING IN »LAKOVIĆI« LIMESTONE QUARRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimalization of exploitation in »Lakovići« limestone quarry is described. Based on determined discontinuities in the rock mass and their densities, the best possible working site have been located in order to obtain the best possible sizes of blasted rocks and work slope stability. Optimal lowest resistance line size for the quarry has been counted and proved experimentally. New blasting parameters have resulted in considerable saving of drilling and explosive (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Vehicle Hull Shape Optimization for Minimum Weight Under Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Tovar (1)**   Matthew  P.  Castanier(4),  Madanmohan  V...MINIMUN WEIGHT UNDER BLAST LOADING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) J Israel; H Tan; J Goetz; A Tovar ...past  by  Goetz  and   Tovar  to  develop  two-­‐material  topologies  for  blast  mitigation  [1]  ,  but  

  14. Numerical simulation of parallel hole cut blasting with uncharged holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Qu; Xiangbin Zheng; Lihua Fan; Ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    The cavity formation and propagation process of stress wave from parallel hole cut blasting was simulated with AN-SYS/LS-DYNA 3D nonlinear dynamic finite element software. The distribution of element plastic strain, node velocity, node time-acceleration history and the blasting cartridge volume ratio during the process were analyzed. It was found that the detonation of charged holes would cause the interaction of stress wave with the wall of uncharged holes. Initial rock cracking and displacement to neighboring uncharged holes become the main mechanism of cavity formation in early stage.

  15. [Fatal explosion injuries from blasting a cigarette machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard; Ridwan, Hani; Längin, Volker; Doberentz, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, a growing number of cases have been reported in Germany in which vending machines have been blasted by criminals to get at the money. Thus, it was only a question of time for the first fatalities to occur as a consequence of such careless explosions. We report on the death of a 16-year-old boy who died after triggering an explosion by spraying a deodorant into the coin slot of a cigarette machine. Death was caused by severe craniocerebral trauma due to tertiary blast-related injuries when the front plate of the machine hit the victim's cerebral and facial skull.

  16. An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Aurélie; Nyein, Michelle K; Zheng, James Q; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, John D; Radovitzky, Raúl

    2014-10-28

    Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans.

  17. Optimization Of Blasting Design Parameters On Open Pit Bench A Case Study Of Nchanga Open Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mwango Bowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hard rock mining blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size blast design parameter such as bench height hole diameter spacing burden hole length bottom charge specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits NOP ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly 1986 equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

  18. Reconstruction of improvised explosive device blast loading to personnel in the open

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiri, Suthee; Needham, Charles

    2016-05-01

    Significant advances in reconstructing attacks by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and other blast events are reported. A high-fidelity three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics tool, called Second-order Hydrodynamic Automatic Mesh Refinement Code, was used for the analysis. Computer-aided design models for subjects or vehicles in the scene accurately represent geometries of objects in the blast field. A wide range of scenario types and blast exposure levels were reconstructed including free field blast, enclosed space of vehicle cabin, IED attack on a vehicle, buried charges, recoilless rifle operation, rocket-propelled grenade attack and missile attack with single subject or multiple subject exposure to pressure levels from ˜ 27.6 kPa (˜ 4 psi) to greater than 690 kPa (>100 psi). To create a full 3D pressure time-resolved reconstruction of a blast event for injury and blast exposure analysis, a combination of intelligence data and Blast Gauge data can be used to reconstruct an actual in-theatre blast event. The methodology to reconstruct an event and the "lessons learned" from multiple reconstructions in open space are presented. The analysis uses records of blast pressure at discrete points, and the output is a spatial and temporal blast load distribution for all personnel involved.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation as a tool to predict blasting fragmentation based on the Kuz Ram model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mario A.; Ficarazzo, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    Rock fragmentation is considered the most important aspect of production blasting because of its direct effects on the costs of drilling and blasting and on the economics of the subsequent operations of loading, hauling and crushing. Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the development of new technologies for blasting applications. These technologies include increasingly sophisticated computer models for blast design and blast performance prediction. Rock fragmentation depends on many variables such as rock mass properties, site geology, in situ fracturing and blasting parameters and as such has no complete theoretical solution for its prediction. However, empirical models for the estimation of size distribution of rock fragments have been developed. In this study, a blast fragmentation Monte Carlo-based simulator, based on the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model, has been developed to predict the entire fragmentation size distribution, taking into account intact and joints rock properties, the type and properties of explosives and the drilling pattern. Results produced by this simulator were quite favorable when compared with real fragmentation data obtained from a blast quarry. It is anticipated that the use of Monte Carlo simulation will increase our understanding of the effects of rock mass and explosive properties on the rock fragmentation by blasting, as well as increase our confidence in these empirical models. This understanding will translate into improvements in blasting operations, its corresponding costs and the overall economics of open pit mines and rock quarries.

  20. Rapid release of tissue enzymes into blood after blast exposure: potential use as biological dosimeters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peethambaran Arun

    Full Text Available Explosive blast results in multiple organ injury and polytrauma, the intensity of which varies with the nature of the exposure, orientation, environment and individual resilience. Blast overpressure alone may not precisely indicate the level of body or brain injury after blast exposure. Assessment of the extent of body injury after blast exposure is important, since polytrauma and systemic factors significantly contribute to blast-induced traumatic brain injury. We evaluated the activity of plasma enzymes including aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine kinase (CK at different time points after blast exposure using a mouse model of single and repeated blast exposures to assess the severity of injury. Our data show that activities of all the enzymes in the plasma were significantly increased as early as 1 h after blast exposure. The elevated enzyme activity remained up to 6 h in an overpressure dose-dependent manner and returned close to normal levels at 24 h. Head-only blast exposure with body protection showed no increase in the enzyme activities suggesting that brain injury alone does not contribute to the systemic increase. In contrast to plasma increase, AST, ALT and LDH activity in the liver and CK in the skeletal muscle showed drastic decrease at 6 h after blast exposures. Histopathology showed mild necrosis at 6 h and severe necrosis at 24 h after blast exposures in liver and no changes in the skeletal muscle suggesting that the enzyme release from the tissue to plasma is probably triggered by transient cell membrane disruption from shockwave and not due to necrosis. Overpressure dependent transient release of tissue enzymes and elevation in the plasma after blast exposure suggest that elevated enzyme activities in the blood can be potentially used as a biological dosimeter to assess the severity of blast injury.

  1. Primary Blast Traumatic Brain Injury in the Rat: Relating Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Budde

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI among military personnel is at its highest point in U.S. history. Experimental animal models of blast have provided a wealth of insight into blast injury. The mechanisms of neurotrauma caused by blast, however, are still under debate. Specifically, it is unclear whether the blast shockwave in the absence of head motion is sufficient to induce brain trauma. In this study, the consequences of blast injury were investigated in a rat model of primary blast TBI. Animals were exposed to blast shockwaves with peak overpressures of either 100 or 450 kPa and subsequently underwent a battery of behavioral tests. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, a promising method to detect blast injury in humans, was performed on fixed brains to detect and visualize the spatial dependence of blast injury. Blast TBI caused significant deficits in memory function as evidenced by the Morris Water Maze, but limited emotional deficits as evidenced by the Open Field Test and Elevated Plus Maze. Fractional anisotropy (FA, a metric derived from DTI, revealed significant brain abnormalities in blast-exposed animals. A significant relationship between memory deficits and brain microstructure was evident in the hippocampus, consistent with its role in memory function. The results provide fundamental insight into the neurological consequences of blast TBI, including the evolution of injury during the sub-acute phase and the spatially dependent pattern of injury. The relationship between memory dysfunction and microstructural brain abnormalities may provide insight into the persistent cognitive difficulties experienced by soldiers exposed to blast neurotrauma and may be important to guide therapeutic and rehabilitative efforts.

  2. The Study of the Grit-blasting Parameters and Their Effects on the Adhesive Strength of the Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M; Heydarzadeh; Sohi; M; Frooghieh; Sh; Khameneh; Asl

    2002-01-01

    Surface Preparation is very important in adhesive b on ding of spray coatings to the surface of a work piece. The common practice is gr it-blasting of the surface before subjecting it to the spray coating process. In this study, grit-blasting of an AISI 4130 steel (of different heat treatmen ts) with Al 2O 3 particles was studied. Various grit-blasting parameters such as blasting particle size, the distance between blasting nozzle and the work pi ece (25, 30 and 40 cm.), blasting pressure (3,4,5,6 and ...

  3. Surface assessment and modification of concrete using abrasive blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Lauren R.

    Composite systems are applied to concrete substrates to strengthen and extend the service life. Successful restoration or rehabilitation requires surface preparation prior to the application of the overlay. Surface coatings, waterproofing systems, and other external surface applications also require surface preparation prior to application. Abrasive blast media is often used to clean and uniformly roughen the substrate. The appropriate surface roughness is necessary to facilitate a strong bond between the existing substrate and overlay. Thus, surface modification using abrasive blast media (sand and dry ice), their respective environmental effects, surface roughness characterization prior to and after blasting, and the adhesion between the substrate and overlay are the focus of this dissertation. This dissertation is comprised of an introduction, a literature review, and four chapters, the first of which addresses the environmental effects due to abrasive blasting using sand, water, and dry ice. The assessment considered four response variables: carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel and energy consumption, and project duration. The results indicated that for sand blasting and water jetting, the primary factor contributing to environmental detriment was CO22 emissions from vehicular traffic near the construction site. The second chapter is an analysis of the International Concrete Repair Institute's (ICRI) concrete surface profiles (CSPs) using 3-D optical profilometry. The primary objective was to evaluate the suitability of approximating the 3-D surface (areal) parameters with those extracted from 2-D (linear) profiles. Four profile directions were considered: two diagonals, and lines parallel and transverse to the longitudinal direction of the mold. For any CSP mold, the estimation of the 3-D surface roughness using a 2-D linear profile resulted in underestimation and overestimation errors exceeding 50%, demonstrating the inadequacy of 2-D linear profiles to

  4. Boundary Identification for a Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss an inverse boundary problem for the axisymmetric steady-state heat equation, which arises in monitoring the boundary corrosion for the blast-furnace. Measure temperature at some locations are used to identify the shape of the corrosion boundary.The numerical inversion is complicated and consuming since the wear-line varies during the process and the boundary in the heat problem is not fixed. The authors suggest a method that the unknown boundary can be represented by a given curve plus a small perturbation, then the equation can be solved with fixed boundary, and a lot of computing time will be saved.A method is given to solve the inverse problem by minimizing the sum of the squared residual at the measuring locations, in which the direct problems are solved by axisymmetric fundamental solution method.The numerical results are in good agreement with test model data as well as industrial data, even in severe corrosion case.

  5. Hindfoot injuries due to landmine blast accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Tahir; Husain, Faisal N; Ahmed, Aftab

    2002-03-01

    Landmines were initially developed as anti-tank weapons. They are still used indiscriminately and in a disorganised fashion, violating the United Nations Treaty on their use [United Nations (1980)]. The injury produced by these devices is variable depending upon the construction and strength of the landmine and body parts coming in contact with the landmine at the time of detonation. The purpose of the present study was to report the type of landmine-blast injuries of the lower limbs and the surgical options available to treat them. Twenty-eight patients, all with lower limb injuries were included in the present study. They had received injuries on the control line of the troubled Jammu and Kashmir regions in the north of Pakistan. All were male patients between the age of 13 and 55 years. A salvage procedure for the forefoot was possible on four patients only and all the rest had a below-knee amputation. Time lapsed between the injury and receiving medical help was the crucial determining factor as to the final outcome of the limb. We believe that the pattern of injury, amount of energy dissipation and part of body in contact with the landmine at the time of explosion are the main determining factors for the final outcome. If skin along with the underlying soft tissue and the neuro-vascular structures on the dorsum of the foot are spared then an attempt can be made at limb salvage.

  6. Blasting the way to synchronous communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charbonnet, P. Jr.; Smith, G.

    1984-01-18

    Minicomputer and microcomputer users now have several new options in data communications software. Most of these packages fall into the rapidly growing category of file-transfer utilities-that is, programs that exchange computers. The key factor in the development of these products is that most micros and minis have only asynchronous communications capability. They cannot use mainframe data communications protocols. All of the asynchronous protocols that have emerged use the standard synchronous technique for error detection: the data stream is divided into blocks, and the integrity of each block is monitored by appending a check-sum that is recomputed and compared with the original check-sum when the block is received. Full-duplex protocols such as blocked asynchronous transmission (blast) transmit a continuous stream of data blocks while using the other half of the communications channel to receive block acknowledgements simultaneously. This structure is combined with the use of sliding window or pipelining techniques as employed by sophisticated synchronous protocols such as SNA/SDLC and x.25/HDLC. The end result is that full-duplex asynchronous protocols can endure significant propagation delay without losing efficiency. They are suitable for use in a variety of communications environments.

  7. Study on allelism between blast resistance gene Pi-zh(t) in indica variety Zhaiyeqing 8(ZYQS) and known blast resistance gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEICailin; WANGJiulin; MAOShihong; ZHULihuang; LINGZhongzhuan

    1997-01-01

    One blast resistance gene Pi-zh(t) from indica-variety ZYQ8 was identified using molecular markers in 1992. Studies on the allelism between gene Pi-zh(t) and known blast resis tance genes was presented in this paper.

  8. Blast-Resistant Improvement of Sandwich Armor Structure with Aluminum Foam Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich armor structures with aluminum foam can be utilized to protect a military vehicle from harmful blast load such as a landmine explosion. In this paper, a system-level dynamic finite element model is developed to simulate the blast event and to evaluate the blast-resistant performance of the sandwich armor structure. It is found that a sandwich armor structure with only aluminum foam is capable of mitigating crew injuries under a moderate blast load. However, a severe blast load causes force enhancement and results in much worse crew injury. An isolating layer between the aluminum foam and the vehicle floor is introduced to remediate this drawback. The results show that the blast-resistant capability of the innovative sandwich armor structure with the isolating layer increases remarkably.

  9. Modelling and Dynamic Response of Steel Reticulated Shell under Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximei Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Explicit finite element programme LS-DYNA was used to simulate a long-span steel reticulated shell under blast loading to investigate the structural dynamic responses in this paper. The elaborate finite element model of the Kiewitt-8 single-layer reticulated shell with span of 40 m subjected to central blast loading was established and all the process from the detonation of the explosive charge to the demolition, including the propagation of the blast wave and its interaction with structure was reproduced. The peak overpressure from the numerical analysis was compared with empirical formulas to verify the credibility and applicability of numerical simulation for blast loading. The dynamic responses of the structure under blast loading with different TNT equivalent weights of explosive and rise-span ratios were obtained. In addition, the response types of Kiewitt-8 single-layer reticulated shell subjected to central explosive blast loading were defined.

  10. A Review of Current Researches on Blast Load Effects on Building Structures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongxian; DU Hao; BAO Chunxiao

    2006-01-01

    The damages of building structures subjected to multifarious explosions cause huge losses of lives and property.It is the reason why the blast resistance and explosion protection of building structures become an important research topic in the civil engineering field all over the world.This paper provides an overview of the research work in China on blast loads effect on building structures.It includes modeling blast shock wave propagation and their effects,the dynamic responses of various building structures under blast loads and the measures to strengthen the building structures against blast loads.The paper also discusses the achievements and further work that needs be done for a better understanding of the blast loads' effects on building structures,and for deriving effective and economic techniques to design new or to strengthen existing structures.

  11. Population structure analysis and association mapping of blast resistance in indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y Y; He, J B; Li, A H; Fang, N Y; He, W W; Dang, L L; Zeng, G Y; Huang, J; Bao, Y M; Zhang, H S

    2016-08-12

    Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most devastating rice diseases worldwide. To understand the genetic diversity of indica landrace accessions and identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that are associated with blast resistance, a population of 276 indica landraces from across the world was constructed. This population was then used to evaluate the blast-resistance phenotype through artificial inoculation under controlled conditions in 2012 and 2013. The genetic diversity and association of the population with resistance were analyzed by examining the phenotype for 160 SSR markers distributed on 12 rice chromosomes. The 276 accessions were classified into seven groups using model- and distance-based cluster analyses. Associations between SSR markers and blast resistance showed that 26 SSR markers were significantly associated with blast resistance in 2012 and 2013 (P rice blast-resistance-breeding programs.

  12. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  13. Structural Response to Blast Loading: The Effects of Corrosion on Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yalciner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural blast design has become a necessary part of the design with increasing terrorist attacks. Terrorist attacks are not the one to make the structures important against blast loading where other explosions such as high gas explosions also take an important place in structural safety. The main objective of this study was to verify the structural performance levels under the impact of different blast loading scenarios. The blast loads were represented by using triangular pulse for single degree of freedom system. The effect of blast load on both corroded and uncorroded reinforced concrete buildings was examined for different explosion distances. Modified plastic hinge properties were used to ensure the effects of corrosion. The results indicated that explosion distance and concrete strength were key parameters to define the performance of the structures against blast loading.

  14. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  15. A numerical technique to design blast noise mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. van den; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    Large weapons, such as armor, artillery or demolitions, create a high-energy blast wave. It has a low frequency content, typically between 15 and 125 Hz, and can propagate over large distances. As a result it is a relative important cause for annoyance. Mitigation measures need to be close to the so

  16. Soft Tissue Strain Rates in Side-Blast Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-02

    for Human Head Impacts. Proceedings ASME Biomechanics of Human Factors Conference. [22] Hannon P, Knapp K. 2006. Forensic Biomechanics. Lawyers...J, Song, B, Pintar, F, Yoganandan N, Chen W, Gennarelli TA. 2008. How to test brain and brain simulant at ballistic and blast strain rates. Rocky

  17. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  18. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2016-07-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  19. Relationship Between Resistance Gene Analogue and Blast Resistance in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-min; FAN Cheng-ming; YANG Yan; HE Yue-qiu

    2009-01-01

    DNA fragments of 43 rice varieties were amplified with 11 pairs of primers designed based on resistance gene analogue (RGA) of plants, and the blast resistance of the varieties was identified by inoculation with 33 isolates of Magnaporthe grisea collected from Yunnan Province, China. Clustering results revealed a significant correlation between the blast resistance and DNA bands with a correlation coefficient of 0.6117 (α=0.01), indicating that the resistance analysis based on RGA-PCR clustering analysis coincided with that based on inoculation. The correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.1701 to 0.535, however, depended on the primers. Five pairs of primers, S1/AS3, S1 INV/S2 INV, XLRR For/XLRR Rev, Pto-Kin1 IN/Pto-Kin2 IN, and NLRR For/NLRR Rev might be applied for blast resistance identification in consideration of their band numbers and polymorphisms, and their correlation coefficients with blast resistance were 0.5305, 0.4898, 0.4059, 0.3719 and 0.3524, respectively. Besides, indica and japonica rice except two highly susceptible varieties, CO39 and Lijiangxintuanheigu, could be well classified by the 11 pairs of primers.

  20. The Use of Rice Varietal Diversity for Rice Blast Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU You-yong; LI Zuo-shen; LU Bao-rong; CHEN Hai-ru; FAN Jing-hua; WANG Yun-yue; LI Yan; FAN Jin-xiang; YANG Shi-sheng; MA Guan-liang; CHEN Jian-bin

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments of mixed- (intercropping) and pure-planting (monoculture) of four rice vari-eties, representing improved hybrid varieties (Shanyou63 and Shanyou22) and high-quality traditional varie-ties (Huangkenuo and Zigu) from Yunnan Province, were conducted based on their differences in genetic back-ground and agro-economical characteristics. The results demonstrated that the mixed-planting of the hybridrice and high-quality traditional rice varieties had a significantly greater effect on controlling rice blast diseasethan the monocuiture of these varieties, particularly the traditional ones. It is evident for the highly suscepti-ble traditional varieties in mixed-planting to achieve disease control, with significant decreases in blast inci-dences and severity indexes. The blast control efficiency reached up to 83 - 98 % under such planting model.This suggests that an appropriate mixed-planting of rice varieties with diverse genetic background and agro-e-conomical characteristics is an effective approach for rice blast control. In addition, resistance of the tradi-tional rice varieties to lodging was considerably increased in the plots with mixed-planting, compared with theplots with monoculture. The average rate of grain-yield increase ranged from 6.5 to 9.7 % in the plots withmixed-planting.

  1. TNO-PML developments of blast resistant doors and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkel, A.G.; Luyten, J.M.; Galle, L.F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will address the ongoing developments on blast resistant light or moderate weight steel structures at the Prins Maurits Laboratory of the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO-PML) for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) and other parties. Five structural products wi

  2. Mechanical assessment of grit blasting surface treatments of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemtov-Yona, K; Rittel, D; Dorogoy, A

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the influence of surface preparation treatments of dental implants on their potential (mechanical) fatigue failure, with emphasis on grit-blasting. The investigation includes limited fatigue testing of implants, showing the relationship between fatigue life and surface damage condition. Those observations are corroborated by a detailed failure analysis of retrieved fracture dental implants. In both cases, the negative effect of embedded alumina particles related to the grit-blasting process is identified. The study also comprises a numerical simulation part of the grit blasting process that reveals, for a given implant material and particle size, the existence of a velocity threshold, below which the rough surface is obtained without damage, and beyond which the creation of significant surface damage will severely reduce the fatigue life, thus increasing fracture probability. The main outcome of this work is that the overall performance of dental implants comprises, in addition to the biological considerations, mechanical reliability aspects. Fatigue fracture is a central issue, and this study shows that uncontrolled surface roughening grit-blasting treatments can induce significant surface damage which accelerate fatigue fracture under certain conditions, even if those treatments are beneficial to the osseointegration process.

  3. Implications of blast exposure for central auditory function: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Gallun, PhD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Auditory system functions, from peripheral sensitivity to central processing capacities, are all at risk from a blast event. Accurate encoding of auditory patterns in time, frequency, and space are required for a clear understanding of speech and accurate localization of sound sources in environments with background noise, multiple sound sources, and/or reverberation. Further work is needed to refine the battery of clinical tests sensitive to the sorts of central auditory dysfunction observed in individuals with blast exposure. Treatment options include low-gain hearing aids, remote-microphone technology, and auditory-training regimens, but clinical evidence does not yet exist for recommending one or more of these options. As this population ages, the natural aging process and other potential brain injuries (such as stroke and blunt trauma may combine with blast-related brain changes to produce a population for which the current clinical diagnostic and treatment tools may prove inadequate. It is important to maintain an updated understanding of the scope of the issues present in this population and to continue to identify those solutions that can provide measurable improvements in the lives of Veterans who have been exposed to high-intensity blasts during the course of their military service.

  4. Close-in Blast Waves from Spherical Charges*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, William; Kuhl, Allen

    2011-06-01

    We study the close-in blast waves created by the detonation of spherical high explosives (HE) charges, via numerical simulations with our Arbitrary-Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (200 μm per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in air, and the reflection of the blast wave from an ideal surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and air were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. The results were analyzed to evaluate the: (i) free air pressure-range curves: Δps (R) , (ii) free air impulse curves, (iii) reflected pressure-range curves, and (iv) reflected impulse-range curves. A variety of explosives were studied. Conclusions are: (i) close-in (R Heat of Detonation'' of the explosive (because close-in, there is not enough time to fully couple the chemical energy to the air via piston work); (iii) instead they are related to the detonation conditions inside the charge. Scaling laws will be proposed for such close-in blast waves.

  5. Effect of Foam Cladding for Blast Mitigation: Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Guowei; YE Ziqing; ZHANG Xingui

    2006-01-01

    Two numerical simulations were performed to investigate the protective effect of the foam cladding.One simulation is based on a previous experimental study,which is a ballistic pendulum with and without a foam cladding subjected to close-range blast loading.The other model is a steel beam with and without a foam cladding under blast loading.The overpressure due to the blast event can be calculated by the empirical function ConWep or by an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)coupling model.The first approach is relatively simple and widely used.The second approach can model the propagation of the blast wave in the air and the interaction between the air and the solid.Itis found that the pendulum with the foam cladding always swings to a larger rotation angel compared to a bare pendulum.However,the steel beam with an appropriate foam cladding has a smaller deflection compared to the bare beam without a foam cladding.It is concluded that the protective effect of the foam cladding depends on the properties of the foam and the protected structure.

  6. Rice blast research: improving our arsenal and using it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease is a constant threat to U.S. rice production, and there have been sporadic outbreaks of the disease for many decades. However, the U.S. southern rice growing area has been fortunate because the pathogen population has been relatively stable compared to other rice producing areas i...

  7. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  8. Blast wave injury prediction models for complex scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teland, J.A.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Blast waves from explosions can cause lethal injuries to humans. Development of injury criteria has been ongoing for many years, but with the main focus on free field conditions. However, with terrorist actions as a new threat, explosions in urban areas have become of much more interest. Urban areas

  9. Physical Modelling of Mine Blast Impact on Armoured Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochorishvili, Nika; Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Mataradze, Edgar; Akhvlediani, Irakli

    2016-10-01

    Studies related to the impact of a mine blast on armoured vehicles focus on aspects such as i) dynamic loads acting on the armoured vehicle at the moment of mine blast; ii) armoured vehicle response under the impact of a dynamic load; iii) dynamic loads acting on the crew and the assessment of potential human traumas. The paper presents similarity criteria for physical modelling of the mine blast under the armoured vehicle and the results of modelling of dynamic behaviour of vehicles. Similarity criteria, established as a result of the analysis of the governing parameters and similarity theory, are adequate to the processes of blast impact on the vehicle. Modelling experiments were conducted in the underground experimental base of the Mining Institute especially designed for the study of explosion processes. Physical modelling can be used for preliminary studies with the purpose of the evaluation of the protective level of armoured vehicles as well as for pre-testing experiments in accordance with STANAG 4569 requirements.

  10. Zinc-lead blast furnace—the key developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Derek

    1980-09-01

    Because of his close association with the zinc-lead blast furnace process, the author has chosen to draw on this source to examine some key metallurgical advances. In addition to discussing the importance of some of these developments in the context of the zinc-lead blast furnace, comment is made on the more general role of the blast furnace technique in nonferrous extractive metallurgy. Naturally, the lead splash condenser system, without which the zinc-lead blast furnace would never have operated, occupies first place. The development of lead cooling launders is considered after discussion of the adoption of top air additions to minimize the reoxidation of zinc vapor in its passage from the furnace charge to the condenser. Without these two improvements on the original concept large capacity plants could not have been built. In addition, the development of the updraft technique of zinc-lead sinter production is examined; without this operating costs would have been excessive and expansion of the process would have ceased.

  11. Drill and blast tunnelling; Konvensjonell drift av tunneler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenn, Paal-Egil

    1997-12-31

    This thesis treats drill and blast tunnelling. The rapid technological advance necessitates revised and updated design criteria, quality requirements and quality control. In situ blast experiments were carried out in order to test new methods and improve the basis for calculation and design. The main topics of the experiments were (1) longer rounds and increased drillhole diameter, (2) emulsion slurry as explosives in tunnelling, and (3) electronic detonators in contour blasting. The experiments show that it is technically feasible to blast rounds of up to 8.6 m length. Using current technology, the economical optimum round length is substantially shorter. Dust, low visibility, noise and toxic fumes are occupational environmental strains for the tunnel workers. Several of the environmental factors are strongly influenced by the type of explosives used. For example, emulsion slurry resulted in 4 to 5 times better visibility than Anolit and the concentration of respirable dust and total dust was reduced by 30-50 %. Electronic detonators were tested and found to give a higher percentage of remaining drillholes in the contour than Nonel detonators. The thesis includes a chapter on economic design of hydropower tunnels. 42 refs., 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  12. 29 CFR 1910.109 - Explosives and blasting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Explosive—any chemical compound, mixture, or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion, i.e., with substantially instantaneous release of gas and heat, unless such compound..., nitroglycerin, picric acid, lead azide, fulminate of mercury, black powder, blasting caps, and...

  13. Development of Experimental Tissue Models for Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin; Bo, Chiara; Williams, Alun; Jardine, Andy; Brown, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the relationship between the intensity of a blast wave and the clinical consequences for victims of an explosion. In order to quantitatively study how these factors correlate with one another, blast injury tissue models are being developed. Sections of larynx, trachea and pulmonary tissue were excised from a recently sacrificed pig and maintained on ice prior to testing. The samples were subjected to strain rates of between 0.001 s-1 and 1000 s-1 in the laboratory by using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and quasi-static testing apparatus. During high strain rate testing, samples were housed in a polycarbonate chamber which permitted experimentation on tissue held in fluid. Data were analysed using 1, 2 and 3 wave analysis software in Matlab to yield information about the material properties of both undamaged and damaged tissues. In addition, macroscopic changes in tissue organization were also visualized using histopathological techniques. This work is being extended to cellular and animal models to derive more detailed information about the underlying molecular changes relating to blast-induced damage and repair. The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies.

  14. Liquid Propellant Blast Yields for Delta IV Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    exterior shells shown in a layered construction. Unfortunately, the 3D model is too computationally intensive to run on a PC, and may even be too large to...Research Triangle Institute, Cocoa Beach, FL, 30 July 2004. LIQUID PROPELLANT BLAST YIELDS FOR DELTA IV HEAVY VEHICLES Ron R. Lambert ACTA Lompoc, CA

  15. Test methods for protective footwear against AP mine blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, D.S.; Williams, K.; Bass, C.R.; Magnan, P.; Dosquet, F.; Bergeron, D.M.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van

    2003-01-01

    The testing and development of protective footwear for anti-personnel landmine blast threats is of great importance to civilian and military deminers, and peacekeepers. This study will review the wide range of test methods that have been developed by NATO countries to test footwear against the effec

  16. Protective effects of decay-accelerating factor on blast-induced neurotrauma in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yansong; Chavko, Mikulas; Slack, Jessica L.; Liu, Bin; McCarron, Richard M.; Ross, James D. (Dalhousie University); Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J

    2013-01-01

    Background Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is the signature life threatening injury of current military casualties. Neuroinflammation is a key pathological occurrence of secondary injury contributing to brain damage after blast injury. We have recently demonstrated that blast-triggered complement activation and cytokine release are associated with BINT. Here, we evaluated if administration of the complement inhibitor recombinant human decay-accelerating factor (rhDAF) is beneficial on neuroi...

  17. Application of Matter Element Analysis Theory for Blasting Classification of Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The grading criterion of blasting classification, evaluating index and the characteristic value are taken as matter elements. First, the relational function is constructed according to the grading criterion, and then, the grade of rock blasting is evaluated by the comprehensive relational degree. The author has presented a system method of blasting classification of rock. The practical example proves that it is simple in calculation and reasonable in evaluation.

  18. Damage Characteristics of Surrounding Rock Subjected to VCR Mining Blasting Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Jiang; Chuanbo Zhou; Xuedong Luo; Shiwei Lu

    2015-01-01

    For limiting the damage range caused by explosive shock loads in vertical crater retreat (VCR) mining, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were studied by two methods: numerical simulation and ultrasonic testing. Combined with the mining blasting in Dongguashan Copper Mine of China, the VCR blasting shock characteristics under different conditions are obtained by using LSDYNA. Based on statistical fracture mechanics and damage mechanics theories, a damage constitutive mode...

  19. An Animal-to-Human Scaling Law for Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-28

    injury biomechanics (13–15, 17), the peak intra- cranial pressure was chosen as a characteristic metric of blast intensity transmitted to the brain tissue...Management, and Rehabilitation ( Springer , Berlin), pp 1–13. 7. Magnuson J, Leonessa F, Ling GSF (2012) Neuropathology of explosive blast traumatic brain...Front Neurol 3:70. 17. Sundaramurthy A, et al. (2012) Blast-induced biomechanical loading of the rat: An experimental and anatomically accurate

  20. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parichit; Mantri, Shrikant S

    2014-01-01

    The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC) clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture, explain design

  1. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichit Sharma

    Full Text Available The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture

  2. Trend analysis and comparison of basic parameters for tunnel blast design models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalili Soroush; Yavary Mehdi; Ebrahimabadi Arash

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors influencing on a tunnel blast efficiency is the proper design of blasting pattern. Among blasting parameters, blasthole diameter and tunnel face area are more significant so that any change in these parameters could finally affect on specific charge and specific drilling. There are mainly two groups of methods for tunnel blast design categorized based on the parallel cuts and angular cuts. In this research, a software for tunnel blast design was developed to analyze the effect and sensi-tiveness of blasthole diameter and the tunnel face area on blasting results in different blast design mod-els. Using the software, it is quickly possible to determine specific charge, specific drilling and number of blastholes for each blast design model. The relations between both of blasthole diameters and the tunnel face area with the above parameters in different blast design models were then investigated to yield a set of equations with the highest correlations to compare the methods. The results showed that angular method requires more blasthole numbers than parallel method in similar condition (blasthole diameter and tunnel face area). Moreover, the specific charge values yielded by the two methods are approximately the same and very close together.

  3. Antiknock Performance of Interlayered High-Damping-Rubber Blast Door under Thermobaric Shock Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiudi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The long duration and high impulse shock wave of thermobaric bomb threatens the security of underground structures. To obtain high resistance blast door against thermobaric shock wave, firstly, the dynamic mechanic property of high damping rubber was studied by split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB equipment and the stress-strain relationship of high damping rubber under average strain rate of 5200/s was obtained. Secondly, the numerical model of interlayered high-damping-rubber blast door was established with ANSYS/LS-DYNA code based on test results, and the antiknock performance of interlayered high-damping-rubber blast door under thermobaric shock wave was analyzed by contrast with ordinary blast door. The results showed that the midspan displacement of the blast door decreased firstly and then increased with the increase of thickness of the high-damping-rubber interlayer, and the optimal thickness of the high-damping-rubber interlayer for energy consuming was 150 mm in the calculation condition of this paper. With the increase of the distance between the interlayer and the front surface of the door, the midspan displacement of the blast door decreased continually. The midspan maximum displacement of interlayered high-damping-rubber blast door decreased 74.5% in comparison to ordinary blast door. It showed that the high-damping-rubber structure can effectively improve the antiknock performance of blast door under thermobaric shock wave.

  4. Application of the L-M optimized algorithm to predicting blast vibration parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-feng; YAO Dao-ping; XIE Zhai-zhao; YANG Jiang-feng; YE You-quan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Currently, the regression empirical formula with vibration peak as the safety index of single blasting vibration is widely applied in blasting engineering circles throughout the world. Due to complex blasting mechanism and blasting medium environment as well as plural influencing factors, it is difficult that all these factors can be taken into consideration by using one regression empirical formula. In addition, due to the inherent limitations of regression analysis (e.g., requiring good data distribution and large amount of samples), the vibration prediction by empirical formula is not ideal (LI, 1997; CHEN, 2001; ZHANG, 2001).

  5. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  6. Mechanical and histological characterization of trachea tissue subjected to blast-type pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B. J.; Bo, C.; Tucker, A. W.; Jardine, A. P.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2014-05-01

    Injuries to the respiratory system can be a component of polytrauma in blast-loading injuries. Tissues located at air-liquid interfaces, including such tissues in the respiratory system, are particularly vulnerable to damage by blast overpressures. There is a lack of information about the mechanical and cellular responses that contribute to the damage of this class of tissues subjected to the high strain rates associated with blast loading. Here, we describe the results of dynamic blast-like pressure loading tests at high strain rates on freshly harvested ex vivo trachea tissue specimens.

  7. Blast overpressure induced axonal injury changes in rat brainstem and spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasu Kallakuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blast induced neurotrauma has been the signature wound in returning soldiers from the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Of importance is understanding the pathomechansim(s of blast overpressure (OP induced axonal injury. Although several recent animal models of blast injury indicate the neuronal and axonal injury in various brain regions, animal studies related to axonal injury in the white matter (WM tracts of cervical spinal cord are limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of axonal injury in WM tracts of cervical spinal cord in male Sprague Dawley rats subjected to a single insult of blast OP. Materials and Methods: Sagittal brainstem sections and horizontal cervical spinal cord sections from blast and sham animals were stained by neurofilament light (NF-L chain and beta amyloid precursor protein immunocytochemistry and observed for axonal injury changes. Results: Observations from this preliminary study demonstrate axonal injury changes in the form of prominent swellings, retraction bulbs, and putative signs of membrane disruptions in the brainstem and cervical spinal cord WM tracts of rats subjected to blast OP. Conclusions: Prominent axonal injury changes following the blast OP exposure in brainstem and cervical spinal WM tracts underscores the need for careful evaluation of blast induced injury changes and associated symptoms. NF-L immunocytochemistry can be considered as an additional tool to assess the blast OP induced axonal injury.

  8. Bauxite Based Refractory Bricks for Hot Blast Stove YB/T 5016-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Chai Junlan

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements, test method, inspection rules, packing, marking, transportation, storage and quality certificate of bauxite based refractory bricks for hot blast stove.

  9. Demolition technique of high thin-wall hyperbolic reinforced concrete cool tower by directional controlled blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yong; Cui Xiaorong; Lu Hua

    2008-01-01

    Based on blasting demolition of high thin-wall hyperbolic reinforced concrete cool tower,by virtue of engi-neering practice of blasting the tube concrete structures,the analysis and research were made on the mechanism of cool tower collapse through selecting blasting parameters and selecting gap form,gap size and gap angle.The cool tower was twisted,collapsed directionally and broken weU according to the design requirements.The expected results and purpo-ses of blasting were obtained with no back blow,total blasted pile approximates to 4 ~ 5 m,no occurrence of flying stones and no damage to fixed buildings and equipment,the large-sized hyperbolic thin-wall reinforced concrete cool towers are twisted during blasting and it collapses well with good breaking.The test and measurement of blasting vibra-ting velocity was carried out during blasting and the measuring results are much less than critical values specified by Safety Regulations for Blasting.The study shows that gap form,gap size and gap angle are the key factors to cool tower collapse and will give beneficial references to related theoretical study and field application.

  10. Air Blasts from Cased and Uncased Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-12

    The problem of a spherical blast in air is solved using the STUN code. For bare charges, the calculations are shown to be in excellent agreement with previous published results. It is demonstrated that, for an unconfined (uncased) chemical explosive, both range and time to effect scale inversely as the cube root of the yield and directly as the cube root of the ambient air density. It is shown that the peak overpressure decays to roughly 1/10 of ambient pressure in a scaled range of roughly 10 m/kg1/3 at sea level. At a height of 30 km, where the ambient density is a factor of 64 less, the range to the same decay increases to 40 m/kg1/3 . As a direct result of the scaling a single calculation suffices for all charge sizes and altitudes. Although the close-in results are sensitive to the nature of the explosive source and the equation of state of the air, this sensitivity is shown to virtually disappear at scaled ranges > 0.5 m/kg1/3 . For cased explosives the case thickness introduces an additional scale factor. Moreover, when the blast wave arrives at the inner case radius the case begins to expand. Fracture occurs when a critical value of the resulting hoop strain is reached, causing the case to shatter into fragments. A model is proposed to describe the size distribution of the fragments and their subsequent motion via drag interaction with the explosion products and ambient air. It is shown that a significant fraction of the charge energy is initially transmitted to the case fragments in the form of kinetic energy; for example, a 1 kg spherical charge with a 5 mm thick steel case has almost 29% of the total charge energy as initial kinetic energy of case fragments. This percentage increases with increasing case thickness and decreases with increasing charge size. The peak overpressure at a given range is 70-85% for cased explosives as compared with uncased and the peak impulse per unit area is 90-95%. The peak overpressure and

  11. Precision Blasting Techniques For Avalanche Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kevin M.

    Experimental firings sponsored by the Center For Snow Science at Alta, Utah have demonstrated the potential of a unique prototype shaped charge device designed to stimulate snow pack and ice. These studies, conducted against stable snow pack, demonstrated a fourfold increase in crater volume yield and introduced a novel application of Shock Tube technology to facilitate position control, detonation and dud recovery of manually deployed charges. The extraordinary penetration capability of the shaped charge mechanism has been exploited in many non-military applications to meet a wide range of rapidpiercing and/or cutting requirements. The broader exploitation of the potential of the shaped charge mechanism has nevertheless remained confined to defence based applications. In the studies reported in this paper, the inimitable ability of the shaped charge mechanism to project shock energy, or a liner material, into a highly focussed energetic stream has been applied uniquely to the stimulation of snow pack. Recent research and development work, conducted within the UK, has resulted in the integration of shaped charge technology into a common Avalauncher and hand charge device. The potential of the common charge configuration and spooled Shock Tube fire and control system to improve the safety and cost effectiveness of explosives used in avalanche control operations was successfully demonstrated at Alta in March 2001. Future programmes of study will include focussed shock/blast mechanisms for suspended wire traverse techniques, application of the shaped charge mechanism to helibombing, and the desig n and development of non-fragmenting shaped charge ammunition formilitary artillery gun systems.

  12. A multiscale approach to blast neurotrauma modeling:Part II: Methodology for inducing blast injury to in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen B. Effgen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent role of improvised explosive devices (IEDs in wounding patterns of U.S. war-fighters in Iraq and Afghanistan, blast injury has risen to a new level of importance and is recognized to be a major cause of injuries to the brain. However, an injury risk-function for microscopic, macroscopic, behavioral, and neurological deficits has yet to be defined. While operational blast injuries can be very complex and thus difficult to analyze, a simplified blast injury model would facilitate studies correlating biological outcomes with blast biomechanics to define tolerance criteria. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI results from the translation of a shock wave in air, such as that produced by an IED, into a pressure wave within the skull-brain complex. Our blast injury methodology recapitulates this phenomenon in vitro, allowing for control of the injury biomechanics via a compressed-gas shock tube used in conjunction with a custom-designed, fluid-filled receiver that contains the living culture. The receiver converts the air shock wave into a fast-rising pressure transient with minimal reflections, mimicking the intracranial pressure history in blast. We have developed an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model that exhibits cell death when exposed to a 530  17.7 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.026 ± 0.017 ms duration and 190 ± 10.7 kPa-ms impulse in-air. We have also injured a simplified in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, which exhibits disrupted integrity immediately following exposure to 581  10.0 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.067 ms ± 0.006 ms duration and 222 ± 6.9 kPa-ms impulse in-air. To better prevent and treat bTBI, both the initiating biomechanics and the ensuing pathobiology must be understood in greater detail. A well-characterized, in vitro model of bTBI, in conjunction with animal models, will be a powerful tool for developing strategies to mitigate the risks of bTBI.

  13. Development and Application of Al2O3 - Si3N4 Refractories Used in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianming; LI Yong; KANG Huarong; DONG Shengying; XUE Wendong; SONG Wen

    2008-01-01

    Newly developed Al2O3-Si3N4 composite refracto-ries used for blast furnace is introduced in this work.Al2O3-Si3N4 composite refractories attacked by alkali vapor and blast Jhrnace slag was investigated. High per-formance Al2O3 -Si3N4 composite refractories was pro-duced and used at both 2 560 m3 blast furnaces of Tan-gsteel and No. 5 blast furnace of Shaosteel.

  14. File list: NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 No description Blood Leukemic blast cell ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 Input control Blood Leukemic blast cell h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  16. File list: NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell hg19 No description Blood Leukemic blast cell ...http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.05.AllAg.Leukemic_blast_cell.bed ...

  17. 75 FR 23589 - Safety Zones; Blasting Operations and Movement of Explosives, St. Marys River, Sault Sainte Marie...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Blasting Operations and Movement of... ensure the safety of the maritime community during blasting and dredging operations. DATES: Effective... action is needed to ensure the public's safety during blasting and dredging operations. Delaying...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1321 - Permits for firing more than 20 boreholes and for use of nonpermissible blasting units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for use of nonpermissible blasting units. 75.1321 Section 75.1321 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1321 Permits for firing more than 20 boreholes and for use of nonpermissible blasting units. (a) Applications for permits for firing more than 20 boreholes in...

  19. Effects of low-level blast exposure on the nervous system: Is there really a controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Elder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure blast waves can cause extensive CNS injury in humans. However, in combat settings such as Iraq and Afghanistan, lower level exposures associated with mild TBI (mTBI or subclinical exposure have been much more common. Yet controversy exists concerning what traits can be attributed to low-level blast, in large part due to the difficulty of distinguishing blast-related mTBI from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We describe how TBI is defined in humans and the problems posed in using current definitions to recognize blast-related mTBI. We next consider the problem of applying definitions of human mTBI to animal models, in particular that TBI severity in humans is defined in relation to alteration of consciousness at the time of injury, which typically cannot be assessed in animals. However, based on outcome assessments a condition of low-level blast exposure can be defined in animals that likely approximates human mTBI or subclinical exposure. We review blast injury modeling in animals noting that inconsistencies in experimental approach have contributed to uncertainty over the effects of low-level blast. Yet animal studies show that low-level blast pressure waves are transmitted to the brain. In brain low-level blast exposures cause behavioral, biochemical, pathological and physiological effects on the nervous system including the induction of PTSD-related behavioral traits in the absence of a psychological stressor. We review the relationship of blast exposure to chronic neurodegenerative diseases noting the paradoxical lowering of Abeta by blast, which along with other observations suggest that blast-related TBI is pathophysiologically distinct from non-blast TBI. Human neuroimaging studies show that blast-related mTBI is associated with a variety of chronic effects that are unlikely to be explained by co-morbid PTSD. We conclude that abundant evidence supports low-level blast as having long-term effects on the nervous system.

  20. Computational study of human head response to primary blast waves of five levels from three directions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhi Wang

    Full Text Available Human exposure to blast waves without any fragment impacts can still result in primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI. To investigate the mechanical response of human brain to primary blast waves and to identify the injury mechanisms of bTBI, a three-dimensional finite element head model consisting of the scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, nasal cavity, and brain was developed from the imaging data set of a human female. The finite element head model was partially validated and was subjected to the blast waves of five blast intensities from the anterior, right lateral, and posterior directions at a stand-off distance of one meter from the detonation center. Simulation results show that the blast wave directly transmits into the head and causes a pressure wave propagating through the brain tissue. Intracranial pressure (ICP is predicted to have the highest magnitude from a posterior blast wave in comparison with a blast wave from any of the other two directions with same blast intensity. The brain model predicts higher positive pressure at the site proximal to blast wave than that at the distal site. The intracranial pressure wave invariably travels into the posterior fossa and vertebral column, causing high pressures in these regions. The severities of cerebral contusions at different cerebral locations are estimated using an ICP based injury criterion. Von Mises stress prevails in the cortex with a much higher magnitude than in the internal parenchyma. According to an axonal injury criterion based on von Mises stress, axonal injury is not predicted to be a cause of primary brain injury from blasts.

  1. High-low-blasting technology and its application in methane dynamic disaster prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xian-zhong; LIN Bai-quan; YANG Wei; NI Guan-hua; LI Quan-gui

    2011-01-01

    The gas cooperative control model combined local pressure-relief with regional pressure-relief was established,based on the theory of multi-parameters cooperative.For the status of high gas contents,high in-situ stress and low-permeability of Ji-15 seam of No.12 coal mine in Pingmei Group.The law of detonation wave propagation and ground-stress change distribution were simulated by means of the finite element analysis software.The technology of high-low-blasting,composed of high blasting(deep crossing hole controlled hydraulic blasting) and low blasting (special roadway deep hole controlled blasting) were developed.The research shows that around control hole produce maximum tension fracture failure,and result in directional and controlled blasting,when the distance between control hole and blasting hole is 1.2 m.The theory makes blasting force and hydraulic force advantage superimpose,which raises the effect of pressure relief and permeability enhancements compared with general blasting.High blasting influence radius and low blasting influence radius superimposed with each other,that prevents methane dynamic disaster.The result of type approval test shows that the technology can increase gas permeability as high as 22.7~36.2 ratio,decrease gas pressure from 2.85 MPa to 0.30 MPa,increase drilling influence radius to about 9 m.The technology realizes regional overall permeability improvement,that provides a new technical measure for methane dynamic disaster prevention.

  2. Physics of shock tube simulated IED blast for mTBI research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Meijer, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand the blast propagation into the human skull and brain causing mTBI and use this knowledge for enabling design of effective protection measures against them. A shock tube including sensor system was optimized to simulate realistic IED blast profiles obta

  3. Assessment of the Knowledge of Blast Injuries Management among Physicians Working in Tripoli Hospitals (Libya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oun, Abdulhakim M; Hadida, Elmokhtar M; Stewart, Charles

    2017-03-08

    Introduction No study on hospital staff preparedness for managing blast injuries has been conducted in Libya. The internal conflict in Libya since 2011 and the difficulties faced by the hospitals has highlighted the need for such studies. Hypothesis Physicians working in Tripoli (capital city Libya) hospitals are inadequately prepared for the management of blast injuries.

  4. Experimental and Theoretical Study on Influence of Different Charging Structures on Blasting Vibration Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important parameter in blasting design, charging structure directly influences blasting effect. Due to complex conditions of this blasting and excavating engineering in Jiangsu, China, the authors carried out comparative researches with coupling structure, air-decoupling structure, and water-decoupling structure. After collecting, comparing, and analyzing produced signals on blasting vibration, the authors summarized that when proportional distances are the same, water-decoupling structure can reduce instantaneous energy of blasting vibration more effectively with more average rock fragmentation and less harm of dust. From the perspective of impedance matching, the present paper analyzed influence of charging structure on blasting vibration energy, demonstrating that impedance matching relationship between explosive and rock changes because of different charging structures. Through deducing relationship equation that meets the impedance matching of explosive and rock under different charging structures, the research concludes that when blasting rocks with high impedance, explosive with high impedance can better transmits blasting energy. Besides, when employing decoupling charging, there exists a reasonable decoupling coefficient helping realize impedance matching of explosive and rock.

  5. Study on Smooth-Blasting Results in Jointed and Fractured Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Factors that affect blasting results may be grouped into those factors that can be controlled and those that cannot be controlled. The controllable factors include explosive properties, initiation timing, and blast geometry. The uncontrollable factors comprise the rock’s natural structures, such as joints and fractures, and the properties, such as elastic constants, density and strength. Among these, the influence of rock structural planes often contributes a high degree of variability to blasting results. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of rock structural plane influences on smooth-blasting results based on elasticity and stress wave propagation theory with an emphasis on smooth blasting techniques. Two types of simulated experiments in lab (using strain and acoustic emission measurements) are used to verify the theoretical analysis. The results show that it is difficult to achieve smooth-blasting results when the angle between the natural rock structural planes and the blast-induced fracture planes ranges from 10° to 60°. Among these angles, 30° is the least desirable angle to produce a smooth wall. For angles less than 10° and greater than 60°, the influence of rock structural planes on blasting results can be ignored.

  6. Cordierite Bricks for Ceramic Burner of Hot Blast Stove YB/T 4128-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaohui; Chai Junlan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,brand,technical requirements,shape and dimension,test method,quality appraisal procedure,packing,marking,transportation,storage and quality certificate of cordierite bricks for ceramic burner of blast furnace and hot blast stove.

  7. Blast event simulation for a structure subjected to a landmine explosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Vlahopoulos, N.; Stabryla, T.J.; Goetz, R.; Velde, R. van de

    2006-01-01

    One of the main threats to military vehicles originates from landmine blasts. In order to improve the survivability of the occupants it is important to design a military vehicle for increased occupant safety. Simulation technology that combines modeling of the blast loads from the landmine explosion

  8. Grit blasting of medical stainless steel: implications on its corrosion behavior, ion release and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, J C; Saldaña, L; Multigner, M; Calzado-Martín, A; Larrea, M; Serra, C; Vilaboa, N; González-Carrasco, J L

    2012-03-01

    This study reports on the biocompatibility of 316 LVM steel blasted with small and rounded ZrO(2) particles or larger and angular shaped Al(2)O(3) particles. The effect of blasting on the in vitro corrosion behavior and the associated ion release is also considered. Surface of Al(2)O(3) blasted samples was rougher than that of ZrO(2) blasted samples, which was also manifested by a higher surface area. Compared to the polished alloy, blasted steels exhibited a lower corrosion resistance at the earlier stages of immersion, particularly when using Al(2)O(3) particles. With increasing immersion time, blasted samples experienced an improvement of the corrosion resistance, achieving impedance values typical of passive alloys. Blasting of the alloy led to an increase in Fe release and the leaching of Ni, Mn, Cr and Mo. On all surfaces, ion release is higher during the first 24 h exposure and tends to decrease during the subsequent exposure time. Despite the lower corrosion resistance and higher amount of ions released, blasted alloys exhibit a good biocompatibility, as demonstrated by culturing osteoblastic cells that attached and grew on the surfaces.

  9. 30 CFR 57.22604 - Blasting from the surface (II-B mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (II-B mines). 57.22604 Section 57.22604 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22604 Blasting from...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22603 - Blasting from the surface (II-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (II-A mines). 57.22603 Section 57.22603 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22603 Blasting from...

  11. Effect of the Location of the Detonation Initiation Point for Bench Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uneven floor and fragmentation play an important role in blasting operations due to the direct effects on the efficiency of hauling and loading. This paper focuses on the influences of initiation position on bench blasting in order to improve blasting effects. The numerical simulations of bench blasting at different initiation points (top, middle, and bottom are implemented based on secondary development of LS-DYNA with a tensile-compressive damage model. The damage spatial distribution characteristics of different initiation points are compared. The outlines of rock foundation and boulder areas are analyzed with the damage threshold of critical breakage that is ascertained by acoustic characteristic of damage rock mass. Results of the numerical simulations demonstrate that different initiation points make a great influence on the stress and energy distribution in blasting process and induce different blasting effects. Middle initiation turns out to be the best initiation to increase the flatness of the floor and decrease the oversize boulder ratio simultaneously, which will increase the damage areas of the bottom and top regions and give a better blasting effect. Field experiment in Baihetan Station was carried out to validate conclusions of numerical simulation. Research could provide a good reference for the improvement of rock blasting.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 173 - Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) D Appendix D to Part 173 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE...—Test Methods for Dynamite (Explosive, Blasting, Type A) 1. Test method D-1—Leakage Test A wooden...

  13. Blasting chamber of the mine water stained; Voladuras de avance en labores subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo Perlado, J. F.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the main parameters that lay out a developed blast in underground mining are studied. Such parameters affect the geometry of the draft scheme so as to get a regular cut with a minimum consumption of explosive in order to reduce the vibrations caused by blasting. (Author)

  14. Blasting forward in underground work; Voladuras de camara de la mina de Aguas Tenidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Maneiro, C. H.; Maqueda Jimenez, S.; Pazos Perez, L.; Carnero Ortiz, F.

    2012-11-01

    This paper explains the drilling and blasting techniques of stopes in Aguas Tenidas Mine (Huelva, Spain), including slot raises and slots. Highights are: application of electronic detonators and a 30'' hole in slot raise blasts, ANFO uphole chrging of 89 mm holes and high productive fan drillin, in order to maintain stoping production of 150.000 t/month. (Author)

  15. Simulation for the powder movement and accumulation in the lower part of blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takashi [Mineral Resources Research Center, Nippon Steel Technoresearch, Futtsu-shi Chiba (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of unburnt char and coke powder in the blast furnace becomes material for discussion with the increase in injection rate of pulverized coal into the blast furnace. An analysis was made as to the simulation of powder accumulation at the deadman and dripping zone of blast furnace by using a powder/gas two-phases flow experimental data. When an excessive powder has penetrated at a low gas velocity, it brings an increment in holdup and the controlling factors are powder/gas ratio and gas velocity. An empirical formula used for estimating the powder hold-up in the blast furnace internal conditions has proposed based on similarity. The controlling {pi} numbers are Floude number, powder/gas ratio and particle diameter ratio of powder/lump. This empirical formular was connected with Blast Furnace Total Model `BRIGHT` for the simulation of powder amount distribution in the lower part of blast furnace. When Powder diameter Dk exceeds 100 {mu} and gas velocity becomes lower than 0.7m/s at PC1OOkg/T, the powder tends to accumulate in the deadman. These results was available for the decision of optimum blast conditions and optimum powder diameter in the high amount of pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace. (author) 10 refs.

  16. Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.

    2011-11-01

    Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.

  17. GPS network observation of traveling ionospheric disturbances following the Chelyabinsk meteorite blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Mao, Tian; Hu, Lianhuan; Ning, Baiqi; Wan, Weixing; Wang, Yungang

    2016-11-01

    We use the Global Positioning System (GPS) network in northwest China and central Asia to monitor traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), which were possibly excited by the large meteorite blast over Chelyabinsk, Russia, on 15 February 2013. Two TIDs were observed. The first TID was observed 13 min after the blast within a range of 270-600 km from the blast site. It propagated radially from the blast site with a mean velocity and period of 369 m s-1 and 12 min, respectively. The second TID was found in northwest China, 1.5 h after the time of the blast, at ˜ 2500-3100 km from the blast site. This latter TID propagated southeastward with a velocity and period of 410 m s-1 and 23 min, respectively. Severe dissipation of the perturbation total electronic content (TEC) amplitude was observed. Any TIDs propagating in a global range was not found after the meteorite blast. Features of TIDs were compared with those excited by early nuclear explosion tests. It is inferred from our analysis that the energy release of the Chelyabinsk meteorite blast may not be large enough to excite such ionospheric disturbances in a global range as some nuclear explosions did.

  18. Studies on durable resistance of rice to blast in different latitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUErming; PENGShaoqiu; HUANGFeiyuan; XIAOFanghua

    1996-01-01

    It has been an important problem on resistant breeding that cultivar's resistance of rice to blast disease eaused by Magnaporthe grisea(Hebert)Barr. is easily broken down. In order to find out resources with durable, resistance to blast, the study was carried put during 1990-1994.

  19. Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

    2011-08-01

    The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

  20. Thermal Spray Coatings for Blast Furnace Tuyere Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A.; Sivakumar, G.; Prusty, D.; Shalini, J.; Dutta, M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The components in an integrated steel plant are invariably exposed to harsh working environments involving exposure to high temperatures, corrosive gases, and erosion/wear conditions. One such critical component in the blast furnace is the tuyere, which is prone to thermal damage by splashing of molten metal/slag, erosive damage by falling burden material, and corrosion from the ensuing gases. All the above, collectively or independently, accelerate tuyere failure, which presents a potential explosion hazard in a blast furnace. Recently, thermal spray coatings have emerged as an effective solution to mitigate such severe operational challenges. In the present work, five different coatings deposited using detonation spray and air plasma spray techniques were comprehensively characterized. Performance evaluation involving thermal cycling, hot corrosion, and erosion tests was also carried out. Based on the studies, a coating system was suggested for possible tuyere applications and found to yield substantial improvement in service life during actual field trials.

  1. AN ENHANCED DETECTION ALGORITHM FOR V-BLAST SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Xin; Yi Kechu; Tian Bin; Sun Yongjun

    2006-01-01

    A decoding method complemented by Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection for V-BLAST (Vertical Bell Labs Layered Space-Time) system is presented. The ranked layers are divided into several groups. ML decoding is performed jointly for the layers within the same group while the Decision Feedback Equalization (DFE) is performed for groups. Based on the assumption of QPSK modulation and the quasi-static flat fading channel, simulations are made to testify the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the algorithm outperforms the original V-BLAST detection dramatically in Symbol Error Probability (SEP) performance. Specifically, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement of 3.4dB is obtained for SEP of 10-2 (4×4case), with a reasonable complexity maintained.

  2. [Blasting damage in manmade disasters and terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M

    2012-01-01

    In the present case of explosive injuries in peacetime, when suddenly there are usually accidental or intentional explosions methane in mines, tanks with gas or explosives, fuel tanks or gas content, gas tanks, gas pipelines, product pipelines, as well as the explosion of military ordnance--grenades, mines, fuses, shells, and accidentally found child or maliciously used by terrorists. Collected statistical data on manmade disasters in coal mines and explosive injuries in terrorist attacks, the physical parameters of which were able to identify only approximately and type of damage incurred,mostly multiple and combinative combined and presented significant challenges in health care. The reasons and circumstances of the explosion in peacetime, gave a detailed description of the damaging factors, mechanisms, and characteristics arise from injuries suffered in the blast injuries. We describe the pathogenesis of blast injury, basic and clinical manifestations of lesions in the explosions.

  3. The propagation of blast pulses through dampened granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Henry; Chalmers, Max; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien Ngoc; Proud, William Graham

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of stress through granular and dampened granular material has been reported previously, the addition of significant amounts of liquid in granular beds causes the mechanism of transmission of blast from one of percolation through the bed pores to one of stress transmission through the granules of the bed. It has been shown, however, that limited amounts liquid can retard propagation within blast-loaded beds by approximately an order of magnitude. This paper presents data on percolation through dampened granular beds using a shock tube as the pressure driver. The effect of particle shape and size was investigated using angular grains of quartz sand as well as smooth glass microspheres. The effect of addition of small amounts of liquids is presented.

  4. Damage Assessment for Buried Structures Against Internal Blast Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Guowei; HUANG Xin; LI Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    The soil-structure interaction(SSI)decoupling is applied to simplify buried structure against internal blast lpad as spring effect.Shear failure.bending failure and Combined failure modes are considered based on five transverse velocity profiles for the rigid-plastic structural element.The critical equations for shear and bending failure are derived respectively.Pressure impulse diagrams are accordingly developed to assess damage of the buried structures against internal blast lpad.Cornparison is done to show influences of soil-structure interaction and shear to-bending strength ratio of a structural element.A case study is conducted to show the application of damage assessment to a reinforced concrete beam element of buried structure.

  5. Description of Muzzle Blast by Modified Ideal Scaling Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Fansler

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Gun blast data from a large variety of weapons are scaled and presented for both the instantaneous energy release and the constant energy deposition rate models. For both ideal explosion models, similar amounts of data scatter occur for the peak overpressure but the instantaneous energy release model correlated the impulse data significantly better, particularly for the region in front of the gun. Two parameters that characterize gun blast are used in conjunction with the ideal scaling models to improve the data correlation. The gun-emptying parameter works particularly well with the instantaneous energy release model to improve data correlation. In particular, the impulse, especially in the forward direction of the gun, is correlated significantly better using the instantaneous energy release model coupled with the use of the gun-emptying parameter. The use of the Mach disc location parameter improves the correlation only marginally. A predictive model is obtained from the modified instantaneous energy release correlation.

  6. Structural concrete elements subjected to air blast loading

    OpenAIRE

    Magnusson, Johan

    2007-01-01

    In the design of structures to resist the effects of air blast loading or other severe dynamic loads it is vital to have large energy absorbing capabilities, and structural elements with large plastic deformation capacities are therefore desirable. Structures need to be designed for ductile response in order to prevent partial or total collapse due to locally failed elements. The research in this thesis considers experimental and theoretical studies on concrete beams of varying concrete stren...

  7. Blast Mitigation Seat Analysis: Drop Tower Data Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    particular seat with green or red, respectively, for the 5 th percentile female during 350 g tests . Lumbar compression is red or yellow (meaning at least...occurs, which is not common in drop tower testing unless a roof structure is installed over the seat. The 5 th percentile female was most sensitive...MODELING & SIMULATION, TESTING AND VALIDATION (MSTV) TECHNICAL SESSION AUGUST 12-14, 2014 - NOVI, MICHIGAN BLAST MITIGATION SEAT ANALYSIS – DROP TOWER

  8. Blast/Fire Interactions, Asilomar Conference, May 1980,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    shelter. In reality, there may be large columns that are continuous into the basement. The failure of these columns may also fail the basement roof slab ...expedient shelter after the blast testing at MILL RACE was also suggested. The WES-proposed waffle slab experiment was not recommended for inclusion. An...50-psi range, it is necessary to select a floor system that is initially strong. For this reason, reinforced concrete (R/C) slabs are chosen for

  9. Building Comfort Analysis Using BLAST: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Models were recently incorporated into the BLAST program. These are the Pierce, KSU, and Fanger models. All three are well recognized models in ASHRAE...program were developed. The new report is invoked by specifying the name of the comfort model desired (i.e., Pierce, Fanger , or KSU), and by adding the...number 123 to the reports statement in the input deck. For example, the following statement would generate reports using the Fanger and Pierce models

  10. ROCK MASS DAMAGED ZONE CAUSED BY BLASTING DURING TUNNEL EXCAVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hrvoje Antičević; Mario Dobrilović; Hrvoje Perković

    2012-01-01

    Design of underground spaces, including tunnels, and repositories for radioactive waste include the application of the same or similar technologies. Tunnel excavation by blasting inevitably results in the damage in the rock mass around the excavation profile. The damage in the rock mass immediately next to the tunnel profile emerges as the expanding of the existing cracks and the appearance of new cracks, i.e. as the change of the physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass. Concernin...

  11. Application of coupled analysis methods for prediction of blast-induced dominant vibration frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Jianchun; Xia, Xiang; Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-03-01

    Blast-induced dominant vibration frequency (DVF) involves a complex, nonlinear and small sample system considering rock properties, blasting parameters and topography. In this study, a combination of grey relational analysis and dimensional analysis procedures for prediction of dominant vibration frequency are presented. Six factors are selected from extensive effect factor sequences based on grey relational analysis, and then a novel blast-induced dominant vibration frequency prediction is obtained by dimensional analysis. In addition, the prediction is simplified by sensitivity analysis with 195 experimental blast records. Validation is carried out for the proposed formula based on the site test database of the firstperiod blasting excavation in the Guangdong Lufeng Nuclear Power Plant (GLNPP). The results show the proposed approach has a higher fitting degree and smaller mean error when compared with traditional predictions.

  12. Surface Smoothing of Blasted Glass Micro-Channels Using Abrasive Waterjet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Sunggyun; Han, Solyi; Kim, Wookbae [Korea Polytechnic Univ., Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Inha [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Powder blasting, which is an efficient micromachining method for glass, silicon, and ceramics, has a critical disadvantage in that the surface finish is poor owing to the brittle fracture of materials. Low-pressure waterjet machining can be applied to smoothen the rough surface inside the blasted structure. In this study, the surface roughness and sectional dimension of micro-channels are observed during the repetitive application of a waterjet to blasted micro-channels. The asperities and subsurface cracks created by blasting are removed by waterjet machining. Along with the surface roughness, it is found that the sectional dimension increases and the edges of the finished micro-channel become slightly round. Finally, a microfluidic chip is machined by the blasting-waterjet process and a transparent microfluidic channel is obtained efficiently.

  13. [Atmospheric pollution and chronic respiratory diseases in the blast-furnace areas of iron-works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, D; Valente, T; Rotunno, R; Giusto, R

    1977-01-01

    An epidemiologic research together with a study on the environmental pollution were carried out in order to evaluate the risk of chronic respiratory diseases of blast furnace workers. The environment study was performed mainly using personal samplers given to workers with different jobs. Observations on 222 work shifts have shown that the total dust concentration to which cast workmen, maintenance men and blast furnace service men were exposed, marginally exceed the TLV values. Furthermore the level of respirable dusts for blast furnace service men was found slightly excessive. The average SO2 concentration was largely below the TLV values. However this gas could be found in excess for very short periods during the work. The epidemiologic study, conducted on a cohort of blast furnace area workers against a control group cohort, indicated a moderate prevalence of pneumoconiosis and chronic bronchitis amongst blast furnaces workers. The clinic and radiological pictures do not seem to go beyond the initial stages.

  14. Structural safety criteria for blasting vibration based on wavelet packet energy spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Guosheng; Li Jiang; Zhao Kui

    2011-01-01

    Given multi-resolution decomposition of wavelet packet transforms, wavelet packet frequency band energy has been deduced from different bands of blasting vibration signals. Our deduction reflects the total effect of all three key elements (intensity, frequency and duration of vibration) of blasting vibration.We considered and discuss the dynamic response of structures and the effect of inherent characteristics of controlled structures to blasting vibration. Frequency band response coefficients for controlled structures by blasting vibration have been obtained. We established multi-factor blasting vibration safety criteria, referred to as response energy criteria. These criteria reflect the total effect of intensity,frequency and duration of vibration and the inherent characteristics (natural frequency and damping ratio) of dynamic responses from controlled structures themselves. Feasibility and reliability of the criteria are validated by an example.

  15. Numerical simulations of blast wave characteristics with a two-dimensional axisymmetric room model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Y.; Homae, T.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper numerically visualizes explosion phenomena in order to discuss blast wave characteristics with a two-dimensional axisymmetric room model. After the shock wave exits via an opening, the blast wave propagates into open space. In the present study, a parametric study was conducted to determine the blast wave characteristics from the room exit by changing the room shape and the mass of the high explosive. Our results show that the blast wave characteristics can be correctly estimated using a scaling factor proposed in the present paper that includes the above parameters. We conducted normalization of the peak overpressure curve using the shock overpressure at the exit and the length scale of the room volume. In the case where the scaling factor has the same value, the normalized peak overpressure curve does not depend on the calculation conditions, and the scaling factor describes the blast wave characteristics emerging from the current room model.

  16. In-Tunnel Blast Pressure Empirical Formulas for Detonations External, Internal and at the Tunnel Entrance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiudi; ZHENG Yingren

    2006-01-01

    In order to define the loading on protective doors of an underground tunnel,the exact knowledge of the blast propagation through tunnels is needed.Thirty-three scale high-explosive tests are conducted to obtain in-tunnel blast pressure for detonations external,internal and at the tunnel entrance.The cross section of the concrete model tunnel is 0.67 m2.Explosive charges of TNT,ranging in mass from 400 g to 4 600 g,are detonated at various positions along the central axis of the model tunnel.Blast gages are flush-installed in the interior surface of the tunnel to record side-on blast pressure as it propagates down the tunnel.The engineering empirical formulas for predicting blast peak pressure are evaluated,and are found to be reasonably accurate for in-tunnel pressure prediction.

  17. Implementation and field demonstration of PacketBLAST system for tactical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidwerbetsky, Alex; Beacken, Marc; Romain, Dennis; Girone, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) wireless communications vastly expand the capacity and connectivity of communications for forces operating in challenging environments such as urban or forested terrain. A MIMO architecture called BLAST (Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time) has been formulated to realize these capacities. We have developed a packet version of BLAST, called PacketBLAST, specifically to support high mobility, ad-hoc, tactical communications on the move in challenging environments. PacketBLAST offers a number of benefits to tactical communications. We have implemented a first-ever, end-to-end mobile, ad-hoc network (MANET) of PacketBLAST nodes and have successfully tested it in a number of field demonstrations.

  18. Development and Identification of Novel Rice Blast Resistant Sources and Their Characterization Using Molecular Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S J S RAMA DEVI; M. S. MADHAV; Kuldeep SINGH; B UMAKANTH; B VISHALAKSHI; P RENUKA; K. VIJAY SUDHAKAR; M. S. PRASAD3; B. C. VIRAKTAMATH; V. RAVINDRA BABU

    2015-01-01

    To develop and characterize introgression lines for leaf and neck blast resistance, 326 introgression lines were developed using various accessions of six different AA genome wild species in the genetic background of elite Indian varieties like PR114 and Pusa 44 and were screened for blast resistance. Stringent phenotyping coupled with genotyping using gene based markers led to the identification of four resistant introgression lines, which showed promising resistance and do not possess any of the tested genes. Furthermore, multi-location screening confirmed the field resistance of the four introgression lines to both leaf and neck blast. Molecular characterization of these introgression lines using genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers revealed the presence of small percentage of wildOryza genome introgrssion. So these lines can be used for mapping and identification of novel leaf and neck blast resistance genes. Thus, these four introgression lines can be considered as new genetic resources for blast resistance.

  19. Remote operated vehicle with carbon dioxide blasting (ROVCO{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, A.M. [Oceaneering International, Inc., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Remote Operated Vehicle with Carbon Dioxide Blasting (ROVCO{sub 2}), as shown in a front view is a six-wheeled remote land vehicle used to decontaminate concrete floors. The remote vehicle has a high pressure Cryogenesis blasting subsystem, Oceaneering Technologies (OTECH) developed a CO{sub 2} xY Orthogonal Translational End Effector (COYOTEE) subsystem, and a vacuum/filtration and containment subsystem. The cryogenesis subsystem performs the actual decontamination work and consists of the dry ice supply unit, the blasting nozzle, the remotely controlled electric and pneumatic valves, and the vacuum work-head. The COYOTEE subsystem positions the blasting work-head within a planar work space and the vacuum subsystem provides filtration and containment of the debris generated by the CO{sub 2} blasting. It employs a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtration unit to separate contaminants for disposal. All of the above systems are attached to the vehicle subsystem via the support structure.

  20. Heating of X-Ray Hot Gas in Groups by Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Y

    2001-01-01

    In order to find the conditions which determine whether X-Ray hot gas in galaxy groups (intragroup gas; IGG) is heated externally or internally, we investigate the evolution of blast waves in galaxy groups growing on a hierarchical clustering scenario. We find that the blast waves driven by quasars are confined in groups and heat the IGG internally at z~ 1, they expel the IGG from groups; the expelled gas may fall back into the groups later as externally heated gas. Moreover, this may explain the observed low metal abundance of IGG. For blast waves driven by strong starbursts, the shift of the fate of blast waves occurs at z~ 3. On the other hand, although blast waves driven by weak starbursts do not expel IGG from groups, the heating efficiency decreases at z>~ 3 because of radiative cooling. It will be useful to compare these results with XMM-Newton observations.

  1. PRESSURE-IMPULSE DIAGRAM OF MULTI-LAYERED ALUMINUM FOAM PANELS UNDER BLAST PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANG-SU SHIM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-terror engineering has increasing demand in construction industry, but basis of design (BOD is normally not clear for designers. Hardening of structures has limitations when design loads are not defined. Sacrificial foam claddings are one of the most efficient methods to protect blast pressure. Aluminum foam can have designed yield strength according to relative density and mitigate the blast pressure below a target transmitted pressure. In this paper, multi-layered aluminum foam panels were proposed to enhance the pressure mitigation by increasing effective range of blast pressure. Through explicit finite element analyses, the performance of blast pressure mitigation by the multi-layered foams was evaluated. Pressure-impulse diagrams for the foam panels were developed from extensive analyses. Combination of low and high strength foams showed better applicability in wider range of blast pressure.

  2. Working toward exposure thresholds for blast-induced traumatic brain injury: thoracic and acceleration mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.05.025

    2011-01-01

    Research in blast-induced lung injury resulted in exposure thresholds that are useful in understanding and protecting humans from such injury. Because traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure has become a prominent medical and military problem, similar thresholds should be identified that can put available research results in context and guide future research toward protecting warfighters as well as diagnosis and treatment. At least three mechanical mechanisms by which the blast wave may result in brain injury have been proposed - a thoracic mechanism, head acceleration and direct cranial transmission. These mechanisms need not be mutually exclusive. In this study, likely regions of interest for the first two mechanisms based on blast characteristics (positive pulse duration and peak effective overpressure) are developed using available data from blast experiments and related studies, including behind-armor blunt trauma and ballistic pressure wave studies. These related studies are appropriate to in...

  3. Damage of the auditory system associated with acute blast trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, M; Hamernik, R P; Turrentine, G A

    1989-05-01

    This paper reviews the results of several studies on the effects of blast wave exposure on the auditory system of the chinchilla, the pig, and the sheep. The chinchillas were exposed at peak sound pressure levels of approximately 160 dB under well-controlled laboratory conditions. A modified shock tube was used to generate the blast waves. The pigs and sheep were exposed under field conditions in an instrumented hard-walled enclosure. Blast trauma was induced by the impact of a single explosive projectile. The peak sound pressure levels varied between 178 and 209 dB. All animals were killed immediately following exposure, and their temporal bones were removed for fixation and histologic analysis using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Middle ears were examined visually for damage to the conductive system. There were well-defined differences in susceptibility to acoustic trauma among species. However, common findings in each species were the acute mechanical fracture and separation of the organ of Corti from the basilar membrane, and tympanic membrane and ossicular failure.

  4. Lumped mass modeling of overburden motion during explosive blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamaun, J. T.

    1981-02-01

    The in situ extraction of oil from most oil shale beds is highly dependent upon explosive fracturing and rubbling of rock in a controlled and predictable manner. Besides the rubbling requirement, it is also important that the surrounding rock remain competent to minimize fluid leakage during processing. For rubbling concepts in which the overburden is explosively lifted to provide the required void in an oil shale zone, an engineering lumped mass model has been devised to describe the motion of the overburden. The model simulates the overburden as an array of interacting lumped masses which are loaded from below with a time-dependent force to approximate the explosive load. Correlation with experimental data obtained from field blasting operations shows that this model will provide an adequate approximation of overburden behavior. The basic features of the model are described in the report along with the correlations with field data. Results from several parametric studies are also presented which were used to aid in blast design. This lumped mass model can be extended to include other parameters and has potential for the study of other related blasting situations.

  5. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  6. Blast impact behaviour of concrete with different fibre reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drdlová Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the results of the development of special concrete intended for the explosion resistance applications, with the emphasis on minimal secondary fragments formation at the explosion. The fine-grained concrete matrix has been reinforced by various types of short dispersed fibers (metallic, mineral and polymer of different sizes and by their combination and the effect of the fibre reinforcement on the physico-mechanical properties and blast resistance was observed. The concrete prism specimens have been subjected to the determination of mechanical parameters (compressive and flexural strength at quasi-static load. The blast tests were conducted on the slab specimens prepared from selected mixtures. The material characteristics and explosion test data have been used for numerical investigation, which defined the optimal wall composition and dimensions of the concrete element which should resist the explosion defined by type, size, weight and placement of the blast. In the next step the test elements resistance was verified by real explosion test.

  7. Blast testing and analysis of composite steel stud wall panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesevich, J.W.; Lowak, M.J.; Hu, W.; Bingham, B.L. [Baker Engineering and Risk Consultants Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Hallisy, J. [Fiberwrap Composite Technologies, Calverton, NY (United States); Calcetas, P. [Lafarge North America, Concord, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described a novel modular blast resistant composite steel stud wall panel system. The system was manufactured by casting steel studs with thin, high-strength concrete. Ten composite panel design specimens were evaluated and tested at a shock tube test facility. Specimens included both 12 and 16 gauge 6 inch cold-formed double or single studs spaced at either 12 or 16 inches on center. Samples also included both steam and ambient cured concretes with steel or organic fibers ranging in thickness between 1 and 2 inches. A welded wire mesh within the concrete layer was used to provide composite action. Results of the blast tests showed that the composite panels achieved minimal damage levels under applied blast loads, which ranged from between 15.9 psi to 205 psi. Peak dynamic reflections ranged from between 2.75 increase to 12 inches. It was concluded that finite element models and single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses showed good agreement with the experimental studies.

  8. Blast wave attenuation by lightly destructable granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, V. V.; Lu, F. K.; Medin, S. A.; Mirova, O. A.; Parshikov, A. N.; Petukhov, V. A.; Volodin, V. V.

    Terrorist bombings are a dismal reality nowadays. One of the most effective ways for protection against blast overpressure is the use of lightly compacted materials such as sand [1] and aqueous foam [2] as a protective envelope or barrier. According to [1], shock wave attenuation in a mine tunnel (one-dimensional case) behind a destroyed object is given by q_e ≈ q {1}/{1 + 4(S/q)^{1/6} bρ _{mat} /L^{1/3} }where qe — effective charge, S — exposed area of the obstacle, q — TNT equivalent (grams), L — distance between charge and obstacle, b — obstacle thickness and ρ mat — material density. This empirical equation is applicable only in a one-dimensional case but not for a less confined environment. Another way of protecting a structure against blast is to coat the surface with a sacrificial layer. In [3] full-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the behaviour of a covering of aluminum foam under the effect of a blast wave.

  9. Submillimeter Number Counts From Statistical Analysis of BLAST Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Patanchon, Guillaume; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2009-01-01

    We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from the confusion limited observations of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyse BLAST observations of a roughly 10 sq. deg map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths, 250, 350, and 500 microns, instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with ...

  10. Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Pathak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today‟s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS and this material is obtained from the blast furnace of cement plant, which is the byproduct of iron (from ACC plant, sindri. It is generally obtained in three shaped one is air cooled, foamed shaped and another is in granulated shaped. The use of by-product materials for stabilisation has environmental and economic benefits. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS material is used in the current work to stabilise soil (clay. The main objectives of this research were to investigate the effect of GGBS on the engineering property (optimum moisture content and maximum dry density, plastic limit, liquid limit, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, triaxial and California bearing ratio test of the soil and determine the engineering properties of the stabilised.

  11. Shock initiated reactions of reactive multi-phase blast explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis; Granier, John; Johnson, Richard; Littrell, Donald

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a new class of non-ideal explosive compositions made of perfluoropolyether (PFPE), nanoaluminum, and a micron-size, high mass density, reactive metal. Unlike high explosives, these compositions release energy via a fast self-oxidized combustion wave rather than a true self-sustaining detonation. Their reaction rates are shock dependent and they can be overdriven to change their energy release rate. These compositions are fuel rich and have an extended aerobic energy release phase. The term "reactive multiphase blast" refers to the post-dispersion blast behavior: multiphase in that there are a gas phase that imparts pressure and a solid (particulate) phase that imparts energy and momentum [1]; and reactive in that the hot metal particles react with atmospheric oxygen and the explosive gas products to give an extended pressure pulse. Tantalum-based RMBX formulations were tested in two spherical core-shell configurations - an RMBX shell exploded by a high explosive core, and an RMBX core imploded by a high explosive shell. The fireball and blast characteristics were compared to a C-4 baseline charge.

  12. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  13. ROCK MASS DAMAGED ZONE CAUSED BY BLASTING DURING TUNNEL EXCAVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Antičević

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Design of underground spaces, including tunnels, and repositories for radioactive waste include the application of the same or similar technologies. Tunnel excavation by blasting inevitably results in the damage in the rock mass around the excavation profile. The damage in the rock mass immediately next to the tunnel profile emerges as the expanding of the existing cracks and the appearance of new cracks, i.e. as the change of the physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass. Concerning the design of deep geological repositories, requirements in terms of damaged rock are the same or more rigorous than for the design of tunnel. The aforementioned research is directed towards determining the depth of damage zone caused by blasting. The depth of the damage zone is determined by measuring the changes of physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass around the tunnel excavation profile. By this research the drilling and blasting parameters were correlated with the depth and size of the damage zone (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Analysis of rice blast resistance genes by QTL mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jichen; WANG Jiulin; LING Zhongzhuan; ZHU Lihuang

    2004-01-01

    Resistance to rice blast pathogen mostly shows a quantitative trait controlled by several minor genes. Its complexity and the mutable characteristic of rice blast isolates both hinder the development of the blast resistance research. The article here tried to explore the resistance gene distribution on rice chromosomes and the way of function. Totally 124 QTLs have been identified against 20 isolates using Cartographer software with a ZYQ8/JX17 DH population, which separately are at 100 loci of 72 marker intervals on 12 rice chromosomes. Of them, 16 QTLs were determined by the isolate HB-97-36-1. 82 QTLs (66.13%) are from the resistant parent alleles, ZYQ8, while 42 QTLs (33.87%) are from the susceptible parent alleles, JX17. In comparison of their positions on chromosome, most QTLs are clustered together and distributed nearby the major genes especially the regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 8, 10 and 12. Each QTL could account for the resistance variation between 3.52%-68.64%. And, a positional QTL might display the resistance to several different isolates with different contributions.

  15. Application of dry-ice blasting for barrels treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantini Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work was to test a dry-ice basting method to regenerate the barriques in order to prolong their life. In addition, this treatment for barrels can also represent an alternative to the use of sulfur dioxide for the barrique sanitization, in line with the guidelines of oenological practices for sustainable development proposed by the OIV (International Organization of Vine and Wine (sustainable development, food security: reduction the content of sulfites in wine. The effect of the blasting with dry ice for the treatment of barrique has been studied from a microbiological and sensory point of view. Microbiological analyses were carried out using wine contaminated with Brettanomyces and Lactobacillus; results showed a reduction of contaminant of 98–100%. Finally, it was evaluated the impact of this treatment on the sensory profile of wine. In this regard the wine aged in a barrique dry-ice blasted was compared with a wine aged in a barrique treated with sulfur dioxide. From the sensory analysis emerged that the dry-ice blasting treatment can regenerate the barriques, this confers to the wine increased notes of vanilla and boisé. The benefits that derive from the use of this method are: a good sanitization of the barrel, a positive impact on the organo- leptic characteristics of the wine and the ability to regenerate and reuse a barrel, with a positive effect on sustainability.

  16. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope: BLAST

    CERN Document Server

    Pascale, E; Bock, J J; Chapin, E L; Chung, J; Devlin, M J; Dicker, S; Griffin, M; Gundersen, J O; Halpern, M; Hargrave, P C; Hughes, D H; Klein, J; MacTavish, C J; Marsden, G; Martin, P G; Martin, T G; Mauskopf, P; Netterfield, C B; Olmi, L; Patanchon, G; Rex, M; Scott, D; Semisch, C; Thomas, N; Truch, M D P; Tucker, C; Tucker, G S; Viero, M P; Wiebe, D V

    2007-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) is a sub-orbital survey-experiment designed to study the evolutionary history and processes of star formation in local galaxies (including the Milky Way) and galaxies at cosmological distances. The BLAST continuum camera, which consists of 270 detectors distributed between 3 arrays, observes simultaneously in broad-band (30%) spectral-windows at 250, 350, and 500 micron. The optical design is based on a 2m diameter Cassegrain telescope, providing a diffraction-limited resolution of 30" at 250 micron. The gondola pointing system enables raster-like maps of arbitrary geometry, with a repeatable positional accuracy of ~30" post-flight pointing reconstruction to ~<5" rms is also achieved. The on-board telescope control software permits autonomous execution of a pre-selected set of maps, with the option of manual intervention. In this paper we describe the primary characteristics and measured in-flight performance of BLAST. Since a test-flight in ...

  17. Postconcussive symptoms after blast and nonblast-related mild traumatic brain injuries in Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Sara M; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Benge, Jared F; Thornton, G Matthew

    2010-09-01

    Blast injury is common in current warfare, but little is known about the effects of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Profile analyses were conducted investigating differences in self-reported postconcussive (PC) symptoms in 339 veteran outpatients with mTBI histories reporting current symptoms based on mechanism of injury (blast only, nonblast only, or both blast and nonblast), number of blast injuries, and distance from the blast. Veterans with any blast-related mTBI history were younger and reported higher posttraumatic stress symptoms than veterans with nonblast-related mTBI histories, with a marginally significant difference in posttraumatic stress symptom report between veterans reporting blast-related mTBI only and those reporting nonblast-related mTBI. The groups did not differ in terms of PC symptom severity or PC symptom cluster profiles. Among veterans with blast-related mTBI histories, PC symptom report did not vary by number of blast-related mTBIs or proximity to blast. Overall, posttraumatic stress symptoms accounted for a substantial portion of variance in PC symptom report. In veteran outpatients with remote mTBI histories who have enduring symptom complaints related to the mTBI, mechanism of injury did not clearly contribute to differential PC symptom severity or PC symptom cluster profile. Proximal rather than distal factors may be important intervention targets in returning symptomatic veterans with mTBI histories.

  18. Assessment of Blasting Performance Using Electronic Vis-à-Vis Shock Tube Detonators in Strong Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Rai, Piyush

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative investigation of the shock tube and electronic detonating systems practised in bench blasting. The blast trials were conducted on overburden rocks of Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss formations in one of the largest metalliferous mine of India. The study revealed that the choice of detonating system was crucial in deciding the fragment size and its distribution within the blasted muck-piles. The fragment size and its distribution affected the digging rate of excavators. Also, the shape of the blasted muck-pile was found to be related to the degree of fragmentation. From the present work, it may be inferred that in electronic detonation system, timely release of explosive energy resulted in better overall blasting performance. Hence, the precision in delay time must be considered in designing blast rounds in such overburden rock formations. State-of-art image analysis, GPS based muck-pile profile plotting techniques were rigorously used in the investigation. The study revealed that a mean fragment size (K50) value for shock tube detonated blasts (0.55-0.59 m) was higher than that of electronically detonated blasts (0.43-0.45 m). The digging rate of designated shovels (34 m3) with electronically detonated blasts was consistently more than 5000 t/h, which was almost 13 % higher in comparison to shock tube detonated blasts. Furthermore, favourable muck-pile shapes were witnessed in electronically detonated blasts from the observations made on the dozer performance.

  19. Blast counts in bone marrow aspirate smears: analysis using the poisson probability function, bayes theorem, and information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Robin T

    2009-02-01

    Counts of cells or other phenomena observed through a microscope are numeric observations and, as such, are subject to mathematical and statistical analyses. For example, the Poisson probability function provides the probability of observing a particular number of blasts in a bone marrow aspirate, given an underlying true fraction of blasts present and a particular number of cells evaluated. Furthermore, using the Poisson function, Bayes theorem can provide the probabilities of specific categories of refractory anemia, given a number of observed blasts in a specific total of cells evaluated. Herein, I introduce and demonstrate these mathematical functions for the analysis of counts of blasts in marrow aspirates and explore the uncertainty that naturally arises when counts of blasts are near cut points used to separate the categories of refractory anemia without excess blasts, refractory anemia with excess blasts, and acute leukemia.

  20. The importance of systemic response in the pathobiology of blast-induced neurotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolja eCernak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to complex injurious environment where multiple blast effects interact with the body, parallel blast-induced neurotrauma is a unique clinical entity induced by systemic, local, and cerebral responses. Activation of autonomous nervous system; sudden pressure-increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver; and activation of neuroendocrine-immune system are among the most important mechanisms that contribute significantly to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain. It has been hypothesized that vagally mediated cerebral effects play a vital role in the early response to blast: this assumption has been supported by experiments where bilateral vagotomy mitigated bradycardia, hypotension, and apnea, and also prevented excessive metabolic alterations in the brain of animals exposed to blast. Clinical experience suggests specific blast-body-nervous system interactions such as 1 direct interaction with the head either through direct passage of the blast wave through the skull or by causing acceleration and/or rotation of the head; and 2 via hydraulic interaction, when the blast overpressure compresses the abdomen and chest, and transfers its kinetic energy to the body’s fluid phase, initiating oscillating waves that traverse the body and reach the brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays important role in the pathogenesis of long-term neurological deficits due to blast. These include memory decline, motor function and balance impairments, and behavioral alterations, among others. Experiments using rigid body- or head protection in animals subjected to blast showed that head protection failed to prevent inflammation in the brain or reduce neurological deficits, whereas body protection was successful in alleviating the blast-induced functional and morphological impairments in the brain.

  1. Simultaneous investigation of blast induced ground vibration and airblast effects on safety level of structures and human in surface blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faramarzi Farhad⇑; Ebrahimi Farsangi Mohammad Ali; Mansouri Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The significance of studying, monitoring and predicting blast induced vibration and noise level in mining and civil activities is justified in the capability of imposing damages, sense of uncertainty due to negative psychological impacts on involved personnel and also judicial complaints of local inhabitants in the nearby area. This paper presents achieved results during an investigation carried out at Sungun Copper Mine, Iran. Besides, the research also studied the significance of blast induced ground vibration and air-blast on safety aspects of nearby structures, potential risks, frequency analysis, and human response. According to the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) standard, the attenuation equations were devel-oped using field records. A general frequency analysis and risk evaluation revealed that:94%of generated frequencies are less than 14 Hz which is within the natural frequency of structures that increases risk of damage. At the end, studies of human response showed destructive effects of the phenomena by ranging between 2.54 and 25.40 mm/s for ground vibrations and by the average value of 110 dB for noise levels which could increase sense of uncertainty among involved employees.

  2. Energy balance analysis for Erdemir blast furnace number one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Emre Ertem; Sabit Gurgen [Eregli Iron and Steel Works Inc., Zonguldak (Turkey). Energy Management Department

    2006-08-15

    There are two blast furnaces in Erdemir. The blast furnace No. 1, Ayse, started operations in 1965. Having been modernized three times in the years 1971, 1977, and 1986, it has been re-lined (the renewal of refractory bricks) in the year 1998. The diameter of its reservoir is 8.99 m with a working volume of 1505.0 m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 3000 tons amounting to 1,065,000 tons annually tons. The blast furnace No. 2, Zubeyde, started its operations in 1978. It has been modernized twice in the years 1987 and 1995 and has been re-lined in October 2000. It is of top pressure type and has oxygen injection. The diameter of its reservoir is 9.70 m with the working volume being 1707.7 m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 4000 tons with the annual being 1,420,000 tons. The iron production process consumes 50% of the total energy and comprises a significant portion of total costs in the integrated steel works. Iron (Fe) production is made by the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with coke in the blast furnace. This can be analyzed as two separate areas, namely the furnace and stoves. The necessary carbon and high temperature required by the reduction process makes the furnaces an energy balance center. In this study, the limits of the Blast Furnace No. 1 in Erdemir have been chosen as the control volume in which the stoves have not been included. By the identification of the energy sources that move in and out of the control volume, the energy output sources have been fractioned and categorized. For the implementation of the method, also known as the balance analysis has been chosen and the model presented in the 'Japanese Steel Making Handbook' has been taken as a reference.

  3. Energy balance analysis for Erdemir blast furnace number one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre Ertem, M. [Eregli Iron and Steel Works Inc., Energy Management Department, 67330 Kdz. Eregli, Zonguldak (Turkey); Guergen, Sabit [Dokuz Eyluel University, Department of Mining Engineering, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    Eregli Iron and Steel Works (Erdemir) began its activities on May 15, 1965 with an annual production capacity of 450,000 tons and has made important contributions to the Turkish economy ever since. Today, with a total amount of crude steel production exceeding three million tons, it is the largest integrated iron and steel factory and the sole producer of flat steel in the country. Erdemir produces hot and cold rolled coils, zinc, tin, and chromium plated steel. There are two blast furnaces in Erdemir. The blast furnace No. 1, Ayse, started operations in 1965. Having been modernized three times in the years 1971, 1977, and 1986, it has been re-lined (the renewal of refractory bricks) in the year 1998. The diameter of its reservoir is 8.99m with a working volume of 1505.0m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 3000 tons amounting to 1,065,000 tons annually tons. The blast furnace No. 2, Zubeyde, started its operations in 1978. It has been modernized twice in the years 1987 and 1995 and has been re-lined in October 2000. It is of top pressure type and has oxygen injection. The diameter of its reservoir is 9.70m with the working volume being 1707.7m{sup 3}. The daily production capacity is 4000 tons with the annual being 1,420,000 tons. The iron production process consumes 50% of the total energy and comprises a significant portion of total costs in the integrated steel works. Iron (Fe) production is made by the reduction of hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) with coke in the blast furnace. This can be analyzed as two separate areas, namely the furnace and stoves. The necessary carbon and high temperature required by the reduction process makes the furnaces an energy balance center. In this study, the limits of the Blast Furnace No. 1 in Erdemir have been chosen as the control volume in which the stoves have not been included. By the identification of the energy sources that move in and out of the control volume, the energy output

  4. Destabilization analysis of overlapping underground chambers induced by blasting vibration with catastrophe theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chang-bin; XU Guo-yuan; ZUO Yu-jun

    2006-01-01

    According to the main characters of overlapping underground chambers, the roof (floor) of two adjacent underground chambers is simplified to the mechanical model that is the beam with build-in ends. And vibration load due to blasting is simplified to harmonic wave. The catastrophic model of double cusp for underground chambers destabilization induced by blasting vibration has been established under the circumstances of considering deadweight of the beam, and the condition of destabilization has been worked out. The critical safety thickness of the roof (floor) of underground chambers has been confirmed according to the destabilization condition. The influence of amplitude and frequency of blasting vibration load on the critical safety thickness has been analyzed, and the quantitative relation between velocity, frequency of blasting vibration and critical safety thickness has been determined. Research results show that the destabilization of underground chambers is not only dependent on the amplitude and frequency of blasting vibration load, but also related to deadweight load and intrinsic attribute. It is accordant to testing results and some related latest research results of blasting seismic effect. With increasing amplitude, the critical safety thickness of underground chambers decreases gradually. And the possibility of underground chambers destabilization increases. When the frequency of blasting vibration is equal to or very close to the frequency of beam, resonance effect will take place in the system. Then the critical safety thickness will turn to zero, underground chambers will be damaged severely, and its loading capacity will lose on the whole.

  5. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  6. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xie

    Full Text Available There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  7. Practice for Extending Blast Furnace Campaign Life at Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shou-rong

    2006-01-01

    One of the problems encountered in 60's to 80's of 20th century in China's steel industry was short life of blast furnace shaft as well as the excessive erosion of blast furnace hearth. A series of research work was carried out in order to extend blast furnace campaign life. The concept of research and development was integrated in the construction of BF (blast furnace) No.5 at WISCO (Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation), and in October, 1991, the BF No.5 was blown in. The blast furnace has worked smoothly for more than 15 years without any medium repair even guniting. It is expected that the campaign life of BF No.5 would be longer than 16 years with a production over 11 000 t per unit inner volume (m3). A new blast furnace with an inner volume of 3 400 m3 is under construction, and is designed with a campaign life of 20 years without any medium repair. The campaign life of blast furnaces in China has been extended in recent years.

  8. Temperature Profiles and the Effect of AGN on Submillimeter Emission from BLAST Observations of Resolved Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wiebe, Donald V; Bock, James J; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P

    2009-01-01

    Over the course of two flights, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) made resolved maps of seven nearby (<25 Mpc) galaxies at 250, 350, and 500 microns. During its June 2005 flight from Sweden (BLAST05), BLAST observed a single nearby galaxy, NGC 4565. During the December 2006 flight from Antarctica (BLAST06), BLAST observed the nearby galaxies NGC 1097, NGC 1291, NGC 1365, NGC 1512, NGC 1566, and NGC 1808. We fit physical dust models to a combination of BLAST observations and other available data for the the galaxies with Spitzer data. We fit a modified blackbody to the remaining galaxies to obtain total dust mass and mean dust temperature. For the four galaxies with Spitzer data, we also produce maps and radial profiles of dust column density and temperature. We measure the fraction of BLAST detected flux originating from the central cores of these galaxies and use this to calculate a "core fraction", an upper limit on the "AGN fraction" of submillimeter detected galaxies. Fin...

  9. Prediction of environmental impacts of quarry blasting operation using fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fişne, Abdullah; Kuzu, Cengiz; Hüdaverdi, Türker

    2011-03-01

    Blast-induced ground vibration is one of the most important environmental impacts of blasting operations because it may cause severe damage to structures and plants in nearby environment. Estimation of ground vibration levels induced by blasting has vital importance for restricting the environmental effects of blasting operations. Several predictor equations have been proposed by various researchers to predict ground vibration prior to blasting, but these are site specific and not generally applicable beyond the specific conditions. In this study, an attempt has been made to predict the peak particle velocity (PPV) with the help of fuzzy logic approach using parameters of distance from blast face to vibration monitoring point and charge weight per delay. The PPV and charge weight per delay were recorded for 33 blast events at various distances and used for the validation of the proposed fuzzy model. The results of the fuzzy model were also compared with the values obtained from classical regression analysis. The root mean square error estimated for fuzzy-based model was 5.31, whereas it was 11.32 for classical regression-based model. Finally, the relationship between the measured and predicted values of PPV showed that the correlation coefficient for fuzzy model (0.96) is higher than that for regression model (0.82).

  10. Experimental Study of the Jet Engine Exhaust Flow Field of Aircraft and Blast Fences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifu Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A combined blast fence is introduced in this paper to improve the solid blast fences and louvered ones. Experiments of the jet engine exhaust flow (hereinafter jet flow for short field and tests of three kinds of blast fences in two positions were carried out. The results show that the pressure and temperature at the centre of the jet flow decrease gradually as the flow moves farther away from the nozzle. The pressure falls fast with the maximum rate of 41.7%. The dynamic pressure 150 m away from the nozzle could reach 58.8 Pa, with a corresponding wind velocity of 10 m/s. The temperature affected range of 40°C is 113.5×20 m. The combined blast fence not only reduces the pressure of the flow in front of it but also solves the problems that the turbulence is too strong behind the solid blast fences and the pressure is too high behind the louvered blast fences. And the pressure behind combined blast fence is less than 10 Pa. The height of the fence is related to the distance from the jet nozzle. The nearer the fence is to the nozzle, the higher it is. When it is farther from the nozzle, its height can be lowered.

  11. Determination of blast-induced ground vibration equations for rocks using mechanical and geological properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ranjan Kumar; Deepankar Choudhury; Kapilesh Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    In the recent decades, effects of blast loads on natural and man-made structures have gained considerable attention due to increase in threat from various man-made activities. Site-specific empirical relationships for calculation of blast-induced vibration parameters like peak particle velocity (PPV) and peak particle displacement (PPD) are commonly used for estimation of blast loads in design. However, these relation-ships are not able to consider the variation in rock parameters and uncertainty of in situ conditions. In this paper, a total of 1089 published blast data of various researchers in different rock sites have been collected and used to propose generalized empirical model for PPV by considering the effects of rock parameters like unit weight, rock quality designation (RQD), geological strength index (GSI), and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS). The proposed PPV model has a good correlation coefficient and hence it can be directly used in prediction of blast-induced vibrations in rocks. Standard errors and coefficient of correlations of the predicted blast-induced vibration parameters are obtained with respect to the observed field data. The proposed empirical model for PPV has also been compared with the empirical models available for blast vibrations predictions given by other researchers and found to be in good agreement with specific cases.

  12. Innovative design tool for the optimization of blast-enhanced facade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Lori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In current blast enhancement design strategies, to resist the effects of an accidental explosion, a facade system is commonly designed to behave in-elastically and undergo large deformations. The large deformation of the facade system leads to high blast energy dissipation, subsequently reducing the blast energy transferred to the main structure. In addition to the blast resistance of the facade system, human injuries due to glass fragmentation within the vicinity of the facade system should also be minimized in order to meet the required safety levels. Overall building safety can be optimized by balancing blast energy dissipation and glass fragmentation. Recently, Permasteelisa Group has developed an innovative design tool to optimize blast-enhanced facades using an equivalent MDOF approach. A novel fragmentation tool has been proposed to assist this design procedure. This paper presents various critical parameters considered in blast-enhanced facade analysis, the experimental validation of these parameters and their influence in the design optimization process.  

  13. Time-frequency characteristics of blasting vibration signals measured in milliseconds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Mingsheng; Zhang Jianhua; Yi Changping

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the time-frequency characteristics of blasting vibration signals,measured in milliseconds,we carried out site blasting vibration tests at an open pit of the Jinduicheng Mine.Based on recorded field data and applying a combination of RSPWVD and wavelet,.we analyzed the time-frequency characteristics of recorded field data.summarized the time-frequency characteristics of blasting vibration signals in different frequency bands and present detailed information of blasting vibration signals in milliseconds of high time-frequency resolutions.Because RSPWVD can be seen as of definite physical significance to signal energy distribution in time and frequency domains,we studied the energy distribution of blasting vibration signals for various milliseconds intervals from a perspective of energy distribution.The results indicate that the effect of milliseconds intervals on time-frequency characteristics of blasting vibration signals is significant:the length of delay time directly affects the energy distribution of blasting vibration signals as well as the duration of energy in frequency bands.

  14. Mesh Size Effect in Numerical Simulation of Blast Wave Propagation and Interaction with Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yanchao; LI Zhongxian; HAO Hong

    2008-01-01

    Numerical method is popular in analysing the blast wave propagation and interaction with structures.However, because of the extremely short duration of blast wave and energy transmission between different grids, the numerical results are sensitive to the finite element mesh size.Previous numerical simulations show that a mesh size acceptable to one blast scenario might not be proper for another case, even though the difference between the two scenarios is very small,indicating a simple numerical mesh size convergence test might not be enough to guarantee accurate numerical results.Therefore, both coarse mesh and fine mesh were used in different blast scenarios to investigate the mesh size effect on numerical results of blast wave propagation and interaction with structures.Based on the numerical results and their comparison with field test results and the design charts in TM5-1300, a numerical modification method was proposed to correct the influence of the mesh size on the simulated results.It can be easily used to improve the accuracy of the numerical results of blast wave propagation and blast loads on structures.

  15. A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Blast Pressure Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Amy; 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.08.015

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which blast pressure waves cause mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are an open question. Possibilities include acceleration of the head, direct passage of the blast wave via the cranium, and propagation of the blast wave to the brain via a thoracic mechanism. The hypothesis that the blast pressure wave reaches the brain via a thoracic mechanism is considered in light of ballistic and blast pressure wave research. Ballistic pressure waves, caused by penetrating ballistic projectiles or ballistic impacts to body armor, can only reach the brain via an internal mechanism and have been shown to cause cerebral effects. Similar effects have been documented when a blast pressure wave has been applied to the whole body or focused on the thorax in animal models. While vagotomy reduces apnea and bradycardia due to ballistic or blast pressure waves, it does not eliminate neural damage in the brain, suggesting that the pressure wave directly affects the brain cells via a thoracic mechanism. ...

  16. Results of tests of MTA-2 TPS on the SRB hold-down bolt blast container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    The four solid rocket booster (SRB) hold-down posts are fastened to the mobile launch platform (MLP) with four large nuts. At liftoff the nuts are split with explosive changes to release the SRB/Shuttle. A blast container is placed over the nuts to protect the vehicle from flying debris. The blast container is a reusable part and has to be protected from aerodynamic heating during flight. The thermal protection system (TPS) used to protect these blast containers is cork. Fitting the flat cork sheet to this hemispherical shaped blast container is both time consuming and expensive. Another problem is removing the charred cork and epoxy glue from the blast containers. Replacements of this cork with another TPS material such as MTA-2 was examined. Heating rates along the centerline of the forward facing areas of the blast container were determined. The feasibility of using 1/2 in. MTA-2 on the SRB blast containers for protection from ascent, plume impingement and reentry heating is demonstrated.

  17. Co-blasting of titanium surfaces with an abrasive and hydroxyapatite to produce bioactive coatings: substrate and coating characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Conor F; Twomey, Barry; O'Neill, Liam; Stanton, Kenneth T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the influence of two blast media on the deposition of hydroxyapatite onto a titanium substrate using a novel ambient temperature coating technique named CoBlast. CoBlast was developed to address the problems with high temperature coating techniques. The blasting media used in this study were Al2O3 and a sintered apatite powder. The prepared and coated surfaces were compared to plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite on the same substrates using the same hydroxyapatite feedstock powder. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the coating crystallinity was the same as the original hydroxyapatite feedstock powder for the CoBlast samples while evidence of amorphous hydroxyapatite phases and β-TCP was observed in the plasma sprayed samples. The blast media type significantly influences the adhesive strength of the coating, surface roughness of both the substrate and coating and the microstructure of the substrate. The coating adhesion increased for the CoBlasted samples from 50 MPa to 60 MPa for sintered apatite powder and alumina, respectively, while plasma spray samples were significantly lower (5 MPa) when tested using a modified pull-test. In conclusion, the choice of blast medium is shown to be a key parameter in the CoBlast process. This study indicates that sintered apatite powder is the most suitable candidate for use as a blast medium in the coating of medical devices.

  18. Predicting the Impact of Rock Blasting on Building Structures at Awunakrom in the Ahanta West District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Bansah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is an important process after drilling is completed in hard rock mining. It involves placing explosives in drill holes and detonating them to cause explosion. The energy released during this process fragments the rocks into sizes for desired end use. The detonation of these explosives may produce undesirable effects such as ground vibration which is capable of causing damage to building structures. It is therefore, necessary to conduct blast impact studies to determine potential impact of blast induced ground vibration prior to mining and establish remediation techniques. Blast impact study was conducted at Awunakrom in the Ahanta West District of Ghana. Building structures within the study area were mapped and characterized. A blast impact prediction model was also generated. Blast induced vibrations that may propagate from the Father Brown pit of Golden Star Wassa Limited using various instantaneous charges were determined. It was found that bench blasting at the Father Brown pit has a potential of causing damage to building structures within the Awunakrom community if the maximum instantaneous charge adopted at the southernmost periphery of the pit exceeds 30 kg. It was therefore, recommended that all bench blast conducted at the southern periphery of the Father Brown pit should adopt a maximum instantaneous charge of 30 kg to avert any potential blast damage. However, variable instantaneous charges of more than 30 kg can be adopted as the blast location moves towards the northern periphery.

  19. Blast shock wave mitigation using the hydraulic energy redirection and release technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel.

  20. Influence of blast furnace gas flow speed on dust deposition characteristics in butterfly valve region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The blast furnace gas contains plenty of dust, which deposits easily on the bottom of seat sealing surface of the tri-eccentric butterfly valve in the pipeline, causing stuck and damage to the valve plate, thereby affects the production of the blast furnace and brings great economic loss. To derive the influence mechanism of effects of the blast furnace gas flow speed within the pipeline on the dust deposition laws in the butterfly valve region, a 3D model of the butterfly valve and its regional flow field is built with Pro/E software. Based on FLUENT module of ANSYS Workbench, along with standard k-ε turbulence model and DPM model, simulation analysis of moving trajectories of dust particles in butterfly valve region under 3 blast furnace gas flow speeds is conducted. Results show that the deposition mass of dust particles decreases firstly, then increases with the enlargement of valve plate opening angle under the blast furnace gas flow speed of 8 m/s, while decreases with the enlargement of valve plate opening under the blast furnace gas flow speeds of 12 m/s and 16 m/s. In the case of the valve plate opening angle of 15°, the deposition rate of dust particles increases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed, while decreases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed under the cases of valve plate opening angle of 45° and 75°. The research results provide a theoretical reference for the development of automatic dust removal system in the butterfly valve region of the blast furnace gas pipeline.

  1. Effects Of Primary Blast Overpressure On Retina And Optic Tract In Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eDemar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blast has been the leading cause of injury, particularly traumatic brain injury and visual system injury, in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. We determined the effect of shock tube-generated primary blast on retinal electrophysiology and on retinal and brain optic tract histopathology in a rat model.The amplitude of a- and b- waves on the electroretinogram (ERG for both right and left eyes were measured prior to a battlefield-simulation Friedlander-type blast wave and on 1, 7, and 14 days thereafter. Histopathologic findings of the right and left retina and the right and left optic tracts (2.8 mm post-optic chiasm were evaluated 14 days after the blast.For two experiments in which the right eye was oriented to the blast, the amplitude of ERG a- and b-waves at 7 days post-blast on the right side but not on the left side was diminished compared to that of sham animals (P=0.005-0.01 Histopathologic injury scores at 14 days post-blast for the right retina but not the left retina were higher than for sham animals (P=0.01, and histopathologic injury scores at 14 days for both optic tracts were markedly higher than for shams (P < 0.0001. Exposure of one eye to a blast wave, comparable to that causing human injury, produced injury to the retina as determined by ERG and histopathology, and to both post-chiasmatic optic tracts as determined by histopathology. This model may be useful for analyzing the effect of therapeutic interventions on retinal damage due to primary blast waves.

  2. Nucleotide Base Variation of Blast Disease Resistance Gene Pi33 in Rice Selected Broad Genetic Background

    OpenAIRE

    DWINITA WIKAN UTAMI; KALIA BARNITA; SITI YURIAH; IDA HANARIDA

    2011-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops for human beings, thus increasing productivity are continually persecuted. Blast disease can reduce the rate of productivity of rice cultivation. Therefore, the program of blast disease-resistant varieties needs to do effectively. One of broad-spectrum blast disease-resistant gene is Pi33. This study was aimed to identify the variation in the sequence of nucleotide bases of Pi33 gene in five interspesific lines which derived from Bio46 (IR64/Oryza rufip...

  3. A Survey Study of the Blast Furnace at Kuangshan Village Using 3D Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Huang, Xing; Qian, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The blast furnace from the Northern Song Dynasty at Kuangshan Village is the tallest blast furnace that remains from ancient China. Previous studies have assumed that the furnace had a closed mouth. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) model of the blast furnace is constructed using 3D laser scanning technology, and accurate profile data are obtained using software. It is shown that the furnace throat is smaller than had been previously thought and that the furnace mouth is of the open type. This new furnace profile constitutes a discovery in the history of iron-smelting technology.

  4. Influence of blast furnace gas flow speed on dust deposition characteristics in butterfly valve region

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lixin; Wang, Bin; Fengshan HUANG

    2016-01-01

    The blast furnace gas contains plenty of dust, which deposits easily on the bottom of seat sealing surface of the tri-eccentric butterfly valve in the pipeline, causing stuck and damage to the valve plate, thereby affects the production of the blast furnace and brings great economic loss. To derive the influence mechanism of effects of the blast furnace gas flow speed within the pipeline on the dust deposition laws in the butterfly valve region, a 3D model of the butterfly valve and its regio...

  5. Study of TATP: blast characteristics and TNT equivalency of small charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachman, J.; Matyáš, R.; Künzel, M.

    2014-07-01

    Blast wave parameters including incident overpressure, impulse and duration of the positive phase of the incident blast wave and its time of arrival were experimentally determined for 50 g charges of low bulk density () dry TATP (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane). The results were compared with published TNT data, and TNT equivalencies were determined, resulting in the values of 70 % based on overpressure and 55 % based on impulse of the positive phase of the blast wave. Brisance by the Hess method (lead cylinder compression) was found to be about one-third of that for TNT (at density . Detonation velocities averaged around

  6. Analysis of structural response under blast loads using the coupled SPH-FEM approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-xiang XU; Xi-la LIU

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model using the coupled smoothed particle hydrodynamics-finite element method(SPH-FEM)approach is presented for analysis of structures under blast loads.The analyses on two numerical cases,one for free field explosive and the other for structural response under blast loads,are performed to model the whole processes from the propagation of the pressure wave to the response of structures.Based on the simulation,it is concluded that this model can be used for reasonably accurte explosive analysis of structures.The resulting information would be valuable for protecting structures under blast loads.

  7. Evaluation of Blast-Resistant Performance Predicted by Damaged Plasticity Model for Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUAN Yi; FANG Qin; CHEN Li; ZHANG Yadong

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) structures subjected to blast Ioadings, the damaged plasticity model for concrete was used in the analysis of the dynamic responses of blast-loaded RC structures, and all three failure modes were numerically simulated by the finite element software ABAQUS.Simulation results agree with the experimental observations.It is demonstrated that the damaged plasticity model for concrete in the finite element software ABAQUS can predict dynamic responses and typical flexure, flexure-shear and direct shear failure modes of the blast-loaded RC structures.

  8. Prospects for studying how high-intensity compression waves cause damage in human blast injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine; Bo, Chiara; Ramaswamy, Arul; Masouros, Spiros; Newell, Nicolas; Hill, Adam; Clasper, Jon; Bull, Anthony; Proud, William

    2011-06-01

    Blast injuries arising from improvised explosive devices are often complex leading to long-term disability in survivors. There is an urgent need to mitigate against the effects of blast that lead to these injuries, and to also improve post-traumatic therapeutic treatments related to problems associated with damage and healing processes and infections. We have initiated multidisciplinary studies to develop experimental facilities and strategies for analyzing the effects blast waves upon the human body, from cellular through to skeletal functions. This work is supported by the Atomic Weapons Establishment and the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, UK.

  9. Teknologi Pembuatan Material Shot Blast untuk Mendukung Industri Pengecoran Logam Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Nurjaman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Shot blast material is a supporting material in foundry which is used at surface finishing process of metal casting. Recently, there is no one of national industry that produce shot blast material, in consequence, the purpose of this research is to lessen the dependence of using shot blast material import by making a shot blast material which improve its hardness exceed the shot blast material import. This research use the raw material from scrap iron with the following composition: C (3.2%, Si (1.18%, Mn (6.1%, Cu (0.35%, Fe (88.7%. The scrap is melted in induction furnace untill melt (hot metal, then the hot metal (1200 oC is tilted into a runner which is connected with pan crucible, which is consisted of 107 holes with diameter of each holes is 10 mm. Hot metal that is leave from the holes, is injected by pressurized water 1.1 atm with the velocity 0.8 m/s, untill obtained grains of shot blast material, then these grains goes into the water tank which it has temperature 40oC. From thermodynamic study, to avoid the happening of the explosion that is arising out because the effect of high temperature difference at injection process beetween water and hot metal, hence the comparison value beetween the mass of water and hot metal equal to 1:4.6. From this research is obtained shot blast material Ø0.8-3.2 mm with the metallography structure with martensite domination and dispersion of cementite and a little austenit. The hardness value of this material is 54.8 HRC, where this value is larger than shot blast material import (45-50 HRC. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Material shot blast merupakan material pendukung pengecoran logam yang digunakan pada proses surface finishing benda cor logam. Saat ini belum ada satupun industri nasional yang memproduksi material shot blast, karena itu tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengurangi ketergantungan penggunaan material shot blast impor dengan membuat material shot blast yang nilai kekerasannya melebihi material

  10. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkki, J.; Tervola, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

  11. A Blended Cement Containing Blast Furnace Slag and Phosphorous Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Blended cement containing blast furnace slag(BFS) and phosphorous slag(PS) is a new kind of cement.The total content of blended materials could increase if two additives were used. Using the same admixtures, the properties of the blended cement with 70% additives could reach the standard of 525-grade slag cement according to GB.The strength of cement with 80% additives could reach the standard of 425-grade slag cement.The tests of strength, pore structure,hydration products,inhibiting alkali-aggregate reaction, resistance to sulfate corrosion of BFS-PSC were performed.

  12. Development of Andalusite Bricks for Hot Blast Stove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Huarong; LI Xianming; DONG Shengying; XUE Wendong; LI Yong; SONG Wen

    2008-01-01

    Low-creep andalusite bricks are characterized by high refractoriness under load, good anti-creep property, high mechanical strength, low porosity, good thermal shock resistance, etc. In this study, low-creep andalusite brick specimens were investigated in the lab using mullite, bauxite and andalusite. Andalusite with the different panicle sizes were used in the experiment and the specimen with the best property was selected as the production standard. In addition, the industrial produced low-creep andalusite bricks were compared with other low-creep bricks. The results show that the developed low-creep andalusite bricks is an excellent material for hot blast stove.

  13. Quick Estimates of Peak Overpressure from Two Simultaneous Blast Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    C. S. Knauth, Nuclear Blast Standard (1 kT), Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Krtland A-r Force Base, New Mexico , AFWL-TR-73-55, (Revised) 1975. 6 C. E...Needham, Private Communication, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico , November 1977. 36i If 1I * I I| ~~’.0 DISTRIBUTION...for Ops. & Plans Defense Communications Agency ATTN: Dep. Dir. for Nuc. Chem. Matters ATTN: Code 930 ATTN: MOCA -ADL ATTN: CCTC/C672, F. Moore Deputy

  14. Lean processing in drivage by blasting; Lean Processing im Sprengvortrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karos, G. [Kernbereich Produktionssteuerung (PP), Deutsche Sternkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany); Imgenberg, D. [Bergwerk Auguste Victoria der Deutschen Steinkohle AG (DSK), Marl (Germany)

    2007-02-01

    The 'Lean processing' production system was introduced into DSK two years ago and is used in all collieries. Taking a drivage by blasting with combined support system Type B as an example, the 'Lean processing' method for development is described. The experience and results in the implementation of the lean method at face 3330 in the Auguste Victoria colliery are subsequently considered. It is evident that the effective application of the system optimises the road drivage processes and has led to a clear increase in performance. (orig.)

  15. Cleaning By Blasting With Pellets Of Dry Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fody, Jody

    1993-01-01

    Dry process strips protective surface coats from parts to be cleaned, without manual scrubbing. Does not involve use of flammable or toxic solvents. Used to remove coats from variety of materials, including plastics, ceramics, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and composites. Adds no chemical-pollution problem to problem of disposal of residue of coating material. Process consists of blasting solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) pellets at surface to be cleaned. Pellets sublime on impact and pass into atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas. Size, harness, velocity, and quantity of pellets adjusted to suit coating material and substrate.

  16. Analysis and Numerical Simulation on the Reduction Effect of Stress Waves Caused by Water Jet Slotting Near Blasting Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most serious “side effects” of blast excavation, blast-induced vibration must be controlled for existing buildings and human beings. This paper proposes a method for blast-induced vibration reduction with water jet assistance according to the cutting characters of low-noised, environment-friendly water jet. The mechanism of vibration-isolation with water jet assistance was analyzed, and the stress wave energy attenuation models were established based on blasting theory and stress wave theory. Influence law on shock wave attenuation by vibration-isolation slot was studied by numerical simulation. Simulation results agree with the theoretical analysis roughly. The results of this study put forward a method for blast-induced vibration near blasting source and provide a certain theoretical basis.

  17. Prediction of vibration level in tunnel blasting; Tonneru kusshin happa ni yotte reiki sareru shindo no reberu yosoku ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, A. [Kumamoto Industries Univ, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, M. [Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, C. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Kaneko, K. [Hokkaido Univ (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    For avoiding the generation of public hazard due to ground vibration causes by blasting in tunneling, it is important to devise a blasting method for ensuring the level of the ground vibration caused thereby under a limit, and an exact predication of ground vibration before blasting is desirable. In this study, the characteristics of the ground vibration caused by tunnel blasting are analyzed, and a summary of amplitude spectra calculating method is described. A theoretical analysis method for predicting the vibration level is proposed based on spectrum-multiplicative method. Vibration caused by multistage blasting in tunneling is most strong and deemed as important. When observing the process of elastic wave motion caused by multistage blasting being measured, the process can be divided into three element processes in frequency area as vibration source spectrum, transmission attenuation spectrum and frequency response function vibrating test, and, with the multiplication of them, the amplitude spectra at an observation portion can be estimated. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Primary blast causes mild, moderate, severe and lethal TBI with increasing blast overpressures: Experimental rat injury model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vikas; Skotak, Maciej; Schuetz, Heather; Heller, Abi; Haorah, James; Chandra, Namas

    2016-06-01

    Injury severity in blast induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI) increases with blast overpressure (BOP) and impulse in dose-dependent manner. Pure primary blast waves were simulated in compressed gas shock-tubes in discrete increments. Present work demonstrates 24 hour survival of rats in 0–450 kPa (0–800 Pa•s impulse) range at 10 discrete levels (60, 100, 130, 160, 190, 230, 250, 290, 350 and 420 kPa) and determines the mortality rate as a non-linear function of BOP. Using logistic regression model, predicted mortality rate (PMR) function was calculated, and used to establish TBI severities. We determined a BOP of 145 kPa as upper mild TBI threshold (5% PMR). Also we determined 146–220 kPa and 221–290 kPa levels as moderate and severe TBI based on 35%, and 70% PMR, respectively, while BOP above 290 kPa is lethal. Since there are no standards for animal bTBI injury severity, these thresholds need further refinements using histopathology, immunohistochemistry and behavior. Further, we specifically investigated mild TBI range (0–145 kPa) using physiological (heart rate), pathological (lung injury), immuno-histochemical (oxidative/nitrosative and blood-brain barrier markers) as well as blood borne biomarkers. With these additional data, we conclude that mild bTBI occurs in rats when the BOP is in the range of 85–145 kPa.

  19. Generation of planar blast waves using carbon nanotubes-poly-dimethylsiloxane optoacoustic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, C.; Fan, X.; Ha, K.; Kim, D.

    2017-01-01

    We have generated planar blast waves over the large area using carbon nanotubes(CNT)-poly-dimethylsiloxane(PDMS) optoacoustic transducer. Pulse laser is absorbed by CNT and converted to heat, and the heat is transferred to PDMS inducing its thermal expansion and blast wave generation. To theoretically describe the planar blast wave generation, we build one-dimensional simulation model and find analytical solutions for temperature and pressure distributions. The analytical solution validated by the experimental data sheds light on how to improve the performance of the new transducer. Resonance of acoustic waves inside the transducer is also discussed. The new optoacoustic transducer optimized based on the fundamental understandings will be useful in generating high quality blast waves for research and industrial applications.

  20. A review of engineering control technology for exposures generated during abrasive blasting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam

    2004-10-01

    This literature review presents information on measures for controlling worker exposure to toxic airborne contaminants generated during abrasive blasting operations occurring primarily in the construction industry. The exposures of concern include respirable crystalline silica, lead, chromates, and other toxic metals. Unfortunately, silica sand continues to be widely used in the United States as an abrasive blasting medium, resulting in high exposures to operators and surrounding personnel. Recently, several alternative abrasives have emerged as potential substitutes for sand, but they seem to be underused Some of these abrasives may pose additional metal exposure hazards. In addition, several new and improved technologies offer promise for reducing or eliminating exposures; these include wet abrasive blasting, high-pressure water jetting, vacuum blasting, and automated/robotic systems. More research, particularly field studies, is needed to evaluate control interventions in this important and hazardous operation.

  1. Development of Light Weight Structures to Provide Blast-Resistant Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CRAWFORD John E

    2006-01-01

    In the past,blast-resistant designs for structures were often constructed with massive type structural systems,which relied more on brute strength than on finesse to achieve the required blast resistance.However,structures composed of COLD-FORMED steel components,such as sheet metal and metal studs,have shown great promise in providing blast resistance with the added benefits of Iow cost and ease of construction.Some examples of using such structures to provide containment for package handling facilities (PHF) are described in the paper for situations where blast containment is needed,such as a potential package bomb being discovered during the package vetting process.Results from tests and analytic data are used to illustrate aspects of design peculiar to such types of applications.Designs for specific capacities of PHF are described.

  2. Effect of shot peening and grit blasting on surface integrity: Influence on residual stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.TOSHA; LU Jian

    2006-01-01

    The influences of factors such as particle size (0.55-2.2 mm), particle velocity (15-35 m/s) and thickness of work material on the surface integrity were investigated. The residual stresses induced by shot peening or grit blasting were examined. In order to clarify the influences of those factors on residual stress included in the surface integrity, a medium carbon steel (w(C)= 0.45%, 180 HV) was peened by a centrifugal type peening machine using cast steel particles (650-800 HV). The results show that the compressive residual stresses on the peened surface are larger than those of grit blasting; the critical thickness of shot peening is about 50% thicker than that of grit blasting; the high compressive stresses induced by blasting are owing to the wrought or peening effect.

  3. Tagging Blast Resistance Gene Pi 1 in Rice (Oryza sativa) Using Candidate Resistance Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ai-hong; WU Jian-li; XU Xin-ping; Menchu BERNADO; DAI Zheng-yuan; ZHUANG Jie-yun; CHEN Zong-xiang; ZHENG Kang-le; LI Bao-jian; Hei LEUNG; ZHANG Hong-xi; PAN Xue-biao

    2004-01-01

    An F3 population derived from C101LAC/CO39 containing 90 lines was analyzed for blast resistance with 48 candidate genes developed from resistance gene analogs (RGA) and suppression subtractive library. Genetic analysis confirmed that blast resistance of the population was controlled by a single gene Pi 1. One of the candidate genes, R10 was identified as associated with the blast resistance gene on the long arm of chromosome 11 and mapped using a DH population derived from Azucena/IR64.A pair of PCR based primers was designed based on the sequence of R10 for marker-aided selection of the blast resistance gene.The recombination frequency between Pi 1 and the marker was estimated as 1.28%. It suggested that strategy of employing candidate genes is useful for gene identification and mapping. A new RFLP marker and the corresponding PCR marker for tagging of Pi 1 were provided.

  4. Studies on blast traumatic brain injury using in-vitro model with shock tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Peethambaran; Spadaro, John; John, Jennifer; Gharavi, Robert B; Bentley, Timothy B; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2011-06-11

    One of the major limitations in studying the mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) or screening therapeutics for protection is the lack of suitable laboratory model systems that can closely mimic the complex blast exposure. Although animal models of bTBI that use shock tubes to mimic blast exposure are available, no high throughput shock tube-based in-vitro models have been reported. Here, we report an in-vitro bTBI model using a compressed air-driven shock tube and mouse neuroblastoma/rat glioblastoma hybrid cells (NG108-15) or SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells in tissue culture plates. Our data showed significant neurobiological effects with decreased adenosine triphosphate levels, increased cellular injury, lactate dehydrogenase release, and reactive oxygen species formation after blast exposure.

  5. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A New Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, William C; Blackman, Eric G

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become the signature injury of current military conflicts. The debilitating effects of TBI on society are long-lasting and costly. Although the mechanisms by which impacts cause TBI have been well researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. Various mechanisms, including impacts caused by the blast, have been investigated, but blast-induced deformation of the skull has been neglected. Through the use of hydrodynamical numerical simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient flexure of the skull to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even if no impact occurs. This mechanism has implications for the diagnosis of TBI in soldiers and the design of protective equipment such as helmets.

  6. Influence of delay interval on blasting efficiency of parallel hole cuts with an empty hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhang; Dachao Lin

    2003-01-01

    Time interval of short delay ignition is an important factor to affect the efficiency of blasting cuts. The motion process of rock pieces in the cut cavity is analyzed, a mechanical model to calculate the delay time of parallel hole cuts is presented for tunnel blasting, and a theoretical method to determine the volume ratio (the clearage rate) of the rock pieces within the cut cavity at different moments is proposed for the blasting cut with an empty hole. Numerical analysis results show that the optimal delay interval is proportional to the borehole depth. The suggested results are of practical value to the optimal design of the delay interval in millisecond blasting related to the parallel hole cuts with an empty hole.

  7. Improvement of Performance of MegaBlast Algorithm for DNA Sequence Alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Ming Tan; Lin Xu; Dong-Bo Bu; Sheng-Zhong Feng; Ning-Hui Sun

    2006-01-01

    MegaBlast is one of the most important programs in NCBI BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool)toolkits. However, MegaBlast is computation and I/O intensive. It consumes a great deal of memory which is proportional to the size of the query sequences set and subject (database) sequences set of product. This paper proposes a new strategy for optimizing MegaBlast. The new strategy exchanges the query and subject sequences sets, and builds a hash table based on new subject sequences. It overlaps I/O with computation, shortens the overall time and reduces the cost of memory,since the memory here is only proportional to the size of subject sequences set. The optimized algorithm is suitable to be parallelized in cluster systems. The parallel algorithm uses query segmentation method. As our experiments shown, the parallel program which is implemented with MPI has fine scalability.

  8. RESEARCH AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF DRILLING AND BLASTING TECHNOLOGY PENETRATIONS OF VERTICAL SHAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Rubleva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The model of destruction of rocks by explosion in vertical shafts is presented. On its basis the most important parameters of technical-and-economical indices of the drilling-and-blasting technology are calculated.

  9. Novel method to dynamically load cells in 3D-hydrogels culture for blast injury studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sory, David R.; Areias, Anabela C.; Overby, Darryl R.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    For at least a century explosive devices have been one of the most important causes of injuries in military conflicts as well as in terrorist attacks. Although significant experimental and modelling efforts have been focussed on blast injuries at the organ or tissue level, few studies have investigated the mechanisms of blast injuries at the cellular level. This paper introduces an in vitro method compatible with living cells to examine the effects of high stress and short-duration pulses relevant to blast loadings and blunt trauma. The experimental phase involves high strain-rate axial compression of cylindrical specimens within an hermetically sealed chamber made of biocompatible polymer. Numerical simulations were performed in order to verify the experimental loading conditions and to characterize the loading path within the sample. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding blast injury at the cellular level.

  10. An investigation of a reticulated foam - perforated steel sheet combination as a blast mitigation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Tien N.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    Explosions are one of the main causes of injuries during battles and conflicts, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs) becoming increasingly common. Blast waves produced from such explosions can inflict very complex injuries on human and serious damage to structures. Here, the interaction between blast waves and sandwich structures of reticulated foam and perforated sheets is studied using a shock tube. The level of mitigation for primary blast injuries of these structures are discussed in terms of pulse shape, pressure magnitude and impulse. Schlieren photography and other high-speed imaging were used to capture the form of the blast wave. The results show up to 95% mitigation in both pressure and impulse with the structures studied. The behaviors of these mitigating sandwich panels under two loadings, Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.6, are also discussed.

  11. Manual for the prediction of blast and fragment loadings on structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide Architect-Engineer (AE) firms guidance for the prediction of air blast, ground shock and fragment loadings on structures as a result of accidental explosions in or near these structures. Information in this manual is the result of an extensive literature survey and data gathering effort, supplemented by some original analytical studies on various aspects of blast phenomena. Many prediction equations and graphs are presented, accompanied by numerous example problems illustrating their use. The manual is complementary to existing structural design manuals and is intended to reflect the current state-of-the-art in prediction of blast and fragment loads for accidental explosions of high explosives at the Pantex Plant. In some instances, particularly for explosions within blast-resistant structures of complex geometry, rational estimation of these loads is beyond the current state-of-the-art.

  12. Optimum design and layout of the cooling apparatus for long compaignship blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shusen Cheng; Tianjun Yang; Qingguo Xue; Haibin Zuo; Xiaowu Gao; Weiguo Yang

    2003-01-01

    Generally, the cooler life can determine the blast furnace life. The slag-metal skull frozen on the cooler can separate the cooler from the hot gas flow in blast furnace. The key problem is how to freeze liquid slag-metal on the cooler, and the main measure is to decrease the hot surface temperature of the cooler. The computational technology of heat transfer was practically used for long campaign blast furnace design. The optimum design of the cast iron stave, copper stave, plate-stave combined system and flangestave was given by the computing results. According to the results, the optimum arrangement of different coolers (cast iron or copper stave, flange stave and plate-stave combined system) on different height of blast furnace wall can be found through all these temperature fields.

  13. Evaluation of Scheme Design of Blast Furnace Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Hong; LI Jing-min; YAO Bi-qiang; LIAO Hong-fu; YAO Jin

    2008-01-01

    Blast furnace scheme design is very important, since it directly affects the performance, cost and configuration of the blast furnace. An evaluation approach to furnace scheme design was brought forward based on artificial neural network. Ten independent parameters which determined a scheme design were proposed. The improved threelayer BP network algorithm was used to build the evaluation model in which the 10 independent parameters were taken as input evaluation indexes and the degree to which the scheme design satisfies the requirements of the blast furnace as output. It was trained by the existing samples of the scheme design and the experts' experience, and then tested by the other samples so as to develop the evaluation model. As an example, it is found that a good scheme design of blast furnace can be chosen by using the evaluation model proposed.

  14. Damage of vascular endothelial barrier induced by explosive blast and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Wang; Jing Chen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,injuries induced by explosive blast have got more and more attention owing to weapon development and frequent terrorist activities.Tear.bleeding and edema of tissues and organs are the main manifestations of blast shock wave damage.Vascular endothelial barrier is the main defense of tissues and organs' integrity.This article aims to discuss possible mechanisms of endothelial barrier damage induced by explosive blast and main manifestations of blood brain barrier,blood-air barrier,and intestinal vascular barrier impairments.In addition,the main regulatory factors of vascular permeability are also summarized so as to provide theoretical basis for prevention and cure of vascular endothelial barrier damage resulting from explosive blast.

  15. The Mechanism and Application of Deep-Hole Precracking Blasting on Rockburst Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Ouyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of preventing rockburst through deep-hole precracking blasting was studied based on experimental test, numerical simulation, and field testing. The study results indicate that the deep-hole precracking could change the bursting proneness and stress state of coal-rock mass, thereby preventing the occurrence of rockburst. The bursting proneness of the whole composite structure could be weakened by the deep-hole precracking blasting. The change of stress state in the process of precracking blasting is achieved in two ways: (1 artificially break the roof apart, thus weakening the continuity of the roof strata, effectively inducing the roof caving while reducing its impact strength; and (2 the dynamic shattering and air pressure generated by the blasting can structurally change the properties of the coal-rock mass by mitigating the high stress generation and high elastic energy accumulation, thus breaking the conditions of energy transfer and rock burst occurrence.

  16. Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

    1982-04-30

    A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

  17. Prediction of blast boulders in open pit mines via multiple regression and artificial neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghiasi Majid; Askarnejad Nematollah; Dindarloo Saeid R.; Shamsoddini Hamed

    2016-01-01

    The most important objective of blasting in open pit mines is rock fragmentation. Prediction of produced boulders (oversized crushed rocks) is a key parameter in designing blast patterns. In this study, the amount of boulder produced in blasting operations of Golegohar iron ore open pit mine, Iran was pre-dicted via multiple regression method and artificial neural networks. Results of 33 blasts in the mine were collected for modeling. Input variables were: joints spacing, density and uniaxial compressive strength of the intact rock, burden, spacing, stemming, bench height to burden ratio, and specific charge. The dependent variable was ratio of boulder volume to pattern volume. Both techniques were successful in predicting the ratio. In this study, the multiple regression method was superior with coefficient of determination and root mean squared error values of 0.89 and 0.19, respectively.

  18. Research Advances In Medical Care For Polytrauma Injuries And Blast Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    skin, including pores and hair follicles . WIRELESS AND TETHERLESS Controlled wirelessly and without tethers. Allows more freedom, versatility...2013 Aims • Identify vital mechanisms of neurodegeneration initiated by blast exposure thus defining novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets Approach

  19. Experimental approach to shape field relevant blast wave profiles in compressed gas-driven shock tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind eSundaramurthy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Detonation of a high explosive produces shock-blast wave, shrapnel, and gaseous products. While direct exposure to blast is a concern near the epicenter, shock-blast can affect subjects even at farther distances, which is termed as primary blast injury, which is the theme of this work. The shock-blast profile is characterized with blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs. These parameters in turn are a function of field factors, such as the strength of high explosive and the distance of the human subjects from the epicenter. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. As shown in some of our recent works (Chandra et al., 2011;Sundaramurthy et al., 2012;Skotak et al., 2013, the profile not only determines the survival of the animal but also the acute and chronic biomechanical injuries along with the following bio-chemical sequelae. It is extremely important to carefully design and operate the shock tube to produce field relevant SWPs. Furthermore, it is vital to identify and eliminate the artifacts that are inadvertently introduced in the shock-blast profile that may affect the results. In this work, we examine the relationship between shock tube adjustable parameters (SAPs and SWPs that can be used to control the blast profile; the results can be easily applied to many of the laboratory shock tubes. Further, exact replication of shock profile (magnitude and shape can be related to field explosions and can be a standard in comparing results across different laboratories. 40 experiments are carried out by judiciously varying SAPs such as membrane thickness, breech length (66.68 to 1209.68 mm, measurement location, and type of driver gas (nitrogen, helium. The relationships between SAPs and the resulting shock-blast profiles are characterized. Finally, shock-blast profiles of a TNT explosion from ConWep software is compared with the profiles obtained

  20. Sorption and desorption of iron-cyanide complexes in deposited blast furnace sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, Thilo; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2002-11-01

    Blast furnace sludge is a waste originating from pig iron production and contains small amounts of iron-cyanide complexes. Leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from deposited blast furnace sludge into the ground water seems to be possible in principle. We investigated the sorption of the iron-cyanide complexes ferrocyanide, [FeII(CN)6](4-), and ferricyanide, [FeIII(CN)6](3-), in 22 samples of deposited blast furnace sludge in batch experiments. Subsequently, desorption of iron-cyanide complexes was investigated using 1 M NaCl. Sorption in five samples was evaluated with Langmuir isotherms. The blast furnace sludge samples were neutral to slightly alkaline (pH 7.6-9) and consisted of X-ray amorphous compounds and crystalline Fe oxides primarily. X-ray amorphous compounds are assumed to comprise coke-bound C and amorphous Fe, Zn, and Al oxides. The experiments that were evaluated with Langmuir isotherms indicated that the extent of ferricyanide sorption was higher than that of ferrocyanide sorption. Saturation of blast furnace sludge with iron-cyanide complexes was achieved. Sorption of iron-cyanide complexes in 22 blast furnace sludge samples at one initial concentration showed that 12 samples sorbed more ferrocyanide than ferricyanide. The extent of sorption largely differed between 0.07 and 2.76 Micromol [Fe(CN)6] m(-2) and was governed by coke-bound C. Ferricyanide sorption was negatively influenced by crystalline Fe oxides additionally. Only small amounts of iron-cyanide complexes sorbed in blast furnace sludge were desorbed by 1 M NaCl (ferrocyanide, 3.2%; ferricyanide, 1.1%, given as median). This indicated strong interactions of iron-cyanide complexes in blast furnace sludge. The mobility of iron-cyanide complexes in deposited blast furnace sludge and consequently contamination of the seepage and ground water was designated as low, because (i) deposited blast furnace sludge is able to sorb iron-cyanide complexes strongly, (ii) the solubility of the iron

  1. In Silico Investigation of Intracranial Blast Mitigation with Relevance to Military Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    field overpressure was selected to be above the threshold for unarmored blast lung injury given by the Bowen curves, which estimate the tolerance to a...Explosive blast neurotrauma. J Neurotraum 28:815–825. 11. Murray C, et al. (2005) Spectrum of care provided at an Echelon II medical unit during...Nashville, TN), Vol C2.00001. 23. Bowen I, Fletcher E, Richmond D, Hirsch F, White C (1968) Biophysical mechanisms and scaling procedures applicable in

  2. New Type Regulating Valve Applied in Cooling System of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Sheng-ping; ZOU De-yu; XU Gang; LU De-chang

    2004-01-01

    A new type regulating valve with the cooling mode of constant temperature difference water supply, temperature difference self-operated regulating valve, was introduced into blast furnace cooling system to overcome shortcomings of the cooling mode of constant flow rate water supply. The results show that the temperature difference between inlet and outlet water of cooling wall can be decreased greatly and steadily, and the water supply for blast furnace cooling can be reduced considerably.

  3. Experimental Animal Models for Studies on the Mechanisms of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma

    OpenAIRE

    Risling, Mårten; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) in current military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. Extreme forces and their complex propagation characterize BINT. Modern body protection and the development of armored mil...

  4. Neuronal DNA Methylation Profiling of Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ge, Yongchao; Chen, Sean; Xin, Yurong; Umali, Michelle U.; De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A.; Ahlers, Stephen T.; Elder, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term molecular changes in the brain resulting from blast exposure may be mediated by epigenetic changes, such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation, that regulate gene expression. Aberrant regulation of gene expression is associated with behavioral abnormalities, where DNA methylation bridges environmental signals to sustained changes in gene expression. We assessed DNA methylation changes in the brains of rats exposed to three 74.5 kPa blast overpressure events, conditions that hav...

  5. Gazification of coal dust particles in the blast furnace tuyere apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvydky, V. S.; Yaroshenko, Yu G.; Spirin, N. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The mathematical statement of the problem on gasification of coal dust particles in the blast-furnace tuyere apparatus is given, which includes the motion equation of a variable mass particle, heat equation of a particle and the heat-balance equation of the blast flow. The results of calculations are obtained by using mathematical software packages (Mathcad, Maple). Relatively weak effect of the volatiles combustion process on the thermal state of the tuyere zone is shown.

  6. Radiant Image Simulation of Pulverized Coal Combustion in Blast Furnace Raceway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between two-dimensional radiant image and three-dimensional radiant energy in blast furnace raceway was studied by numerical simulation of combustion process. Taking radiant image as radiant boundary for numerical simulation of combustion process, the uneven radiation parameter can be calculated. A method to examine three-dimensional temperature distribution in blast furnace raceway was put forward by radiant image processing. The numeral temperature field matching the real combustion can be obtained by proposed numeric image processing technique.

  7. Analysis of reflected blast wave pressure profiles in a confined room

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle; Sauvan, Pierre-Emmanuel; Trelat, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; To understand the blast effects of confined explosions, it is necessary to study the characteristic parameters of the blast wave in terms of overpressure, impulse and arrival time. In a previous study, experiments were performed using two different scales of a pyrotechnic workshop. The main purpose of these experiments was to compare the TNT equivalent for solid and gaseous explosives in terms of mass to define a TNT equivalent in a reflection field and to validate the...

  8. Discrete fiber-reinforced polyurea systems for infrastructure strengthening and blast mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Natalia L.

    The research presented in this dissertation focused on evaluating the effectiveness of various blast mitigation materials and coating technologies to be used for enhancing blast resistance of structural members. Mechanical properties and blast mitigation performance of different discrete fiber-reinforced polyurea (DFRP) systems were investigated through experimental and analytical work. Four technical papers discuss the research efforts conducted within this dissertation. The first paper examined the development and characterization of different DFRP systems for infrastructure strengthening and blast retrofit. The behavior of various systems which consisted of chopped E-glass fibers discretely integrated in with the polyurea matrix was evaluated through coupon tensile testing. The addition of glass fiber to a polymer coating provided improved stiffness and strength to the composite system while the polyurea base material provided ductility. The second paper evaluated the behavior of hybrid, plain, and steel fiber-reinforced concrete panels coated with various polyurea and DFRP systems under blast loading. Hybrid panels demonstrated higher blast mitigation performance compared to plain and steel fiber-reinforced concrete panels due to sacrificial hybrid layer. The addition of plain polyurea or DFRP systems on the tension side improved panel performance by containing fragmentation during a blast event. The third paper presents an analytical investigation conducted using the explicit finite element program LS-DYNA to model panel and coating response under blast loading. Several modeling solutions were undertaken and compared for concrete formulation. Modeling results were analyzed and compared to the experimental work to validate the conclusions. The final paper describes an internal equilibrium mechanics based model developed to predict the flexural capacity of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with various DFRP systems. The developed model was validated using

  9. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  10. Clinical impact of leukemic blast heterogeneity at diagnosis in cytogenetic intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Marianne Hutchings; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Boegsted, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Individual cellular heterogeneity within the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) bone marrow samples can be observed by multi parametric flow cytometry analysis (MFC) indicating that immunophenotypic screening for leukemic blast subsets may have prognostic impact.......Individual cellular heterogeneity within the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) bone marrow samples can be observed by multi parametric flow cytometry analysis (MFC) indicating that immunophenotypic screening for leukemic blast subsets may have prognostic impact....

  11. Bond interface crack propagation of fresh foundation concrete and rock under blasting load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Liang; LU Wen-bo; ZHONG Dong-wang

    2009-01-01

    According to concrete age,the dynamic stress intensity factors of bond inter-face crack of concrete-rock was calculated.Result shows that the propagation of concrete interface crack is mainly caused by tensile stress and shear stress for stress wave reflec-tion.With the growth of concrete age,interface crack fracture toughness increases,and its capacity of resisting blasting load strengthens.Therefore,blasting vibration should be strictly controlled for fresh concrete.

  12. Current Status of Blast Wave Theory and Computations. Volume 2. The Quasi-Similar Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    0.02 0.04 y Fig. IV.4.17 - 260 - SIV.5. ANALYSIS OF REACTIVE BLAST WAVES PROPAGATING THROUGH GASEOUS MIXTURES WITH A SPATIALLY VARYING HEAT OF DETONATION * i...a Spatially Varying Heat of Detonation " Paper Presented at the 8th International Colloquium on Gasdynamics of Ex- plosions and Reactive Systems... of Detonation 260 6. Blast Waves in a Detonating Medium with Transport Properties Taken into Account 287 REFERENCES 326 iii CHAPTER I NON-SELF-SIMILAR

  13. Blast-Loading Assessment of Multi-Energy Flash Computed Tomography (MEFCT) Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    blast loading, and addresses the implications of these movements on the reconstruction process. 15. SUBJECT TERMS blast, pressure gauge, flyer plate ...5 (support) linkage, the I-2 detector, and the I-1 detector. At the I-5 source location, first movement was detected approximately 0.5 ms after...dependent on the energy release of the high explosive. In the time spanning 0.5 ms to 4 ms , displacement of 6 mm was measured when a 364-g charge

  14. Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-08-2-0017 TITLE: " Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER “ Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology...traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is largely undefined. Along with reducing mortality, in preliminary experiments Kevlar vests significantly protected

  15. Experimental Study on the Measurement of Water Bottom Vibration Induced by Underwater Drilling Blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbin, Gu; Jianghai, Chen; Zhenxiong, Wang; Zhihua, Wang; Jianqing, Liu; Ming, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of proper instrumentations and the difficulties in underwater measurements, the studies about water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting are seldom reported. In order to investigate the propagation and attenuation laws of blasting induced water bottom vibration, a water bottom vibration monitor was developed with consideration of the difficulties in underwater measurements. By means of this equipment, the actual water bottom vibration induced by underwater ...

  16. Compound 49b Reduces Inflammatory Markers and Apoptosis after Ocular Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    few 12 posterior ocular injuries, using high-resolution optical coherence topography , gross pathology, and optokinetics [9]. In this study of...exposure to ocular blast or in closed- globe ocular injuries. For most ocular trauma studies, work has focused on corneal burns or trauma. However...exposure to ocular blast agree with work from corneal burns or other closed globe models. A recent 17 report from British soldiers in Iraq and

  17. The Role of Posttraumatic Stress in Acute Postconcussive Symptoms following Blast Injury in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-21

    Hovda DA, Giza CC: The molecular pathophysiology of concussive brain injury . Clin Sports Med 2011; 30: 33–48. 7 World Health Organisation, ICD-10...following blast injury in combat 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Richard Bryant /Monty Baker, Jim...personnel are managed in the acute aftermath of a blast injury . Management of PCS needs to recognize the role of acute posttraumatic stress responses in

  18. Hazard identification and control in the pre-blasting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-kun; ZHU Hai-long; CHEN Jian-qiang

    2011-01-01

    Major mineral hazard identifications should consider perilous types of fatal accidents in collieries from its definition,and then set existent hazardous objects and their relevant amount as referenced factors.Eliminating hazards in systems and decreasing risks are their essential purposes with help of hazard identification,risk evaluation and management.By pre-control on major hazards,fatal accidents are avoided,stuffs' safety and healthy are protected,levels of safe management are enhanced,and perpetual systems are built up finally.However,choosing the proper identification and evaluation is a problem all along.Based on specific condition in Jiangou Coal Mine,method of LEC was applied for hazard identification and evaluation in the pre-blasting process within horizontal section top-coal mechanized caving of steep seams.And control measures to of each hazard were put forward.The identification method combining qualitative and quantitative analysis.So,it is practical and operable for the method to develop the given scientific research and has a distinctive impact on high efficiency and safety products for pre-blasting in horizontal section top-coal mechanized caving of steep seams.

  19. Spike Penetration in Blast-Wave-Driven Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2010-05-01

    Recent experiments by C. Kuranz and collaborators, motivated by structure in supernovae, have studied systems in which planar blast waves encounter interfaces where the density decreases. During the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) phase of such experiments, they observed greater penetration of the RT spikes than tends to be seen in simulations. Here we seek to employ semi-analytic theory to understand the general nature and regimes of spike penetration for blast-wave-driven instabilities. This problem is not trivial as one must account for the initial vorticity deposition at the interface, for its time-dependent deceleration, for the expansion of the shocked material in time and space, and for the drag on the broadened tips of the spikes. We offer here an improved evaluation of the material expansion in comparison to past work. The goal is to use such models to increase our ability to interpret the behavior of simulations of such systems, in both the laboratory and astrophysics. Supported by the US DOE NNSA under the Predictive Sci. Academic Alliance Program by grant DE-FC52-08NA28616, the Stewardship Sci. Academic Alliances program by grant DE-FG52-04NA00064, and the Nat. Laser User Facility by grant DE-FG03-00SF22021.

  20. Diffuse reflectance FTIR of stains on grit blasted metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.; Cox, R.L. [Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technologies, TN (United States)

    1997-08-09

    Diffuse reflectance mid-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy has been applied to the detection of oil contamination on grit-blasted metals. The object of this application is to detect and discriminate between silicone and hydrocarbon oil contamination at levels approaching 10 mg/m{sup 2}. A portable FTIR spectrometer with dedicated diffuse reflectance optics was developed for this purpose. Using translation devices positioned by instructions from the spectrometer operating system, images of macroscopic substrates were produced with millimeter spatial resolution. The pixels that comprise an image are each a full mid-infrared spectrum with excellent signal-to-noise, each determined as individual files and uniquely saved to disc. Reduced spectra amplitudes, based on peak height, area, or other chemometric techniques, mapped as a function of the spatial coordinates of the pixel are used to display the image. This paper demonstrates the application of the technique to the analysis of stains on grit-blasted metals, including the calibration of the method, the inspection of substrates, and the migration of oil contamination.