WorldWideScience

Sample records for blasting

  1. Blast Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    Team Leader Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and Laboratory Team Leader Blast Technologies POC’s Government Point Of Contacts (POCs): To...to yield injury assessments at higher fidelities and with higher confidence UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Risa Scherer Blast Mitigation Interior and

  2. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  3. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  4. Recent Results from BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid experiment, BLAST, at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Laboratory is designed to study in a systematic manner the spindependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems at momentum transfers below 1 GeV/c. Utilizing a polarized electron beam, highly polarized internal gas targets of H and D, and a symmetric detector configuration, BLAST is able to make simultaneous measurements of several reaction channels for different combinations of beam helicity and target polarization (vector for H, both vector and tensor for D). BLAST will provide new data on the nucleon and deuteron form factors as well as study few body physics and pion production. Preliminary results are presented

  5. Expanded rock blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST, including buffer blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preece, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidman, J.P.; Chung, S.H. [ICI Explosives (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A discrete element computer program named DMC{_}BLAST (Distinct Motion Code) has been under development since 1987 for modeling rock blasting. This program employs explicit time integration and uses spherical or cylindrical elements that are represented as circles in 2-D. DMC{_}BLAST calculations compare favorably with data from actual bench blasts. The blast modeling capabilities of DMC{_}BLAST have been expanded to include independently dipping geologic layers, top surface, bottom surface and pit floor. The pit can also now be defined using coordinates based on the toe of the bench. A method for modeling decked explosives has been developed which allows accurate treatment of the inert materials (stemming) in the explosive column and approximate treatment of different explosives in the same blasthole. A DMC{_}BLAST user can specify decking through a specific geologic layer with either inert material or a different explosive. Another new feature of DMC{_}BLAST is specification of an uplift angle which is the angle between the normal to the blasthole and a vector defining the direction of explosive loading on particles adjacent to the blasthole. A buffer (choke) blast capability has been added for situations where previously blasted material is adjacent to the free face of the bench preventing any significant lateral motion during the blast.

  6. Blasting agents and initiation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2000-01-01

    Although blasting differs between and within each industry, as a whole, the mines and quarries are making a shift from a purely ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) mixture to a blend of emulsion and ANFO on a straight emulsion. Non-electric (shock tube) initiation systems have provided a viable alternative to the electric detonator (blasting cap). Explosives manufacturers are seeing their roles changes to being blasting contractors or consultants rather than just suppliers. The article discusses these trends and gives examples of typical blasting techniques and amounts of blasting agent used at large USA surface coal mines. Electric caps are still used in blasting underground coal. The Ensign Bickford Co. (EBCo) is developing electronic detonators and has been field testing an electronic initiator, the DIGIDET detonator, for the last four years. When commercially available, electronic detonators will be accurate but will come with a hefty price tag. 2 photos.

  7. BeoBLAST: distributed BLAST and PSI-BLAST on a Beowulf cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J D; Dunbrack, R L; Manion, F J; Ochs, M F

    2002-05-01

    BeoBLAST is an integrated software package that handles user requests and distributes BLAST and PSI-BLAST searches to nodes of a Beowulf cluster, thus providing a simple way to implement a scalable BLAST system on top of relatively inexpensive computer clusters. Additionally, BeoBLAST offers a number of novel search features through its web interface, including the ability to perform simultaneous searches of multiple databases with multiple queries, and the ability to start a search using the PSSM generated from a previous PSI-BLAST search on a different database. The underlying system can also handle automated querying for high throughput work. Source code is available under the GNU public license at http://bioinformatics.fccc.edu/

  8. Tunnel blasting - recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.E.

    1999-05-01

    While tunnelling machines are more efficient than previously, there are still areas where blasting is a more efficient method of advance. Drilling and design methods are increasingly sophisticated, as is choice of explosive. Explosive deployment must be carefully calculated so as to avoid desensitisation. Nitroglycerine may be used as slurries; bulk mixing on site of ANFO is also practised in mining in the UK. Electric detonators, Nonel tubes, and electronic detonators are also increasingly employed.

  9. High productivity vacuum blasting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process

  10. Control blasting of reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    With the need of decommissioning nuclear power plants, it is urgently required to establish its methods and standards. In Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., experimental feasibility studies have been made on explosive demolition method i.e. the controlled blasting for the massive concrete structures peculiar to nuclear power plants, considering low radiation exposure, safety and high efficiency. As such, four techniques of line drilling, cushion blasting, pre-splitting and guide hole blasting, respectively, are described with photographs. Assuming the selective demolition of activated concrete structures, the series of experiments showed the good results of clear-cut surfaces and the effect of blasting was confined properly. Moreover, the scattering of debris in blasting was able to be entirely prevented by the use of rubber belts. The generation of gas and dust was also little due to the small amount of the charge used. (J.P.N.)

  11. PREVALENCE OF RICE BLAST AND VARIETAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    search-screening site grown to an improved vari- ety, Tox 3050, was heavily blasted. There was no blast incidence at Damongo. in Upper East. Region, there was severe incidence of blast in farmers' fields at Bawku and PVS nurseries and farmers' fields at Nyorigu. There was no blast at. Manga, Navrongo, Tono, Sandema, ...

  12. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  13. BOMB BLAST: PATTERN AND NATURE OF INJURIES

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmaji Master; Chandra Sekhar; Rangaiah

    2015-01-01

    Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and...

  14. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  15. Explosive Blast Neuropathology and Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krisztian eKovacs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI due to explosive blast exposure is a leading combat casualty. It is also implicated as a key contributor to war related mental health diseases. A clinically important consequence of all types of TBI is a high risk for development of seizures and epilepsy. Seizures have been reported in patients who have suffered blast injuries in the Global War on Terror but the exact prevalence is unknown. The occurrence of seizures supports the contention that explosive blast leads to both cellular and structural brain pathology. Unfortunately, the exact mechanism by which explosions cause brain injury is unclear, which complicates development of meaningful therapies and mitigation strategies. To help improve understanding, detailed neuropathological analysis is needed. For this, histopathological techniques are extremely valuable and indispensable. In the following we will review the pathological results, including those from immunohistochemical and special staining approaches, from recent preclinical explosive blast studies.

  16. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  17. The BLAST experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.; Akdogan, T.; Alarcon, R.; Bertozzi, W.; Booth, E.; Botto, T.; Calarco, J.R.; Clasie, B.; Crawford, C.; DeGrush, A.; Dow, K.; Dutta, D.; Farkhondeh, M.; Fatemi, R.; Filoti, O.; Franklin, W.; Gao, H.; Geis, E.; Gilad, S.; Hersman, W.

    2009-01-01

    The Bates large acceptance spectrometer toroid (BLAST) experiment was operated at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center from 2003 until 2005. The detector and experimental program were designed to study, in a systematic manner, the spin-dependent electromagnetic interaction in few-nucleon systems. As such the data will provide improved measurements for neutron, proton, and deuteron form factors. The data will also allow details of the reaction mechanism, such as the role of final state interactions, pion production, and resonances to be studied. The experiment used: a longitudinally polarized electron beam stored in the South Hall Storage Ring; a highly polarized, isotopically pure, internal gas target of hydrogen or deuterium provided by an atomic beam source; and a symmetric, general purpose detector based on a toroidal spectrometer with tracking, time-of-flight, Cherenkov, and neutron detectors. Details of the experiment and operation are presented.

  18. Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    directly to the brain after craniotomy 154 or 240 kPa Unknown 2.8 or 20 kPa 40 kPa 1 or 10 MPa Redistribution of phosphorylated neurofilament H...m a: 1𔃻) .... !l ~ Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury 767 colleagues55 compared neuropsychological test results in a group of primarily...patterns between blast and non-blast-injured subjects, thus providing no support at the neuropsychological level that blast is different. However

  19. Service robot for hull-blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Zaragoza, Francisco José; Iborra García, Andrés José; Álvarez Torres, María Bárbara; Marín García, Fulgencio; Fernández Meroño, José María

    2001-01-01

    Present grit blasting technology for hull cleaning is very pollutant, environmentally unaffordable, and it is progressively forbidden in the most environmental countries (mainly north of Europe). At the time being, the above methodology has been partially substituted by ultra highpressure water blasting, however they do not show as good performance as the grit blasting systems. This paper describes a service robot for hull blasting. The technology we developed consists of the cleanin...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made by different manufacturers shall not be combined in the same blasting circuit. (c) Detonator leg wires shall be... used between the blasting cable and detonator circuitry shall— (1) Be undamaged; (2) Be well insulated...

  1. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the

  2. Simulating geometrically complex blast scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G. Cullis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of blast waves generated by energetic and non-energetic sources are of continuing interest to the ballistics research community. Modern conflicts are increasingly characterised by asymmetric urban warfare, with improvised explosive devices (IEDs often playing a dominant role on the one hand and an armed forces requirement for minimal collateral effects from their weapons on the other. These problems are characterised by disparate length- and time-scales and may also be governed by complex physics. There is thus an increasing need to be able to rapidly assess and accurately predict the effects of energetic blast in topologically complex scenarios. To this end, this paper presents a new QinetiQ-developed advanced computational package called EAGLE-Blast, which is capable of accurately resolving the generation, propagation and interaction of blast waves around geometrically complex shapes such as vehicles and buildings. After a brief description of the numerical methodology, various blast scenario simulations are described and the results compared with experimental data to demonstrate the validation of the scheme and its ability to describe these complex scenarios accurately and efficiently. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the use of the code in supporting the development of algorithms for fast running engineering models.

  3. Domain enhanced lookup time accelerated BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratyn Grzegorz M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BLAST is a commonly-used software package for comparing a query sequence to a database of known sequences; in this study, we focus on protein sequences. Position-specific-iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST iteratively searches a protein sequence database, using the matches in round i to construct a position-specific score matrix (PSSM for searching the database in round i + 1. Biegert and Söding developed Context-sensitive BLAST (CS-BLAST, which combines information from searching the sequence database with information derived from a library of short protein profiles to achieve better homology detection than PSI-BLAST, which builds its PSSMs from scratch. Results We describe a new method, called domain enhanced lookup time accelerated BLAST (DELTA-BLAST, which searches a database of pre-constructed PSSMs before searching a protein-sequence database, to yield better homology detection. For its PSSMs, DELTA-BLAST employs a subset of NCBI’s Conserved Domain Database (CDD. On a test set derived from ASTRAL, with one round of searching, DELTA-BLAST achieves a ROC5000 of 0.270 vs. 0.116 for CS-BLAST. The performance advantage diminishes in iterated searches, but DELTA-BLAST continues to achieve better ROC scores than CS-BLAST. Conclusions DELTA-BLAST is a useful program for the detection of remote protein homologs. It is available under the “Protein BLAST” link at http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Arcady Mushegian, Nick V. Grishin, and Frank Eisenhaber.

  4. Blast wave parameters at diminished ambient pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.; Mikhaylin, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    Relation between blast wave parameters resulted from a condensed high explosive (HE) charge detonation and a surrounding gas (air) pressure has been studied. Blast wave pressure and impulse differences at compression and rarefaction phases, which traditionally determine damage explosive effect, has been analyzed. An initial pressure effect on a post-explosion quasi-static component of the blast load has been investigated. The analysis is based on empirical relations between blast parameters and non-dimensional similarity criteria. The results can be directly applied to flying vehicle (aircraft or spacecraft) blast safety analysis.

  5. Parallel BLAST on split databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathog, David R

    2003-09-22

    BLAST programs often run on large SMP machines where multiple threads can work simultaneously and there is enough memory to cache the databases between program runs. A group of programs is described which allows comparable performance to be achieved with a Beowulf configuration in which no node has enough memory to cache a database but the cluster as an aggregate does. To achieve this result, databases are split into equal sized pieces and stored locally on each node. Each query is run on all nodes in parallel and the resultant BLAST output files from all nodes merged to yield the final output. Source code is available from ftp://saf.bio.caltech.edu/

  6. Control buildings for blast resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    Offers advice on interior design for blast-resistant control buildings. Suggests that for the comfort and safety of occupants, special attention must be paid to internal finishes and color schemes. Considers external treatment (e.g. panels, cladding fixings, thermal insulation), air intakes and exhausts, internal finishes (e.g. stud lining method), and internal walls and partitions. Presents diagrams showing construction method for a control building; elimination of ''cold bridge'' at eaves level; staggering door openings to minimize blast effects; and flexure of concrete walls without affecting the inner lining.

  7. Blast Responses and Vibration of Flood-Defense Structures under High-Intensity Blast Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghee Ryu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented the blast behavior of flood-defense structures subjected to high-intensity loadings such as blast shock waves. In order to understand the blast behavior of weir structures, PHAST program was used to predict blast loadings in consideration of material reactivity and congestion levels. Environment factors such as weather data and atmospheric parameters were also considered in this study. Then, nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed using the ABAQUS platform to evaluate structural responses and blast vibration of concrete weir structures subjected to various types of blast loadings, due to uncertainties of the magnitude and durations of blast loads as a function of distance from the explosion. It was shown that the blast damage to concrete weir structure was significantly influenced by congestion levels or material reactivity. Also, the stress concentration under blast loading was observed at the connection area between the concrete weir body and stilling basin.

  8. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  9. Mask materials for powder blasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    Powder blasting, or abrasive jet machining (AJM), is a technique in which a particle jet is directed towards a target for mechanical material removal. It is a fast, cheap and accurate directional etch technique for brittle materials such as glass, silicon and ceramics. The particle jet (which

  10. INCREASED RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC BLASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Kashuba, Oleh Ivanovych; Skliarov, L I; Skliarov, A L

    2017-01-01

    The problems of improving reliability of an electric blasting method using electric detonators with nichrome filament bridges. It was revealed that in the calculation of the total resistance of the explosive network it is necessary to increase to 24% of the nominal value

  11. An analysis of the heap construction by long hole blasting for in-situ leaching of blasted ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shijiao

    1999-01-01

    The author establishes specific requirements for heap construction by blasting on the basis of the mechanism for in situ leaching of blasted ore, analyses the feasibility of heap construction by long hole blasting, selection of the blast plan and the relevant technological problems, and gives a case of heap construction by long hole blasting in Renhua uranium mine

  12. CrocoBLAST: Running BLAST efficiently in the age of next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristão Ramos, Ravi José; de Azevedo Martins, Allan Cézar; da Silva Delgado, Gabrielle; Ionescu, Crina-Maria; Ürményi, Turán Peter; Silva, Rosane; Koca, Jaroslav

    2017-11-15

    CrocoBLAST is a tool for dramatically speeding up BLAST+ execution on any computer. Alignments that would take days or weeks with NCBI BLAST+ can be run overnight with CrocoBLAST. Additionally, CrocoBLAST provides features critical for NGS data analysis, including: results identical to those of BLAST+; compatibility with any BLAST+ version; real-time information regarding calculation progress and remaining run time; access to partial alignment results; queueing, pausing, and resuming BLAST+ calculations without information loss. CrocoBLAST is freely available online, with ample documentation (webchem.ncbr.muni.cz/Platform/App/CrocoBLAST). No installation or user registration is required. CrocoBLAST is implemented in C, while the graphical user interface is implemented in Java. CrocoBLAST is supported under Linux and Windows, and can be run under Mac OS X in a Linux virtual machine. jkoca@ceitec.cz. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  14. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  15. Interspecies Scaling in Blast Neurotrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    Armour Systems Symposium 2014 in Cambridge, England. 6.1 Introduction The increased risk of exposure to blast in both military and civilian settings...Physiological Processes in Homeothermic Animals." Annual Review of Physiology 43, 1: 301-22. Capehart, B and Bass, D. 2012. "Review: managing ...CI, Calvente, RR, Lillo, VM and Canas, JM. 2007. " Management and analysis of out-of-hospital health-related responses to simultaneous railway

  16. CO2 blasting in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankerckhoven, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    Carbon dioxide blasting can be used during the lifetime of nuclear facilities to remove deposited contamination and reduce the dose to personnel during repair and maintenance. By contrast with conventional mechanical or chemical decontamination methods, it does not leave additional secondary wastes. During the process, liquid CO 2 is expanded and converted into dry snow which is compressed and extruded to form small dry ice pellets. These low temperature pellets are blasted at high speed in a stream of compressed air against the surface to be treated where the mechanical and thermal shock embrittles the contaminating layer and severs its bond with the surface. The dry ice sublimes into the atmosphere as CO 2 gas and the loosened contamination can be removed via a ventilation and filtration system. Some examples of the effective use of CO 2 blasting are given. They include decontamination of: a supercompactor used on radioactive waste drums; the walls and floors of a nuclear fuel fabrication plant; the vacuum vessel of the Joint European Torus, hot cells; a phosphate fertilizer plant contaminated by radium 226. (UK)

  17. Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Reed; Simard, Philippe F; Driscoll, Ian; Keledjian, Kaspar; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Williams, Alicia; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2011-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury resulting from an explosive blast is one of the most serious wounds suffered by warfighters, yet the effects of explosive blast overpressure directly impacting the head are poorly understood. We developed a rodent model of direct cranial blast injury (dcBI), in which a blast overpressure could be delivered exclusively to the head, precluding indirect brain injury via thoracic transmission of the blast wave. We constructed and validated a Cranium Only Blast Injury Apparatus (COBIA) to deliver blast overpressures generated by detonating .22 caliber cartridges of smokeless powder. Blast waveforms generated by COBIA replicated those recorded within armored vehicles penetrated by munitions. Lethal dcBI (LD(50) ∼ 515 kPa) was associated with: (1) apparent brainstem failure, characterized by immediate opisthotonus and apnea leading to cardiac arrest that could not be overcome by cardiopulmonary resuscitation; (2) widespread subarachnoid hemorrhages without cortical contusions or intracerebral or intraventricular hemorrhages; and (3) no pulmonary abnormalities. Sub-lethal dcBI was associated with: (1) apnea lasting up to 15 sec, with transient abnormalities in oxygen saturation; (2) very few delayed deaths; (3) subarachnoid hemorrhages, especially in the path of the blast wave; (4) abnormal immunolabeling for IgG, cleaved caspase-3, and β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP), and staining for Fluoro-Jade C, all in deep brain regions away from the subarachnoid hemorrhages, but in the path of the blast wave; and (5) abnormalities on the accelerating Rotarod that persisted for the 1 week period of observation. We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction.

  18. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  19. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  20. Swift GRBs and the blast wave model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, P.A.; van der Horst, A.J.; Starling, R.L.C.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The complex structure of the light curves of Swift GRBs has made their interpretation and that of the blast wave caused by the burst, more difficult than in the pre-Swift era. We aim to constrain the blast wave parameters: electron energy distribution, p, density profile of the circumburst medium,

  1. Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    with comprehensive monitoring using high speed video and blast movement markers. 2. Develop site specific models ... The Blast Movement Monitor (BMM) is a system developed and patented by the JKMRC, University .... at Ahafo mine, the current practice was to mine to pre-blast grade boundaries (from blast hole drilling.

  2. prevalence of rice blast and varietal screening in ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    search-screening site grown to an improved vari- ety, Tox 3050, was heavily blasted. There was no blast incidence at Damongo. In Upper Iiast. Region, there was severe incidence of blast in farmers' fields at Bawku and PVS nurseries and farmers' fields at Nyorigu. There was no blast at. Manga, Navrongo, Tono, Sandema, ...

  3. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lee E.; Fisher, Andrew M.; Tagge, Chad A.; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A.; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M.; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W.; Goletiani, Cezar J.; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M.; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A.; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Wolozin, Benjamin L.; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D.; Budson, Andrew E.; Kowall, Neil W.; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F.; Moss, William C.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Stanton, Patric K.; McKee, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein–linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory. PMID:22593173

  4. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lee E; Fisher, Andrew M; Tagge, Chad A; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Velisek, Libor; Sullivan, John A; Upreti, Chirag; Kracht, Jonathan M; Ericsson, Maria; Wojnarowicz, Mark W; Goletiani, Cezar J; Maglakelidze, Giorgi M; Casey, Noel; Moncaster, Juliet A; Minaeva, Olga; Moir, Robert D; Nowinski, Christopher J; Stern, Robert A; Cantu, Robert C; Geiling, James; Blusztajn, Jan K; Wolozin, Benjamin L; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Stein, Thor D; Budson, Andrew E; Kowall, Neil W; Chargin, David; Sharon, Andre; Saman, Sudad; Hall, Garth F; Moss, William C; Cleveland, Robin O; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Stanton, Patric K; McKee, Ann C

    2012-05-16

    Blast exposure is associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and long-term cognitive disability. We examined a case series of postmortem brains from U.S. military veterans exposed to blast and/or concussive injury. We found evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a tau protein-linked neurodegenerative disease, that was similar to the CTE neuropathology observed in young amateur American football players and a professional wrestler with histories of concussive injuries. We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2 weeks after exposure to a single blast. Blast-exposed mice demonstrated phosphorylated tauopathy, myelinated axonopathy, microvasculopathy, chronic neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in the absence of macroscopic tissue damage or hemorrhage. Blast exposure induced persistent hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits that persisted for at least 1 month and correlated with impaired axonal conduction and defective activity-dependent long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Intracerebral pressure recordings demonstrated that shock waves traversed the mouse brain with minimal change and without thoracic contributions. Kinematic analysis revealed blast-induced head oscillation at accelerations sufficient to cause brain injury. Head immobilization during blast exposure prevented blast-induced learning and memory deficits. The contribution of blast wind to injurious head acceleration may be a primary injury mechanism leading to blast-related TBI and CTE. These results identify common pathogenic determinants leading to CTE in blast-exposed military veterans and head-injured athletes and additionally provide mechanistic evidence linking blast exposure to persistent impairments in neurophysiological function, learning, and memory.

  5. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  6. Status of the BLAST experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    The BLAST experiment is beginning operation at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment will study the spin dependent electro-magnetic interaction in few nucleon systems at momentum transfers between 0.1 and 1.0 GeV 2 . This will provide improved measurements of the nucleon form factors, particularly G E n , as well as study the structure of D and 3 He. Other reaction channels such as pion production and inclusive scattering will also be studied. The experiment, physics goals, and current status are described briefly. (orig.)

  7. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU's evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration

  8. PROGRESS IN THERMO-ABRASIVE BLASTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Gorlach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Quality of surface preparation of components and structures for further painting and/or coating is important in many fields of engineering. One of the most widely used methods of surface preparation is abrasive blasting. In the last few years, a new method for surface preparation has evolved, namely thermo-abrasive blasting. This technique utilises a high enthalpy thermal jet, generated by the thermo-abrasive blasting gun, to propel abrasive particles. Thermo-abrasive blasting has a number of advantages over conventional abrasive blasting, which were assessed during trials. This paper describes a progress in the applications of thermo-abrasive blasting as well as future potentials for South African industry. The performance data and economic comparison of conventional and thermo-abrasive blasting are also presented in this paper.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gehalte van voorbereiding van komponent- en struktuuroppervlaktes is oral belangrik in ingenieurswesetoepassings. Wat vrywel tot die hede dikwels gebruik was, is straalskuring. Onlangs het 'n nuwe metode tot stand gekom naamlik termostraalskuring. Die metode maak gebruik van 'n hoë entalpie termostaat om skuurmiddel aan te dryf. Die nuwe metode besit sekere voordele in vergelyking met tradisionele straalskuring. Praktykbevestiging is hiervan met toetse verkry. Hierdie stuk bespreek ook die praktyktoepassings van termostraalskuring en die gepaardgaande voordele vir die Suid-Afrikaanse nywerheid. Toepassingsdata en ekomiese vergelyking van konvensionele- en termostraalskuring word ook behandel.

  9. A Blast Wave Model With Viscous Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Fries, R. J.

    2017-04-01

    Hadronic observables in the final stage of heavy ion collision can be described well by fluid dynamics or blast wave parameterizations. We improve existing blast wave models by adding shear viscous corrections to the particle distributions in the Navier-Stokes approximation. The specific shear viscosity η/s of a hadron gas at the freeze-out temperature is a new parameter in this model. We extract the blast wave parameters with viscous corrections from experimental data which leads to constraints on the specific shear viscosity at kinetic freeze-out. Preliminary results show η/s is rather small.

  10. CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO{sub 2} pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO{sub 2} pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO{sub 2} blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report.

  11. Blast Injuries: From Improvised Explosive Device Blasts to the Boston Marathon Bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Ditkofsky, Noah G; York, John D; Abujudeh, Hani H; Avery, Laura A; Brunner, John F; Sodickson, Aaron D; Lev, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Although most trauma centers have experience with the imaging and management of gunshot wounds, in most regions blast wounds such as the ones encountered in terrorist attacks with the use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are infrequently encountered outside the battlefield. As global terrorism becomes a greater concern, it is important that radiologists, particularly those working in urban trauma centers, be aware of the mechanisms of injury and the spectrum of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury patterns. Primary blast injuries are caused by barotrauma from the initial increased pressure of the explosive detonation and the rarefaction of the atmosphere immediately afterward. Secondary blast injuries are caused by debris carried by the blast wind and most often result in penetrating trauma from small shrapnel. Tertiary blast injuries are caused by the physical displacement of the victim and the wide variety of blunt or penetrating trauma sustained as a result of the patient impacting immovable objects such as surrounding cars, walls, or fences. Quaternary blast injuries include all other injuries, such as burns, crush injuries, and inhalational injuries. Radiography is considered the initial imaging modality for assessment of shrapnel and fractures. Computed tomography is the optimal test to assess penetrating chest, abdominal, and head trauma. The mechanism of blast injuries and the imaging experience of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing are detailed, as well as musculoskeletal, neurologic, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary injury patterns from blast injuries. ©RSNA, 2016.

  12. On firework blasts and qualitative parameter dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, T I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to qualitatively simulate the progressive time-evolution of a blast from a simple firework. Estimates are made for the blast radius that one can expect for a given amount of detonation energy and pyrotechnic display material. The model balances the released energy from the initial blast pulse with the subsequent kinetic energy and then computes the trajectory of the material under the influence of the drag from the surrounding air, gravity and possible buoyancy. Under certain simplifying assumptions, the model can be solved for analytically. The solution serves as a guide to identifying key parameters that control the evolving blast envelope. Three-dimensional examples are given.

  13. Material Systems for Blast-Energy Dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Schondel; Henry S. Chu

    2010-10-01

    Lightweight panels have been designed to protect buildings and vehicles from blast pressures by activating energy dissipation mechanisms under the influence of blast loading. Panels were fabricated which featured a variety of granular materials and hydraulic dissipative deformation mechanisms and the test articles were subjected to full-scale blast loading. The force time-histories transmitted by each technology were measured by a novel method that utilized inexpensive custom-designed force sensors. The array of tests revealed that granular materials can effectively dissipate blast energy if they are employed in a way that they easily crush and rearrange. Similarly, hydraulic dissipation can effectively dissipate energy if the panel features a high fraction of porosity and the panel encasement features low compressive stiffness.

  14. Nucleon and Deuteron Form Factors from BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D. K.

    2009-01-01

    The BLAST experiment was designed to study in a systematic manner the spin-dependent, electromagnetic interaction on hydrogen and deuterium. Measuring only asymmetries in electron scattering with respect to the beam helicity, target spin, or both; the BLAST experiment was able to extract information on nucleon and deuteron form factors independent of beam intensity or target density. By further forming 'super-ratios' of asymmetries, measurements were possible independent of beam and target polarization thus reducing uncertainties due to these quantities as well. Some of the form factor results from BLAST will be briefly presented here. Also, in response to observed discrepancies between polarization measurements and those obtained using traditional Rosenbluth separation techniques a proposed experiment, OLYMPUS, which will use the BLAST detector to measure the two photon contribution to elastic electron scattering will also be presented.

  15. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BLAST finds regions of similarity between biological sequences. The program compares nucleotide or protein sequences to sequence databases and calculates the...

  16. A Software Framework for Blast Event Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swensen, D. A; Denison, M. K; Guilkey, James; Harman, Todd; Goetz, Richard

    2006-01-01

    .... The BCF will provide a virtual test-bed where disparate computational models can seamlessly interact with one another to provide a unified modeling solution for blast-vehicle-occupant scenarios...

  17. Blast effects physical properties of shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book compiles a variety of experimental data on blast waves. The book begins with an introductory chapter and proceeds to the topic of blast wave phenomenology, with a discussion Rankine-Hugoniot equations and the Friedlander equation, used to describe the pressure-time history of a blast wave. Additional topics include arrival time measurement, the initiation of detonation by exploding wires, a discussion of TNT equivalency, and small scale experiments. Gaseous and high explosive detonations are covered as well. The topics and experiments covered were chosen based on the comparison of used scale sizes, from small to large. Each characteristic parameter of blast waves is analyzed and expressed versus scaled distance in terms of energy and mass. Finally, the appendix compiles a number of polynomial laws that will prove indispensable for engineers and researchers.

  18. Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0038 TITLE: Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Albert I. King CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention of Blast-Related Injuries 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-2-0038 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Albert King, John...TR-7340). Army research lab Aberdeen proving ground MD weapons and materials research directorate. (2015) 11. Reneer, D.V., Hisel, R.D., Hoffman

  19. Blasting at a Superfund chemical waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, Maine Drilling and Blasting of Gardiner, Maine was contracted by Cayer Corporation of Harvard, Massachusetts to drill and blast an interceptor trench at the Nyanza Chemical Superfund Site in Ashland, Massachusetts. The interceptor trench was to be 1,365 feet long and to be blasted out of granite. The trench was to be 12 feet wide at the bottom with 1/1 slopes, the deepest cut being 30 feet deep. A French drain 12 feet wide by 15 to 35 feet deep was blasted below the main trench on a 2% slope from its center to each end. A French drain is an excavation where the rock is blasted but not dug. The trench would be used as a perimeter road with any ground water flow going through the French drain flowing to both ends of the trench. Being a Superfund project turned a simple blasting project into a regulatory nightmare. The US Environmental Protection Agency performed all the chemical related functions on site. The US Army Corps of Engineers was overseeing all related excavation and construction on site, as was the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Quality Engineering, the local Hazardous Wastes Council, and the local Fire Department. All parties had some input with the blasting and all issues had to be addressed. The paper outlines the project, how it was designed and completed. Also included is an outline of the blast plan to be submitted for approval, an outline of the Safety/Hazardous Waste training and a description of all the problems which arose during the project by various regulatory agencies

  20. Investigation of head response to blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Philip; Cronin, Duane; Williams, Kevin; Ouellet, Simon

    2011-02-01

    Head injury resulting from blast loading, specifically mild traumatic brain injury, has been identified as a possible and important blast-related injury for soldiers in modern conflict zones. A study was undertaken to evaluate head response to blast loading scenarios using an explicit finite element numerical model and to comment on the potential for head injury. The blast loading and simplified human body numerical models were validated using impulse, peak acceleration and the Head Injury Criterion from experimental blast test data. A study was then undertaken to evaluate head response at varying distances and orientations from the explosive. The accelerations and injury metrics for the head increased with decreasing distance to the explosive, as expected, but were also significant at intermediate distances from the explosive for larger charge sizes and intermediate heights of burst. Varying lateral position with constant standoff did not have a significant effect on the head kinematic response. The head injury criteria considered were exceeded in close proximity to the explosive (blast loading, aggressive loading is predicted at small standoff distances and confirmed by the resulting head kinematics.

  1. Ultra Safe And Secure Blasting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M M

    2009-07-27

    The Ultra is a blasting system that is designed for special applications where the risk and consequences of unauthorized demolition or blasting are so great that the use of an extraordinarily safe and secure blasting system is justified. Such a blasting system would be connected and logically welded together through digital code-linking as part of the blasting system set-up and initialization process. The Ultra's security is so robust that it will defeat the people who designed and built the components in any attempt at unauthorized detonation. Anyone attempting to gain unauthorized control of the system by substituting components or tapping into communications lines will be thwarted in their inability to provide encrypted authentication. Authentication occurs through the use of codes that are generated by the system during initialization code-linking and the codes remain unknown to anyone, including the authorized operator. Once code-linked, a closed system has been created. The system requires all components connected as they were during initialization as well as a unique code entered by the operator for function and blasting.

  2. The second generation of electronic blasting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammelmann, F.; Petzold, J. [Dynamit Nobel GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    8 years after the market introduction of the first commercial electronic detonator - DYNATRONIC - the paper describes a new area of electronic blasting systems Made in Germany: i-kon. The results of a joint development between Dynamit Nobel and Orica is a unique universal electronic detonator, which is as simple to use as a standard non-electric detonator. The delay time or delay interval is not factory preprogrammed and the system is not based on a numbered system like conventional detonators. The miner or Blaster decides on site which delay timing he likes to use and is programming the whole blast on site. The new i-kon system allows delay times between 0 and 8000 ms by increments of 1 ms. With the control equipment it is possible to blast up to 1600 detonators in a single blast. The paper describes the construction and functionality of this new electronic blasting system - manufactured and developed by Precision Blasting Systems, a joint venture between Orica and Dynamic Nobel. (orig.)

  3. Raydet non-electric blast initiation system for efficient and environment-friendly surface blasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarathy, M.O. [IDL Chemicals Ltd., Hyderabad (India). Technical Services Cell

    1995-08-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of using the Raydet shock tube based blast initiation system and reviews research work carried out on release of explosive energy in the drillhole, effect of stemming retention (stemming effectiveness) and advantages of `true bottom hole initiation` of drillholes in surface blasting. Some case studies are presented. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Reducing Drill and Blast Cost through Blast Optimisation – A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... gold mine in Ghana, and further developed a suitable, cost-effective drill and blast geometric parameters for the mine. The study was conducted on three ... explosive type, density and costs; labour; oversize. (relative boulders), toes and ... garnering input data, and in its direct linkage between blast design ...

  5. BLAST-EXPLORER helps you building datasets for phylogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The right sampling of homologous sequences for phylogenetic or molecular evolution analyses is a crucial step, the quality of which can have a significant impact on the final interpretation of the study. There is no single way for constructing datasets suitable for phylogenetic analysis, because this task intimately depends on the scientific question we want to address, Moreover, database mining softwares such as BLAST which are routinely used for searching homologous sequences are not specifically optimized for this task. Results To fill this gap, we designed BLAST-Explorer, an original and friendly web-based application that combines a BLAST search with a suite of tools that allows interactive, phylogenetic-oriented exploration of the BLAST results and flexible selection of homologous sequences among the BLAST hits. Once the selection of the BLAST hits is done using BLAST-Explorer, the corresponding sequence can be imported locally for external analysis or passed to the phylogenetic tree reconstruction pipelines available on the Phylogeny.fr platform. Conclusions BLAST-Explorer provides a simple, intuitive and interactive graphical representation of the BLAST results and allows selection and retrieving of the BLAST hit sequences based a wide range of criterions. Although BLAST-Explorer primarily aims at helping the construction of sequence datasets for further phylogenetic study, it can also be used as a standard BLAST server with enriched output. BLAST-Explorer is available at http://www.phylogeny.fr

  6. SparkBLAST: scalable BLAST processing using in-memory operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Marcelo Rodrigo; Tostes, Catherine Dos Santos; Dávila, Alberto M R; Senger, Hermes; da Silva, Fabricio A B

    2017-06-27

    The demand for processing ever increasing amounts of genomic data has raised new challenges for the implementation of highly scalable and efficient computational systems. In this paper we propose SparkBLAST, a parallelization of a sequence alignment application (BLAST) that employs cloud computing for the provisioning of computational resources and Apache Spark as the coordination framework. As a proof of concept, some radionuclide-resistant bacterial genomes were selected for similarity analysis. Experiments in Google and Microsoft Azure clouds demonstrated that SparkBLAST outperforms an equivalent system implemented on Hadoop in terms of speedup and execution times. The superior performance of SparkBLAST is mainly due to the in-memory operations available through the Spark framework, consequently reducing the number of local I/O operations required for distributed BLAST processing.

  7. Research on Effects of Blast Casting Vibration and Vibration Absorption of Presplitting Blasting in Open Cast Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact energy produced by blast casting is able to break and cast rocks, yet the strong vibration effects caused at the same time would threaten the safety of mines. Based on the theory of Janbu’s Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM, pseudo-static method has been incorporated to analyze the influence of dynamic loads of blasting on slope stability. The horizontal loads produced by blast vibrations cause an increase in sliding forces, and this leads to a lower slope stability coefficient. When the tensile stresses of the two adjacent blast holes are greater than the tensile strength of rock mass, the radical oriented cracks are formed, which is the precondition for the formation of presplit face. Thus, the formula for calculating the blast hole spacing of presplit blasting can be obtained. Based on the analysis of the principles of vibration tester and vibration pick-up in detecting blast vibrations, a detection scheme of blast vibration is worked out by taking the blast area with precrack rear and non-precrack side of the detection object. The detection and research results of blast vibration show that presplit blasting can reduce the attenuation coefficient of stress wave by half, and the vibration absorption ratio could reach 50.2%; the impact of dynamic loads on the end-wall slope stability coefficient is 1.98%, which proves that presplit blasting plays an important role in shock absorption of blast casting.

  8. Experimental Measures of Blast and Acoustic Trauma in Marine Mammals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketten, Darlene R

    2004-01-01

    .... To determine onset of damage zones for blast trauma in marine mammals, fresh post-mortem specimens were implanted with pressure gages, CT scanned, and exposed to underwater blast pressures of 10-300 psi...

  9. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  10. A blast absorber test: measurement and model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den; Hof, J. van 't; Arkel, E. van

    2006-01-01

    A blast absorber test was conducted at the Aberdeen Test Centre from 13 to 17 June 2005. The test was set up to determine the absorbing and shielding effect of a gravel pile, of 1.5 meters high and 15 by 15 meters wide, on blasts from large weapons: e.g. armor, artillery or demolition. The blast was

  11. Inheritance of blast resistance and identification of SSR marker ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-02

    Aug 2, 2013 ... An F2 population was developed from a cross between rice. (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes, EK 70 (highly susceptible to blast) and RDN 98-2-3-5-14 (resistant to blast), to study the inheritance of blast resistance and to identify the marker associated with resistance. The F2 population segregated in 3:1 ratio for ...

  12. VRPI Temporal Progression of Closed Globe Injury from Blast Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    significant increases in VEGF have been reported in many ocular disorders including diabetic retinopathy , diffuse macular edema, retinal vein...FRIEDLANDER SHAPED BLAST WAVES. FIGURE 2. BLAST WAVE MEASURED 1-IN IN FRONT OF ANIMAL LOCATION COMPARED TO PREDICTION OF BLAST FROM FRIEDLANDER WAVE

  13. Blast Impact Prediction Studies at Ghana Manganese Company ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Amegbey, N. and Afum, B. O. (2015), Blast Impact Prediction Studies at Ghana Manganese Company (GMC). Ltd, Nsuta ... conduct safe blasting operations in the Pit C North, studies were undertaken to assess the environmental impacts of blast associated with ..... Technology for Construction and Mining,.

  14. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues.

  15. Blasting response of the Eiffel Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlyck, Lachlan; Hayes, Kieran; Caetano, Ryan; Tahmasebinia, Faham; Ansourian, Peter; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    A finite element model of the Eiffel Tower was constructed using Strand7 software. The model replicates the existing tower, with dimensions justified through the use of original design drawings. A static and dynamic analysis was conducted to determine the actions of the tower under permanent, imposed and wind loadings, as well as under blast pressure loads and earthquake loads due to an explosion. It was observed that the tower utilises the full axial capacity of individual members by acting as a `truss of trusses'. As such, permanent and imposed loads are efficiently transferred to the primary columns through compression, while wind loads induce tensile forces in the windward legs and compressive forces in the leeward. Under blast loading, the tower experienced both ground vibrations and blast pressures. Ground vibrations induced a negligibly small earthquake loading into the structure which was ignored in subsequent analyses. The blast pressure was significant, and a dynamic analysis of this revealed that further research is required into the damping qualities of the structure due to soil and mechanical properties. In the worst case scenario, the blast was assumed to completely destroy several members in the adjacent leg. Despite this weakened condition, it was observed that the tower would still be able to sustain static loads, at least for enough time for occupant evacuation. Further, an optimised design revealed the structure was structurally sound under a 46% reduction of the metal tower's mass.

  16. Divide and Conquer (DC BLAST: fast and easy BLAST execution within HPC environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Cheol Yim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics is currently faced with very large-scale data sets that lead to computational jobs, especially sequence similarity searches, that can take absurdly long times to run. For example, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST and BLAST+ suite, which is by far the most widely used tool for rapid similarity searching among nucleic acid or amino acid sequences, is highly central processing unit (CPU intensive. While the BLAST suite of programs perform searches very rapidly, they have the potential to be accelerated. In recent years, distributed computing environments have become more widely accessible and used due to the increasing availability of high-performance computing (HPC systems. Therefore, simple solutions for data parallelization are needed to expedite BLAST and other sequence analysis tools. However, existing software for parallel sequence similarity searches often requires extensive computational experience and skill on the part of the user. In order to accelerate BLAST and other sequence analysis tools, Divide and Conquer BLAST (DCBLAST was developed to perform NCBI BLAST searches within a cluster, grid, or HPC environment by using a query sequence distribution approach. Scaling from one (1 to 256 CPU cores resulted in significant improvements in processing speed. Thus, DCBLAST dramatically accelerates the execution of BLAST searches using a simple, accessible, robust, and parallel approach. DCBLAST works across multiple nodes automatically and it overcomes the speed limitation of single-node BLAST programs. DCBLAST can be used on any HPC system, can take advantage of hundreds of nodes, and has no output limitations. This freely available tool simplifies distributed computation pipelines to facilitate the rapid discovery of sequence similarities between very large data sets.

  17. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury: a new trend of blast injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Wang, Zheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Blast injury has become the major life- and function-threatening injuries in recent warfares. There is increased research interest in the mental disorders caused by blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), which has been proved as one of the "signature wounds" in modern battlefield. We reviewed the recent progresses in bTBI-related researches and concluded that the new era of blast injury research has shifted from the traditional physical impairments to cognitive dysfunctional/mental disorders that are proved to be more related to the outcome of combat casualty care.

  18. Spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foglar M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcomes of the blast field tests of FRC and reinforced concrete specimens, which were performed in cooperation with the Czech Army corps and Police of the Czech Republic in the military training area Boletice. The numerical evaluation of the experiments focused on the spalling of concrete subjected to blast loading started after the first set of the tests, took almost 3 years and required further small-scale experiments performed in the labs of the Czech Technical University.

  19. Work Management Manual - Blast and Paint General

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    material which accelerates the har- dening of certain coatinss. Acoustic paint - paint which absorbs or deadens sound . Acrylic resin-a clear resin...AUG 1983 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Work Managemaent Manual - Blast and Paint General 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...WORK MANAGEMENT MANUAL BLAST/ PAINT GENERAL INDEX SECTION PAGE 1.0 .1 .2 .3 .4 2.0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .8 .9 3.0 .1 4.0 .1 5.0 .1 7.0 .1 .3 8.0 SCOPE PLANT

  20. Low-cost blast wave generator for studies of hearing loss and brain injury: blast wave effects in closed spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Andrew J; Hayes, Sarah H; Rao, Abhiram S; Allman, Brian L; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Ding, Dalian; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lobarinas, Edward; Mollendorf, Joseph C; Salvi, Richard

    2015-03-15

    Military personnel and civilians living in areas of armed conflict have increased risk of exposure to blast overpressures that can cause significant hearing loss and/or brain injury. The equipment used to simulate comparable blast overpressures in animal models within laboratory settings is typically very large and prohibitively expensive. To overcome the fiscal and space limitations introduced by previously reported blast wave generators, we developed a compact, low-cost blast wave generator to investigate the effects of blast exposures on the auditory system and brain. The blast wave generator was constructed largely from off the shelf components, and reliably produced blasts with peak sound pressures of up to 198dB SPL (159.3kPa) that were qualitatively similar to those produced from muzzle blasts or explosions. Exposure of adult rats to 3 blasts of 188dB peak SPL (50.4kPa) resulted in significant loss of cochlear hair cells, reduced outer hair cell function and a decrease in neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Existing blast wave generators are typically large, expensive, and are not commercially available. The blast wave generator reported here provides a low-cost method of generating blast waves in a typical laboratory setting. This compact blast wave generator provides scientists with a low cost device for investigating the biological mechanisms involved in blast wave injury to the rodent cochlea and brain that may model many of the damaging effects sustained by military personnel and civilians exposed to intense blasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A computational model of blast loading on the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Ziegler, Kimberly; Seo, Jung Hee; Ramesh, K T; Nguyen, Thao D

    2014-01-01

    Ocular injuries from blast have increased in recent wars, but the injury mechanism associated with the primary blast wave is unknown. We employ a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction computational model to understand the stresses and deformations incurred by the globe due to blast overpressure. Our numerical results demonstrate that the blast wave reflections off the facial features around the eye increase the pressure loading on and around the eye. The blast wave produces asymmetric loading on the eye, which causes globe distortion. The deformation response of the globe under blast loading was evaluated, and regions of high stresses and strains inside the globe were identified. Our numerical results show that the blast loading results in globe distortion and large deviatoric stresses in the sclera. These large deviatoric stresses may be indicator for the risk of interfacial failure between the tissues of the sclera and the orbit.

  2. Blast noise classification with common sound level meter metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvengros, Robert M; Valente, Dan; Nykaza, Edward T; Vipperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-08-01

    A common set of signal features measurable by a basic sound level meter are analyzed, and the quality of information carried in subsets of these features are examined for their ability to discriminate military blast and non-blast sounds. The analysis is based on over 120 000 human classified signals compiled from seven different datasets. The study implements linear and Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) support vector machines (SVM) to classify blast sounds. Using the orthogonal centroid dimension reduction technique, intuition is developed about the distribution of blast and non-blast feature vectors in high dimensional space. Recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) is then used to eliminate features containing redundant information and rank features according to their ability to separate blasts from non-blasts. Finally, the accuracy of the linear and RBF SVM classifiers is listed for each of the experiments in the dataset, and the weights are given for the linear SVM classifier.

  3. RegExpBlasting (REB), a Regular Expression Blasting algorithm based on multiply aligned sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Rubino, Francesco; Attimonelli, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the most frequent uses of bioinformatics tools concerns functional characterization of a newly produced nucleotide sequence (a query sequence) by applying Blast or FASTA against a set of sequences (the subject sequences). However, in some specific contexts, it is useful to compare the query sequence against a cluster such as a MultiAlignment (MA). We present here the RegExpBlasting (REB) algorithm, which compares an unclassified sequence with a dataset of patterns defined by...

  4. [Certain theoretical-methodological problems of forensic medical expertise of the blast injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V L

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the analysis of the theoretical problems facing forensic medical expertise of the blast injury. The original notions of the blast, injurious blast factors, and their traumatic consequences are proposed together with the classification of the blasts and their injurious factors. The principal lines of the further research on the forensic medical aspects of the blast injury are formulated.

  5. Consideration on local blast vibration control by delay blasting; Danpatsu happa ni yoru kyokuchiteki shindo seigyo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, Gento; Adachi, Tsuyoshi; Yamatomi, Jiro [The University of Tokyo School of Engineering Department of Geosystem Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Hoshino, Tatsuya [Mitsui Mining and Smelting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-10-31

    In this research, local blast vibration control based on the theory of superposition of waves was investigated. Firstly, the influence of delay time errors of conventional electric detonators upon the level of local blast vibration was examined. Secondly, for a further effective local blast vibration control, a new delay blasting design concept 'combined delay blasting' that postulates the use of electronic detonators, which virtually have no delay time errors, is proposed. For a delay blasting with uniform detonation time intervals, an optimum time interval to minimize the local PPV (Peak Particle Velocity) is obtained based on the relationship between the PPV and the time interval, which is derived by superposing identical vibration time histories of each single hole shot. However, due to the scattering of the actual delay time caused by errors, PPV of a production blast seldom coincides with the estimated one. Since the expected value and the variance of PPV mainly depend on sensitivity of PPV around the nominal delay time, it is proposed that not only the optimum but also several sub-optimum candidates of delay time should be examined taking error into consideration. Concerning the 'combined delay blasting', its concept and some simulation results are presented. The estimated reduction effect of blast vibration of a delay blast based on this concept was quite favorable, indicating a possibility for further effective local blast vibration control. (author)

  6. Developments in vapour cloud explosion blast modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercx, W.P.M.; Berg, A.C. van den; Hayhurst, C.J.; Robertson, N.J.; Moran, K.C.

    2000-01-01

    TNT Equivalency methods are widely used for vapour cloud explosion blast modeling. Presently, however, other types of models are available which do not have the fundamental objections TNT Equivalency models have. TNO Multi-Energy method is increasingly accepted as a more reasonable alternative to be

  7. Acceleration from short-duration blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzel, D. V.; Van Albert, S.; Sajja, V.; Long, J.

    2018-01-01

    The blast-induced motion of spheres has been studied experimentally where the shock wave is rapidly decaying during the period that quasi-steady acceleration would be developed in the case of a step-function shock wave as considered in most shock-tube studies. The motion of sphere models ranging from 39 to 251 mm in diameter and having a range of densities was assessed using the "free-flight" method in a simulator specially designed to replicate the decaying shock wave profile of spherical blast including negative phase and positive entropy gradient. A standardized blast-wave simulation of 125 kPa and 6-ms positive-phase duration was applied for all experiments. In all cases, there are three phases to the motion: a relatively low "kickoff" velocity from the shock diffraction, acceleration or deceleration during the positive duration, then deceleration through the negative phase and subsequent quiescent air. The unexpected deceleration of larger spheres after their kickoff velocity during the decaying yet high-speed flow of the blast wave seems associated with the persistence of a ring vortex on the downstream side of the sphere. The flow is entirely unsteady with initial forces dominated by the shock diffraction; therefore, the early motion of spheres under such conditions is not governed by quasi-steady drag as in classical aerodynamics. The work will help establish scaling rules for model studies of blast-induced motion relevant to improvised explosive devices, and preliminary results are shown for motion imparted to a human skull surrogate.

  8. Mathematical model and software for control of commissioning blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Onorin, O. P.; Shchipanov, K. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Blowing-in is a starting period of blast furnace operation after construction or major repair. The current approximation methods of blowing-in burden analysis are based on blowing-in practice of previously commissioned blast furnaces. This area is theoretically underexplored; there are no common scientifically based methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters. The purpose of this paper is development and scientific substantiation of the methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters in the blast furnace during the blowing-in period. Research methods are based on physical regularities of main processes running in the blast furnace, system analysis, and application of modern principles for development and construction of mathematical models, algorithms and software designed for automated control of complex production processes in metallurgy. As consequence of the research made by the authors the following results have been achieved: 1. A set of mathematical models for analysis of burden arrangement throughout the height of the blast furnace and for selection of optimal blast and gas dynamic parameters has been developed. 2. General principles for selection of the blowing-in burden composition and blast and gas dynamic parameters have been set up. 3. The software for the engineering and process staff of the blast furnace has been developed and introduced in the industry.

  9. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, control of blast effects in sensitive areas, blasthole deviation, regulatory impact when blasting at Superfund sites, computer-aided blast design and monitoring, tunneling techniques, shaft excavations, video camera analysis of blasting operations, soil densification, cost optimization, mine blasting accidents, non-electric initiation systems, and delay detonators. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  10. Database indexing for production MegaBLAST searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgulis, Aleksandr; Coulouris, George; Raytselis, Yan; Madden, Thomas L; Agarwala, Richa; Schäffer, Alejandro A

    2008-08-15

    The BLAST software package for sequence comparison speeds up homology search by preprocessing a query sequence into a lookup table. Numerous research studies have suggested that preprocessing the database instead would give better performance. However, production usage of sequence comparison methods that preprocess the database has been limited to programs such as BLAT and SSAHA that are designed to find matches when query and database subsequences are highly similar. We developed a new version of the MegaBLAST module of BLAST that does the initial phase of finding short seeds for matches by searching a database index. We also developed a program makembindex that preprocesses the database into a data structure for rapid seed searching. We show that the new 'indexed MegaBLAST' is faster than the 'non-indexed' version for most practical uses. We show that indexed MegaBLAST is faster than miBLAST, another implementation of BLAST nucleotide searching with a preprocessed database, for most of the 200 queries we tested. To deploy indexed MegaBLAST as part of NCBI'sWeb BLAST service, the storage of databases and the queueing mechanism were modified, so that some machines are now dedicated to serving queries for a specific database. The response time for such Web queries is now faster than it was when each computer handled queries for multiple databases. The code for indexed MegaBLAST is part of the blastn program in the NCBI C++ toolkit. The preprocessor program makembindex is also in the toolkit. Indexed MegaBLAST has been used in production on NCBI's Web BLAST service to search one version of the human and mouse genomes since October 2007. The Linux command-line executables for blastn and makembindex, documentation, and some query sets used to carry out the tests described below are available in the directory: ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/agarwala/indexed_megablast [corrected] Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Gene interactions and genetics of blast resistance and yield

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Blast disease caused by the pathogen Pyricularia oryzae is a serious threat to rice production. Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, B1 and B2 of a cross between blast susceptible high-yielding rice cultivar ADT 43 and resistant near isogenic line (NIL) CT13432-3R, carrying four blast resistance genes Pi1, Pi2, Pi33 and Pi54 ...

  12. The Pre-Blast Concept for use on Armour Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED The Pre-Blast Concept for use on Armour Materials C. Choi1, C. Peng2 and B. Dixon1 1Land Division Defence...to improve blast resistance Repeated blast test results (up to 7 times) of candidate armour materials showed that the greatest deformation...evidence of cracking in the armour steels and Crack-starter explosion bulge testing of the armour steels at -18 ºC demonstrated that the steels have

  13. Identification and detection of murine leukemia blasts by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Human leukemia has been determined and classified with the help of flow cytometry for the past two decades. Past attempts to detect leukemia blasts relied on both forward and side scatter (FSC and SSC) based on cell size and granularity. However, this technique failed to show a clean separation of blasts from normal lineage cells. In 1993, Borowitz, et al developed flow cytometric analysis to distinguish human leukemia blasts from other normal lineage cells by using fluorescence-conjugated CD...

  14. Proceedings of the eighteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques is the eighteenth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. The papers cover a wide variety of explosives and blasting techniques, including: rock mechanics, rock drilling, perimeter control handling and documenting blasting complaints, blast vibration frequencies, blasting techniques for surface and underground coal mines, explosives for permafrost blasting, lightning detection, use of slow motion video to analyze blasts, tunneling, and close-in blasting control. Papers have been processed individually for inclusion on the data base

  15. WU-Blast2 server at the European Bioinformatics Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rodrigo; Silventoinen, Ville; Robinson, Stephen; Kibria, Asif; Gish, Warren

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the WU-BLAST programs (http://blast.wustl.edu) have provided a fast, flexible and reliable method for similarity searching of biological sequence databases. The software is in use at many locales and web sites. The European Bioinformatics Institute's WU-Blast2 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/blast2/) server has been providing free access to these search services since 1997 and today supports many features that both enhance the usability and expand on the scope of the software. PMID:12824421

  16. Neuro-glial and systemic mechanisms of pathological responses in rat models of primary blast overpressure compared to ‘composite’ blast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav I. Svetlov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of experimental models of blast brain injury have been implemented in rodents and larger animals. However, the variety of blast sources and the complexity of blast wave biophysics have made data on injury mechanisms and biomarkers difficult to analyze and compare. Recently, we showed the importance of rat position towards blast generated by an external shock tube. In this study, we further characterized blast producing moderate TBI and defined ‘composite’ blast and primary blast exposure set-ups. Schlieren optics visualized interaction between the head and a shock wave generated by external shock tube, revealing strong head acceleration upon positioning the rat on-axis with the shock tube (composite blast, but negligible skull movement upon peak overpressure exposure off-axis (primary blast. Brain injury signatures of a primary blast hitting the frontal head were assessed and compared to damage produced by composite blast. Low to negligible levels of neurodegeneration were found following primary blast compared to composite blast by silver staining. However, persistent gliosis in hippocampus and accumulation of GFAP/CNPase in circulation was detected after both primary and composite blast. Also, markers of vascular/endothelial inflammation integrin alpha/beta, sICAM, and L-selectin along with neurotrophic factor NGF-beta were increased in serum within 6 hours post-blasts and persisted for 7 days thereafter. In contrast, systemic IL-1, IL-10, fractalkine, neuroendocrine peptide Orexin A, and VEGF receptor Neuropilin-2 (NRP-2 were raised predominantly after primary blast exposure. In conclusion, biomarkers of major pathological pathways were elevated at all blast setups. The most significant and persistent changes in neuro-glial markers were found after composite blast, while primary blast instigated prominent systemic cytokine/chemokine, Orexin A, and Neuropilin-2 release, particularly when primary blast impacted rats with

  17. A Phased Array Approach to Rock Blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Gertsch; Jason Baird

    2006-07-01

    A series of laboratory-scale simultaneous two-hole shots was performed in a rock simulant (mortar) to record the shock wave interference patterns produced in the material. The purpose of the project as a whole was to evaluate the usefulness of phased array techniques of blast design, using new high-precision delay technology. Despite high-speed photography, however, we were unable to detect the passage of the shock waves through the samples to determine how well they matched the expected interaction geometry. The follow-up mine-scale tests were therefore not conducted. Nevertheless, pattern analysis of the vectors that would be formed by positive interference of the shockwaves from multiple charges in an ideal continuous, homogeneous, isotropic medium indicate the potential for powerful control of blast design, given precise characterization of the target rock mass.

  18. Plastic Media Blasting Data Gathering Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    matt, reducing the filtering surface. 25 3) Cartridge Collectors: Cartridge dust collectors consist of a number of nonwoven tubular filters placed...by up to 90 percent. This task gathered data in five areas: chemical stripping, equipment and facilities, economics, safety and health , and surface...analyses conducted for the blast booth at Hill Air Force Base. The Safety section discusses the safety and health risks associated with PMB such as

  19. Nuclear blast and fall-out shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daroga, N.D.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear blast and fall-out shelter is described with automatically controlled oxygen supply means, air reconditioning means to remove CO and CO 2 , a hand operated pump for introducing external air if required, an over-pressure outlet valve, and means for automatically measuring the proportion of CO and CO 2 in the air in the shelter and giving an alarm signal in case of danger. (author)

  20. Blast Performance of Four Armour Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Charpy V- notch impact toughness results, as well as the highest carbon content of the steels tested . 5. For all steels the greatest deformation...Explosion Bulge Test (EBT). A number of conclusions may be drawn from these investigations and are summarised as follows: All steels tested were...good toughness and greater ductility, but less hardness. Multiple blast testing showed that steel A and steel M possessed the best resistance to

  1. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.  Created: 11/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 11/6/2008.

  2. Centrifugal shot blasting. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), the Facilities Closure and Demolition Projects Integrated Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) work plan calls for the removal of one inch (1 in) depth of concrete surface in areas where contamination with technetium-99 has been identified. This report describes a comparative demonstration between two concrete removal technologies: an innovative system using Centrifugal Shot Blasting (CSB) and a modified baseline technology called a rotary drum planer

  3. Advanced MRI in Blast-related TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    this study possible; the staff at the LRMC MRI clinic, including Don Al- brant, Kenny Caywood, Kelly McKay, Tim McKay, Tim Roberts, Kris Robertson...erans with persistent post-concussive symp- toms . Neuroimage 2011;54:Suppl 1:S76- S82. 12. Warden DL, French LM, Shupenko L, et al. Case report of a...Luethcke CA, Bryan CJ, Morrow CE, Isler WC. Comparison of concussive symp- toms , cognitive performance, and psycho- logical symptoms between acute blast

  4. D-BLAST OFDM with Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Jianxuan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO systems formed by multiple transmit and receive antennas can improve performance and increase capacity of wireless communication systems. Diagonal Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (D-BLAST structure offers a low-complexity solution for realizing the attractive capacity of MIMO systems. However, for broadband wireless communications, channel is frequency-selective and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM has to be used with MIMO techniques to reduce system complexity. In this paper, we investigate D-BLAST for MIMO-OFDM systems. We develop a layerwise channel estimation algorithm which is robust to channel variation by exploiting the characteristic of the D-BLAST structure. Further improvement is made by subspace tracking to considerably reduce the error floor. Simulation results show that the layerwise estimators require 1 dB less signal-to-noise ratio (SNR than the traditional blockwise estimator for a word error rate (WER of when Doppler frequency is 40 Hz. Among the layerwise estimators, the subspace-tracking estimator provides a 0.8 dB gain for WER with 200 Hz Doppler frequency compared with the DFT-based estimator.

  5. Air-injected slurry blasting tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will immobilize SRP high-level liquid waste in a borosilicate glass form. The molten waste glass at about 1050 0 C is poured into large (2-ft-dia, 10-ft-long) stainless steel canisters. During this operation the exterior of the canister reaches a temperature of up to 550 0 C and a thin oxide film is formed. This film traps radionuclide particles and must be removed to achieve the decontamination required before the canister leaves the DWPF canyon building. Air-injected frit slurry blasting has been chosen as the DWPF canister decontamination process based on results of tests with radioactively contaminated coupons. A small frit blaster in the Equipment Test Facility (ETF) has been used to optimize this process. Stainless steel coupons were heated at 600 0 C for 1 hour to simulate the canister oxide film. The coupons were weighed and then blasted at different parametric conditions. By weighing the coupons after blasting, the effects produced by each parameter could be compared and optimum parametric values determined

  6. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando, E-mail: bva@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Neves; Elton Silva; Silva, Sidiney Nascimento [Companhia Siderugica Nacional (CSN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10{sup 6} ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  7. Multiphase blast interaction between heterogeneous explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Robert; Ryan, Sydney; Jenkins, Charles M.

    2017-06-01

    Spherical charges loaded with micrometric metal powders feature explosively dispersed particle fields. The interaction phenomena of opposing multiphase flow fields from multiple charges depend on the charge spacing, loading configuration and particle morphology. For identical heterogeneous charges with a separation distance in the near field, the multiphase blast interaction includes particle-particle collision in the shocked air and impinging detonation products between the charges. Experiments recorded using high-speed framing cameras show the blast interaction process and resolve details of the multiphase structures. Hydrocode simulations are conducted using inelastic Lagrangian particle groups with a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo particle collision model. The numerical results distinguish the multiphase interaction layer and gas dynamic boundaries, with an emphasis on the particle laden Mach stem. The experimental results provide data for comparison to the interacting front velocities and Mach stem velocity. Modeling results for twin charges are shown to be different from a single heterogeneous blast reflection due to the stochastic and dissipative particle collisions. Remaining differences between the experimental and numerical results are discussed. The numerical results are further analyzed to assess particle fragmentation and potential for enhanced reaction in the interaction region between heterogeneous charges. DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 96TW-2017-0079.

  8. Verification of wet blasting decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Sachito; Murayama, Kazunari; Yoshida, Hirohisa; Igei, Shigemitsu; Izumida, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Macoho Co., Ltd. participated in the projects of 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Ministry of the Environment' and 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Cabinet Office.' And we tested verification to use a wet blasting technology for decontamination of rubble and roads contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a results of the verification test, the wet blasting decontamination technology showed that a decontamination rate became 60-80% for concrete paving, interlocking, dense-grated asphalt pavement when applied to the decontamination of the road. When it was applied to rubble decontamination, a decontamination rate was 50-60% for gravel and approximately 90% for concrete and wood. It was thought that Cs-134 and Cs-137 attached to the fine sludge scraped off from a decontamination object and the sludge was found to be separated from abrasives by wet cyclene classification: the activity concentration of the abrasives is 1/30 or less than the sludge. The result shows that the abrasives can be reused without problems when the wet blasting decontamination technology is used. (author)

  9. Blast Wave Mitigation in Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Quentin; Lhoumeau, Maxime; Frost, David

    2017-06-01

    A common technique to mitigate the blast wave from a high explosive is to surround the explosive with a layer of inert particles or liquid. In the case of a powder layer in spherical geometry, the spherically expanding shock wave that propagates first within the porous powder bed has a complex structure and induces the formation of force chains through particles in contact, shock propagation in the interstitial gas, and leads to shock compaction and deformation of the particle bed. Overall, the shock accelerates the particles and heats the gas in the pores and the partition of the total energy between kinetic and internal energy is primarily a function of the layer porosity and mass ratio of material to explosive. This energy partition is explored computationally with a multiphase hydrocode as a function of the bed parameters and compared with the case of a homogeneous liquid. The results are compared with experiments which track the strength of the blast wave emerging from the material layer as well as the material velocity using high-speed photography. For a given mass ratio, the strength of the blast wave transmitted into the air and the material velocity are significantly lower for particle beds than liquid layers due to energy dissipation during compaction of the bed.

  10. Numerical Investigation of Structural Response of Corrugated Blast Wall Depending on Blast Load Pulse Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Min Sohn

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon explosions are one of most hazardous events for workers on offshore platforms. To protect structures against explosion loads, corrugated blast walls are typically installed. However, the profiles of real explosion loads are quite different depending on the congestion and confinement of Topside structures. As the level of congestion and confinement increases, the explosion load increases by up to 8 bar, and the rising time of the load decreases. This study primarily aims to investigate the structural behavior characteristics of corrugated blast walls under different types of explosion loadings. Four loading shapes were applied in the structural response analysis, which utilized a dynamic nonlinear finite element method.

  11. Studies on induction of blast-resistant mutation in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Sachihiko; Kawai, Takeshi; Yamasaki, Yoshito; Niizeki, Hiroo; Kiyosawa, Shigehisa.

    1980-01-01

    The mutation frequency of blast resistance in rice and that of increased pathogenicity of blast fungi were examined, using the rice variety, Norin 8, which is susceptible to all races of blast fungi in Japan, and a fungus strain, Ina 168, which carries 6 virulent genes, respectively. Four different inoculation methods were employed for screening blast resistant mutants, i.e., spraying spore suspensions in growth chambers, in a greenhouse and in a field nursery, and injecting spore suspensions into newly developed tillers. The number of lesions and their types were used as the criteria of blast resistance. For screening the fungus mutants with increased pathogenicity, the spore suspensions of the fungi to be tested were sprayed on the seedlings of the blast resistant varieties, and when susceptible-type lesions were formed, single spores were isolated from these lesions, and the change in its pathogenicity was confirmed. When seeds were irradiated with gamma ray and treated with chemicals (EMS or EI), the frequency of the mutants with high resistance to blast was 5/4,575 and 4/5,851 respectively, in the M 2 generation. The frequency of dominant blast resistant mutations following gamma-ray irradiation at the pre-embryo stage of growing plants was 3/60,101 in the M 1 generation. When the spore suspensions of blast fungi were treated with X-ray, the frequency of the mutants with increased pathogenicity was about 0.5%. Thus, the mutants highly resistant against blast of rice induced by radiation or chemicals would eventually become susceptible varieties because blast fungus mutants occurred more frequently with increased pathogenicity. (Kaihara, S.)

  12. Blast injury ear in a low intensity conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, A

    2001-07-01

    The Eardrum is the most sensitive organ involved i blast injury and can be ruptured at relatively low pressure differentials. This study presents 200 cases of traumatic perforation among service personnel involved in a low intensity conflict, treated in a forward zonal hospital. Most blast injuries of the tympanic membrane (TM) heal spontaneously with conservative treatment (83%).

  13. Blast injury ear in a low intensity conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Kakkar, Anil

    2001-01-01

    The Eardrum is the most sensitive organ involved i blast injury and can be ruptured at relatively low pressure differentials. This study presents 200 cases of traumatic perforation among service personnel involved in a low intensity conflict, treated in a forward zonal hospital. Most blast injuries of the tympanic membrane (TM) heal spontaneously with conservative treatment (83%).

  14. Single point methods for determining blast wave injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teland, J.A.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Horst, M.J. van der; Svinsas, E.

    2011-01-01

    Models for calculating human injury from a blast wave are examined. The Axelsson BTD model is able to give injury estimates also for complex shock waves, but is difficult to use in practise since it requires input from four pressure sensors on a BTD (Blast Test Device) in the specific location. To

  15. Accidental hand grenade blast injuries in the Transkei region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result is extensive mutilation of the body, particularly to those close to the blast. In this report the nature and .... Those who joined the liberation movements received training in firearms both within and outside the ... peak overpressures and positive-phase durations of blast waves.7 The simulated peak overpressure and ...

  16. Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the application of the latest measurements and modelling techniques in understanding the blast dynamics and develops site specific solutions to minimise blast induced dilution and ore losses. These solutions are validated at Newmont Ahafo open pit mine through systematic trials and subsequently ...

  17. Blasting Standards for the Ghanaian Mining Industry | Amegbey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana is a well known mining nation and hard rock mining has been going on since the 10th century. Mining companies in Ghana are well aware of the regulatory requirements to carry out blasting activities such that neighbouring communities are protected from excessive impact as a result of blast vibrations amongst other ...

  18. Gene interactions and genetics of blast resistance and yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-11

    Aug 11, 2014 ... Keywords. blast; gene action; generation mean analysis; resistance; yield. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 93, No. .... Utilizing the variance of different generations, the variances of A, B, C and D scales were ...... Jia Y. 2003 Marker assisted selection for the control of rice blast disease. Pesticide Outlook 14 ...

  19. Methodology of Testing Shot Blasting Machines in Industrial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Shot blasting machines are widely used for automated surface treatment and finishing of castings. In shot blasting processes the stream of shots is generated and shaped by blasting turbines, making up a kinetic and dynamic system comprising a separating rotor, an adapting sleeve and a propelling rotor provided with blades. The shot blasting performance- i.e. the quality of shot treated surfaces depends on the actual design and operational parameters of the unit whilst the values of relevant parameters are associated with the geometry of turbine components and the level of its integration with the separator system. The circulation of the blasting medium becomes the integrating factor of the process line, starting from the hopper, through the propeller turbine, casting treatment, separation of contaminated abrasive mixture, to its recycling and reuse.Inferior quality of the abrasive agent (shot and insufficient purity of the abrasive mixture are responsible for low effectiveness of shot blasting. However, most practitioners fail to fully recognise the importance of proper diagnostics of the shot blasting process in industrial conditions. The wearing of major machine components and of the blasting agent and quality of shot treated surfaces are often misinterpreted, hence the need to take into account all factors involved in the process within the frame of a comprehensive methodology.This paper is an attempt to formulate and apply the available testing methods to the engineering practice in industrial conditions.

  20. Delineating rockmass damage zones in blasting from in-field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delineating rockmass damage zones in blasting from in-field seismic velocity and peak particle velocity measurement. ... has been found that the integrity of rockmass is reduced significantly from pre to post blast condition due to disregard paid to the surrounding rockmass. For exercising suitable engineering controls ...

  1. Testing the blast wave model with Swift GRBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, P.A.; Starling, R.L.C.; van der Horst, A.J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The complex structure of the light curves of Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) has made the identification of breaks, and the interpretation of the blast wave caused by the burst, more difficult than in the pre-Swift era. We aim to identify breaks, which are possibly hidden, and to constrain the blast

  2. Testing the blast wave model with Swift GRBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, P.A.; Starling, R.L.C.; van der Horst, A.J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; de Pasquale, M.; Page, M.

    2011-01-01

    The complex structure of the light curves of Swift GRBs (e.g. superimposed flares and shallow decay) has made their interpretation and that of the blast wave caused by the burst, more difficult than in the pre-Swift era. We aim to constrain the blast wave parameters: electron energy distribution, p,

  3. Genetic diversity of the blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of some resistance genes indicated that they could be pyramided to provide durable resistance to blast fungus in Burkina Faso. The study also revealed the possible existence of new pathotypes in Burkina Faso. Fifty-five isolates of the blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, collected from the nurseries and rice ...

  4. Dry ice blasting for the conservation cleaning of metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, R.; Joosten, I.; Beentjes, T.; Megens, L.; Mardikian, P.; Chemello, C.; Watters, C.; Hull, P.

    2011-01-01

    This research was carried out to assess the feasibility of dry ice blasting as a replacement for solvent cleaning for the removal of organic layers from metal cultural heritage objects. The effects of dry ice blasting on test samples of aluminium, bronze and weathering steel were studied along with

  5. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for use so long as the present approval is maintained. (e) Electric detonators shall be compatible... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1316 - Preparation before blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... before blasting. (a)(1) All nonbattery-powered electric equipment, including cables, located within 50... cable or detonator circuitry shall not come in contact with energized electric equipment, including... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparation before blasting. 75.1316 Section 75...

  7. Investigation on Blast Resistance of Precast Reinforced Concrete Floor Slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, Nicola; Gentile, Domenico; Iannitti, Gianluca; Ruggiero, Andrew; Testa, Gabriel; Bernabei, Manuele; Cassioli, Luigi; Grossi, Silvana

    2017-06-01

    The knowledge of the effective blast resistance of civil infrastructures is a fundamental information for risk assessment and modelling consequences of terrorist attack in high population density urban environment. In this work, blast resistance of precast reinforced concrete floor slab, commonly used for commercial parking, was investigated performing blast tests, detonating bare explosive charge of RDX 80-20 in contact with the slab. The charge mass, and the stand-off distance, was varied in order to generate different damage extents, from visible to fully breached condition. Numerical simulations were performed considering all slab structural elements. Failure model for concrete was calibrated on breach size and shape observed in the experiments. The explosive and blast wave-structure interaction were simulated using arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method (ALE) and particle blast method (PBM) for comparison.

  8. SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

    2005-05-01

    The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

  9. 30 CFR 56.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of blasting circuits from power... MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6404 Separation of blasting circuits from power source. (a) Switches used to connect the power source to a blasting circuit shall be locked in the open position except...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6404 - Separation of blasting circuits from power source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of blasting circuits from power... NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6404 Separation of blasting circuits from power source. (a) Switches used to connect the power source to a blasting circuit shall be...

  11. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, ground vibrations and blast effects, design for explosive fracturing of rock, sequential timing for blasting control, design for production optimization, use of blasting for abandoned mine reclamation, chemical explosives, lightning warning systems, magazine security, fire safety, and drilling equipment. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  12. Survey of rice blast race identity for blast resistance gene identification in the USA and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease is a significant threat to stable rice production in the USA and worldwide. The major resistance gene (Pi-ta) located within a cluster of resistance genes on rice chromosome 12 has been demonstrated to confer resistance to the rice blast disease. Katy, a rice cultivar released in ...

  13. Numerical modeling and characterization of blast waves for application in blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael G.

    Human exposure to blast waves, including blast-induced traumatic brain injury, is a developing field in medical research. Experiments with explosives have many disadvantages including safety, cost, and required area for trials. Shock tubes provide an alternative method to produce free field blast wave profiles. A compressed nitrogen shock tube experiment instrumented with static and reflective pressure taps is modeled using a numerical simulation. The geometry of the numerical model is simplified and blast wave characteristics are derived based upon static and pressure profiles. The pressure profiles are analyzed along the shock tube centerline and radially away from the tube axis. The blast wave parameters found from the pressure profiles provide guidelines for spatial location of a specimen. The location could be based on multiple parameters and provides a distribution of anticipated pressure profiles experience by the specimen.

  14. Slag wool manufacturing from blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Руських

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Slag wool is the most expensive and valuable product of blast furnace slag processing. Slag wool is in great demand nowadays. The article highlights the factors influencing the mineral wool quality: chemical composition that determines the acidity of the module, the temperature of the molten slag and the required slag jet thickness consistency. Mineral wool is produced by blowing air or steam into a jet of molten slag. As a result of it the slag crushes into droplets stretching. The resulting wool contains 5% slag and 95% air. The quality of the obtained slag wool depends on the module acidity of the slag. The blast furnace slags of «Ilyich iron and steel works of Mariupol» and «Azovstal iron & steel works» are the main (short slags – they give short fibers. To obtain high-quality long fiber wool it is necessary to add admixtures into basic blast furnace slag to reduce its basicity. As a result of the fuel and energy rising prices and the necessity to reduce the slag wool cost it is necessary to develop a new technology with fiery-liquid slag, with the removal of iron compounds and sulphur from the melts and the introduction of corrective additives to improve the quality of slag wool. Good thermal conductivity (about 0,03 kcal/m∙h∙°C and other indicators (resistance, volume weight make it possible to use the materials from slag wool (pads, rigid and semi-rigid plates as heat and sound insulating materials

  15. BLAST: RESOLVING THE COSMIC SUBMILLIMETER BACKGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, Gaelen; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Ngo, Henry; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Magnelli, Benjamin; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) has made 1 deg 2 , deep, confusion-limited maps at three different bands, centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South Field. By calculating the covariance of these maps with catalogs of 24 μm sources from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, we have determined that the total submillimeter intensities are 8.60 ± 0.59, 4.93 ± 0.34, and 2.27 ± 0.20 nW m -2 sr -1 at 250, 350, and 500 μm, respectively. These numbers are more precise than previous estimates of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and are consistent with 24 μm-selected galaxies generating the full intensity of the CIB. We find that the fraction of the CIB that originates from sources at z ≥ 1.2 increases with wavelength, with 60% from high-redshift sources at 500 μm. At all BLAST wavelengths, the relative intensity of high-z sources is higher for 24 μm-faint sources than that for 24 μm-bright sources. Galaxies identified as active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by their Infrared Array Camera colors are 1.6-2.6 times brighter than the average population at 250-500 μm, consistent with what is found for X-ray-selected AGNs. BzK-selected galaxies are found to be moderately brighter than typical 24 μm-selected galaxies in the BLAST bands. These data provide high-precision constraints for models of the evolution of the number density and intensity of star-forming galaxies at high redshift.

  16. Civilian blast-related burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J N; Tan, A; Dziewulski, P

    2016-03-31

    There is limited English literature describing the experience of a civilian hospital managing blast-related burn injuries. As the largest regional burn unit, we reviewed our cases with the aim of identifying means to improve current management. A 6-year retrospective analysis of all patients coded as sustaining blast-related burns was conducted through the unit's burns database. Medical case notes were reviewed for information on burn demographics, management and outcomes. 42 patients were identified. Male to female ratio was 37:5. Age range was 12-84 years, (mean=33 years). Total body surface area (%TBSA) burn ranged from 0.25% to 60%, (median=1%). The most common burn injury was flame (31/42, 73.8%). Gas explosions were the most common mechanism of injury (19 cases; 45.2%). 7/42 cases (16.7%) had full ATLS management pre-transfer to the burns unit. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) ranged from 0-43 (median=2). 17/42 (40.4%) patients required admission. 37/36 (88.1%) patients were managed conservatively of which 1 patient later required surgery due to deeper burns. 5/42 (11.9%) patients required surgical management at presentation and these were noted to be burns with >15% TBSA requiring resuscitation. One case required emergency escharotomies and finger amputations. All patients survived their burn injuries. Blast-related burn injuries are generally uncommon in the civilian setting. Following proper assessment, most of these cases can be deemed as minor injuries and managed conservatively. Improvement in burns management education and training at local emergency departments would provide efficient patient care and avoid unnecessary referrals to a burns unit.

  17. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  18. Rock breaking methods to replace blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huisheng; Xie, Xinghua; Feng, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    The method of breaking rock by blasting has a high efficiency and the cost is relatively low, but the associated vibration, flyrock, production of toxic gases since the 1970’s, the Western developed countries began to study the safety of breaking rock. This paper introduces different methods and their progress to safely break rock. Ideally, safe rock breaking would have little vibration, no fly stone, and no toxic gases, which can be widely used in municipal engineering, road excavation, high-risk mining, quarrying and complex environment.

  19. NASA TEERM Project: Corn Based Blast Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    Coatings removal is a necessary part of the maintenance, repair, and overhaul activities at many NASA centers and contractor support sites. Sensitive substrates, such as composites and thin aluminum alloys require special handling such as the use of chemical stripping, pneumatic hand sanding, or softer blast media. Type V, acrylic based PMB is commonly used to de-coat, strip, or de-paint the delicate substrates of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) currently used in support of the Shuttle and slated to be used in support of CxP.

  20. Design of blast simulators for nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, A.; Opalka, K.O.; Kitchens, C.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A quasi-one-dimensional computational technique is used to model the flow of a large, complicated shock tube. The shock tube, or Large Blast Simulator, is used to simulate conventional or nuclear explosions by shaping the pressure history. Results from computations show favorable agreement when compared with data taken in the facility at Gramat, France. Such future shock tubes will include a thermal irradiation capability to better simulate a nuclear event. The computations point to the need for venting of the combustion products since the pressure history will be considerably altered as the shock propagates through these hot gases

  1. Explosive and accessories in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingua, B.M.P.; Nabiullah, M.; Jagdish, S.; Mishra, G.D.; Singh, T.N. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    1999-02-01

    Chemical explosives are commonly used in the mining industry. Those used in India include nitroglycerine (NG) base, ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture (ANFO), slurry emulsion and liquid oxygen (LOX). Examples of each type and their general properties are lighted. The electric and non-electric detonating systems used are described. Two Indian companies are producing non-electric in-hole delay system. Raydet (IDL-make) and Excel (ICI-make). Their firing characteristics are listed. Tables are given for burden for different density of rock and explosive strength. Causes of bad blast are itemised. 7 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Distinguishing the Unique Neuropathological Profile of Blast Polytrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Brad Hubbard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury sustained after blast exposure (blast-induced TBI has recently been documented as a growing issue for military personnel. Incidence of injury to organs such as the lungs has decreased, though current epidemiology still causes a great public health burden. In addition, unprotected civilians sustain primary blast lung injury (PBLI at alarming rates. Often, mild-to-moderate cases of PBLI are survivable with medical intervention, which creates a growing population of survivors of blast-induced polytrauma (BPT with symptoms from blast-induced mild TBI (mTBI. Currently, there is a lack of preclinical models simulating BPT, which is crucial to identifying unique injury mechanisms of BPT and its management. To meet this need, our group characterized a rodent model of BPT and compared results to a blast-induced mTBI model. Open field (OF performance trials were performed on rodents at 7 days after injury. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate cellular outcome at day seven following BPT. Levels of reactive astrocytes (GFAP, apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3 expression, and vascular damage (SMI-71 were significantly elevated in BPT compared to blast-induced mTBI. Downstream markers of hypoxia (HIF-1α and VEGF were higher only after BPT. This study highlights the need for unique therapeutics and prehospital management when handling BPT.

  3. LTC vacuum blasting maching (concrete): Baseline report: Greenbook (Chapter)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjuction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  4. Determination of Destress Blasting Effectiveness Using Seismic Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtecki, Łukasz; Mendecki, Maciej J.; Zuberek, Wacaław M.

    2017-12-01

    Underground mining of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin is currently performed under difficult geological and mining conditions. The mining depth, dislocations (faults and folds) and mining remnants are responsible for rockburst hazard in the highest degree. This hazard can be minimized by using active rockburst prevention, where destress blastings play an important role. Destress blastings in coal seams aim to destress the local stress concentrations. These blastings are usually performed from the longwall face to decrease the stress level ahead of the longwall. An accurate estimation of active rockburst prevention effectiveness is important during mining under disadvantageous geological and mining conditions, which affect the risk of rockburst. Seismic source parameters characterize the focus of tremor, which may be useful in estimating the destress blasting effects. Investigated destress blastings were performed in coal seam no. 507 during its longwall mining in one of the coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin under difficult geological and mining conditions. The seismic source parameters of the provoked tremors were calculated. The presented preliminary investigations enable a rapid estimation of the destress blasting effectiveness using seismic source parameters, but further analysis in other geological and mining conditions with other blasting parameters is required.

  5. Discrimination of Earthquake and Blast Seismicity in Western Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, N.; Law, A.; Yenier, E.; Reynen, A.; Baturan, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recorded seismicity in western Alberta is caused by natural and induced earthquakes or blast events from mining and quarry operations. Accurate discrimination of earthquakes from blast events is crucial for evaluating recent seismicity with respect to the historical catalog and for assessing seismic hazards associated with naturally occurring or induced seismicity. In general, blast events are discriminated from earthquakes based on their proximity to active mines and quarries in addition to day-of-week and time-of-day timing patterns. In some parts of western Alberta, however, seismicity originates in regions with active mines, historical earthquake seismicity, and hydraulic fracturing operations. Based on timing patterns or event locations alone, natural or induced seismicity may be misidentified as mining activity. Several studies report that relative differences in Fourier or response spectra can be used to discriminate blast and earthquake events. Other studies report that the relative timing and amplitude of seismic phases may provide useful metrics for classifying blast events. Here we propose an alternative method that accounts for both differences in phase spectra and phase timing and amplitude. In particular, we evaluate the normalized time integral for characteristic functions of particle motion from confirmed blast and earthquake events recorded by regional Alberta seismic networks. We then use these time-integral profiles to re-classify events that are initially categorized as suspected blasts based on timing pattern and event location indicators.

  6. Modeling of aqueous foam blast wave attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domergue L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of aqueous foams enables the mitigation of blast waves induced by the explosion of energetic materials. The two-phase confinement gives rise to interphase interactions between the gaseous and liquid phases, which role have been emphasized in shock-tube studies with solid foams [1, 2]. Multifluid formalism enables the thermo-mechanical disequilibria between phases to be taken into account. The flow model ensures the correct estimation of the acoustic impedance of the two-phase media. As for the numerical scheme, Riemann solvers are used to describe the microscopic fluid interactions, the summation of which provides the multiphase flux. The role of the different transfer mechanisms is evaluated in the case where the liquid ligaments of the foam matrix have been shattered into droplets by the shock impingement. Characteristics of blast waves in heterogeneous media leads to a decrease of overpressure. The numerical results have been compared favorably to experimental data [3, 4].

  7. Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, H; Kelly, M; Worley, A; Del Linz, P; Fergusson, A; Hooper, P A; Dear, J P

    2014-05-13

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3 m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson-Cranz scaled distance of 3.02 m kg(-1/3), 100 kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14 m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411-413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast.

  8. Protecting the lower extremity against a/p blast mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Dyk, T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available protection concept Result: Chaos and arguments Slide 4 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za A/P Blast Mines Effects Slide 5 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Basic Principles Shock Effect Slide 6 © CSIR 2006... the Lower Extremity against a/p Blast Mines J T van Dyk DEFENCE, PEACE, SAFETY AND SECURITY LANDWARDS SCIENCES COMPETENCY AREA Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Contents • R&D overview • Effect of a/p blast mines • Basic...

  9. The tank's dynamic response under nuclear explosion blast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mei; Wang Lianghou; Li Xiaotian; Yu Suyuan; Zhang Zhengming; Wan Li

    2005-01-01

    To weapons and equipment, blast wave is the primary destructive factor. In this paper, taken the real model-59 tank as an example, we try to transform the damage estimation problem into computing a fluid structure interaction problem with finite element method. The response of tank under nuclear explosion blast wave is computed with the general-coupling algorithm. Also, the dynamical interaction of blast wave and tank is reflected in real time. The deformation of each part of the tank is worked out and the result corresponds to the real-measured data. (authors)

  10. Lateral blasts at Mount St. Helens and hazard zonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, D.R.; Hoblitt, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Lateral blasts at andesitic and dacitic volcanoes can produce a variety of direct hazards, including ballistic projectiles which can be thrown to distances of at least 10 km and pyroclastic density flows which can travel at high speed to distances of more than 30 km. Indirect effect that may accompany such explosions include wind-borne ash, pyroclastic flows formed by the remobilization of rock debris thrown onto sloping ground, and lahars. Two lateral blasts occurred at a lava dome on the north flank of Mount St. Helens about 1200 years ago; the more energetic of these threw rock debris northeastward across a sector of about 30?? to a distance of at least 10 km. The ballistic debris fell onto an area estimated to be 50 km2, and wind-transported ash and lapilli derived from the lateral-blast cloud fell on an additional lobate area of at least 200 km2. In contrast, the vastly larger lateral blast of May 18, 1980, created a devastating pyroclastic density flow that covered a sector of as much as 180??, reached a maximum distance of 28 km, and within a few minutes directly affected an area of about 550 km2. The May 18 lateral blast resulted from the sudden, landslide-induced depressurization of a dacite cryptodome and the hydrothermal system that surrounded it within the volcano. We propose that lateral-blast hazard assessments for lava domes include an adjoining hazard zone with a radius of at least 10 km. Although a lateral blast can occur on any side of a dome, the sector directly affected by any one blast probably will be less than 180??. Nevertheless, a circular hazard zone centered on the dome is suggested because of the difficulty of predicting the direction of a lateral blast. For the purpose of long-term land-use planning, a hazard assessment for lateral blasts caused by explosions of magma bodies or pressurized hydrothermal systems within a symmetrical volcano could designate a circular potential hazard area with a radius of 35 km centered on the volcano

  11. Relativistic blast waves in two dimensions. I - The adiabatic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Approximate solutions are presented for the dynamical evolution of strong adiabatic relativistic blast waves which result from a point explosion in an ambient gas in which the density varies both with distance from the explosion center and with polar angle in axisymmetry. Solutions are analytical or quasi-analytical for the extreme relativistic case and numerical for the arbitrarily relativistic case. Some general properties of nonplanar relativistic shocks are also discussed, including the incoherence of spherical ultrarelativistic blast-wave fronts on angular scales greater than the reciprocal of the shock Lorentz factor, as well as the conditions for producing blast-wave acceleration.

  12. Biomarkers of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma: Profiling Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Blast Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    common locations are the corticome- dullary (gray matter-white matter) junction (particularly in the frontal and temporal areas), the internal capsule ...Vascular responses and dysregulation of cell adhesion molecules as bridges connecting vascular-endothelial- neural tissue disturbances, including but not...3371–3376. Lew, H.L. (2005). Rehabilitation needs of an increasing popula- tion of patients: Traumatic brain injury, polytrauma, and blast-related

  13. Environmental problems associated with blasting in mines: public apprehensions of damage due to blast vibrations - case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhi, S.N. [DGMS, Bhubaneswar (India)

    1994-12-31

    Blast vibrations may be felt in intensities as small as 1/100 of that required to cause any damage to structures. Therefore, the public response and thus complaints regarding damages are often imaginary. The paper deals with three case studies, involving alleged damage from blasting in surface and underground coal mines where public litigations and agitations resulted due to such apprehensions. The paper is written in simple technical language as the situations warranted that the blast vibration studies should be understood by the general public. 7 tabs.

  14. Blasting injuries in surface mining with emphasis on flyrock and blast area security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpayee, T.S.; Rehak, T.R.; Mowrey, G.L.; Ingram, D.K. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2004-07-01

    Blasting is a hazardous component of surface mining. Serious injuries and fatalities result from improper judgment or practice during rock blasting. This paper describes several fatal injury case studies, analyzes causative factors, and emphasizes preventive measures. During the 21-year period from 1978 to 1998, the mean yearly explosive-related injuries (fatal and nonfatal) for surface coal mines was 8.86 (95% CI: 6.38-11.33), and for surface metal/nonmetal mines 10.76 (95% CI: 8.39-13.14). Flyrock and lack of blast area security accounted for 68.2% of these injuries. Case studies indicate that the causative factors for fatal injuries are primarily personal and task-related and to some extent environmental. A reduction in the annual injuries in surface coal mines was observed during the 10-year period of 1989-1998 (5.80 (95% CI: 2.71-8.89)) compared to the previous 10-year period of 1979-1988 (10.90 (95% CI: 7.77-14.14)). However, such reduction was not noticed in the metal/nometal sector (i.e., 9.30 (95% CI: 6.84-11.76) for the period 1989-1998 compared with 11.00 (95% CI: 7.11-14.89) for the period 1979-1988). Discussion of case studies during safety meetings will help to mitigate fatal injuries and derive important payoffs in terms of lower risks and costs of injuries.

  15. An Operational Model for the Prediction of Jet Blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    This paper presents an operational model for the prediction of jet blast. The model was : developed based upon three modules including a jet exhaust model, jet centerline decay : model and aircraft motion model. The final analysis was compared with d...

  16. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, A.B.; Green, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  17. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  18. Blast Load Response of Steel Sandwich Panels with Liquid Encasement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Karr; Marc Perlin; Benjamin Langhorst; Henry Chu

    2009-10-01

    We describe an experimental investigation of the response of hybrid blast panels for protection from explosive and impact forces. The fundamental notion is to dissipate, absorb, and redirect energy through plastic collapse, viscous dissipation, and inter-particle forces of liquid placed in sub-structural compartments. The panels are designed to absorb energy from an impact or air blast by elastic-plastic collapse of the panel substructure that includes fluid-filled cavities. The fluid contributes to blast effects mitigation by providing increased initial mass and resistance, by dissipation of energy through viscosity and fluid flow, and by redirecting the momentum that is imparted to the system from the impact and blast impulse pressures. Failure and deformation mechanisms of the panels are described.

  19. Spreading of sediment due to underwater blasting and dredging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard; Bach, Lis; Bollwerk, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    leads to a wider spreading of the organic part of the sediment. Almost all material less than 2 μm, including surficial clay minerals and much organic material, was transported away from the construction site and its vicinity, which could imply mobilization and export of pollutants. Environmental...... impacts of suspended sediment from underwater blasting, which could include coverage of the benthos or increased turbidity, can be managed by timing the blast favourably relative to currents, waves and stratification. It is argued that the environmental impact of blasting can be minimized by decreasing...... out in connection with the construction of a new quay at the existing harbour of Sisimiut, Greenland. Subsequent to the largest of a series of underwater blasts, the distribution of suspended sediment in the water column at and around the construction site was observed using a CTD (Conductivity...

  20. Seismic stations with GSM telemetry for registration of quarry blasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Milan; Číž, Radim; Málek, Jiří; Žanda, Libor

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 2000, 16 (118) (2000), s. 25-32 ISSN 1211-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : blasting * seismic station * GSM mobile modem Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  1. Seismic safety in conducting large-scale blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashukov, I. V.; Chaplygin, V. V.; Domanov, V. P.; Semin, A. A.; Klimkin, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In mining enterprises to prepare hard rocks for excavation a drilling and blasting method is used. With the approach of mining operations to settlements the negative effect of large-scale blasts increases. To assess the level of seismic impact of large-scale blasts the scientific staff of Siberian State Industrial University carried out expertise for coal mines and iron ore enterprises. Determination of the magnitude of surface seismic vibrations caused by mass explosions was performed using seismic receivers, an analog-digital converter with recording on a laptop. The registration results of surface seismic vibrations during production of more than 280 large-scale blasts at 17 mining enterprises in 22 settlements are presented. The maximum velocity values of the Earth’s surface vibrations are determined. The safety evaluation of seismic effect was carried out according to the permissible value of vibration velocity. For cases with exceedance of permissible values recommendations were developed to reduce the level of seismic impact.

  2. Blast Load Simulator Experiments for Computational Model Validation Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    establish confidence in the simulation results specific to their intended use. One method for providing experimental data for computational model...walls, to higher blast pressures required to evaluate the performance of protective construction methods . Figure 1. ERDC Blast Load Simulator (BLS... Instrumentation included 3 pressure gauges mounted on the steel calibration plate, 2 pressure gauges mounted in the wall of the BLS, and 25 pressure gauges

  3. Test methods for protective footwear against AP mine blast

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, D.S.; Williams, K.; Bass, C.R.; Magnan, P.; Dosquet, F.; Bergeron, D.M.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van

    2003-01-01

    The testing and development of protective footwear for anti-personnel landmine blast threats is of great importance to civilian and military deminers, and peacekeepers. This study will review the wide range of test methods that have been developed by NATO countries to test footwear against the effects of anti-personnel blast mines. Experimental testing requires the definition of a threat and a means of assessing the expected trauma to the human leg. The latter is accomplished with various phy...

  4. Study of wet blasting of components in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.

    1999-12-01

    This report looks at the method of wet blasting radioactive components in nuclear power stations. The wet blaster uses pearl shaped glass beads with the dimensions of 150-250 μm mixed with water as blasting media. The improved design, providing outer operator's positions with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment has resulted in a lesser dose taken by the operators. The main reason to decontaminate components in nuclear power plants is to enable service on these components. On components like valves, pump shafts, pipes etc. oxides form and bind radiation. These components are normally situated at some distance from the reactor core and will mainly suffer from radiation from so called activation products. When a component is to be decontaminated it can be decontaminated to a radioactive level where it will be declassified. This report has found levels ranging from 150-1000 Bq/kg allowing declassification of radioactive materials. This difference is found between different countries and different organisations. The report also looks at the levels of waste generated using wet blasting. This is done by tracking the contamination to determine where it collects. It is either collected in the water treatment plant or collected in the blasting media. At Barsebaeck the waste levels, from de-contaminating nearly 800 components in one year, results in a waste volume of about 0,250 m 3 . This waste consists of low and medium level waste and will cost about 3 600 EURO to store. The conclusions of the report are that wet blasting is an indispensable way to treat contaminated components in modern nuclear power plants. The wet blasting equipment can be improved by using a robot enabling the operators to remotely treat components from the outer operator's positions. There they will benefit from better radiation protection thus further reduce their taken dose. The wet blasting equipment could also be used to better control the levels of radioactivity on

  5. A New Middle Path Approach For Alignements In Blast

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Deepak; Saxena, S C; Bhardwaj, L M

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a new middle path approach developed for reducing alignment calculations in BLAST algorithm. This is a new step which is introduced in BLAST algorithm in between the ungapped and gapped alignments. This step of middle path approach between the ungapped and gapped alignments reduces the number of sequences going for gapped alignment. This results in the improvement in speed for alignment up to 30 percent.

  6. Investigations of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, T. W.; Josey, T.; Wang, Y.; Villanueva, M.; Ritzel, D. V.; Nelson, P.; Lee, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    The development of an advanced blast simulator (ABS) has enabled the reproducible generation of single-pulse shock waves that simulate free-field blast with high fidelity. Studies with rodents in the ABS demonstrated the necessity of head restraint during head-only exposures. When the head was not restrained, violent global head motion was induced by pressures that would not produce similar movement of a target the size and mass of a human head. This scaling artefact produced changes in brain function that were reminiscent of traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to impact-acceleration effects. Restraint of the rodent head eliminated these, but still produced subtle changes in brain biochemistry, showing that blast-induced pressure waves do cause brain deficits. Further experiments were carried out with rat brain cell aggregate cultures that enabled the conduct of studies without the gross movement encountered when using rodents. The suspension nature of this model was also exploited to minimize the boundary effects that complicate the interpretation of primary blast studies using surface cultures. Using this system, brain tissue was found not only to be sensitive to pressure changes, but also able to discriminate between the highly defined single-pulse shock waves produced by underwater blast and the complex pressure history exposures experienced by aggregates encased within a sphere and subjected to simulated air blast. The nature of blast-induced primary TBI requires a multidisciplinary research approach that addresses the fidelity of the blast insult, its accurate measurement and characterization, as well as the limitations of the biological models used.

  7. Pellet reduction properties under different blast furnace operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Leimalm, Ulrika

    2006-01-01

    One of the aims of modern blast furnace (BF) ironmaking is to reduce coke consumption. One way is to increase the injection of reduction agents, such as pulverized coal. An increase in pulverized coal injection rate (PCR) will affect the blast furnace process and the conditions for iron oxide reduction. Changes in PCR influence the composition of the ascending gases and the in-furnace temperature isotherms. The performed tests involve full-scale, pilot and laboratory investigations. Raw mater...

  8. Remote operated vehicle with carbon dioxide blasting (ROVCO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Remote Operated Vehicle with Carbon Dioxide Blasting (ROVCO 2 ), as shown in a front view, is a six-wheeled remote land vehicle used to decontaminate concrete floors. The remote vehicle has a high pressure Cryogenesis blasting subsystem, Oceaneering Technologies (OTECH) developed a CO 2 xY Orthogonal Translational End Effector (COYOTEE) subsystem, and a vacuum/filtration and containment subsystem. Figure 2 shows a block diagram with the various subsystems labeled

  9. PaperBLAST: Text Mining Papers for Information about Homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan N; Arkin, Adam P

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale genome sequencing has identified millions of protein-coding genes whose function is unknown. Many of these proteins are similar to characterized proteins from other organisms, but much of this information is missing from annotation databases and is hidden in the scientific literature. To make this information accessible, PaperBLAST uses EuropePMC to search the full text of scientific articles for references to genes. PaperBLAST also takes advantage of curated resources (Swiss-Prot, GeneRIF, and EcoCyc) that link protein sequences to scientific articles. PaperBLAST's database includes over 700,000 scientific articles that mention over 400,000 different proteins. Given a protein of interest, PaperBLAST quickly finds similar proteins that are discussed in the literature and presents snippets of text from relevant articles or from the curators. PaperBLAST is available at http://papers.genomics.lbl.gov/. IMPORTANCE With the recent explosion of genome sequencing data, there are now millions of uncharacterized proteins. If a scientist becomes interested in one of these proteins, it can be very difficult to find information as to its likely function. Often a protein whose sequence is similar, and which is likely to have a similar function, has been studied already, but this information is not available in any database. To help find articles about similar proteins, PaperBLAST searches the full text of scientific articles for protein identifiers or gene identifiers, and it links these articles to protein sequences. Then, given a protein of interest, it can quickly find similar proteins in its database by using standard software (BLAST), and it can show snippets of text from relevant papers. We hope that PaperBLAST will make it easier for biologists to predict proteins' functions.

  10. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  11. Power Tillers for Demining: Blast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Elisa Cepolina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Power tillers are very simple and versatile machines with large scale diffusion in developing countries, where they are commonly used both for agriculture and for transportation purposes. A new integrated participatory approach that makes use of and improves local end-users knowledge has been used to design a new robotic system for humanitarian demining applications in Sri Lanka, using power tiller as core module. A demining machine composed by a tractor unit, a ground processing tool and a vegetation cutting tool is here presented together with results obtained from the first blast test on the preliminary version of tractor unit armouring. Different breakable connections between wheels and axle have been designed to cause physical detachment and interrupt the transmission of the shock wave released by the explosion of a mine under one wheel. Effects of explosions on different types of wheels and on the chassis have been recorded and commented.

  12. Blast Testing and Modelling of Composite Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giversen, Søren

    The motivation for this work is based on a desire for finding light weight alternatives to high strength steel as the material to use for armouring in military vehicles. With the use of high strength steel, an increase in the level of armouring has a significant impact on the vehicle weight......-up proved functional and provided consistent data of the panel response. The tests reviled that the sandwich panels did not provide a decrease in panel deflection compared with the monolithic laminates, which was expected due to their higher flexural rigidity. This was found to be because membrane effects...... a pressure distribution on a selected surfaces and has been based on experimental pressure measurement data, and (ii) with a designed 3 step numerical load model, where the blast pressure and FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction) between the pressure wave and modelled panel is modelled numerically. The tested...

  13. Blasting detonators incorporating semiconductor bridge technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The enormity of the coal mine and extraction industries in Russia and the obvious need in both Russia and the US for cost savings and enhanced safety in those industries suggests that joint studies and research would be of mutual benefit. The author suggests that mine sites and well platforms in Russia offer an excellent opportunity for the testing of Sandia`s precise time-delay semiconductor bridge detonators, with the potential for commercialization of the detonators for Russian and other world markets by both US and Russian companies. Sandia`s semiconductor bridge is generating interest among the blasting, mining and perforation industries. The semiconductor bridge is approximately 100 microns long, 380 microns wide and 2 microns thick. The input energy required for semiconductor bridge ignition is one-tenth the energy required for conventional bridgewire devices. Because semiconductor bridge processing is compatible with other microcircuit processing, timing and logic circuits can be incorporated onto the chip with the bridge. These circuits can provide for the precise timing demanded for cast effecting blasting. Indeed tests by Martin Marietta and computer studies by Sandia have shown that such precise timing provides for more uniform rock fragmentation, less fly rock, reduce4d ground shock, fewer ground contaminants and less dust. Cost studies have revealed that the use of precisely timed semiconductor bridges can provide a savings of $200,000 per site per year. In addition to Russia`s vast mineral resources, the Russian Mining Institute outside Moscow has had significant programs in rock fragmentation for many years. He anticipated that collaborative studies by the Institute and Sandia`s modellers would be a valuable resource for field studies.

  14. Characterization of viscoelastic materials for low-magnitude blast mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartyczak, S.; Mock, W.

    2014-05-01

    Recent research indicates that exposure to low amplitude blast waves, such as IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficiently protecting warfighters from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the blast mitigating behavior of current helmet materials and new materials designed for blast mitigation using a test fixture recently developed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division for use with an existing gas gun. The 40-mm-bore gas gun was used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 0.5 to 2 bar) in the test fixture mounted on the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve was used to release helium gas from the breech which formed into a blast wave and impacted instrumented targets in the test fixture. Blast attenuation of selected materials was determined through the measurement of stress data in front of and behind the target. Materials evaluated in this research include polyurethane foam from currently fielded US Army and Marine Corps helmets, polyurea 1000, and three hardnesses of Sorbothane (48, 58, and 70 durometer, Shore 00). Polyurea 1000 and 6061-T6 aluminum were used to calibrate the stress gauges.

  15. prfectBLAST: a platform-independent portable front end for the command terminal BLAST+ stand-alone suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Sotelo, Perfecto; Ramirez-Prado, Jorge Humberto

    2012-11-01

    prfectBLAST is a multiplatform graphical user interface (GUI) for the stand-alone BLAST+ suite of applications. It allows researchers to do nucleotide or amino acid sequence similarity searches against public (or user-customized) databases that are locally stored. It does not require any dependencies or installation and can be used from a portable flash drive. prfectBLAST is implemented in Java version 6 (SUN) and runs on all platforms that support Java and for which National Center for Biotechnology Information has made available stand-alone BLAST executables, including MS Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. It is free and open source software, made available under the GNU General Public License version 3 (GPLv3) and can be downloaded at www.cicy.mx/sitios/jramirez or http://code.google.com/p/prfectblast/.

  16. H-BLAST: a fast protein sequence alignment toolkit on heterogeneous computers with GPUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weicai; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Yongdong; Xu, Yuesheng

    2017-04-15

    The sequence alignment is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. BLAST is a routinely used tool for this purpose with over 118 000 citations in the past two decades. As the size of bio-sequence databases grows exponentially, the computational speed of alignment softwares must be improved. We develop the heterogeneous BLAST (H-BLAST), a fast parallel search tool for a heterogeneous computer that couples CPUs and GPUs, to accelerate BLASTX and BLASTP-basic tools of NCBI-BLAST. H-BLAST employs a locally decoupled seed-extension algorithm for better performance on GPUs, and offers a performance tuning mechanism for better efficiency among various CPUs and GPUs combinations. H-BLAST produces identical alignment results as NCBI-BLAST and its computational speed is much faster than that of NCBI-BLAST. Speedups achieved by H-BLAST over sequential NCBI-BLASTP (resp. NCBI-BLASTX) range mostly from 4 to 10 (resp. 5 to 7.2). With 2 CPU threads and 2 GPUs, H-BLAST can be faster than 16-threaded NCBI-BLASTX. Furthermore, H-BLAST is 1.5-4 times faster than GPU-BLAST. https://github.com/Yeyke/H-BLAST.git. yux06@syr.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Full-scale testing of leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room exposed to external air blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, R.; Ambrosini, D.

    2018-03-01

    For the last few decades, the effects of blast loading on structures have been studied by many researchers around the world. Explosions can be caused by events such as industrial accidents, military conflicts or terrorist attacks. Urban centers have been prone to various threats including car bombs, suicide attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Partially vented constructions subjected to external blast loading represent an important topic in protective engineering. The assessment of blast survivability inside structures and the development of design provisions with respect to internal elements require the study of the propagation and leakage of blast waves inside buildings. In this paper, full-scale tests are performed to study the effects of the leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room that is subjected to different external blast loadings. The results obtained may be useful for proving the validity of different methods of calculation, both empirical and numerical. Moreover, the experimental results are compared with those computed using the empirical curves of the US Defense report/manual UFC 3-340. Finally, results of the dynamic response of the front masonry wall are presented in terms of accelerations and an iso-damage diagram.

  18. Partitioning of a scaled shallow-buried near-field blast load

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reinecke, J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Buried blast threats have been used for many years in both conventional and unconventional warfare. They are cheap, easily hidden, remain viable for extremely long periods after deployment and are effective, focusing the resulting blast products...

  19. Investigation of accretion formation in a blast furnace shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klima, R.; Hoefer, O.; Chiarotti, U.; Fredman, T.; Hillmann, C.; Raipala, K.; Eriksson, J. (eds.) [BFI Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Accretions in the bosh, belly and shaft have a significant influence on blast furnace performance and on the service life of the refractory lining and the cooling system. To analyse the mechanisms of formation and dislodging of accretions, investigations were carried out at four different blast furnaces. Three blast furnaces were equipped with additional measurements to investigate the accretion formation process and to provide information for the development of accretion estimation models. Installation activities included thermocouples, heat-flux meters, staves with instrumentation for heat-flux measurement and a small horizontal lance. The distribution of accretions in the shaft was documented. Samples were taken out of accretions during blast furnace stoppages. Their acquisition was simplified with newly developed sampling devices. The samples were analysed to determine chemical and mineralogical properties and thermal conductivity. Samples were mainly made up of reduced iron or of coke and sinter structures glued together by zinc or alkali compounds. Together with a newly developed offline model for the simulation of accretion formation, different parameters influencing the formation process were identified. The main parameters are: burden material composition, blast furnace operating conditions; and the cooling system. Countermeasures to prevent excessive accretion growth were determined. They offer a better operational control of accretions. Different models to identify accretion formation were developed and an overview was presented. Different models were necessary to distinguish between the various measurement, cooling-system and blast-furnace setups. Most of the models are already implemented and in operational use. For some of them application at other blast furnaces was already realised or is possible. 9 refs., 18 figs., 20 tab.

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Blast Loading Descriptors as Occupant Injury Predictors for Underbody Blast Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    t:N , CFC # Pulse type Dec. g ion ms al ms m/s Sp. Pwr Eff. G G- ava @2ms @Oms @15ms 1000 @3ms @7ms @7ms @30ms @Oms 1 Triangular 44 40 2 8.6 376 27 22...Power, Blast, ROM, reduced order models, MADYMO, occupant, injury, pulse , loading, descriptor, calculator 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17... pulse and occupant injury It has been shown before that there is no single input parameter which can be used to effectively assess occupant injury

  1. ORGANISATIONAL-TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLASTING WORKS ON THE GRIČ TUNNEL

    OpenAIRE

    Zvonimir Deković; Zvonimir Ester; Mario Dobrilović

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes organisational-technological characteristics of blasting works during the excavation of the Grič Tunnel. The significance of blasting works during the excavation of the tunnel is shown through adjustment of blasting parameters taking into consideration the dynamics of the works, cost-effectiveness and influence of geological circumstances. Successfulness of blasting directly influences the subsequent tunnel excavation cycle both in terms of duration as well as eventually i...

  2. Primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury: lessons from lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, A.; Ohtani, K.; Armonda, R.; Tomita, H.; Sakuma, A.; Mugikura, S.; Takayama, K.; Kushimoto, S.; Tominaga, T.

    2017-11-01

    Traumatic injury caused by explosive or blast events is traditionally divided into four mechanisms: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury. The mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) are biomechanically distinct and can be modeled in both in vivo and in vitro systems. The primary bTBI injury mechanism is associated with the response of brain tissue to the initial blast wave. Among the four mechanisms of bTBI, there is a remarkable lack of information regarding the mechanism of primary bTBI. On the other hand, 30 years of research on the medical application of shock waves (SWs) has given us insight into the mechanisms of tissue and cellular damage in bTBI, including both air-mediated and underwater SW sources. From a basic physics perspective, the typical blast wave consists of a lead SW followed by shock-accelerated flow. The resultant tissue injury includes several features observed in primary bTBI, such as hemorrhage, edema, pseudo-aneurysm formation, vasoconstriction, and induction of apoptosis. These are well-described pathological findings within the SW literature. Acoustic impedance mismatch, penetration of tissue by shock/bubble interaction, geometry of the skull, shear stress, tensile stress, and subsequent cavitation formation are all important factors in determining the extent of SW-induced tissue and cellular injury. In addition, neuropsychiatric aspects of blast events need to be taken into account, as evidenced by reports of comorbidity and of some similar symptoms between physical injury resulting in bTBI and the psychiatric sequelae of post-traumatic stress. Research into blast injury biophysics is important to elucidate specific pathophysiologic mechanisms of blast injury, which enable accurate differential diagnosis, as well as development of effective treatments. Herein we describe the requirements for an adequate experimental setup when investigating blast-induced tissue and cellular injury; review SW physics

  3. Controlled blasting and its implications for the NNWSI project exploratory shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report reviews controlled blasting techniques for shaft sinking. Presplitting and smooth blasting are the techniques of principal interest. Smooth blasting is preferred for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations exploratory shaft. Shaft damage can be monitored visually or by peak velocity measurements and refractive techniques. Damage into the rock should be limited to 3 ft. 40 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs

  4. 29 CFR 1926.904 - Storage of explosives and blasting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., electric blasting caps, detonating primers, and primed cartridges shall not be stored in the same magazine... feet of explosives and detonator storage magazine. (d) No explosives or blasting agents shall be... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of explosives and blasting agents. 1926.904 Section...

  5. Blast tests of expedient shelters in the DICE THROW event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearny, C.H.; Chester, C.V.

    1978-03-01

    To determine the worst blast environments that eight types of expedient shelters can withstand, we subjected a total of 18 shelters to the 1-kiloton blast effects of Defense Nuclear Agency's DICE THROW main event. These expedient shelters included two Russian and two Chinese types. The best shelter tested was a Small-Pole Shelter that had a box-like room of Russian design with ORNL-designed expedient blast entries and blast doors added. It was undamaged at the 53-psi peak overpressure range; the pressure rise inside was only 1.5 psi. An unmodified Russian Pole-Covered Trench Shelter was badly damaged at 6.8 psi. A Chinese ''Man'' Shelter, which skillfully uses very small poles to attain protective earth arching, survived 20 psi, undamaged. Two types of expedient shelters built of materials found in and around most American homes gave good protection at overpressures up to about 6 psi. Rug-Covered Trench Shelters were proved unsatisfactory. Water storage pits lined with ordinary plastic trash bags were proven practical at up to 53 psi, as were triangular expedient blast doors made of poles

  6. Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  7. Controlled Blasting for Deconstruction of a Railway Bridge Near Sahibganj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S. K.; Ghosh, A. K.; Oraon, S.

    2018-02-01

    Some of the Indian Railway bridges require reconstruction for electrification and expansion of railway tracks. Dismantling of bridge within time schedule in densely populated area requires controlled and pre-planned blasting methodology for safe pulling down of the structure and quick removal of blasted debris for fast restoration of tracks and smooth plying of trains. The three arched railway bridge (Bridge No. 61) located between Sahibganj and Karamtola cases one such example where the bridge was dismantled and the track was restored within 4 h of blasting, though the stipulated block period for demolition and restoration of tracks was 6 h. The 25.48 m long three-arched bridge was drilled and blasted with 225 number of blastholes (32 mm diameter) and 100 kg explosive (25 mm diameter). Length of blastholes varied between 0.5 and 1.8 m with blast geometry of 0.3-0.35 m burden and 0.33 m spacing. This paper deals with the conceptual and theoretical model developed for identification of the key locations for drilling and implementation of the same. It also discusses about the precautionary measures and the drilling pattern adopted for quick demolition and speedy restoration of tracks.

  8. TREATMENT OF LOW-BLAST COUNT AML USING HYPOMETHYLATING AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora De Bellis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the WHO classification reduced the proportion of blasts in the bone marrow (BM necessary for the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML from 30% to 20%, eliminating the RAEB-t subtype of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. However, this AML subtype, defined as low-blast count AML (LBC-AML, with 20-30% BM-blasts is characterized by peculiar features, as increased frequency in elderly individuals and after cytotoxic treatment for a different primary disease (therapy-related, poor-risk cytogenetics, lower white blood cell counts, and less frequent mutations of NPM1 and FLT3 genes. The clinical course of this entity is often similar to MDS with 10-19% BM-blasts. The hypomethylating agents azacitidine and decitabine have been shown to induce responses and prolong survival both in MDS and LBC-AML.  The role of these agents has been also demonstrated in AML with >30% BM-blasts, particularly in patients with poor-risk cytogenetics and in AML with myelodysplasia related changes. Most recent studies are evaluating strategies to improve outcome, including combinations of hypomethylating agents with immune-response checkpoint inhibitors, which have a role in cancer immune surveillance. Efforts are also ongoing to identify mutations which may predict response and survival in these patients.

  9. Analysis of MINIE2013 Explosion Air-Blast Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnurr, Julie M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Rodgers, Arthur J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kim, Keehoon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ford, Sean R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, Abelardo L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-14

    We report analysis of air-blast overpressure measurements from the MINIE2013 explosive experiments. The MINIE2013 experiment involved a series of nearly 70 near-surface (height-ofburst, HOB, ranging from -1 to +4 m) low-yield (W=2-20 kg TNT equivalent) chemical highexplosives tests that were recorded at local distances (230 m – 28.5 km). Many of the W and HOB combinations were repeated, allowing for quantification of the variability in air-blast features and corresponding yield estimates. We measured canonical signal features (peak overpressure, impulse per unit area, and positive pulse duration) from the air-blast data and compared these to existing air-blast models. Peak overpressure measurements showed good agreement with the models at close ranges but tended to attenuate more rapidly at longer range (~ 1 km), which is likely caused by upward refraction of acoustic waves due to a negative vertical gradient of sound speed. We estimated yields of the MINIE2013 explosions using the Integrated Yield Determination Tool (IYDT). Errors of the estimated yields were on average within 30% of the reported yields, and there were no significant differences in the accuracy of the IYDT predictions grouped by yield. IYDT estimates tend to be lower than ground truth yields, possibly because of reduced overpressure amplitudes by upward refraction. Finally, we report preliminary results on a development of a new parameterized air-blast waveform.

  10. Diagrammatic scale for the assessment of blast on wheat spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Leodato Nunes Maciel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The correct quantification of blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae on wheat (Triticum aestivum spikes is an important component to understand the development of this disease aimed at its control. Visual quantification based on a diagrammatic scale can be a practical and efficient strategy that has already proven to be useful against several plant pathosystems, including diseases affecting wheat spikes like glume blotch and fusarium head blight. Spikes showing different disease severity values were collected from a wheat field with the aim of elaborating a diagrammatic scale to quantify blast severity on wheat spikes. The spikes were photographed and blast severity was determined by using resources of the software ImageJ. A diagrammatic scale was developed with the following disease severity values: 3.7, 7.5, 21.4, 30.5, 43.8, 57.3, 68.1, 86.0, and 100.0%. An asymptomatic spike was added to the scale. Scale validation was performed by eight people who estimated blast severity by using digitalized images of 40 wheat spikes. The precision and the accuracy of the evaluations varied according to the rater (0.82blast on wheat spikes.

  11. Blasting vibrations control: The shortcomings of traditional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuillaume, P.M.; Kiszlo, M. [Institut National de l`Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Verneuil en Halatte (France); Bernard, T. [Compagnie Nouvelle de Scientifiques, Nice (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the context of its studies for the French ministry of the environment and for the French national coal board, INERIS (the French institute for the industrial environment and hazards, formerly CERCHAR) has made a complete critical survey of the methods generally used to reduce the levels of blasting vibrations. It is generally acknowledged that the main parameter to control vibrations is the so-called instantaneous charge, or charge per delay. This should be reduced as much as possible in order to diminish vibration levels. On account of this, the use of a new generation of blasting devices, such as non-electric detonators or electronic sequential timers has been developed since the seventies. INERIS has collected data from about 900 blasts in 2 quarries and 3 open pit mines. These data include input parameters such as borehole diameter, burden, spacing, charge per hole, charge per delay, total fired charge, etc ... They also include output measurements, such as vibration peak particle velocities, and main frequencies. These data have been analyzed with the help of multi variable statistical tools. Blasting tests were undertaken to evaluate new methods of vibrations control, such as the superposition of vibration signals. These methods appear to be accurate in many critical cases, but certainly would be highly improved with a better accuracy of firing delays. The development of electronic detonators seems to be the way of the future for a better blasting control.

  12. Impact of complex blast waves on the human head: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Long Bin; Chew, Fatt Siong; Tse, Kwong Ming; Chye Tan, Vincent Beng; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2014-12-01

    Head injuries due to complex blasts are not well examined because of limited published articles on the subject. Previous studies have analyzed head injuries due to impact from a single planar blast wave. Complex or concomitant blasts refer to impacts usually caused by more than a single blast source, whereby the blast waves may impact the head simultaneously or consecutively, depending on the locations and distances of the blast sources from the subject, their blast intensities, the sequence of detonations, as well as the effect of blast wave reflections from rigid walls. It is expected that such scenarios will result in more serious head injuries as compared to impact from a single blast wave due to the larger effective duration of the blast. In this paper, the utilization of a head-helmet model for blast impact analyses in Abaqus(TM) (Dassault Systemes, Singapore) is demonstrated. The model is validated against studies published in the literature. Results show that the skull is capable of transmitting the blast impact to cause high intracranial pressures (ICPs). In addition, the pressure wave from a frontal blast may enter through the sides of the helmet and wrap around the head to result in a second impact at the rear. This study recommended better protection at the sides and rear of the helmet through the use of foam pads so as to reduce wave entry into the helmet. The consecutive frontal blasts scenario resulted in higher ICPs compared with impact from a single frontal blast. This implied that blast impingement from an immediate subsequent pressure wave would increase severity of brain injury. For the unhelmeted head case, a peak ICP of 330 kPa is registered at the parietal lobe which exceeds the 235 kPa threshold for serious head injuries. The concurrent front and side blasts scenario yielded lower ICPs and skull stresses than the consecutive frontal blasts case. It is also revealed that the additional side blast would only significantly affect ICPs at

  13. 77 FR 49277 - Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations by the U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... effects that confined blasting can have on marine animals near the blast (Keevin et al., 1999). The visual... Atmospheric Administration Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations... Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Confined Blasting Operations by the U.S. Army Corps of...

  14. Superficial characterization of titanium league when submitted to abrasive blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, L.Y.; Leite, I.V.; Szesz, E.M.; Siqueira, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Commercially pure titanium and some of its alloys exhibit a good biocompatibility. These characteristics are frequently used in the manufacture of orthopedic and dental implants. It is possible to modify its surface making it the bioactive using various methods, such as deposition of hydroxyapatite by plasma spray and increasing the roughness of the surface by abrasive blasting. This work is to modify the surface of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V ELI (ASTM F136: 02a) for abrasive blasting and study the morphology, crystallographic phases and the mechanical characteristics of the surface obtained. For such purpose, SEM images, diffraction of X-rays and tests of risk produced by nanoindenter. The sandblasting was done using alumina powder and blasting time of 6s. The morphology of the surfaces of Ti6Al4V ELI changed after sandblasting with increased roughness. It is possible to conclude that after sandblasting the titanium surface do not have a ductile behavior. (author)

  15. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  16. Strain Rate Effects in CFRP Used For Blast Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah. L. Orton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to gain a better understanding of strain rate effects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates exposed to blast loading. The use of CFRP offers an attractive option for mitigating structures exposed to blasts. However, the effect of high strain rates in CFRP composites commonly used in the civil industry is unknown. This research conducted tensile tests of 21 CFRP coupons using a hydraulically powered dynamic loader. The strain rates ranged from 0.0015 s−1 to 7.86 s−1 and are representative of strain rates that CFRP may see in a blast when used to strengthen reinforced concrete structures. The results of the testing showed no increase in the tensile strength or stiffness of the CFRP at the higher strain rates. In addition, the results showed significant scatter in the tensile strengths possibly due to the rate of loading or manufacture of the coupon.

  17. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, G.; Tanase, M.

    1995-01-01

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  18. Blast venting through blanket material in the HYLIFE ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.C.; Peterson, P.F.; Schrock, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    This work presents a numerical study of blast venting through various blanket configurations in the HYLIFE ICF reactor design. The study uses TSUNAMI -- a multi-dimensional, high-resolution, shock capturing code -- to predict the momentum exchange and gas dynamics for blast venting in complex geometries. In addition, the study presents conservative predictions of wall loading by gas shock and impulse delivered to the protective liquid blanket. Configurations used in the study include both 2700 MJ and 350 MJ fusion yields per pulse for 5 meter and 3 meter radius reactor chambers. For the former, an annular jet array is used for the blanket geometry, while in the latter, both annular jet array as well as slab geometries are used. Results of the study indicate that blast venting and wall loading may be manageable in the HYLIFE-II design by a judicious choice of blanket configuration

  19. Face shield design against blast-induced head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Long Bin; Tse, Kwong Ming; Tan, Yuan Hong; Sapingi, Mohamad Ali Bin; Tan, Vincent Beng Chye; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2017-12-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury has been on the rise in recent years because of the increasing use of improvised explosive devices in conflict zones. Our study investigates the response of a helmeted human head subjected to a blast of 1 atm peak overpressure, for cases with and without a standard polycarbonate (PC) face shield and for face shields comprising of composite PC and aerogel materials and with lateral edge extension. The novel introduction of aerogel into the laminate face shield is explored and its wave-structure interaction mechanics and performance in blast mitigation is analysed. Our numerical results show that the face shield prevented direct exposure of the blast wave to the face and help delays the transmission of the blast to reduce the intracranial pressures (ICPs) at the parietal lobe. However, the blast wave can diffract and enter the midface region at the bottom and side edges of the face shield, resulting in traumatic brain injury. This suggests that the bottom and sides of the face shield are important regions to focus on to reduce wave ingress. The laminated PC/aerogel/PC face shield yielded higher peak positive and negative ICPs at the frontal lobe, than the original PC one. For the occipital and temporal brain regions, the laminated face shield performed better than the original. The composite face shield with extended edges reduced ICP at the temporal lobe but increases ICP significantly at the parietal lobe, which suggests that a greater coverage may not lead to better mitigating effects. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. PaperBLAST: Text Mining Papers for Information about Homologs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale genome sequencing has identified millions of protein-coding genes whose function is unknown. Many of these proteins are similar to characterized proteins from other organisms, but much of this information is missing from annotation databases and is hidden in the scientific literature. To make this information accessible, PaperBLAST uses EuropePMC to search the full text of scientific articles for references to genes. PaperBLAST also takes advantage of curated resources (Swiss-Prot, GeneRIF, and EcoCyc) that link protein sequences to scientific articles. PaperBLAST’s database includes over 700,000 scientific articles that mention over 400,000 different proteins. Given a protein of interest, PaperBLAST quickly finds similar proteins that are discussed in the literature and presents snippets of text from relevant articles or from the curators. With the recent explosion of genome sequencing data, there are now millions of uncharacterized proteins. If a scientist becomes interested in one of these proteins, it can be very difficult to find information as to its likely function. Often a protein whose sequence is similar, and which is likely to have a similar function, has been studied already, but this information is not available in any database. To help find articles about similar proteins, PaperBLAST searches the full text of scientific articles for protein identifiers or gene identifiers, and it links these articles to protein sequences. Then, given a protein of interest, it can quickly find similar proteins in its database by using standard software (BLAST), and it can show snippets of text from relevant papers. We hope that PaperBLAST will make it easier for biologists to predict proteins’ functions.

  1. Blast-induced damage:a summary of SveBeFo investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Saiang, David

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the blast damage investigation carried out by SveBeFo (Swedish Rock Engineering Research) during the period 1991 to 2003 at various hard rock sites in Sweden. The objective of this report is to present a synopsis of the important factors that influence the development and extent of the blast-induced damage zone, nature and characteristics of blast-induced fractures, and a summary of the blast-damage thickness with reference to the existing perimeter blasting ...

  2. ORGANISATIONAL-TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLASTING WORKS ON THE GRIČ TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Deković

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes organisational-technological characteristics of blasting works during the excavation of the Grič Tunnel. The significance of blasting works during the excavation of the tunnel is shown through adjustment of blasting parameters taking into consideration the dynamics of the works, cost-effectiveness and influence of geological circumstances. Successfulness of blasting directly influences the subsequent tunnel excavation cycle both in terms of duration as well as eventually in terms of influence on the entire tunnel investment. Comparison of changes of basic blasting parameters during tunnel excavation ensured optimal excavation progress with minimal price per meter of tunnel progress.

  3. Windows .NET Network Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Melvin J

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BLAST is one of the most common and useful tools for Genetic Research. This paper describes a software application we have termed Windows .NET Distributed Basic Local Alignment Search Toolkit (W.ND-BLAST, which enhances the BLAST utility by improving usability, fault recovery, and scalability in a Windows desktop environment. Our goal was to develop an easy to use, fault tolerant, high-throughput BLAST solution that incorporates a comprehensive BLAST result viewer with curation and annotation functionality. Results W.ND-BLAST is a comprehensive Windows-based software toolkit that targets researchers, including those with minimal computer skills, and provides the ability increase the performance of BLAST by distributing BLAST queries to any number of Windows based machines across local area networks (LAN. W.ND-BLAST provides intuitive Graphic User Interfaces (GUI for BLAST database creation, BLAST execution, BLAST output evaluation and BLAST result exportation. This software also provides several layers of fault tolerance and fault recovery to prevent loss of data if nodes or master machines fail. This paper lays out the functionality of W.ND-BLAST. W.ND-BLAST displays close to 100% performance efficiency when distributing tasks to 12 remote computers of the same performance class. A high throughput BLAST job which took 662.68 minutes (11 hours on one average machine was completed in 44.97 minutes when distributed to 17 nodes, which included lower performance class machines. Finally, there is a comprehensive high-throughput BLAST Output Viewer (BOV and Annotation Engine components, which provides comprehensive exportation of BLAST hits to text files, annotated fasta files, tables, or association files. Conclusion W.ND-BLAST provides an interactive tool that allows scientists to easily utilizing their available computing resources for high throughput and comprehensive sequence analyses. The install package for W.ND-BLAST is

  4. CFD‐DEM modelling of blast furnace tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Vango, Mathias; Pirker, Stefan; Lichtenegger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The campaign length of a blast furnace is limited by the hearth inner lining lifetime. In order to maximize the campaign length and ensure a good draining of hot metal and slag, a good understanding of the flow in the hearth is essential. Challenges in modelling the flow involve several continuous phases (hot metal, slag and hot blast) as well as the presence of the deadman, a dense bed of coke particles. The shape and position of the deadman depend on the weight of the burden column above an...

  5. Blasting preparation for selective mining of complex structured ore deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinin, M. A.; Dolzhikov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Technological features of ore mining in the open pit development for processing of complex structured ore deposit of steeply falling occurrence have been considered. The technological schemes of ore bodies mining under different conditions of occurrence, consistency and capacity have been considered and offered in the paper. These technologies permit to reduce losses and dilution, but to increase the completeness and quality of mined ore. A method of subsequent selective excavation of ore bodies has been proposed. The method is based on the complex use of buffer-blasting technology for the muck mass and the principle of trim blasting at ore-rock junctions.

  6. Brain Vulnerability to Repeated Blast Overpressure and Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    correlate with se- verity of diffuse brain injury in rats. Neurosurgery 56, 582–589. 23. Robertson, C.L., Saraswati, M., and Fiskum, G. (2007). Mitochondrial...were affected in 6/9 rats in the single blast group (average severi- ty =mild) versus 8/8 rats in the double blast group (average se- verity ...D.J., Pagulayan, K., McCraw, K., Hoff, D., Hart , K., Yu, C.E., Raskind, M.A., Cook, D.G., and Min- oshima, S. (2011). Cerebrocerebellar

  7. Brain Vulnerability to Repeated Blast Overpressure and Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    least four distinct forms of alkaline phosphatase nzyme present in mammals - intestinal, placental, placental- ike and TNAP (present in liver, bone...Mahota, T. M., Xu, L., Slack, N., Windle, D., and Ahmed, F. A. (2011). The patho- biology of blast injuries and blast- induced neurotrauma as...presence of 0.33 M of gene specific primers and 0.5 l of cDNA in thermal cycler as follows; 95 ◦C × 1 min, followed by 35 cycles of 95 ◦C × 30 s, 61 ◦C

  8. Air Blasts from Cased and Uncased Explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-12

    The problem of a spherical blast in air is solved using the STUN code. For bare charges, the calculations are shown to be in excellent agreement with previous published results. It is demonstrated that, for an unconfined (uncased) chemical explosive, both range and time to effect scale inversely as the cube root of the yield and directly as the cube root of the ambient air density. It is shown that the peak overpressure decays to roughly 1/10 of ambient pressure in a scaled range of roughly 10 m/kg1/3 at sea level. At a height of 30 km, where the ambient density is a factor of 64 less, the range to the same decay increases to 40 m/kg1/3 . As a direct result of the scaling a single calculation suffices for all charge sizes and altitudes. Although the close-in results are sensitive to the nature of the explosive source and the equation of state of the air, this sensitivity is shown to virtually disappear at scaled ranges > 0.5 m/kg1/3 . For cased explosives the case thickness introduces an additional scale factor. Moreover, when the blast wave arrives at the inner case radius the case begins to expand. Fracture occurs when a critical value of the resulting hoop strain is reached, causing the case to shatter into fragments. A model is proposed to describe the size distribution of the fragments and their subsequent motion via drag interaction with the explosion products and ambient air. It is shown that a significant fraction of the charge energy is initially transmitted to the case fragments in the form of kinetic energy; for example, a 1 kg spherical charge with a 5 mm thick steel case has almost 29% of the total charge energy as initial kinetic energy of case fragments. This percentage increases with increasing case thickness and decreases with increasing charge size. The peak overpressure at a given range is 70-85% for cased explosives as compared with uncased and the peak impulse per unit area is 90-95%. The peak overpressure and

  9. Blast Mitigation by Water Mist, (3) Mitigation of Confined and Unconfined Blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-14

    Mitigation of blasts in chemical processing plants, including the fireworks and propellant industries, has also received considerable attention due to the...15.8982 02 => 15.9465 H20(l) + 21.1976 C02 + 10.3008 N2 + 2963.12 kcal 1 kg of HTA -3 contains: 0.29 kg (1.2768 gm-mol) TNT (C7H5N306) 0.22 kg (8.15419 gm...mol) Aluminum (Al) 0.49 kg (1.65429 gm-mol) HMX (C4H8N808) 1 kg HTA -3 => 9.80916 H20(l) + 4.46881 C(s) + 11.086 CO + 8.53235 N2 + 8.15419 Al(s

  10. Pyramiding of blast and bacterial leaf blight resistance genes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Hebert) Barr. and bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) are two major diseases of rice (Oryza sativa). The use of varietal resistance is the most appropriate strategy for controlling the diseases, and molecular assisted selection can ...

  11. A numerical technique to design blast noise mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, F. van den; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    Large weapons, such as armor, artillery or demolitions, create a high-energy blast wave. It has a low frequency content, typically between 15 and 125 Hz, and can propagate over large distances. As a result it is a relative important cause for annoyance. Mitigation measures need to be close to the

  12. Effect of blasting on the strength of a rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, L.

    1964-01-01

    Although the fact that blasting concussions tend to loosen a rock mass has always been known, the enormous reduction in strength associated with such loosening is not generally recognized. Recent investigations of the effect of blasting on a rock mass have shown that even slight loosening may markedly reduce the strength. This factor introduces a new slant on modern blasting methods, some of which will have to be considered more critically. The sensitivity of the mass to impacts depends on stress concentrations at the end of joints (Kerbspannungen) and on tensile stresses developed in the immediate vicinity of a joint, even in regions where the field stresses are not tensile. Thus, the sensitivity depends on the shape and orientation of the joints and particularly on the degree of separation of the individual joint families. The orientation of the joint families to the strains produced by blasting is just as important as the reduction in overall strength arising from the drop in friction due to the effects of the ''knocking out'' process (Foppl) on the joint body complex. Concussions may critically increase the degree of separation of the joint network thus reducing the tensile and shear strengths of the rock mass. (19 refs.)

  13. Off-center blast in a shocked medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan-Miller, G. C.; Stone, W. D.

    2017-11-01

    When multiple blasts occur at different times, the situation arises in which a blast wave is propagating into a medium that has already been shocked. Determining the evolution in the shape of the second shock is not trivial, as it is propagating into air that is not only non-uniform, but also non-stationary. To accomplish this task, we employ the method of Kompaneets to determine the shape of a shock in a non-uniform media. We also draw from the work of Korycansky (Astrophys J 398:184-189. https://doi.org/10.1086/171847, 1992) on an off-center explosion in a medium with radially varying density. Extending this to treat non-stationary flow, and making use of approximations to the Sedov solution for the point blast problem, we are able to determine an analytic expression for the evolving shape of the second shock. In particular, we consider the case of a shock in air at standard ambient temperature and pressure, with the second shock occurring shortly after the original blast wave reaches it, as in a sympathetic detonation.

  14. Off-center blast in a shocked medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan-Miller, G. C.; Stone, W. D.

    2017-01-01

    When multiple blasts occur at different times, the situation arises in which a blast wave is propagating into a medium that has already been shocked. Determining the evolution in the shape of the second shock is not trivial, as it is propagating into air that is not only non-uniform, but also non-stationary. To accomplish this task, we employ the method of Kompaneets to determine the shape of a shock in a non-uniform media. We also draw from the work of Korycansky (Astrophys J 398:184–189, 1992) on an off-center explosion in a medium with radially varying density. Extending this to treat non-stationary flow, and making use of approximations to the Sedov solution for the point blast problem, we are able to determine an analytic expression for the evolving shape of the second shock. In particular, we consider the case of a shock in air at standard ambient temperature and pressure, with the second shock occurring shortly after the original blast wave reaches it, as in a sympathetic detonation.

  15. Multiple blast-hole stresses and measured fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Charles H.; Aimone, Catherine T.

    1985-01-01

    A wave superposition code was developed to calculate stresses explosivley induced by long, multiple blast holes within a three dimensional rock mass. Computed stresses were found to correlate with measured fragmentation from fourteen cases in coal cyclotherm geology when actual, rather than planned, initiation times were modelled.

  16. Studying and improving blast furnace cast iron quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. К. Balgabekov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are presented the results of studies to improve the quality of blast furnace cast iron. It was established that using fire clay suspension for increasing the mould covering heat conductivity improves significantly pig iron salable condition and filtration refining method decreases iron contamination by nonmetallic inclusions by 50 – 70 %.

  17. Blast wave injury prediction models for complex scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teland, J.A.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Blast waves from explosions can cause lethal injuries to humans. Development of injury criteria has been ongoing for many years, but with the main focus on free field conditions. However, with terrorist actions as a new threat, explosions in urban areas have become of much more interest. Urban areas

  18. Understanding yield reduction in rice due to leaf blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, L.

    1993-01-01

    The study described in this thesis focuses on a quantitative understanding of the effect of leaf blast on growth and production of a rice crop, based on insight in the physiological processes underlying damage. For this purpose, experimental research was conducted at two levels of

  19. A Mathematical Model for the Comparative Study of the Blast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a mathematical model of the study of the blast response of aluminium and steel panels. These panels are deemed sufficient to provided protective barrier against explosions, especially from terrorists. With the maximum deflection being the damage criteria used, the behaviour of both panel is studied.

  20. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  1. Effect of casing yield stress on bomb blast impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchinson M.D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An equation to predict blast effects from cased charges was first proposed by U. Fano in 1944 and revised by E.M. Fisher in 1953 [1]. Fisher’s revision provides much better matches to available blast impulse data, but still requires empirical parameter adjustments. A new derivation [2], based on the work of R.W. Gurney [3] and G.I. Taylor [4], has resulted in an equation which nearly matches experimental data. This new analytical model is also capable of being extended, through the incorporation of additional physics, such as the effects of early case fracture, finite casing thickness, casing metal strain energy dissipation, explosive gas escape through casing fractures and the comparative dynamics of blast wave and metal fragment impacts. This paper will focus on the choice of relevant case fracture strain criterion, as it will be shown that this allows the explicit inclusion of the dynamic properties of the explosive and casing metal. It will include a review and critique of the most significant earlier work on this topic, contained in a paper by Hoggatt and Recht [5]. Using this extended analytical model, good matches can readily be made to available free-field blast impulse data, without any empirical adjustments being needed. Further work will be required to apply this model to aluminised and other highly oxygen-deficient explosives.

  2. Recent development in blast performance of fiber-reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, R.; Foglar, M.; Kohoutkova, A.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents an overview of the recent development in blast performance of fiber reinforced concrete. The paper builds on more than ten years’ history of the research in this field by the team of the Department of Concrete and Masonry Structures of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague.

  3. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  4. Chloride ingress of carbonated blast furnace slag cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuizen, P.E.; Çopuroglu, O.; Polder, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands civil engineering structures, such as overpasses, bridges and tunnels are generally built using blast furnace slag cement (BFSC, CEM III/B) concrete, because of its high resistance against chloride penetration. Although the Dutch experience regarding durability performance of BFSC

  5. Determination and expression of genes for resistance to blast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination and expression of genes for resistance to blast (Magnaporthe oryza) in Basmati and non-Basmati indica rices (Oryza sativa L.) Naveen Kumar, D Singh, S Gupta, A Sirohi, B Ramesh, Preeti Sirohi, Parul Sirohi, Atar Singh, N Kumar, A Kumar, Rajendra Kumar, R Kumar, J Singh, P. Kumar, P. Chauhan, ...

  6. foreign body in scrotum following a boat engine blast accident

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    1Urology Unit, 37 Military Hospital, P.O. Box KB 282, Korle-Bu, Accra, Ghana, 2Department of Surgery,. University of Ghana Medical School, PO Box 4236 ... evacuation limits complications. Keywords: Blast Injury, Scrotal ... emergency of the 37 Military Hospital for further care. Patient complained of a headache but had no ...

  7. Blasted copper slag as fine aggregate in Portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Anjos, M A G; Sales, A T C; Andrade, N

    2017-07-01

    The present work focuses on assessing the viability of applying blasted copper slag, produced during abrasive blasting, as fine aggregate for Portland cement concrete manufacturing, resulting in an alternative and safe disposal method. Leaching assays showed no toxicity for this material. Concrete mixtures were produced, with high aggregate replacement ratios, varying from 0% to 100%. Axial compressive strength, diametrical compressive strength, elastic modulus, physical indexes and durability were evaluated. Assays showed a significant improvement in workability, with the increase in substitution of fine aggregate. With 80% of replacement, the concrete presented lower levels of water absorption capacity. Axial compressive strength and diametrical compressive strength decreased, with the increase of residue replacement content. The greatest reductions of compressive strength were found when the replacement was over 40%. For tensile strength by diametrical compression, the greatest reduction occurred for the concrete with 80% of replacement. After the accelerated aging, results of mechanic properties showed a small reduction of the concrete with blasted copper slag performance, when compared with the reference mixture. Results indicated that the blasted copper slag is a technically viable material for application as fine aggregate for concrete mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gene interactions and genetics of blast resistance and yield ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Oryza sativa L.) ... four blast resistance genes Pi1, Pi2, Pi33 and Pi54 in combination were used to study the nature and magnitude of gene action for disease resistance and yield attributes. ... Please take note of this change.

  9. Development of a Strategy for Simulating Blast-Vehicle Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 140 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified...soil model for simulating stress wave propagation due to blast loading. International Journal fro Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics , 28

  10. Measurements of near-field blast effects using kinetic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manner, V. W.; Pemberton, S. J.; Brown, G. W.; Tappan, B. C.; Hill, L. G.; Preston, D. N.; Neuscamman, S. J.; Glascoe, L. G.

    2014-05-01

    Few tests have been designed to measure the near-field blast impulse of ideal and non-ideal explosives, mostly because of the inherent experimental difficulties due to non-transparent fireballs and thermal effects on gauges. In order to measure blast impulse in the near-field, a new test has been developed by firing spherical charges at 152 mm (6 in) from steel plates and probing acceleration using laser velocimetry. Tests measure the velocity imparted to the steel plate in the 50 - 300 μs timeframe, and are compared with free-field overpressure measurements at 1.52 m (5 ft) and ms timescales using piezoelectric pencil gauges. Specifically, tests have been performed with C4 to probe the contributions of ideal explosives and charge size effects. Non-ideal aluminized explosive formulations have been studied to explore the role of aluminum in near-field blast effects and far-field pressure, and are compared with formulations using LiF as an inert surrogate replacement for Al. The results are compared with other near-field blast tests and cylinder tests, and the validity of this test is explored with modeling and basic theory.

  11. A research on ceramsite obtained from blast furnace slag and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to solve disposal problem of solid waste, blast furnace slag (BFS) and sewage sludge (SS) were tested as components for producing ceramsite. This study investigated the feasibility of that at different preheating and sintering temperature and duration and different mass ratios (BFS: SS: clay). The results show that ...

  12. Foreign body in scrotum following a boat engine blast accident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male genital injuries, demand prompt management to prevent long-term sexual and psychological damage. Injuries to the scrotum and contents may produce impaired fertility.We report our experience in diagnosing and managing a case of a foreign body in the scrotum following a boat engine blast accident. This case ...

  13. Development of Experimental Tissue Models for Blast Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin; Bo, Chiara; Williams, Alun; Jardine, Andy; Brown, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the relationship between the intensity of a blast wave and the clinical consequences for victims of an explosion. In order to quantitatively study how these factors correlate with one another, blast injury tissue models are being developed. Sections of larynx, trachea and pulmonary tissue were excised from a recently sacrificed pig and maintained on ice prior to testing. The samples were subjected to strain rates of between 0.001 s-1 and 1000 s-1 in the laboratory by using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar and quasi-static testing apparatus. During high strain rate testing, samples were housed in a polycarbonate chamber which permitted experimentation on tissue held in fluid. Data were analysed using 1, 2 and 3 wave analysis software in Matlab to yield information about the material properties of both undamaged and damaged tissues. In addition, macroscopic changes in tissue organization were also visualized using histopathological techniques. This work is being extended to cellular and animal models to derive more detailed information about the underlying molecular changes relating to blast-induced damage and repair. The Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies.

  14. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2016-07-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  15. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2010-01-29

    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  16. Finite Element Analysis for CFST Columns under Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Beiranvand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The columns of frame structures are the key load-bearing components and the exterior columns are susceptible to attack in terrorist blasts. When subjected to blast loads, the columns would suffer a loss of bearing capacity to a certain extent due to the damage imparted which may lead to their collapse and even cause the progressive collapse of the whole structure . The concrete-filled steel columns have been extensively used in the world due to the existence of all suitable characteristics of concrete and steel, more ductility, increasing concrete confinement using the steel wall, the large energy-absorption capacity and the appropriate fire behavior. In the present study, the concrete-filled steel square columns have been simulated under the influence of the blast load using the ABAQUS software. These responses have been compared for scaled distances based on the distance to the source and the weight of the explosive material. As a result, it can be seen that although concrete deformation has been restricted using the steel tube, the inner layer of concrete has been seriously damaged and the column displacement has been decreased by increasing the scaled distance. We also concluded that the concrete-filled steel columns have the high ductility and the blast resistance.

  17. Explosively-Driven Blast Waves in Small-Diameter Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. A.; Marinis, R. T.; Oliver, M. S.

    Studies on blast waves are motivated by the need to understand dynamic pressure loadings in accident scenarios associated with rapid energy release in confined geometries. Explosions from fuel-air mixtures, explosives and industrial accidents often occur within a range of length scales associated with ducts, pipes, corridors, and tunnels [1, 2].

  18. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation efforts have been put together to employ Granulated Blast furnace (GBF) slag as mould material for replacement of existing silica sand either full or partial in foundry industry. Nishiyama procedure was assumed for appraising the same. The process factors reflected on for this were the % of ...

  19. On dimensionless loading parameters for close-in blasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Micallef

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Close-range blasts pose a threat through severe damage to structures and injury or death. In this work, the spatial and temporal descriptions of a localised blast load are presented using 6 non-dimensional parameters. These are found to be solely functions of the charge stand-off distance to diameter ratio for a cylindrically-shaped charge. Numerical simulations of a localised blast are performed using AUTODYN, where the pressure variation on a rigid barrier for various charge stand-off/diameter combinations is obtained. The least-square regression is then utilised to obtain the relationship between stand-off/diameter ratio and dimensionless loading parameters. The relevant expressions and dimensionless charts are presented. The proposed equations are verified by comparing experimental data with numerical results obtained by finite element analysis (FEA of blast loaded steel plates (using the user-defined subroutine VDLOAD implemented in the FEA package ABAQUS/Explicit. Excellent correlation of the measured permanent displacement with numerically predicted results is obtained.

  20. DNA marker characterization for allele mining of blast and bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admiistrator

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... Marker assisted selection of bacterial blight resistance genes in rice. Biochem Genet. 39 (7): 261-278. Du PV, Loan, LC, Sang ND (2007). Blast research in Mekong river delta of Vietnam. In: JIRCAS (Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan) working report No. 53,.

  1. Test methods for protective footwear against AP mine blast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, D.S.; Williams, K.; Bass, C.R.; Magnan, P.; Dosquet, F.; Bergeron, D.M.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van

    2003-01-01

    The testing and development of protective footwear for anti-personnel landmine blast threats is of great importance to civilian and military deminers, and peacekeepers. This study will review the wide range of test methods that have been developed by NATO countries to test footwear against the

  2. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2018-01-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation as a tool to predict blasting fragmentation based on the Kuz Ram model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mario A.; Ficarazzo, Francesco

    2006-04-01

    Rock fragmentation is considered the most important aspect of production blasting because of its direct effects on the costs of drilling and blasting and on the economics of the subsequent operations of loading, hauling and crushing. Over the past three decades, significant progress has been made in the development of new technologies for blasting applications. These technologies include increasingly sophisticated computer models for blast design and blast performance prediction. Rock fragmentation depends on many variables such as rock mass properties, site geology, in situ fracturing and blasting parameters and as such has no complete theoretical solution for its prediction. However, empirical models for the estimation of size distribution of rock fragments have been developed. In this study, a blast fragmentation Monte Carlo-based simulator, based on the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model, has been developed to predict the entire fragmentation size distribution, taking into account intact and joints rock properties, the type and properties of explosives and the drilling pattern. Results produced by this simulator were quite favorable when compared with real fragmentation data obtained from a blast quarry. It is anticipated that the use of Monte Carlo simulation will increase our understanding of the effects of rock mass and explosive properties on the rock fragmentation by blasting, as well as increase our confidence in these empirical models. This understanding will translate into improvements in blasting operations, its corresponding costs and the overall economics of open pit mines and rock quarries.

  4. Reconstruction of improvised explosive device blast loading to personnel in the open

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiri, Suthee; Needham, Charles

    2016-05-01

    Significant advances in reconstructing attacks by improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and other blast events are reported. A high-fidelity three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics tool, called Second-order Hydrodynamic Automatic Mesh Refinement Code, was used for the analysis. Computer-aided design models for subjects or vehicles in the scene accurately represent geometries of objects in the blast field. A wide range of scenario types and blast exposure levels were reconstructed including free field blast, enclosed space of vehicle cabin, IED attack on a vehicle, buried charges, recoilless rifle operation, rocket-propelled grenade attack and missile attack with single subject or multiple subject exposure to pressure levels from ˜ 27.6 kPa (˜ 4 psi) to greater than 690 kPa (>100 psi). To create a full 3D pressure time-resolved reconstruction of a blast event for injury and blast exposure analysis, a combination of intelligence data and Blast Gauge data can be used to reconstruct an actual in-theatre blast event. The methodology to reconstruct an event and the "lessons learned" from multiple reconstructions in open space are presented. The analysis uses records of blast pressure at discrete points, and the output is a spatial and temporal blast load distribution for all personnel involved.

  5. BlastR—fast and accurate database searches for non-coding RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussotti, Giovanni; Raineri, Emanuele; Erb, Ionas; Zytnicki, Matthias; Wilm, Andreas; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Bucher, Philipp; Notredame, Cedric

    2011-01-01

    We present and validate BlastR, a method for efficiently and accurately searching non-coding RNAs. Our approach relies on the comparison of di-nucleotides using BlosumR, a new log-odd substitution matrix. In order to use BlosumR for comparison, we recoded RNA sequences into protein-like sequences. We then showed that BlosumR can be used along with the BlastP algorithm in order to search non-coding RNA sequences. Using Rfam as a gold standard, we benchmarked this approach and show BlastR to be more sensitive than BlastN. We also show that BlastR is both faster and more sensitive than BlastP used with a single nucleotide log-odd substitution matrix. BlastR, when used in combination with WU-BlastP, is about 5% more accurate than WU-BlastN and about 50 times slower. The approach shown here is equally effective when combined with the NCBI-Blast package. The software is an open source freeware available from www.tcoffee.org/blastr.html. PMID:21624887

  6. Study of the action of blast deck charge in rocky soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko V.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Blasting (B in the industry, including the mining extraction of minerals, are carried out mostly with the use of blasthole charges that systematically distributed on the block that is undermined, by individual groups. The latter are blasted according to the scheme of short-delay firing (SDF through the intervals that are accepted not less than 20 Ms. Thus, the seismic effect of group charge explosion, consisting of individual blasthole charges and that actually is a group located charge determined by the formula of concentrated charge. Blast deck charges are effectively used in the driving of the trenches in the mining, formation of screens and cracks near the security objects. Only this method of performing blasting allows to define seismic effect in the transition from one diameter of a charge to another, as well as to determine the actual number of detonated charges in one group, which may differ from the calculated in drilling and blasting project. The work analyzes the physical essence of processes happened while blasting of blast deck charges. The effect of the orientation of the seismic action of blasting of blast deck charges towards the allocation line of charges is investigated. The results of generalized dependence of the speed of the displacement of the ground by the blast parameters and epicentral distance are obtained. We demonstrate with specific examples that blast deck charges that blasting simultaneously make a major chain of the career massive explosions at mining. Keywords: seismic fluctuations; the number of charges; the interaction of charges; the distance between the charges; the coefficients of the seismicity and the attenuation of the intensity of the waves; the unit charge; blast deck and blasthole charges; phase shifting; effective charge.

  7. A multiscale approach to blast neurotrauma modeling:Part II: Methodology for inducing blast injury to in vitro models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen B. Effgen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent role of improvised explosive devices (IEDs in wounding patterns of U.S. war-fighters in Iraq and Afghanistan, blast injury has risen to a new level of importance and is recognized to be a major cause of injuries to the brain. However, an injury risk-function for microscopic, macroscopic, behavioral, and neurological deficits has yet to be defined. While operational blast injuries can be very complex and thus difficult to analyze, a simplified blast injury model would facilitate studies correlating biological outcomes with blast biomechanics to define tolerance criteria. Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI results from the translation of a shock wave in air, such as that produced by an IED, into a pressure wave within the skull-brain complex. Our blast injury methodology recapitulates this phenomenon in vitro, allowing for control of the injury biomechanics via a compressed-gas shock tube used in conjunction with a custom-designed, fluid-filled receiver that contains the living culture. The receiver converts the air shock wave into a fast-rising pressure transient with minimal reflections, mimicking the intracranial pressure history in blast. We have developed an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model that exhibits cell death when exposed to a 530  17.7 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.026 ± 0.017 ms duration and 190 ± 10.7 kPa-ms impulse in-air. We have also injured a simplified in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, which exhibits disrupted integrity immediately following exposure to 581  10.0 kPa peak overpressure with a 1.067 ms ± 0.006 ms duration and 222 ± 6.9 kPa-ms impulse in-air. To better prevent and treat bTBI, both the initiating biomechanics and the ensuing pathobiology must be understood in greater detail. A well-characterized, in vitro model of bTBI, in conjunction with animal models, will be a powerful tool for developing strategies to mitigate the risks of bTBI.

  8. Cosmic Blasts Much More Common, Astronomers Discover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A cosmic explosion seen last February may have been the "tip of an iceberg," showing that powerful, distant gamma ray bursts are outnumbered ten-to-one by less-energetic cousins, according to an international team of astronomers. The VLA The Very Large Array CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for VLA gallery) A study of the explosion with X-ray and radio telescopes showed that it is "100 times less energetic than gamma ray bursts seen in the distant universe. We were able to see it because it's relatively nearby," said Alicia Soderberg, of Caltech, leader of the research team. The scientists reported their findings in the August 31 issue of the journal Nature. The explosion is called an X-ray flash, and was detected by the Swift satellite on February 18. The astronomers subsequently studied the object using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Ryle radio telescope in the UK. "This object tells us that there probably is a rich diversity of cosmic explosions in our local Universe that we only now are starting to detect. These explosions aren't playing by the rules that we thought we understood," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The February blast seems to fill a gap between ordinary supernova explosions, which leave behind a dense neutron star, and gamma ray bursts, which leave behind a black hole, a concentration of mass so dense that not even light can escape it. Some X-ray flashes, the new research suggests, leave behind a magnetar, a neutron star with a magnetic field 100-1000 times stronger than that of an ordinary neutron star. "This explosion occurred in a galaxy about 470 million light-years away. If it had been at the distances of gamma ray bursts, as much as billions of light-years away, we would not have been able to see it," Frail said. "We think that the principal difference between gamma ray bursts and X-ray flashes and ordinary supernova

  9. Study of high Mach number laser driven blast waves in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, A. D.; Adams, R. G.; Rambo, P.; Ruggles, L.; Smith, I. C.; Porter, J. L.; Ditmire, T.

    2010-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed examining the evolution of blast waves produced by laser irradiation of a target immersed in gas. Blast waves were produced by illumination of wires by 1 kJ, 1 ns laser pulses from the Z-Beamlet laser at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast waves were imaged by probe laser pulses at various times to examine the trajectory, radiative precursor, and induced perturbations on the blast wave front. Well defined perturbations were induced on the blast wave front with arrays of wires placed in the gas and the results of the experiments are compared to the theoretical predictions for the Vishniac overstability. It is found that the experimental results are in general agreement with these theoretical predictions on thin blast wave shells and are in quantitative agreement in the simplest case.

  10. Structural Response to Blast Loading: The Effects of Corrosion on Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yalciner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural blast design has become a necessary part of the design with increasing terrorist attacks. Terrorist attacks are not the one to make the structures important against blast loading where other explosions such as high gas explosions also take an important place in structural safety. The main objective of this study was to verify the structural performance levels under the impact of different blast loading scenarios. The blast loads were represented by using triangular pulse for single degree of freedom system. The effect of blast load on both corroded and uncorroded reinforced concrete buildings was examined for different explosion distances. Modified plastic hinge properties were used to ensure the effects of corrosion. The results indicated that explosion distance and concrete strength were key parameters to define the performance of the structures against blast loading.

  11. Blast-Resistant Improvement of Sandwich Armor Structure with Aluminum Foam Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich armor structures with aluminum foam can be utilized to protect a military vehicle from harmful blast load such as a landmine explosion. In this paper, a system-level dynamic finite element model is developed to simulate the blast event and to evaluate the blast-resistant performance of the sandwich armor structure. It is found that a sandwich armor structure with only aluminum foam is capable of mitigating crew injuries under a moderate blast load. However, a severe blast load causes force enhancement and results in much worse crew injury. An isolating layer between the aluminum foam and the vehicle floor is introduced to remediate this drawback. The results show that the blast-resistant capability of the innovative sandwich armor structure with the isolating layer increases remarkably.

  12. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  13. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment.

  14. BlaSTorage: a fast package to parse, manage and store BLAST results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Massimiliano; Carcangiu, Simone

    2013-01-30

    Large-scale sequence studies requiring BLAST-based analysis produce huge amounts of data to be parsed. BLAST parsers are available, but they are often missing some important features, such as keeping all information from the raw BLAST output, allowing direct access to single results, and performing logical operations over them. We implemented BlaSTorage, a Python package that parses multi BLAST results and returns them in a purpose-built object-database format. Unlike other BLAST parsers, BlaSTorage retains and stores all parts of BLAST results, including alignments, without loss of information; a complete API allows access to all the data components. BlaSTorage shows comparable speed of more basic parser written in compiled languages as C++ and can be easily integrated into web applications or software pipelines.

  15. BlaSTorage: a fast package to parse, manage and store BLAST results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsini Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale sequence studies requiring BLAST-based analysis produce huge amounts of data to be parsed. BLAST parsers are available, but they are often missing some important features, such as keeping all information from the raw BLAST output, allowing direct access to single results, and performing logical operations over them. Findings We implemented BlaSTorage, a Python package that parses multi BLAST results and returns them in a purpose-built object-database format. Unlike other BLAST parsers, BlaSTorage retains and stores all parts of BLAST results, including alignments, without loss of information; a complete API allows access to all the data components. Conclusions BlaSTorage shows comparable speed of more basic parser written in compiled languages as C++ and can be easily integrated into web applications or software pipelines.

  16. Optimization long hole blast fragmentation techniques and detonating circuit underground uranium mine stope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Yang Lizhi; Song Lixia; Qin De'en; Xue Yongshe; Wang Zhipeng

    2012-01-01

    Aim at high rate of large blast fragmentation, a big difficulty in long hole drilling and blasting underground uranium mine stope, it is pointed out at the same time of taking integrated technical management measures, the key is to optimize the drilling and blasting parameters and insure safety the act of one that primes, adopt 'minimum burden' blasting technique, renew the stope fragmentation process, and use new process of hole bottom indirect initiation fragmentation; optimize the detonating circuit and use safe, reliable and economically rational duplex non-electric detonating circuit. The production practice shows that under the guarantee of strictly controlled construction quality, the application of optimized blast fragmentation technique has enhanced the reliability of safety detonation and preferably solved the problem of high rate of large blast fragments. (authors)

  17. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichit Sharma

    Full Text Available The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture

  18. WImpiBLAST: web interface for mpiBLAST to help biologists perform large-scale annotation using high performance computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parichit; Mantri, Shrikant S

    2014-01-01

    The function of a newly sequenced gene can be discovered by determining its sequence homology with known proteins. BLAST is the most extensively used sequence analysis program for sequence similarity search in large databases of sequences. With the advent of next generation sequencing technologies it has now become possible to study genes and their expression at a genome-wide scale through RNA-seq and metagenome sequencing experiments. Functional annotation of all the genes is done by sequence similarity search against multiple protein databases. This annotation task is computationally very intensive and can take days to obtain complete results. The program mpiBLAST, an open-source parallelization of BLAST that achieves superlinear speedup, can be used to accelerate large-scale annotation by using supercomputers and high performance computing (HPC) clusters. Although many parallel bioinformatics applications using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) are available in the public domain, researchers are reluctant to use them due to lack of expertise in the Linux command line and relevant programming experience. With these limitations, it becomes difficult for biologists to use mpiBLAST for accelerating annotation. No web interface is available in the open-source domain for mpiBLAST. We have developed WImpiBLAST, a user-friendly open-source web interface for parallel BLAST searches. It is implemented in Struts 1.3 using a Java backbone and runs atop the open-source Apache Tomcat Server. WImpiBLAST supports script creation and job submission features and also provides a robust job management interface for system administrators. It combines script creation and modification features with job monitoring and management through the Torque resource manager on a Linux-based HPC cluster. Use case information highlights the acceleration of annotation analysis achieved by using WImpiBLAST. Here, we describe the WImpiBLAST web interface features and architecture, explain design

  19. High-speed photography of microscale blast wave phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, John M.; Kleine, Harald

    2005-03-01

    High-speed photography has been a primary tool for the study of blast wave phenomena, dating from the work of Toepler, even before the invention of the camera! High-speed photography was used extensively for the study of blast waves produced by nuclear explosions for which, because of the large scale, cameras running at a few hundred frames per second were adequate to obtain sharp images of the supersonic shock fronts. For the study of the blast waves produced by smaller explosive sources, ever-increasing framing rates were required. As a rough guide, for every three orders of magnitude decrease in charge size a ten-fold increase of framing rate was needed. This severely limited the use of photography for the study of blast waves from laboratory-scale charges. There are many techniques for taking single photographs of explosive phenomena, but the strongly time-dependent development of a blast wave, requires the ability to record a high-speed sequence of photographs of a single event. At ICHSPP25, Kondo et al of Shimadzu Corporation demonstrated a 1 M fps video camera that provides a sequence of up to 100 high-resolution frames. This was subsequently used at the Shock Wave Research Center of Tohoku University to record the blast waves generated by an extensive series of silver azide charges ranging in size from 10 to 0.5mg. The resulting images were measured to provide radius-time histories of the primary and secondary shocks. These were analyzed with techniques similar to those used for the study of explosions from charges with masses ranging from 500 kg to 5 kt. The analyses showed the cube-root scaling laws to be valid for the very small charges, and provided a detailed record of the peak hydrostatic pressure as a function of radius for a unit charge of silver azide, over a wide range of scaled distances. The pressure-radius variation was compared to that from a unit charge of TNT and this permitted a detailed determination of the TNT equivalence of silver azide

  20. A Comparative Study of Ground and Underground Vibrations Induced by Bench Blasting

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuzhi Shi; Xianyang Qiu; Jian Zhou; Dan Huang; Xin Chen; Yonggang Gou

    2016-01-01

    Ground vibrations originating from bench blasting may cause damage to slopes, structures, and underground workings in close proximity to an operating open-pit mine. It is important to monitor and predict ground vibration levels induced by blasting and to take measures to reduce their hazardous effects. The aims of this paper are to determine the weaker protection objects by comparatively studying bench blasting induced vibrations obtained at surface and in an underground tunnel in an open-pit...

  1. Blasting Impact by the Construction of an Underground Research Tunnel in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Cho, W. J.

    2005-12-01

    The underground research tunnel, which is under construction in KAERI for the validation of HLW disposal system, is excavated by drill and blasting method using high-explosives. In order not to disturb the operation at the research facilities such as HANARO reactor, it is critical to develop a blasting design , which will not influence on the facilities, even though several tens of explosives are detonated almost simultaneously. To develop a reasonable blasting design, a test blasting at the site should be performed. A preliminary analysis for predicting the expected vibration and noise by the blasting for the construction of the underground research tunnel was performed using a typical empirical equation. From the study, a blasting design could be developed not to influence on the major research facilities in KAERI. For the validation of the blasting design, a test blasting was carried out at the site and the parameters of vibration equation could be determined using the measured data during the test blasting. Using the equation, it was possible to predict the vibration at different locations at KAERI and to conclude that the blasting design would meet the design criteria at the major facilities in KAERI. The study would verify the applicability of blasting method for the construction of a research tunnel in a rock mass and that would help the design and construction of large scale underground research laboratory, which might be carried out in the future. It is also meaningful to accumulate technical experience for enhancing the reliability and effectiveness of the design and construction of the HLW disposal repository, which will be constructed in deep underground by drill and blasting technique

  2. SITUATIONAL CONTROL OF HOT BLAST STOVES GROUP BASED ON DECISION TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kobysh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was developed the control system of group of hot blast stoves, which operates on the basis of the packing heating control subsystem and subsystem of forecasting of modes duration in the hot blast stoves APCS of iron smelting in a blast furnace. With the use of multi-criteria optimization methods, implemented the adjustment of control system conduct, which takes into account the current production situation that has arisen in the course of the heating packing of each hot blast stove group. Developed a situation recognition algorithm and the choice of scenarios of control based on a decision tree.

  3. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  4. Blast overpressure induced axonal injury changes in rat brainstem and spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasu Kallakuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blast induced neurotrauma has been the signature wound in returning soldiers from the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Of importance is understanding the pathomechansim(s of blast overpressure (OP induced axonal injury. Although several recent animal models of blast injury indicate the neuronal and axonal injury in various brain regions, animal studies related to axonal injury in the white matter (WM tracts of cervical spinal cord are limited. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of axonal injury in WM tracts of cervical spinal cord in male Sprague Dawley rats subjected to a single insult of blast OP. Materials and Methods: Sagittal brainstem sections and horizontal cervical spinal cord sections from blast and sham animals were stained by neurofilament light (NF-L chain and beta amyloid precursor protein immunocytochemistry and observed for axonal injury changes. Results: Observations from this preliminary study demonstrate axonal injury changes in the form of prominent swellings, retraction bulbs, and putative signs of membrane disruptions in the brainstem and cervical spinal cord WM tracts of rats subjected to blast OP. Conclusions: Prominent axonal injury changes following the blast OP exposure in brainstem and cervical spinal WM tracts underscores the need for careful evaluation of blast induced injury changes and associated symptoms. NF-L immunocytochemistry can be considered as an additional tool to assess the blast OP induced axonal injury.

  5. Reduction of optically observed artillery blast wave trajectories using low dimensionality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Bryan J.; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2011-05-01

    Muzzle blast trajectories from firings of a 152 mm caliber gun howitzer were obtained with high-speed optical imagers and used to assess the fidelity with which low dimensionality models can be used for data reduction. Characteristic flow regions were defined for the blast waves. The near-field region was estimated to extend to 0.98 - 1.25 meters from the muzzle and the far-field region was estimated to begin at 2.61 - 3.31 meters. Blast wave geometries and radial trajectories were collected in the near through far-fields with visible imagers operating at 1,600 Hz. Beyond the near-field the blast waves exhibited a near-spherical geometry in which the major axis of the blast lay along the axis of the gun barrel and measured within 95% of the minor axis. Several blast wave propagation models were applied to the mid and far-field data to determine their ability to reduce the blast wave trajectories to fewer parameters while retaining the ability to distinguish amongst three munitions configurations. A total of 147 firings were observed and used to assess within-configuration variability relative to separation between configurations. Results show that all models perform well, and drag and point blast model parameters additionally provide insight into phenomenology of the blast.

  6. Computational modeling of blast induced whole-body injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Arnab; Callaway, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Blast injuries affect millions of lives across the globe due to its traumatic after effects on the brain and the whole body. To date, military grade armour materials are designed to mitigate ballistic and shrapnel attacks but are less effective in resisting blast impacts. In order to improve blast absorption characteristics of armours, the first key step is thoroughly understands the effects of blasts on the human body itself. In the last decade, a plethora of experimental and computational work has been carried out to investigate the mechanics and pathophysiology of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). However, very few attempts have been made so far to study the effect of blasts on the various other parts of the body such as the sensory organs (eyes and ears), nervous system, thorax, extremities, internal organs (such as the lungs) and the skeletal system. While an experimental evaluation of blast effects on such physiological systems is difficult, developing finite element (FE) models could allow the recreation of realistic blast scenarios on full scale human models and simulate the effects. The current article reviews the state-of-the-art in computational research in blast induced whole-body injury modelling, which would not only help in identifying the areas in which further research is required, but would also be indispensable for understanding body location specific armour design criteria for improved blast injury mitigation.

  7. Technology Demonstration of Wet Abrasive Blasting for Removal of Lead- and Asbestos-Containing Paint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Race, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    ...). This technology demonstration showed that wet blasting using an engineered abrasive can safely and effectively remove lead- and asbestos-containing paint from exterior concrete masonry unit walls...

  8. Investigating the risk of lightning's pressure blast wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Blumenthal�

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the pathology of human trauma associated with lightning's pressure blast wave. Within what range is a human at risk and what are the risks? Two theories for the trauma currently exist: the flash moisture vaporisation theory and the sixth mechanism theory. We performed a simple proof-of-concept experiment in a high-voltage laboratory to determine which theory makes for better predictions. The experiment confirmed the existence of a non-discriminant pressure blast wave around a spark in air. The lightning data were compared with the known medical data. Findings may now help explain some of the more curious lightning injury patterns seen on lightning-strike victims.

  9. Perspectives on waste minimization with CO2 blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    Blast-cleaning with dry ice pellets is a technology that has broad applicability for industrial cleaning, surface preparation and decontamination. Alpheus Cleaning Technologies Corp. has pioneered commercial use of this technology with a patented system originally developed by Lockheed Corp. When the dry ice pellets strike the target surface a dual-action cleaning takes place, disappear instantly upon impact, practically eliminating disposal costs. The process is completely dry and can be used on electrical equipment safely. Since there is no grit entrapment or sedimentation residue, in-place cleaning of complex machinery is made possible. Limitations of CO 2 , blasting are that it is a line-of-sight process, it is quite noisy, and the cost of a system exceeds $100,000. Nevertheless, users find they save a great deal of money in pre-cleaning and post-cleaning cost reduction, and the substantial benefits outweigh the other considerations

  10. ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA WITHOUT CIRCULATING BLASTS PRESENTING AS SEVERE HYPERCALCEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Oloomi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypercalcemia complicating malignancy is a rare complication in pediatric age group. In this article, we present a case with acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as severe hypercalcemia. A 10 years old girl presented with an acute onset of fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of weight, costovertebral pain and frequency. She was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Her examination showed mild hepatosplenomegaly. In laboratory studies she had sever hypercalcemia. Despite the absence of circulating blast, bone marrow aspiration was diagnostic of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The hypercalcemia was initially treated with intravenous hydration and furosemide but the serum calcium levels normalized only after the beginning of specific chemotherapy. Hypercalcemia represents an emergency in children, and acute leukemia must be considered in differential diagnosis even when there are no circulating blasts.

  11. Description of Muzzle Blast by Modified Ideal Scaling Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Fansler

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Gun blast data from a large variety of weapons are scaled and presented for both the instantaneous energy release and the constant energy deposition rate models. For both ideal explosion models, similar amounts of data scatter occur for the peak overpressure but the instantaneous energy release model correlated the impulse data significantly better, particularly for the region in front of the gun. Two parameters that characterize gun blast are used in conjunction with the ideal scaling models to improve the data correlation. The gun-emptying parameter works particularly well with the instantaneous energy release model to improve data correlation. In particular, the impulse, especially in the forward direction of the gun, is correlated significantly better using the instantaneous energy release model coupled with the use of the gun-emptying parameter. The use of the Mach disc location parameter improves the correlation only marginally. A predictive model is obtained from the modified instantaneous energy release correlation.

  12. Numerical dynamic analysis of stiffened plates under blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Tavakoli

    Full Text Available Using the general purpose finite element package Abaqus, an investigation has been carried out to examine the dynamic response of steel stiffened plates subjected to uniform blast loading. The main objective of this study is to determine the dynamic response of the stiffened plates considering the effect of stiffener configurations. Several parameters, such as boundary conditions, mesh dependency and strain rate, have been considered in this study. Special emphasis is focused on the evaluation of midpoint displacements and energy of models. The modeling techniques were described in details. The numerical results provide better insight into the effect of stiffener configurations on the nonlinear dynamic response of the stiffened plates subjected to uniform blast loading.

  13. Radio controlled detonators and sequential real time blast applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, T.; Laboz, J.M. [Delta Caps International, Nice (France)

    1995-12-31

    Among the numerous technical evolutions in the blasting environment the authors are going to describe below the concept of electronic detonator sequenced by radio waves, and also its numerous applications. Three major technologies are used in the initiation environment: fused-initiated detonators; electric detonators; and non-electric detonators. The last two technologies were made available under multiple variants. Two major innovations are going to substantially change the way traditional detonators operate: pyrotechnic delays are replaced by electronic delays (greater accuracy); and triggering orders, passing through a cable, is now replaced by radio-waves transmission (possibility to do real time delay pattern). Such a new product provided all the features offered by current detonators, but also allows mastering specific cases that were difficult to control with the current technology, such as: vibration control; underground blast; and building demolition.

  14. [Blasting damage in manmade disasters and terrorist attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, V M; Samokhvalov, I M

    2012-01-01

    In the present case of explosive injuries in peacetime, when suddenly there are usually accidental or intentional explosions methane in mines, tanks with gas or explosives, fuel tanks or gas content, gas tanks, gas pipelines, product pipelines, as well as the explosion of military ordnance--grenades, mines, fuses, shells, and accidentally found child or maliciously used by terrorists. Collected statistical data on manmade disasters in coal mines and explosive injuries in terrorist attacks, the physical parameters of which were able to identify only approximately and type of damage incurred,mostly multiple and combinative combined and presented significant challenges in health care. The reasons and circumstances of the explosion in peacetime, gave a detailed description of the damaging factors, mechanisms, and characteristics arise from injuries suffered in the blast injuries. We describe the pathogenesis of blast injury, basic and clinical manifestations of lesions in the explosions.

  15. Study of blast wave overpressures using the computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. COSTA NETO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The threats of bomb attacks by criminal organizations and accidental events involving chemical explosives are a danger to the people and buildings. Due the severity of these issues and the need of data required for a safety design, more research is required about explosions and shock waves. This paper presents an assessment of blast wave overpressures using a computational fluid dynamics software. Analyses of phenomena as reflection of shock waves and channeling effects were done and a comparison between numerical results and analytical predictions has been executed, based on the simulation on several models. The results suggest that the common analytical predictions aren’t accurate enough for an overpressure analysis in small stand-off distances and that poorly designed buildings may increase the shock wave overpressures due multiple blast wave reflections, increasing the destructive potential of the explosions.

  16. Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Kumar Pathak; Dr. V. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today‟s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and this material is ob...

  17. Controlled drill ampersand blast excavation at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, G.W.; Onagi, D.P.; Thompson, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A controlled drill and blast method has been developed and used to excavate the Underground Research Laboratory, a geotechnical facility constructed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) in crystalline rock. It has been demonstrated that the method can effectively reduce the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) and is suitable for the construction of a used fuel disposal vault in the plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield

  18. Temporal Progression of Visual Injury from Blast Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    or 48 hours) and animal orientation (side-on or face-on). Experimental evaluations using multiple species is required to fully validate the...ProQuest. Computer modeling was used to understand how the findings in our experimental animal models (and those of other researchers) can be... experimental work was performed. Several modifications to the blast device were made. In Year 3, the bulk of animal studies were completed and

  19. Genetic Networks Activated by Blast Injury to the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    RNA binding protein with multiple splicing) as well as Calb2 (Calbindin 2) and Chrna6 (Cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 6). These two networks are...R., O’Neill, H. C., Wageman, C. R., Patzlaff, N. E., et al. (2012). alpha6∗ nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression and function in a visual...visual function after ocular blast injury can be reduced through immediate-early administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as

  20. Pulmonary effects of combined blast injury and radiation poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A McD

    2004-09-01

    In situations with relatively small numbers of patients with pulmonary blast injury aggressive modern intensive care treatment may allow a return to normal function. The additional effects of radiation poisoning are more difficult to factor in, but new treatments such as colony stimulating factors may improve the outlook for a group with moderate to severe radiation exposure who would previously have died of infection or haemorrhage.

  1. Gene pyramiding enhances durable blast disease resistance in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuoka, Shuichi; Saka, Norikuni; Mizukami, Yuko; Koga, Hironori; Yamanouchi, Utako; Yoshioka, Yosuke; Hayashi, Nagao; Ebana, Kaworu; Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Yano, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Effective control of blast, a devastating fungal disease of rice, would increase and stabilize worldwide food production. Resistance mediated by quantitative trait loci (QTLs), which usually have smaller individual effects than R-genes but confer broad-spectrum or non-race-specific resistance, is a promising alternative to less durable race-specific resistance for crop improvement, yet evidence that validates the impact of QTL combinations (pyramids) on the durability of plant disease resista...

  2. Blast Load Simulator Experiments for Computational Model Validation: Report 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    to 2 psi) related to failures of conventional annealed glass and hollow concrete masonry unit walls. It can also simulate higher blast pressures for...Army, Air Force, Navy , and De- fense Special Weapons Agency 1998, Hyde 2003) calculations were con- ducted to produce a waveform that matched both peak...the structures located downstream of the cascade section of the BLS. ERDC/GSL TR-16-27 26 References Department of the Army, Air Force, Navy

  3. Blast furnace coke substitutes from Victorian brown coal

    OpenAIRE

    Mollah, Mamun

    2017-01-01

    Iron is usually produced from its ores using coke in a blast furnace (BF). Coke, a hard and macroporous carbon material, is produced from special coals (coking coals) and acts as fuel, smelting agent, and the permeable support for the charge to the BF. No material can completely replace coke in a BF. Coking coals are becoming harder (and more expensive) to obtain. Victorian brown coal (VBC) is accessible, cheap, with low mineral concentrations, which is favourable for iron production in a BF....

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigations into Polymeric Coatings for Blast Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    reinforced concrete masonry walls. Subsequent research led to a total of twenty-one off- the-shelf prospective polymers being evaluated to determine the...materials such as fibre reinforced composites which delaminate and break up under such large deformations. A circular area of each of the coated...mechanisms of polymer- reinforced concrete masonry walls subjected to blast. Journal of Structural Engineering 131 (8), pp 1194- 1205 4. Whitlock, C

  5. Summary of IVO participation in Paks blast test analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpasuo, P.

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the numerical simulation of the triple blast test performed at Paks NPP. A detailed background analysis was carried out to complete the geological and geotechnical properties and, consequently, special frequency dependent soil stiffnesses have been evaluated. The structural model (3D) allowed a very refined result presentation in terms of profiles of displacements and forces at different elevations, for direct comparison with the experimental output. (author)

  6. The concept of explosives malfunctioning in rock blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Val d`Or, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The problem of cross-hole explosive malfunctioning in rock blasting (including sympathetic detonation, desensitization and cut-offs) is a function of delay and spacing in a blast which should be designed to avoid such occurrences. On a delay-spacing chart, the phenomenon of explosive malfunctioning is explained by dividing the chart into different regions, while the shape and size of each region could vary from one explosive to the other. Over seventy blasts have been carried out at the CANMET Experimental Mine to identify the malfunctioning characteristics of specific emulsion, water-gel and dynamite explosives. In each experiment, two parallel blastholes, 32 mm in diameter and 1.7 m deep, were drilled downwards in an underground drift. Full coupling was achieved by tamping the explosives in the wet holes. The receptor hole is initiated with a delay following the donor hole in order to observe the timing effect on the explosives being shocked. High frequency vibration monitoring was used to identify the detonation or failure of the receptor hole. The VOD measurement was used for donor holes but not for the receptor holes because of the cut-off at the collar as a result of donor hole cratering, which was further confirmed with high speed video recording. The spacing is varied to modify the shock pressure the receptor charges are subjected to. Results are presented for the three explosives tested.

  7. Shock initiated reactions of reactive multi-phase blast explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis; Granier, John; Johnson, Richard; Littrell, Donald

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a new class of non-ideal explosive compositions made of perfluoropolyether (PFPE), nanoaluminum, and a micron-size, high mass density, reactive metal. Unlike high explosives, these compositions release energy via a fast self-oxidized combustion wave rather than a true self-sustaining detonation. Their reaction rates are shock dependent and they can be overdriven to change their energy release rate. These compositions are fuel rich and have an extended aerobic energy release phase. The term "reactive multiphase blast" refers to the post-dispersion blast behavior: multiphase in that there are a gas phase that imparts pressure and a solid (particulate) phase that imparts energy and momentum [1]; and reactive in that the hot metal particles react with atmospheric oxygen and the explosive gas products to give an extended pressure pulse. Tantalum-based RMBX formulations were tested in two spherical core-shell configurations - an RMBX shell exploded by a high explosive core, and an RMBX core imploded by a high explosive shell. The fireball and blast characteristics were compared to a C-4 baseline charge.

  8. Modelling blast induced damage from a fully coupled explosive charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onederra, Italo A.; Furtney, Jason K.; Sellers, Ewan; Iverson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents one of the latest developments in the blasting engineering modelling field—the Hybrid Stress Blasting Model (HSBM). HSBM includes a rock breakage engine to model detonation, wave propagation, rock fragmentation, and muck pile formation. Results from two controlled blasting experiments were used to evaluate the code’s ability to predict the extent of damage. Results indicate that the code is capable of adequately predicting both the extent and shape of the damage zone associated with the influence of point-of-initiation and free-face boundary conditions. Radial fractures extending towards a free face are apparent in the modelling output and matched those mapped after the experiment. In the stage 2 validation experiment, the maximum extent of visible damage was of the order of 1.45 m for the fully coupled 38-mm emulsion charge. Peak radial velocities were predicted within a relative difference of only 1.59% at the nearest history point at 0.3 m from the explosive charge. Discrepancies were larger further away from the charge, with relative differences of −22.4% and −42.9% at distances of 0.46 m and 0.61 m, respectively, meaning that the model overestimated particle velocities at these distances. This attenuation deficiency in the modelling produced an overestimation of the damage zone at the corner of the block due to excessive stress reflections. The extent of visible damage in the immediate vicinity of the blasthole adequately matched the measurements. PMID:26412978

  9. [Gunshot or blast injuries of the hand. Principles of treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollig, E; Franke, A

    2012-07-01

    Gunshot injuries to the hand are rare in Central Europe. As a result of their special trauma morphology they are a serious threat to the functional integrity of the hand and often lead to a loss of function which can be associated with a permanent unfitness to work or disability. Blast injuries to the hand are more common in this part of the world and are usually caused by the inappropriate use of fireworks. This trauma entity is associated with a number of special kinetic features and effects which have therapeutic consequences and should therefore be discussed separately. As a result of the low incidence of these specific types of injuries in times of peace, experience-based expertise is unlikely to be available. The management of gunshot injuries to the hand is a particular challenge to hand surgeons who must have specialist knowledge and skills in order to achieve an optimum outcome. This applies even more so to the treatment of blast injuries to the hand which are associated with far more complex injury patterns. As a rule blast injuries are associated with a high risk of complications and require a rapid assessment and rigorous management of all damaged structures similar to approaches used for infections of the hand. Illustrated by several cases which have been treated at our institution the basic aspects of the development and morphology of these injuries are discussed as well as different treatment options, algorithms and possible treatment outcomes.

  10. Blast impact behaviour of concrete with different fibre reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drdlová Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the results of the development of special concrete intended for the explosion resistance applications, with the emphasis on minimal secondary fragments formation at the explosion. The fine-grained concrete matrix has been reinforced by various types of short dispersed fibers (metallic, mineral and polymer of different sizes and by their combination and the effect of the fibre reinforcement on the physico-mechanical properties and blast resistance was observed. The concrete prism specimens have been subjected to the determination of mechanical parameters (compressive and flexural strength at quasi-static load. The blast tests were conducted on the slab specimens prepared from selected mixtures. The material characteristics and explosion test data have been used for numerical investigation, which defined the optimal wall composition and dimensions of the concrete element which should resist the explosion defined by type, size, weight and placement of the blast. In the next step the test elements resistance was verified by real explosion test.

  11. BLAST in Gid (BiG): A Grid-Enabled Software Architecture and Implementation of Parallel and Sequential BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, G.; Blanquer, I.; Hernandez, V.; Segrelles, D.

    2007-01-01

    The integration of High-performance computing tools is a key issue in biomedical research. Many computer-based applications have been migrated to High-Performance computers to deal with their computing and storage needs such as BLAST. However, the use of clusters and computing farm presents problems in scalability. The use of a higher layer of parallelism that splits the task into highly independent long jobs that can be executed in parallel can improve the performance maintaining the efficiency. Grid technologies combined with parallel computing resources are an important enabling technology. This work presents a software architecture for executing BLAST in a International Grid Infrastructure that guarantees security, scalability and fault tolerance. The software architecture is modular an adaptable to many other high-throughput applications, both inside the field of bio computing and outside. (Author)

  12. Computational modeling of blast exposure associated with recoilless weapons combat training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiri, S.; Ritter, A. C.; Bailie, J. M.; Needham, C.; Duckworth, J. L.

    2017-11-01

    Military personnel are exposed to blast as part of routine combat training with shoulder-fired recoilless rifles. These weapons fire large-caliber ammunitions capable of disabling structures and uparmored vehicles (e.g., tanks). Scientific, medical, and military leaders are beginning to recognize the blast overpressure from these shoulder-fired weapons may result in acute and even long-term physiological effects to military personnel. However, the back blast generated from the Carl Gustav and Shoulder-launched Multipurpose Assault Weapon (SMAW) shoulder-fired weapons on the weapon operator has not been quantified. By quantifying and modeling the full-body blast exposure from these weapons, better injury correlations can be constructed. Blast exposure data from the Carl Gustav and SMAW were used to calibrate a propellant burn source term for computational simulations of blast exposure on operators of these shoulder-mounted weapon systems. A propellant burn model provided the source term for each weapon to capture blast effects. Blast data from personnel-mounted gauges during weapon firing were used to create initial, high-fidelity 3D computational fluid dynamic simulations using SHAMRC (Second-order Hydrodynamic Automatic Mesh Refinement Code). These models were then improved upon using data collected from static blast sensors positioned around the military personnel while weapons were utilized in actual combat training. The final simulation models for both the Carl Gustav and SMAW were in good agreement with the data collected from the personnel-mounted and static pressure gauges. Using the final simulation results, contour maps were created for peak overpressure and peak overpressure impulse experienced by military personnel firing the weapon as well as those assisting with firing of those weapons. Reconstruction of the full-body blast loading enables a more accurate assessment of the cause of potential mechanisms of injury due to air blast even for subjects not

  13. Effects of low-level blast exposure on the nervous system: Is there really a controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Elder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure blast waves can cause extensive CNS injury in humans. However, in combat settings such as Iraq and Afghanistan, lower level exposures associated with mild TBI (mTBI or subclinical exposure have been much more common. Yet controversy exists concerning what traits can be attributed to low-level blast, in large part due to the difficulty of distinguishing blast-related mTBI from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We describe how TBI is defined in humans and the problems posed in using current definitions to recognize blast-related mTBI. We next consider the problem of applying definitions of human mTBI to animal models, in particular that TBI severity in humans is defined in relation to alteration of consciousness at the time of injury, which typically cannot be assessed in animals. However, based on outcome assessments a condition of low-level blast exposure can be defined in animals that likely approximates human mTBI or subclinical exposure. We review blast injury modeling in animals noting that inconsistencies in experimental approach have contributed to uncertainty over the effects of low-level blast. Yet animal studies show that low-level blast pressure waves are transmitted to the brain. In brain low-level blast exposures cause behavioral, biochemical, pathological and physiological effects on the nervous system including the induction of PTSD-related behavioral traits in the absence of a psychological stressor. We review the relationship of blast exposure to chronic neurodegenerative diseases noting the paradoxical lowering of Abeta by blast, which along with other observations suggest that blast-related TBI is pathophysiologically distinct from non-blast TBI. Human neuroimaging studies show that blast-related mTBI is associated with a variety of chronic effects that are unlikely to be explained by co-morbid PTSD. We conclude that abundant evidence supports low-level blast as having long-term effects on the nervous system.

  14. Assessing Neuro-Systemic & Behavioral Components in the Pathophysiology of Blast-Related Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas H Kobeissy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the U.S. military personnel, blast injury is among the leading causes of brain injury. During the past decade, it has become apparent that even blast injury as a form of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI may lead to multiple different adverse outcomes, such as neuropsychiatric symptoms and long-term cognitive disability. Blast injury is characterized by blast overpressure (BOP, blast duration, and blast impulse. While the blast injuries of a victim close to the explosion will be severe, majority of victims are usually at a distance leading to milder form described as mild blast TBI (mbTBI. A major feature of mbTBI is its complex manifestation occurring in concert at different organ levels involving systemic, cerebral, neuronal and neuropsychiatric responses; some of which are shared with other forms of brain trauma such as acute brain injury and other neuropsychiatric disorders such as PTSD. The pathophysiology of blast injury exposure involves complex cascades of chronic psychological stress, autonomic dysfunction and neuro/systemic inflammation. These factors render blast injury as an arduous challenge in terms of diagnosis and treatment as well as identification of sensitive and specific biomarkers distinguishing mTBI from other non-TBI pathologies and from neuropsychiatric disorders with similar symptoms. This is due to the distinct but shared and partially identified biochemical pathways and neuro-histopathological changes that might be linked to behavioral deficits observed. Taken together, this article aims to provide an overview of the current status of the cellular and pathological mechanisms involved in blast overpressure injury and argues for the urgent need to identify potential biomarkers that can hint at the different mechanisms involved.

  15. Blasting Damage Predictions by Numerical Modeling in Siahbishe Pumped Storage Powerhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Majid; Goshtasbi, Kamran

    2017-04-01

    One of the popular methods of underground and surface excavations is the use of blasting. Throughout this method of excavation, the loading resulted from blasting can be affected by different geo-mechanical and structural parameters of rock mass. Several factors affect turbulence in underground structures some of which are explosion, vibration, and stress impulses caused by the neighbouring blasting products. In investigating the blasting mechanism one should address the processes which expand with time and cause seismic events. To protect the adjoining structures against any probable deconstruction or damage, it is very important to model the blasting process prior to any actual operation. Efforts have been taken in the present study to demonstrate the potentiality of numerical methods in predicting the specified parameters in order to prevent any probable destruction. For this purpose the blasting process was modeled, according to its natural implementation, in one of the tunnels of Siahbishe dam by the 3DEC and AUTODYN 3D codes. 3DEC was used for modeling the blasting environment as well as the blast holes and AUTODYN 3D for modeling the explosion process in the blast hole. In this process the output of AUTODYN 3D, which is a result of modeling the blast hole and is in the form of stress waves, is entered into 3DEC. For analyzing the amount of destruction made by the blasting operation, the key parameter of Peak Particle Velocity was used. In the end, the numerical modeling results have been compared with the data recorded by the seismographs planted through the tunnel. As the results indicated 3DEC and AUTODYN 3D proved appropriate for analyzing such an issue. Therefore, by means of these two softwares one can analyze explosion processes prior to their implementation and make close estimation of the damage resulting from these processes.

  16. Differences in postinjury auditory system pathophysiology after mild blast and nonblast acute acoustic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Nicholas; Lai, Jesyin; Shi, Riyi; Bartlett, Edward L

    2017-08-01

    Hearing difficulties are the most commonly reported disabilities among veterans. Blast exposures during explosive events likely play a role, given their propensity to directly damage both peripheral (PAS) and central auditory system (CAS) components. Postblast PAS pathophysiology has been well documented in both clinical case reports and laboratory investigations. In contrast, blast-induced CAS dysfunction remains understudied but has been hypothesized to contribute to an array of common veteran behavioral complaints, including learning, memory, communication, and emotional regulation. This investigation compared the effects of acute blast and nonblast acoustic impulse trauma in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. An array of audiometric tests were utilized, including distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), auditory brain stem responses (ABR), middle latency responses (MLR), and envelope following responses (EFRs). Generally, more severe and persistent postinjury central auditory processing (CAP) deficits were observed in blast-exposed animals throughout the auditory neuraxis, spanning from the cochlea to the cortex. DPOAE and ABR results captured cochlear and auditory nerve/brain stem deficits, respectively. EFRs demonstrated temporal processing impairments suggestive of functional damage to regions in the auditory brain stem and the inferior colliculus. MLRs captured thalamocortical transmission and cortical activation impairments. Taken together, the results suggest blast-induced CAS dysfunction may play a complementary pathophysiological role to maladaptive neuroplasticity of PAS origin. Even mild blasts can produce lasting hearing impairments that can be assessed with noninvasive electrophysiology, allowing these measurements to serve as simple, effective diagnostics. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blasts exposures often produce hearing difficulties. Although cochlear damage typically occurs, the downstream effects on central auditory processing are less clear

  17. Blast Exposure, White Matter Integrity, and Cognitive Function in Iraq and Afghanistan Combat Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A. Hazlett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of blast exposure are a major health concern for combat veterans returning from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. We used an optimized diffusion tensor imaging tractography algorithm to assess white matter (WM fractional anisotropy (FA in blast-exposed Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (n = 40 scanned on average 3.7 years after deployment/trauma exposure. Veterans diagnosed with a blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI were compared to combat veterans with blast exposure but no TBI diagnosis. Blast exposure was associated with decreased FA in several WM tracts. However, total blast exposure did not correlate well with neuropsychological testing performance and there were no differences in FA based on mTBI diagnosis. Yet, veterans with mTBI performed worse on every neurocognitive test administered. Multiple linear regression across all blast-exposed veterans using a six-factor prediction model indicated that the amount of blast exposure accounted for 11–15% of the variability in composite FA scores such that as blast exposure increased, FA decreased. Education accounted for 10% of the variability in composite FA scores and 25–32% of FA variability in the right cingulum, such that as level of education increased, FA increased. Total blast exposure, age, and education were significant predictors of FA in the left cingulum. We did not find any effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on cognition or composite FA. In summary, our findings suggest that greater total blast exposure is a contributing factor to poor WM integrity. While FA was not associated with neurocognitive performance, we hypothesize that FA changes in the cingulum in veterans with multiple combat exposures and no head trauma prior to deployment may represent a marker of vulnerability for future deficits. Future work needs to examine this longitudinally.

  18. Analysis and Numerical Simulation on the Reduction Effect of Stress Waves Caused by Water Jet Slotting Near Blasting Source

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Dengfeng; Kang, Yong; Li, Dongyang; Wang, Xiaochuan; Yan, Fuwen

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most serious “side effects” of blast excavation, blast-induced vibration must be controlled for existing buildings and human beings. This paper proposes a method for blast-induced vibration reduction with water jet assistance according to the cutting characters of low-noised, environment-friendly water jet. The mechanism of vibration-isolation with water jet assistance was analyzed, and the stress wave energy attenuation models were established based on blasting theory and stres...

  19. 75 FR 23589 - Safety Zones; Blasting Operations and Movement of Explosives, St. Marys River, Sault Sainte Marie...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Blasting Operations and Movement of... ensure the safety of the maritime community during blasting and dredging operations. DATES: Effective... action is needed to ensure the public's safety during blasting and dredging operations. Delaying the...

  20. 76 FR 71517 - Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Blasting Operations by the U.S. Army Corps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... shall determine the thickness of stemming using blasting industry conventional stemming calculations... marine animals near the blast (Keevin et al., 1999). The visual evidence from a typical confined blast is..., including inshore waters of the bays, sounds, and estuaries. Except for animals residing within the Southern...

  1. Genetic improvement of resistance to blast and bacterial blight of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea and bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo) are two major rice diseases in the world. An elite, early maturing maintainer line of hybrid rice, Rongfeng B hybrid rice is susceptible to both blast and BB. For improving its diseases resistance, ...

  2. Induced mutation for disease resistance in rice with special reference to blast, bacterial blight and tungro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Rice varieties Ratna, Pusa 2-21, Vijaya and Pankaj have been treated with gamma rays, EMS or sodium azide to improve their resistance against blast, bacterial leaf blight or tungro virus. For blast and tungro, mutants with improved resistance were selected. Variation in reaction to bacterial leaf blight has been used in crossbreeding to accumulate genes for resistance. (author)

  3. Chronic Hormonal Imbalance and Adipose Redistribution Is Associated with Hypothalamic Neuropathology following Blast Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Sajja, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith; Ereifej, Evon; Hermundstad, Amy; Mao, Shijie; Hadden, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disorders have been shown to be a consequence of blast traumatic brain injury in soldiers returning from military conflicts. Hormone deficiency and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dysfunction can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety, irritability, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and decreased quality of life. Given these changes following blast exposure, the current study focused on investigating chronic pathology within the hypothalamus following blast, in addition to systemic effects. An established rodent model of blast neurotrauma was used to induce mild blast-induced neurotrauma. Adipose tissue, blood, and brain samples were collected at one and three months following a single blast exposure. Adipose tissue and blood were evaluated for changes in ACTH, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, interleukin (IL)-1β, and leptin. The hypothalamus was evaluated for injury using immunohistochemical techniques. The results demonstrated that the weight of the blast animals was significantly less, compared with the sham group. The slower rate of increase in their weight was associated with changes in ACTH, IL-1β, and leptin levels. Further, histological analysis indicated elevated levels of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells within the hypothalamus. The data suggest that long-term outcomes of brain injury occurring from blast exposure include dysfunction of the hypothalamus, which leads to compromised hormonal function, elevated biological stress-related hormones, and subsequent adipose tissue remodeling.

  4. Model for small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Juan R.; Desai, Sachi V.

    2011-11-01

    Accurate modeling of small firearms muzzle blast wave propagation in the far field is critical to predict sound pressure levels, impulse durations and rise times, as functions of propagation distance. Such a task being relevant to a number of military applications including the determination of human response to blast noise, gunfire detection and localization, and gun suppressor design. Herein, a time domain model to predict small arms fire muzzle blast wave propagation is introduced. The model implements a Friedlander wave with finite rise time which diverges spherically from the gun muzzle. Additionally, the effects in blast wave form of thermoviscous and molecular relaxational processes, which are associated with atmospheric absorption of sound were also incorporated in the model. Atmospheric absorption of blast waves is implemented using a time domain recursive formula obtained from numerical integration of corresponding differential equations using a Crank-Nicholson finite difference scheme. Theoretical predictions from our model were compared to previously recorded real world data of muzzle blast wave signatures obtained by shooting a set different sniper weapons of varying calibers. Recordings containing gunfire acoustical signatures were taken at distances between 100 and 600 meters from the gun muzzle. Results shows that predicted blast wave slope and exponential decay agrees well with measured data. Analysis also reveals the persistency of an oscillatory phenomenon after blast overpressure in the recorded wave forms.

  5. New Marker Development for the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-km

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blast resistance (R) gene Pi-km protects rice against specific races of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The use of blast R genes remains the most cost-effective method of disease control. To facilitate the breeding process, we developed a Pi-km specific molecular marker. For this purp...

  6. Simulation for the powder movement and accumulation in the lower part of blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takashi [Mineral Resources Research Center, Nippon Steel Technoresearch, Futtsu-shi Chiba (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of unburnt char and coke powder in the blast furnace becomes material for discussion with the increase in injection rate of pulverized coal into the blast furnace. An analysis was made as to the simulation of powder accumulation at the deadman and dripping zone of blast furnace by using a powder/gas two-phases flow experimental data. When an excessive powder has penetrated at a low gas velocity, it brings an increment in holdup and the controlling factors are powder/gas ratio and gas velocity. An empirical formula used for estimating the powder hold-up in the blast furnace internal conditions has proposed based on similarity. The controlling {pi} numbers are Floude number, powder/gas ratio and particle diameter ratio of powder/lump. This empirical formular was connected with Blast Furnace Total Model `BRIGHT` for the simulation of powder amount distribution in the lower part of blast furnace. When Powder diameter Dk exceeds 100 {mu} and gas velocity becomes lower than 0.7m/s at PC1OOkg/T, the powder tends to accumulate in the deadman. These results was available for the decision of optimum blast conditions and optimum powder diameter in the high amount of pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace. (author) 10 refs.

  7. GPS network observation of traveling ionospheric disturbances following the Chelyabinsk meteorite blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ding

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We use the Global Positioning System (GPS network in northwest China and central Asia to monitor traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs, which were possibly excited by the large meteorite blast over Chelyabinsk, Russia, on 15 February 2013. Two TIDs were observed. The first TID was observed 13 min after the blast within a range of 270–600 km from the blast site. It propagated radially from the blast site with a mean velocity and period of 369 m s−1 and 12 min, respectively. The second TID was found in northwest China, 1.5 h after the time of the blast, at  ∼  2500–3100 km from the blast site. This latter TID propagated southeastward with a velocity and period of 410 m s−1 and 23 min, respectively. Severe dissipation of the perturbation total electronic content (TEC amplitude was observed. Any TIDs propagating in a global range was not found after the meteorite blast. Features of TIDs were compared with those excited by early nuclear explosion tests. It is inferred from our analysis that the energy release of the Chelyabinsk meteorite blast may not be large enough to excite such ionospheric disturbances in a global range as some nuclear explosions did.

  8. Development of a shot-blasting robot for removal of the wall concrete surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokioka, Seigo; Inagaki, Hiroichi; Sakai, Sachio; Kasahara, Ichirou; Ishigami, Shinya

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports research and development of a shot-blasting robot, for which the following targets are set up and their performances confirmed through basic experiments: (1) Uniform removal of concrete surface by an impeller type shot-blasting system. (2) Recycling of projecting material (steel shot). (3) Separation of removal material. And on the basis of these, its application to decontamination of nuclear power facilities is projected. The following three problems were focused on and the results of study are reported as follows: Step 1 : As part of a mechanical basic test, a manual type shot-blasting unit was mounted on a test device which may move freely on the concrete, and its data concerning finishing performance was obtained. Step 2 : On the basis of the results of the mechanization basic test, remote controlling of the shot blasting unit and its mounting on the suction type self-climbing carriage were studied first, secondly data of shot-blasting, operation and control method was gathered to develop a shot-blasting robot. Step 3 : A shot-blasting test was conducted for confirming climbing and shot-blasting performances. (author)

  9. Physics of shock tube simulated IED blast for mTBI research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mediavilla Varas, J.; Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Meijer, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand the blast propagation into the human skull and brain causing mTBI and use this knowledge for enabling design of effective protection measures against them. A shock tube including sensor system was optimized to simulate realistic IED blast profiles

  10. Blasting chamber of the mine water stained; Voladuras de avance en labores subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo Perlado, J. F.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the main parameters that lay out a developed blast in underground mining are studied. Such parameters affect the geometry of the draft scheme so as to get a regular cut with a minimum consumption of explosive in order to reduce the vibrations caused by blasting. (Author)

  11. Blasting forward in underground work; Voladuras de camara de la mina de Aguas Tenidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Maneiro, C. H.; Maqueda Jimenez, S.; Pazos Perez, L.; Carnero Ortiz, F.

    2012-11-01

    This paper explains the drilling and blasting techniques of stopes in Aguas Tenidas Mine (Huelva, Spain), including slot raises and slots. Highights are: application of electronic detonators and a 30'' hole in slot raise blasts, ANFO uphole chrging of 89 mm holes and high productive fan drillin, in order to maintain stoping production of 150.000 t/month. (Author)

  12. 29 CFR 1926.913 - Blasting in excavation work under compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. 1926.913... Use of Explosives § 1926.913 Blasting in excavation work under compressed air. (a) Detonators and... connecting wires are connected up. (b) When detonators or explosives are brought into an air lock, no...

  13. Acoustic monitoring to document the spatial distribution and hotspots of blast fishing in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulik, Gill; Wittich, Anja; Macaulay, Jamie; Kasuga, Magreth; Gordon, Jonathan; Davenport, Tim R B; Gillespie, Douglas

    2017-12-15

    Destructive fishing using explosives occurs in a number of countries worldwide, negatively impacting coral reefs and fisheries on which millions of people rely. Documenting, quantifying and combating the problem has proved problematic. In March-April 2015 231h of acoustic data were collected over 2692km of systematically laid transects along the entire coast of Tanzania. A total of 318 blasts were confirmed using a combination of manual and supervised semi-autonomous detection. Blasts were detected along the entire coastline, but almost 62% were within 80km of Dar es Salaam, where blast frequency reached almost 10blasts/h. This study is one of the first to use acoustic monitoring to provide a spatial assessment of the intensity of blast fishing. This can be a useful tool that can provide reliable data to define hotspots where the activity is concentrated and determine where enforcement should be focused for maximum impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Research to Surface Aeration and Blasting Aeration System Based on LCC Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liai, CHEN; Hongxun, HOU; Weibiao, FEI; Eryan, ZHAO

    2017-05-01

    It is difficult to select the suitable aeration system for the designers of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In this paper, taking two WWTPs with surface aeration systems and blasting aeration respectively for an example, LCC theory was adapted to analysis the cost of consumption and the environmental impact, which caused by the different aeration system. Research results showed that: (1) In the 20-year life cycle, the LCC mainly depended on the cost of energy consumption whatever blasting aeration system or surface aeration, while the LCC of blasting aeration system affected by the equipment maintenance cost, maintenance cost, economic losses caused by wastewater loss and environmental load in maintenance period. (2) The LCC of blasting aeration system was lower than the surface aeration in general, on the premise of the standard discharge; (3) the blasting aeration system estimated a saving of 60,0000RMB annually in costs compared with the surface aeration.

  15. Reopening of an uranium mine in India after successful pacification of public discontent through cautious blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Pijush Pal; Sawmliana, Chhangte; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Blasting operations at Banduhurang opencast mine of Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) were stopped for about seven months since February 2011 due to the complaints lodged by the inhabitants of nearby Dhodanga village to the district administration. The complaints were related to the disturbance caused to them as a result of blast- induced ground vibration, noise/air overpressure and flying fragments. On recommendation of the district administration, the Blasting Department of the CSIR-Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (CSIR-CIMFR), Dhanbad carried out a thorough scientific study and assessed the impacts of blasting on various residential structures as well as on their inhabitants. The study proved that the impacts of blasting were well within safe limit. It helped pacifying public discontent and ultimately reopening the mine. (author)

  16. X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarini, G.; Djanikian, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 95 0 C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Middle ear injury in animals exposed to complex blast waves inside an armored vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Y Y; Mundie, T G; Hoyt, R; Dodd, K T

    1989-05-01

    With greater reliance on armored vehicles of improved survivability, questions have arisen about the likelihood of the wounding of vehicle occupants from blast waves alone. In this study, we placed anesthetized animals (sheep or pigs) inside lightly armored vehicles and exposed them to the blast waves generated by one of three sizes of shaped-charge munitions. Sixty-seven animals were exposed and 15 served as controls. No difference was noted between exposed and control groups for blast injury to the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts. In contrast, middle ear damage was observed exclusively in animals exposed to blast and was correlated strongly with the peak pressure. The ear is the organ most sensitive to blast damage, and if protectors are not used, military physicians can expect to see a high incidence of middle ear injury in modern combat. The operational consequences of such an injury are not known.

  18. Transcriptional Changes in the Mouse Retina after Ocular Blast Injury: A Role for the Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struebing, Felix L; King, Rebecca; Li, Ying; Chrenek, Micah A; Lyuboslavsky, Polina N; Sidhu, Curran S; Iuvone, P Michael; Geisert, Eldon E

    2018-01-01

    Ocular blast injury is a major medical concern for soldiers and explosion victims due to poor visual outcomes. To define the changes in gene expression following a blast injury to the eye, we examined retinal ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression in 54 mouse strains 5 days after a single 50-psi overpressure air wave blast injury. We observe that almost 40% of genes are differentially expressed with a false discovery rate (FDR) of immune system are activated. Accompanied by lymphocyte invasion into the inner retina, blast injury also results in progressive loss of visual function and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Collectively, these data demonstrate how systems genetics can be used to put meaning to the transcriptome changes following ocular blast injury that eventually lead to blindness.

  19. Application of full-face round by the sequential blasting machine in tunnel excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.D.; Park, B.K.; Lee, S.E.; Lim, H.U.

    1995-12-31

    Many methods and techniques have been developed to reduce ground vibrations. Some of them are an adoption of electric millisecond detonators with a sequential blasting machine and an improvement of initiating system with an adequate number of delay intervals. To reduce the level of ground vibration in tunnel excavation, the sequential blasting machine (S.B.M.) with decisecond detonators was adopted. A total of 134 blasts was recorded at various sites and the results were analyzed. The distances blast-to-structures were ranged from 20.3 to 42.0 meter, where charge weights were varied from 0.25 to 0.75kg per delay. It is proved that the sequential blasting in tunnel excavation is very effective to control ground vibration.

  20. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing in Rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica cv. Katy) for Stable Resistance against Blast Fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast is a recurring and devastating disease in the USA and worldwide. In the USA, the blast-resistance (R) genes found in a tropical japonica cultivar, Katy, reduce blast damages from 1990 to present. The cultivar is still used as a principal donor of blast R genes in developing numerous elit...

  1. Economic and Environmental Impact of Rice Blast Pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae) Alleviation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalley, Lawton; Tsiboe, Francis; Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Shew, Aaron; Thoma, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) is a key concern in combating global food insecurity given the disease is responsible for approximately 30% of rice production losses globally-the equivalent of feeding 60 million people. These losses increase the global rice price and reduce consumer welfare and food security. Rice is the staple crop for more than half the world's population so any reduction in rice blast would have substantial beneficial effects on consumer livelihoods. In 2012, researchers in the US began analyzing the feasibility of creating blast-resistant rice through cisgenic breeding. Correspondingly, our study evaluates the changes in producer, consumer, and environmental welfare, if all the rice produced in the Mid-South of the US were blast resistant through a process like cisgenics, using both international trade and environmental assessment modeling. Our results show that US rice producers would gain 69.34 million dollars annually and increase the rice supply to feed an additional one million consumers globally by eliminating blast from production in the Mid-South. These results suggest that blast alleviation could be even more significant in increasing global food security given that the US is a small rice producer by global standards and likely experiences lower losses from blast than other rice-producing countries because of its ongoing investment in production technology and management. Furthermore, results from our detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) show that producing blast-resistant rice has lower environmental (fossil fuel depletion, ecotoxicity, carcinogenics, eutrophication, acidification, global warming potential, and ozone depletion) impacts per unit of rice than non-blast resistant rice production. Our findings suggest that any reduction in blast via breeding will have significantly positive impacts on reducing global food insecurity through increased supply, as well as decreased price and environmental impacts in production.

  2. Economic and Environmental Impact of Rice Blast Pathogen (Magnaporthe oryzae Alleviation in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton Nalley

    Full Text Available Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae is a key concern in combating global food insecurity given the disease is responsible for approximately 30% of rice production losses globally-the equivalent of feeding 60 million people. These losses increase the global rice price and reduce consumer welfare and food security. Rice is the staple crop for more than half the world's population so any reduction in rice blast would have substantial beneficial effects on consumer livelihoods. In 2012, researchers in the US began analyzing the feasibility of creating blast-resistant rice through cisgenic breeding. Correspondingly, our study evaluates the changes in producer, consumer, and environmental welfare, if all the rice produced in the Mid-South of the US were blast resistant through a process like cisgenics, using both international trade and environmental assessment modeling. Our results show that US rice producers would gain 69.34 million dollars annually and increase the rice supply to feed an additional one million consumers globally by eliminating blast from production in the Mid-South. These results suggest that blast alleviation could be even more significant in increasing global food security given that the US is a small rice producer by global standards and likely experiences lower losses from blast than other rice-producing countries because of its ongoing investment in production technology and management. Furthermore, results from our detailed life cycle assessment (LCA show that producing blast-resistant rice has lower environmental (fossil fuel depletion, ecotoxicity, carcinogenics, eutrophication, acidification, global warming potential, and ozone depletion impacts per unit of rice than non-blast resistant rice production. Our findings suggest that any reduction in blast via breeding will have significantly positive impacts on reducing global food insecurity through increased supply, as well as decreased price and environmental impacts in

  3. The importance of systemic response in the pathobiology of blast-induced neurotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibolja eCernak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to complex injurious environment where multiple blast effects interact with the body, parallel blast-induced neurotrauma is a unique clinical entity induced by systemic, local, and cerebral responses. Activation of autonomous nervous system; sudden pressure-increase in vital organs such as lungs and liver; and activation of neuroendocrine-immune system are among the most important mechanisms that contribute significantly to molecular changes and cascading injury mechanisms in the brain. It has been hypothesized that vagally mediated cerebral effects play a vital role in the early response to blast: this assumption has been supported by experiments where bilateral vagotomy mitigated bradycardia, hypotension, and apnea, and also prevented excessive metabolic alterations in the brain of animals exposed to blast. Clinical experience suggests specific blast-body-nervous system interactions such as 1 direct interaction with the head either through direct passage of the blast wave through the skull or by causing acceleration and/or rotation of the head; and 2 via hydraulic interaction, when the blast overpressure compresses the abdomen and chest, and transfers its kinetic energy to the body’s fluid phase, initiating oscillating waves that traverse the body and reach the brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays important role in the pathogenesis of long-term neurological deficits due to blast. These include memory decline, motor function and balance impairments, and behavioral alterations, among others. Experiments using rigid body- or head protection in animals subjected to blast showed that head protection failed to prevent inflammation in the brain or reduce neurological deficits, whereas body protection was successful in alleviating the blast-induced functional and morphological impairments in the brain.

  4. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkki, J.; Tervola, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

  5. SUBMILLIMETER NUMBER COUNTS FROM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF BLAST MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patanchon, Guillaume; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca

    2009-01-01

    We describe the application of a statistical method to estimate submillimeter galaxy number counts from confusion-limited observations by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our method is based on a maximum likelihood fit to the pixel histogram, sometimes called 'P(D)', an approach which has been used before to probe faint counts, the difference being that here we advocate its use even for sources with relatively high signal-to-noise ratios. This method has an advantage over standard techniques of source extraction in providing an unbiased estimate of the counts from the bright end down to flux densities well below the confusion limit. We specifically analyze BLAST observations of a roughly 10 deg 2 map centered on the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey South field. We provide estimates of number counts at the three BLAST wavelengths 250, 350, and 500 μm; instead of counting sources in flux bins we estimate the counts at several flux density nodes connected with power laws. We observe a generally very steep slope for the counts of about -3.7 at 250 μm, and -4.5 at 350 and 500 μm, over the range ∼0.02-0.5 Jy, breaking to a shallower slope below about 0.015 Jy at all three wavelengths. We also describe how to estimate the uncertainties and correlations in this method so that the results can be used for model-fitting. This method should be well suited for analysis of data from the Herschel satellite.

  6. The Vestibular Effects of Repeated Low-Level Blasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Philip D; Pinto, Robin L; Burrows, Holly L; Brungart, Douglas S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use a prospective cohort of United States Marine Corps (USMC) instructors to identify any acute or long-term vestibular dysfunction following repeated blast exposures during explosive breaching training. They were assessed in clinic and on location during training at the USMC Methods of Entry School, Quantico, VA. Subjects received comprehensive baseline vestibular assessments and these were repeated in order to identify longitudinal changes. They also received shorter assessments immediately following blast exposure in order to identify acute findings. The main outcome measures were the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, vestibular Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of subjective vestibular function, videonystagmography (VNG), vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP), rotary chair (including the unilateral centrifugation test), computerized dynamic posturography, and computerized dynamic visual acuity. A total of 11 breachers and 4 engineers were followed for up to 17 months. No acute effects or longitudinal deteriorations were identified, but there were some interesting baseline group differences. Upbeat positional nystagmus was common, and correlated (p<0.005) with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Several instructors had abnormally short low-frequency phase leads on rotary chair testing. This study evaluated breaching instructors over a longer test period than any other study, and the results suggest that this population appears to be safe from a vestibular standpoint at the current exposure levels. Upbeat positional nystagmus correlated with a history of mTBI in this population, and this has not been described elsewhere. The data trends also suggest that this nystagmus could be an acute blast effect. However, the reasons for the abnormally short phase leads seen in rotary chair testing are unclear at this time. Further investigation seems warranted.

  7. Spectral properties of Seismic waves during quarry blasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Karel; Knejzlík, Jaromír; Rušajová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2006), s. 133-141 ISSN 1213-1962. [Nové poznatky a měření v seismologii, inženýrské geofyzice a geotechnice/15./. Ostrava, 11.04.2006-13.04.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/0999 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : quarry blasts * spectral analysis * body and surface waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  8. Performance Evaluation Of Modified V-Blast In Mimo System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneetha, Ch.; Harathi, N.; Sudha, K.

    2012-03-01

    The MIMO system (multiple Antennas at the transmitter and receiver)is a capable of very high theoretical capacities, the most popular architecture is so called vertical VBLAST. VBLAST is an effective detection method for MIMO communication system, but has large computational complexity due its successive iteration . In this paper we used modified VBLAST to lessen its computational complexity reducing the number of successive iterations. As a result of this simplification, the computational complexity of the detection is lowered significantly. Simulation results show that the proposed V-BLAST reduces calculation complexity by about 30% while achieving a very close BER performance s the original one.

  9. Cleaning By Blasting With Pellets Of Dry Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fody, Jody

    1993-01-01

    Dry process strips protective surface coats from parts to be cleaned, without manual scrubbing. Does not involve use of flammable or toxic solvents. Used to remove coats from variety of materials, including plastics, ceramics, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and composites. Adds no chemical-pollution problem to problem of disposal of residue of coating material. Process consists of blasting solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) pellets at surface to be cleaned. Pellets sublime on impact and pass into atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas. Size, harness, velocity, and quantity of pellets adjusted to suit coating material and substrate.

  10. Experiments on cylindrically converging blast waves in atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hideo; Nakamura, Yuichi

    1980-06-01

    Cylindrically converging blast waves have been produced in normal atmospheric conditions by the detonation of the explosives, pentaerythritoltetranitrate, (PETN), over cylindrical surfaces. The shocks generated in this way are so strong that the fronts propagating through the air become luminous of themselves. The production and the propagation of the shocks have been monitored with a framing camera and a streak camera, and the time-space relations of the shock propagations have been determined using an electrical ionization probing system. The results have shown that the trajectory of the shock fronts near the axis of the cylinder can be approximately represented by the Guderley's formula.

  11. Internal Jugular Vein Compression: A Novel Approach to Mitigate Blast Induced Hearing Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Brian; Shinners, Michael; Sherman, Sydney; Novak, Kevin; Erickson, Kristine; Patel, Vimal; Kubilis, Paul; Smith, David; Finan, John; Bailes, Julian E

    2017-04-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) compression before blast injury will lead to reduced risk of traumatic hearing injury following exposure to a blast injury. IJV compression and its effects on not only intracranial, but also intracochlear pressure may potentiate blast induced hearing injury, therefore, precluding its use as a prophylactic therapy for blast induced traumatic brain injury. Twenty Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to a 17.9 ± 0.4 PSI (195.8 dB SPL) right sided shock wave in which 10 had application of a custom IJV compression collar before injury. All rodents received baseline and post blast injury otoacoustic emission (OAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing followed by cochlear histology. IJV compression was shown to significantly reduce ABR and OAE threshold shifts in comparison to the non-intervention group by: 14.9 ± 4.8 dB (right ear ABR 0.5 kHz Day 1 post blast, p = 0.01), 13.1 ± 4.9 dB (right ear ABR 4 kHz Day 1 post blast, p = 0.04), 16.5 ± 4.5 dB (right ear ABR click Day 1 post blast, p = 0.003), 12.1 ± 4.6 dB (right ear ABR click Day 6 post blast, p = 0.04), and 14.0 ± 3.2 dB (both ears OAE 3.2-10 kHz, p collar application had a greater number of total hair cells per mm from 70 to 100% distance from the cochlear apex following blast injury in comparison to those without intervention (blast: 211.8 ± 27.5 versus blast+collar: 355.5 ± 39.5 [p = 0.0002]). This study supports the use of IJV compression in a pre-clinical model as a new prophylactic mechanism to combat blast induced hearing injury.

  12. Innovative design tool for the optimization of blast-enhanced facade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Lori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In current blast enhancement design strategies, to resist the effects of an accidental explosion, a facade system is commonly designed to behave in-elastically and undergo large deformations. The large deformation of the facade system leads to high blast energy dissipation, subsequently reducing the blast energy transferred to the main structure. In addition to the blast resistance of the facade system, human injuries due to glass fragmentation within the vicinity of the facade system should also be minimized in order to meet the required safety levels. Overall building safety can be optimized by balancing blast energy dissipation and glass fragmentation. Recently, Permasteelisa Group has developed an innovative design tool to optimize blast-enhanced facades using an equivalent MDOF approach. A novel fragmentation tool has been proposed to assist this design procedure. This paper presents various critical parameters considered in blast-enhanced facade analysis, the experimental validation of these parameters and their influence in the design optimization process.  

  13. Behavioral Outcomes Differ Between Rotational Acceleration and Blast Mechanisms of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Stemper

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI can result from a number of mechanisms, including blunt impact, head rotational acceleration, exposure to blast, and penetration of projectiles. Mechanism is likely to influence the type, severity, and chronicity of outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the severity and time-course of behavioral outcomes following blast and rotational mTBI. The Medical College of Wisconsin (MCW Rotational Injury model and a shock tube model of primary blast injury were used to induce mTBI in rats and behavioral assessments were conducted within the first week, as well as 30 and 60 days following injury. Acute recovery time demonstrated similar increases over protocol-matched shams, indicating acute injury severity equivalence between the two mechanisms. Post-injury behavior in the elevated plus maze demonstrated differing trends, with rotationally injured rats acutely demonstrating greater activity, whereas blast-injured rats had decreased activity that developed at chronic time points. Similarly, blast-injured rats demonstrated trends associated with cognitive deficits that were not apparent following rotational injuries. These findings demonstrate that rotational and blast injury result in behavioral changes with different qualitative and temporal manifestations. Whereas rotational injury was characterized by a rapidly emerging phenotype consistent with behavioral disinhibition, blast injury was associated with emotional and cognitive differences that were not evident acutely, but developed later, with an anxiety-like phenotype still present in injured animals at our most chronic measurements.

  14. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xie

    Full Text Available There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  15. Viscoelastic Materials Study for the Mitigation of Blast-Related Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartyczak, Susan; Mock, Willis, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Recent preliminary research into the causes of blast-related brain injury indicates that exposure to blast pressures, such as from IED detonation or multiple firings of a weapon, causes damage to brain tissue resulting in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Current combat helmets are not sufficient to protect the warfighter from this danger and the effects are debilitating, costly, and long-lasting. Commercially available viscoelastic materials, designed to dampen vibration caused by shock waves, might be useful as helmet liners to dampen blast waves. The objective of this research is to develop an experimental technique to test these commercially available materials when subject to blast waves and evaluate their blast mitigating behavior. A 40-mm-bore gas gun is being used as a shock tube to generate blast waves (ranging from 1 to 500 psi) in a test fixture at the gun muzzle. A fast opening valve is used to release nitrogen gas from the breech to impact instrumented targets. The targets consist of aluminum/ viscoelastic polymer/ aluminum materials. Blast attenuation is determined through the measurement of pressure and accelerometer data in front of and behind the target. The experimental technique, calibration and checkout procedures, and results will be presented.

  16. Experimental Study of the Jet Engine Exhaust Flow Field of Aircraft and Blast Fences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifu Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A combined blast fence is introduced in this paper to improve the solid blast fences and louvered ones. Experiments of the jet engine exhaust flow (hereinafter jet flow for short field and tests of three kinds of blast fences in two positions were carried out. The results show that the pressure and temperature at the centre of the jet flow decrease gradually as the flow moves farther away from the nozzle. The pressure falls fast with the maximum rate of 41.7%. The dynamic pressure 150 m away from the nozzle could reach 58.8 Pa, with a corresponding wind velocity of 10 m/s. The temperature affected range of 40°C is 113.5×20 m. The combined blast fence not only reduces the pressure of the flow in front of it but also solves the problems that the turbulence is too strong behind the solid blast fences and the pressure is too high behind the louvered blast fences. And the pressure behind combined blast fence is less than 10 Pa. The height of the fence is related to the distance from the jet nozzle. The nearer the fence is to the nozzle, the higher it is. When it is farther from the nozzle, its height can be lowered.

  17. Kekasaran Permukaan Baja Karbon Sedang Akibat Proses Sand-Blasting dengan Variasi Jarak Nosel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Widiyarta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Proses sand-blasting merupakan proses yang dilakuan untuk membersihkan dan merubah kekasaran permukaan material. Proses ini umumnya dilakukan sebelum melakukan proses pelapisan permukaan material dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan daya rekat lapisan pada permukaan material yang dilapisi. Pada penelitian ini, proses sand-blasting dilakukan pada baja karbon sedang dengan variasi jarak nosel untuk memperoleh perubahan kekasaran permukaan material. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan perubahan jarak nosel pada proses sand-blasting memberikan pengaruh yang cukup signifikan pada kekasaran permukaan. Kata kunci: sand-blasting, baja karbon sedang, kekasaran permukaan Abstract: Sand-blasting is a process of surfaces treatment to clean and to roughen surface of material. This process is commonly used in preparing the surface before the coating process in order to increase the bond strength of the coating material on the surface of substrate material. In this work, sand-blasting process is conducted to the medium carbon steel with varying nozzle distance to the surface of material. The experiment results show the different nozzle distance causes the change of surface roughness significantly. Keywords: sand-blasting, carbon steel, surface roughness

  18. Blast neurotrauma impairs working memory and disrupts prefrontal myo-inositol levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajja, Venkata Siva Sai Sujith; Perrine, Shane A; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Hall, Christina S; Galloway, Matthew P; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2014-03-01

    Working memory, which is dependent on higher-order executive function in the prefrontal cortex, is often disrupted in patients exposed to blast overpressure. In this study, we evaluated working memory and medial prefrontal neurochemical status in a rat model of blast neurotrauma. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with 3% isoflurane and exposed to calibrated blast overpressure (17 psi, 117 kPa) while sham animals received only anesthesia. Early neurochemical effects in the prefrontal cortex included a significant decrease in betaine (trimethylglycine) and an increase in GABA at 24 h, and significant increases in glycerophosphorylcholine, phosphorylethanolamine, as well as glutamate/creatine and lactate/creatine ratios at 48 h. Seven days after blast, only myo-inositol levels were altered showing a 15% increase. Compared to controls, short-term memory in the novel object recognition task was significantly impaired in animals exposed to blast overpressure. Working memory in control animals was negatively correlated with myo-inositol levels (r=-.759, p<0.05), an association that was absent in blast exposed animals. Increased myo-inositol may represent tardive glial scarring in the prefrontal cortex, a notion supported by GFAP changes in this region after blast overexposure as well as clinical reports of increased myo-inositol in disorders of memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of Axial Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Columns under Lateral Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeilnia Omran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different factors can affect blast response of structural components. Hence, experimental tests could be the best method for evaluating structures under blast loading. Therefore, an experimental explosion loading has been done on RC members by the authors. Four RC components, with identical geometry and material, with and without axial load were imposed to air blast. Observed data of the members’ response under blast loading was used for validation of finite element modeling process using ABAQUS software. With respect to complexity, limitations, and high costs of experimental tests, analytical studies and software modeling can be good alternatives. Accordingly, in this paper, the behavior of 6 different models of normal and strengthened RC columns under blast loading was evaluated using ABAQUS. Strengthening configurations considered here were designed for enhancing axial capacity of RC columns. Therefore, we can investigate the effectiveness of axial strengthening of column on its blast resistance capacity and residual axial strength. The considered strengthening methods were different steel jacket configurations including steel angle, channel, and plate sections. The results showed that retrofitting significantly improves blast performance of the columns. Moreover, residual strength capacity of the columns strengthened with steel channel is higher than the other models.

  20. Prediction of environmental impacts of quarry blasting operation using fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fişne, Abdullah; Kuzu, Cengiz; Hüdaverdi, Türker

    2011-03-01

    Blast-induced ground vibration is one of the most important environmental impacts of blasting operations because it may cause severe damage to structures and plants in nearby environment. Estimation of ground vibration levels induced by blasting has vital importance for restricting the environmental effects of blasting operations. Several predictor equations have been proposed by various researchers to predict ground vibration prior to blasting, but these are site specific and not generally applicable beyond the specific conditions. In this study, an attempt has been made to predict the peak particle velocity (PPV) with the help of fuzzy logic approach using parameters of distance from blast face to vibration monitoring point and charge weight per delay. The PPV and charge weight per delay were recorded for 33 blast events at various distances and used for the validation of the proposed fuzzy model. The results of the fuzzy model were also compared with the values obtained from classical regression analysis. The root mean square error estimated for fuzzy-based model was 5.31, whereas it was 11.32 for classical regression-based model. Finally, the relationship between the measured and predicted values of PPV showed that the correlation coefficient for fuzzy model (0.96) is higher than that for regression model (0.82).

  1. Fire and blast safety manual for fuel element manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensinger, U.; Koehler, B.; Mester, W.; Riotte, H.G.; Sehrbrock, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The manual aims to enable people involved in the planning, operation, supervision, licensing or appraisal of fuel element factories to make a quick and accurate assessment of blast safety. In Part A, technical plant principles are shown, and a summary lists the flammable materials and ignition sources to be found in fuel element factories, together with theoretical details of what happens during a fire or a blast. Part B comprises a list of possible fires and explosions in fuel element factories and ways of preventing them. Typical fire and explosion scenarios are analysed more closely on the basis of experiments. Part B also contains a list and an assessment of actual fires and explosions which have occurred in fuel element factories. Part C contains safety measures to protect against fire and explosion, in-built fire safety, fire safety in plant design, explosion protection and measures to protect people from radiation and other hazards when fighting fires. A distinction is drawn between UO 2 , MOX and HTR fuel elements. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Review of methods to attenuate shock/blast waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igra, O.; Falcovitz, J.; Houas, L.; Jourdan, G.

    2013-04-01

    Quick and reliable shock wave attenuation is the goal of every protection facility and therefore it is not surprising that achieving this has drawn much attention during the past hundred years. Different options have been suggested; their usefulness varying from a reasonable protection to the opposite, a shock enhancement. An example for a suggestion for shock mitigation that turned out to be an enhancement of the impinging shock wave was the idea to cover a protected object with a foam layer. While the pressure behind the reflected shock wave from the foam frontal surface was smaller than that recorded in a similar reflection from a rigid wall [25], the pressure on the “protected” surface, attached to the foam's rear-surface, was significantly higher than that recorded in a similar reflection from a bare, rigid wall [11]. In protecting humans and installations from destructive shock and/or blast waves the prime goal is to reduce the wave amplitude and the rate of pressure increase across the wave front. Both measures result in reducing the wave harmful effects. During the past six decades several approaches for achieving the desired protection have been offered in the open literature. We point out in this review that while some of the suggestions offered are practical, others are impractical. In our discussion we focus on recent schemes for shock/blast wave attenuation, characterized by the availability of reliable measurements (notably pressure and optical diagnostics) as well as high-resolution numerical simulations.

  3. Gene pyramiding enhances durable blast disease resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Shuichi; Saka, Norikuni; Mizukami, Yuko; Koga, Hironori; Yamanouchi, Utako; Yoshioka, Yosuke; Hayashi, Nagao; Ebana, Kaworu; Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Yano, Masahiro

    2015-01-14

    Effective control of blast, a devastating fungal disease of rice, would increase and stabilize worldwide food production. Resistance mediated by quantitative trait loci (QTLs), which usually have smaller individual effects than R-genes but confer broad-spectrum or non-race-specific resistance, is a promising alternative to less durable race-specific resistance for crop improvement, yet evidence that validates the impact of QTL combinations (pyramids) on the durability of plant disease resistance has been lacking. Here, we developed near-isogenic experimental lines representing all possible combinations of four QTL alleles from a durably resistant cultivar. These lines enabled us to evaluate the QTLs singly and in combination in a homogeneous genetic background. We present evidence that pyramiding QTL alleles, each controlling a different response to M. oryzae, confers strong, non-race-specific, environmentally stable resistance to blast disease. Our results suggest that this robust defence system provides durable resistance, thus avoiding an evolutionary "arms race" between a crop and its pathogen.

  4. A case study of blast eye injury at work place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Srinivasapuram Krishnacharya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This case report aims at investigating whether two consecutive surgical settings would be beneficial in achieving postoperative success for the patient with blast eye injury. A 45-year-old male patient admitted on 17 th October 2011 with history of blast eye injury. Right eye examination revealed central corneal laceration with incarceration of lens matter, multiple foreign bodies also seen embedded in the eyelid margins and in the left cornea. Computed ocular tomography showed a retained intraocular foreign body (IOFB in the right eye. Simultaneous corneal laceration repair and extraction of the ruptured lens performed as primary procedure under general anesthesia. Intraoperative posterior capsule loss was noticed with vitreous presentation. Anterior vitrectomy with removal of the IOFB was done. Foreign bodies were also removed from the left cornea. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK with scleral fixated intraocular lens implantation executed 4 months later as secondary procedure. Visual acuity maintained at 6/24 in 2 years follow-up. In conclusion, two consecutive surgical settings has the advantage of calculating the intra ocular lens power.

  5. Structural dynamic and resistance to nuclear air blast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    A need exists to design protective shelters attached to specialized facilities against nuclear airbursts, explosive shocks and impacting projectiles. Designing such structures against nuclear and missile impact is a challenging task that needs to be looked into for design methodology formulation and practicability. Structures can be designed for overpressure pulsed generated by a nuclear explosion as well as the scabbing and perforation/punching of an impacting projectile. This paper discuses and formulates the methods of dynamic analysis and design required to undertake such a task. Structural resistance to peak overpressure pulse for a 20 KT weapons and smaller tactical nuclear weapons of 1 KT (16 psi, overpressure) size as a direct air blast overpressure has been considered in design of walls, beams and slabs of a special structure under review. The design of shear reinforcement as lacing is also carried out. Adopting the philosophy of strengthening and hardening can minimize the effect of air blast overpressure and projectile impact. The objective is to avoid a major structural failure. The structure then needs to be checked against ballistic penetration by a range of weapons or be required to resist explosive penetration from the charge detonated in contact with the structure. There is also a dire need to formulate protective guidelines for all existing and future critical facilities. (author)

  6. The bone marrow microenvironment - Home of the leukemic blasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafat, Manar S; Gnaneswaran, Bruno; Bowles, Kristian M; Rushworth, Stuart A

    2017-09-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) is a genetically, biologically and clinically heterogeneous set of diseases, which are characterised by an increased growth of abnormal myeloid progenitor cells within the bone marrow (BM). Ex-vivo AML exhibits a high level of spontaneous apoptosis. Furthermore, relapse for patients achieving remission occurs from minimal residual disease harboured within the BM microenvironment. Taken together, these observations illustrate the importance of the BM microenvironment in sustaining AML. While significant progress has been made elaborating the small-scale genetic mutations and larger-scale chromosomal translocations that contribute to the development of AML and its prognosis in response to treatment, less is understood about the complex microenvironment of the BM, which is known to be a key player in the pathogenesis of the disease. As we look towards future therapies, the consideration that the BM microenvironment is uniquely important as a niche for AML - coupled with the idea that leukaemic blasts are more likely to be genetically unstable and therefore evolve resistance to conventional chemotherapies - make the functions of the non-malignant cells of the BM attractive targets for therapy. In this review, we discuss the microanatomy of the BM and provide an overview of the evidence supporting the role of the BM microenvironment in creating conditions conducive to the survival and proliferation of AML blasts. Ultimately, we examine the therapeutic potential of uncoupling AML from the BM microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of blast furnace gas flow speed on dust deposition characteristics in butterfly valve region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The blast furnace gas contains plenty of dust, which deposits easily on the bottom of seat sealing surface of the tri-eccentric butterfly valve in the pipeline, causing stuck and damage to the valve plate, thereby affects the production of the blast furnace and brings great economic loss. To derive the influence mechanism of effects of the blast furnace gas flow speed within the pipeline on the dust deposition laws in the butterfly valve region, a 3D model of the butterfly valve and its regional flow field is built with Pro/E software. Based on FLUENT module of ANSYS Workbench, along with standard k-ε turbulence model and DPM model, simulation analysis of moving trajectories of dust particles in butterfly valve region under 3 blast furnace gas flow speeds is conducted. Results show that the deposition mass of dust particles decreases firstly, then increases with the enlargement of valve plate opening angle under the blast furnace gas flow speed of 8 m/s, while decreases with the enlargement of valve plate opening under the blast furnace gas flow speeds of 12 m/s and 16 m/s. In the case of the valve plate opening angle of 15°, the deposition rate of dust particles increases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed, while decreases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed under the cases of valve plate opening angle of 45° and 75°. The research results provide a theoretical reference for the development of automatic dust removal system in the butterfly valve region of the blast furnace gas pipeline.

  8. Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

  9. Blast shock wave mitigation using the hydraulic energy redirection and release technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    Full Text Available A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel.

  10. Blast shock wave mitigation using the hydraulic energy redirection and release technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel.

  11. Blast from the Past Gives Clues About Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope have gained tantalizing insights into the nature of the most distant object ever observed in the Universe -- a gigantic stellar explosion known as a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB). The explosion was detected on April 23 by NASA's Swift satellite, and scientists soon realized that it was more than 13 billion light-years from Earth. It represents an event that occurred 630 million years after the Big Bang, when the Universe was only four percent of its current age of 13.7 billion years. This explosion provides an unprecedented look at an era when the Universe was very young and also was undergoing drastic changes. The primal cosmic darkness was being pierced by the light of the first stars and the first galaxies were beginning to form. The star that exploded in this event was a member of one of these earliest generations of stars," said Dale Frail of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Astronomers turned telescopes from around the world to study the blast, dubbed GRB 090423. The VLA first looked for the object the day after the discovery, detected the first radio waves from the blast a week later, then recorded changes in the object until it faded from view more than two months later. "It's important to study these explosions with many kinds of telescopes. Our research team combined data from the VLA with data from X-ray and infrared telescopes to piece together some of the physical conditions of the blast," said Derek Fox of Pennsylvania State University. "The result is a unique look into the very early Universe that we couldn't have gotten any other way," he added. The scientists concluded that the explosion was more energetic than most GRBs, was a nearly-spherical blast, and that it expanded into a tenuous and relatively uniform gaseous medium surrounding the star. Astronomers suspect that the very first stars in the Universe were very different -- brighter, hotter, and more

  12. Aespoe HRL. Experiences of blasting of the TASQ tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Mats [Swebrec, Luleaa (Sweden); Niklasson, Bengt [Skanska Teknik, Stockholm (Sweden); Wilson, Lasse [Skanska Stora Projekt, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    A new tunnel was developed at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (AHRL) during the spring and summer 2003. The tunnel was specially designed for a rock mechanics experiment, the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). In this pillar experiment there was a high demand to initiate high in-situ stresses and therefore the tunnel was designed with a large height/ width ratio and with a circular floor. There were high requirements on bore hole precision and of a minimized EDZ (Excavation damaged zone) in the pillar area. This included a maximum borehole deviation of 10 mm/m, a maximum overbreak due to the lookout angle of 0.3 m and an EDZ of 0.3 m. To make a charge control feasible cartridged explosives was prescribed. The initiation was made with Nonel. The last three rounds used electronic initiation to enable studies of possibility to further reduce the EDZ. The collar of the tunnel was very close to installations and shaft and it was very important to avoid fly-rock and vibrations. Special types of stemming were used as well as steel plates and rubber mats. The excavation works was divided in three different phases. The first phase of the tunnel was an ordinary 26 m{sup 2} tunnel. After approximately 30 m a ramp separated the tunnel section into a top heading and a bench, total 33 m{sup 2}. After the last top heading round was excavated and the roof had been reinforced with fibre reinforced shotcrete the bench was taken out with horizontal holes as the third phase. The drilling precision was very good and 95% of all half-pipes fulfilled the demands. The total amount of visible half-pipes in the APSE-tunnel was high and indicated a successful smooth blasting. The EDZ was examined further by cutting slots in the wall and roof. Existing cracks appear very clearly when a dye penetrant is sprayed on the cleaned surface. A typical crack pattern consists of blast cracks, induced cracks (cracks from the distressing caused by blasting) and natural cracks. The maximum crack

  13. Smoothwall blasting planned for the underground research facility at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, R.L.; McKenzie, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses whether or not the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) at yucca Mountain, Nevada will be completely mechanically excavated, completely developed by drilling and blasting or whether both methods will be utilized on different parts of the ESF. Where drilling and blasting may be used, smoothwall blasting techniques will be used and strict controls will be placed on drill hole placement and alignment, and the correct use of limiting damage explosive, so that minimum amount of fracturing will occur beyond the perimeter of the openings. The authors discuss why this is necessary and how it is achievable

  14. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    Papers of interest to the coal industry include: death of a coal shovel; deep hole blasting with SMS (site-mix slurry system); trend of bulk explosives in India; bottomhole annular pressure - a theoretical problem with real effects; maximizing rotary blast hole drills; explosive energy concept for drill productivity and higher overall productivity at reduced excavation costs; large diameter presplitting improved through two novel techniques; avoiding tragedy - lessons to be learned from a flyrock fatality; and an economic analysis of cast blasting compared to other stripping alternatives.

  15. Camouflet blasting in water. The role of damping additives in the formation process of a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalov, V.A.; Kotov, V.A.; Orekin, U.K.; Panov, N.V.; Telegin, G.F.; Trunin, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Results are given from an X-ray analysis of the formation of a camouflet cavity in water during blasting using chemical explosives. Variations on combined blasting are examined together with variations for blasting schemes when layers made from less dense materials-water and polystyrene foam (is approximately equal to .5 grams per cubic centimeter)-are placed between the explosive charges and the water. It is demonstrated that the calculation model of the medium choosen describes with sufficient accuracy the entire aggragate of experimental data.

  16. Study of TATP: blast characteristics and TNT equivalency of small charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachman, J.; Matyáš, R.; Künzel, M.

    2014-07-01

    Blast wave parameters including incident overpressure, impulse and duration of the positive phase of the incident blast wave and its time of arrival were experimentally determined for 50 g charges of low bulk density () dry TATP (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane). The results were compared with published TNT data, and TNT equivalencies were determined, resulting in the values of 70 % based on overpressure and 55 % based on impulse of the positive phase of the blast wave. Brisance by the Hess method (lead cylinder compression) was found to be about one-third of that for TNT (at density . Detonation velocities averaged around

  17. Blast exposure causes early and persistent aberrant phospho- and cleaved-tau expression in a murine model of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bertrand R; Meabon, James S; Martin, Tobin J; Mourad, Pierre D; Bennett, Raymond; Kraemer, Brian C; Cernak, Ibolja; Petrie, Eric C; Emery, Michael J; Swenson, Erik R; Mayer, Cynthia; Mehic, Edin; Peskind, Elaine R; Cook, David G

    2013-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is considered the 'signature injury' of combat veterans that have served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This prevalence of mTBI is due in part to the common exposure to high explosive blasts in combat zones. In addition to the threats of blunt impact trauma caused by flying objects and the head itself being propelled against objects, the primary blast overpressure (BOP) generated by high explosives is capable of injuring the brain. Compared to other means of causing TBI, the pathophysiology of mild-to-moderate BOP is less well understood. To study the consequences of BOP exposure in mice, we employed a well-established approach using a compressed gas-driven shock tube that recapitulates battlefield-relevant open-field BOP. We found that 24 hours post-blast a single mild BOP provoked elevation of multiple phospho- and cleaved-tau species in neurons, as well as elevating manganese superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) levels, a cellular response to oxidative stress. In hippocampus, aberrant tau species persisted for at least 30 days post-exposure, while SOD2 levels returned to sham control levels. These findings suggest that elevated phospho- and cleaved-tau species may be among the initiating pathologic processes induced by mild blast exposure. These findings may have important implications for efforts to prevent blast-induced insults to the brain from progressing into long-term neurodegenerative disease processes.

  18. Blast mines: physics, injury mechanisms and vehicle protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, A; Hill, A M; Hepper, A E; Bull, A M J; Clasper, J C

    2009-12-01

    Since World War II, more vehicles have been lost to land mines than all other threats combined. Anti-vehicular (AV) mines are capable of disabling a heavy vehicle, or completely destroying a lighter vehicle. The most common form of AV mine is the blast mine, which uses a large amount of explosive to directly damage the target. In a conventional military setting, landmines are used as a defensive force-multiplier and to restrict the movements of the opposing force. They are relatively cheap to purchase and easy to acquire, hence landmines are also potent weapons in the insurgents' armamentarium. The stand-offnature of its design has allowed insurgents to cause significant injuries to security forces in current conflicts with little personal risk. As a result, AV mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) have become the most common cause of death and injury to Coalition and local security forces operating in Iraq and Afghanistan. Detonation of an AV mine causes an explosive, exothermic reaction which results in the formation of a shockwave followed by a rapid expansion of gases. The shockwave is mainly reflected by the soillair interface and fractures the soil cap overthe mine. The detonation products then vent through the voids in the soil, resulting in a hollow inverse cone which consists of the detonation gases surrounded by the soil ejecta. It is the combination of the detonation products and soil ejecta that interact with the target vehicle and cause injury to the vehicle occupants. A number of different strategies are required to mitigate the blast effects of an explosion. Primary blast effects can be reduced by increasing the standoff distance between the seat of the explosion and the crew compartment. Enhancement of armour on the base of the vehicle, as well as improvements in personal protection can prevent penetration of fragments. Mitigating tertiary effects can be achieved by altering the vehicle geometry and structure, increasing vehicle mass, as

  19. BLAST Ring Image Generator (BRIG: simple prokaryote genome comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatson Scott A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualisation of genome comparisons is invaluable for helping to determine genotypic differences between closely related prokaryotes. New visualisation and abstraction methods are required in order to improve the validation, interpretation and communication of genome sequence information; especially with the increasing amount of data arising from next-generation sequencing projects. Visualising a prokaryote genome as a circular image has become a powerful means of displaying informative comparisons of one genome to a number of others. Several programs, imaging libraries and internet resources already exist for this purpose, however, most are either limited in the number of comparisons they can show, are unable to adequately utilise draft genome sequence data, or require a knowledge of command-line scripting for implementation. Currently, there is no freely available desktop application that enables users to rapidly visualise comparisons between hundreds of draft or complete genomes in a single image. Results BLAST Ring Image Generator (BRIG can generate images that show multiple prokaryote genome comparisons, without an arbitrary limit on the number of genomes compared. The output image shows similarity between a central reference sequence and other sequences as a set of concentric rings, where BLAST matches are coloured on a sliding scale indicating a defined percentage identity. Images can also include draft genome assembly information to show read coverage, assembly breakpoints and collapsed repeats. In addition, BRIG supports the mapping of unassembled sequencing reads against one or more central reference sequences. Many types of custom data and annotations can be shown using BRIG, making it a versatile approach for visualising a range of genomic comparison data. BRIG is readily accessible to any user, as it assumes no specialist computational knowledge and will perform all required file parsing and BLAST comparisons

  20. RESEARCH AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF DRILLING AND BLASTING TECHNOLOGY PENETRATIONS OF VERTICAL SHAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Rubleva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The model of destruction of rocks by explosion in vertical shafts is presented. On its basis the most important parameters of technical-and-economical indices of the drilling-and-blasting technology are calculated.

  1. Full scale numerical analysis of high performance concrete columns designed to withstand severe blast impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Benjamin; Georgakis, Christos; Stang, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Polymer reinforced Compact Reinforced Composite, PCRC, is a Fiber reinforced Densified Small Particle system, FDSP, combined with a high strength longitudinal flexural rebar arrangement laced together with polymer lacing to avoid shock initiated disintegration of the structural element under blast...

  2. A PC-Based Tool for Coupled CFD and CSD Simulation of Blast-Barrier Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Zen; Bewick, Bryan; Salim, Hani A; Kiger, Sam A; Dinan, Robert J; Hu, Wenquin

    2006-01-01

    ... for predicting the responses of a blast barrier. An axisymmetrical model is formulated using a coupled CFD and CSD simulation procedure designed via the Material Point Method in spatial discretization...

  3. An alternative method for the measurement of the mechanical impulse of a vertically directed blast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, GR

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for the measurement of the total mechanical impulse of a vertically directed blast due to an explosive charge is presented. The method differs from apparatus that employ a vertically displaced mass (similar in principle...

  4. A numerical model for blast injury of human thorax based on digitized visible human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Fang; Kuang, Jiang-Ming; Nie, Si-Bing; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Jin; Liu, Yi-He

    2017-12-04

    Knowledge of the pressure distribution around human thorax in blast help to understand the injury mechanisms and their assessment. To investigate the transmission mechanism of the pressure on human thorax in blast, a three dimension surface model of human thorax was constructed in this work. To increase the precious of this model, tetrahedron element division method was applied to transfer the rough 3D surface model to hexahedral elements model. Using this model, the high pressure duration was computationally solved using numerical simulation of the hexahedral elements. Simulation results showed that the apex of lungs was subjected to the largest stress in a blast. In order to verify this result, an animal experiment was performed on a dog. The animal experimental results was shown to have a same variation tendency with the calculation results based on our numerical model of human thorax, which made this model reliable for the blast injury research.

  5. Novel method to dynamically load cells in 3D-hydrogels culture for blast injury studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sory, David R.; Areias, Anabela C.; Overby, Darryl R.; Proud, William G.

    2017-01-01

    For at least a century explosive devices have been one of the most important causes of injuries in military conflicts as well as in terrorist attacks. Although significant experimental and modelling efforts have been focussed on blast injuries at the organ or tissue level, few studies have investigated the mechanisms of blast injuries at the cellular level. This paper introduces an in vitro method compatible with living cells to examine the effects of high stress and short-duration pulses relevant to blast loadings and blunt trauma. The experimental phase involves high strain-rate axial compression of cylindrical specimens within an hermetically sealed chamber made of biocompatible polymer. Numerical simulations were performed in order to verify the experimental loading conditions and to characterize the loading path within the sample. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding blast injury at the cellular level.

  6. The Mechanism and Application of Deep-Hole Precracking Blasting on Rockburst Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Ouyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of preventing rockburst through deep-hole precracking blasting was studied based on experimental test, numerical simulation, and field testing. The study results indicate that the deep-hole precracking could change the bursting proneness and stress state of coal-rock mass, thereby preventing the occurrence of rockburst. The bursting proneness of the whole composite structure could be weakened by the deep-hole precracking blasting. The change of stress state in the process of precracking blasting is achieved in two ways: (1 artificially break the roof apart, thus weakening the continuity of the roof strata, effectively inducing the roof caving while reducing its impact strength; and (2 the dynamic shattering and air pressure generated by the blasting can structurally change the properties of the coal-rock mass by mitigating the high stress generation and high elastic energy accumulation, thus breaking the conditions of energy transfer and rock burst occurrence.

  7. Hot metal temperature prediction and simulation by fuzzy logic in a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M. A.; Jimenez, J.; Mochon, J.; Formoso, A.; Bueno, F.; Menendez, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    This work describes the development and further validation of a model devoted to blast furnace hot metal temperature forecast, based on Fuzzy logic principles. The model employs as input variables, the control variables of an actual blast furnace: Blast volume, moisture, coal injection, oxygen addition, etc. and it yields as a result the hot metal temperature with a forecast horizon of forty minutes. As far as the variables used to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by an actual blast furnaces sensors, it is necessary to properly analyse and handle such data. Especial attention was paid to data temporal correlation, fitting by interpolation the different sampling rates. In the training stage of the model the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) and the Subtractive Clustering algorithms have been used. (Author) 9 refs

  8. Measurements of seismic vibrations induced by Quarry blasts at the Mostecká basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk

    -, č. 271 (2006), s. 49-58 ISSN 0372-9508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : seismic vibration * slope stability * quarry blast Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  9. Blasting methods for heterogeneous rocks in hillside open-pit mines with high and steep slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.; Chang, Z. G.; Chao, X. H.; Zhao, J. F.

    2017-06-01

    In the arid desert areas in Xinjiang, most limestone quarries are hillside open-pit mines (OPMs) where the limestone is hard, heterogeneous, and fractured, and can be easily broken into large blocks by blasting. This study tried to find effective technical methods for blasting heterogeneous rocks in such quarries based on an investigation into existing problems encountered in actual mining at Hongshun Limestone Quarry in Xinjiang. This study provided blasting schemes for hillside OPMs with different heights and slopes. These schemes involve the use of vertical deep holes, oblique shallow holes, and downslope hole-by-hole sublevel or simultaneous detonation techniques. In each bench, the detonations of holes in a detonation unit occur at intervals of 25-50 milliseconds. The research findings can offer technical guidance on how to blast heterogeneous rocks in hillside limestone quarries.

  10. Genetic diversity for sustainable rice blast management in China: adoption and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revilla-Molina, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Disease management, genetic diversity, rice interplanting, competition, resource complementarity, technical efficiency, production function, Magnaporthe grisea

    The experience on rice blast in Yunnan Province, China, is one of the most successful and widely publicized examples

  11. Manual for the prediction of blast and fragment loadings on structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide Architect-Engineer (AE) firms guidance for the prediction of air blast, ground shock and fragment loadings on structures as a result of accidental explosions in or near these structures. Information in this manual is the result of an extensive literature survey and data gathering effort, supplemented by some original analytical studies on various aspects of blast phenomena. Many prediction equations and graphs are presented, accompanied by numerous example problems illustrating their use. The manual is complementary to existing structural design manuals and is intended to reflect the current state-of-the-art in prediction of blast and fragment loads for accidental explosions of high explosives at the Pantex Plant. In some instances, particularly for explosions within blast-resistant structures of complex geometry, rational estimation of these loads is beyond the current state-of-the-art.

  12. Assessment of Mechanical Damage to Odontocete Respiratory Tract Tissues After Controlled Exposure to Blasting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reidenberg, Joy

    2004-01-01

    The odontocete respiratory tract is adapted to withstand the gradual pressure changes associated with diving, yet nothing is known about how it responds to the sudden pressure changes of a blast exposure...

  13. Development of Mine Blast Protected Vehicle Structures for Future Combat Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skaggs, Reed; Cheeseman, Bryan; Yen, Chian-Fong; Dooley, Robert; Boyd, Kevin; Walsh, Shawn; Campbell, Jim; Hoppel, Chris; Goetz, Richard

    2004-01-01

    ... blast underneath its structure. By developing structural and applique technologies, along with decoupled/shock-limiting restraint systems for the crew, the impulsive forces can be managed for crew survivability...

  14. Binding of iodinated recombinant human GM-CSF to the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, C.A.; Wong, G.G.; Clark, S.C.; Schendel, P.F.; Minden, M.D.; McCulloch, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is an effective growth factor for the blasts of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). Radioiodinated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-cell derived GM-CSF was prepared using Bolton-Hunter reagent to label free amino groups on the protein. Normal human neutrophils and the blast cells from AML patients were examined for binding. We found that there were fewer receptors of higher affinity on blast cells compared with neutrophils. After brief culture in suspension, receptor number increased and affinity decreased. Experiments provided evidence that GM-CSF from Escherichia coli had a higher affinity for neutrophils (kd = 20 pM) than the CHO-cell derived protein (kd = 500 pM-1 nM). This difference was reflected in the increased effectiveness of the E. coli protein over the CHO protein to stimulate colony formation in both normal bone marrow cells and AML blasts

  15. Clinical impact of leukemic blast heterogeneity at diagnosis in cytogenetic intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Marianne Hutchings; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Boegsted, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Individual cellular heterogeneity within the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) bone marrow samples can be observed by multi parametric flow cytometry analysis (MFC) indicating that immunophenotypic screening for leukemic blast subsets may have prognostic impact....

  16. Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

    1982-04-30

    A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

  17. Application and Development of an Environmentally Friendly Blast Hole Plug for Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling and blasting technology is one of the main methods for pressure relief in deep mining. The traditional method for blasting hole blockage with clay stemming has many problems, which include a large volume of transportation, excess loading time, and high labor intensity. An environmentally friendly blast hole plug was designed and developed. This method is cheap, closely blocks the hole, is quickly loaded, and is convenient for transportation. The impact test on the plug was carried out using an improved split Hopkinson pressure bar test system, and the industrial test was carried out in underground tunnel of coal mine. The tests results showed that, compared with clay stemming, the new method proposed in this paper could prolong the action time of the detonation gas, prevent premature detonation gas emissions, reduce the unit consumption of explosives, improve the utilization ratio, reduce the labor intensity of workers, and improve the effect of rock blasting with low cost of rock breaking.

  18. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  19. Modelling the behaviour of composite sandwich structures when subject to air-blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Arora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP sandwich structures (1.6 m x 1.3 m were subject to explosive air blast (100 kg TNT equivalent at stand-off distances of 14 m. Digital image correlation (DIC was used to obtain full-field data for the rear-face of each deforming target. A steel plate of comparable mass per unit area was also subjected to the same blast conditions for comparison. The experimental data was then verified with finite element models generated in Abaqus/Explicit. Close agreement was obtained between the numerical and experimental results, confirming that the CFRP panels had a superior blast performance to the GFRP panels. Moreover all composite targets sustained localised failures (that were more severe in the GFRP targets but retained their original shape post blast. The rear-skins remained intact for each composite target with core shear failure present.

  20. Numerical investigation of particle-blast interaction during explosive dispersal of liquids and granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Q.; Lhoumeau, M.; Milne, A. M.; Longbottom, A. W.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    Experiments show that when a high-explosive charge with embedded particles or a charge surrounded by a layer of liquid or granular material is detonated, the flow generated is perturbed by the motion of the particles and the blast wave profile differs from that of an ideal Friedlander form. Initially, the blast wave overpressure is reduced due to the energy dissipation resulting from compaction, fragmentation, and heating of the particle bed, and acceleration of the material. However, as the blast wave propagates, particle-flow interactions collectively serve to reduce the rate of decay of the peak blast wave overpressure. Computations carried out with a multiphase hydrocode reproduce the general trends observed experimentally and highlight the transition between the particle acceleration/deceleration phases, which is not accessible experimentally, since the particles are obscured by the detonation products. The dependence of the particle-blast interaction and the blast mitigation effectiveness on the mitigant to explosive mass ratio, the particle size, and the initial solid volume fraction is investigated systematically. The reduction in peak blast overpressure is, as in experiments, primarily dependent on the mass ratio of material to explosive, with the particle size, density, and initial porosity of the particle bed playing secondary roles. In the near field, the blast overpressure decreases sharply with distance as the particles are accelerated by the flow. When the particles decelerate due to drag, energy is returned to the flow and the peak blast overpressure recovers and reaches values similar to that of a bare explosive charge for low mass ratios. Time-distance trajectory plots of the particle and blast wave motion with the pressure field superimposed, illustrate the weak pressure waves generated by the motion of the particle layer which travel upstream and perturb the blast wave motion. Computation of the particle and gas momentum flux in the multiphase

  1. FEATURES OF DRILLING-AND-BLASTING AT CONSTRUCTION OF BESKIDSKIY TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this article it is necessary to analyze the possibility of developing technology and increasing its efficiency during the Beskidskiy tunnel construction in difficult engineering and geological conditions. Methodology. The authors have performed analysis of the technological level of mining and construction works, new technique, equipment and production. One of the important issues of blasting operation is to ensure the seismic safety, acting at a distance of 30 m in the axes of single-track tunnel, as the distance to it will be 20 m from the nearest charge in the laying tunnel. This problem was solved by applying the combined blasting of blast-hole charges with delay-action and long-delay ways. Herewith the total mass of charges in the stope was divided into three groups, in which the first group is exploded by short-delay firing with, and the second one is exploded by short-delay firing too with intervals of 200…400 ms, the third is exploded by long-delay blasting at intervals of 500…10000 ms. The combined blasting of short-delay charges and delay action ones let significantly reduce seismic action at a mass explosion of charges when driving of double-track railway tunnel of a large cross-section. Findings. The paper presents the developed technology model, describing dependence of the machines from engineering and geological conditions. The methodology of drilling and blasting works at the construction of the tunnel callote and stross as well as a technique of arrangement determination and intervals of shot-delay and delay blasting of blasthole explosive charges was developed. Maximum permissible concentration of gases and vapours at blasting was presented. The calculations showed that the maximum level of gas contamination of the working area in Beskidskiy tunnel is achieved at blast operations. In accordance with this ventilation of the tunnel when driving is carried out by independent systems with mechanical ventilation by

  2. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given.

  3. Influence of thermal charge preparation on coke comminution under blast-furnace operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-09-01

    Reactions of coke in the blast furnace are determined mainly by the nature of the coke itself which depends on the coal properties, its preparation and the coking conditions. In the blast furnace the coke reacts with alkali and alkaline earth metals in the burden. Preheated coal charges were found to absorb far less sodium and potassium carbonates than a conventional moist charge over an equivalent period, due to the smaller pore volume available.

  4. The design of system for operative planning of blast furnace production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malindžák Dušan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A system for operative planning of blast furnace production process is described in the paper. The suggested system is based on the use of a new hierarchy of operative plans, consisting of one-month plan, (7+3 days plan, and 24-hour plan. The system allows smoothing of production process at the blast furnace plant, and at the same time satisfies all requirements of the steel plant regarding to the amount of pig iron.

  5. Computational Model of the Eye for Primary and Secondary Blast Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    projected from the fireworks during explosion. Risk of severe, physiological ocular damage was found to be less than 0.01% in this study [16]. Sherwood et al...pressure blasts from fireworks and gunpowder charges on human cadaver eyes but reported chances of only minor corneal abrasion due to material...element model for blast loading on human eye, which used the pressure on the eye obtained as a function of mass of TNT charge and its distance from the

  6. Microstructural Consequences of Blast Lung Injury Characterized with Digital Volume Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Arora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on microstructural changes that occur within the mammalian lung when subject to blast and how these changes influence strain distributions within the tissue. Shock tube experiments were performed to generate the blast injured specimens (cadaveric Sprague-Dawley rats. Blast overpressures of 100 and 180 kPa were studied. Synchrotron tomography imaging was used to capture volumetric image data of lungs. Specimens were ventilated using a custom-built system to study multiple inflation pressures during each tomography scan. These data enabled the first digital volume correlation (DVC measurements in lung tissue to be performed. Quantitative analysis was performed to describe the damaged architecture of the lung. No clear changes in the microstructure of the tissue morphology were observed due to controlled low- to moderate-level blast exposure. However, significant focal sites of injury were observed using DVC, which allowed the detection of bias and concentration in the patterns of strain level. Morphological analysis corroborated the findings, illustrating that the focal damage caused by a blast can give rise to diffuse influence across the tissue. It is important to characterize the non-instantly fatal doses of blast, given the transient nature of blast lung in the clinical setting. This research has highlighted the need for better understanding of focal injury and its zone of influence (alveolar interdependency and neighboring tissue burden as a result of focal injury. DVC techniques show great promise as a tool to advance this endeavor, providing a new perspective on lung mechanics after blast.

  7. Advanced Functionally Graded Plate-Type Structures Impacted By Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    at the outer surfaces of the plate and tending toward full metal at the mid-surface UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release 3. Types of FGM ...Advanced Functionally Graded Plate -Type Structures Impacted By Blast Loading Terry Hause, Ph.D. Research Mechanical Engineer U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC...AND SUBTITLE Advanced Functionally Graded Plate -Type Structures Impacted By Blast Loading 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  8. The Dynamic Response of Multidirectional Functionally Graded Plates Impacted by Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-11

    Mechanical Engineering Science, 255 Part C (2010) 526-536. [4] X.Q. He, T.Y. Ng, S. Sivashanker, K.M. Liew, Active control of FGM plates with...release The Dynamic Response of Multidirectional Functionally Graded Plates Impacted by Blast Loading Terry Hausea, Ph.D. aResearch...functionally graded thin plates under an in-air blast loading from a Friedlander type pressure loading is presented. The theory is presented in the context

  9. Experimental, mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury : focus on the monoamine and galanin systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kawa, Lizan

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and morbidity among civilians and servicemen alike. The spectrum of TBIs encompasses mild to severe cases, with the predominate number of TBIs being mild (mTBI). Combat-related TBI inflicted by explosive blast (bTBI) is highly prevalent among military personnel. The injurious environment caused by explosive blast includes the high-energy shock wave that dissipates energy at the boundaries of anatomical structures with distinct acoust...

  10. Effects of repetitive low-level blast exposure on visual systems and ocular structures

    OpenAIRE

    José E. Capó-Aponte, OD, PhD; Gina M. Jurek; David V. Walsh, OD, PhD; Leonard A. Temme, PhD; William A. Ahroon, PhD; Daniel W. Riggs, MS

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether repetitive exposure to low-level blasts during military breacher training produces acute and cumulative damage to the ocular tissues or visual system. The effects of low-level blast exposure on high-contrast visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, oculomotor function, color vision, visual field (VF), pupillary light reflex, corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), macular thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and cup-to-disc ratio were ...

  11. Validating a Finite Element Model of a Structure Subjected to Mine Blast with Experimental Modal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    FE finite element MAC modal assurance criteria SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SDIC stereo-digital image correlation SLAD Survivability...ARL-TR-8224 ● NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Validating a Finite Element Model of a Structure Subjected to Mine Blast with...NOV 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Validating a Finite Element Model of a Structure Subjected to Mine Blast with Experimental Modal

  12. Dry Ice Blast Decontamination to in-service equipment in Japanese PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    MHI had developed several mechanical decontamination methods. Mechanical decontamination is beneficial when it is applied to equipment whose surface is narrow. Especially in terms of secondary waste reduction, MHI started the study of application of Dry Ice Blast Decontamination to actual PWR plant. This paper provides an introduction to Dry Ice Blast Decontamination principle, its system and actual application result to PWR plant. (J.P.N.)

  13. The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    ARL-CR-0822 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event...Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event prepared by Danielle Abell SURVICE...2. REPORT TYPE Contractor Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2016–September 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Material and Side

  14. Assessment and Treatment of Blast-Induced Auditory and Vestibular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hearing loss and balance disorders are widespread among OIF/OEF veterans as a result of blast...key military medical issue. The debilitating consequences of acute blast-induced auditory and vestibular disorders (e.g. hearing loss, tinnitus, and...persisted over several months (Fig. 1). Compared to sham controls at 28 days post exposure, significantly elevated ABR thresholds and decreased wave

  15. Literature survey of blast and fire effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitter, T.A.; McCallen, D.B.; Kang, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    The American literature of the past 30 years on fire and blast effects of nuclear weapons on urban areas has been surveyed. The relevant work is briefly sketched and areas where information is apparently lacking are noted. This report is intended to provide the basis for suggesting research priorities in the fire and blast effects area for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. It is also intended to provide entry into the literature for researchers. over 850 references are given

  16. Supernova blast wave within a stellar cluster outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J. C.; Raga, A. C.; Velázquez, P. F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Toledo-Roy, J. C.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we develop a semi-analytic model of a supernova which goes off in the centre of a stellar cluster. The supernova remnant interacts with a stratified, pre-existent outflow produced by the winds of the cluster stars. We compare our semi-analytic model with numerical simulations using the spherically symmetric Euler equations with appropriate mass and energy source terms. We find good agreement between these two approaches, and we find that for typical parameters the blast wave is likely to reach the Taylor-Sedov regime outside the cluster radius. We also calculate the predicted X-ray luminosity of the flow as a function of time, and we obtain its dependence on the outer radius and the number of stars of the cluster.

  17. Greener durable concretes through geopolymerisation of blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2015-05-01

    The eco-friendliness of concrete is quantified by parameters such as ‘embodied energy’ (EE) and ‘embodied CO2 emission’ (ECO2e), besides duration of designed ‘service life’. It may be noted that ECO2e is also referred as carbon footprint (CF) in the literature. Geopolymer (GP) is an inorganic polymeric gel, a type of amorphous alumino-silicate product, which can be synthesised by polycondensation reactions. The concrete reported in this paper was prepared using industrial wastes in the form of blast furnace slag, fly ash as geopolymeric source materials and sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide as activators. Many mechanical properties such as compressive strength, chloride diffusion, steel corrosion, rapid chloride permeability test and rapid migration test are compared with Portland cement.

  18. BLAF: A Blast Field Reconstruction Program from Pressure Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    ApRencix C) inis subroutine is called from tne main proqram for blast field nistory calculations and it is the most inmortant subroutine of that...51 S COR(4911.COR(1#41 104 CDR( 293)u DAT(6) S COR(3,2)=COR(2v3) COR2v4)-DATI7) S COR(4#2)&COR(2,’ el 60 COR(3p4)=DAT(8) S COR(4,93)=CORl3,v4) KCLsO...Cl2mO S C22=0 $ RSluO S RS2*0 KK=O DO 105 KCm1,NR 120 . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IF(DIST(KC) eLE *0.) GOTO 105 [F(ABS(P(KBPKCIJ.LT.1.E-30

  19. Management of chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saußele, S; Silver, Richard T

    2015-04-01

    Due to the high efficacy of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibition (TKI) in chronic phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the frequency of blast crisis (BC) is greatly reduced compared to the pre-TKI era. However, TKI treatment of BC has only marginally improved the number of favorable responses, including remissions, which for the most part have only been transitory. Occasionally, they provide a therapeutic window to perform an allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). The challenge remains to improve management of BC with the limited options available. We review and summarize articles pertaining to the treatment of BC CML published after 2002. Additionally, we will discuss whether there is a need for a new definition of BC and/or treatment failure.

  20. Implementation of Plastic Media Blasting (PMB) at US Army Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Corporation (Fort Worth, TX) NMER: New Mexico Engineering Research (Albuquerque, NM) AFWAL: Materials Laboratory Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (Dayton...aS*𔃿m~*.5r)f rI=im.I @ .A =ei -- ni 40M no I-1 C4 ~ In .I" i l -V -61 - 5inu,.. on o n*(f5 nini nmi not -P i’s% -IF* *P. -0s’ *7S* (5I r 1^o="ff r...lU~ EN M MT i4 PoeNM. I 184C TURCO PRODUCTS. INC. 9 7300 BOLSA AVENUE. WESTMINSTER. CALIFORNIA 92664-3000 * 7141890-300 TURCO BLAST MEDIA Plastic Media

  1. Blast/fire interactions: Asilomar conference, April 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.B.; Alger, R.S.

    1981-08-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the FEMA-sponsored conference on blast/fire research held April 20-24, 1981, at Asilomar, California. This conference, the fourth of our annual series, convened a select group of authorities on fire effects, airblast effects, structural responses, and related technologies to explore avenues of research for remedying the technical deficiencies that limit analytical progress and to seek means for providing interim guidance to mitigation planning and countermeasure implementation. A redirected R and D program (derived by consensus of conferee recommendations) that appears consistent with national priorities and the perceived urgency for increased national security is offered. Program elements are listed in priority order, and contingent levels of funding are provided to aid FEMA budgetary planning

  2. Analysis and Numerical Simulation on the Reduction Effect of Stress Waves Caused by Water Jet Slotting Near Blasting Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most serious “side effects” of blast excavation, blast-induced vibration must be controlled for existing buildings and human beings. This paper proposes a method for blast-induced vibration reduction with water jet assistance according to the cutting characters of low-noised, environment-friendly water jet. The mechanism of vibration-isolation with water jet assistance was analyzed, and the stress wave energy attenuation models were established based on blasting theory and stress wave theory. Influence law on shock wave attenuation by vibration-isolation slot was studied by numerical simulation. Simulation results agree with the theoretical analysis roughly. The results of this study put forward a method for blast-induced vibration near blasting source and provide a certain theoretical basis.

  3. Prediction of vibration level in tunnel blasting; Tonneru kusshin happa ni yotte reiki sareru shindo no reberu yosoku ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, A. [Kumamoto Industries Univ, Kumamoto (Japan); Yamamoto, M. [Asahi Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, C. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Kaneko, K. [Hokkaido Univ (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    For avoiding the generation of public hazard due to ground vibration causes by blasting in tunneling, it is important to devise a blasting method for ensuring the level of the ground vibration caused thereby under a limit, and an exact predication of ground vibration before blasting is desirable. In this study, the characteristics of the ground vibration caused by tunnel blasting are analyzed, and a summary of amplitude spectra calculating method is described. A theoretical analysis method for predicting the vibration level is proposed based on spectrum-multiplicative method. Vibration caused by multistage blasting in tunneling is most strong and deemed as important. When observing the process of elastic wave motion caused by multistage blasting being measured, the process can be divided into three element processes in frequency area as vibration source spectrum, transmission attenuation spectrum and frequency response function vibrating test, and, with the multiplication of them, the amplitude spectra at an observation portion can be estimated. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting: a new technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kotschy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Kotschy1, Sascha Virnik2, Doris Christ3, Alexander Gaggl21Private Practice, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Central Hospital, Klagenfurt, Austria; 3Klagenfurt, AustriaObjective: The aim of periodontal therapy is the healing of periodontal inflammation; the protection of the attachment and the alveolar bone; and the regeneration of the periodontal structures. In the therapy of periodontitis, supra- and subgingival scaling and root planing plays a main role. The procedure described combines perfect root cleaning without scaling and root planing and minimal invasive periodontal surgery without a scalpel.Material and methods: Glass beads of 90 µm were used with the kinetic preparation unit PrepStart® under a pressure of 0.5–5 bar. This technique was practised only under visual control using the OPMI® PRO Magis microscope. Seven examinations were carried out at baseline after 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months.Results: Time shows a statistically significant influence on all of the considered target variables (P < 0.0001 for all. As the according estimate is negative, probing depth decreases over time. The major decrease seems to be during the first 6 months. Considering probing depth, plaque on the main effect root shows significant influence (again, P < 0.0001 for all. Observations with high probing depth at the beginning were faster than those with low probing depth. The same characteristic appears by attachment level. Patients with more loss of attachment show more gain.Conclusions: Using microscope-controlled glass bead blasting results in a perfectly clean root surface using visual control (magnification 20×. Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting is therefore a good alternative to periodontal surgery.Keywords: periodontal therapy, microscope, periodontitis

  5. A laboratory study of explosives malfunction in blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsabanis, P.D.; Ghorbani, A. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Explosives malfunction due to shock waves is a serious concern for successful blasting results. Malfunction includes sympathetic detonation and desensitization of explosive charges as well as the modification of firing times of conventional pyrotechnic detonators. Small diameter emulsions and detonators were tested in a laboratory environment to identify the parameters affecting malfunction. The experiments had a donor-acceptor configuration and the charges were detonated in the same sequence. Continuous velocity of detonation monitoring was used as an indicator of explosives performance and for studying the timing of the initiation of the acceptor charge and/or detonator, while distance and delay interval between the donor and acceptor were modified. Fumes from the detonating charges were analyzed in a number of experiments while a few experiments were conducted in rock confinement. It was found that both distance and delay interval are important as far as desensitization is concerned. At certain separation distances temporary desensitization, followed by temporary recovery was observed. Toxicity of the product gases was affected by desensitization although this effect ranged from negligible to pronounced and was not consistent. In many cases desensitized explosives reacted completely as evidenced by the concentration of the fumes in the blasting chamber. Conventional pyrotechnic delay detonators malfunctioned due to a shock produced by a 40mm diameter emulsion explosive at similar distances as the explosives (below 203 mm). Furthermore the experiments in granite showed that 40 mm diameter charges can malfunction at separation distances below 330 mm. This malfunction ranged from sympathetic detonation to shock desensitization; in most cases it was associated with severe loss of performance.

  6. Reproduction of an animal model of landmine blast injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen ZHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce an animal model of landmine blast injuries for studying its mechanism and characteristics. Methods Fifteen healthy New Zealand white rabbits (body weight 1.9-2.4 kg were prepared as experimental animals. Punctiform burster was used to simulate the landmine, and it was electrically detonated far away to produce landmine blast injuries on unilateral hind limb of rabbits in upright state. The vital signs before and 5min, 15min, 30min, 45min, 1h, 2h, 3h, 6h, 9h and 12h after injuries were recorded. Autopsy of dead animals was performed immediately and the survivors were sacrificed for pathological examination 6h and 12h after the injury. Macroscopic and microscopic changes in the injured limb and distant organs were observed. Fifteen random adult body weights were generated by random number table, and the explosive energy of M14 landmine (about 29g TNT explosive energy was simulated, to compare the ratio of explosive force equivalent to weight calculated between experimental animals and randomly selected adults. Results No significant change in blood pressure was observed at different time points before and after injuries. A broom-like change was found in the injured limb by the general observation. The subareas and pathological changes of injured limb coincided with the typical limb injuries produced by landmine explosion. Damage in different degrees was found in distant organs, and the wound characteristics and injury of major organs were in accordance with the reports of relevant literature. The ratio of explosive equivalent to weight of experimental animals (0.50±0.04g TNT/kg was similar to that of randomly selected adults (0.51±0.05g TNT/kg. Conclusion The present animal model could simulate the landmine explosive injuries, and may be used in research of landmine explosive injuries. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.14

  7. The Hydrodynamics of Blast-Wave-Driven Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Aaron R.

    2010-05-01

    Supernova explosions are among the most dramatic in the universe. Type II supernovae follow core collapse of a massive star, while Type Ia supernovae are typically believed to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs that have accreted enough material to initiate carbon burning. In both cases, the explosion dynamics are complicated by hydrodynamic instabilities that make spherical symmetry impossible. Non-planar interactions of shocks with steep density gradients result in vorticity deposition that drives Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability growth. Deceleration of those same shock-accelerated interfaces drives the ubiquitous Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. These processes yield highly nonlinear structures that are further modified by shear-driven Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities, and provide elemental mixing on a wide range of scales. A broad spectrum of approaches can be applied to study the role of hydrodynamic mixing in SNe. These range from analytic treatments of the fundamental instability problems of classical RT and steady-shock RM, to complex (often multiphysics) computational and experimental systems, including numerical simulations of supernovae and laser-driven laboratory. Between these two extremes lies a third fundamental instability problem that is more relevant than either RT or RM in isolation and somewhat less complex than the full system. Namely, an idealized blast-wave-driven problem in which a localized source drives a divergent Taylor-Sedov blast wave that in turn drives a perturbed interface between heavier and lighter gamma-law fluids. Within this context, we use numerical simulations and simplified analytic models to consider the effect of the initial perturbation spectrum in determining the late-time asymptotic state of the mixing zone, the interaction of multiple unstable interfaces relevant to core-collapse supernovae, and the proximity of the forward shock to the developing instability. This work performed under the

  8. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

    Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

  9. Significance of special blasting modes for anti shock struggle at hydrothermal Pribram uranium ore deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenczel, J.

    1988-01-01

    Situations are presented which occur in connection with blasting jobs. Special blasting operations are described. In the Pribram uranium deposit two types of special blasting operations were tested. Conditions are described under which softening blasting was carried out. This type of work did not prove satisfactory in operation and is therefore not performed at the Pribram deposit. A theoretical analysis is made of shock distrubance blasting and the procedure of designing such projects, the placement of explosives and the determination of their size. Such blasting jobs have been tested in shock zones of vein node. The total weight of the explosive was 100 to 200 kg of Px V 19. In most cases a mine shock was initiated (in some cases with a delay of up to several dozen hours). The said method increases the technical safety of operation. At the Pribram deposit it is only used in cases of utmost necessity because its use increases costs and delays the procedure of mining work. (E.S.). 9 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  10. Two-dimensional explosion experiments examining the interaction between a blast wave and a sand hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Y.; Izumo, M.; Ando, H.; Matsuo, A.

    2018-02-01

    Two-dimensional explosion experiments were conducted to discuss the interaction between a blast wave and sand and show the mitigation effect of the sand on the blast wave. The explosive used was a detonating cord 1.0 m in length, which was initiated in a sand hill shaped like a triangular prism and whose cross section was an isosceles triangle with base angles of 30°. Sand-hill heights of 30 and 60 mm were used as parameters to discuss the effect of sand mass upon blast-wave strength. The interaction of the blast wave with the sand/air interface causes multiple peaks in the blast wave, which are induced by successive transmissions at the interface. The increase in the sand mass further mitigates the blast parameters of peak overpressure and positive impulse. The results of this experiment can be utilized to validate the numerical method of solving the problem of interaction between a compressible fluid and a particle layer.

  11. Finite Element Simulation of Medium-Range Blast Loading Using LS-DYNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the Finite Element simulation of blast loading using LS-DYNA. The objective is to identify approaches to reduce the requirement of computation effort while maintaining reasonable accuracy, focusing on blast loading scheme, element size, and its relationship with scale of explosion. The study made use of the recently developed blast loading scheme in LS-DYNA, which removes the necessity to model the explosive in the numerical models but still maintains the advantages of nonlinear fluid-structure interaction. It was found that the blast loading technique could significantly reduce the computation effort. It was also found that the initial density of air in the numerical model could be purposely increased to partially compensate the error induced by the use of relatively large air elements. Using the numerical approach, free air blast above a scaled distance of 0.4 m/kg1/3 was properly simulated, and the fluid-structure interaction at the same location could be properly duplicated using proper Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE coupling scheme. The study also showed that centrifuge technique, which has been successfully employed in model tests to investigate the blast effects, may be used when simulating the effect of medium- to large-scale explosion at small scaled distance.

  12. DNA tagging of blast resistant gene(s in three Brazilian rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Sandhu

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast is the most important fungal disease of rice and is caused by Pyricularia oryzae Sacc. (Telomorph Magnoporthe grisea Barr.. Seven randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers OPA5, OPG17, OPG18, OPG19, OPF9, OPF17 and OPF19 showed very clear polymorphism in resistant cultivar lines which differed from susceptible lines. By comparing different susceptible lines, nine DNA amplifications of seven primers (OPA5(1000, OPA5(1200, OPG17(700, OPG18(850, OPG19(500, OPG19(600, OPF9(600, OPF17(1200 and OPF19(600 were identified as dominant markers for the blast resistant gene in resistant cultivar lines. These loci facilitate the indirect scoring of blast resistant and blast susceptible genotypes. The codomine RAPDs markers will facilitate marker-assisted selection of the blast resistant gene in two blast resistant genotypes of rice (Labelle and Line 11 and will be useful in rice breeding programs.

  13. Terrorism and blast phenomena: lessons learned from the attack on the USS Cole (DDG67).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langworthy, Michael J; Sabra, John; Gould, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Blast phenomena and injuries to the musculoskeletal system have been well documented for the past 50 years. The USS Cole was attacked in Aden Harbor in Yemen on October 12, 2000. Seventeen sailors were killed and 39 were wounded. The bombing of the USS Cole and an analysis of the pattern of injury are unique compared with previous terrorist bombing attacks in which the predominant injury pattern is from Type II and Type III blast phenomena. Because the ship superstructure did not collapse, there were no confounding variables in examining the pattern of injury as there would have been with shrapnel-generating devices or detonations with subsequent building collapse. The morbidity and mortality sustained by the victims was almost exclusively from Type I and Type III blast effects. The musculoskeletal system was a clear marker for mortality and morbidity. Fractures of the cranium, spine, pelvis, and long bones denoted increasing severity of injury to critical organ systems. Shipboard firefighting was successful in containing fires and there was very little morbidity from inhalational injuries or burns. Blast phenomena that affect ships or buildings that have been specifically built to absorb a blast attack likely will manifest a different mode and pattern of injury than those seen in traditional terrorist blast events.

  14. A Small-Group Activity Introducing the Use and Interpretation of BLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Newell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As biological sequence data are generated at an ever increasing rate, the role of bioinformatics in biological research also grows. Students must be trained to complete and interpret bioinformatic searches to enable them to effectively utilize the trove of sequence data available. A key bioinformatic tool for sequence comparison and genome database searching is BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. BLAST identifies sequences in a database that are similar to the entered query sequence, and ranks them based on the length and quality of the alignment. Our goal was to introduce sophomore and junior level undergraduate students to the basic functions and uses of BLAST with a small group activity lasting a single class period. The activity provides students an opportunity to perform a BLAST search, interpret the data output, and use the data to make inferences about bacterial cell envelope structure. The activity consists of two parts. Part 1 is a handout to be completed prior to class, complete with video tutorial, that reviews cell envelope structure, introduces key terms, and allows students to familiarize themselves with the mechanics of a BLAST search. Part 2 consists of a hands-on, web-based small group activity to be completed during the class period. Evaluation of the activity through student performance assessments suggests that students who complete the activity can better interpret the BLAST output parameters % query coverage and % max identity. While the topic of the activity is bacterial cell wall structure, it could be adapted to address other biological concepts.

  15. Estimation of Blast Severity on Rye and Triticale Spikes by Digital Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Leodato Nunes Maciel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, more efficient methods are a necessity for evaluating blast severity on spikes in the breeding programs of rye, triticale, wheat, and barley. The objective of this work was to determine the feasibility of assessing blast severity based on the analysis of digital images of symptomatic rye and triticale spikes. Triticale and rye genotypes were grown to anthesis in pots and were then inoculated with a mixture of Magnaporthe oryzae isolates. Blast severity on the spikes was evaluated visually and after that the spikes were detached and photographed. Blast severity was determined using the program ImageJ to analyze the obtained images. Two methods of image analysis were used: selection of symptomatic areas using a mouse cursor (SCU and selection of symptomatic areas using image segmentation (SIS. The SCU method was considered the standard reference method for determining the true value of blast severity on spikes. An analysis of variance did not determine any difference among the evaluation methods. The coefficient of determination (R2 obtained from a linear regression analysis between the variables SIS and SCU was 0.615. The obtained data indicate that the evaluation of blast severity on spikes based on image segmentation is feasible and reliable.

  16. Dry ice blasting as a substitution for the conventional electroplating pre-treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhlmann Eckart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For high quality electroplated products, surfaces must be thoroughly pre-treated. For this purpose electroplating currently needs a variety of chemical baths. The used chemicals are injurious to health and harmful to the environment. In addition, the conventional pre-treatment has a long process time which results in high costs. Dry ice blasting alone or in combination with other processes has the potential to completely substitute these conventional pre-treatment processes. Three process sequences as pre-treatment methods prior to electroplating were investigated on the aluminium alloys AlSi12 and AlMg3. The used processes are dry ice blasting, tempering during dry ice blasting and glass bead blasting followed by dry ice blasting. The influence of the parameters on the surface roughness, surface topography and surface tension of the workpieces was examined. A model to describe the correlation between the dry ice blasting parameters and surface parameters was developed. Finally, an adhesion test of electroplated specimen was conducted in order to determine the suitability of these alternative pre-treatment processes.

  17. Computational modeling of blast wave interaction with a human body and assessment of traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X. G.; Przekwas, A. J.; Gupta, R. K.

    2017-11-01

    The modeling of human body biomechanics resulting from blast exposure poses great challenges because of the complex geometry and the substantial material heterogeneity. We developed a detailed human body finite element model representing both the geometry and the materials realistically. The model includes the detailed head (face, skull, brain and spinal cord), the neck, the skeleton, air cavities (lungs) and the tissues. Hence, it can be used to properly model the stress wave propagation in the human body subjected to blast loading. The blast loading on the human was generated from a simulated C4 explosion. We used the highly scalable solvers in the multi-physics code CoBi for both the blast simulation and the human body biomechanics. The meshes generated for these simulations are of good quality so that relatively large time-step sizes can be used without resorting to artificial time scaling treatments. The coupled gas dynamics and biomechanics solutions were validated against the shock tube test data. The human body models were used to conduct parametric simulations to find the biomechanical response and the brain injury mechanism due to blasts impacting the human body. Under the same blast loading condition, we showed the importance of inclusion of the whole body.

  18. Osteogenic differentiation of periosteum-derived stromal cells in blast-associated traumatic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sory, David R.; Amin, Harsh D.; Rankin, Sara M.; Proud, William G.

    2017-06-01

    One of the most recurrent medical complications resulting from blast trauma includes blast-induced heterotopic ossification. Heterotopic ossification refers to the pathologic formation of extraskeletal bone in non-osseous tissue. Although a number of studies have established the interaction between mechanics and biology in bone formation following shock trauma, the exact nature of the mechanical stimuli associated to blast-loading and their influence on the activation of osteogenic differentiation of cells remain unanswered. Here we present the design and calibration of a loading platform compatible with living cells to examine the effects of mechanical stress pulses of blast-associated varying strain rates on the activation of osteogenic differentiation of periosteum (PO) cells. Multiaxial compression loadings of PO cells are performed at different magnitudes of stress and ranges of strain rate. A proof of concept is presented so as to establish a new window to address fundamental questions regarding blast injuries at the cellular level. This work was conducted under the auspices of the Royal British Legion Centre for Blast Injury Studies at Imperial College London. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Royal British Legion.

  19. Assessment of blast effect open pit,”Ranci’’ of shock waves on constructed facilities and environment

    OpenAIRE

    Trajkovik, Slobodan; Lutovac, Suzana; Ravilik, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2013-01-01

    The blast effect problem of shock waves is growing in the area surrounding blasting activities. In addition to damage shock waves may cause on buildings and mining site facilities, they also impact badly human force there, namely the environment. Lately considerable research in the world has been dedicated to the examination and numeric modelling of this phenomenon. Specific standards have been established defining the blast effect margin level of shock waves on facilities and human force th...

  20. Assessment of impact on environment and constructed facilities owing to blasting at open pit mine "Nepričava"

    OpenAIRE

    Trajković, Slobodan; Lutovac, Suzana; Ravilić, Marina

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with problems related to adverse effects accompanying blast work. One of them is the occurrence of seismic effect and its impact on constructed facilities and the environment. There is a growing problem of shock waves caused by blasting in the vicinity of the blast site. In addition to possible damage to constructed and mine facilities, those shock waves affect, adversely, people in them, namely the environment. Lately considerable research in the world has been dedicated to ...

  1. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    assessing their own cognitive abilities; instead, the strongest influence on self -assessment is self - esteem , not actual performance.41 Therefore, a...blast mTBI diagnosis. Further, based on our clinical experience and supportive data from athletic mTBI literature, we assumed that those having...toward an association between blast mTBI grade and PCS. There was no relationship between self -reported non-blast head injuries or month since worst or

  2. Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage

  3. Blast-mediated traumatic amputation: evidence for a revised, multiple injury mechanism theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, James A G; Gibb, I E; Bull, A M J; Clasper, J C

    2014-06-01

    The accepted mechanism of blast-mediated traumatic amputation (TA) is blast wave induced fracture followed by limb avulsion from the blast wind, generating a transosseous amputation. Blast-mediated through-joint TAs were considered extremely rare with published prevalence <2%. Previous studies have also suggested that TA is frequently associated with fatal primary blast lung injury (PBLI). However, recent evidence suggests that the mechanism of TA and the link with fatal primary blast exposure merit review. A trauma registry (UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry) and postmortem CT (PM-CT) database were used to identify casualties (survivors and deaths) sustaining a blast-mediated TA in the 2 years from August 2008. TA metrics and associated significant injuries were recorded. Detailed anatomical data on extremity predebridement osseous and soft tissue injuries were only consistently available for deaths through comprehensive PM-CT imaging. 146 cases (75 survivors and 71 deaths) sustaining 271 TAs (130 in survivors and 141 in deaths) were identified. The lower limb was most commonly affected (117/130 in survivors, 123/141 in deaths). The overall through-joint TA rate was 47/271 (17.3%) and 34/47 through-joint injuries (72.3%) were through knee. More detailed anatomical analysis facilitated by PM-CT imaging revealed only 9/34 through-joint TAs had a contiguous fracture (ie, intra-articular involving the joint through which TA occurred), 18/34 had no fracture and 7/34 had a non-contiguous (ie, remote from the level of TA) fracture. No relationship between PBLI and TA was evident. The previously reported link between TA and PBLI was not present, calling into question the significance of primary blast injury in causation of blast mediated TAs. Furthermore, the accepted mechanism of injury can't account for the significant number of through-joint TAs. The high rate of through-joint TAs with either no associated fracture or a non-contiguous fracture (74%) is supportive of

  4. PHOG-BLAST – a new generation tool for fast similarity search of protein families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Andrey A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The need to compare protein profiles frequently arises in various protein research areas: comparison of protein families, domain searches, resolution of orthology and paralogy. The existing fast algorithms can only compare a protein sequence with a protein sequence and a profile with a sequence. Algorithms to compare profiles use dynamic programming and complex scoring functions. Results We developed a new algorithm called PHOG-BLAST for fast similarity search of profiles. This algorithm uses profile discretization to convert a profile to a finite alphabet and utilizes hashing for fast search. To determine the optimal alphabet, we analyzed columns in reliable multiple alignments and obtained column clusters in the 20-dimensional profile space by applying a special clustering procedure. We show that the clustering procedure works best if its parameters are chosen so that 20 profile clusters are obtained which can be interpreted as ancestral amino acid residues. With these clusters, only less than 2% of columns in multiple alignments are out of clusters. We tested the performance of PHOG-BLAST vs. PSI-BLAST on three well-known databases of multiple alignments: COG, PFAM and BALIBASE. On the COG database both algorithms showed the same performance, on PFAM and BALIBASE PHOG-BLAST was much superior to PSI-BLAST. PHOG-BLAST required 10–20 times less computer memory and computation time than PSI-BLAST. Conclusion Since PHOG-BLAST can compare multiple alignments of protein families, it can be used in different areas of comparative proteomics and protein evolution. For example, PHOG-BLAST helped to build the PHOG database of phylogenetic orthologous groups. An essential step in building this database was comparing protein complements of different species and orthologous groups of different taxons on a personal computer in reasonable time. When it is applied to detect weak similarity between protein families, PHOG-BLAST is less

  5. The effects of repeated low-level blast exposure on hearing in marines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina R Kubli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study evaluates a group of Military Service Members specialized in blast explosive training called “Breachers” who are routinely exposed to multiple low-level blasts while teaching breaching at the U.S. Marine Corps in Quantico Virginia. The objective of this study was to determine if there are any acute or long-term auditory changes due to repeated low-level blast exposures used in training. The performance of the instructor group “Breachers” was compared to a control group, “Engineers”. Methods: A total of 11 Breachers and four engineers were evaluated in the study. The participants received comprehensive auditory tests, including pure-tone testing, speech-in-noise (SIN measures, and central auditory behavioral and objective tests using early and late (P300 auditory evoked potentials over a period of 17 months. They also received shorter assessments immediately following the blast-exposure onsite at Quantico. Results: No acute or longitudinal effects were identified. However, there were some interesting baseline effects found in both groups. Contrary to the expected, the onsite hearing thresholds and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were slightly better at a few frequencies immediately after blast-exposure than measurements obtained with the same equipment weeks to months after each blast-exposure. Conclusions: To date, the current study is the most comprehensive study that evaluates the long-term effects of blast-exposure on hearing. Despite extensive testing to assess changes, the findings of this study suggest that the levels of current exposures used in this military training environment do not seem to have an obvious deleterious effect on hearing.

  6. Constructal design of a blast furnace iron-making process based on multi-objective optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiong; Chen, Lingen; Feng, Huijun; Qin, Xiaoyong; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    For the fixed total raw material cost and based on constructal theory and finite time thermodynamics, a BFIM (blast furnace iron-making) process is optimized by taking a complex function as optimization objective. The complex function is integrated with HM (hot metal) yield and useful energy of the BF (blast furnace). The optimal cost distribution of raw materials (namely “generalized optimal construct”) is obtained. The effects of some parameters, such as oxygen enrichment, blast temperature and pulverized coal dosage, on the optimization results are analyzed. The results show that the HM yield, useful energy and complex function are, respectively, increased by 3.13%, 2.66% and 2.90% after generalized constructal optimization. The utilization efficiencies of the BFG (blast furnace gas) and slag are 41.3% and 57.1%, respectively, which means that the utilization potentials of the BFG and slag can be further exploited. Increasing pulverized coal dosage and decreasing the agglomerate ratio can increase the complex function. The performance the BFIM process can be improved by adjusting the oxygen enrichment, blast temperature, blast dosage, pressure ratio of the Brayton cycle's air compressor and relative pressure drop of the air compressor inlet to their optimal values, respectively, which are new findings of this paper. - Highlights: • Constructal optimization of a blast furnace iron-making process is performed. • Finite time thermodynamic model of open Brayton cycle is adopted. • Weighting function is taken as optimization objective. • Optimal cost distribution of the raw materials is obtained.

  7. Short branches lead to systematic artifacts when BLAST searches are used as surrogate for phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Amanda A; Harlow, Timothy J; Gogarten, J Peter

    2017-02-01

    Long Branch Attraction (LBA) is a well-known artifact in phylogenetic reconstruction when dealing with branch length heterogeneity. Here we show another phenomenon, Short Branch Attraction (SBA), which occurs when BLAST searches, a phenetic analysis, are used as a surrogate method for phylogenetic analysis. This error also results from branch length heterogeneity, but this time it is the short branches that are attracting. The SBA artifact is reciprocal and can be returned 100% of the time when multiple branches differ in length by a factor of more than two. SBA is an intended feature of BLAST searches, but becomes an issue, when top scoring BLAST hit analyses are used to infer Horizontal Gene Transfers (HGTs), assign taxonomic category with environmental sequence data in phylotyping, or gather homologous sequences for building gene families. SBA can lead researchers to believe that there has been a HGT event when only vertical descent has occurred, cause slowly evolving taxa to be over-represented and quickly evolving taxa to be under-represented in phylotyping, or systematically exclude quickly evolving taxa from analyses. SBA also contributes to the changing results of top scoring BLAST hit analyses as the database grows, because more slowly evolving taxa, or short branches, are added over time, introducing more potential for SBA. SBA can be detected by examining reciprocal best BLAST hits among a larger group of taxa, including the known closest phylogenetic neighbors. Therefore, one should look for this phenomenon when conducting best BLAST hit analyses as a surrogate method to identify HGTs, in phylotyping, or when using BLAST to gather homologous sequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental animal models for studies on the mechanisms of blast induced neurotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mårten eRisling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED in current military conflicts. Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. BINT is characterized by extreme forces and their complex propagation. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the relative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link

  9. Deposits from Multiple Shallow Discrete Blasts with Variable Explosion Depths: Analog Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G.; Sonder, I.

    2014-12-01

    The reconstruction of eruptive processes from ejecta deposits is a vital element of volcano hazard assessment. Large-scale experiments provide an opportunity to test ejecta distribution and volume to energy and depth parameters for discrete blasts. Experiments conducted at the University at Buffalo Geohazards Field Station produced meter-scale craters with ejecta deposits. Repeated chemical explosions occurred in constructed strata of compacted aggregates (e.g. sands, gravels) with variable configurations. The experiments revealed that shallow blasts, low scaled depth ( 2x crater radius). Each experiment had between one and four explosions in the same horizontal positions (pad), with variable charge depth and energy. The extra-crater deposits were collected up to 18 m from the blast center. Ejecta produced by discrete explosions can be divided into three zones: proximal, medial and distal. The proximal deposits form a constructional feature around the crater. Medial ejecta forms a thin continuous blanket and distal ejecta consists of isolated clasts scattered beyond the medial blanket. A strong relationship between the shape of the jet produced by shallow blasts and the distribution of ejecta were reproduced through the multiple experiments. The jet shape is controlled by crater geometry and condition. Therefore, crater geometry and condition influences ejecta distribution. Blasts that interact with an existing crater have more vertically focused jets. The elevation of the crater rim, enhanced by proximal deposits, contributes to future depositional patterns by producing confined jets. Small discrete blasts frequently have >50% of their volume in the proximal zone. These experiments show that deposit distribution is sensitive to surface geometries in addition to the energy and depth of the blast.

  10. Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements and concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhimov, R.; Rakhimova, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work has been the study of alkali-activated slag-zeolite cements and concretes based on them. Various compositions have been tested and some characteristics such as the compressive strength have been measured versus zeolite additions. A table lists the specific surface area and particle size distributions of different cements. The conclusions of the study are the following. First, alkali-activated slag cements and concretes based on them are effective for immobilization of radioactive wastes and the production of building structures, designed for high radiation load. Secondly, zeolite-containing mineral additions are able to increase the immobilization capacity and radiation resistance of alkali-activated blast furnace slag cements and concretes. Thirdly, the efficiency of different zeolite-containing additions - 10% to increase alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement strength was established. It is with alkaline components of water-glass, sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate. Fourth, the effective way of introducing zeolite additions in alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement is inter-grinding of the slag and addition. Increase in strength of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement stone is 40% higher than that of the stone of a mixture of separately milled components. Fifth, Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements with zeolite-containing additions with a compressive strength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements mortars with compressive strength from 35.2 to 97.7 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements concretes with compressive strength up to 84.5 MPa and frost resistant up to 800 cycles were obtained

  11. Experimental study of masonry wall exposed to blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of protecting the nation against the attack of terrorism has raised the importance to explore the understanding of building materials against the explosion. Unlike most of the building materials, brick masonry materials offer relatively small resistance against blast loading. In this research, a brick masonry wall was exposed to varying blast load at different scaled distances. Six tests with different amounts of explosives at various distances were carried out. Pressure time history, acceleration time history and strain at specific location were measured. The parameters measured from experimental pressure time history and acceleration time history is compared with those determined by ConWep to establish the correlations between experimental determined records and ConWep values. The experimental results were also compared with some researchers. These correlations may assist in understanding the behaviour of masonry structures subjected to explosive loading.Con el reto que supone proteger a la nación contra atentados terroristas se ha visto acrecentada la importancia de conocer el comportamiento de materiales de construcción cuando se someten a una carga explosiva. Al contrario de la mayoría de los materiales, las fábricas de ladrillo ofrecen poca resistencia a dichas cargas. En el presente trabajo, se estudió el comportamiento de una fábrica de ladrillo ante cargas explosivas colocadas a diferentes distancias del muro. Se realizaron seis pruebas con explosivos de potencias distintas y a diferentes distancias. Se trazaron las curvas presión-tiempo y aceleración-tiempo, midiéndose asimismo la deformación en un punto concreto. Los valores experimentales de las curvas presión-tiempo y aceleración-tiempo se compararon con los que se calcularon con la ayuda de la aplicación informática ConWep a fin de establecer las correlaciones entre ambos conjuntos de resultados. También se compararon los resultados experimentales

  12. Disruption of caudate working memory activation in chronic blast-related traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Newsome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes. Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate. Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results

  13. An Investigation of the Mechanism of Traumatic Brain Injury Caused by Blast in the Open Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ke

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a signature wound of modern warfare. The current incomplete understanding of its injury mechanism impedes the development of strategies for effective protection of bTBI. Despite a considerable amount of experimental animal studies focused on the evaluation of brain neurotrauma caused by blast exposure, there is very limited knowledge on the biomechanical responses of the gyrenecephalic brain subjected to primary free-field blast waves imposed in vivo, and the correlation analysis between the biomechanical responses and its injury outcomes. Such information is crucial to the development of injury criteria of bTBI. This study aims to evaluate the external and internal mechanical responses of the brain against different levels of blast loading with Yucatan swine in free field, and to conduct correlational studies with brain tissue damage. To better understand primary bTBI, we have implemented an open field experimental model to apply controlled shock waves on swine head. The applied pressure levels of shock waves were predicted by finite element modeling and verified with calibrated testing. Biomechanical responses of primary blasts such as intracranial pressure (ICP), head kinetics, strain rate of skull, were measured in vivo during the blasts. A positive correlation between incident overpressure (IOP) and its corresponding biomechanical responses of the brain was observed. A parallel group of non-instrumented animals were used to collect injury data 72 hours post experiment. Cellular responses governed by primary blasts, such as neuronal degeneration and apoptosis were studied via immunohistochemistry. Representative fluorescent-stained images were examined under microscope. A positive correlation was found between the amount of degenerative neurons and the blast level. Significant elevation of apoptosis was found in the high-level blast. Comparisons between brains with varies ICP readings demonstrate differences of the

  14. The PARIGA server for real time filtering and analysis of reciprocal BLAST results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Orsini

    Full Text Available BLAST-based similarity searches are commonly used in several applications involving both nucleotide and protein sequences. These applications span from simple tasks such as mapping sequences over a database to more complex procedures as clustering or annotation processes. When the amount of analysed data increases, manual inspection of BLAST results become a tedious procedure. Tools for parsing or filtering BLAST results for different purposes are then required. We describe here PARIGA (http://resources.bioinformatica.crs4.it/pariga/, a server that enables users to perform all-against-all BLAST searches on two sets of sequences selected by the user. Moreover, since it stores the two BLAST output in a python-serialized-objects database, results can be filtered according to several parameters in real-time fashion, without re-running the process and avoiding additional programming efforts. Results can be interrogated by the user using logical operations, for example to retrieve cases where two queries match same targets, or when sequences from the two datasets are reciprocal best hits, or when a query matches a target in multiple regions. The Pariga web server is designed to be a helpful tool for managing the results of sequence similarity searches. The design and implementation of the server renders all operations very fast and easy to use.

  15. A Comparative Study of Ground and Underground Vibrations Induced by Bench Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground vibrations originating from bench blasting may cause damage to slopes, structures, and underground workings in close proximity to an operating open-pit mine. It is important to monitor and predict ground vibration levels induced by blasting and to take measures to reduce their hazardous effects. The aims of this paper are to determine the weaker protection objects by comparatively studying bench blasting induced vibrations obtained at surface and in an underground tunnel in an open-pit mine and thus to seek vibration control methods to protect engineering objects at the site. Vibrations arising from measurement devices at surface and in an underground tunnel at the Zijinshan Open-Pit Mine were obtained. Comparative analysis of the peak particle velocities shows that, in the greatest majority of cases, surface values are higher than underground values for the same vibration distance. The transmission laws of surface and underground vibrations were established depending on the type of rock mass, the explosive charge, and the distance. Compared with the Chinese Safety Regulations for Blasting (GB6722-2014, the bench blasting induced vibrations would not currently cause damage to the underground tunnel. According to the maximum allowable peak particle velocities for different objects, the permitted maximum charges per delay are obtained to reduce damage to these objects at different distances.

  16. Dynamic Response and Optimal Design of Curved Metallic Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu; Han, Shou-Hong; Lu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a “soft” outer face and a “hard” inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD) and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA) and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN) metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances. PMID:25126606

  17. Repeated Low-Level Blast Exposure: A Descriptive Human Subjects Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Walter; Stone, James R; Walilko, Tim; Young, Lee Ann; Snook, Tianlu Li; Paggi, Michelle E; Tsao, Jack W; Jankosky, Christopher J; Parish, Robert V; Ahlers, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between repeated exposure to blast overpressure and neurological function was examined in the context of breacher training at the U.S. Marine Corps Weapons Training Battalion Dynamic Entry School. During this training, Students are taught to apply explosive charges to achieve rapid ingress into secured buildings. For this study, both Students and Instructors participated in neurobehavioral testing, blood toxin screening, vestibular/auditory testing, and neuroimaging. Volunteers wore instrumentation during training to allow correlation of human response measurements and blast overpressure exposure. The key findings of this study were from high-memory demand tasks and were limited to the Instructors. Specific tests showing blast-related mean differences were California Verbal Learning Test II, Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics subtests (Match-to-Sample, Code Substitution Delayed), and Delayed Matching-to-Sample 10-second delay condition. Importantly, apparent deficits were paralleled with functional magnetic resonance imaging using the n-back task. The findings of this study are suggestive, but not conclusive, owing to small sample size and effect. The observed changes yield descriptive evidence for potential neurological alterations in the subset of individuals with occupational history of repetitive blast exposure. This is the first study to integrate subject instrumentation for measurement of individual blast pressure exposure, neurocognitive testing, and neuroimaging. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Prediction of blast-induced flyrock in Indian limestone mines using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Trivedi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Frequency and scale of the blasting events are increasing to boost limestone production. Mines are approaching close to inhabited areas due to growing population and limited availability of land resources which has challenged the management to go for safe blasts with special reference to opencast mining. The study aims to predict the distance covered by the flyrock induced by blasting using artificial neural network (ANN and multi-variate regression analysis (MVRA for better assessment. Blast design and geotechnical parameters, such as linear charge concentration, burden, stemming length, specific charge, unconfined compressive strength (UCS, and rock quality designation (RQD, have been selected as input parameters and flyrock distance used as output parameter. ANN has been trained using 95 datasets of experimental blasts conducted in 4 opencast limestone mines in India. Thirty datasets have been used for testing and validation of trained neural network. Flyrock distances have been predicted by ANN, MVRA, as well as further calculated using motion analysis of flyrock projectiles and compared with the observed data. Back propagation neural network (BPNN has been proven to be a superior predictive tool when compared with MVRA.

  19. NK cell-mediated killing of AML blasts. Role of histamine, monocytes and reactive oxygen metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, M.; Mellqvist, U.H. [Sahlgren`s Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medicine, Haematology Section, Goeteborg (Sweden); Hansson, M.; Hermodsson, S.; Hellstrand, K. [Sahlgren`s Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Virology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Blasts recovered from patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) were lysed by heterologeous natural killer (NK) cells treated with NK cell-activating cytokine-induced killing of AML blasts was inhibited by monocytes, recovered from peripheral blood by counterflow centrifugal elutriation. Histamine, at concentrations exceeding 0.1 {mu}M, abrogated the monocyte-induced inhibition of NK cells; thereby, histamine and IL-2 or histamine and IFN-{alpha} synergistically induced NK cell-mediated destruction of AML blasts. The effect of histamine was completely blocked by the histamine H2-receptor (H2R) antagonist ranitidine but not by its chemical control AH20399AA. Catalase, a scavenger of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), reversed the monocyte-induced inhibition of NK cell-mediated killing of blast cells, indicating that the inhibitory signal was mediated by products of the respiratory burst of monocytes. It is concluded that (i) monocytes inhibit anti-leukemic properties of NK cells, (ii) the inhibition is conveyed by monocyte-derived ROM, and (iii) histamine reverses the inhibitory signal and, thereby, synergizes with NK cell-activating cytokines to induce killing of AML blasts. (au) 19 refs.

  20. Determination of the upper crustal structure using seismic waves from quarry blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, M.; Brokesova, J.; Malek, J.; Novotny, O.; Strunc, J.; Zanda, L.

    2003-04-01

    The territory of the Czech Republic is covered with a relatively dense network of quarries using blasting for rock disintegration. Blasts of large extent (more then 200 kg of explosive) take place mainly in coal open-pit mines, limestone quarries and basalt quarries. Seismic waves generated by industrial blasts are recorded by sensitive stations up to the distance of 200 km. Seismograms up to 120 km contain a clear Pg onset and in some cases Sg onset can also be recognized. A typical feature at these epicentral distances is the presence of very intensive surface waves, which frequently forms the dominant phase on the seismogram. In the recent years we started project, which aims to use seismograms generated by quarry blasts for developing of 3-D model of Bohemian Massif and for study of anisotropy in this region. An accurate determination of the origin time was one of the problems. This problem has been solved by developing of special seismograph BUMPRECORDER, for recording seismic waves very close to the blast (tens of meters).

  1. An evaluation of numerical approaches for S-wave component simulation in rock blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidong Gao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave (S-wave component of the total blast vibration always plays an important role in damage to rock or adjacent structures. Numerical approach has been considered as an economical and effective tool in predicting blast vibration. However, S-wave has not yet attracted enough attention in previous numerical simulations. In this paper, three typical numerical models, i.e. the continuum-based elastic model, the continuum-based damage model, and the coupled smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH-finite element method (FEM model, were first introduced and developed to simulate the blasting of a single cylindrical charge. Then, the numerical results from different models were evaluated based on a review on the generation mechanisms of S-wave during blasting. Finally, some suggestions on the selection of numerical approaches for simulating generation of the blast-induced S-wave were put forward. Results indicate that different numerical models produce different results of S-wave. The coupled numerical model was the best, for its outstanding capacity in producing S-wave component. It is suggested that the model that can describe the cracking, sliding or heaving of rock mass, and the movement of fragments near the borehole should be selected preferentially, and priority should be given to the material constitutive law that could record the nonlinear mechanical behavior of rock mass near the borehole.

  2. Dynamic Response and Optimal Design of Curved Metallic Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a “soft” outer face and a “hard” inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances.

  3. Dynamic response and optimal design of curved metallic sandwich panels under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chang; Yang, Shu; Yang, Li-Jun; Han, Shou-Hong; Lu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a "soft" outer face and a "hard" inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD) and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA) and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN) metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances.

  4. Mathematical models of blast induced TBI: current status, challenges and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K Gupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blast induced traumatic brain injury (TBI has become a signature wound of recent military activities and is the leading cause of death and long-term disability among U.S. soldiers. The current limited understanding of brain injury mechanisms impedes the development of protection, diagnostic and treatment strategies. We believe mathematical models of blast wave brain injury biomechanics and neurobiology, complemented with in vitro and in vivo experimental studies, will enable a better understanding of injury mechanisms and accelerate the development of both protective and treatment strategies. The goal of this paper is to review the current state of the art in mathematical and computational modeling of blast induced TBI, identify research gaps and recommend future developments. A brief overview of blast wave physics, injury biomechanics and the neurobiology of brain injury is used as a foundation for a more detailed discussion of multiscale mathematical models of primary biomechanics and secondary injury and repair mechanisms. The paper also presents a discussion of model development strategies, experimental approaches to generate benchmark data for model validation and potential applications of the model for prevention and protection against blast wave TBI.

  5. CHALLENGING SOME CONTEMPORARY VIEWS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. THE CASE FOR BLAST WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, T. A.; Pizzo, V. J.

    2016-01-01

    Since the closure of the “solar flare myth” debate in the mid-1990s, a specific narrative of the nature of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been widely accepted by the solar physics community. This narrative describes structured magnetic flux ropes at the CME core that drive the surrounding field plasma away from the Sun. This narrative replaced the “traditional” view that CMEs were blast waves driven by solar flares. While the flux rope CME narrative is supported by a vast quantity of measurements made over five decades, it does not adequately describe every observation of what have been termed CME-related phenomena. In this paper we present evidence that some large-scale coronal eruptions, particularly those associated with EIT waves, exhibit characteristics that are more consistent with a blast wave originating from a localized region (such as a flare site) rather than a large-scale structure driven by an intrinsic flux rope. We present detailed examples of CMEs that are suspected blast waves and flux ropes, and show that of our small sample of 22 EIT-wave-related CMEs, 91% involve a blast wave as at least part of the eruption, and 50% are probably blast waves exclusively. We conclude with a description of possible signatures to look for in determining the difference between the two types of CMEs and with a discussion on modeling efforts to explore this possibility.

  6. The PARIGA server for real time filtering and analysis of reciprocal BLAST results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Massimiliano; Carcangiu, Simone; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Uva, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2013-01-01

    BLAST-based similarity searches are commonly used in several applications involving both nucleotide and protein sequences. These applications span from simple tasks such as mapping sequences over a database to more complex procedures as clustering or annotation processes. When the amount of analysed data increases, manual inspection of BLAST results become a tedious procedure. Tools for parsing or filtering BLAST results for different purposes are then required. We describe here PARIGA (http://resources.bioinformatica.crs4.it/pariga/), a server that enables users to perform all-against-all BLAST searches on two sets of sequences selected by the user. Moreover, since it stores the two BLAST output in a python-serialized-objects database, results can be filtered according to several parameters in real-time fashion, without re-running the process and avoiding additional programming efforts. Results can be interrogated by the user using logical operations, for example to retrieve cases where two queries match same targets, or when sequences from the two datasets are reciprocal best hits, or when a query matches a target in multiple regions. The Pariga web server is designed to be a helpful tool for managing the results of sequence similarity searches. The design and implementation of the server renders all operations very fast and easy to use.

  7. A Blast-Resistant Method Based on Wave Converters with Spring Oscillator for Underground Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches on blast-resistant measures for underground structures such as tunnels and underground shopping malls are of great importance for their significant role in economic and social development. In this paper, a new blast-resistant method based on wave converters with spring oscillator for underground structures was put forward, so as to convert the shock wave with high frequency and high peak pressure to the periodic stress wave with low frequency and low peak pressure. The conception and calculation process of this new method were introduced. The mechanical characteristics and motion evolution law of wave converters were deduced theoretically. Based on the theoretical deduction results and finite difference software FLAC3D, the dynamic responses of the new blast-resistant structure and the traditional one were both calculated. Results showed that, after the deployment of wave converters, the peak absolute values of the bending moment, shear force, and axial force of the structure decreased generally, which verified the good blast-resistant effect of the new blast-resistant method.

  8. Analysis of anionic post-blast residues of low explosives from soil samples of forensic interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Kalthom ahmad; Tze, O.S.

    2011-01-01

    The growing threats and terrorist activities in recent years have urged the need for rapid and accurate forensic investigation on post-blast samples. The analysis of explosives and their degradation products in soils are important to enable forensic scientist to identify the explosives used in the bombing and establish possible links to their likely origin. Anions of interest for post-blast identification of low explosives were detected and identified using ion chromatography (IC). IC separations of five anions (Cl - , NO 2 - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , SCN - ) employed a Metrosep Anion Dual 2 column with carbonate eluent. The anions were separated within 17 minutes. Sampling of post blast residues was carried out in Rompin, Pahang. The post-blast explosive residues were extracted from soil samples collected at the seat of three simulated explosion points. The homemade explosives comprised of black powder of various amounts (100 g, 150 g and 200 g) packed in small plastic sauce bottles. In black powder standard, three anions (Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- ) were identified. However, low amounts of nitrite (NO 2 - ) were found present in post-blast soil samples. The amounts of anions were generally found to be decreased with decreasing amount of black powder explosive used. The anions analysis was indicative that nitrates were being used as one of the black powder explosive ingredients. (author)

  9. Wheat Blast: A New Fungal Inhabitant to Bangladesh Threatening World Wheat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abu Sadat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available World wheat production is now under threat due to the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh in early March 2016. This is a new disease in this area, indicating the higher possibility of this pathogen spreading throughout the Asia, the world’s largest wheat producing area. Occurrence of this disease caused ~3.5% reduction of the total wheat fields in Bangladesh. Its economic effect on the Bangladesh wheat market was little because wheat contributes to 3% of total cereal consumption, among which ~70% have been imported from other countries. However, as a long-term perspective, much greater losses will occur once this disease spreads to other major wheat producing areas of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan due to the existing favorable condition for the blast pathogen. The wheat blast pathogen belongs to the Magnaporthe oryzae species complex causing blast disease on multiple hosts in the Poaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Bangladesh outbreak strains and the Brazil outbreak strains were the same phylogenetic lineage, suggesting that they might be migrated from Brazil to Bangladesh during the seed import. To protect wheat production of Bangladesh and its neighbors, several measures including rigorous testing of seed health, use of chemicals, crop rotation, reinforcement of quarantine procedures, and increased field monitoring should be implemented. Development of blast resistant wheat varieties should be a long-term solution and combination of different methods with partial resistant lines may suppress this disease for some time.

  10. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  11. Numerical Study of Damage Modes and Damage Assessment of CFST Columns under Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Columns of frame structures are the key load-bearing components and the exterior columns are susceptible to attack in terrorist blasts. When subjected to blast loads, the columns would suffer a loss of bearing capacity to a certain extent due to the damage imparted, which may induce the collapse of them and even cause the progressive collapse of the whole structure. In this paper, the high-fidelity physics-based finite element program LS-DYNA was utilized to investigate the dynamic behavior and damage characteristics of the widely used concrete-filled steel tube (CFST columns subjected to blast loads. The established numerical model was calibrated with test data in open literatures. Possible damage modes of CFST columns under blast loading were analyzed, and the damage criterion based on the residual axial load capacity of the columns was adopted to assess the damage degree. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effects of critical parameters such as blast conditions and column details on the damage degree of CFST columns. Based on the numerical simulation data, an empirical equation was proposed to estimate the variation of columns damage degree with the various parameters.

  12. Hard rock excavation at the CSM/OCRD test site using Swedish blast design techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, R.

    1983-09-01

    This report is the third in a series describing research conducted by the Colorado School of Mines for the Office of Crystalline Repository Development (OCRD) to determine the extent of blast damage in rock surrounding an underground opening. A special room, called the CSM/OCRD room, was excavated at the CSM experimental mine for the purpose of assessing blast damage in the rock around the room. Even though this mine is not proposed as a nuclear waste repository site, the instrumentation and methods of blast damage assessment developed in this project are applicable to proposed repository sites. This report describes the application of Swedish blasting technology for the excavation of the test room. The design of the blasting patterns including the selection of explosives, hole sizes and location, explosive loading densities, and delay intervals is based upon the theories of Langefors and Kihlstrom in combination with methods used at the Swedish Detonic Research Foundation for minimizing unwanted rock damage. The practical application of the design procedures to seven rounds and the achieved results is discussed

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Interaction of Blast Waves Generated by Exploding Wires using Background Oriented Schlieren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jonathan; Eliasson, Veronica

    2015-11-01

    Work has been performed to experimentally characterize the interaction of a multiple blast waves. The blast waves were generated using an exploding wire system. This system can store up to 400 J of energy in a high voltage capacitor bank. By discharging the capacitors through wires of a diameter of 150 μm it was possible to produce blast waves with Mach numbers as high as 2.3 at a distance of 40 mm from the center of the blast. A parametric study was performed to measure the behavior of the shocks for a variety of wire thicknesses, voltages, and separation distances. Additionally a background oriented schlieren system was used to quantify the flowfield behind the shocks. The interaction of the shocks featured expected nonlinear phenomena such as the presence of Mach stems, and showed good agreement with results in the shock wave literature. This investigation lays the groundwork for subsequent research that will use exploding wires to experimentally reproduce conditions investigated numerically, in which the effects of multiple converging blast waves on a central target were investigated.

  14. EFFECTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON NATURAL POZZOLAN-BASED GEOPOLYMER CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHSHAD YAZDANIPOUR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of geopolymer cement mixes were designed and produced by alkali-activation of a pumice-type natural pozzolan. Effects of blast-furnace slag on basic engineering properties of the mixes were studied. Different engineering properties of the mixes such as setting times and 28-day compressive strength were studied at different amounts of blast-furnace slag, sodium oxide content, and water-to-cement ratio. The mix comprising of 5 wt.% blast-furnace slag and 8 wt.% Na2O with a water-to-dry binder ratio of 0.30 exhibits the highest 28-day compressive strength, i.e. 36 MPa. Mixes containing 5 wt.% of ground granulated blast furnace slag showed the least efflorescence or best soundness. Laboratory techniques of X-ray diffractometry (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were utilized for characterizing a number of mixes and studying their molecular and micro-structure. Investigations done by scanning electron microscopy confirm that smaller blast-furnace slag particles react totally while the larger ones react partially with alkaline activators and contribute to the formation of a composite microstructure.

  15. Main agronomic traits and resistance to rice blast of space-induced mutant lines of Zhong-er-ruan-zhan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wuming; Wang Hui; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Chen Zhiqiang; Yang Qiyun; Zhu Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    The main agronomic traits and resistance to rice blast of 34 space-induced lines from an elite rice cultivar, Zhong-er-ruan-zhan were evaluated at their SP 4 . The resistance to blast of the mutant lines had been tested by two blast isolates previously. It was found that the mutant lines showed significant difference in plant height, effective panicles, panicle length and grains per panicle etc. from their parent. The range of variation in 1000-grain weight the largest, followed by the seed-setting rate, and that of effective panicles was the least among all the traits. Except for the line Z34, 33 mutant lines had broader resistance spectra than the wild-type based on the test with 38 different blast isolates, and all the 33 lines were also resistant to the panicle blast in the field. The result confirmed that selection for resistant to blast in lower generations was reliable. Taking account of agronomic traits and blast resistance, promising lines with resistance to blast and good agronomic characters could be selected from those mutant lines. Therefore, the elite rice germplasm with enhanced disease resistance can be produced. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of effectiveness of raw materials and materials use in a blast furnace department of a steelworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kardas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the quality of raw materials used in the production of blast furnace pig iron. The ferruginous sinter and pellets are the basic raw materials used in the process. The paper presents the impact of those raw materials quality on the effectiveness of the blast furnace process. The process effectiveness will be specified by means of selected process parameters.

  17. Population structure and pathotype diversity of the wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae 25 years after its emergence in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Maciel, J.L.; Ceresini, P.; Castroagudin, V.L.; Zala, M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Since its first report in Brazil in 1985, wheat blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph: Pyricularia oryzae), has become increasingly important in South America, where the disease is still spreading. We used 11 microsatellite loci to elucidate the population structure of the wheat blast

  18. Parallel Human and Animal Models of Blast- and Concussion-Induced Tinnitus and Related Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    small piece of occipital bone and underlying dura mater above the left DCN were removed. Following partial aspiration of the cerebellar tissue...indicated the blast exposure may cause robust neural activity changes at the auditory cortex three months after blast exposure. 5. Manganese ...activity changes in several limbic and paralimbic structures were evaluated using manganese -enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). Five weeks

  19. Genetic analysis of rice blast disease resistance genes using USDA rice mini-core and a mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice, resulting in significant yield loss each year all over the world. Developing and utilizing blast resistant rice varieties is the most economical and effective m...

  20. Reduction of 5in./54 Gun Blast Overpressure by Means of an Aqueous Foam- Filled Muzzle Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    Such a device is normally attached to a gun muzzle to reduce blast, but a second purpose in this testing was to obtain information about the blast...the internal pressure distribucion could be established and in- formation could be provided about the strength requirement of the device. Pres- sure

  1. A comprehensive literature review reflecting fifteen years of debate regarding the representativity of reverse circulation vs blast hole drill sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engström, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Blast hole sampling is widely used for grade control by the mining industry all over the world, both in precious and base metal open pit mining. Blast hole (BH) samples are often regarded as inferior in comparison to “proper drill sampling” like reverse circulation (RC) and diamond (core) drillin...

  2. Numerical investigation of waste plastic: Injection in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, A.; Morozumi, Y.; Hagiya, H.; Aoki, H.; Miura, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    In the present study, waste plastic injection in blast furnace processes is investigated numerically. A mathematical model developed in this study describes turbulent flows, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions in gas, particle and coke-bed phases, and particle trajectories. In the simulation, pulverized particles of coal or plastics are injected into a blowpipe with a nitrogen gas stream, and are then supplied to the raceway region in the coke particle bed. The difference in the gasification behaviors between coal and plastic particles are discussed. The effects of the diameter of plastic particles on the gasification behavior are also investigated. Coal particles are rapidly gasified in the blowpipe because of their small size. In contrast, the gasification of plastic particles rarely occurs in the blowpipe, even if small plastic particles are injected. In addition, the flows of plastic particles are biased in the blowpipe, and consequently the reaction zone of gasification is narrow. In the raceway of the coke bed, the pulverized coal particles exit the raceway due to their small diameter, and are then discharged from the coke bed without sufficient gasification. On the other hand, the plastic particles circulate in the raceway until the diameters thereof decrease below a critical diameter. As a result, since the gasification reaction progresses during the circulation, the combustion efficiency of plastic particles remains high even though the initial diameter of the plastic particles is large.

  3. Failure and Ejection Behavior of Concrete Materials under Internal Blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the failure and ejection behavior of concrete materials under internal blast, the default Riedel-Hiermaier-Thoma (RHT concrete model in AUTODYN and a meshfree processor called SPH are employed in this numerical simulation. It is shown that the failure mechanisms are significantly different in these damaged zones. Crushed zone is caused by shear failure while fractured zone is induced by tensile failure, and spalled zone is formed by a combination of shear and tensile failure. In addition, the ejection velocity distribution of the fragmented concrete mass on free surface is examined. The results indicate that the ejection velocity declines monotonously with the increase of the distance to symmetry axis of computational model. On the wall of the prefabricated borehole, two types of fragmented concrete mass are analyzed, and bottom initiation is recommended to eject the fragmented concrete mass effectively. Moreover, an algorithm of average ejection speed is developed to effectively estimate the drill capacity of high velocity, energetic (HE projectiles. At last, the validity of numerical simulation is verified by physical experiments.

  4. Spike morphology in blast-wave-driven instability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Fryxell, B.; Budde, A.; Hansen, J. F.; Miles, A. R.; Plewa, T.; Hearn, N.; Knauer, J.

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory experiments described in the present paper observe the blast-wave-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability with three-dimensional (3D) initial conditions. About 5 kJ of energy from the Omega laser creates conditions similar to those of the He-H interface during the explosion phase of a supernova. The experimental target is a 150 μm thick plastic disk followed by a low-density foam. The plastic piece has an embedded, 3D perturbation. The basic structure of the pattern is two orthogonal sine waves where each sine wave has an amplitude of 2.5 μm and a wavelength of 71 μm. In some experiments, an additional wavelength is added to explore the interaction of modes. In experiments with 3D initial conditions the spike morphology differs from what has been observed in other Rayleigh-Taylor experiments and simulations. Under certain conditions, experimental radiographs show some mass extending from the interface to the shock front. Current simulations show neither the spike morphology nor the spike penetration observed in the experiments. The amount of mass reaching the shock front is analyzed and potential causes for the spike morphology and the spikes reaching the shock are discussed. One such hypothesis is that these phenomena may be caused by magnetic pressure, generated by an azimuthal magnetic field produced by the plasma dynamics.

  5. E-cigarette Blast Injury: Complex Facial Fractures and Pneumocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Archambeau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (also known as e-cigarettes or e-cigs are becoming a popular method of recreational nicotine use over recent years. The growth of new brands and devices has been outpacing the FDA’s ability to regulate them. As a result, some of these devices fail without warning, most likely from malfunction of the lithium-ion batteries that are in close proximity to volatile compounds within the device. Failures have occurred during both use and storage of the devices or their components. The subsequent injuries from several of these events, including full thickness burns requiring grafting and blast injuries, have been observed at Arrowhead Regional Medical Center, a regional trauma and burn center in southern California. One severe case resulted in several maxillofacial fractures, blurred vision, and pneumocephalus after a device failed catastrophically during use. The patient required close monitoring with serial imaging by neurosurgery in the intensive care unit and multiple procedures by oral maxillofacial surgery to reconstruct his facial bones and soft tissue. Ultimately, the patient recovered with minimal permanent damage, but the potential for further injury or even death was apparent. Cases such as this one are becoming more frequent. It is important to increase awareness of this growing problem for both medical professionals and the general public in order to curb this concerning new trend.

  6. Droplet Breakup Mechanisms in Air-blast Atomizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir Abbas; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Lim, Kelly

    2011-11-01

    Atomization processes are encountered in many natural and man-made phenomena. Examples are pollen release by plants, human cough or sneeze, engine fuel injectors, spray paint and many more. The physics governing the atomization of liquids is important in understanding and utilizing atomization processes in both natural and industrial processes. We have observed the governing physics of droplet breakup in an air-blast water atomizer using a high magnification, high speed, and high resolution LASER imaging technique. The droplet breakup mechanisms are investigated in three major categories. First, the liquid drops are flattened to form an oblate ellipsoid (lenticular deformation). Subsequent deformation depends on the magnitude of the internal forces relative to external forces. The ellipsoid is converted into a torus that becomes stretched and disintegrates into smaller drops. Second, the drops become elongated to form a long cylindrical thread or ligament that break up into smaller drops (Cigar-shaped deformation). Third, local deformation on the drop surface creates bulges and protuberances that eventually detach themselves from the parent drop to form smaller drops.

  7. Soft tissue and wound management of blast injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Andrew J; Tintle, Scott M; Rhee, Peter C

    2015-09-01

    The management of blast-related soft tissue wounds requires a comprehensive surgical approach that acknowledges extensive zones of injury and the likelihood of massive contamination. The experiences of military surgeons during the last decade of war have significantly enhanced current understandings of the optimal means of mitigating infectious complications, the timing of soft tissue coverage attempts, and the reconstructive options available for definitive wound management. Early administration of antibiotics in the setting of soft tissue wounds and associated open fractures is the single most important aspect of open fracture care. Both civilian and military reports have elucidated the incidence of invasive fungal infection in the setting of high-energy injuries with significant wound burdens, and novel treatment protocols have emerged. The type of reconstruction is predicated upon the zone of injury and location of the soft tissue defect. Multiple reports of military cohorts have suggested the equivalency of various techniques and types of soft tissue coverage. Longer-term follow-up will inform future perspectives on the durability of these surgical approaches.

  8. Post Blast Nuclear Forensics Of A Radiological Dispersion Device Scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, A.; Halevy, I; Sattinger, D; Admon, U; Banaim, P; Yaar, I.; Krantz, L.

    2014-01-01

    'Green Field' (GF) project conducting in Israel, between the years ’06-‘14, aimed at increasing the preparedness for outdoor terrorism events, where a radioactive (RA) material is dispersed by an explosive charge. Under the project framework a wide experimental program was established and conducted. The experimental plan included set of about 150 detonation tests that were done in order to close some gaps of knowledge mainly relating to the “source term” characterization. Experiments were done using wide range of different source term parameters. Among these are: explosive types, dispersed materials (both, stable simulants and short live radio isotopes), device geometries, ground surfaces, detonation heights and orientation, atmospheric stability situations etc. Field data collection and documentation used some of the “state of the art” detectors, cameras etc. Based on a comprehensive data analysis and complementary simulations, a methodology for post blast forensic using data collected from the close vicinity of the detention point was developed

  9. Production analysis of methanol and hydrogen of a modificated blast furnace gas using nuclear energy of the high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschel, W.

    1985-12-01

    Modern blast furnaces are operated with a coke ration of 500 kg/t pig iron. The increase of the coke ratio to 1000 kg/t pig iron raises the content of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the blast furnace gas. On the basis of a blast furnace gas modificated in such a way, the production of methanol and hydrogen is investigated under the coupling of current and process heat from the high temperature reactor. Moreover the different variants are discussed, for which respectively a material and energetic balance as well as an estimation of the production costs is performed. Regarding the subsequent treatment of the blast furnace gas it turns out favourably in principle to operate the blast furnace with a nitrogen-free wind consisting only of oxygen and steam. The production costs show a strong dependence on the raw material costs, whose influence is shown in a nomograph. (orig.) [de

  10. Anchorage of TiO2-blasted, HA-coated, and machined implants: an experimental study with rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Wennerberg, A; Johansson, C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histometrical and biomechanical anchorage of TiO2-blasted implants and TiO2-blasted implants coated with hydroxyapatite. The control implants were machined. Twenty-six rabbits had a total of 156 implants placed in the proximal part of the tibia. Each...... rabbit had a machined, a TiO2-blasted, and a TiO2-blasted, HA-coated implant placed in each tibia. After a healing period of 3 and 12 weeks, respectively, the implants placed in the right tibia were used for removal torque test, and the implants placed in the left tibia were used for histomorphometrical...... measurements. Preoperatively, implants from the same batches were examined topographically with a TopScan 3D system. The TiO2-blasted implants demonstrated significantly higher removal torque values than the machined implants, and they also had a significantly more irregular surface. Furthermore, significantly...

  11. Reliability Analysis of Retaining Walls Subjected to Blast Loading by Finite Element Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    GuhaRay, Anasua; Mondal, Stuti; Mohiuddin, Hisham Hasan

    2018-02-01

    Conventional design methods adopt factor of safety as per practice and experience, which are deterministic in nature. The limit state method, though not completely deterministic, does not take into account effect of design parameters, which are inherently variable such as cohesion, angle of internal friction, etc. for soil. Reliability analysis provides a measure to consider these variations into analysis and hence results in a more realistic design. Several studies have been carried out on reliability of reinforced concrete walls and masonry walls under explosions. Also, reliability analysis of retaining structures against various kinds of failure has been done. However, very few research works are available on reliability analysis of retaining walls subjected to blast loading. Thus, the present paper considers the effect of variation of geotechnical parameters when a retaining wall is subjected to blast loading. However, it is found that the variation of geotechnical random variables does not have a significant effect on the stability of retaining walls subjected to blast loading.

  12. Application of a damage model for rock fragmentation to the Straight Creek Mine blast experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorne, B.J.

    1991-09-01

    Early attempts at estimation of stress wave damage due to blasting by use of finite element calculations met with limited success due to numerical instabilities that prevented calculations from being carried past the fragmentation limit. More recently, the improved damage model PRONTO has allowed finite element calculations which remain stable and yield good agreement between calculated fragmented regions and excavated crater profiles for blasting experiments in granite. Application of this damage model to blast experiments at the Straight Creek Mine in Bell County, Kentucky were complicated by anisotropic conditions and uncertainties in material properties. It appears that significant modifications to the damage model and extensive material testing may be necessary in order to estimate damage in these anisotropic materials. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  13. Rice Blast Control and Polyvarietal Planting in the Philippines: A Study in Genotype by Environment Biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Falvo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches to biogeography are based on organismic biology. Certain biogeographical phenomena, however, cannot be fully understood using organismic approaches to biogeography. I employed an approach based on molecular biology and biochemistry that I call genotype by environment biogeography in order to provide a more complete understanding of why the dispersal of rice blast disease is less efficient in fields planted with mixtures of rice varieties. In a case study of an upland ricefield in the Philippines, I found that planting varietal mixtures results in a form of effective blast control that I call intrafield gene deployment. I suggest that intrafield gene deployment be used to design more effective methods of blast control in intensive rice agriculture.

  14. A state of the art report on the decontamination technology for dry ice blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J. M.; Kim, K. H.; Park, J. J.; Lee, H. H.; Yang, M. S.; Nam, S. H.; Kim, M. J

    2000-05-01

    DUPIC fuel fabrication process is a dry processing technology to manufacture CANDU compatible fuel through a direct reprocessing fabrication process from spent PWR fuel. DUPIC fuel fabrication process consists of the slitting of the spent PWR fuel rods, OREOX processing, homogeneous mixing, pelletizing and sintering. All these processes should be conducted by remote means in a M6 hot cell at IMEF. Since DUPIC fuel fabrication process includes powder handling process of highly radioactive spent fuel, decontamination of highly radioactive particulates from all types of surfaces such as DUPIC fuel manufacturing equipment, hot cell floor, tools is very important to improve the safety of hot cell and reduce the dose exposure to operator, This report describes various technologies for dry ice blasting. It provides the fundamentals of dry ice blasting decontamination and technical review of dry ice blasting on the radioactive decontamination.

  15. A state of the art report on the decontamination technology for dry ice blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. M.; Kim, K. H.; Park, J. J.; Lee, H. H.; Yang, M. S.; Nam, S. H.; Kim, M. J.

    2000-05-01

    DUPIC fuel fabrication process is a dry processing technology to manufacture CANDU compatible fuel through a direct reprocessing fabrication process from spent PWR fuel. DUPIC fuel fabrication process consists of the slitting of the spent PWR fuel rods, OREOX processing, homogeneous mixing, pelletizing and sintering. All these processes should be conducted by remote means in a M6 hot cell at IMEF. Since DUPIC fuel fabrication process includes powder handling process of highly radioactive spent fuel, decontamination of highly radioactive particulates from all types of surfaces such as DUPIC fuel manufacturing equipment, hot cell floor, tools is very important to improve the safety of hot cell and reduce the dose exposure to operator, This report describes various technologies for dry ice blasting. It provides the fundamentals of dry ice blasting decontamination and technical review of dry ice blasting on the radioactive decontamination

  16. Acid etching and plasma sterilization fail to improve osseointegration of grit blasted titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mikkel Saksø; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Saksø, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between implant surface and surrounding bone influences implant fixation. We attempted to improve the bone-implant interaction by 1) adding surface micro scale topography by acid etching, and 2) removing surface-adherent pro-inflammatory agents by plasma cleaning. Implant fixation...... was evaluated by implant osseointegration and biomechanical fixation.The study consisted of two paired animal sub-studies where 10 skeletally mature Labrador dogs were used. Grit blasted titanium alloy implants were inserted press fit in each proximal tibia. In the first study grit blasted implants were......-implant tissue density) and mechanical push-out testing after four weeks observation time.Neither acid etching nor plasma sterilization of the grit blasted implants enhanced osseointegration or mechanical fixation in this press-fit canine implant model in a statistically significant manner....

  17. Two-material optimization of plate armour for blast mitigation using hybrid cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J.; Tan, H.; Renaud, J.; Tovar, A.

    2012-08-01

    With the increased use of improvised explosive devices in regions at war, the threat to military and civilian life has risen. Cabin penetration and gross acceleration are the primary threats in an explosive event. Cabin penetration crushes occupants, damaging the lower body. Acceleration causes death at high magnitudes. This investigation develops a process of designing armour that simultaneously mitigates cabin penetration and acceleration. The hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method of topology optimization has proven efficient and robust in problems involving large, plastic deformations such as crash impact. Here HCA is extended to the design of armour under blast loading. The ability to distribute two metallic phases, as opposed to one material and void, is also added. The blast wave energy transforms on impact into internal energy (IE) inside the solid medium. Maximum attenuation occurs with maximized IE. The resulting structures show HCA's potential for designing blast mitigating armour structures.

  18. Low Complexity V-BLAST MIMO-OFDM Detector by Successive Iterations Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED, K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available V-BLAST detection method suffers large computational complexity due to its successive detection of symbols. In this paper, we propose a modified V-BLAST algorithm to decrease the computational complexity by reducing the number of detection iterations required in MIMO communication systems. We begin by showing the existence of a maximum number of iterations, beyond which, no significant improvement is obtained. We establish a criterion for the number of maximum effective iterations. We propose a modified algorithm that uses the measured SNR to dynamically set the number of iterations to achieve an acceptable bit-error rate. Then, we replace the feedback algorithm with an approximate linear function to reduce the complexity. Simulations show that significant reduction in computational complexity is achieved compared to the ordinary V-BLAST, while maintaining a good BER performance.

  19. Blast overpressure and fallout radiation dose models for casualty assessment and other purposes. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P.R.

    1981-12-01

    The determination of blast overpressures and fallout radiation doses at points on a sufficiently fine grid, for any part or for the whole of the UK, and for any postulated attack, is an essential element in the systematic assessment of casualties, the estimation of numbers of homeless, and the evaluation of life-saving measures generally. Models are described which provide the required blast and dose values and which are intended to supersede existing models which were introduced in 1971. The factors which affect blast and, more particularly, dose values are discussed, and the way in which various factors are modelled is described. The models are incorporated into separate computer programs which are described, the outputs of which are stored on magnetic tape for subsequent use as required. (author)

  20. Identical fracture patterns in combat vehicle blast injuries due to improvised explosive devices; a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commandeur, Joris; Derksen, Robert Jan; Macdonald, Damian; Breederveld, Roelf

    2012-10-10

    In November 2008, a surgical team from the Red Cross Hospital Beverwijk, the Netherlands, was deployed in Afghanistan for three months to attend in the army hospital of Kandahar.During their stay, four incidents of armored personnel carriers encountering an improvised explosive device were assessed. In each incident, two soldiers were involved, whose injuries were strikingly similar. The described cases comprise paired thoracic vertebral fractures, radial neck fractures, calcaneal fractures and talar fractures. Moreover, the different types of blast injury are mentioned and related to the injuries described in our series. Acknowledging the different blast mechanisms is important for understanding possible injury patterns. From this case series, as well as the existing literature on injury patterns caused by blast injuries, it seems appropriate to pay extra attention to bodily areas that were injured in other occupants of the same vehicle. Obviously, the additional surveillance for specific injuries should be complementary to the regular trauma work-up (e.g., ATLS).

  1. TREATMENT OF ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA WITH 20-30% BONE MARROW BLASTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Maurillo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with ≥ 20% 30% BM blast AML. In the present review, we will discuss the clinical results achieved in the treatment of elderly patients with 20%-30% BM blasts AML using intensive chemotherapy (IC or hypomethylating agents. Overall, due to concerns of treatment-related morbidity and mortality associated with delivery of IC, approximately only 30% of all patients ≥ 65 years are considered eligible for this approach. Therefore, a great deal of attention has been dedicated to hypomethilating agents such as azacitidine and decitabine. These agents have shown efficacy, with reduced toxicity as compared with IC, when administered to elderly patients not eligible for IC and with 20-30% BM blasts and multilineage dysplasia. Future randomized clinical trials are eagerly awaited to determine whether hypomethylating agents can substitute for IC even in elderly patients with good functional status.

  2. Research on the Energy Characteristics of Battlefield Blasting Noise Based on Wavelet Packet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Yan, Shoucheng; Zhu, Yichao; Zhao, Ming; Mei, Bi

    2017-12-01

    When the acoustic fuse of smart landmines tries to detect and recognize a ground vehicle target, it is usually affected by gun shooting, explosive blasting or other similar noises on the actual battlefield. To improve the target recognition of smart landmines, it would be necessary to study the characteristics of these acoustic signals. Using sample data of the shooting noise of a certain type of rifle, the blasting noise of TNT, and the acoustic signals of a certain type of WAV, the energy characteristics of these noise signals are compared and analyzed. The result shows that the wavelet-packet energy method is effective in describing the characteristics of these acoustic signals with distinct intertype variations, and the frequency at the peak energy value can serve as a signature parameter for recognizing battlefield blasting noise signals from vehicle target signals.

  3. Testing different discrimination methods between microearthquakes and quarry blasts - a case study in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalocsai, Lilla; Kiszely, Márta; Süle, Bálint; Győri, Erzsébet

    2017-04-01

    Due to the development of seismological network, increasing number of events have been detected in the last years in Hungary. However about 50% of these shocks were quarry blasts. Therefore decontamination of catalogue for revealing the reliable natural seismicity has become an important task. We have studied the events occurring in the surroundings of Mecsek Hills. The goal of our research was to find the best method to separate earthquakes and quarry blasts. In the first step we have studied the diurnal distributions of the events. Because of different focal mechanisms, the waveforms and amplitudes of arriving phases of earthquakes and quarry blasts are different. We have tested the most typical parameter, the P and S amplitude ratio, which is often used for separation. The waveform similarities have been analyzed using cross-correlation matrix and dendrograms. The earthquakes and the blasts of different quarries have been arranged into different clusters. We have computed spectrograms and because the blasts were carried out by delay-fired technology we have computed binary spectrograms too. Computation of binary spectra is a useful visualization method to recognize the delay-fired explosions, because it emphasizes the long-duration modulations of the spectra. It is made from the original spectra by application of a filter that replaces the spectral amplitudes with a binary code, which simply reflects the local spectral highs and lows. The modulations were present in most of the spectra of blasts and in contrast to the earthquakes, the modulations have been observable until the end of the spectrogram. We also have studied the scalloping and steepness of the spectra.

  4. Evaluation of function predictions by PFP, ESG,and PSI-BLAST for moonlighting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ishita; Chitale, Meghana; Rayon, Catherine; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-11-13

    Advancements in function prediction algorithms are enabling large scale computational annotation for newly sequenced genomes. With the increase in the number of functionally well characterized proteins it has been observed that there are many proteins involved in more than one function. These proteins characterized as moonlighting proteins show varied functional behavior depending on the cell type, localization in the cell, oligomerization, multiple binding sites, etc. The functional diversity shown by moonlighting proteins may have significant impact on the traditional sequence based function prediction methods. Here we investigate how well diverse functions of moonlighting proteins can be predicted by some existing function prediction methods. We have analyzed the performances of three major sequence based function prediction methods,PSI-BLAST, the Protein Function Prediction (PFP), and the Extended Similarity Group (ESG) on predicting diverse functions of moonlighting proteins. In predicting discrete functions of a set of 19 experimentally identified moonlighting proteins, PFP showed overall highest recall among the three methods. Although ESG showed the highest precision, its recall was lower than PSI-BLAST. Recall by PSI-BLAST greatly improved when BLOSUM45 was used instead of BLOSUM62. We have analyzed the performances of PFP, ESG, and PSI-BLAST in predicting the functional diversity of moonlighting proteins. PFP shows overall better performance in predicting diverse moonlighting functions as compared with PSI-BLAST and ESG. Recall by PSI-BLAST greatly improved when BLOSUM45 was used. This analysis indicates that considering weakly similar sequences in prediction enhances the performance of sequence based AFP methods in predicting functional diversity of moonlighting proteins. The current study will also motivate development of novel computational frameworks for automatic identification of such proteins.

  5. Energy spectrum analysis of blast waves based on an improved Hilbert-Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Wang, F.; Shang, F.; Jia, Y.; Zhao, C.; Kong, D.

    2017-05-01

    Using the improved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), this paper investigates the problems of analysis and interpretation of the energy spectrum of a blast wave. It has been previously established that the energy spectrum is an effective feature by which to characterize a blast wave. In fact, the higher the energy spectra in a frequency band of a blast wave, the greater the damage to a target in the same frequency band. However, most current research focuses on analyzing wave signals in the time domain or frequency domain rather than considering the energy spectrum. We propose here an improved HHT method combined with a wavelet packet to extract the energy spectrum feature of a blast wave. When applying the HHT, the signal is first roughly decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition. The wavelet packet method is then performed on each IMF to eliminate noise on the energy spectrum. Second, a coefficient is introduced to remove unrelated IMFs. The energy of each instantaneous frequency can be derived through the Hilbert transform. The energy spectrum can then be obtained by adding up all the components after the wavelet packet filters and screens them through a coefficient to obtain the effective IMFs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by 12 groups of experimental data, and an energy attenuation model is established based on the experimental data. The improved HHT is a precise method for blast wave signal analysis. For other shock wave signals from blasting experiments, an energy frequency time distribution and energy spectrum can also be obtained through this method, allowing for more practical applications.

  6. Models of Determining the Parameters of Rock Mass Oscillation Equation with Experimental and Mass Blastings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Lutovac

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosion caused by detonation of explosive materials is followed by release of a large amount of energy. Whereby, a greater part of energy is used for rock destruction, and part of energy, in the form of seismic wave, is lost in the rock mass causing rock mass oscillation. Investigations of the character and behavior of the pattern of seismic wave indicate that the intensity and nature of the seismic wave are influenced by rock mass properties, and by blasting conditions. For evaluation and control of the seismic effect of blasting operations, the most commonly used equation is that of M.A. Sadovskii. Sadovskii’s equation defines the alteration in the velocity of rock mass oscillation depending on the distance, the quantity of explosives, blasting conditions and geological characteristics of the rock mass, and it is determined based on trial blasting for a specific work environment. Thus, this paper offers analysis of the method for determination of parameters of the rock mass oscillation equation, which are conditioned by rock mass properties and blasting conditions. Practical part of this paper includes the experimental research carried out at Majdanpek open pit, located in the northern part of eastern Serbia and the investigations carried out during mass blasting at Nepričava open pit, located in central Serbia. In this paper, parameters n and K from Sadovskii’s equation were determined in three ways—models in the given work environment. It was noted that, in practice, all three models can be successfully used to calculate the oscillation velocity of the rock masses.

  7. Suspended liquid particle disturbance on laser-induced blast wave and low density distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Takahiro; Zare-Behtash, Hossein; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2017-12-01

    The impurity effect of suspended liquid particles on the laser-induced gas breakdown was experimentally investigated in quiescent gas. The focus of this study is the investigation of the influence of the impurities on the shock wave structure as well as the low density distribution. A 532 nm Nd:YAG laser beam with an 188 mJ/pulse was focused on the chamber filled with suspended liquid particles 0.9 ± 0.63 μm in diameter. Several shock waves are generated by multiple gas breakdowns along the beam path in the breakdown with particles. Four types of shock wave structures can be observed: (1) the dual blast waves with a similar shock radius, (2) the dual blast waves with a large shock radius at the lower breakdown, (3) the dual blast waves with a large shock radius at the upper breakdown, and (4) the triple blast waves. The independent blast waves interact with each other and enhance the shock strength behind the shock front in the lateral direction. The triple blast waves lead to the strongest shock wave in all cases. The shock wave front that propagates toward the opposite laser focal spot impinges on one another, and thereafter a transmitted shock wave (TSW) appears. The TSW interacts with the low density core called a kernel; the kernel then longitudinally expands quickly due to a Richtmyer-Meshkov-like instability. The laser-particle interaction causes an increase in the kernel volume which is approximately five times as large as that in the gas breakdown without particles. In addition, the laser-particle interaction can improve the laser energy efficiency.

  8. A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines-Beard, Jessica; Marchetta, Jeffrey; Gordon, Sarah; Chaum, Edward; Geisert, Eldon E; Rex, Tonia S

    2012-06-01

    We developed and characterized a mouse model of primary ocular blast injury. The device consists of: a pressurized air tank attached to a regulated paintball gun with a machined barrel; a chamber that protects the mouse from direct injury and recoil, while exposing the eye; and a secure platform that enables fine, controlled movement of the chamber in relation to the barrel. Expected pressures were calculated and the optimal pressure transducer, based on the predicted pressures, was positioned to measure output pressures at the location where the mouse eye would be placed. Mice were exposed to one of three blast pressures (23.6, 26.4, or 30.4 psi). Gross pathology, intraocular pressure, optical coherence tomography, and visual acuity were assessed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after exposure. Contralateral eyes and non-blast exposed mice were used as controls. We detected increased damage with increased pressures and a shift in the damage profile over time. Gross pathology included corneal edema, corneal abrasions, and optic nerve avulsion. Retinal damage was detected by optical coherence tomography and a deficit in visual acuity was detected by optokinetics. Our findings are comparable to those identified in Veterans of the recent wars with closed eye injuries as a result of blast exposure. In summary, this is a relatively simple system that creates injuries with features similar to those seen in patients with ocular blast trauma. This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Autonomous growth potential of leukemia blast cells is associated with poor prognosis in human acute leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Wieman, Eric A; Guan, Xiuqin; Jakubowski, Ann A; Steinherz, Peter G; O'Reilly, Richard J

    2009-12-29

    We have described a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model that permits the subcutaneous growth of primary human acute leukemia blast cells into a measurable subcutaneous nodule which may be followed by the development of disseminated disease. Utilizing the SCID mouse model, we examined the growth potential of leukemic blasts from 133 patients with acute leukemia, (67 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 66 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)) in the animals after subcutaneous inoculation without conditioning treatment. The blasts displayed three distinct growth patterns: "aggressive", "indolent", or "no tumor growth". Out of 133 leukemias, 45 (33.8%) displayed an aggressive growth pattern, 14 (10.5%) displayed an indolent growth pattern and 74 (55.6%) did not grow in SCID mice. The growth probability of leukemias from relapsed and/or refractory disease was nearly 3 fold higher than that from patients with newly diagnosed disease. Serial observations found that leukemic blasts from the same individual, which did not initiate tumor growth at initial presentation and/or at early relapse, may engraft and grow in the later stages of disease, suggesting that the ability of leukemia cells for engraftment and proliferation was gradually acquired following the process of leukemia progression. Nine autonomous growing leukemia cell lines were established in vitro. These displayed an aggressive proliferation pattern, suggesting a possible correlation between the capacity of human leukemia cells for autonomous proliferation in vitro and an aggressive growth potential in SCID mice. In addition, we demonstrated that patients whose leukemic blasts displayed an aggressive growth and dissemination pattern in SClD mice had a poor clinical outcome in patients with ALL as well as AML. Patients whose leukemic blasts grew indolently or whose leukemia cells failed to induce growth had a significantly longer DFS and more favorable clinical course.

  10. Autonomous growth potential of leukemia blast cells is associated with poor prognosis in human acute leukemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Ann A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have described a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mouse model that permits the subcutaneous growth of primary human acute leukemia blast cells into a measurable subcutaneous nodule which may be followed by the development of disseminated disease. Utilizing the SCID mouse model, we examined the growth potential of leukemic blasts from 133 patients with acute leukemia, (67 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and 66 acute myeloid leukemia (AML in the animals after subcutaneous inoculation without conditioning treatment. The blasts displayed three distinct growth patterns: "aggressive", "indolent", or "no tumor growth". Out of 133 leukemias, 45 (33.8% displayed an aggressive growth pattern, 14 (10.5% displayed an indolent growth pattern and 74 (55.6% did not grow in SCID mice. The growth probability of leukemias from relapsed and/or refractory disease was nearly 3 fold higher than that from patients with newly diagnosed disease. Serial observations found that leukemic blasts from the same individual, which did not initiate tumor growth at initial presentation and/or at early relapse, may engraft and grow in the later stages of disease, suggesting that the ability of leukemia cells for engraftment and proliferation was gradually acquired following the process of leukemia progression. Nine autonomous growing leukemia cell lines were established in vitro. These displayed an aggressive proliferation pattern, suggesting a possible correlation between the capacity of human leukemia cells for autonomous proliferation in vitro and an aggressive growth potential in SCID mice. In addition, we demonstrated that patients whose leukemic blasts displayed an aggressive growth and dissemination pattern in SClD mice had a poor clinical outcome in patients with ALL as well as AML. Patients whose leukemic blasts grew indolently or whose leukemia cells failed to induce growth had a significantly longer DFS and more favorable clinical course.

  11. Automated information system for analysis and prediction of production situations in blast furnace plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, V. V.; Spirin, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Advances in modern science and technology are inherently connected with the development, implementation, and widespread use of computer systems based on mathematical modeling. Algorithms and computer systems are gaining practical significance solving a range of process tasks in metallurgy of MES-level (Manufacturing Execution Systems - systems controlling industrial process) of modern automated information systems at the largest iron and steel enterprises in Russia. This fact determines the necessity to develop information-modeling systems based on mathematical models that will take into account the physics of the process, the basics of heat and mass exchange, the laws of energy conservation, and also the peculiarities of the impact of technological and standard characteristics of raw materials on the manufacturing process data. Special attention in this set of operations for metallurgic production is devoted to blast-furnace production, as it consumes the greatest amount of energy, up to 50% of the fuel used in ferrous metallurgy. The paper deals with the requirements, structure and architecture of BF Process Engineer's Automated Workstation (AWS), a computer decision support system of MES Level implemented in the ICS of the Blast Furnace Plant at Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. It presents a brief description of main model subsystems as well as assumptions made in the process of mathematical modelling. Application of the developed system allows the engineering and process staff to analyze online production situations in the blast furnace plant, to solve a number of process tasks related to control of heat, gas dynamics and slag conditions of blast-furnace smelting as well as to calculate the optimal composition of blast-furnace slag, which eventually results in increasing technical and economic performance of blast-furnace production.

  12. Design and Test of a Blast Shield for Boeing 737 Overhead Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglai Dang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a composite blast shield for hardening an overhead bin compartment of a commercial aircraft. If a small amount of explosive escapes detection and is brought onboard and stowed in an overhead bin compartment of a passenger aircraft, the current bins provide no protection against a blast inside the compartment. A blast from the overhead bin will certainly damage the fuselage and likely lead to catastrophic inflight structural failure. The feasibility of using an inner blast shield to harden the overhead bin compartment of a Boeing 737 aircraft to protect the fuselage skin in such a threat scenario has been demonstrated using field tests. The blast shield was constructed with composite material based on the unibody concept. The design was carried out using LS-DYNA finite element model simulations. Material panels were first designed to pass the FAA shock holing and fire tests. The finite element model included the full coupling of the overhead bin with the fuselage structure accounting for all the different structural connections. A large number of iterative simulations were carried out to optimize the fiber stacking sequence and shield thickness to minimize weight and achieve the design criterion. Three designs, the basic, thick, and thin shields, were field-tested using a frontal fuselage section of the Boeing 737–100 aircraft. The basic and thick shields protected the integrity of the fuselage skin with no skin crack. This work provides very encouraging results and useful data for optimization implementation of the blast shield design for hardening overhead compartments against the threat of small explosives.

  13. Numerical simulation of the blast impact problem using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Anupam; Long, Lyle N.

    2004-01-01

    A particle approach using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to solve the problem of blast impact with structures. A novel approach to model the solid boundary condition for particle methods is presented. The solver is validated against an analytical solution of the Riemann shocktube problem and against experiments on interaction of a planar shock with a square cavity. Blast impact simulations are performed for two model shapes, a box and an I-shaped beam, assuming that the solid body does not deform. The solver uses domain decomposition technique to run in parallel. The parallel performance of the solver on two Beowulf clusters is also presented

  14. Numerical simulation of the blast impact problem using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anupam; Long, Lyle N.

    2004-10-01

    A particle approach using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to solve the problem of blast impact with structures. A novel approach to model the solid boundary condition for particle methods is presented. The solver is validated against an analytical solution of the Riemann shocktube problem and against experiments on interaction of a planar shock with a square cavity. Blast impact simulations are performed for two model shapes, a box and an I-shaped beam, assuming that the solid body does not deform. The solver uses domain decomposition technique to run in parallel. The parallel performance of the solver on two Beowulf clusters is also presented.

  15. Numerical simulation on dynamic response of the chest wall loaded by the blast wave

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jianyi; Yu, Chunxiang; Li, Huimin; Chen, Jing; Liu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element model of the human thorax was constructed using Mimics software and Icem CFD software. This model was loaded with a 100-kPa blast wave and constructed to analyze the dynamic response of the chest wall. The simulation results have shown that a blast wave can cause stress concentration on the ribs and ribs inward movement. The third, fourth, and fifth ribs have the maximum inward moving velocity of 1.6 m / s without any injury for the human body...

  16. Sequence Alignment and Homology Search with BLAST and ClustalW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hung; Weng, Zhiping

    2016-11-01

    This protocol illustrates the steps of searching a sequence database with BLAST, which in essence performs pairwise alignment between the query sequence and each target sequence in the database. Steps for performing multiple sequence alignments with ClustalW are then described. Argonaute 2 (Ago2) is an essential component for small interfering RNA (siRNA)-directed RNA interference (RNAi) in fruit flies. This protocol uses Ago2 to demonstrate how to search for all Ago2 paralogs in the fly proteome using BLAST and to obtain a multiple sequence alignment of these sequences with ClustalW. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF A MAJOR QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS CONFERRING RICE BLAST RESISTANCE USING RECOMBINANT INBRED LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobrizal Sobrizal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blast disease caused by Pyricularia oryzae is one of the limiting factors for rice production world wide. The use of resistant varieties for managing blast disease is considered as the most eco-friendly approaches. However, their resistances may be broken down within a few years due to the appearance of new virulent blast races in the field. The objective of the present study was to identify the quantitative trait locus (QTL conferring resistance to blast disease using 126 recombinant inbred (RI lines originated from a crossing of a durably resistant upland rice genotype (Laka and a highly susceptible rice accession cultivar (Kencana Bali. The RI population was developed through a single seed descent method from 1997 to 2004. Resistance of the RI lines was evaluated for blast in an endemic area of Sukabumi, West Java, in 2005. Disease intensity of the blast was examined following the standard evaluation system developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI. At the same year the RI lines were analyzed with 134 DNA markers. Results of the study showed that one major QTL was found to be associated with blast resistance, and this QTL was located near RM2136 marker on the long arm of chromosome 11. This QTL explained 87% of the phenotypic variation with 37% additive effect. The map position of this QTL differed from that of a partial resistant gene, Pi34, identified previously on chromosome 11 in the Japanese durably resistant variety, Chubu 32. The QTL, however, was almost at the same position as that of the multiple allele-resistant gene, Pik. Therefore, an allelic test should be conducted to clarify the allelic relationship between QTL identified in this study and the Pik. The RI lines are the permanent segregating population that could be very useful for analysing phenotypic variations of important agronomic traits possibly owned by the RI lines. The major QTL identified in this study could be used as a genetic resource in

  18. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-30

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts, with debilitating, costly, and long-lasting effects. Although mechanisms by which head impacts cause TBI have been well-researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient skull flexure to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even without a head impact. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for injury diagnosis and armor design.

  19. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rocha Lemos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  20. Evaluation of water and abrasive blasting techniques for canister decontamination-radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Ward, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Abrasive blasting techniques are being developed for canister decontamination. Abrasive blasting with a slurry of frit followed by rinsing with high pressure water is the present reference process. The present reference process was reevaluated, because of equipment design concerns due to the abrasiveness of the slurry, and potential corrosion problems due to possible water intrusion into the canister. The ability of candidate processes to remove radioactive contamination from Type 304L stainless steel specimens has now been quantitatively determined under DWPF conditions. The type of contamination, the amount of contamination, and the heating conditions used spanned the range of conditions expected in the DWPF